Science.gov

Sample records for zinc attenuate serotonin

  1. Central l-proline attenuates stress-induced dopamine and serotonin metabolism in the chick forebrain.

    PubMed

    Hamasu, Kousuke; Shigemi, Kazutaka; Kabuki, Yusuke; Tomonaga, Shozo; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2009-08-21

    Using microdialysis, we investigated the effect of l-proline on monoamine release in the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) of freely moving and restricted chicks. A 30 min handling-stress resulted in a significant increase in extracellular homovallinic acid (HVA), a dopamine metabolite, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a serotonin metabolite, in the MNH. l-Proline, perfused through the microdialysis probe into the MNH during the stressed condition, significantly attenuated the average dialysate concentration of HVA produced by handling-stress. Handling-stress resulted in a significant increase in 5-HIAA levels in the control group, which were attenuated by profusion with l-proline. l-Proline did not significantly modify basal concentrations of HVA or 5-HIAA in the MNH during control conditions. These results show that perfusion of l-proline modified the turnover/metabolism of dopamine and serotonin in the MNH caused by handling-stress.

  2. Attenuation of hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation by low micromolar concentrations of zinc.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Kanno, Shingo; Sakurada, Naomi; Ando, Masaki; Oku, Naoto

    2008-10-01

    The role of zinc in long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses is controversial because of the contrary results obtained when using zinc chelators. On the basis of the postulation that exogenous zinc enhances the action of zinc released from mossy fibers, mossy fiber LTP after tetanic stimulation (100 Hz, 1 sec) was checked in the presence of exogenous zinc at low micromolar concentrations. Mossy fiber LTP was significantly attenuated in the presence of 5-30 microM ZnCl(2), and the amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials 60 min after tetanic stimulation was decreased to almost the basal level. Mossy fiber LTP was also attenuated in the presence of 5 microM ZnCl(2) 5 min after tetanic stimulation. The present study is the first to demonstrate that low micromolar concentrations of zinc attenuate mossy fiber LTP. When mossy fiber LTP was induced in the presence of CaEDTA and ZnAF-2 DA, a membrane-impermeable and a membrane-permeable zinc chelator, respectively, extracellular and intracellular chelation of zinc enhanced a transient posttetanic potentiation (PTP) without altering LTP. It is likely that zinc released by tetanic stimulation is immediately taken up into the mossy fibers and attenuates mossy fiber PTP. These results suggest that attenuation of PTP rather than LTP at mossy fiber synapses is a more physiological role for endogenous zinc. Targeting molecules of zinc in mossy fiber LTP seem to be different between during and after LTP induction because of the differential synaptic activity between them. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Anteroventral Third Ventricle Lesions Attenuate Pressor Responses to Serotonin in Anesthetized Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muntzel, Martin S.; Lewis, Stephen J.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    1996-01-01

    When administered intravenously, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) evokes a triphasic blood pressure response, consisting of the Bezold-Jarisch-associated depressor response, a pressor action, and long-lasting depressor response. Because the pressor response may, in part, be caused by central nervous system (CNS) activation by 5-HT, we predicted that destruction of the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region, an area rich in 5-HT receptors, would attenuate increases in blood pressure to intravenous 5-HT. In anesthetized sham-lesioned and AV3V-lesioned Sprague-Dawley rats. we measured mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to increasing bolus doses of intravenous 5-HT (1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25 microg/kg), before and after blockade of bradycardia using methylatropine (200 microg/kg). In all rats, bolus injections of 5-HT elicited bradycardia accompanied by a fall in lumbar SNA and an initial hypotension followed by a pressor response and a longer lasting hypotensive response. The bradycardia, reduction in lumbar SNA, and both depressor responses were equivalent in sham-lesioned and AV3V-lesioned groups. Importantly, AV3V lesions attenuated pressor responses to increasing doses of 5-HT (3 +/- 1, 6 +/- 4, 6 +/- 4, 17 +/- 4, 35 +/- 3 mmHg) compared to sham-lesioned controls (6 +/- 3, 16 +/- 7, 33 +/- 5, 54 +/- 4, 51 +/- 6 mmHg; P < 0.0001). This attenuation was conserved following blockade of bradycardia with methylatropine (P < 0.01). In summary, pressor responses to intravenous 5-HT are diminished by AV3V lesions. These data indicate that the pressor component of the blood pressure response to intravenous 5-HT is partly dependent upon interaction with the CNS.

