Science.gov

Sample records for zinc 80

  1. 40 CFR 421.80 - Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary zinc subcategory. 421.80 Section 421.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Zinc Subcategory § 421.80 Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the production of primary zinc by either...

  2. 40 CFR 421.80 - Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary zinc subcategory. 421.80 Section 421.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Zinc Subcategory § 421.80 Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the production of primary zinc by either...

  3. 40 CFR 471.80 - Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Forming Subcategory § 471.80 Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory. This... pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the process operations of the zinc forming subcategory. ...

  4. 40 CFR 471.80 - Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Forming Subcategory § 471.80 Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory. This... pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the process operations of the zinc forming subcategory. ...

  5. 40 CFR 421.80 - Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory. 421.80 Section 421.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Zinc Subcategory § 421.80 Applicability...

  6. 40 CFR 421.80 - Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory. 421.80 Section 421.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Zinc Subcategory § 421.80 Applicability:...

  7. 40 CFR 421.80 - Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory. 421.80 Section 421.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Zinc Subcategory § 421.80 Applicability:...

  8. 40 CFR 471.80 - Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory. 471.80 Section 471.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Forming Subcategor...

  9. 40 CFR 471.80 - Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory. 471.80 Section 471.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Forming Subcategor...

  10. 40 CFR 471.80 - Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory. 471.80 Section 471.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Forming Subcategor...

  11. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  12. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  13. Zinc

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  14. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  15. Zinc triggers microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, “amoeboid” morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 μM zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 – 30 μM zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-κB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-κB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders. PMID:18509044

  16. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  17. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  18. Zinc lozenges and the common cold: a meta-analysis comparing zinc acetate and zinc gluconate, and the role of zinc dosage.

    PubMed

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of zinc acetate lozenges with zinc gluconate lozenges in common cold treatment and to examine the dose-dependency of the effect. Meta-analysis. Placebo-controlled zinc lozenge trials, in which the zinc dose was > 75 mg/day. The pooled effect of zinc lozenges on common cold duration was calculated by using inverse-variance random-effects method. Seven randomised trials with 575 participants with naturally acquired common colds. Duration of the common cold. The mean common cold duration was 33% (95% CI 21% to 45%) shorter for the zinc groups of the seven included trials. Three trials that used lozenges composed of zinc acetate found that colds were shortened by 40% and four trials that used zinc gluconate by 28%. The difference between the two salts was not significant: 12 percentage points (95% CI: -12 to + 36). Five trials used zinc doses of 80-92 mg/day, common cold duration was reduced by 33%, and two trials used zinc doses of 192-207 mg/day and found an effect of 35%. The difference between the high-dose and low-dose zinc trials was not significant: 2 percentage points (95% CI: -29 to + 32). Properly composed zinc gluconate lozenges may be as effective as zinc acetate lozenges. There is no evidence that zinc doses over 100 mg/day might lead to greater efficacy in the treatment of the common cold. Common cold patients may be encouraged to try zinc lozenges for treating their colds. The optimal lozenge composition and dosage scheme need to be investigated further.

  19. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  20. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  1. Long life, rechargeable nickel-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.

    1974-01-01

    A production version of the inorganic separator was evaluated for improving the life of the nickel-zinc system. Nickel-zinc cells (7-10 Ah capacities) of different electrode separator configurations were constructed and tested. The nickel-zinc cells using the inorganic separator encasing the zinc electrode, the nickel electrode, or both electrodes had shorter lives than cells using Visking and cellophane separation. Cells with the inorganic separation all fell below 70% of their theoretical capacity within 30 cycles, but the cells constructed with organic separation required 80 cycles. Failure of the cells using the ceramic separator was irreversible capacity degradation due to zinc loss through cracks developed in the inorganic separator. Zinc loss through the separator was minimized with the use of combinations of the inorganic separator with Visking and cellophane. Cells using the combined separation operated 130 duty cycles before degrading to 70% of their theoretical capacity.

  2. High performance zinc anode for battery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, John E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved zinc anode for use in a high density rechargeable alkaline battery is disclosed. A process for making the zinc electrode comprises electrolytic loading of the zinc active material from a slightly acidic zinc nitrate solution into a substrate of nickel, copper or silver. The substrate comprises a sintered plaque having very fine pores, a high surface area, and 80-85 percent total initial porosity. The residual porosity after zinc loading is approximately 25-30%. The electrode of the present invention exhibits reduced zinc mobility, shape change and distortion, and demonstrates reduced dendrite buildup cycling of the battery. The disclosed battery is useful for applications requiring high energy density and multiple charge capability.

  3. Comparative studies on acid leaching of zinc waste materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnik, Ewa; Włoch, Grzegorz; Szatan, Leszek

    2017-11-01

    Three industrial waste materials were characterized in terms of their elemental and phase compositions, leaching behaviour in 10% sulfuric acid solution as well as leaching thermal effects. Slag from melting of mixed metallic scrap contained about 50% Zn and 10% Pb. It consisted mainly of various oxides and oxy-chlorides of metals. Zinc spray metallizing dust contained about 77% Zn in form of zinc and/or zinc-iron oxides, zinc metal and Zn-Fe intermetallic. Zinc ash from hot dip galvanizing was a mixture of zinc oxide, metallic zinc and zinc hydroxide chloride and contained about 80% Zn. Dissolution efficiency of zinc from the first material was 80% (independently on the solid to liquid ratio, 50-150 kg/m3), while decrease of the efficacy from 80% to 60% with increased solid to liquid ratio for the two remaining materials was observed. Both increase in the temperature (20 °C to 35 °C) and agitation rate (300 rpm to 900 rpm) did not improve seriously the leaching results. In all cases, transfer of zinc ions to the leachate was accompanied by different levels of solution contamination, depending on the type of the waste. Leaching of the materials was exothermic with the similar reaction heats for two high oxide-type products (slag, zinc ash) and higher values for the spray metallizing dust.

  4. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  5. Update on zinc biology.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has become a prominent nutrient of clinical and public health interest in the new millennium. Functions and actions for zinc emerge as increasingly ubiquitous in mammalian anatomy, physiology and metabolism. There is undoubtedly an underpinning in fundamental biology for all of the aspects of zinc in human health (clinical and epidemiological) in pediatric and public health practice. Unfortunately, basic science research may not have achieved a full understanding as yet. As a complement to the applied themes in the companion articles, a selection of recent advances in the domains homeostatic regulation and transport of zinc is presented; they are integrated, in turn, with findings on genetic expression, intracellular signaling, immunity and host defense, and bone growth. The elements include ionic zinc, zinc transporters, metallothioneins, zinc metalloenzymes and zinc finger proteins. In emerging basic research, we find some plausible mechanistic explanations for delayed linear growth with zinc deficiency and increased infectious disease resistance with zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  7. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  8. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  10. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  11. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  12. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  13. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  14. Zinc Signals and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc. PMID:29064429

  15. Zinc and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Juan P.; Guo, Liang; Yoo, Changwon; Stewart, Tiffanie S

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process through which cells overcome stressful conditions. Inasmuch as faulty autophagy has been associated with aging, neuronal degeneration disorders, diabetes, and fatty liver, autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning the role of zinc in the regulation of autophagy, the role of autophagy in zinc metabolism, and the potential role of autophagy as a mediator of the protective effects of zinc. Data from in vitro studies consistently support the notion that zinc is critical for early and late autophagy. Studies have shown inhibition of early and late autophagy in cells cultured in medium treated with zinc chelators. Conversely, excess zinc added to the medium has shown to potentiate the stimulation of autophagy by tamoxifen, H2O2, ethanol and dopamine. The potential role of autophagy in zinc homeostasis has just begun to be investigated.Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy dysregulation causes significant changes in cellular zinc homeostasis. Autophagy may mediate the protective effect of zinc against lipid accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation by promoting degradation of lipid droplets, inflammasomes, p62/SQSTM1 and damaged mitochondria.Studies with humans and animal models are necessary to determine whether autophagy is influenced by zinc intake. PMID:25012760

  16. Recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Michelis, I.; Ferella, F.; Karakaya, E.; Beolchini, F.; Vegliò, F.

    This paper concerns the recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries. The metals were dissolved by a reductive-acid leaching with sulphuric acid in the presence of oxalic acid as reductant. Leaching tests were realised according to a full factorial design, then simple regression equations for Mn, Zn and Fe extraction were determined from the experimental data as a function of pulp density, sulphuric acid concentration, temperature and oxalic acid concentration. The main effects and interactions were investigated by the analysis of variance (ANOVA). This analysis evidenced the best operating conditions of the reductive acid leaching: 70% of manganese and 100% of zinc were extracted after 5 h, at 80 °C with 20% of pulp density, 1.8 M sulphuric acid concentration and 59.4 g L -1 of oxalic acid. Both manganese and zinc extraction yields higher than 96% were obtained by using two sequential leaching steps.

  17. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  18. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  19. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remainedmore » constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.« less

  20. [Zinc and chronic enteropathies].

    PubMed

    Giorgi, P L; Catassi, C; Guerrieri, A

    1984-01-01

    In recent years the nutritional importance of zinc has been well established; its deficiency and its symptoms have also been recognized in humans. Furthermore, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica has been isolated, a rare but severe disease, of which skin lesions, chronic diarrhoea and recurring infections are the main symptoms. The disease is related to the malfunctioning of intestinal absorption of zinc and can be treated by administering pharmacological doses of zinc orally. Good dietary sources of zinc are meat, fish and, to a less extent, human milk. The amount of zinc absorbed in the small intestine is influenced by other nutrients: some compounds inhibit this process (dietary fiber, phytate) while others (picolinic acid, citric acid), referred to as Zn-binding ligands (ZnBL) facilitate it. Citric acid is thought to be the ligand which accounts for the high level of bioavailability of zinc in human milk. zinc absorption occurs throughout the small intestine, not only in the prossimal tract (duodenum and jejunum) but also in the distal tract (ileum). Diarrhoea is one of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, thus many illnesses distinguished by chronic diarrhoea entail a bad absorption of zinc. In fact, in some cases of chronic enteropathies in infants, like coeliac disease and seldom cystic fibrosis, a deficiency of zinc has been isolated. Some of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, like retarded growth and hypogonadism, have been related to hypozinchemia which is present in this illness. Finally, it is possible that some of the dietary treatments frequently used for persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea (i.e. cow's milk exclusion, abuse and misuse of dietary fiber like carrot and carub powder, use of soy formula) can constitute a scarce supply of zinc and therefore could promote the persistency of diarrhoea itself.

  1. Effect of modifying agents on the hydrophobicity and yield of zinc borate synthesized by zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acarali, Nil Baran; Bardakci, Melek; Tugrul, Nurcan; Derun, Emek Moroydor; Piskin, Sabriye

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize zinc borate using zinc oxide, reference boric acid, and reference zinc borate (reference ZB) as the seed, and to investigate the effects of modifying agents and reaction parameters on the hydrophobicity and yield, respectively. The reaction parameters include reaction time (1-5 h), reactant ratio (H3BO3/ZnO by mass: 2-5), seed ratio (seed crystal/(H3BO3+ZnO) by mass: 0-2wt%), reaction temperature (50-120°C), cooling temperature (10-80°C), and stirring rate (400-700 r/min); the modifying agents involve propylene glycol (PG, 0-6wt%), kerosene (1wt%-6wt%), and oleic acid (OA, 1wt%-6wt%) with solvents (isopropyl alcohol (IPA), ethanol, and methanol). The results of reaction yield obtained from either magnetically or mechanically stirred systems were compared. Zinc borate produced was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and contact angle tests to identify the hydrophobicity. In conclusion, zinc borate is synthesized successfully under the optimized reaction conditions, and the different modifying agents with various solvents affect the hydrophobicity of zinc borate.

  2. Medicago truncatula Zinc-Iron Permease6 provides zinc to rhizobia-infected nodule cells.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Isidro; Saéz, Ángela; Castro-Rodríguez, Rosario; Escudero, Viviana; Rodríguez-Haas, Benjamín; Senovilla, Marta; Larue, Camille; Grolimund, Daniel; Tejada-Jiménez, Manuel; Imperial, Juan; González-Guerrero, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    Zinc is a micronutrient required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. It has been proposed that in model legume Medicago truncatula, zinc is delivered by the root vasculature into the nodule and released in the infection/differentiation zone. There, transporters must introduce this element into rhizobia-infected cells to metallate the apoproteins that use zinc as a cofactor. MtZIP6 (Medtr4g083570) is an M. truncatula Zinc-Iron Permease (ZIP) that is expressed only in roots and nodules, with the highest expression levels in the infection/differentiation zone. Immunolocalization studies indicate that it is located in the plasma membrane of nodule rhizobia-infected cells. Down-regulating MtZIP6 expression levels with RNAi does not result in any strong phenotype when plants are fed mineral nitrogen. However, these plants displayed severe growth defects when they depended on nitrogen fixed by their nodules, losing of 80% of their nitrogenase activity. The reduction of this activity was likely an indirect effect of zinc being retained in the infection/differentiation zone and not reaching the cytosol of rhizobia-infected cells. These data are consistent with a model in which MtZIP6 would be responsible for zinc uptake by rhizobia-infected nodule cells in the infection/differentiation zone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

  4. Zinc in Pancreatic Islet Biology, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    About 20 chemical elements are nutritionally essential for humans with defined molecular functions. Several essential and nonessential biometals are either functional nutrients with antidiabetic actions or can be diabetogenic. A key question remains whether changes in the metabolism of biometals and biominerals are a consequence of diabetes or are involved in its etiology. Exploration of the roles of zinc (Zn) in this regard is most revealing because 80 years of scientific discoveries link zinc and diabetes. In pancreatic β- and α-cells, zinc has specific functions in the biochemistry of insulin and glucagon. When zinc ions are secreted during vesicular exocytosis, they have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine roles. The membrane protein ZnT8 transports zinc ions into the insulin and glucagon granules. ZnT8 has a risk allele that predisposes the majority of humans to developing diabetes. In target tissues, increased availability of zinc enhances the insulin response by inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, which controls the phosphorylation state of the insulin receptor and hence downstream signalling. Inherited diseases of zinc metabolism, environmental exposures that interfere with the control of cellular zinc homeostasis, and nutritional or conditioned zinc deficiency influence the patho-biochemistry of diabetes. Accepting the view that zinc is one of the many factors in multiple gene-environment interactions that cause the functional demise of β-cells generates an immense potential for treating and perhaps preventing diabetes. Personalized nutrition, bioactive food, and pharmaceuticals targeting the control of cellular zinc in precision medicine are among the possible interventions. PMID:28401081

  5. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  6. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  7. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  8. The role of zinc plus octenidine in the regulation of gene expression: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Lauritano, D; Candotto, V; Bignozzi, C A; Pazzi, D; Carinci, F; Cura, F; Tagliabue, A; Tettamanti, L

    2018-01-01

    Zinc was known in ancient times, and is diffused in the environment. The potential benefits offered by zinc supplementary therapy have been demonstrated in numerous clinical trials using oral or topical zinc products. The benefit of zinc can be in principle increased through association with other actives. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect on primary human gingival fibroblast cell of a new formulation containing zinc and octenidine cations. Human gingival fibroblast cells were obtained from three healthy patients (14-year-old man, 15-year-old woman and 20-year-old man) during extraction of teeth. The gene expression of 14 genes (ELANE, FN1, FBN, ITGA1, HAS1, ELN, DSP, ITGB1, HYAL1,TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1 and TGFBR2) was investigated in HGF cell culture treated with 80μm of Octenidine, 1000μm of Zinc, 80μm Octenidine + Zinc solution and the medium alone at 30 min. Prestoblue™ data showed that as the active concentration increases (Octenidine, Zinc and Octenidine + Zinc) the percentage of cell vitality compared to that of untreated cells decrease. In this study, no statistically significant gene expression was observed between cells, treated with difference substances, and control cells. Our results points out that zinc plus octenidine shows a positive potential in periodontal disease treatment.

  9. 40 CFR 80.920-80.980 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.920-80.980 Section 80.920-80.980 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination §§ 80.920-80.980...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1200-80.1219 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.1200-80.1219 Section 80.1200-80.1219 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene §§ 80.1200-80.1219 [Reserved] General...

  11. 40 CFR 80.1200-80.1219 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.1200-80.1219 Section 80.1200-80.1219 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene §§ 80.1200-80.1219 [Reserved] General...

  12. 40 CFR 80.1200-80.1219 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.1200-80.1219 Section 80.1200-80.1219 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene §§ 80.1200-80.1219 [Reserved] General...

  13. Endogenous Zinc in Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

  14. 99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  15. Suppression of zinc dendrites in zinc electrode power cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of zinc dendrites during charging of zinc electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.

  16. Improved electrolyte for zinc-bromine flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M. C.; Zhao, T. S.; Wei, L.; Jiang, H. R.; Zhang, R. H.

    2018-04-01

    Conventional zinc bromide electrolytes offer low ionic conductivity and often trigger severe zinc dendrite growth in zinc-bromine flow batteries. Here we report an improved electrolyte modified with methanesulfonic acid, which not only improves the electrolyte conductivity but also ameliorates zinc dendrite. Experimental results also reveal that the kinetics and reversibility of Zn2+/Zn and Br2/Br- are improved in this modified electrolyte. Moreover, the battery's internal resistance is significantly reduced from 4.9 to 2.0 Ω cm2 after adding 1 M methanesulfonic acid, thus leading to an improved energy efficiency from 64% to 75% at a current density of 40 mA cm-2. More impressively, the battery is capable of delivering an energy efficiency of about 78% at a current density of as high as 80 mA cm-2 when the electrode is replaced by a thermally treated one. Additionally, zinc dendrite growth is found to be effectively suppressed in methanesulfonic acid supported media, which, as a result, enables the battery to be operated for 50 cycles without degradation, whereas the one without methanesulfonic acid suffers from significant decay after only 40 cycles, primarily due to severe zinc dendrite growth. These superior results indicate methanesulfonic acid is a promising supporting electrolyte for zinc-bromine flow batteries.

  17. Sulfur dioxide leaching of spent zinc-carbon-battery scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avraamides, J.; Senanayake, G.; Clegg, R.

    Zinc-carbon batteries, which contain around 20% zinc, 35% manganese oxides and 10% steel, are currently disposed after use as land fill or reprocessed to recover metals or oxides. Crushed material is subjected to magnetic separation followed by hydrometallurgical treatment of the non-magnetic material to recover zinc metal and manganese oxides. The leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide recovers 93% Zn and 82% Mn at 25 °C. Alkaline leaching with 6 M NaOH recovers 80% zinc. The present study shows that over 90% zinc and manganese can be leached in 20-30 min at 30 °C using 0.1-1.0 M sulfuric acid in the presence of sulfur dioxide. The iron extraction is sensitive to both acid concentration and sulfur dioxide flow rate. The effect of reagent concentration and particle size on the extraction of zinc, manganese and iron are reported. It is shown that the iron and manganese leaching follow a shrinking core kinetic model due to the formation of insoluble metal salts/oxides on the solid surface. This is supported by (i) the decrease in iron and manganese extraction from synthetic Fe(III)-Mn(IV)-Zn(II) oxide mixtures with increase in acid concentration from 1 M to 2 M, and (ii) the low iron dissolution and re-precipitation of dissolved manganese and zinc during prolonged leaching of battery scrap with low sulfur dioxide.

  18. Comparison of complementary feeding strategies to meet zinc requirements of older breastfed infants1234

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Nancy F; Westcott, Jamie E; Culbertson, Diana L; Sian, Lei; Miller, Leland V; Hambidge, K Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background: The low zinc intake from human milk at ∼6 mo of age predicts the dependence on complementary foods (CF) to meet the zinc requirements of older breastfed-only infants. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare major variables of zinc homeostasis and zinc status in 9-mo-old breastfed infants who were randomly assigned to different complementary food regimens. Design: Forty-five exclusively breastfed 5-mo-old infants were randomly assigned to receive commercially available pureed meats, iron-and-zinc–fortified infant cereal (IZFC), or whole-grain, iron-only–fortified infant cereal (IFC) as the first and primary CF until completion of zinc metabolic studies between 9 and 10 mo of age. A zinc stable-isotope methodology was used to measure the fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) in human milk and CF by dual-isotope ratios in urine. Calculated variables included the dietary intake from duplicate diets and 4-d test weighing, the total absorbed zinc (TAZ) from FAZ × diet zinc, and the exchangeable zinc pool size (EZP) from isotope enrichment in urine. Results: Mean daily zinc intakes were significantly greater for the meat and IZFC groups than for the IFC group (P < 0.001); only intakes in meat and IZFC groups met estimated average requirements. Mean (±SEM) TAZ amounts were 0.80 ± 0.08, 0.71 ± 0.09, and 0.52 ± 0.05 mg/d for the meat, IZFC, and IFC groups, respectively (P = 0.027). Zinc from human milk contributed <25% of TAZ for all groups. The EZP correlated with both zinc intake (r = 0.43, P < 0.01) and TAZ (r = 0.54, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Zinc requirements for older breastfed-only infants are unlikely to be met without the regular consumption of either meats or zinc-fortified foods. PMID:22648720

  19. Long Life, High Energy Silver-Zinc Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kainthla, Ramesh; Coffey, Brendan

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation includes: 1) an introduction to RBC Technologies; 2) Rechargeable Zinc Alkaline (RZA(tm)) Systems which include MnO2/Zn, Ni/Zn, Ag/Zn, and Zn/Air; and 3) RZA Silver/Zinc Battery Developments. Conclusions include the following: 1)Issues with long term wet life and cycle life of the silver/zinc battery system are being overcome through the use of new anode formulations and separator designs; 2) Performance may exceed 200 cycles to 80% of initial capacity and ultimate wet-life of > 36 months; and 3) Rechargeable silver/zinc batteries available in prismatic and cylindrical formats may provide a high energy, high power alternative to lithium-ion in military/aerospace applications.

  20. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  1. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Gangwal, Santosh K.; Jain, Suresh C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  2. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D.

    1981-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

  3. History of zinc in agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, over 20 years would past before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure a parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it wa...

  4. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  5. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  6. Coulomb Excitation of the N = 50 nucleus 80Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Walle, J.; Aksouh, F.; Ames, F.; Behrens, T.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Cederkäll, J.; Clément, E.; Cocolios, T. E.; Davinson, T.; Delahaye, P.; Eberth, J.; Ekström, A.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fraile, L. M.; Franchoo, S.; Gernhauser, R.; Georgiev, G.; Habs, D.; Heyde, K.; Huber, G.; Huyse, M.; Ibrahim, F.; Ivanov, O.; Iwanicki, J.; Jolie, J.; Kester, O.; Köster, U.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Lauer, M.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Lutter, R.; Marsh, B. A.; Mayet, P.; Niedermaier, O.; Nilsson, T.; Pantea, M.; Perru, O.; Raabe, R.; Reiter, P.; Sawicka, M.; Scheit, H.; Schrieder, G.; Schwalm, D.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sieber, T.; Sletten, G.; Smirnova, N.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Thomas, J.-C.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; van Duppen, P.; Verney, D.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Weisshaar, D.; Wenander, F.; Wolf, B. H.; Zielińska, M.

    2008-05-01

    Neutron rich Zinc isotopes, including the N = 50 nucleus 80Zn, were produced and post-accelerated at the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility REX-ISOLDE (CERN). Low-energy Coulomb excitation was induced on these isotopes after post-acceleration, yielding B(E2) strengths to the first excited 2+ states. For the first time, an excited state in 80Zn was observed and the 21+ state in 78Zn was established. The measured B(E2,21+-->01+) values are compared to two sets of large scale shell model calculations. Both calculations reproduce the observed B(E2) systematics for the full Zinc isotopic chain. The results for N = 50 isotones indicate a good N = 50 shell closure and a strong Z = 28 proton core polarization. The new results serve as benchmarks to establish theoretical models, predicting the nuclear properties of the doubly magic nucleus 78Ni.

  7. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  8. Zinc and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 66 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  9. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  10. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  11. Prevalence of zinc deficiency among rural women during childbearing age in Peshawar, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Tasleem; Khan, Mir Hassan; Zahoorullah; Hussain, Hamid; Nazli, Rubina; Lutfullah, Ghosia

    2014-01-01

    Zinc deficiency is a commonly reported health problem throughout the world. This cross sectional survey was conducted in rural Peshawar with an aim to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency in women of child bearing age and find its association with age, marital, pregnancy status and parity. Data was collected from 353 women age 15-45 years. EPI INFO version 6.04 was used for data analysis. Overall 98 (27.8 %) women were zinc deficient (<80 μg/dL) while 31 (8.8%) had severe zinc deficiency (<50μg/dL.). Mean zinc level was found to increase gradually with the increase in the age up to 40 years and then starts decreasing significantly beyond this age. A significant decrease (p<0.03) in zinc concentration was found in married as compared to unmarried women. Out of 31 female with severe zinc deficiency, 23 (74.2%) were pregnant. Pregnant women in second (OR (CI) 3.36 (1.52-7.44) p<0.0008) and third ((OR (CI) 3.73 (1.91-7.30) p<0.00002) trimester were 3.4 & 3.7 times, respectively more zinc deficient as compared to control women. Mean zinc levels were significantly lower in women having no children versus women with 1-5 numbers of children. This study concludes that severe zinc deficiency especially prevalent in pregnant women needs urgent correction through food supplementation.

  12. Zinc supplementation in public health.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is necessary for physiological processes including defense against infections. Zinc deficiency is responsible for 4% of global child morbidity and mortality. Zinc supplements given for 10-14 days together with low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (Lo-ORS) are recommended for the treatment of childhood diarrhea. In children aged ≥ 6 months, daily zinc supplements reduce the duration of acute diarrhea episodes by 12 h and persistent diarrhea by 17 h. Zinc supplements could reduce diarrhea mortality in children aged 12-59 months by an estimated 23%; they are very safe but are associated with an increase in vomiting especially with the first dose. Heterogeneity between the results of trials is not understood but may be related to dose and the etiology of the diarrhea infection. Integration of zinc and Lo-ORS into national programs is underway but slowly, procurement problems are being overcome and the greatest challenge is changing health provider and caregiver attitudes to diarrhea management. Fewer trials have been conducted of zinc adjunct therapy in severe respiratory tract infections and there is as yet insufficient evidence to recommend addition of zinc to antibiotic therapy. Daily zinc supplements for all children >12 months of age in zinc deficient populations are estimated to reduce diarrhea incidence by 11-23%. The greatest impact is in reducing multiple episodes of diarrhea. The effect on duration of diarrheal episodes is less clear, but there may be up to 9% reduction. Zinc is also efficacious in reducing dysentery and persistent diarrhea. Zinc supplements may also prevent pneumonia by about 19%, but heterogeneity across studies has not yet been explained. When analyses are restricted to better quality studies using CHERG (Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group) methodology, zinc supplements are estimated to reduce diarrheal deaths by 13% and pneumonia deaths by 20%. National-level programs to combat childhood zinc deficiency should be

  13. 47 CFR 80.80 - Operating controls for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operating controls for ship stations. 80.80... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Station Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.80 Operating controls for ship stations. (a) Each control point must be capable of: (1...

  14. 47 CFR 80.80 - Operating controls for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operating controls for ship stations. 80.80... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Station Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.80 Operating controls for ship stations. (a) Each control point must be capable of: (1...

  15. 47 CFR 80.80 - Operating controls for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operating controls for ship stations. 80.80... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Station Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.80 Operating controls for ship stations. (a) Each control point must be capable of: (1...

  16. 47 CFR 80.80 - Operating controls for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operating controls for ship stations. 80.80... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Station Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.80 Operating controls for ship stations. (a) Each control point must be capable of: (1...

  17. [Ryazan hospital--80 years].

    PubMed

    Klimov, A S; Gromov, M F

    2012-02-01

    In December 2011 marked 80 years of the founding of the Ryazan garrison hospital, originally housed in two buildings: "Redut housed"--a monument of architecture of the XVIII century and the former almshouses room "for the maimed in the war", was built in 1884 now Ryazan garrison hospital (from 2010--Branch No 6 FSI "in 1586 the district military hospital in the Western Military District", the Defense Ministry of Russia)--a multi-field medical preventive institution on the basis of which soldiers, military retirees, family members and military retirees from Ryazan, Moscow, Tambov regions are treated. Every year more than 7 thousand patients get treatment here. During the counterterrorism operations in Chechnya over 800 wounded were brought to the hospital from the battle area.

  18. Acute changes in cellular zinc alters zinc uptake rates prior to zinc transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C

    2015-12-01

    A coordinated network of zinc transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular zinc levels. Canonical responses to zinc availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key zinc transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual zinc uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound zinc transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular zinc levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous zinc sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess zinc resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the zinc exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of zinc importers did not change during this time period. Zinc chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of zinc importers did not change. Overall, zinc transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular zinc uptake with exogenous zinc or TPEN treatments. This suggests zinc transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in zinc within Jurkat cells.

  19. Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ananda S

    2008-01-01

    Although the essentiality of zinc for plants and animals has been known for many decades, the essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized only 40 years ago in the Middle East. The zinc-deficient patients had severe immune dysfunctions, inasmuch as they died of intercurrent infections by the time they were 25 years of age. In our studies in an experimental human model of zinc deficiency, we documented decreased serum testosterone level, oligospermia, severe immune dysfunctions mainly affecting T helper cells, hyperammonemia, neurosensory disorders, and decreased lean body mass. It appears that zinc deficiency is prevalent in the developing world and as many as two billion subjects may be growth retarded due to zinc deficiency. Besides growth retardation and immune dysfunctions, cognitive impairment due to zinc deficiency also has been reported recently. Our studies in the cell culture models showed that the activation of many zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors were adversely affected due to zinc deficiency. In HUT-78 (T helper 0 [Th(0)] cell line), we showed that a decrease in gene expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor alpha(IL-2Ralpha) were due to decreased activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in zinc deficient cells. Decreased NF-kappaB activation in HUT-78 due to zinc deficiency was due to decreased binding of NF-kappaB to DNA, decreased level of NF-kappaB p105 (the precursor of NF-kappaB p50) mRNA, decreased kappaB inhibitory protein (IkappaB) phosphorylation, and decreased Ikappa kappa. These effects of zinc were cell specific. Zinc also is an antioxidant and has anti-inflammatory actions. The therapeutic roles of zinc in acute infantile diarrhea, acrodermatitis enteropathica, prevention of blindness in patients with age-related macular degeneration, and treatment of common cold with zinc have been reported. In HL-60 cells (promyelocytic leukemia cell line), zinc enhances the up-regulation of A20 mRNA, which, via TRAF

  20. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  1. Zinc and Zinc Transporters: Novel Regulators of Ventricular Myocardial Development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen; Li, Deqiang

    2018-06-01

    Ventricular myocardial development is a well-orchestrated process involving different cardiac structures, multiple signal pathways, and myriad proteins. Dysregulation of this important developmental event can result in cardiomyopathies, such as left ventricle non-compaction, which affect the pediatric population and the adults. Human and mouse studies have shed light upon the etiology of some cardiomyopathy cases and highlighted the contribution of both genetic and environmental factors. However, the regulation of ventricular myocardial development remains incompletely understood. Zinc is an essential trace metal with structural, enzymatic, and signaling function. Perturbation of zinc homeostasis has resulted in developmental and physiological defects including cardiomyopathy. In this review, we summarize several mechanisms by which zinc and zinc transporters can impact the regulation of ventricular myocardial development. Based on our review, we propose that zinc deficiency and mutations of zinc transporters may underlie some cardiomyopathy cases especially those involving ventricular myocardial development defects.

  2. Comparative analysis of salivary zinc level in recurrent herpes labialis

    PubMed Central

    Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Jafari, Nasim; Attar, Ahmad Movahedian; Jafari, Shahram; Ataie, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recurrent Herpes Labialis (RHL) is one of most common infective vesiculoulcerative lesions. According to some studies administration of topical and/or systemic zinc compositions has been effective in treatment and prevention. This article aims to comparison of zinc level in healthy subjects and RHL patients in acute and convalescent phases. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective case – control study, carried on 80 individuals (40 normal and 40 RHL patients) mean age=34.5 and 34.4, respectively. Saliva samples were taken in patients in acute phase once and after healing of lesions in convalescent phase (averagely 21 days later) and in normal individuals. Salivary zinc level concentration was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer by dry digestion method. The results were statistically analyzed with SPSS software by t-test (α=0.05). Results: Results showed that salivary zinc level in case group in acute and convalescent phases were 160.8 ngr/mland 205.7 ngr/ml respectivly and significant differences between them were existed (P <0.05). Also significant differences were existed between zinc concentration in healthy subjects and patient groups (in both phases) (P=.001 and .002 for acute and convalescent phases respectively). Conclusion: According to the results, zinc level is significantly lower in acute phase than in convalescent phase and significantly lower in both phases compared to healthy individuals,so determination of serum zinc level and prescribing zinc complement in low serum status has both treatmental and preventive effects in RHL patients. PMID:22363358

  3. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Jura, M.

    1982-01-01

    IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

  4. Zinc Signal in Brain Diseases.

    PubMed

    Portbury, Stuart D; Adlard, Paul A

    2017-11-23

    The divalent cation zinc is an integral requirement for optimal cellular processes, whereby it contributes to the function of over 300 enzymes, regulates intracellular signal transduction, and contributes to efficient synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Given the critical role of zinc in a breadth of cellular processes, its cellular distribution and local tissue level concentrations remain tightly regulated via a series of proteins, primarily including zinc transporter and zinc import proteins. A loss of function of these regulatory pathways, or dietary alterations that result in a change in zinc homeostasis in the brain, can all lead to a myriad of pathological conditions with both acute and chronic effects on function. This review aims to highlight the role of zinc signaling in the central nervous system, where it may precipitate or potentiate diverse issues such as age-related cognitive decline, depression, Alzheimer's disease or negative outcomes following brain injury.

  5. 40 CFR 80.556-80.559 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....556-80.559 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Small Refiner Hardship Provisions §§ 80.556-80.559 [Reserved] Other...

  6. 40 CFR 80.514-80.519 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....514-80.519 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information §§ 80.514-80.519 [Reserved] Motor Vehicle Diesel...

  7. 40 CFR 80.541-80.549 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....541-80.549 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Geographic Phase-in Provisions §§ 80.541-80.549 [Reserved] Small Refiner...

  8. 40 CFR 80.503-80.509 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....503-80.509 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information §§ 80.503-80.509 [Reserved] ...

  9. 40 CFR 80.537-80.539 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....537-80.539 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Temporary Compliance Option §§ 80.537-80.539 [Reserved] Geographic Phase...

  10. 40 CFR 80.528-80.529 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....528-80.529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements §§ 80.528-80.529...

  11. Zinc supplementation for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Person, Osmar C; Puga, Maria Es; da Silva, Edina Mk; Torloni, Maria R

    2016-11-23

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound without external acoustic stimuli. Patients with severe tinnitus may have physical and psychological complaints and their tinnitus can cause deterioration in their quality of life. At present no specific therapy for tinnitus has been found to be satisfactory in all patients. In recent decades, a number of reports have suggested that oral zinc supplementation may be effective in the management of tinnitus. Since zinc has a role in cochlear physiology and in the synapses of the auditory system, there is a plausible mechanism of action for this treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral zinc supplementation in the management of patients with tinnitus. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 6); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 14 July 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing zinc supplementation versus placebo in adults (18 years and over) with tinnitus. We used the standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Our primary outcome measures were improvement in tinnitus severity and disability, measured by a validated tinnitus-specific questionnaire, and adverse effects. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, change in socioeconomic impact associated with work, change in anxiety and depression disorders, change in psychoacoustic parameters, change in tinnitus loudness, change in overall severity of tinnitus and change in thresholds on pure tone audiometry. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included three trials involving a total of 209 participants. The studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. All included studies had differences in participant selection criteria, length of follow-up and outcome measurement

  12. Boutons containing vesicular zinc define a subpopulation of synapses with low AMPAR content in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sindreu, Carlos Balet; Varoqui, Hélène; Erickson, Jeffrey D; Pérez-Clausell, Jeús

    2003-08-01

    Cortical regions of the brain stand out for their high content in synaptic zinc, which may thus be involved in synaptic function. The relative number, chemical nature and transmitter receptor profile of synapses that sequester vesicular zinc are largely unknown. To address this, we combined pre-embedding zinc histochemistry and post-embedding immunogold electron microscopy in rat hippocampus. All giant mossy fibre (MF) terminals in the CA3 region and approximately 45% of boutons making axospinous synapses in stratum radiatum in CA1 contained synaptic vesicles that stained for zinc. Both types of zinc-positive boutons selectively expressed the vesicular zinc transporter ZnT-3. Zinc-positive boutons further immunoreacted to the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT-1, but not to the transmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. Most dendritic spines in CA1 immunoreacted to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunits GluR1-3 (approximately 80%) and to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits NR1 + NR2A/B (approximately 90%). Synapses made by zinc-positive boutons contained 40% less AMPAR particles than those made by zinc-negative boutons, whereas NMDAR counts were similar. Further analysis indicated that this was due to the reduced synaptic expression of both GluR1 and GluR2 subunits. Hence, the levels of postsynaptic AMPARs may vary according to the presence of vesicular zinc in excitatory afferents to CA1. Zinc-positive and zinc-negative synapses may represent two glutamatergic subpopulations with distinct synaptic signalling.

  13. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  14. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    PubMed

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  15. Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under zinc starvation. Zinc depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for zinc-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by zinc starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed zinc starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant zinc proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to zinc-binding proteins. When cellular zinc is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing zinc from the degraded proteins and recycling zinc for other essential purposes. PMID:28264932

  16. Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-05-19

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under zinc starvation. Zinc depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for zinc-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by zinc starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed zinc starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant zinc proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to zinc-binding proteins. When cellular zinc is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing zinc from the degraded proteins and recycling zinc for other essential purposes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli. PMID:28629136

  18. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-06-17

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  19. The Antimicrobial Properties of Zinc-Releasing Bioceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xin

    Up to 80% of nosocomial infections are caused by biofilm-producing bacteria such as Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These types of microorganisms can become resistant to antibiotics and are difficult to eliminate. As such, there is tremendous interest in developing bioactive implant materials that can help to minimize these post- operative infections. Using water-based chemistry, we developed an economical, biodegradable and biocompatible orthopedic implant material consisting of zinc- doped hydroxyapatite (HA), which mimics the main inorganic component of the bone. Because the crystallinity of HA is typically too compact for efficient drug release, we substituted calcium ions in HA with zinc during the synthesis step to perturb the crystal structure. An added benefit is that zinc itself is a microelement of the human body with anti-inflammatory property, and we hypothesized that Zn-doped HA is an inherently antibacterial material. All HA samples were synthesized by a co-precipitation method using aqueous solutions of Zinc nitrate, Calcium Nitrate, and Ammonium Phosphate. XRD data showed that Zn was successfully incorporated into the HA. The effectiveness of Zn-doped HA against a model biofilm-forming bacterium is currently being evaluated using a wild-type strain and a streptomycin- resistant strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans (Psp) which is a plant pathogen isolated from diseased apples. Key words: Hydroxyapatite, Zinc, Citrate, Pseudomonas, Antibacterial.

  20. Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Inga; Maywald, Martina; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14), zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10), and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function. PMID:29186856

  1. The effectiveness of high dose zinc acetate lozenges on various common cold symptoms: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hemilä, Harri; Chalker, Elizabeth

    2015-02-25

    A previous meta-analysis found that high dose zinc acetate lozenges reduced the duration of common colds by 42%, whereas low zinc doses had no effect. Lozenges are dissolved in the pharyngeal region, thus there might be some difference in the effect of zinc lozenges on the duration of respiratory symptoms in the pharyngeal region compared with the nasal region. The objective of this study was to determine whether zinc acetate lozenges have different effects on the duration of common cold symptoms originating from different anatomical regions. We analyzed three randomized trials on zinc acetate lozenges for the common cold administering zinc in doses of 80-92 mg/day. All three trials reported the effect of zinc on seven respiratory symptoms, and three systemic symptoms. We pooled the effects of zinc lozenges for each symptom and calculated point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Zinc acetate lozenges shortened the duration of nasal discharge by 34% (95% CI: 17% to 51%), nasal congestion by 37% (15% to 58%), sneezing by 22% (-1% to 45%), scratchy throat by 33% (8% to 59%), sore throat by 18% (-10% to 46%), hoarseness by 43% (3% to 83%), and cough by 46% (28% to 64%). Zinc lozenges shortened the duration of muscle ache by 54% (18% to 89%), but there was no difference in the duration of headache and fever. The effect of zinc acetate lozenges on cold symptoms may be associated with the local availability of zinc from the lozenges, with the levels being highest in the pharyngeal region. However our findings indicate that the effects of zinc ions are not limited to the pharyngeal region. There is no indication that the effect of zinc lozenges on nasal symptoms is less than the effect on the symptoms of the pharyngeal region, which is more exposed to released zinc ions. Given that the adverse effects of zinc in the three trials were minor, zinc acetate lozenges releasing zinc ions at doses of about 80 mg/day may be a useful treatment for the common cold

  2. Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Life Cycle Evaluation of Nickel-Zinc Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, D.; Ferreira, E.; Nyce, M.; Charkey, A.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusion of the Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) life cycle evaluation of nickel-zinc batteries are: that composite nickel electrode provide excellent performance at a reduced weight and lower cost; calcium / zinc electrode minimizes shape change; unioptimized cell designs yield 60 Wh/kg; nickel-zinc delivers 600 cycles at 80% DOD; long cycle life obtainable at low DOD; high rate capability power density; long-term failure mechanism is stack dry; and anomalous overcharge (1120%) greatly affected cell performance but did not induce failure and was recoverable.

  3. The zinc paradigm for metalloneurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Barr, Chelsea A; Burdette, Shawn C

    2017-05-09

    Neurotransmission and sensory perception are shaped through metal ion-protein interactions in various brain regions. The term "metalloneurochemistry" defines the unique field of bioinorganic chemistry focusing on these processes, and zinc has been the leading target of metalloneurochemists in the almost 15 years since the definition was introduced. Zinc in the hippocampus interacts with receptors that dictate ion flow and neurotransmitter release. Understanding the intricacies of these interactions is crucial to uncovering the role that zinc plays in learning and memory. Based on receptor similarities and zinc-enriched neurons (ZENs) in areas of the brain responsible for sensory perception, such as the olfactory bulb (OB), and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), zinc participates in odor and sound perception. Development and improvement of methods which allow for precise detection and immediate manipulation of zinc ions in neuronal cells and in brain slices will be critical in uncovering the synaptic action of zinc and, more broadly, the bioinorganic chemistry of cognition. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. A multilateral investigation of the effects of zinc level on pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Özgan Çelikel, Özgül; Doğan, Özlem; Aksoy, Nurkan

    2018-06-01

    The relationship between maternal zinc level and birth weight, birth week, delivery type, garvida, maternal age, etc., contribute to diagnosis and clinical follow-up. Multivariate investigated for data of 275 patients were obtained during their pregnancy periods until birth. 3 cc blood samples were centrifuged for 15 minutes at 2500 g within a period of 30 minutes and were stored at -80°C until the time of analysis. The zinc levels of the patients were found to be within the range of 49-129 μg/dL. Patients were divided into 8 groups according to their zinc levels (49-59, 60-69, …, 120-129) and the relationships of zinc level with the parameters related to the mode of delivery, week of delivery, birth weight, age, early membrane rupture, live-stillbirth, and gravid were statistically analyzed to determine differences between the groups. There was a significant difference between the live births and stillbirths with a 95% confidence level regarding the zinc level. The zinc level affected the live-stillbirth status; patients with a zinc level of 49-59 μg/dL had stillbirths, the live birth rate for 59-69 μg/dL was approximately 50%, whereas it was approximately 88% for in the patients with a zinc level of 109-119 μg/dL. All patients with a zinc level of 119 μg/dL and above had live births. Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that zinc supplementation may be an appropriate treatment for the pregnant women with low zinc levels to provide the realization of live births. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  6. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate...

  7. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate...

  8. 21 CFR 582.80 - Trace minerals added to animal feeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Manganese phosphate (dibasic). Manganese sulfate. Manganous oxide. Zinc Zinc acetate. Zinc carbonate. Zinc chloride. Zinc oxide. Zinc sulfate. ... Cobalt Cobalt acetate. Cobalt carbonate. Cobalt chloride. Cobalt oxide. Cobalt sulfate. Copper Copper...

  9. 21 CFR 582.80 - Trace minerals added to animal feeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Manganese phosphate (dibasic). Manganese sulfate. Manganous oxide. Zinc Zinc acetate. Zinc carbonate. Zinc chloride. Zinc oxide. Zinc sulfate. ... Cobalt Cobalt acetate. Cobalt carbonate. Cobalt chloride. Cobalt oxide. Cobalt sulfate. Copper Copper...

  10. Effect of glycation on human serum albumin-zinc interaction: a biophysical study.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Sarah; Qais, Faizan Abul; Alam, Md Maroof; Naseem, Imrana

    2018-05-01

    Zinc deficiency is common in diabetes. However, the cause of this phenomenon is largely unknown. 80% of the absorbed zinc is transported through the blood in association with human serum albumin (HSA). Under persistent hyperglycemia, HSA frequently undergoes non-enzymatic glycation which can affect its structure and metal-binding function. Hence, in this study, we have examined the interaction of zinc with native and glycated HSA. The protein samples were incubated either in the presence or in the absence of physiologically elevated glucose concentration for 21 days. The samples were then analyzed for structural changes and zinc-binding ability using various spectrometric and calorimetric approaches. The study reveals changes in the three-dimensional structure of the protein upon glycation that cause local unfolding of the molecule. Most such regions are localized in subdomain IIA of HSA which plays a key role in zinc binding. This affects zinc interaction with HSA and could in part explain the perturbed zinc distribution in patients with hyperglycemia. The varying degree of HSA glycation in blood could explain the observed heterogeneity pertaining to zinc deficiency among people suffering from diabetes.

  11. Mineral resource of the month: zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2009-01-01

    The article provides information on zinc, the fourth most-widely consumed metal. It traces the first use of zinc with the Romans' production of brass. It describes the presence of zinc in Earth's crust and the importance of sphalerite as a source of zinc and other some minor metal production. The production and consumption of zinc as well as the commercial and industrial uses of this metal are also discussed.