  4. Zinc-mediated attenuation of hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation induced by forskolin.

    PubMed

    Ando, Masaki; Oku, Naoto; Takeda, Atsushi

    2010-11-01

    The rise in presynaptic calcium induced by high-frequency stimulation activates the calcium-calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase (AC) 1 followed by the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) at the hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. Zinc is released with glutamate from mossy fiber terminals. However, the role of the zinc in mossy fiber LTP is controversial. In the present study, the mechanism of zinc-mediated attenuation of mossy fiber LTP was examined in that induced by forskolin, an AC activator. Mossy fiber LTP induced by tetanic stimulation (100 Hz for 1 s) was attenuated in the presence of 5 microM ZnCl(2), whereas that induced by forskolin under test stimulation (0.1 Hz) was not attenuated. Forskolin-induced mossy fiber LTP was attenuated by perfusion with 100 microM ZnCl(2) prior to the induction. However, the zinc (100 microM) pre-perfusion did not attenuate mossy fiber LTP induced by Sp-cAMPS, an activator of protein kinase A, under test stimulation. Zinc is necessary to be taken up into mossy fiber boutons for effectively inhibiting AC activity. In hippocampal slices labeled with ZnAF-2 DA, a membrane-permeable zinc indicator, intracellular ZnAF-2 signal was increased during tetanic stimulation in the presence of 5 microM ZnCl(2), but not under test stimulation. Intracellular ZnAF-2 signal was increased under test stimulation in the presence of 100 microM ZnCl(2). These results suggest that zinc taken up into mossy fibers attenuates forskolin-induced mossy fiber LTP via inhibition of AC activity. The significance of endogenous zinc uptake by mossy fibers is discussed focused on tetanus-induced mossy fiber LTP. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Reduced Zinc Diet or Zinc Transporter 3 Knockout Attenuate Light Induced Zinc Accumulation and Retinal Degeneration△

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Shi; Sheline, Carolyn R.; Zhou, Yongdong; Sheline, Christian T.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study on retinal light exposure suggests the involvement of zinc (Zn2+) toxicity in the death of RPE and photoreceptors (LD) which could be attenuated by pyruvate and nicotinamide, perhaps through restoration of NAD+ levels. In the present study, we examined Zn2+ toxicity, and the effects of NAD+ restoration in primary retinal cultures. We then reduced Zn2+ levels in rodents by reducing Zn2+ levels in the diet, or by genetics and measured LD. Sprague Dawley albino rats were fed 2, or 61 mg Zn2+/kg of diet for 3 weeks, and exposed to 18 kLux of white light for 4h. We light exposed (70 kLux of white light for 50h) Zn2+ transporter 3 knockout (ZnT3-KO, no synaptic Zn2+), or RPE65 knockout mice (RPE65-KO, lack rhodopsin cycling), or C57/BI6/J controls and determined light damage and Zn2+ staining. Retinal Zn2+ staining was examined at 1h and 4h after light exposure. Retinas were examined after 7d by optical coherence tomography and histology. After LD, rats fed the reduced Zn2+ diet showed less photoreceptor Zn2+ staining and degeneration compared to a normal Zn2+ diet. Similarly, ZnT3-KO and RPE65-KO mice showed less Zn2+ staining, NAD+ loss, and RPE or photoreceptor death than C57/BI6/J control mice. Dietary or ZnT3-dependent Zn2+ stores, and intracellular Zn2+ release from rhodopsin recycling are suggested to be involved in light-induced retinal degeneration. These results implicate novel rhodopsin-mediated mechanisms and therapeutic targets for LD. Our companion manuscript demonstrates that pharmacologic, circadian, or genetic manipulations which maintain NAD+ levels reduce LD. PMID:23274584