  12. Zinc: an essential but elusive nutrient123

    PubMed Central

    King, Janet C

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is essential for multiple aspects of metabolism. Physiologic signs of zinc depletion are linked with diverse biochemical functions rather than with a specific function, which makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of zinc nutrition. Nutrients, such as zinc, that are required for general metabolism are called type 2 nutrients. Protein and magnesium are examples of other type 2 nutrients. Type 1 nutrients are required for one or more specific functions: examples include iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate, and copper. When dietary zinc is insufficient, a marked reduction in endogenous zinc loss occurs immediately to conserve the nutrient. If zinc balance is not reestablished, other metabolic adjustments occur to mobilize zinc from small body pools. The location of those pools is not known, but all cells probably have a small zinc reserve that includes zinc bound to metallothionein or zinc stored in the Golgi or in other organelles. Plasma zinc is also part of this small zinc pool that is vulnerable to insufficient intakes. Plasma zinc concentrations decline rapidly with severe deficiencies and more moderately with marginal depletion. Unfortunately, plasma zinc concentrations also decrease with a number of conditions (eg, infection, trauma, stress, steroid use, after a meal) due to a metabolic redistribution of zinc from the plasma to the tissues. This redistribution confounds the interpretation of low plasma zinc concentrations. Biomarkers of metabolic zinc redistribution are needed to determine whether this redistribution is the cause of a low plasma zinc rather than poor nutrition. Measures of metallothionein or cellular zinc transporters may fulfill that role. PMID:21715515

  13. A dynamic model for predicting growth in zinc-deficient stunted infants given supplemental zinc.

    PubMed

    Wastney, Meryl E; McDonald, Christine M; King, Janet C

    2018-05-01

    Zinc deficiency limits infant growth and increases susceptibility to infections, which further compromises growth. Zinc supplementation improves the growth of zinc-deficient stunted infants, but the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc supplementation required to restore growth in an individual child is unknown. A dynamic model of zinc metabolism that predicts changes in weight and length of zinc-deficient, stunted infants with dietary zinc would be useful to define effective zinc supplementation regimens. The aims of this study were to develop a dynamic model for zinc metabolism in stunted, zinc-deficient infants and to use that model to predict the growth response when those infants are given zinc supplements. A model of zinc metabolism was developed using data on zinc kinetics, tissue zinc, and growth requirements for healthy 9-mo-old infants. The kinetic model was converted to a dynamic model by replacing the rate constants for zinc absorption and excretion with functions for these processes that change with zinc intake. Predictions of the dynamic model, parameterized for zinc-deficient, stunted infants, were compared with the results of 5 published zinc intervention trials. The model was then used to predict the results for zinc supplementation regimes that varied in the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc dosing. Model predictions agreed with published changes in plasma zinc after zinc supplementation. Predictions of weight and length agreed with 2 studies, but overpredicted values from a third study in which other nutrient deficiencies may have been growth limiting; the model predicted that zinc absorption was impaired in that study. The model suggests that frequent, smaller doses (5-10 mg Zn/d) are more effective for increasing growth in stunted, zinc-deficient 9-mo-old infants than are larger, less-frequent doses. The dose amount affects the duration of dosing necessary to restore and maintain plasma zinc concentration and growth.

  14. Zinc-chloride battery technology - Status 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, J. W.; Carr, P.; Warde, C. J.; Henriksen, G. L.

    Zinc-chloride batteries are presently under development at Energy Development Associates (EDA) for load-leveling, electric-vehicle, and specialty applications. A 500-kWh battery system has been built at Detroit Edison's Charlotte substation near downtown Detroit. Following shakedown testing, this system will be installed at the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility in Hillsborough, New Jersey, in July 1983. Data is presented also for a prototype 50-kWh battery which has successfully operated through 150 cycles. EDA has built and tested three 4-passenger automobiles. The maximum range achieved on a single charge was 200 miles at 40 mph. Recently, the electric-vehicle battery program at EDA has focused on commercial vehicles. Two vans, each powered with a 45-kWh zinc-chloride battery, have been built and track tested. These vehicles, which carry a payload of 1,000 pounds, have a top speed of 55 mph and an operational range in excess of 80 miles. In the specialty battery area, two 6-kWh 12-V reserve batteries have been built and tested. This type of battery offers the prospect of long shelf life and an energy density in excess of 100 Wh/lb.

  15. Serum thymulin in human zinc deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A S; Meftah, S; Abdallah, J; Kaplan, J; Brewer, G J; Bach, J F; Dardenne, M

    1988-01-01

    The activity of thymulin (a thymic hormone) is dependent on the presence of zinc in the molecule. We assayed serum thymulin activity in three models of mildly zinc-deficient (ZD) human subjects before and after zinc supplementation: (a) two human volunteers in whom a specific and mild zinc deficiency was induced by dietary means; (b) six mildly ZD adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) subjects; and (c) six mildly ZD adult non-SCA subjects. Their plasma zinc levels were normal and they showed no overt clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency. The diagnosis of mild zinc deficiency was based on the assay of zinc in lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets. Serum thymulin activity was decreased as a result of mild zinc deficiency and was corrected by in vivo and in vitro zinc supplementation, suggesting that this parameter was a sensitive indicator of zinc deficiency in humans. An increase in T101-, sIg-cells, decrease in T4+/T8+ ratio, and decreased IL 2 activity were observed in the experimental human model during the zinc depletion phase, all of which were corrected after repletion with zinc. Similar changes in lymphocyte subpopulation, correctable with zinc supplementation, were also observed in mildly ZD SCA subjects. Inasmuch as thymulin is known to induce intra- and extrathymic T cell differentiation, our studies provide a possible mechanism for the role of zinc on T cell functions. Images PMID:3262625

  16. Stabilized nickel-zinc battery

    SciTech Connect

    Himy, A.; Wagner, O.C.

    An alkaline nickel-zinc cell which has (1) a nickel-nickel hydroxide cathode; (2) a zinc-zinc oxide anode containing (A) a corrosion inhibitor such as PBO, SNO2, Tl2O3, in(OH)3 or mixtures thereof; (B) a slight corrosion accelerator such as cdo, bi2o3, ga2o3, or mixtures thereof; and (C) a zinc active material; (3) a mass-transport separator; (4) an alkaline electrolyte; and (5) means for charging the cell with an interrupted current having a frequency of from more than zero to 16 hertz with a rest period of not less than 60 milliseconds. Another desirable feature is the use of a pressure-cutoff switch tomore » terminate charging when the internal pressure of the cell reaches a selected value in the range of from 5 to 8 psig.« less

  17. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.

    2008-01-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  18. Effects of Zinc Glycinate on Productive and Reproductive Performance, Zinc Concentration and Antioxidant Status in Broiler Breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yong-Xia; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Qian; Li, Kai-Xuan; Guo, Tian-Yu; Zhan, Xiu-An

    2017-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc glycinate (Zn-Gly) supplementation as an alternative for zinc sulphate (ZnSO 4 ) on productive and reproductive performance, zinc (Zn) concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders. Six hundred 39-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 groups consisting of 4 replicates with 25 birds each. Breeders were fed a basal diet (control group, 24 mg Zn/kg diet), basal diet supplemented with 80 mg Zn/kg diet from ZnSO 4 or basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg Zn/kg diet from Zn-Gly. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks after a 4-week pre-test with the basal diet, respectively. Results showed that Zn supplementation, regardless of sources, improved (P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio (kilogram of feed/kilogram of egg) and decreased broken egg rate, and elevated (P < 0.05) the qualified chick rate. Compared with the ZnSO 4 group, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly increased (P < 0.05) average egg weight, fertility, hatchability and qualified chick rate, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) broken egg rate. The Zn concentrations in liver and muscle were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group than that in ZnSO 4 group. Compared with ZnSO 4 group, 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly elevated (P < 0.05) the mRNA abundances of metallothionein (MT) and copper-zinc superoxide (Cu-Zn SOD), as well as the Cu-Zn SOD activity and MT concentration in liver. Moreover, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group had higher (P < 0.05) serum T-SOD and Cu-Zn SOD activities than that in the ZnSO 4 group. This study indicated that supplementation of Zn in basal diet improved productive and reproductive performance, Zn concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders, and the 80 mg Zn/kg from Zn-Gly was the optimum choice for broiler breeders compared with other levels of Zn from Zn-Gly and 80 mg/kg Zn from ZnSO 4 .

  19. Zinc in innate and adaptive tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is important. It is the second most abundant trace metal with 2-4 grams in humans. It is an essential trace element, critical for cell growth, development and differentiation, DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation. Zinc deficiency has adverse consequences during embryogenesis and early childhood development, particularly on immune functioning. It is essential in members of all enzyme classes, including over 300 signaling molecules and transcription factors. Free zinc in immune and tumor cells is regulated by 14 distinct zinc importers (ZIP) and transporters (ZNT1-8). Zinc depletion induces cell death via apoptosis (or necrosis if apoptotic pathways are blocked) while sufficient zinc levels allows maintenance of autophagy. Cancer cells have upregulated zinc importers, and frequently increased zinc levels, which allow them to survive. Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate zinc levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor apoptosis are in order. PMID:21087493

  20. Zinc for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi R

    2011-02-16

    The common cold is one of the most widespread illnesses and is a leading cause of visits to the doctor and absenteeism from school and work. Trials conducted since 1984 investigating the role of zinc for the common cold symptoms have had mixed results. Inadequate treatment masking and reduced bioavailability of zinc from some formulations have been cited as influencing results. To assess the effect of zinc on common cold symptoms. We searched CENTRAL (2010, Issue 2) which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to May week 3, 2010) and EMBASE (1974 to June 2010). Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using zinc for at least five consecutive days to treat, or for at least five months to prevent the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We included 13 therapeutic trials (966 participants) and two preventive trials (394 participants). Intake of zinc is associated with a significant reduction in the duration (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.56 to -0.38) (P = 0.001), and severity of common cold symptoms (SMD -0.39; 95% CI -0.77 to -0.02) (P = 0.04). There was a significant difference between the zinc and control group for the proportion of participants symptomatic after seven days of treatment (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.00) (P = 0.05). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of developing a cold (IRR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.88) (P = 0.006), school absence (P = 0.0003) and prescription of antibiotics (P < 0.00001) was lower in the zinc group. Overall adverse events (OR 1.59; 95% CI 0.97 to 2.58) (P = 0.06), bad taste (OR 2.64; 95% CI 1.91 to 3.64) (P < 0.00001) and nausea (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 to 3.23) (P = 0.002) were higher in the zinc group. Zinc administered within 24 hours of onset of symptoms reduces the duration and severity of the common cold in healthy people. When supplemented for at least five months, it reduces cold

  1. Adipokine zinc-α2-glycoprotein regulated by growth hormone and linked to insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Balaz, Miroslav; Ukropcova, Barbara; Kurdiova, Timea; Gajdosechova, Lucia; Vlcek, Miroslav; Janakova, Zuzana; Fedeles, Jozef; Pura, Mikulas; Gasperikova, Daniela; Smith, Steven R; Tkacova, Ruzena; Klimes, Iwar; Payer, Juraj; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropec, Jozef

    2015-02-01

    Hypertrophic obesity is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and lipid-mobilizing activity of zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Adipose tissue (AT) of growth hormone (GH) -deficient patients is characterized by extreme adipocyte hypertrophy due to defects in AT lipid metabolism. It was hypothesized that zinc-α2-glycoprotein is regulated by GH and mediates some of its beneficial effects in AT. AT from patients with GH deficiency and individuals with obesity-related GH deficit was obtained before and after 5-year and 24-month GH supplementation therapy. GH action was tested in primary human adipocytes. Relationships of GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein with adipocyte size and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in nondiabetic patients with noncancerous cachexia and hypertrophic obesity. AT in GH-deficient adults displayed a substantial reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein. GH therapy normalized AT zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Obesity-related relative GH deficit was associated with almost 80% reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA in AT. GH increased zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA in both AT of obese men and primary human adipocytes. Interdependence of GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein in regulating AT morphology and metabolic phenotype was evident from their relationship with adipocyte size and AT-specific and whole-body insulin sensitivity. The results demonstrate that GH is involved in regulation of AT zinc-α2-glycoprotein; however, the molecular mechanism linking GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein in AT is yet unknown. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  2. Lower Zinc Bioavailability May Be Related to Higher Risk of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su Kyoung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Shin, Min-Ho; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Youl

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a proposed link between dietary zinc intake and atherosclerosis, but this relationship remains unclear. Phytate may contribute to this relationship by influencing zinc bioavailability. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between zinc bioavailability and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy Korean adults. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the Korean multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study (MRCohort), which is a part of The Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES). A total of 5,532 subjects (2,116 men and 3,416 women) aged 40 years and older were recruited from rural communities in South Korea between 2005 and 2010. Phytate:zinc molar ratio, estimated from a food-based food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) of 106 food items, was used to determine zinc bioavailability, and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured to calculate the subclinical atherosclerotic index. Results We found that phytate:zinc molar ratio is positively related to cIMT in men. A higher phytate:zinc molar ratio was significantly related to an increased risk of atherosclerosis in men, defined as the 80th percentile value of cIMT (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.42-3.15, P for trend = 0.0009), and especially in elderly men (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.52-4.37, P for trend = 0.0021). We found a positive relationship between phytate:zinc molar ratio and atherosclerosis risk among women aged 65 years or younger. Phytate:zinc molar ratio was not found to be related to PWV. Conclusions Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher atherosclerosis risk. PMID:24223217

  3. Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide123

    PubMed Central

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnić, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6–71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6–71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9–57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  4. Responses of Siberian ferrets to secondary zinc phosphide poisoning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The hazard of operational-type applications of zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) on a species closely related to the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), was evaluated by feeding 16 Siberian ferrets (M. eversmanni) rats that had been killed by consumption of 2% zinc phosphide treated bait or by an oral dose of 40, 80, or 160 mg of Zn3P2. All ferrets accepted rats and a single emesis by each of 3 ferrets was the only evidence of acute intoxication. All ferrets learned to avoid eating gastrointestinal tracts of the rats. Subacute zinc phosphide toxicity in the ferrets was indicated by significant decreases (18-48%) in hemoglobin, increases of 35-91 % in serum iron, and elevated levels of serum globulin, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Hemoglobin/iron, urea nitrogen/creatinine, and albumin/globulin ratios also were altered by the treatments. This study demonstrated that Siberian ferrets, or other species with a sensitive emetic reflex, are afforded a degree of protection from acute zinc phosphide poisoning due to its emetic action. The importance of toxicity associated with possible respiratory, liver, and kidney damage indicated by altered blood chemistries is not known.

  5. The interaction of zinc oxide-based dental cements with aqueous solutions of potassium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Pawluk, K; Booth, S E; Coleman, N J; Nicholson, J W

    2008-09-01

    The ability of zinc oxide-based dental cements (zinc phosphate and zinc polycarboxylate) to take up fluoride from aqueous solution has been studied. Only zinc phosphate cement was found to take up any measurable fluoride after 5 h exposure to the solutions. The zinc oxide filler of the zinc phosphate also failed to take up fluoride from solution. The key interaction for this uptake was thus shown to involve the phosphate groups of the set cement. However, whether this took the form of phosphate/fluoride exchange, or the formation of oxyfluoro-phosphate groups was not clear. Fluoride uptake followed radicaltime kinetics for about 2 h in some cases, but was generally better modelled by the Elovich equation, dq(t)/dt = alpha exp(-betaq(t)). Values for alpha varied from 3.80 to 2.48 x 10(4), and for beta from 7.19 x 10(-3) to 0.1946, though only beta showed any sort of trend, becoming smaller with increasing fluoride concentration. Fluoride was released from the zinc phosphate cements in processes that were diffusion based up to M(t)/M(infinity) of about 0.4. No further release occurred when specimens were placed in fresh volumes of deionised water. Only a fraction of the fluoride taken up was re-released, demonstrating that most of the fluoride taken up becomes irreversibly bound within the cement.

  6. Transfers and transformations of zinc in flow-through wetland microcosms.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, W B; Hawkins, W B; Rodgers, J H; Cano, M L; Dorn, P B

    1999-06-01

    Two microcosm-scale wetlands (570-liter containers) were integratively designed and constructed to investigate transfers and transformations of zinc associated with an aqueous matrix, and to provide future design parameters for pilot-scale constructed wetlands. The fundamental design of these wetland microcosms was based on biogeochemical principles regulating fate and transformations of zinc (pH, redox, etc.). Each wetland consisted of a 45-cm hydrosoil depth inundated with 25 cm of water, and planted with Scirpus californicus. Zinc ( approximately 2 mg/liter) as ZnCl2 was amended to each wetland for 62 days. Individual wetland hydraulic retention times (HRT) were approximately 24 h. Total recoverable zinc was measured daily in microcosm inflow and outflows, and zinc concentrations in hydrosoil and S. californicus tissue were measured pre- and post-treatment. Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas7-day aqueous toxicity tests were performed on wetland inflows and outflows, and Hyalella azteca whole sediment toxicity tests (10-day) were performed pre- and post-treatment. Approximately 75% of total recoverable zinc was transferred from the water column. Toxicity decreased from inflow to outflow based on 7-day C. dubia tests, and survival of H. azteca in hydrosoil was >80%. Data illustrate the ability of integratively designed wetlands to transfer and sequester zinc from the water column while concomitantly decreasing associated toxicity. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. Zinc for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi R

    2013-06-18

    The common cold is one of the most widespread illnesses and is a leading cause of visits to the doctor and absenteeism from school and work. Trials conducted in high-income countries since 1984 investigating the role of zinc for the common cold symptoms have had mixed results. Inadequate treatment masking and reduced bioavailability of zinc from some formulations have been cited as influencing results. To assess whether zinc (irrespective of the zinc salt or formulation used) is efficacious in reducing the incidence, severity and duration of common cold symptoms. In addition, we aimed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity in results obtained and to assess their clinical significance. In this updated review, we searched CENTRAL (2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 2, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to January 2013), CINAHL (1981 to January 2013), Web of Science (1985 to January 2013), LILACS (1982 to January 2013), WHO ICTRP and clinicaltrials.gov. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using zinc for at least five consecutive days to treat, or for at least five months to prevent the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Five trials were identified in the updated searches in January 2013 and two of them did not meet our inclusion criteria. We included 16 therapeutic trials (1387 participants) and two preventive trials (394 participants). Intake of zinc was associated with a significant reduction in the duration (days) (mean difference (MD) -1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.72 to -0.34) (P = 0.003) (I(2) statistic = 89%) but not the severity of common cold symptoms (MD -1.06, 95% CI -2.36 to 0.23) (P = 0.11) (I(2) statistic = 84%). The proportion of participants who were symptomatic after seven days of treatment was significantly smaller (odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.00) (P = 0.05) than those in the control, (I(2 )statistic = 75%). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of developing a

  8. History of Zinc in Agriculture12

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Forrest H.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

  9. Mutation of a Zinc-Binding Residue in the Glycine Receptor α1 Subunit Changes Ethanol Sensitivity In Vitro and Alcohol Consumption In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Lindsay M.; Blednov, Yuri A.; Trudell, James R.; Benavidez, Jillian M.; Betz, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely used drug, yet an understanding of its sites and mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Among the protein targets of ethanol are glycine receptors (GlyRs), which are potentiated by millimolar concentrations of ethanol. In addition, zinc ions also modulate GlyR function, and recent evidence suggests that physiologic concentrations of zinc enhance ethanol potentiation of GlyRs. Here, we first built a homology model of a zinc-bound GlyR using the D80 position as a coordination site for a zinc ion. Next, we investigated in vitro the effects of zinc on ethanol action at recombinant wild-type (WT) and mutant α1 GlyRs containing the D80A substitution, which eliminates zinc potentiation. At D80A GlyRs, the effects of 50 and 200 mM ethanol were reduced as compared with WT receptors. Also, in contrast to what was seen with WT GlyRs, neither adding nor chelating zinc changed the magnitude of ethanol enhancement of mutant D80A receptors. Next, we evaluated the in vivo effects of the D80A substitution by using heterozygous Glra1(D80A) knock-in (KI) mice. The KI mice showed decreased ethanol consumption and preference, and they displayed increased startle responses compared with their WT littermates. Other behavioral tests, including ethanol-induced motor incoordination and strychnine-induced convulsions, revealed no differences between the KI and WT mice. Together, our findings indicate that zinc is critical in determining the effects of ethanol at GlyRs and suggest that zinc binding at the D80 position may be important for mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol action at GlyRs. PMID:23230213

  10. Influence of DNA-methylation on zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of intracellular zinc, predominantly regulated through zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular zinc levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed zinc homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) zinc transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the zinc importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular zinc levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas zinc exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated zinc levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of zinc binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore zinc homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting zinc binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Zinc Acetate Lozenges May Improve the Recovery Rate of Common Cold Patients: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hemilä, Harri; Fitzgerald, James T; Petrus, Edward J; Prasad, Ananda

    2017-01-01

    A previous meta-analysis of 3 zinc acetate lozenge trials estimated that colds were on average 40% shorter for the zinc groups. However, the duration of colds is a time outcome, and survival analysis may be a more informative approach. The objective of this individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis was to estimate the effect of zinc acetate lozenges on the rate of recovery from colds. We analyzed IPD for 3 randomized placebo-controlled trials in which 80-92 mg/day of elemental zinc were administered as zinc acetate lozenges to 199 common cold patients. We used mixed-effects Cox regression to estimate the effect of zinc. Patients administered zinc lozenges recovered faster by rate ratio 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.1-4.7). The effect was not modified by age, sex, race, allergy, smoking, or baseline common cold severity. On the 5th day, 70% of the zinc patients had recovered compared with 27% of the placebo patients. Accordingly, 2.6 times more patients were cured in the zinc group. The difference also corresponds to the number needed to treat of 2.3 on the 5th day. None of the studies observed serious adverse effects of zinc. The 3-fold increase in the rate of recovery from the common cold is a clinically important effect. The optimal formulation of zinc lozenges and an ideal frequency of their administration should be examined. Given the evidence of efficacy, common cold patients may be instructed to try zinc acetate lozenges within 24 hours of onset of symptoms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  12. 47 CFR 80.80 - Operating controls for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-162 MHz bands, reducing power output to one watt or less in accordance with § 80.215(e). 1 1 Ship... automatically reduce the carrier power to one watt or less when turned to the frequency 156.375 MHz or 156.650..., 1997, must automatically reduce power as described above. A manual override device must be provided...

  13. Zinc finger proteins in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Jen, Jayu; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2016-07-13

    Zinc finger proteins are the largest transcription factor family in human genome. The diverse combinations and functions of zinc finger motifs make zinc finger proteins versatile in biological processes, including development, differentiation, metabolism and autophagy. Over the last few decades, increasing evidence reveals the potential roles of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. However, the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression vary in different cancer types and even in the same cancer type under different types of stress. Here, we discuss general mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in transcription regulation and summarize recent studies on zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. In this review, we also emphasize the importance of further investigations in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression.

  14. Evaluation of zinc coating procedures : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-01-01

    This research project was conducted in order to compare the existing procedure of zinc coating by hot-dip galvanizing with the other zinc coating systems of painting and electroplating. : Hardware coated by these processes was exposed to varied labor...

  15. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ∼3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

  16. Low-Resistivity Zinc Selenide for Heterojunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetron reactive sputtering enables doping of this semiconductor. Proposed method of reactive sputtering combined with doping shows potential for yielding low-resistivity zinc selenide films. Zinc selenide attractive material for forming heterojunctions with other semiconductor compounds as zinc phosphide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor junctions promising for future optoelectronic devices, including solar cells and electroluminescent displays. Resistivities of zinc selenide layers deposited by evaporation or chemical vapor deposition too high to form practical heterojunctions.

  17. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-07-27

    Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  18. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  19. Combinatorial study of zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, M. G.; Sanderson, R. J.; Hill, I. G.

    2008-01-01

    Groups of thin-film transistors using a zinc tin oxide semiconductor layer have been fabricated via a combinatorial rf sputtering technique. The ZnO :SnO2 ratio of the film varies as a function of position on the sample, from pure ZnO to SnO2, allowing for a study of zinc tin oxide transistor performance as a function of channel stoichiometry. The devices were found to have mobilities ranging from 2to12cm2/Vs, with two peaks in mobility in devices at ZnO fractions of 0.80±0.03 and 0.25±0.05, and on/off ratios as high as 107. Transistors composed predominantly of SnO2 were found to exhibit light sensitivity which affected both the on/off ratios and threshold voltages of these devices.

  20. [Improvement in zinc nutrition due to zinc transporter-targeting strategy].

    PubMed

    Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-01

    Adequate intake of zinc from the daily diet is indispensable to maintain health. However, the dietary zinc content often fails to fulfill the recommended daily intake, leading to zinc deficiency and also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, particularly in elderly individuals. Therefore, increased attention is required to overcome zinc deficiency and it is important to improve zinc nutrition in daily life. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for zinc absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding zinc deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient zinc absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing zinc deficiency and improving human health.

  1. The Zinc Concentration in the Diet and the Length of the Feeding Period Affect the Methylation Status of the ZIP4 Zinc Transporter Gene in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Karweina, Diana; Kreuzer-Redmer, Susanne; Müller, Uwe; Franken, Tobias; Pieper, Robert; Baron, Udo; Olek, Sven; Zentek, Jürgen; Brockmann, Gudrun A.

    2015-01-01

    High doses of zinc oxide are commonly used in weaned pig diets to improve performance and health. Recent reports show that this may also lead to an imbalanced zinc homeostasis in the animal. For a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of different zinc intakes, we performed a feeding experiment to assess potential epigenetic regulation of the ZIP4 gene expression via DNA methylation in the small intestine of piglets. Fifty-four piglets were fed diets with 57 (LZn), 164 (NZn) or 2,425 (HZn) mg Zn/kg feed for one or four weeks. The ZIP4 expression data provided significant evidence for counter-regulation of zinc absorption with higher dietary zinc concentrations. The CpG +735 in the second exon had a 56% higher methylation in the HZn group compared to the others after one week of feeding (8.0·10-4 < p < 0.035); the methylation of this CpG was strongly negatively associated with the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts (p < 0.007). In the LZn and NZn diets, the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts were lower after four vs. one week of feeding (2.9·10-4 < p < 0.017). The strongest switch leading to high DNA methylation in nearly all analysed regions was dependent on feeding duration or age in all diet groups (3.7·10-10 < p < 0.099). The data suggest that DNA methylation serves as a fine-tuning mechanism of ZIP4 gene regulation to maintain zinc homeostasis. Methylation of the ZIP4 gene may play a minor role in the response to very high dietary zinc concentration, but may affect binding of alternate zinc-responsive transcription factors. PMID:26599865

  2. Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

  3. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc...). It is principally composed of Zn. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with zinc oxide may...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chickedema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chickedema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  1. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50 grams per pound bacitracin. (b) Approvals. See No. 046573 in...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick...

  8. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.1991...

  9. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50 grams per pound bacitracin. (b) Approvals. See No. 046573 in...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  18. Ferritin: a zinc detoxicant and a zinc ion donor.

    PubMed Central

    Price, D; Joshi, J G

    1982-01-01

    Rats were injected with 1 mg of Zn2+ as zinc sulfate or 2 mg of Cd2+ as cadmium sulfate per kg of body weight on a daily basis. After seven injections, ferritin and metallothionein were isolated from the livers of the rats. Significant amounts of zinc were associated with ferritin. Incubation of such ferritin with apoenzymes of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase, yeast phosphoglucomutase, and yeast aldolase restored their enzymic activity. The amount of zinc injected was insufficient to stimulate significant synthesis of metallothionein, but similar experiments with injection of cadmium did stimulate the synthesis of metallothionein. The amount of Zn2+ in ferritin of Cd-injected rats was greater than that in ferritin in Zn-injected rats, which was greater than that in ferritin of normal rats. Thus at comparable protein concentration ferritin from Cd-injected rats was a better Zn2+ donor than was ferritin from Zn-injected or normal animals. Ferritin is a normal constituent of several tissues, whereas metallothionein is synthesized under metabolic stress. Thus ferritin may function as a "metal storage and transferring agent" for iron and for zinc. It is suggested that ferritin probably serves as the initial chelator for Zn2+ and perhaps other metal ions as well and that under very high toxic levels of metal ions the synthesis of metallothionein is initiated as the second line of defense. PMID:6212927

  19. Relativity and the TRS-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Sidney

    1984-01-01

    Presents the listing (TRS-80) for a computer program which derives the relativistic equation (employing as a model the concept of a moving clock which emits photons at regular intervals) and calculates transformations of time, mass, and length with increasing velocities (Einstein-Lorentz transformations). (JN)

  20. The CTD-80 Survey Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadar-Fulop, Judit; Bathory, Zoltan

    1985-01-01

    Hungary's national institute of education carried out the Curriculum Theory Department (CTD-80) national asessment in 1980. Reading, mathematics, and practical science achievement were measured, as well as teacher attitudes. Particular emphasis was placed on eighth-grade students; fourth graders were tested in reading. (GDC)

  1. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  2. Zinc transport and diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ewan

    2014-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have previously identified variants in SLC30A8, encoding the zinc transporter ZnT8, associated with diabetes risk. A rare variant association study has now established the direction of effect, surprisingly showing that loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 are protective against diabetes.

  3. Improved colorimetric determination of serum zinc.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D J; Djuh, Y Y; Bruton, J; Williams, H L

    1977-07-01

    We show how zinc may easily be quantified in serum by first using an optimum concentration of guanidine hydrochloride to cause release of zinc from proteins, followed by complexation of released metals with cyanide. The cyanide complex of zinc is preferentially demasked with chloral hydrate, followed by a colorimetric reaction between zinc and 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. This is a sensitive water-soluble ligand; its complex with zinc has an absorption maximum at 497 nm. Values found by this technique compare favorably with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  4. The Zinc Transporter Zip5 (Slc39a5) Regulates Intestinal Zinc Excretion and Protects the Pancreas against Zinc Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Jim; De Lisle, Robert C.; Andrews, Glen K.

    2013-01-01

    Background ZIP5 localizes to the baso-lateral membranes of intestinal enterocytes and pancreatic acinar cells and is internalized and degraded coordinately in these cell-types during periods of dietary zinc deficiency. These cell-types are thought to control zinc excretion from the body. The baso-lateral localization and zinc-regulation of ZIP5 in these cells are unique among the 14 members of the Slc39a family and suggest that ZIP5 plays a role in zinc excretion. Methods/Principal Findings We created mice with floxed Zip5 genes and deleted this gene in the entire mouse or specifically in enterocytes or acinar cells and then examined the effects on zinc homeostasis. We found that ZIP5 is not essential for growth and viability but total knockout of ZIP5 led to increased zinc in the liver in mice fed a zinc-adequate (ZnA) diet but impaired accumulation of pancreatic zinc in mice fed a zinc-excess (ZnE) diet. Loss-of-function of enterocyte ZIP5, in contrast, led to increased pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet and increased abundance of intestinal Zip4 mRNA. Finally, loss-of-function of acinar cell ZIP5 modestly reduced pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet but did not impair zinc uptake as measured by the rapid accumulation of 67zinc. Retention of pancreatic 67zinc was impaired in these mice but the absence of pancreatic ZIP5 sensitized them to zinc-induced pancreatitis and exacerbated the formation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles containing secretory protein in acinar cells. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that ZIP5 participates in the control of zinc excretion in mice. Specifically, they reveal a paramount function of intestinal ZIP5 in zinc excretion but suggest a role for pancreatic ZIP5 in zinc accumulation/retention in acinar cells. ZIP5 functions in acinar cells to protect against zinc-induced acute pancreatitis and attenuate the process of zymophagy. This suggests that it may play a role in autophagy. PMID:24303081

  5. Interaction of zinc with dental mineral.

    PubMed

    Ingram, G S; Horay, C P; Stead, W J

    1992-01-01

    As some currently available toothpastes contain zinc compounds, the reaction of zinc with dental mineral and its effect on crystal growth rates were studied using three synthetic calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites (HAP) as being representative of dental mineral. Zinc was readily acquired by all HAP samples in the absence of added calcium, the amount adsorbed being proportional to the HAP surface area; about 9 mumol Zn/m2 was adsorbed at high zinc concentrations. As zinc was acquired, calcium was released, consistent with 1:1 Ca:Zn exchange. Soluble calcium reduced zinc uptake and similarly, calcium post-treatment released zinc. Pretreatment of HAP with 0.5 mM zinc reduced its subsequent ability to undergo seeded crystal growth, as did extracts of a toothpaste containing 0.5% zinc citrate, even in the presence of saliva. The reverse reaction, i.e. displacement of adsorbed zinc by salivary levels of calcium, however, indicates the mechanism by which zinc can reduce calculus formation in vivo by inhibiting plaque mineralisation without adversely affecting the anti-caries effects of fluoride.

  6. Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

  7. Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2011-01-01

    Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

  8. Association between Maternal Zinc Status, Dietary Zinc Intake and Pregnancy Complications: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rebecca L.; Grieger, Jessica A.; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Roberts, Claire T.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate zinc stores in the body are extremely important during periods of accelerated growth. However, zinc deficiency is common in developing countries and low maternal circulating zinc concentrations have previously been associated with pregnancy complications. We reviewed current literature assessing circulating zinc and dietary zinc intake during pregnancy and the associations with preeclampsia (PE); spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB); low birthweight (LBW); and gestational diabetes (GDM). Searches of MEDLINE; CINAHL and Scopus databases identified 639 articles and 64 studies were reviewed. In 10 out of 16 studies a difference was reported with respect to circulating zinc between women who gave birth to a LBW infant (≤2500 g) and those who gave birth to an infant of adequate weight (>2500 g), particularly in populations where inadequate zinc intake is prevalent. In 16 of our 33 studies an association was found between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and circulating zinc; particularly in women with severe PE (blood pressure ≥160/110 mmHg). No association between maternal zinc status and sPTB or GDM was seen; however; direct comparisons between the studies was difficult. Furthermore; only a small number of studies were based on women from populations where there is a high risk of zinc deficiency. Therefore; the link between maternal zinc status and pregnancy success in these populations cannot be established. Future studies should focus on those vulnerable to zinc deficiency and include dietary zinc intake as a measure of zinc status. PMID:27754451

  9. Effects of serum zinc level on tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Berkiten, Güler; Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Salturk, Ziya; Uyar, Yavuz; Atar, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess zinc levels in tinnitus patients, and to evaluate the effects of zinc deficiency on tinnitus and hearing loss. One-hundred patients, who presented to an outpatient clinic with tinnitus between June 2009 and 2014, were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (patients between 18 and 30years of age); Group II (patients between 31 and 60years of age); and Group III (patients between 61 and 78years of age). Following a complete ear, nose and throat examination, serum zinc levels were measured and the severity of tinnitus was quantified using the Tinnitus Severity Index Questionnaire (TSIQ). Patients were subsequently asked to provide a subjective judgment regarding the loudness of their tinnitus. The hearing status of patients was evaluated by audiometry and high-frequency audiometry. An average hearing sensitivity was calculated as the mean value of hearing thresholds between 250 and 20,000Hz. Serum zinc levels between 70 and 120μg/dl were considered normal. The severity and loudness of tinnitus, and the hearing thresholds of the normal zinc level and zinc-deficient groups, were compared. Twelve of 100 (12%) patients exhibited low zinc levels. The mean age of the zinc-deficient group was 65.41±12.77years. Serum zinc levels were significantly lower in group III (p<0.01). The severity and loudness of tinnitus were greater in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.011 and p=0.015, respectively). Moreover, the mean thresholds of air conduction were significantly higher in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.000). We observed that zinc levels decrease as age increases. In addition, there was a significant correlation between zinc level and the severity and loudness of tinnitus. Zinc deficiency was also associated with impairments in hearing thresholds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Krężel, Artur; Maret, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    The solution and complexation chemistry of zinc ions is the basis for zinc biology. In living organisms, zinc is redox-inert and has only one valence state: Zn(II). Its coordination environment in proteins is limited by oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur donors from the side chains of a few amino acids. In an estimated 10% of all human proteins, zinc has a catalytic or structural function and remains bound during the lifetime of the protein. However, in other proteins zinc ions bind reversibly with dissociation and association rates commensurate with the requirements in regulation, transport, transfer, sensing, signalling, and storage. In contrast to the extensive knowledge about zinc proteins, the coordination chemistry of the "mobile" zinc ions in these processes, i.e. when not bound to proteins, is virtually unexplored and the mechanisms of ligand exchange are poorly understood. Knowledge of the biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions is essential for understanding its cellular biology and for designing complexes that deliver zinc to proteins and chelating agents that remove zinc from proteins, for detecting zinc ion species by qualitative and quantitative analysis, and for proper planning and execution of experiments involving zinc ions and nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO). In most investigations, reference is made to zinc or Zn 2+ without full appreciation of how biological zinc ions are buffered and how the d-block cation Zn 2+ differs from s-block cations such as Ca 2+ with regard to significantly higher affinity for ligands, preference for the donor atoms of ligands, and coordination dynamics. Zinc needs to be tightly controlled. The interaction with low molecular weight ligands such as water and inorganic and organic anions is highly relevant to its biology but in contrast to its coordination in proteins has not been discussed in the biochemical literature. From the discussion in this article, it is becoming evident that zinc ion speciation is

  11. Process for the recycling of alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferella, Francesco; De Michelis, Ida; Vegliò, Francesco

    In this paper a recycling process for the recovery of zinc and manganese from spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries is proposed. Laboratory tests are performed to obtain a purified pregnant solution from which metallic zinc (purity 99.6%) can be recovered by electrolysis; manganese is recovered as a mixture of oxides by roasting of solid residue coming from the leaching stage. Nearly 99% of zinc and 20% of manganese are extracted after 3 h, at 80 °C with 10% w/v pulp density and 1.5 M sulphuric acid concentration. The leach liquor is purified by a selective precipitation of iron, whereas metallic impurities, such as copper, nickel and cadmium are removed by cementation with zinc powder. The solid residue of leaching is roasted for 30 min at 900 °C, removing graphite completely and obtaining a mixture of Mn 3O 4 and Mn 2O 3 with 70% grade of Mn. After that a technical-economic assessment is carried out for a recycling plant with a feed capacity of 5000 t y -1 of only alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries. This analysis shows the economic feasibility of that plant, supposing a battery price surcharge of 0.5 € kg -1, with a return on investment of 34.5%, gross margin of 35.8% and around 3 years payback time.

  12. The effect of zinc injection on the increasing of Inconel 600 TT corrosion resistances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febrianto; Sriyono; Widodo, Surip; Sunaryo, Geni Rina

    2018-02-01

    Many failures were found in reactor pressure vessel head penetration (RPV) head material. Those failures caused by boric acid corrosion, and from visual examination were found a big hole and white deposit crystal of boric acid during shutdown maintenance at David Besse reactor. Zinc Oxide addition in BWR reactor known as Zinc Injection that has purposed to reduce radiation exposure cause of Hydrogen addition. Beside reducing the radiation exposure, Zinc injection also has an effect in reducing material corrosion. The purpose of study is to determine the effect of zinc addition, boric acid, temperature also the effects of Cobalt Nitrate and Zinc Oxide addition to Inconel 600 TT as RPV head penetration material. The result in the BWR reactor experience will be implementated at PWR reactor, weather zinc oxide addition also has an effect in reducing the corrosion of Inconel 600. The method that used in this research is to observe the corrosion rates for Inconel 600 material using Potentiostat. Examination were conducted in 30, 40, 60, 70, 80 and 80 °C using 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 ppm boric acid concentration. The results showed that the corrosion rate for the material were very small, but the highest corrosion rate occurred in 3000 ppm boric acid concentration at 90 °C with Cobalt Nitrate addition, around 5.210 x 10-1 mpy. In the same condition at 3000 ppm boric acid concentration for temperature at 90 °C, Inconel 600 TT corrosion rate is smaller with Zinc oxide addition, around 4.631 x 10-1 mpy.

  13. STS-80 Flight Day 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this second day of the STS-80 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Kenneth D. Cockrell, Pilot Kent V. Rominger, Mission Specialists, Tamara E. Jernigan, Thomas D. Jones, and F. Story Musgrave, complete the first major objective of the mission with the deployment of the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (ORFEUS) on the reusable Shuttle Pallet Satellite. Release of ORFEUS from Columbia's robot arm came at 8 hours 15 minutes mission elapsed time. Three hours after the release, ground controllers inform the crew that the instrument package appears to be working properly. This begins two weeks of gathering data on the origin and makeup of stars.

  14. Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc, a redox inactive metal, has been long viewed as a component of the antioxidant network, and growing evidence points to its involvement in redox-regulated signaling. These actions are exerted through several mechanisms based on the unique chemical and functional properties of zinc. Overall, zinc contributes to maintain the cell redox balance through different mechanisms including: i) the regulation of oxidant production and metal-induced oxidative damage; ii) the dynamic association of zinc with sulfur in protein cysteine clusters, from which the metal can be released by nitric oxide, peroxides, oxidized glutathione and other thiol oxidant species; iii) zinc-mediated induction of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein, which releases the metal under oxidative conditions and act per se scavenging oxidants; iv) the involvement of zinc in the regulation of glutathione metabolism and of the overall protein thiol redox status; and v) a direct or indirect regulation of redox signaling. Findings of oxidative stress, altered redox signaling, and associated cell/tissue disfunction in cell and animal models of zinc deficiency, stress the relevant role of zinc in the preservation of cell redox homeostasis. However, while the participation of zinc in antioxidant protection, redox sensing, and redox-regulated signaling is accepted, the involved molecules, targets and mechanisms are still partially known and the subject of active research. PMID:22960578

  15. Zinc and glutamine improve brain development in suckling mice subjected to early postnatal malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Fernando V L; Ladd, Aliny A B L; Ribeiro, Antônio Augusto C M; Costa, Samuel B C; Coutinho, Bruna P; Feitosa, George André S; de Andrade, Geanne M; de Castro-Costa, Carlos Maurício; Magalhães, Carlos Emanuel C; Castro, Ibraim C; Oliveira, Bruna B; Guerrant, Richard L; Lima, Aldo Angelo M; Oriá, Reinaldo B

    2010-06-01

    The effect of zinc and glutamine on brain development was investigated during the lactation period in Swiss mice. Malnutrition was induced by clustering the litter size from 6-7 pups/dam (nourished control) to 12-14 pups/dam (undernourished control) following birth. Undernourished groups received daily supplementation with glutamine by subcutaneous injections starting at day 2 and continuing until day 14. Glutamine (100 mM, 40-80 microL) was used for morphological and behavioral studies. Zinc acetate was added in the drinking water (500 mg/L) to the lactating dams. Synaptophysin and myelin basic protein brain expressions were evaluated by immunoblot. Zinc serum and brain levels and hippocampal neurotransmitters were also evaluated. Zinc with or without glutamine improved weight gain as compared to untreated, undernourished controls. In addition, zinc supplementation improved cliff avoidance and head position during swim behaviors especially on days 9 and 10. Using design-based stereological methods, we found a significant increase in the volume of CA1 neuronal cells in undernourished control mice, which was not seen in mice receiving zinc or glutamine alone or in combination. Undernourished mice given glutamine showed increased CA1 layer volume as compared with the other groups, consistent with the trend toward increased number of neurons. Brain zinc levels were increased in the nourished and undernourished-glutamine treated mice as compared to the undernourished controls on day 7. Undernourished glutamine-treated mice showed increased hippocampal gamma-aminobutyric acid and synaptophysin levels on day 14. We conclude that glutamine or zinc protects against malnutrition-induced brain developmental impairments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Leaching of Zinc Cathode Melting Furnace Slag in Ammonium Chloride Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnajady, Bahram; Babaeidehkordi, Amin; Moghaddam, Javad

    2014-04-01

    This research is part of a continuing effort to leach zinc from zinc cathode melting furnace slags (ZCMFSs) to produce zinc oxide. The slag with an assay of 68.05 pct Zn was used in ammonium chloride leaching for zinc extraction. In this paper, the effects of influential factors on extraction efficiency of Zn from a ZCMFS were investigated. The Taguchi's method based on orthogonal array (OA) design has been used to arrange the experimental runs in order to maximize zinc extraction from a slag. The softwares named Excel and Design-Expert 7 have been used to design experiments and subsequent analysis. OA L 25 (55) consisting of five parameters, each with five levels, was employed to evaluate the effects of reaction time ( t = 10, 30, 50, 70, 90 minutes), reaction temperature [ T = 313, 323, 333, 343, 353 (40, 50, 60, 70, 80) K (°C)], pulp density ( S/ L = 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 g/L), stirring speed ( R = 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 rpm), and ammonium chloride concentration ( C = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 pctwt), on zinc extraction percent. Statistical analysis, ANOVA, was also employed to determine the relationship between experimental conditions and yield levels. The results showed that the significant parameters affecting leaching of slag were ammonium chloride concentration and pulp density, and increasing pulp density reduced leaching efficiency of zinc. However, increasing ammonium chloride concentration promoted the extraction of zinc. The optimum conditions for this study were found to be t 4: 70 minutes, T 5: 353 K (80 °C), ( S/ L)2: 40 g/L, R 3: 500 rpm, and C 4: 25 pctwt. Under these conditions, the dissolution percentage of Zn in ammonium chloride media was 94.61 pct.

  17. Zinc Regulation of Aminopeptidase B Involved in Neuropeptide Production

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Shin-Rong; Hook, Vivian

    2009-01-01

    Aminopeptidase B (AP-B) is a metallopeptidase that removes basic residues from the N-termini of neuropeptide substrates in secretory vesicles. This study assessed zinc regulation of AP-B activity, since secretory vesicles contain endogenous zinc. AP-B was inhibited by zinc at concentrations typically present in secretory vesicles. Zinc effects were dependent on concentration, incubation time, and the molar ratio of zinc to enzyme. AP-B activity was recovered upon removal of zinc. AP-B with zinc became susceptible to degradation by trypsin, suggesting that zinc alters enzyme conformation. Zinc regulation demonstrates the metallopeptidase property of AP-B. PMID:18571504

  18. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Rosenhoover, William A.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  19. [Zinc and treatment of diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, O

    2006-06-01

    Recently WHO and UNICEF issued a joint statement revising guidelines for clinical management of diarrhoea. These updated recommendations take into account new research findings showing the beneficial effects of oral rehydration salts (ORS) containing lower concentrations of glucose and salts and of zinc supplementation. In combination with prevention and treatment of dehydration with appropriate fluids, breastfeeding, continued feeding and selective use of antibiotics, these two advances can drastically diminish the number of child deaths by reducing the duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes and lowering their incidence. The purpose of this report is to present the research findings that demonstrated the efficacy of zinc supplementation in the management of diarrhoea and led to revision of WHO/UNCEF guidelines.