  6. Taurine zinc solid dispersions attenuate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan

    2015-11-15

    The clinical efficacy of anthracycline anti-neoplastic agents is limited by cardiac and hepatic toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects of taurine zinc solid dispersions, which is a newly-synthesized taurine zinc compound, against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3 mg/kg) three times a week (seven injections) over 28 days. Hemodynamic parameters, levels of liver toxicity markers and oxidative stress were assessed. Taurine zinc significantly attenuated the reductions in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and ± dp/dtmax, increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and reductions inmore » serum Zn{sup 2+} and albumin levels (P < 0.05 or 0.01) induced by doxorubicin. In rats treated with doxorubicin, taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and decreased malondialdehyde level (P < 0.01). qBase{sup +} was used to evaluate the stability of eight candidate reference genes for real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver heme oxygenase-1 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase mRNA and protein expression (P < 0.01). Western blotting demonstrated that taurine zinc inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation by upregulating dual-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Additionally, taurine zinc inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis as there was decreased TUNEL/DAPI positivity and protein expression of caspase-3. These results indicate that taurine zinc solid dispersions prevent the side-effects of anthracycline-based anticancer therapy. The mechanisms might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system partly through activating transcription to synthesize endogenous phase II medicine enzymes and anti-apoptosis through inhibiting JNK phosphorylation

  7. Taurine zinc solid dispersions attenuate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lu, Wenping; Li, Binglong; Xu, Donghui

    2015-11-15

    The clinical efficacy of anthracycline anti-neoplastic agents is limited by cardiac and hepatic toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects of taurine zinc solid dispersions, which is a newly-synthesized taurine zinc compound, against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3mg/kg) three times a week (seven injections) over 28 days. Hemodynamic parameters, levels of liver toxicity markers and oxidative stress were assessed. Taurine zinc significantly attenuated the reductions in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and ± dp/dtmax, increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and reductions in serum Zn(2+) and albumin levels (P<0.05 or 0.01) induced by doxorubicin. In rats treated with doxorubicin, taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and decreased malondialdehyde level (P<0.01). qBase(+) was used to evaluate the stability of eight candidate reference genes for real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver heme oxygenase-1 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase mRNA and protein expression (P<0.01). Western blotting demonstrated that taurine zinc inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation by upregulating dual-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Additionally, taurine zinc inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis as there was decreased TUNEL/DAPI positivity and protein expression of caspase-3. These results indicate that taurine zinc solid dispersions prevent the side-effects of anthracycline-based anticancer therapy. The mechanisms might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system partly through activating transcription to synthesize endogenous phase II medicine enzymes and anti-apoptosis through inhibiting JNK phosphorylation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  8. Natural Attenuation of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Zinc Using Hydrograph Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, J. E.; Peters, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    Strategies for remediating contaminated sites range from complete removal of the contaminated soil to in-situ monitored natural attenuation. The decision to let a property naturally attenuate is partially based on the estimated time it will take to return to ambient conditions. The Lehigh Gap Wildlife Refuge at Palmerton, PA was historically contaminated with arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc from a zinc smelting operation that ceased emissions twenty-nine years ago. This property provides an opportunity to assess whether the length of time required for the natural attenuation of metals in soil has been achieved using a watershed mass balance approach, focusing particularly on perturbations observed in the concentration-discharge relationships of contaminants compared to the conservative tracers sodium and chloride, and silicon as an indicator of rock-water interactions. Water samples were collected from 3 springs in the Wildlife Refuge for approximately 4 days following the onset of storm events and analyzed for cation and anion concentrations. Preliminary results show that while the concentrations of arsenic and lead were below detection limits, the fluxes of zinc and cadmium increase corresponding with the peak in the hydrograph relative to the fluxes of the tracers, indicating the solutes are being released from adsorption sites located in an unsaturated zone that is temporarily inundated during storm events. In comparison, the flux of the tracers remains constant, indicative of a steady-state leakage of the solutes from their respective reservoirs in the soil. Along with flux, the concentrations of zinc and cadmium also increase following the rise in discharge after storm events, further suggesting that these contaminants are being mobilized out of the soil profile.