  20. Involvement of l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in anxiolytic-like effects of zinc chloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Navabi, Seyedeh Parisa; Eshagh Harooni, Hooman; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Khajepour, Lotfolah; Fathinia, Kosar

    2016-10-01

    Zinc is crucial for normal development of the brain, and Zinc deficiency has been shown to associate with neurological disorders (e.g. anxiety) through interactions with several neurotransmitter systems such as nitric oxide (NO). In this regard, our study aimed to evaluate the possible involvement of l-arginine NO pathway on anxiolytic effects of zinc in adult male rats. Zinc chloride at doses of 2.5 and 10mg/kg (intraperitoneal or ip) or saline (1ml/kg, ip) were injected 30min before the anxiety test. Zinc administrated rats (10mg/kg) were pre-treated with intra-CA1 microinjection of l-arginine in sub-effective dose of 1μg/rat (dorsal hippocampus, vehicle: saline1μl/rat). In addition, zinc chloride and NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) were intraperitoneally co-administrated in sub-effective doses of 2.5mg/kg and 80mg/kg, respectively. The percentage of open arm time (OAT%), percentage of open arm entry (OAE%), as measures of anxiety, and total number of arm entries, as measures of locomotor activity, were recorded. Treatment with zinc (10mg/kg) markedly produced an increase in OAT% and OAE% in the Elevated plus maze test (EPM). A decrease of OAT% and OAE% was shown in groups which received zinc (10mg/kg) and l-arginine (1μg/rat) concomitantly as compared to the control group. Moreover, an increase of OAE% was revealed in the group exposed to Zinc (2.5mg/kg) and l-NAME (80mg/kg) co-administration. Although, Two-way ANOVA showed no significant differences of anxiety indices in rats received drug+zinc chloride in compare to the zinc pretreated with saline group. Anxiolytic- like effect of zinc reversed by nitric oxide precursor l-arginine. Additionally, the synergistic effects of l-NAME and ZnCl 2 were shown in the EPM. Thus our findings suggest that at least in part the anxiolytic effects of zinc can be mediated through the nitric oxide system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Zinc and its transporters, pancreatic beta cells, and insulin metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc is an essential trace metal for life. Two families of zinc transporters, SLC30A (ZnT) and SLC39A (ZIP) are required for maintaining cellular zinc homeostasis. ZnTs function to decrease cytoplasmic zinc concentrations whereas ZIPs do the opposite. Expression of zinc transporters can be tissue/ce...

  2. Zinc in Cellular Regulation: The Nature and Significance of "Zinc Signals".

    PubMed

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-10-31

    In the last decade, we witnessed discoveries that established Zn 2+ as a second major signalling metal ion in the transmission of information within cells and in communication between cells. Together with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ covers biological regulation with redox-inert metal ions over many orders of magnitude in concentrations. The regulatory functions of zinc ions, together with their functions as a cofactor in about three thousand zinc metalloproteins, impact virtually all aspects of cell biology. This article attempts to define the regulatory functions of zinc ions, and focuses on the nature of zinc signals and zinc signalling in pathways where zinc ions are either extracellular stimuli or intracellular messengers. These pathways interact with Ca 2+ , redox, and phosphorylation signalling. The regulatory functions of zinc require a complex system of precise homeostatic control for transients, subcellular distribution and traffic, organellar homeostasis, and vesicular storage and exocytosis of zinc ions.

  3. Zinc and Wound Healing: A Review of Zinc Physiology and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Samuel; Sood, Aditya; Garnick, Mark S

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of the role of zinc in normal human physiology is constantly expanding, yet there are major gaps in our knowledge with regard to the function of zinc in wound healing. This review aims to provide the clinician with sufficient understanding of zinc biology and an up-to-date perspective on the role of zinc in wound healing. Zinc is an essential ion that is crucial for maintenance of normal physiology, and zinc deficiency has many manifestations ranging from delayed wound healing to immune dysfunction and impairment of multiple sensory systems. While consensus has been reached regarding the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency on wound healing, there is considerable discord in the literature on the optimal methods and true benefits of zinc supplementation.

  4. Zinc pharmacokinetic parameters in the determination of body zinc status in children.

    PubMed

    Vale, S H L; Leite, L D; Alves, C X; Dantas, M M G; Costa, J B S; Marchini, J S; França, M C; Brandão-Neto, J

    2014-02-01

    Serum or tissue zinc concentrations are often used to assess body zinc status. However, all of these methods are relatively inaccurate. Thus, we investigated three different kinetic methods for the determination of zinc clearance to establish which of these could detect small changes in the body zinc status of children. Forty apparently healthy children were studied. Renal handling of zinc was investigated during intravenous zinc administration (0.06537 mg Zn/kg of body weight), both before and after oral zinc supplementation (5 mg Zn/day for 3 months). Three kinetic methods were used to determine zinc clearance: CZn-Formula A and CZn-Formula B were both used to calculate systemic clearance; the first is a general formula and the second is used for the specific analysis of a single-compartment model; CZn-Formula C is widely used in medical practices to analyze kinetic routine. Basal serum zinc values, which were within the reference range for healthy children, increased significantly after oral zinc supplementation. The three formulas used gave different results for zinc clearance both before and after oral zinc supplementation. CZn-Formula B showed a positive correlation with basal serum zinc concentration after oral supplementation (R2=0.1172, P=0.0306). In addition, CZn-Formula B (P=0.0002) was more effective than CZn-Formula A (P=0.6028) and CZn-Formula C (P=0.0732) in detecting small variations in body zinc status. All three of the formulas used are suitable for studying zinc kinetics; however, CZn-Formula B is particularly effective at detecting small changes in body zinc status in healthy children.

  5. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  6. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  8. Zinc alloy enhances strength and creep resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Machler, M.

    1996-10-01

    A family of high-performance ternary zinc-copper-aluminum alloys has been developed that provides higher strength, hardness, and creep resistance than the traditional zinc-aluminum alloys Zamak 3, Zamak 5, and ZA-8. Designated ACuZinc, mechanical properties comparable to those of more expensive materials make it suitable for high-load applications and those at elevated temperatures. This article describes the alloy`s composition, properties, and historical development.

  9. Directed spatial organization of zinc oxide nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Julia [Albuquerque, NM; Liu, Jun [Richland, WA

    2009-02-17

    A method for controllably forming zinc oxide nanostructures on a surface via an organic template, which is formed using a stamp prepared from pre-defined relief structures, inking the stamp with a solution comprising self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecules, contacting the stamp to the surface, such as Ag sputtered on Si, and immersing the surface with the patterned SAM molecules with a zinc-containing solution with pH control to form zinc oxide nanostructures on the bare Ag surface.

  10. Bronze Alloy Development for Zinc Vapor Capture

    DOE PAGES

    Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-04-24

    After gamma-emitting 65Zinc was detected in a vacuum pumping system contained in a tritium glovebox, a series of experiments were undertaken to develop a method and material to trap zinc vapors in an area that is more suitable for preventing dose to workers. In this study, bronze alloys with 0–30% tin were prepared using a powder metallurgical process and exposed to three levels of zinc vapors. Furthermore, all of the alloys demonstrated acceptable zinc gettering capacity; however, low tin content bronzes are considered for further testing.

  11. Status of zinc injection in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, C.A.

    1995-03-01

    Based on laboratory and other studies, it was concluded that zinc addition in a PWR primary coolant should result in reduced Alloy 600 PWSCC and general corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Because of these positive results, a Westinghouse Owner`s Subgroup, EPRI, and Westinghouse provided funds to continue the development and application of zinc in an operating plant. As part of the program, Southern Operating Nuclear Company agreed to operate the Farley 2 plant with zinc addition as a demonstration test of the effectiveness of zinc. Since zinc is incorporated in the corrosion oxide film on the primary systemmore » surfaces and Farley 2 is a mature plant, it was estimated that about 10 kgs of zinc would be needed to condition the plant before an equilibrium value in the coolant would be reached. The engineered aspects of a Zinc Addition and Monitoring System (ZAMS) considered such items as the constitutents, location, sizing and water supply of the ZAMS. Baseline data such as the PWSCC history of the Alloy 600 steam generator tubing, fuel oxide thickness, fuel crud deposits, radiation levels, and RCP seal leak-off rates were obtained before zinc addition is initiated. This presentation summarizes some of the work performed under the program, and the status of zinc injection in the Farley 2 plant.« less

  12. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating effects, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes have consistently shown a limited benefit. We hypothesize, therefore, that zinc homeostatic adjustments during pregnancy and lactation improve zinc utilization sufficiently to provide the increased zinc needs in these stages and, therefore, mitigate immediate detrimental effects due to a low zinc intake. The specific questions addressed are the following: How is zinc utilization altered during pregnancy and lactation? Are those homeostatic adjustments influenced by maternal zinc status, dietary zinc, or zinc supplementation? These questions are addressed by critically reviewing results from published human studies on zinc homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation carried out in different populations worldwide. PMID:22852063

  13. Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

    2014-12-01

    Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

  14. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional information. 80.7 Section 80.7... § 80.7 Additional information. If an issuer's or domestic concern's submission does not contain all of the information required by § 80.6, the Department of Justice may request whatever additional...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1103 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 80.1103 Section 80.1103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES... for Ship Stations § 80.1103 Equipment authorization. (a) All equipment specified in § 80.1101 must be...

  16. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7): (1...

  17. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7): (1...

  18. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7): (1...

  19. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this part...

  20. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this part...

  1. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this part...

  2. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this part...

  3. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this part...

  4. Bioavailability of zinc from defatted soy flour, soy hulls and whole eggs as determined by intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Meyer, N R; Stuart, M A; Weaver, C M

    1983-06-01

    Bioavailability of zinc from diets prepared from intrinsically and extrinsically labeled autoclaved, defatted soy flour and scrambled, freeze-dried egg was investigated in male rats marginally depleted in zinc. In one study, retention of zinc from intrinsically labeled soybean flour (73%) was significantly less than from 65ZnCl2 extrinsically added to a soy flour-based diet (80%). Zinc from intrinsically labeled soybean hulls and from soy flour diets containing 10% soybean hulls extrinsically labeled with 65ZnCl2 was as available as the zinc from the extrinsically labeled soy flour diet. In a second study, extrinsic and intrinsic labeling techniques gave a similar assessment of bioavailability of zinc from egg- and soy flour-based diets when extrinsic labeling was accomplished by thoroughly mixing 65ZnCl2 with the protein source prior to incorporation into the diet. Absorption of 65Zn was greater from egg diets than from soy flour diets and of intermediate value from mixed soy flour and egg (50:50, wt/wt) diets regardless of which protein source was labeled, indicating that the zinc entered a common pool.

  5. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in patients with thalassemia in South East of iran, sistan and baluchistan province.

    PubMed

    Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Sepehri, Zahra; Heidari, Zahra; Shirzaee, Eghbal; Kiani, Zohre

    2014-08-01

    There are different and controversial reports about zinc deficiency in patients with major thalassemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status in patients with major thalassemia in Sistan and Baluchistan province, southeastern Iran. The study was performed in Ali Asghar Hospital, a specialized governmental hospital located in Zahedan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 369 patients with a history of major thalassemia for more than 5 years entered the study using convenience sampling method. Thirty-six subjects were excluded from the study based on our exclusion criteria. Zinc level was measured in all patients after 12 hours fasting using atomic absorption spectrometry method in 2012. Of 369 cases, 333 patients were eligible and evaluated. The mean age was 15.63 ± 7.4 years. One hundred ninety two cases were male and others were female (141 cases). About 27% (90) of the cases were 5-10 years-old, 24% (80) were 10-15 years-old and 49% were older than 15 years old. Iron chelator in 65.46% was Desferrioxamine, in 28.2% was Deferasirox and in 19.5% was combination of Desferrioxamine and Deferiprone. All cases had zinc deficiency, and 98.5% had severe zinc deficiency. Others (1.5%) had mild deficiency. Our study on 333 patients with major thalassemia documented severe zinc deficiency in all cases. We had no cases with normal or increased zinc levels. It was different with other reports in the world.

  6. Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoxing; Mühlenbernd, Holger; Kenney, Mitchell; Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-04-01

    Surfaces covered by ultrathin plasmonic structures--so-called metasurfaces--have recently been shown to be capable of completely controlling the phase of light, representing a new paradigm for the design of innovative optical elements such as ultrathin flat lenses, directional couplers for surface plasmon polaritons and wave plate vortex beam generation. Among the various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurfaces, which consist of an array of plasmonic nanorods with spatially varying orientations, have shown superior phase control due to the geometric nature of their phase profile. Metasurfaces have recently been used to make computer-generated holograms, but the hologram efficiency remained too low at visible wavelengths for practical purposes. Here, we report the design and realization of a geometric metasurface hologram reaching diffraction efficiencies of 80% at 825 nm and a broad bandwidth between 630 nm and 1,050 nm. The 16-level-phase computer-generated hologram demonstrated here combines the advantages of a geometric metasurface for the superior control of the phase profile and of reflectarrays for achieving high polarization conversion efficiency. Specifically, the design of the hologram integrates a ground metal plane with a geometric metasurface that enhances the conversion efficiency between the two circular polarization states, leading to high diffraction efficiency without complicating the fabrication process. Because of these advantages, our strategy could be viable for various practical holographic applications.

  7. Effect of Zinc Coatings on Joint Properties and Interfacial Reactions in Aluminum to Steel Ultrasonic Spot Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, F.; Strong, D.; Prangnell, P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Dissimilar joining of aluminum to steel sheet in multimaterial automotive structures is an important potential application of ultrasonic spot welding (USW). Here, the weldability of different zinc-coated steels with aluminum is discussed, using a 2.5-kW USW welder. Results show that soft hot-dipped zinc (DX56-Z)-coated steel results in better weld performance than hard (galv-annealed) zinc coatings (DX53-ZF). For Al to hard galv-annealed-coated steel welds, lap shear strengths reached a maximum of ~80% of the strength of an Al-Al joint after a 1.0 s welding time. In comparison, welds between Al6111-T4 and hot dipped soft zinc-coated steel took longer to achieve the same maximum strength, but nearly matched the Al-Al joint properties. The reasons for these different behaviors are discussed in terms of the interfacial reactions between the weld members.

  8. Systematic review of zinc fortification trials.

    PubMed

    Das, Jai K; Kumar, Rohail; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements required by the human body as it is present in more than a hundred specific enzymes and serves as an important structural ion in transcription factors. Around one third of the world population lives in countries with a high prevalence of zinc deficiency. Food fortification with zinc seems to be an attractive public health strategy and a number of programs have been initiated, especially in developing countries. We conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy of zinc fortification. A total of 11 studies with 771 participants were included in our analysis. Zinc fortification was associated with significant improvements in plasma zinc concentrations [standard mean difference (SMD) 1.28, 95% CI 0.56, 2.01] which is a functional indicator of zinc status. Significant improvement was observed for height velocity (SMD 0.52, 95% CI 0.01, 1.04); however, this finding was weak and based on a restricted analysis. Further subgroup analysis showed significant improvement in height velocity among very-low-birth-weight infants (SMD 0.70, 95% CI 0.02, 1.37), while for healthy newborns, the impact was insignificant. Zinc fortification had insignificant impacts on serum alkaline levels, serum copper levels, hemoglobin and weight gain. Although the findings highlight that zinc fortification is associated with an increased serum concentration of the micronutrient, overall evidence of the effectiveness of this approach is limited. Data on pregnant and lactating women is scarce. Large-scale fortification programs with robust impact assessment should be initiated to cover larger populations in all age groups. Mass fortification of zinc may be a cost-effective strategy to overcome zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Functional studies of Drosophila zinc transporters reveal the mechanism for dietary zinc absorption and regulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zinc is key to the function of many proteins, but the process of dietary zinc absorption is not well clarified. Current knowledge about dietary zinc absorption is fragmented, and mostly derives from incomplete mammalian studies. To gain a comprehensive picture of this process, we systematically characterized all zinc transporters (that is, the Zip and ZnT family members) for their possible roles in dietary zinc absorption in a genetically amenable model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Results A set of plasma membrane-resident zinc transporters was identified to be responsible for absorbing zinc from the lumen into the enterocyte and the subsequent exit of zinc to the circulation. dZip1 and dZip2, two functionally overlapping zinc importers, are responsible for absorbing zinc from the lumen into the enterocyte. Exit of zinc to the circulation is mediated through another two functionally overlapping zinc exporters, dZnT1, and its homolog CG5130 (dZnT77C). Somewhat surprisingly, it appears that the array of intracellular ZnT proteins, including the Golgi-resident dZnT7, is not directly involved in dietary zinc absorption. By modulating zinc status in different parts of the body, we found that regulation of dietary zinc absorption, in contrast to that of iron, is unresponsive to bodily needs or zinc status outside the gut. The zinc transporters that are involved in dietary zinc absorption, including the importers dZip1 and dZip2, and the exporter dZnT1, are respectively regulated at the RNA and protein levels by zinc in the enterocyte. Conclusions Our study using the model organism Drosophila thus starts to reveal a comprehensive sketch of dietary zinc absorption and its regulatory control, a process that is still incompletely understood in mammalian organisms. The knowledge gained will act as a reference for future mammalian studies, and also enable an appreciation of this important process from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:24063361

  10. Driving Along the Zinc Road.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Robert J

    2016-07-17

    After having written hundreds of research articles, reviews, and book chapters, I find it awkward to pen an autobiography. I still do use a pen. As stated by others in the nutrition field who have written of their own experiences in a perspective article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, my course through this field of science has been serendipitous. My interest in nutrition developed during my experiences with horses and then Angus cattle and entry into an animal science degree program. As the age of molecular biology was unfolding, I pursued a PhD in nutritional biochemistry with Hamilton Eaton at the University of Connecticut followed by postdoctoral work with Hector DeLuca at the University of Wisconsin, working on vitamins A and D, respectively. At Rutgers University, one of the two institutions where I have served on the faculty, I started my research program on trace elements with a focus on cadmium toxicity but soon thereafter began my research on zinc metabolism and function. I moved to the University of Florida in 1982 for an endowed position and have been a Florida Gator ever since. At the University of Florida, research expanded to include identification of zinc-responsive genes and physiological outcomes of zinc transport influencing health and disease, particularly as related to inflammation. I had the opportunity to contribute national science policy as president of both the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology and the American Society for Nutrition. As the time of this writing, I maintain an active laboratory.

  11. Measurements of zinc absorption: application and interpretation in research designed to improve human zinc nutriture.

    PubMed

    Hambidge, K Michael; Miller, Leland V; Tran, Cuong D; Krebs, Nancy F

    2005-11-01

    The focus of this paper is on the application of measurements of zinc absorption in human research, especially studies designed to assess the efficacy of intervention strategies to prevent and manage zinc deficiency in populations. Emphasis is given to the measurement of quantities of zinc absorbed rather than restricting investigations to measurements of fractional absorption of zinc. This is especially important when determining absorption of zinc from the diet, whether it be the habitual diet or an intervention diet under evaluation. Moreover, measurements should encompass all meals for a minimum of one day with the exception of some pilot studies. Zinc absorption is primarily via an active saturable transport process into the enterocytes of the proximal small intestine. The relationship between quantity of zinc absorbed and the quantity ingested is best characterized by saturable binding models. When applied to human studies that have sufficient data to examine dose-response relationships, efficiency of absorption is high until approximately 50-60% maximal absorption is achieved, even with moderate phytate intakes. This also coincides approximately with the quantity of absorbed zinc necessary to meet physiologic requirements. Efficiency of absorption with intakes that exceed this level is low or very low. These observations have important practical implications for the design and interpretation of intervention studies to prevent zinc deficiency. They also suggest the potential utility of measurements of the quantity of zinc absorbed when evaluating the zinc status of populations.

  12. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  13. New Insights into the Role of Zinc Acquisition and Zinc Tolerance in Group A Streptococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    Ong, Cheryl-Lynn Y; Berking, Olga; Walker, Mark J; McEwan, Alastair G

    2018-06-01

    Zinc plays an important role in host innate immune function. However, the innate immune system also utilizes zinc starvation ("nutritional immunity") to combat infections. Here, we investigate the role of zinc import and export in the protection of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus ; GAS), a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of human diseases, against challenge from host innate immune defense. In order to determine the role of GAS zinc import and export during infection, we utilized zinc import (Δ adcA Δ adcAII ) and export (Δ czcD ) deletion mutants in competition with the wild type in both in vitro and in vivo virulence models. We demonstrate that nutritional immunity is deployed extracellularly, while zinc toxicity is utilized upon phagocytosis of GAS by neutrophils. We also show that lysosomes and azurophilic granules in neutrophils contain zinc stores for use against intracellular pathogens. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications. Zinc oxide shall conform to the following...

  15. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.1991...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a...

  1. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a...

  4. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product....

  7. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product....

  9. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product....

  11. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product....

  13. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product....

  14. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  15. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The... (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Zinc oxide may be safely used in cosmetics, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice...

  16. Tracing of Zinc Nanocrystals in the Anterior Pituitary of Zinc-Deficient Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kuldeep, Anjana; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to trace zinc nanocrystals in the anterior pituitary of zinc-deficient Wistar rats by using autometallographic technique. Male Wistar rats (30-40 days of age, pre-pubertal period) of 40-50 g body weight were divided into the following: the ZC (zinc control) group-fed with 100 ppm zinc in diet, the ZD (zinc-deficient) group-fed with zinc-deficient (1.00 ppm) diet and the PF (pair-fed) group-received 100 ppm zinc in diet. The experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. Pituitary was removed and processed for the autometallographic technique. The control and pair-fed groups retained their normal morphological features. However, male Wistar rats fed on zinc-deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks displayed a wide range of symptoms such as significant (P < 0.05) decrease in diet consumption, body weight and pituitary weight and decrease in gradation of intensity of zinc nanocrystals in the nuclei. The present findings suggest that the dietary zinc deficiency causes decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals localization and their distribution in the pituitary thereby contributing to the dysfunction of the pituitary of the male Wistar rats. The severity of zinc deficiency symptoms progressed after the second week of the experiment. Decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals attenuates the pituitary function which would exert its affect on other endocrine organs impairing their functions indicating that the metabolic regulation of pituitary is mediated to a certain extent by zinc and/or hypothalamus-hypophysial system which also reflects its essentiality during the period of growth.

  17. Zinc-containing yeast extract promotes nonrapid eye movement sleep in mice.

    PubMed

    Cherasse, Yoan; Saito, Hitomi; Nagata, Nanae; Aritake, Kosuke; Lazarus, Michael; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2015-10-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for humans and animals, being located, among other places, in the synaptic vesicles of cortical glutamatergic neurons and hippocampal mossy fibers in the brain. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate and GABA receptors. Because of the central role of these neurotransmitters in brain activity, we examined in this study the sleep-promoting activity of zinc by monitoring locomotor activity and electroencephalogram after its administration to mice. Zinc-containing yeast extract (40 and 80 mg/kg) dose dependently increased the total amount of nonrapid eye movement sleep and decreased the locomotor activity. However, this preparation did not change the amount of rapid eye movement sleep or show any adverse effects such as rebound of insomnia during a period of 24 h following the induction of sleep; whereas the extracts containing other divalent cations (manganese, iron, and copper) did not decrease the locomotor activity. This is the first evidence that zinc can induce sleep. Our data open the way to new types of food supplements designed to improve sleep. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-07

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  19. 47 CFR 80.919 - Required capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 3 hours under normal working conditions. ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required capacity. 80.919 Section 80.919 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE...

  20. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Balraj

    2005-06-01

    Nuclear spectroscopic information for known nuclides of mass number 80 (Cu,Zn,Ga,Ge,As,Se,Br,Kr,Rb,Sr,Y,Zr) with Z = 29 to 40 and N = 51 to 40 have been evaluated and presented together with adopted energies and Jπ of levels in these nuclei. No excited state data are yet available for 80Cu and 80Zn. In 80Sr, four superdeformed bands have been reported. The half-life of fully-ionized 80Y isomer at 228.5 keV has been measured as 6.8 s 5, as compared to 4.8 s 3 for the neutral atom. This evaluation supersedes previous full evaluations of A = 80 published by 1982Si20 and 1975Gr19, a midstream evaluation of A = 80 published in 'up-date mode' by 1992Si19, and an update of 80Y nuclide for ENSDF by J.K. Tuli in August 2003.

  1. 47 CFR 80.929 - Nameplate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nameplate. 80.929 Section 80.929 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... manufacturer and the type or model number. ...

  2. 40 CFR 97.80 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 97.80 Section 97.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.80...

  3. 9 CFR 2.80 - Records, disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records, disposition. 2.80 Section 2.80 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.80 Records, disposition. (a) No dealer, exhibitor, broker...

  4. 9 CFR 592.80 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Political activity. 592.80 Section 592.80 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Performance of Services § 592.80 Political activity. All inspection program personnel are...

  5. 9 CFR 592.80 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political activity. 592.80 Section 592.80 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Performance of Services § 592.80 Political...

  6. 9 CFR 592.80 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Political activity. 592.80 Section 592.80 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Performance of Services § 592.80 Political activity. All inspection program personnel are...

  7. 9 CFR 592.80 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Political activity. 592.80 Section 592.80 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Performance of Services § 592.80 Political activity. All inspection program personnel are...

  8. 9 CFR 592.80 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Political activity. 592.80 Section 592.80 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Performance of Services § 592.80 Political activity. All inspection program personnel are...

  9. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within OFHEO's...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1075 - Radio records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio records. 80.1075 Section 80.1075 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1075 Radio...

  11. 47 CFR 80.858 - Radiotelephone receiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiotelephone receiver. 80.858 Section 80.858 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Technical Equipment Requirements for Cargo Vessels Not Subject to Subpart W § 80.858...

  12. 47 CFR 80.861 - Required capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required capacity. 80.861 Section 80.861 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Technical Equipment Requirements for Cargo Vessels Not Subject to Subpart W § 80.861...

  13. 47 CFR 80.211 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission limitations. 80.211 Section 80.211... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.211 Emission limitations. The emissions must be attenuated according to the following schedule. (a) The mean power when using emissions H3E, J3E and R3E: (1...

  14. 9 CFR 2.80 - Records, disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records, disposition. 2.80 Section 2.80 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.80 Records, disposition. (a) No dealer, exhibitor, broker...

  15. 9 CFR 2.80 - Records, disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records, disposition. 2.80 Section 2.80 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.80 Records, disposition. (a) No dealer, exhibitor, broker...

  16. 9 CFR 2.80 - Records, disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records, disposition. 2.80 Section 2.80 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.80 Records, disposition. (a) No dealer, exhibitor, broker...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1015 - Power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power supply. 80.1015 Section 80.1015... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1015 Power supply. (a) There must be readily available for use under normal load conditions, a power supply sufficient...

  18. 47 CFR 80.1015 - Power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power supply. 80.1015 Section 80.1015... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1015 Power supply. (a) There must be readily available for use under normal load conditions, a power supply sufficient...

  19. 29 CFR 1919.80 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.80 Section 1919.80 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.80 Heat treatment. (a) Wherever heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out in...

  20. 29 CFR 1919.80 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.80 Section 1919.80 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.80 Heat treatment. (a) Wherever heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out in...

  1. 29 CFR 1919.80 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.80 Section 1919.80 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.80 Heat treatment. (a) Wherever heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out in...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1252 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated entities. 80.1252 Section 80.1252... MARITIME SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures § 80.1252 Designated entities. (a) This section addresses certain issues concerning designated entities in maritime communications services subject to competitive...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1252 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designated entities. 80.1252 Section 80.1252... MARITIME SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures § 80.1252 Designated entities. (a) This section addresses certain issues concerning designated entities in maritime communications services subject to competitive...

  4. 40 CFR 80.167 - Confirmatory testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.167 Confirmatory testing. EPA may test a... entail a single vehicle test using the procedures detailed in § 80.165. The test fuel(s) used in... minimum levels specified in § 80.164, and will otherwise conform to the applicable certification test fuel...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1065 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability. 80.1065 Section 80.1065 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1065...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1065 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability. 80.1065 Section 80.1065 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1065...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1075 - Radio records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio records. 80.1075 Section 80.1075 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1075 Radio...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1075 - Radio records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio records. 80.1075 Section 80.1075 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1075 Radio...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1075 - Radio records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio records. 80.1075 Section 80.1075 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1075 Radio...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1071 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exemptions. 80.1071 Section 80.1071 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1071...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1071 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exemptions. 80.1071 Section 80.1071 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1071...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1071 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exemptions. 80.1071 Section 80.1071 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1071...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1065 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability. 80.1065 Section 80.1065 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1065...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1071 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemptions. 80.1071 Section 80.1071 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1071...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1065 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 80.1065 Section 80.1065 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1065...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1071 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exemptions. 80.1071 Section 80.1071 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1071...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1075 - Radio records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio records. 80.1075 Section 80.1075 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1075 Radio...

  18. 40 CFR 80.300 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.300 Section 80.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Abt Program-Baseline Determination § 80.300 [Reserved] ABT...

  19. 42 CFR 408.80 - Basic rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic rules. 408.80 Section 408.80 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Direct Remittance: Group Payment § 408.80 Basic rules. (a...

  20. 34 CFR 80.11 - State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State plans. 80.11 Section 80.11 Education Office of... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Pre-Award Requirements § 80.11 State plans. (a) Scope. The statutes for some programs require States to submit plans before receiving grants. Under regulations...

  1. 34 CFR 80.41 - Financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial reporting. 80.41 Section 80.41 Education... Enforcement § 80.41 Financial reporting. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) (2) and (5) of...) Submitting financial reports to Federal agencies, or (ii) Requesting advances or reimbursements when letters...

  2. 15 CFR 80.1 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General requirements. 80.1 Section 80.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.1 General...

  3. 15 CFR 80.1 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General requirements. 80.1 Section 80.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.1 General...

  4. 15 CFR 80.1 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General requirements. 80.1 Section 80.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.1 General...

  5. 40 CFR 262.80 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 262.80 Section 262.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transfrontier Shipments of Hazardous Waste for Recovery within the OECD § 262.80 Applicability. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part. [47...

  7. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part. [47...

  8. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part. [47...

  9. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part. [47...

  10. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part. [47...

  11. 29 CFR 1919.80 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.80 Section 1919.80 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.80 Heat treatment. (a) Wherever heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out in...

  12. 49 CFR 80.15 - Selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection criteria. 80.15 Section 80.15... § 80.15 Selection criteria. (a) The Secretary shall assign weights as indicated to the following eight selection criteria in evaluating and selecting among eligible projects to receive credit assistance: (1) The...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1081 - Functional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Functional requirements. 80.1081 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1081 Functional requirements. Ships, while at sea, must be capable: (a) Except...

  14. 40 CFR 80.300 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.300 Section 80.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Abt Program-Baseline Determination § 80.300 [Reserved] ABT...

  15. 40 CFR 80.300 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.300 Section 80.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Abt Program-Baseline Determination § 80.300 [Reserved] ABT...

  16. 9 CFR 80.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 80.1 Section 80.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.1...

  17. 9 CFR 80.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 80.1 Section 80.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.1...

  18. 9 CFR 80.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 80.1 Section 80.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.1...

  19. 9 CFR 80.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 80.1 Section 80.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.1...

  20. 9 CFR 80.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 80.1 Section 80.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.1...

  1. 34 CFR 80.30 - Changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes. 80.30 Section 80.30 Education Office of the... TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 80.30 Changes. (a) General. Grantees and subgrantees are permitted to rebudget within the approved direct cost...

  2. 12 CFR 41.80-81 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 41.80-81 Section 41.80-81 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 41.80-81 [Reserved] ...

  3. 15 CFR 80.1 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements. 80.1 Section 80.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.1 General...

  4. 20 CFR 632.80 - Other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other activities. 632.80 Section 632.80 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.80 Other activities. (a) General. Native...

  5. 40 CFR 80.105 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lesser than the applicable standard; (I) The applicable T90 distillation point standard under § 80.101(b)(1)(iv) in degrees Fahrenheit; (J) The average T90 distillation point under § 80.101(g) in degrees Fahrenheit; and (K) The difference between the applicable T90 distillation point standard under § 80.101(b)(1...

  6. 40 CFR 80.105 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lesser than the applicable standard; (I) The applicable T90 distillation point standard under § 80.101(b)(1)(iv) in degrees Fahrenheit; (J) The average T90 distillation point under § 80.101(g) in degrees Fahrenheit; and (K) The difference between the applicable T90 distillation point standard under § 80.101(b)(1...

  7. 40 CFR 80.105 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lesser than the applicable standard; (I) The applicable T90 distillation point standard under § 80.101(b)(1)(iv) in degrees Fahrenheit; (J) The average T90 distillation point under § 80.101(g) in degrees Fahrenheit; and (K) The difference between the applicable T90 distillation point standard under § 80.101(b)(1...

  8. 40 CFR 80.105 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lesser than the applicable standard; (I) The applicable T90 distillation point standard under § 80.101(b)(1)(iv) in degrees Fahrenheit; (J) The average T90 distillation point under § 80.101(g) in degrees Fahrenheit; and (K) The difference between the applicable T90 distillation point standard under § 80.101(b)(1...

  9. 47 CFR 80.911 - VHF transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false VHF transmitter. 80.911 Section 80.911 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.911 VHF...

  10. 47 CFR 80.911 - VHF transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false VHF transmitter. 80.911 Section 80.911 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.911 VHF...

  11. 47 CFR 80.911 - VHF transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false VHF transmitter. 80.911 Section 80.911 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.911 VHF...

  12. 47 CFR 80.911 - VHF transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false VHF transmitter. 80.911 Section 80.911 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.911 VHF...

  13. 46 CFR 133.80 - Emergency instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency instructions. 133.80 Section 133.80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.80 Emergency instructions. (a) General. Copies of clear instructions must be...

  14. 46 CFR 133.80 - Emergency instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency instructions. 133.80 Section 133.80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.80 Emergency instructions. (a) General. Copies of clear instructions must be...

  15. 45 CFR 80.6 - Compliance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance information. 80.6 Section 80.6 Public... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 80.6 Compliance information. (a) Cooperation and assistance. The... reports at such times, and in such form and containing such information, as the responsible Department...

  16. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units is...

  17. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units is...

  18. 47 CFR 80.769 - Shadow loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shadow loss. 80.769 Section 80.769... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.769 Shadow loss. Where the transmission path is obstructed the received signal must be adjusted to include shadow loss. Attenuation due to...

  19. 41 CFR 60-250.80 - Recordkeeping

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Recordkeeping 60-250.80 Section 60-250.80 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... Ancillary Matters § 60-250.80 Recordkeeping (a) General requirements. Any personnel or employment record...

  20. 27 CFR 4.80 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 4.80 Section 4.80... TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE General Provisions § 4.80 Exports. The regulations in this part shall not apply to wine exported in bond. ...

  1. 47 CFR 80.96 - Maintenance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maintenance tests. 80.96 Section 80.96 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures-General § 80.96 Maintenance tests. Stations are authorized to...

  2. 50 CFR 17.80 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 17.80 Section 17.80 Wildlife... (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Experimental Populations § 17.80 Definitions. (a...., fixed migration patterns, natural or man-made barriers. A population is not treated as experimental if...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installations...

  4. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable on...

  5. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable on...

  6. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable on...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installations...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installations...

  9. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable on...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installations...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installations...

  12. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable on...

  13. 28 CFR 65.80 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General. 65.80 Section 65.80 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTANCE Immigration Emergency Fund § 65.80 General. The regulations of this subpart set forth procedures for implementing...

  14. 28 CFR 65.80 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General. 65.80 Section 65.80 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTANCE Immigration Emergency Fund § 65.80 General. The regulations of this subpart set forth procedures for implementing...

  15. 28 CFR 65.80 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General. 65.80 Section 65.80 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTANCE Immigration Emergency Fund § 65.80 General. The regulations of this subpart set forth procedures for implementing...

  16. 28 CFR 65.80 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General. 65.80 Section 65.80 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTANCE Immigration Emergency Fund § 65.80 General. The regulations of this subpart set forth procedures for implementing...

  17. 28 CFR 80.12 - Accounting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting requirements. 80.12 Section 80... PROCEDURE § 80.12 Accounting requirements. Neither the submission of a request for an FCPA Opinion, its... comply with the accounting requirements of 15 U.S.C. 78m(b)(2) and (3). ...

  18. 47 CFR 80.1181 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station identification. 80.1181 Section 80.1181 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations On-Board Communications § 80.1181 Station identification...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1181 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station identification. 80.1181 Section 80.1181 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations On-Board Communications § 80.1181 Station identification...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1181 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 80.1181 Section 80.1181 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations On-Board Communications § 80.1181 Station identification...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1181 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station identification. 80.1181 Section 80.1181 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations On-Board Communications § 80.1181 Station identification...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1181 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station identification. 80.1181 Section 80.1181 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations On-Board Communications § 80.1181 Station identification...

  3. 7 CFR 948.80 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports. 948.80 Section 948.80 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Reports § 948.80 Reports. Upon request of an area committee or of the Colorado Potato... furnish to the area committee in such manner and at such time as it may prescribe, reports and other...

  4. 7 CFR 966.80 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports. 966.80 Section 966.80 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Reports § 966.80 Reports. Upon request of the committee, made with approval of the Secretary, each handler shall furnish to the committee, in such manner and at such time as it may prescribe, such reports...

  5. 7 CFR 1230.80 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 1230.80 Section 1230.80 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Reports, Books, and Records § 1230.80 Reports. Each person responsible for collecting or remitting any assessment under § 1230.71(b...

  6. 7 CFR 947.80 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports. 947.80 Section 947.80 Agriculture Regulations... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.80 Reports. (a) Upon the request of the committee, with the approval of the... forms and at such time as the committee may prescribe, such reports and other information as may be...

  7. 7 CFR 959.80 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports. 959.80 Section 959.80 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Reports § 959.80 Reports. Upon request of the committee, made with the approval of the Secretary... prescribe, such reports and other information as may be necessary for the committee to perform its duties...

  8. 7 CFR 947.80 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports. 947.80 Section 947.80 Agriculture Regulations... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.80 Reports. (a) Upon the request of the committee, with the approval of the... forms and at such time as the committee may prescribe, such reports and other information as may be...

  9. 7 CFR 959.80 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports. 959.80 Section 959.80 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Reports § 959.80 Reports. Upon request of the committee, made with the approval of the Secretary... prescribe, such reports and other information as may be necessary for the committee to perform its duties...

  10. 7 CFR 1230.80 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports. 1230.80 Section 1230.80 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Reports, Books, and Records § 1230.80 Reports. Each person responsible for collecting or remitting any assessment under § 1230.71(b...

  11. 7 CFR 966.80 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports. 966.80 Section 966.80 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Reports § 966.80 Reports. Upon request of the committee, made with approval of the Secretary, each handler shall furnish to the committee, in such manner and at such time as it may prescribe, such reports...

  12. 7 CFR 948.80 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports. 948.80 Section 948.80 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Reports § 948.80 Reports. Upon request of an area committee or of the Colorado Potato... furnish to the area committee in such manner and at such time as it may prescribe, reports and other...

  13. 40 CFR 279.80 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 279.80 Section 279.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Use as a Dust Suppressant and Disposal of Used Oil § 279.80...

  14. 40 CFR 279.80 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability. 279.80 Section 279.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Use as a Dust Suppressant and Disposal of Used Oil § 279.80...

  15. 40 CFR 279.80 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability. 279.80 Section 279.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Use as a Dust Suppressant and Disposal of Used Oil § 279.80...

  16. 40 CFR 279.80 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 279.80 Section 279.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Use as a Dust Suppressant and Disposal of Used Oil § 279.80...

  17. 29 CFR 1919.80 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.80 Section 1919.80 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.80 Heat treatment. (a) Wherever heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out in...

  18. 50 CFR 80.20 - Land control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Land control. 80.20 Section 80.20 Wildlife... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.20 Land control. The State must control lands or waters on which capital improvements are made with Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration...

  19. 40 CFR 80.125 - Attest engagements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Attest engagements. 80.125 Section 80...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Attest Engagements § 80.125 Attest engagements. (a) Any refiner and... agreed-upon procedures attestation engagement of the underlying documentation that forms the basis of the...

  20. 14 CFR 298.80 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement. 298.80 Section 298.80 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Violations § 298.80 Enforcement. In...

  1. 14 CFR 298.80 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Enforcement. 298.80 Section 298.80 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Violations § 298.80 Enforcement. In...

  2. 47 CFR 80.659 - Technical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements. 80.659 Section 80.659 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Maritime Support Stations § 80.659 Technical requirements. The authorized frequency...

  3. 46 CFR 80.40 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil penalty. 80.40 Section 80.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS DISCLOSURE OF SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.40 Civil penalty. For each violation of the regulations in this part, the owner, operator...

  4. 46 CFR 80.40 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Civil penalty. 80.40 Section 80.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS DISCLOSURE OF SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.40 Civil penalty. For each violation of the regulations in this part, the owner, operator...

  5. 46 CFR 80.40 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Civil penalty. 80.40 Section 80.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS DISCLOSURE OF SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.40 Civil penalty. For each violation of the regulations in this part, the owner, operator...

  6. 46 CFR 80.40 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Civil penalty. 80.40 Section 80.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS DISCLOSURE OF SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.40 Civil penalty. For each violation of the regulations in this part, the owner, operator...

  7. 46 CFR 80.40 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 80.40 Section 80.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS DISCLOSURE OF SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.40 Civil penalty. For each violation of the regulations in this part, the owner, operator...

  8. 21 CFR 573.860 - Polysorbate 80.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.860 Polysorbate 80. The food additive polysorbate 80 (polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polysorbate 80. 573.860 Section 573.860 Food and...

  9. 21 CFR 573.860 - Polysorbate 80.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.860 Polysorbate 80. The food additive polysorbate 80 (polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polysorbate 80. 573.860 Section 573.860 Food and...

  10. 21 CFR 573.860 - Polysorbate 80.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.860 Polysorbate 80. The food additive polysorbate 80 (polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polysorbate 80. 573.860 Section 573.860 Food and...

  11. 21 CFR 573.860 - Polysorbate 80.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.860 Polysorbate 80. The food additive polysorbate 80 (polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polysorbate 80. 573.860 Section 573.860 Food and...

  12. 21 CFR 573.860 - Polysorbate 80.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.860 Polysorbate 80. The food additive polysorbate 80 (polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polysorbate 80. 573.860 Section 573.860 Food and...

  13. 46 CFR 56.80-5 - Bending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bending. 56.80-5 Section 56.80-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Bending and Forming § 56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will result...

  14. 46 CFR 56.80-5 - Bending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bending. 56.80-5 Section 56.80-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Bending and Forming § 56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will result...

  15. 49 CFR 80.13 - Threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Threshold criteria. 80.13 Section 80.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CREDIT ASSISTANCE FOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS § 80.13 Threshold criteria. (a) To be eligible to receive Federal credit assistance under this part, a project shall meet the following five...

  16. 49 CFR 80.13 - Threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Threshold criteria. 80.13 Section 80.13... § 80.13 Threshold criteria. (a) To be eligible to receive Federal credit assistance under this part, a project shall meet the following five threshold criteria: (1) The project shall be consistent with the...

  17. 49 CFR 80.13 - Threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Threshold criteria. 80.13 Section 80.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CREDIT ASSISTANCE FOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS § 80.13 Threshold criteria. (a) To be eligible to receive Federal credit assistance under this part, a project shall meet the following five...

  18. 49 CFR 80.13 - Threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Threshold criteria. 80.13 Section 80.13... § 80.13 Threshold criteria. (a) To be eligible to receive Federal credit assistance under this part, a project shall meet the following five threshold criteria: (1) The project shall be consistent with the...

  19. 49 CFR 80.13 - Threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Threshold criteria. 80.13 Section 80.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CREDIT ASSISTANCE FOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS § 80.13 Threshold criteria. (a) To be eligible to receive Federal credit assistance under this part, a project shall meet the following five...

  20. 47 CFR 80.925 - Electric light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric light. 80.925 Section 80.925... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.925 Electric light. (a) If the vessel is navigated at night an electric light or dial lights which clearly illuminate the...

  1. 47 CFR 80.925 - Electric light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric light. 80.925 Section 80.925... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.925 Electric light. (a) If the vessel is navigated at night an electric light or dial lights which clearly illuminate the...

  2. 47 CFR 80.925 - Electric light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric light. 80.925 Section 80.925... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.925 Electric light. (a) If the vessel is navigated at night an electric light or dial lights which clearly illuminate the...

  3. 47 CFR 80.925 - Electric light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric light. 80.925 Section 80.925... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.925 Electric light. (a) If the vessel is navigated at night an electric light or dial lights which clearly illuminate the...

  4. 47 CFR 80.925 - Electric light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric light. 80.925 Section 80.925... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.925 Electric light. (a) If the vessel is navigated at night an electric light or dial lights which clearly illuminate the...

  5. 7 CFR 983.80 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance. 983.80 Section 983.80 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.80 Compliance. Except as provided in this part, no...

  6. 7 CFR 930.80 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance. 930.80 Section 930.80 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.80 Compliance. Except as provided in this part, no person may handle cherries...

  7. 7 CFR 955.80 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance. 955.80 Section 955.80 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Miscellaneous Provisions § 955.80 Compliance. No handler shall handle Vidalia onions except in conformity with...

  8. 7 CFR 930.80 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance. 930.80 Section 930.80 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.80 Compliance. Except as provided in this part, no person may handle cherries...

  9. 7 CFR 955.80 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance. 955.80 Section 955.80 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Miscellaneous Provisions § 955.80 Compliance. No handler shall handle Vidalia onions except in conformity with...

  10. Zinc Levels in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Teng, Tianming; Bian, Bo; Yao, Wei; Yu, Xuefang; Wang, Zhuoqun; Xu, Zhelong; Sun, Yuemin

    2017-03-01

    Zinc is one of the most important trace elements in the body and zinc homeostasis plays a critical role in maintaining cellular structure and function. Zinc dyshomeostasis can lead to many diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to investigate whether there is a relationship between zinc and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). A total of 519 patients was enrolled and their serum zinc levels were measured in this study. We performed analyses on the relationship between zinc levels and LVH and the four LV geometry pattern patients: normal LV geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric LVH, and concentric LVH. We performed further linear and multiple regression analyses to confirm the relationship between zinc and left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and relative wall thickness (RWT). Our data showed that zinc levels were 710.2 ± 243.0 μg/L in the control group and were 641.9 ± 215.2 μg/L in LVH patients. We observed that zinc levels were 715 ± 243.5 μg/L, 694.2 ± 242.7 μg/L, 643.7 ± 225.0 μg/L, and 638.7 ± 197.0 μg/L in normal LV geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric LVH, and concentric LVH patients, respectively. We further found that there was a significant inverse linear relationship between zinc and LVM (p = 0.001) and LVMI (p = 0.000) but did not show a significant relationship with RWT (p = 0.561). Multiple regression analyses confirmed that the linear relationship between zinc and LVM and LVMI remained inversely significant. The present study revealed that serum zinc levels were significantly decreased in the LVH patients, especially in the eccentric LVH and concentric LVH patients. Furthermore, zinc levels were significantly inversely correlated with LVM and LVMI.

  11. EDITORIAL: 80 Years of Plasma 80 Years of Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, R. N.; Braithwaite, N. St J.