  9. Auraptenol attenuates vincristine-induced mechanical hyperalgesia through serotonin 5-HT1A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunfei; Cao, Shu-e; Tian, Jianmin; Liu, Guozhe; Zhang, Xiaoran; Li, Pingfa

    2013-01-01

    Common chemotherapeutic agents such as vincristine often cause neuropathic pain during cancer treatment in patients. Such neuropathic pain is refractory to common analgesics and represents a challenging clinical issue. Angelicae dahuricae radix is an old traditional Chinese medicine with demonstrated analgesic efficacy in humans. However, the active component(s) that attribute to the analgesic action have not been identified. This work described the anti-hyperalgesic effect of one coumarin component, auraptenol, in a mouse model of chemotherapeutic agent vincristine-induced neuropathic pain. We reported that auraptenol dose-dependently reverted the mechanical hyperalgesia in mice within the dose range of 0.05–0.8 mg/kg. In addition, the anti-hyperalgesic effect of auraptenol was significantly blocked by a selective serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (1 mg/kg). Within the dose range studied, auraptenol did not significantly alter the general locomotor activity in mice. Taken together, this study for the first time identified an active component from the herbal medicine angelicae dahuricae radix that possesses robust analgesic efficacy in mice. These data support further studies to assess the potential of auraptenol as a novel analgesic for the management of neuropathic pain. PMID:24287473

  10. Chronic central serotonin depletion attenuates ventilation and body temperature in young but not adult Tph2 knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Kara; Echert, Ashley E; Massat, Ben; Puissant, Madeleine M; Palygin, Oleg; Geurts, Aron M; Hodges, Matthew R

    2016-05-01

    Genetic deletion of brain serotonin (5-HT) neurons in mice leads to ventilatory deficits and increased neonatal mortality during development. However, it is unclear if the loss of the 5-HT neurons or the loss of the neurochemical 5-HT led to the observed physiologic deficits. Herein, we generated a mutant rat model with constitutive central nervous system (CNS) 5-HT depletion by mutation of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) gene in dark agouti (DA(Tph2-/-)) rats. DA(Tph2-/-) rats lacked TPH immunoreactivity and brain 5-HT but retain dopa decarboxylase-expressing raphe neurons. Mutant rats were also smaller, had relatively high mortality (∼50%), and compared with controls had reduced room air ventilation and body temperatures at specific postnatal ages. In adult rats, breathing at rest and hypoxic and hypercapnic chemoreflexes were unaltered in adult male and female DA(Tph2-/-) rats. Body temperature was also maintained in adult DA(Tph2-/-) rats exposed to 4°C, indicating unaltered ventilatory and/or thermoregulatory control mechanisms. Finally, DA(Tph2-/-) rats treated with the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) partially restored CNS 5-HT and showed increased ventilation (P < 0.05) at a developmental age when it was otherwise attenuated in the mutants. We conclude that constitutive CNS production of 5-HT is critically important to fundamental homeostatic control systems for breathing and temperature during postnatal development in the rat. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Chronic central serotonin depletion attenuates ventilation and body temperature in young but not adult Tph2 knockout rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Kara; Echert, Ashley E.; Massat, Ben; Puissant, Madeleine M.; Palygin, Oleg; Geurts, Aron M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic deletion of brain serotonin (5-HT) neurons in mice leads to ventilatory deficits and increased neonatal mortality during development. However, it is unclear if the loss of the 5-HT neurons or the loss of the neurochemical 5-HT led to the observed physiologic deficits. Herein, we generated a mutant rat model with constitutive central nervous system (CNS) 5-HT depletion by mutation of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) gene in dark agouti (DATph2−/−) rats. DATph2−/− rats lacked TPH immunoreactivity and brain 5-HT but retain dopa decarboxylase-expressing raphe neurons. Mutant rats were also smaller, had relatively high mortality (∼50%), and compared with controls had reduced room air ventilation and body temperatures at specific postnatal ages. In adult rats, breathing at rest and hypoxic and hypercapnic chemoreflexes were unaltered in adult male and female DATph2−/− rats. Body temperature was also maintained in adult DATph2−/− rats exposed to 4°C, indicating unaltered ventilatory and/or thermoregulatory control mechanisms. Finally, DATph2−/− rats treated with the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) partially restored CNS 5-HT and showed increased ventilation (P < 0.05) at a developmental age when it was otherwise attenuated in the mutants. We conclude that constitutive CNS production of 5-HT is critically important to fundamental homeostatic control systems for breathing and temperature during postnatal development in the rat. PMID:26869713