    2009-02-01

    currents. The purpose of the series of articles collected in this volume, timed to coincide with the 80th anniversary of the establishment of plasma physics as a distinct discipline, looks at the developments in the understanding principally of (i)-(vi) in the above list, over the intervening period. The first group of articles within this special issue starts with the contribution that Langmuir made during his pre-plasma years to the light bulb and related physical phenomena. Around the same time he conducted a series of elegant studies from which developed the fundamental principles of chemical adsorption and desorption; this work is reviewed in the second article. The topic of the third article is the distinctive character of a 'region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons', especially in the form of non-equilibrium plasma, as a medium in its own right. The next group of articles is concerned with the non-neutral boundary layers between non-equilibrium plasmas and the surfaces adjacent to them. Though the region is continuous, a notional division into quasi-neutral plasma and space-charge sheath continues to stimulate much philosophical debate. The fourth grouping relates to electrical probes and electron kinetics---topics that also owe their origins to the pioneering experimental work of Langmuir. The structure of gas discharge plasmas under a variety of conditions forms the focus of the next group of papers. The final pair of articles is primarily about electrostatic waves in plasmas, and here too Langmuir laid the foundations. We acknowledge that the idea that there should be some recognition of Langmuir's role in plasmas at this time was suggested by Pierre Barroy, who completed his PhD with us in 2003. We would like to thank all contributors to this Special Issue, many of whom have been led to go back and reassess Langmuir's work. His collected papers, published by Pergamon Press in 1961, run to some 12 volumes and it is our intention to deposit a set

  12. A role for the Drosophila zinc transporter Zip88E in protecting against dietary zinc toxicity.

    PubMed

    Richards, Christopher D; Warr, Coral G; Burke, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Zinc absorption in animals is thought to be regulated in a local, cell autonomous manner with intestinal cells responding to dietary zinc content. The Drosophila zinc transporter Zip88E shows strong sequence similarity to Zips 42C.1, 42C.2 and 89B as well as mammalian Zips 1, 2 and 3, suggesting that it may act in concert with the apically-localised Drosophila zinc uptake transporters to facilitate dietary zinc absorption by importing ions into the midgut enterocytes. However, the functional characterisation of Zip88E presented here indicates that Zip88E may instead play a role in detecting and responding to zinc toxicity. Larvae homozygous for a null Zip88E allele are viable yet display heightened sensitivity to elevated levels of dietary zinc. This decreased zinc tolerance is accompanied by an overall decrease in Metallothionein B transcription throughout the larval midgut. A Zip88E reporter gene is expressed only in the salivary glands, a handful of enteroendocrine cells at the boundary between the anterior and middle midgut regions, and in two parallel strips of sensory cell projections connecting to the larval ventral ganglion. Zip88E expression solely in this restricted subset of cells is sufficient to rescue the Zip88E mutant phenotype. Together, our data suggest that Zip88E may be functioning in a small subset of cells to detect excessive zinc levels and induce a systemic response to reduce dietary zinc absorption and hence protect against toxicity.

  13. Studies on the bioavailability of zinc in humans: intestinal interaction of tin and zinc.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Marchini, J S; Duarte-Favaro, R M; Vannuchi, H; Dutra de Oliveira, J E

    1983-04-01

    Mineral/mineral interactions at the intestinal level are important in animal nutrition and toxicology, but only limited understanding of their extent or importance in humans has been developed. An inhibitory interaction of dietary tin on zinc retention has been recently described from human metabolic studies. We have explored the tin/zinc interaction using the change-in-plasma-zinc-concentration method with a standard dosage of 12.5 mg of zinc as zinc sulfate in 100 ml of Coca-Cola. Sn/Zn ratios of 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1, constituted by addition of 25, 50, and 100 mg of tin as stannous chloride, had no significant overall effect on zinc uptake. The 100-mg dose of tin produced noxious gastrointestinal symptoms. Addition of iron as ferrous sulfate to form ratios of Sn/Fe/Zn of 1:1:1 and 2:2:1 with the standard zinc solution and the appropriate doses of tin produced a reduction of zinc absorption not dissimilar from that seen previously with zinc and iron alone, and addition of picolinic acid did not influence the uptake of zinc from the solution with the 2:2:1 Sn/Fe/Zn ratio.

  14. Effect of zinc gluconate, sage oil on inflammatory patterns and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Ali, Abdel-Moniem A; Elabidine, Nabila Zein; Mursey, Nada M

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between zinc homeostasis and pancreatic function had been established. In this study we aimed firstly to configure the inflammatory pattern and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats. Secondly to illustrate the effect of two selected agents namely Zinc gluconate and sage oil (Salvia Officinalis, family Lamiaceae). Rats were fed on Zinc deficient diet, deionized water for 28days along with Zinc level check up at intervals to achieve zinc deficient state then rats were rendered diabetic through receiving one dose of alloxan monohydrate (120mg/kg) body weight, classified later into 5 subgroups. Treatment with sage oil (0.042mg/kg IP) and Zinc gluconate orally (150mg/kg) body weight daily for 8 weeks significantly reduced serum glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α), interleukins-6 1 β, inflammatory8 (IFN ȣ), pancreatic 1L1-β along with an increase in serum Zinc and pancreatic Zinc transporter 8 (ZNT8). Histopathological results of pancreatic tissues showed a good correlation with the biochemical findings. Both sage oil and zinc gluconate induced an improvement in the glycemic and inflammatory states. This may be of value like the therapeutic agent for diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [Advances in the research of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation treatment in patients with severe burns].

    PubMed

    Wang, X X; Zhang, M J; Li, X B

    2018-01-20

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in human body, which plays an important role in regulating acute inflammatory response, glucose metabolism, anti-oxidation, immune and gastrointestinal function of patients with severe burns. Patients with severe burns may suffer from zinc deficiency because of insufficient amount of zinc intake from the diet and a large amount of zinc lose through wounds and urine. Zinc deficiency may affect their wound healing process and prognosis. This article reviews the characteristics of zinc metabolism in patients with severe burns through dynamic monitoring the plasma and urinary concentration of zinc. An adequate dosage of zinc supplemented to patients with severe burns by an appropriate method can increase the level of zinc in plasma and skin tissue and improve wound healing, as well as reduce the infection rates and mortality. At the same time, it is important to observe the symptoms and signs of nausea, dizziness, leukopenia and arrhythmia in patients with severe burns after supplementing excessive zinc.

  16. Hyperaccumulation of zinc by zinc-depleted Candida utilis grown in chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Lawford, H G; Pik, J R; Lawford, G R; Williams, T; Kligerman, A

    1980-01-01

    The steady-state levels of zinc in Candida utilis yeast grown in continuous culture under conditions of zinc limitations are <1nmol Zn2+/mg dry weight of cells. Unlike carbon-limited cells, zinc-depleted cells from a zinc-limited chemostat possess the capacity to accumulate and store zinc at levels far in excess of the steady-state level of 4 nmol/mg dry biomass observed in carbon-limited chemostat cultures. Zinc uptake is energy-dependent and apparently undirectional since accumulated 65Zn neither exists from preloaded cells nor exchanges with cold Zn2+. The transport system exhibits a high affinity for Zn2+ (Km =.36micrM) with a Vmaxof 2.2 nmol per minute per milligram dry weight of cells. Growth during the period of the uptake assay is responsible for the apparent plateau level of 35 nmol Zn2+/mg dry weight of cells achieved after 20-30 min in the presence of 65Zn at pH 4.5 and 30 degrees C. Inhibition of growth during the uptake assay by cycloheximide results in a biphasic linear pattern of zinc accumulation where the cellular zinc is about 60 nmol/mg dry weight after 1 h. The enhanced level of accumulated zinc is not inhibtory to growth. Zinc-depleted C. utilis contains elevated amounts of polyphosphate and this anionic evidence does not allow discrimination between possible regulation of zinc homestasis either by inhibitions of zinc efflux through control of the membrane carrier or by control of the synthesis of a cytoplasmic zinc-sequestering macromolecule.

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Trent and zinc homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Corey B; Harrison, Mark D; Huygens, Flavia

    2017-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen and the major cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. The mechanisms that P. aeruginosa strains use to regulate intracellular zinc have an effect on infection, antibiotic resistance and the propensity to form biofilms. However, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa strains of variable infectivity has not been compared. In this study, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa Trent, a highly infectious clinical strain, was compared to that of a laboratory P. aeruginosa strain, ATCC27853. Trent was able to tolerate higher concentrations of additional zinc in rich media than ATCC27853. Further, pre-adaptation to additional zinc enhanced the growth of Trent at non-inhibitory concentrations but the impact of pre-adaption on the growth of ATCC27853 under the same conditions was minimal. The results establish clear differences in zinc-induced responses in Trent and ATCC27853, and how zinc homeostasis can be a promising target for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies for P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Speciation And Bioavailability Of Zinc In Amended Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The speciation and bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in smelter-contaminated sediments was investigated as a function of phosphate (apatite) and organic amendment loading rate. Zinc species identified in preamendment sediment were zinc hydroxide-like phases, sphalerite, and zinc sorbe...

  19. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc methionine sulfate. 172.399 Section 172.399... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate. Zinc methionine... conditions: (a) The additive is the product of the reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and DL...

  20. Contribution of Zinc Solubilizing Bacteria in Growth Promotion and Zinc Content of Wheat.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Sana; Shahid, Izzah; Baig, Deeba N; Rizwan, Muhammad; Malik, Kauser A; Mehnaz, Samina

    2017-01-01

    Zinc is an imperative micronutrient required for optimum plant growth. Zinc solubilizing bacteria are potential alternatives for zinc supplementation and convert applied inorganic zinc to available forms. This study was conducted to screen zinc solubilizing rhizobacteria isolated from wheat and sugarcane, and to analyze their effect on wheat growth and development. Fourteen exo-polysaccharides producing bacterial isolates of wheat were identified and characterized biochemically as well as on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Along these, 10 identified sugarcane isolates were also screened for zinc solubilizing ability on five different insoluble zinc sources. Out of 24, five strains, i.e., EPS 1 ( Pseudomonas fragi) , EPS 6 ( Pantoea dispersa) , EPS 13 ( Pantoea agglomerans) , PBS 2 ( E. cloacae) and LHRW1 ( Rhizobium sp.) were selected (based on their zinc solubilizing and PGP activities) for pot scale plant experiments. ZnCO 3 was used as zinc source and wheat seedlings were inoculated with these five strains, individually, to assess their effect on plant growth and development. The effect on plants was analyzed based on growth parameters and quantifying zinc content of shoot, root and grains using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Plant experiment was performed in two sets. For first set of plant experiments (harvested after 1 month), maximum shoot and root dry weights and shoot lengths were noted for the plants inoculated with Rhizobium sp. (LHRW1) while E. cloacae (PBS 2) increased both shoot and root lengths. Highest zinc content was found in shoots of E. cloacae (PBS 2) and in roots of P. agglomerans (EPS 13) followed by zinc supplemented control. For second set of plant experiment, when plants were harvested after three months, Pantoea dispersa (EPS 6), P. agglomerans (EPS 13) and E. cloacae (PBS 2) significantly increased shoot dry weights. However, significant increase in root dry weights and maximum zinc content was recorded for Pseudomonas fragi (EPS

  1. Implication of zinc excess on soil health.

    PubMed

    Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Boros-Lajszner, Edyta; Borowik, Agata; Baćmaga, Małgorzata; Kucharski, Jan; Tomkiel, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate zinc's influence on the resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the University of Warmia and Mazury (UWM) in Olsztyn, Poland. Plastic pots were filled with 3 kg of sandy loam with pHKCl - 7.0 each. The experimental variables were: zinc applied to soil at six doses: 100, 300, 600, 1,200, 2,400 and 4,800 mg of Zn(2+) kg(-1) in the form of ZnCl2 (zinc chloride), and species of plant: oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Chwat and white mustard (Sinapis alba) cv. Rota. Soil without the addition of zinc served as the control. During the growing season, soil samples were subjected to microbiological analyses on experimental days 25 and 50 to determine the abundance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces and fungi, and the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase and urease, which provided a basis for determining the soil resistance index (RS). The physicochemical properties of soil were determined after harvest. The results of this study indicate that excessive concentrations of zinc have an adverse impact on microbial growth and the activity of soil enzymes. The resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease decreased with an increase in the degree of soil contamination with zinc. Dehydrogenases were most sensitive and urease was least sensitive to soil contamination with zinc. Zinc also exerted an adverse influence on the physicochemical properties of soil and plant development. The growth of oat and white mustard plants was almost completely inhibited in response to the highest zinc doses of 2,400 and 4,800 mg Zn(2+) kg(-1).

  2. Electron-impact coherence parameters for 41 P 1 excitation of zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piwiński, Mariusz; Kłosowski, Łukasz; Chwirot, Stanisław; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Das, Tapasi; Srivastava, Rajesh

    2018-04-01

    We present electron-impact coherence parameters (EICP) for electron-impact excitation of 41 P 1 state of zinc atoms for collision energies 40 eV and 60 eV. The experimental results are presented together with convergent close-coupling and relativistic distorted-wave approximation theoretical predictions. The results are compared and discussed with EICP data for collision energies 80 eV and 100 eV.

  3. The zinc dyshomeostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Craddock, Travis J A; Tuszynski, Jack A; Chopra, Deepak; Casey, Noel; Goldstein, Lee E; Hameroff, Stuart R; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Hallmark AD neuropathology includes extracellular amyloid plaques composed largely of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ), intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyper-phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAP-tau), and microtubule destabilization. Early-onset autosomal dominant AD genes are associated with excessive Aβ accumulation, however cognitive impairment best correlates with NFTs and disrupted microtubules. The mechanisms linking Aβ and NFT pathologies in AD are unknown. Here, we propose that sequestration of zinc by Aβ-amyloid deposits (Aβ oligomers and plaques) not only drives Aβ aggregation, but also disrupts zinc homeostasis in zinc-enriched brain regions important for memory and vulnerable to AD pathology, resulting in intra-neuronal zinc levels, which are either too low, or excessively high. To evaluate this hypothesis, we 1) used molecular modeling of zinc binding to the microtubule component protein tubulin, identifying specific, high-affinity zinc binding sites that influence side-to-side tubulin interaction, the sensitive link in microtubule polymerization and stability. We also 2) performed kinetic modeling showing zinc distribution in extra-neuronal Aβ deposits can reduce intra-neuronal zinc binding to microtubules, destabilizing microtubules. Finally, we 3) used metallomic imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) to show anatomically-localized and age-dependent zinc dyshomeostasis in specific brain regions of Tg2576 transgenic, mice, a model for AD. We found excess zinc in brain regions associated with memory processing and NFT pathology. Overall, we present a theoretical framework and support for a new theory of AD linking extra-neuronal Aβ amyloid to intra-neuronal NFTs and cognitive dysfunction. The connection, we propose, is based on β-amyloid-induced alterations in zinc ion concentration inside neurons affecting stability of polymerized

  4. Pore-water chemistry explains zinc phytotoxicity in soil.

    PubMed

    Kader, Mohammed; Lamb, Dane T; Correll, Ray; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) is a widespread soil contaminant arising from a numerous anthropogenic sources. However, adequately predicting toxicity of Zn to ecological receptors remains difficult due to the complexity of soil characteristics. In this study, we examined solid-solution partitioning using pore-water data and toxicity of Zn to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in spiked soils. Pore-water effective concentration (ECx, x=10%, 20% and 50% reduction) values were negatively related to pH, indicating lower Zn pore water concentration were needed to cause phytotoxicity at high pH soils. Total dissolved zinc (Znpw) and free zinc (Zn(2+)) in soil-pore water successfully described 78% and 80.3% of the variation in relative growth (%) in the full dataset. When the complete data set was used (10 soils), the estimated EC50pw was 450 and 79.2 µM for Znpw and Zn(2+), respectively. Total added Zn, soil pore water pH (pHpw) and dissolve organic carbon (DOC) were the best predictors of Znpw and Zn(2+) in pore-water. The EC10 (total loading) values ranged from 179 to 5214 mg/kg, depending on soil type. Only pH measurements in soil were related to ECx total Zn data. The strongest relationship to ECx overall was pHca, although pHw and pHpw were in general related to Zn ECx. Similarly, when a solution-only model was used to predict Zn in shoot, DOC was negatively related to Zn in shoot, indicating a reduction in uptake/ translocation of Zn from solution with increasing DOC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Supplemental levels of iron and calcium interfere with repletion of zinc status in zinc-deficient animals.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, S; Platel, Kalpana

    2016-05-18

    Negative interactions between minerals interfering with each other's absorption are of concern when iron and calcium supplements are given to pregnant women and children. We have previously reported that supplemental levels of iron and calcium inhibit the bioaccessibility of zinc, and compromise zinc status in rats fed diets with high levels of these two minerals. The present study examined the effect of supplemental levels of iron and calcium on the recovery of zinc status during a zinc repletion period in rats rendered zinc-deficient. Iron and calcium, both individually and in combination, significantly interfered with the recovery of zinc status in zinc deficient rats during repletion with normal levels of zinc in the diet. Rats maintained on diets containing supplemental levels of these two minerals had significantly lower body weight, and the concentration of zinc in serum and organs was significantly lower than in zinc-deficient rats not receiving the supplements. Iron and calcium supplementation also significantly inhibited the activity of zinc-containing enzymes in the serum as well as liver. Both iron and calcium independently exerted this negative effect on zinc status, while their combination seemed to have a more prominent effect, especially on the activities of zinc containing enzymes. This investigation is probably the first systematic study on the effect of these two minerals on the zinc status of zinc deficient animals and their recovery during repletion with normal amounts of zinc.

  6. Effects of zinc supplementation on obesity: study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Kumari M; Silva, Kdrr; Jayawardena, Ranil

    2016-11-04

    The prevalence of obesity is escalating alarmingly worldwide, and it is now becoming a rapidly growing epidemic in developing countries. Recent studies have reported that zinc has been implicated in altered lipid markers, insulin resistance and some obesity markers. There is a lack of evidence on zinc as a potential therapeutic agent to reduce weight and improve metabolic parameters in obese adults. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of zinc supplementation on obese adults in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate the effects of zinc supplementation on metabolic parameters in this population. This study will be conducted as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial for a period of 3 months at the clinical laboratory, Department of Applied Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka to assess the efficacy of daily zinc 20 mg supplementation in obese subjects. There will be a total of 80 subjects, aged between 18-60 years, of both genders, who are obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥25). Subjects will be stratified according to age, gender and BMI and randomly assigned into the test and placebo groups in a 1:1 ratio. The treatment drug is a capsule containing elemental zinc 20 mg as the active ingredient (as zinc sulphate). The placebo capsule will contain lactose monohydrate. The subjects will receive either zinc capsules or placebo daily for 3 months. The study treatments will be double blinded to both investigator and subject. The visits and the evaluations will be as follows: screening (visit 0), baseline (visit 1) and 3 month (visit 2). The primary outcome will be weight reduction among the obese subjects. Secondary outcome measures include glycaemic status (fasting blood glucose), lipid parameters (total cholesterol, triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and blood pressure. The trial protocol will aim to establish the effects of zinc supplementation on weight

  7. Low-energy Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich zinc isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Walle, J. van de; ISOLDE, CERN, Geneva; Aksouh, F.

    2009-01-15

    At the radioactive ion beam facility REX-ISOLDE, neutron-rich zinc isotopes were investigated using low-energy Coulomb excitation. These experiments have resulted in B(E2,2{sub 1}{sup +}{yields}0{sub 1}{sup +}) values in {sup 74-80}Zn, B(E2,4{sub 1}{sup +}{yields}2{sub 1}{sup +}) values in {sup 74,76}Zn and the determination of the energy of the first excited 2{sub 1}{sup +} states in {sup 78,80}Zn. The zinc isotopes were produced by high-energy proton- (A=74,76,80) and neutron- (A=78) induced fission of {sup 238}U, combined with selective laser ionization and mass separation. The isobaric beam was postaccelerated by the REX linear accelerator and Coulomb excitation was induced on a thin secondarymore » target, which was surrounded by the MINIBALL germanium detector array. In this work, it is shown how the selective laser ionization can be used to deal with the considerable isobaric beam contamination and how a reliable normalization of the experiment can be achieved. The results for zinc isotopes and the N=50 isotones are compared to collective model predictions and state-of-the-art large-scale shell-model calculations, including a recent empirical residual interaction constructed to describe the present experimental data up to 2004 in this region of the nuclear chart.« less

  8. Intracellular zinc distribution in mitochondria, ER and the Golgi apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiping; Haragopal, Hariprakash; Slepchenko, Kira G; Stork, Christian; Li, Yang V

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn2+) is required for numerous cellular functions. As such, the homeostasis and distribution of intracellular zinc can influence cellular metabolism and signaling. However, the exact distribution of free zinc within live cells remains elusive. Previously we showed the release of zinc from thapsigargin/IP3-sensitive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) storage in cortical neurons. In the present study, we investigated if other cellular organelles also contain free chelatable zinc and function as organelle storage for zinc. To identify free zinc within the organelles, live cells were co-stained with Zinpyr-1, a zinc fluorescent dye, and organelle-specific fluorescent dyes (MitoFluor Red 589: mitochondria; ER Tracker Red: endoplasmic reticulum; BODIPY TR ceramide: Golgi apparatus; Syto Red 64: nucleus). We examined organelles that represent potential storing sites for intracellular zinc. We showed that zinc fluorescence staining was co-localized with MitoFluor Red 589, ER Tracker Red, and BODIPY TR ceramide respectively, suggesting the presence of free zinc in mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus. On the other hand, cytosol and nucleus had nearly no detectable zinc fluorescence. It is known that nucleus contains high amount of zinc binding proteins that have high zinc binding affinity. The absence of zinc fluorescence suggests that there is little free zinc in these two regions. It also indicates that the zinc fluorescence detected in mitochondria, ER and Golgi apparatus represents free chelatable zinc. Taken together, our results support that these organelles are potential zinc storing organelles during cellular zinc homeostasis. PMID:27186321

  9. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Charles T; Radford, Robert J; Zastrow, Melissa L; Zhang, Daniel Y; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-05-19

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling.

  10. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Charles T.; Radford, Robert J.; Zastrow, Melissa L.; Zhang, Daniel Y.; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J.; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling. PMID:25947151

  11. Removal of toxic zinc from water/wastewater using eucalyptus seeds activated carbon: non-linear regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Senthil Kumar, Ponnusamy; Saravanan, Anbalagan; Anish Kumar, Kodyingil; Yashwanth, Ramesh; Visvesh, Sridharan

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a novel activated carbon was prepared from low-cost eucalyptus seeds, which was utilised for the effectively removal of toxic zinc from the water/wastewater. The prepared adsorbent was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic characterisation studies. Adsorption process was experimentally performed for optimising the influencing factors such as adsorbent dosage, solution pH, contact time, initial zinc concentration, and temperature for the maximum removal of zinc from aqueous solution. Adsorption isotherm of zinc removal was ensued Freundlich model, and the kinetic model ensued pseudo-second order model. Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of the adsorbent for zinc removal was evaluated as 80.37 mg/g. The results of the thermodynamic studies suggested that the adsorption process was exothermic, thermodynamically feasible and impulsive process. Finally, a batch adsorber was planned to remove zinc from known volume and known concentration of wastewater using best obeyed model such as Freundlich. The experimental details showed the newly prepared material can be effectively utilised as a cheap material for the adsorption of toxic metal ions from the contaminated water.

  12. Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Thomas C.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1994-01-01

    An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing KOH and a combination of KF and K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 salts which inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics.

  13. Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode

    DOEpatents

    Adler, T.C.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

    1994-04-12

    An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing KOH and a combination of KF and K[sub 2]CO[sub 3] salts which inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics. 8 figures.