  12. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  13. Coadministration of puerarin (low dose) and zinc attenuates bone loss and suppresses bone marrow adiposity in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Li, Wei; Ge, Xiyuan; Jia, Shengnan; Li, Binbin

    2016-12-01

    Puerarin is a phytoestrogen that shows osteogenic effects. Meanwhile, zinc stimulates bone formation and inhibits bone resorption. The study aims to investigate the effects of coadministration of puerarin (low dose) and zinc on bone formation in ovariectomized rats. Co-administration or use alone of puerarin (low dose) and/or zinc were gavaged in OVX rats. The estrogen-like effects were detected by the uterus weight, the histologic observation and the IGF-1 protein expression. The osteogenic effects were determined by bone histomorphometric and mechanical parameters, osteogenic and adipogenic blood markers, and so on. The results showed that oral administration of puerarin (low dose) plus zinc didn't significantly increase uterus weight. The glandular epithelial of endometrium had no proliferation and no protein expression of IGF-1. Moreover, co-administration attenuated bone loss and biomechanical decrease more than single use of puerarin or zinc (p<0.05). Next, combined administration of puerarin and zinc promoted the serological level of osteocalcin, bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) proliferation, and the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and suppressed the serological level of adiponectin and adiposity in bone marrow (BM). In conclusion, co-administrated puerarin (low dose) and zinc can partially reverse OVX-induced bone loss and suppress the adiposity of BM in rats, which shed light on the potential use of puerarin and zinc in the treatment of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Decrease in serotonin concentration in raphe magnus nucleus and attenuation of morphine analgesia in two mice models of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Sounvoravong, Sourisak; Nakashima, Mihoko N; Wada, Mitsuhiro; Nakashima, Kenichiro

    2004-01-26

    The alleviation of neuropathic pain cannot be satisfactorily achieved by treatment with opioids. There is much evidence to indicate that the active site of morphine for inducing effective analgesia is in the raphe magnus nucleus, where serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) acts as a primary transmitter. Therefore, we developed the hypothesis that 5-HT released in the raphe magnus nucleus could be related to the effectiveness of morphine in two mice models of neuropathic pain, diabetic (DM)-induced neuropathy and sciatic nerve ligation (SL). Two weeks after a single administration of streptozotocin, or 10 days after sciatic nerve ligation, mice were subcutaneously (s.c.) injected with morphine at 3, 5 and 10 mg/kg. The antinociceptive effect of morphine was estimated in the tail-pinch test; 5-HT content was measured after induction of neuropathic pain by microdialysis followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Morphine produced as insufficient antinociceptive effect in SL mice at all doses compared with that in sham-operated mice, while in DM mice, morphine given s.c. at 5 and 10 mg/kg produced antinociceptive effects compared with those in non-diabetic mice, but not at 3 mg/kg. The 5-HT content of dialysates, expressed as AUC for 75 min, in SL and DM mice was less than that in control mice. However, morphine given s.c. at 5 mg/kg did not significantly affect 5-HT levels in both mice models compared to their controls. These results suggest that the decrease in 5-HT levels in the raphe magnus nucleus may be related to attenuation of the analgesic effect of morphine caused by the abnormal pain state found in diabetes and partial peripheral nerve injury.

  15. Beneficial effect of zinc chloride and zinc ionophore pyrithione on attenuated cardioprotective potential of preconditioning phenomenon in STZ-induced diabetic rat heart.

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Sumit; Kumar, Kushal; Reddy, B V Krishna