  14. Leptin, NPY, Melatonin and Zinc Levels in Experimental Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism: The Relation to Zinc.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasım; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-06-01

    Since zinc mediates the effects of many hormones or is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors, zinc deficiency leads to various functional impairments in the hormone balance. And also thyroid hormones have important activity on metabolism and feeding. NPY and leptin are affective on food intake and regulation of appetite. The present study is conducted to determine how zinc supplementation and deficiency affect thyroid hormones (free and total T3 and T4), melatonin, leptin, and NPY levels in thyroid dysfunction in rats. The experiment groups in the study were formed as follows: Control (C); Hypothyroidism (PTU); Hypothyroidism+Zinc (PTU+Zn); Hypothyroidism+Zinc deficient; Hyperthyroidism (H); Hyperthyroidism+Zinc (H+Zn); and Hyperthyroidism+Zinc deficient. Thyroid hormone parameters (FT 3 , FT 4 , TT 3 , and TT 4 ) were found to be reduced in hypothyroidism groups and elevated in the hyperthyroidism groups. Melatonin values increased in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism. Leptin and NPY levels both increased in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Zinc levels, on the other hand, decreased in hypothyroidism and increased in hyperthyroidism. Zinc supplementation, particularly when thyroid function is impaired, has been demonstrated to markedly prevent these changes.

  15. The effect of the systemic inflammatory response on plasma zinc and selenium adjusted for albumin.

    PubMed

    Ghashut, Rawia A; McMillan, Donald C; Kinsella, John; Vasilaki, Aikaterini T; Talwar, Dinesh; Duncan, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The magnitude of systemic inflammatory response, as evidenced by C-reactive protein (CRP), is a major factor associated with lower zinc and selenium. They may also be influenced by their binding proteins, such as albumin. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between plasma zinc, selenium and the systemic inflammatory response in a large cohort of patients referred for nutritional screen and also to examine these relationships in patients with critical illness. Patients referred for nutritional assessment of zinc (n = 743) and selenium (n = 833) and 114 patients with critical illness were examined. Intra-assay imprecision was <10% for these analytes. In the nutritional screen cohort, plasma zinc was significantly associated with CRP (rs = -0.404, p < 0.001) and albumin (rs = 0.588, p < 0.001). For each CRP category (≤10, 11-80, >80 mg/l) the zinc/albumin ratio x100 was similar (31, 33 and 32 respectively, p = 0.029). Plasma selenium was significantly associated with CRP (rs = -0.489, p < 0.001) and albumin (rs = 0.600, p < 0.001). With increasing CRP category (≤10, 11-80, >80 mg/l) the selenium/albumin ratio ×100 was lower (2.3, 2.1 and 1.8 respectively, p < 0.001). Similar relationships were also observed in the cohort of patients with critical illness. Plasma zinc was associated with both CRP and albumin. The impact of the systemic inflammatory response could be largely adjusted by albumin concentrations. Plasma selenium was associated with both CRP and albumin. The impact of the systemic inflammatory response on plasma selenium concentrations could not be reasonably adjusted by albumin concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Zinc and its importance for human health: An integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Roohani, Nazanin; Hurrell, Richard; Kelishadi, Roya; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Since its first discovery in an Iranian male in 1961, zinc deficiency in humans is now known to be an important malnutrition problem world-wide. It is more prevalent in areas of high cereal and low animal food consumption. The diet may not necessarily be low in zinc, but its bio-availability plays a major role in its absorption. Phytic acid is the main known inhibitor of zinc. Compared to adults, infants, children, adolescents, pregnant, and lactating women have increased requirements for zinc and thus, are at increased risk of zinc depletion. Zinc deficiency during growth periods results in growth failure. Epidermal, gastrointestinal, central nervous, immune, skeletal, and reproductive systems are the organs most affected clinically by zinc deficiency. Clinical diagnosis of marginal Zn deficiency in humans remains problematic. So far, blood plasma/serum zinc concentration, dietary intake, and stunting prevalence are the best known indicators of zinc deficiency. Four main intervention strategies for combating zinc deficiency include dietary modification/diversification, supplementation, fortification, and bio-fortification. The choice of each method depends on the availability of resources, technical feasibility, target group, and social acceptance. In this paper, we provide a review on zinc biochemical and physiological functions, metabolism including, absorption, excretion, and homeostasis, zinc bio-availability (inhibitors and enhancers), human requirement, groups at high-risk, consequences and causes of zinc deficiency, evaluation of zinc status, and prevention strategies of zinc deficiency. PMID:23914218

  17. Serum zinc concentrations: contamination from laboratory equipment.

    PubMed

    Ralstin, J O; Schneider, P J; Blackstone, L; Ruberg, R L

    1979-01-01

    The following experiment was designed because of high serum zinc reported in patients who were reciving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) concentrations. Blood samples were collected, divided into 3 containers: a clean glass control test tube, a vacuum collecting tube with a rubber stopper, and paraffin clot activator. It was found that compared to glass control tubes, vacuum collection with rubber stoppers contributed an average of 76 +/- 14 microgram/dl of zinc as contaminants. Moreover, tubes with a rubber stopper and clot activator contributed 198 +/- 42 microgram/dl of zinc as contaminants. It is concluded that care must be used to avoid trace element contaminants when plasma zinc concentrations are analyzed. Without proper methodology, including selection of the container in which the sample is taken, erroneous results will be reported.

  18. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  19. Anaerobic Digestion Alters Copper and Zinc Speciation.

    PubMed

    Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Guiresse, Maritxu; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-09-19

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used organic waste treatment process. However, little is known on how it could alter the speciation of contaminants in organic waste. This study was focused on determining the influence of anaerobic digestion on the speciation of copper and zinc, two metals that generally occur at high concentration in organic waste. Copper and zinc speciation was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in four different raw organic wastes (predigestion) and their digested counterparts (postdigestion, i.e., digestates). The results highlighted an increase in the digestates of the proportion of amorphous or nanostructured copper sulfides as well as amorphous or nanostructured zinc sulfides and zinc phosphate as compared to raw waste. We therefore suggest that the environmental fate of these elements would be different when spreading either digestates or raw waste on cropland.

  20. Zinc Nucleation and Growth in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, B. Patrick; Nuth, J. A., III; Lilleleht, L. U.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report our experiences with zinc nucleation in a microgravity environment aboard NASA's Reduced Gravity Research Facility. Zinc vapor is produced by a heater in a vacuum chamber containing argon gas. Nucleation is induced by cooling and its onset is easily detected visually by the appearance of a cloud of solid, at least partially crystalline zinc particles. Size distribution of these particles is monitored in situ by photon correlation spectroscopy. Samples of particles are also extracted for later analysis by SEM. The initially rapid increase in particle size is followed by a slower period of growth. We apply Scaled Nucleation Theory to our data and find that the derived critical temperature of zinc, the critical cluster size at nucleation, and the surface tension values are all in reasonably good agreement with their accepted literature values.

  1. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such as...

  2. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such as...

  3. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such as...

  4. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such as...

  5. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such as...

  6. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a)...

  8. Tests of Zinc Rich Anticorrosion Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. D.; Paton, W. J.; Rowe, A.

    1986-01-01

    Condition of zinc-rich anticorrosion coatings after 10 years of exposure discussed in status report, which follows up on 18-month study of anticorrosion coatings on steel started in 1971. Test panels with various coatings mounted on racks on beach and checked periodically. Of panels with inorganic zinc-rich coatings, only one slightly rusted. Panels were in such good condition they were returned to beach for more exposure.

  9. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children

    PubMed Central

    Lazzerini, Marzia; Wanzira, Humphrey

    2016-01-01

    Background In developing countries, diarrhoea causes around 500,000 child deaths annually. Zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea is currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Objectives To evaluate oral zinc supplementation for treating children with acute or persistent diarrhoea. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 5), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, mRCT, and reference lists up to 30 September 2016. We also contacted researchers. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared oral zinc supplementation with placebo in children aged one month to five years with acute or persistent diarrhoea, including dysentery. Data collection and analysis Both review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, extracted and analysed data, and drafted the review. The primary outcomes were diarrhoea duration and severity. We summarized dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses (using either a fixed-effect or random-effects model) and assessed heterogeneity. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results Thirty-three trials that included 10,841 children met our inclusion criteria. Most included trials were conducted in Asian countries that were at high risk of zinc deficiency. Acute diarrhoea There is currently not enough evidence from well-conducted RCTs to be able to say whether zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea reduces death or number of children hospitalized (very low certainty evidence). In children older than six months of age, zinc supplementation may shorten the average duration of diarrhoea by around half a day (MD −11.46 hours, 95% CI −19.72 to −3.19; 2581 children, 9 trials, low

  10. Effect of long-term intraperitoneal zinc administration on liver glycogen levels in diabetic rats subjected to acute forced swimming.

    PubMed

    Bicer, Mursel; Gunay, Mehmet; Akil, Mustafa; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2011-03-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of zinc administration on liver glycogen levels of rats in which diabetes was induced with streptozotocin and which were subjected to acute swimming exercise. The study was conducted on 80 adult Sprague-Dawley male rats, which were equally allocated to eight groups: group 1, general control; group 2, zinc-administrated control; group 3, zinc-administrated diabetic control; group 4, swimming control; group 5, zinc-administrated swimming; group 6, zinc-administrated diabetic swimming; group 7, diabetic swimming; group 8, diabetic control group. In order to induce diabetes, animals were injected with 40 mg/kg intraperitoneal (ip) streptozotocin. The injections were repeated in the same dose after 24 h. Animals which had blood glucose at or above 300 mg/dl 6 days after the last injections were accepted as diabetic. Zinc was administrated ip for 4 weeks as 6 mg/kg/day per rat. Hepatic tissue samples taken from the animals at the end of the study were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol. Cross sections of 5 µm thickness, taken by the help of a microtome from the tissue samples buried in paraffin, were placed on a microscope slide and stained with periodic acid-Schiff and evaluated by light microscope. All microscopic images were transferred to a PC and assessed with the help of Clemex PE3.5 image analysis software. The lowest liver glycogen levels in the study were obtained in groups 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8. Liver glycogen levels in group 5 were higher than groups 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8, but lower than groups 1 and 2 (p < 0.05). Groups 1 and 2 had the highest liver glycogen levels. The results obtained from the study indicate that liver glycogen levels which dropped in acute swimming exercise were restored by zinc administration and that diabetes induced in rats prevented the protective effect of zinc.

  11. 50 CFR 80.22 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.22 [Reserved] ...

  12. 50 CFR 80.19 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.19 [Reserved] ...

  13. Green Approach for Fabrication and Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in everyday applications. This study aims to fabricate ZnO-NPs using grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel extract with particle size ranging from 12 to 72 nm. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, TEM, DLS, and FTIR analysis. They show the significant photocatalytic degradation efficiency (>56%, 10 mg/L, 6 h) against methylene blue and antioxidant efficacy (≥80% for 1.2 mM) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green ZnO-NPs could be used effectively in environmental safety applications and also can address future medical concerns. PMID:25374484

  14. Green approach for fabrication and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in everyday applications. This study aims to fabricate ZnO-NPs using grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel extract with particle size ranging from 12 to 72 nm. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, TEM, DLS, and FTIR analysis. They show the significant photocatalytic degradation efficiency (>56%, 10 mg/L, 6 h) against methylene blue and antioxidant efficacy (≥80% for 1.2 mM) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green ZnO-NPs could be used effectively in environmental safety applications and also can address future medical concerns.

  15. Hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chamoun, Mylad; Hertzberg, Benjamin J.; Gupta, Tanya

    The low cost, significant reducing potential, and relative safety of the zinc electrode is a common hope for a reductant in secondary batteries, but it is limited mainly to primary implementation due to shape change. In this work we exploit such shape change for the benefit of static electrodes through the electrodeposition of hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam. Electrodeposition of zinc foam resulted in nanoparticles formed on secondary dendrites in a three-dimensional network with a particle size distribution of 54.1 - 96.0 nm. The nanoporous zinc foam contributed to highly oriented crystals, high surface area and more rapid kinetics in contrastmore » to conventional zinc in alkaline mediums. The anode material presented had a utilization of ~ 88% at full depth-of-discharge at various rates indicating a superb rate-capability. The rechargeability of Zn⁰/Zn²⁺ showed significant capacity retention over 100 cycles at a 40% depth-of-discharge to ensure that the dendritic core structure was imperforated. The dendritic architecture was densified upon charge-discharge cycling and presented superior performance compared to bulk zinc electrodes.« less

  16. Hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam anodes

    DOE PAGES

    Chamoun, Mylad; Hertzberg, Benjamin J.; Gupta, Tanya; ...

    2015-04-24

    The low cost, significant reducing potential, and relative safety of the zinc electrode is a common hope for a reductant in secondary batteries, but it is limited mainly to primary implementation due to shape change. In this work we exploit such shape change for the benefit of static electrodes through the electrodeposition of hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam. Electrodeposition of zinc foam resulted in nanoparticles formed on secondary dendrites in a three-dimensional network with a particle size distribution of 54.1 - 96.0 nm. The nanoporous zinc foam contributed to highly oriented crystals, high surface area and more rapid kinetics in contrastmore » to conventional zinc in alkaline mediums. The anode material presented had a utilization of ~ 88% at full depth-of-discharge at various rates indicating a superb rate-capability. The rechargeability of Zn⁰/Zn²⁺ showed significant capacity retention over 100 cycles at a 40% depth-of-discharge to ensure that the dendritic core structure was imperforated. The dendritic architecture was densified upon charge-discharge cycling and presented superior performance compared to bulk zinc electrodes.« less

  17. Electrochemical behavior of zinc particles with silica based coatings as anode material for zinc air batteries with improved discharge capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, M.; Willert-Porada, M.

    2017-05-01

    Silica coatings on zinc particles as anode material for alkaline zinc air batteries are expected to reduce early formation of irreversible ZnO passivation layers during discharge by controlling zinc dissolution and precipitation of supersaturated zincates, Zn(OH)42-. Zinc particles were coated with SiO2 (thickness: 15 nm) by chemical solution deposition and with Zn2SiO4 (thickness: 20 nm) by chemical vapor deposition. These coatings formed a Si(OH)4 gel in aqueous KOH and retarded hydrogen evolution by 40%. By treatment in aqueous KOH and drying afterwards, the silica coatings were changed into ZnO-K2O·SiO2 layers. In this work, the electrochemical performance of such coated zinc particles is investigated by different electrochemical methods in order to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of the coatings, which reduce zinc passivation. In particular, zinc utilization and changes in internal resistance are investigated. Moreover, methods for determination of diffusion coefficients, charge carrier numbers and activation energies for electrochemical oxidation are determined. SiO2-coated zinc particles show improved discharge capacity (CVD-coated zinc: 69% zinc utilization, CSD-coated zinc: 62% zinc utilization) as compared to as-received zinc (57% zinc utilization) at C/20 rate, by reducing supersaturation of zincates. Additionally, KOH-modified SiO2-coated zinc particles enhance rechargeability after 100% depth-of-discharge.

  18. Zinc activates damage-sensing TRPA1 ion channels.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongzhen; Bandell, Michael; Petrus, Matt J; Zhu, Michael X; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2009-03-01

    Zinc is an essential biological trace element. It is required for the structure or function of over 300 proteins, and it is increasingly recognized for its role in cell signaling. However, high concentrations of zinc have cytotoxic effects, and overexposure to zinc can cause pain and inflammation through unknown mechanisms. Here we show that zinc excites nociceptive somatosensory neurons and causes nociception in mice through TRPA1, a cation channel previously shown to mediate the pungency of wasabi and cinnamon through cysteine modification. Zinc activates TRPA1 through a unique mechanism that requires zinc influx through TRPA1 channels and subsequent activation via specific intracellular cysteine and histidine residues. TRPA1 is highly sensitive to intracellular zinc, as low nanomolar concentrations activate TRPA1 and modulate its sensitivity. These findings identify TRPA1 as an important target for the sensory effects of zinc and support an emerging role for zinc as a signaling molecule that can modulate sensory transmission.

  19. Zinc and Regulation of Inflammatory Cytokines: Implications for Cardiometabolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Meika; Samman, Samir

    2012-01-01

    In atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus, the concomitant presence of low-grade systemic inflammation and mild zinc deficiency highlights a role for zinc nutrition in the management of chronic disease. This review aims to evaluate the literature that reports on the interactions of zinc and cytokines. In humans, inflammatory cytokines have been shown both to up- and down-regulate the expression of specific cellular zinc transporters in response to an increased demand for zinc in inflammatory conditions. The acute phase response includes a rapid decline in the plasma zinc concentration as a result of the redistribution of zinc into cellular compartments. Zinc deficiency influences the generation of cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α, and in response to zinc supplementation plasma cytokines exhibit a dose-dependent response. The mechanism of action may reflect the ability of zinc to either induce or inhibit the activation of NF-κB. Confounders in understanding the zinc-cytokine relationship on the basis of in vitro experimentation include methodological issues such as the cell type and the means of activating cells in culture. Impaired zinc homeostasis and chronic inflammation feature prominently in a number of cardiometabolic diseases. Given the high prevalence of zinc deficiency and chronic disease globally, the interplay of zinc and inflammation warrants further examination. PMID:22852057

  20. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 80.52 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.52 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) Initial vehicle preconditioning and preconditioning between tests with different fuels shall be performed in...

  1. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 80.52 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.52 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) Initial vehicle preconditioning and preconditioning between tests with different fuels shall be performed in...

  2. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 80.52 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.52 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) Initial vehicle preconditioning and preconditioning between tests with different fuels shall be performed in...

  3. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 80.52 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.52 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) Initial vehicle preconditioning and preconditioning between tests with different fuels shall be performed in...

  4. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 80.52 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.52 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) Initial vehicle preconditioning and preconditioning between tests with different fuels shall be performed in...

  5. 2 CFR 176.80 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exceptions. 176.80 Section 176.80 Grants and... manufactured goods needed in the project. (2) Unreasonable cost. The head of the Federal department or agency... manufactured goods may be used— (1) The award official shall list the excepted materials in the award; and (2...

  6. 2 CFR 176.80 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions. 176.80 Section 176.80 Grants and... manufactured goods needed in the project. (2) Unreasonable cost. The head of the Federal department or agency... manufactured goods may be used— (1) The award official shall list the excepted materials in the award; and (2...

  7. 2 CFR 176.80 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exceptions. 176.80 Section 176.80 Grants and... project. (2) Unreasonable cost. The head of the Federal department or agency may determine that the cost... manufactured goods may be used— (1) The award official shall list the excepted materials in the award; and (2...

  8. 2 CFR 176.80 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exceptions. 176.80 Section 176.80 Grants and... manufactured goods needed in the project. (2) Unreasonable cost. The head of the Federal department or agency... manufactured goods may be used— (1) The award official shall list the excepted materials in the award; and (2...

  9. 44 CFR 80.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 80.3 Section 80.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... reasonably equivalent to cash, for which in all probability the property would have sold on the effective...

  10. 44 CFR 80.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 80.3 Section 80.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... reasonably equivalent to cash, for which in all probability the property would have sold on the effective...

  11. 7 CFR 981.80 - Expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expenses. 981.80 Section 981.80 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  12. 40 CFR 80.167 - Confirmatory testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.167 Confirmatory testing. EPA may test a... national, PADD, or fuel-specific options will generally entail a single vehicle test using the procedures detailed in § 80.165. The test fuel(s) used in conducting confirmatory certification testing will contain...

  13. 40 CFR 80.167 - Confirmatory testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.167 Confirmatory testing. EPA may test a... national, PADD, or fuel-specific options will generally entail a single vehicle test using the procedures detailed in § 80.165. The test fuel(s) used in conducting confirmatory certification testing will contain...

  14. 40 CFR 80.167 - Confirmatory testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.167 Confirmatory testing. EPA may test a... national, PADD, or fuel-specific options will generally entail a single vehicle test using the procedures detailed in § 80.165. The test fuel(s) used in conducting confirmatory certification testing will contain...

  15. 40 CFR 80.167 - Confirmatory testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.167 Confirmatory testing. EPA may test a... national, PADD, or fuel-specific options will generally entail a single vehicle test using the procedures detailed in § 80.165. The test fuel(s) used in conducting confirmatory certification testing will contain...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1103 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 80.1103 Section 80.1103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1081 - Functional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Functional requirements. 80.1081 Section 80.1081 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  18. 47 CFR 80.1105 - Maintenance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maintenance requirements. 80.1105 Section 80.1105 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1081 - Functional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Functional requirements. 80.1081 Section 80.1081 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1103 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 80.1103 Section 80.1103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1105 - Maintenance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maintenance requirements. 80.1105 Section 80.1105 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1081 - Functional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Functional requirements. 80.1081 Section 80.1081 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1105 - Maintenance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maintenance requirements. 80.1105 Section 80.1105 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1105 - Maintenance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maintenance requirements. 80.1105 Section 80.1105 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1103 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 80.1103 Section 80.1103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1103 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 80.1103 Section 80.1103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1081 - Functional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Functional requirements. 80.1081 Section 80.1081 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...

  8. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 80

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Balraj

    Nuclear spectroscopic information for known nuclides of mass number 80 (Cu,Zn,Ga,Ge,As,Se,Br,Kr,Rb,Sr,Y,Zr) with Z = 29 to 40 and N = 51 to 40 have been evaluated and presented together with adopted energies and J{pi} of levels in these nuclei. No excited state data are yet available for {sup 80}Cu and {sup 80}Zn. In {sup 80}Sr, four superdeformed bands have been reported. The half-life of fully-ionized {sup 80}Y isomer at 228.5 keV has been measured as 6.8 s 5, as compared to 4.8 s 3 for the neutral atom. This evaluation supersedes previous full evaluations of A = 80 published bymore » 1982Si20 and 1975Gr19, a midstream evaluation of A = 80 published in 'up-date mode' by 1992Si19, and an update of {sup 80}Y nuclide for ENSDF by J.K. Tuli in August 2003.« less

  9. 32 CFR 935.80 - Subpoenas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Subpoenas. 935.80 Section 935.80 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS... issue a subpoena commanding the person to whom it is directed to produce the books, papers, documents...

  10. 32 CFR 935.80 - Subpoenas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subpoenas. 935.80 Section 935.80 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS... issue a subpoena commanding the person to whom it is directed to produce the books, papers, documents...

  11. 32 CFR 935.80 - Subpoenas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Subpoenas. 935.80 Section 935.80 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS... issue a subpoena commanding the person to whom it is directed to produce the books, papers, documents...

  12. 44 CFR 80.13 - Application information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application information. 80... ACQUISITION AND RELOCATION FOR OPEN SPACE Requirements Prior to Award § 80.13 Application information. (a) An... the property owner is a National of the United States or qualified alien; and (7) Other information as...

  13. 27 CFR 555.80 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Court review. 555.80... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES License and Permit Proceedings § 555.80 Court review. An applicant, licensee, or permittee may, within 60 days after receipt of the decision of...

  14. 42 CFR 460.80 - Fiscal soundness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fiscal soundness. 460.80 Section 460.80 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE...

  15. 42 CFR 460.80 - Fiscal soundness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscal soundness. 460.80 Section 460.80 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE...

  16. 2 CFR 176.80 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exceptions. 176.80 Section 176.80 Grants and... project. (2) Unreasonable cost. The head of the Federal department or agency may determine that the cost... manufactured goods may be used— (1) The award official shall list the excepted materials in the award; and (2...

  17. 46 CFR 133.80 - Emergency instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency instructions. 133.80 Section 133.80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS... emergency. (b) Emergency instructions. Illustrations and instructions in English and any other appropriate...

  18. 47 CFR 80.757 - Topographical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Topographical data. 80.757 Section 80.757 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE..., Riverdale, MD 20840. (b) In lieu of maps, the average terrain elevation may be computer generated, using...

  19. 47 CFR 80.757 - Topographical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Topographical data. 80.757 Section 80.757 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE..., Riverdale, MD 20840. (b) In lieu of maps, the average terrain elevation may be computer generated, using...

  20. 47 CFR 80.757 - Topographical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Topographical data. 80.757 Section 80.757 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE..., Riverdale, MD 20840. (b) In lieu of maps, the average terrain elevation may be computer generated, using...