    2016-05-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is well demonstrated to produce cardioprotection by phosphorylation and subsequent inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSk-3β) in the normal rat heart, but its effect is attenuated in the diabetic rat heart. This study was designed to investigate the effect of zinc chloride and zinc ionophore pyrithione (ZIP) on the attenuated cardioprotective potential of IPC in the diabetic rat heart. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg; i.p). The isolated perfused rat heart was subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size was estimated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and cardiac injury was measured by estimating lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) in the coronary effluent. Also, GSK-3β was measured and neutrophil accumulation was measured by estimating myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels. IPC significantly decreased the myocardial infarct size, the release of LDH and CK-MB, the GSK-3β levels and the MPO levels in the normal rat heart. Pre- and post-ischemic treatment with zinc chloride and zinc ionophore pyrithione (ZIP) in the normal and diabetic rat hearts significantly decreased the myocardial infarct size, the level of CK-MB and LDH in the coronary effluent and GSK-3β and MPO levels. Our results suggest that pharmacological preconditioning with zinc chloride and ZIP significantly restored the attenuated cardioprotective potential of IPC in the diabetic rat heart. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Zinc deficiency exacerbates while zinc supplement attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in high-fat diet-induced obese mice through modulating p38 MAPK-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shudong; Luo, Manyu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Gu, Junlian; Chen, Jing; Payne, Kristen McClung; Tan, Yi; Wang, Yuehui; Yin, Xia; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Gilbert C; Wintergerst, Kupper; Liu, Quan; Zheng, Yang; Cai, Lu

    2016-09-06

    Childhood obesity often leads to cardiovascular diseases, such as obesity-related cardiac hypertrophy (ORCH), in adulthood, due to chronic cardiac inflammation. Zinc is structurally and functionally essential for many transcription factors; however, its role in ORCH and underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear and were explored here in mice with obesity induced with high-fat diet (HFD). Four week old mice were fed on either HFD (60%kcal fat) or normal diet (ND, 10% kcal fat) for 3 or 6 months, respectively. Either diet contained one of three different zinc quantities: deficiency (ZD, 10mg zinc per 4057kcal), normal (ZN, 30mg zinc per 4057kcal) or supplement (ZS, 90mg zinc per 4057kcal). HFD induced a time-dependent obesity and ORCH, which was accompanied by increased cardiac inflammation and p38 MAPK activation. These effects were worsened by ZD in HFD/ZD mice and attenuated by ZS in HFD/ZS group, respectively. Also, administration of a p38 MAPK specific inhibitor in HFD mice for 3 months did not affect HFD-induced obesity, but completely abolished HFD-induced, and zinc deficiency-worsened, ORCH and cardiac inflammation. In vitro exposure of adult cardiomyocytes to palmitate induced cell hypertrophy accompanied by increased p38 MAPK activation, which was heightened by zinc depletion with its chelator TPEN. Inhibition of p38 MAPK with its specific siRNA also prevented the effects of palmitate on cardiomyocytes. These findings demonstrate that ZS alleviates but ZD heightens cardiac hypertrophy in HFD-induced obese mice through suppressing p38 MAPK-dependent cardiac inflammatory and hypertrophic pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Zinc attenuates forskolin-stimulated electrolyte secretion without involvement of the enteric nervous system in small intestinal epithelium from weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zike; Carlson, Dorthe; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2006-11-01

    In a previous study, we found that secretagogue-stimulated electrolyte secretion was attenuated by dietary and serosal zinc in piglet small intestinal epithelium in Ussing chambers. Several studies show that the enteric nervous system (ENS) is involved in regulation of electrolyte and/or fluid transport in intestinal epithelium from many species. The aim of the present study is to examine the mechanisms behind the attenuating effect of zinc on electrolyte secretion and to study whether the ENS is involved in this effect of zinc in vitro. Twenty-four piglets (six litters of four piglets) were allocated randomly to one of two dietary treatments consisting of a basic diet supplemented with 100 mg zinc/kg (Zn(100)) or 2500 mg zinc/kg (Zn(2500)), as ZnO. All the piglets were killed at 5-6 days after weaning and in vitro experiments with small intestinal epithelium in Ussing chambers were carried out. Furthermore, zinc, copper, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and metallothionein (MT) in mucosa, liver, and plasma were measured. These measurements showed that zinc status was increased in the Zn(2500) compared to the Zn(100) fed piglets. The in vitro studies did not confirm previous findings of attenuating effects of dietary zinc and zinc in vitro on the 5-HT induced secretion. But it showed that the addition of zinc at the serosal side attenuated the forskolin (FSK) (cAMP-dependent) induced ion secretion in epithelium from piglets fed with Zn(100) diet. Blocking the ENS with lidocaine or hexamethonium apparently slightly reduced this effect of zinc in vitro, but did not remove the effect of zinc. Consequently, it is suggested that zinc attenuates the cAMP dependent ion secretion mainly due to an effect on epithelial cells rather than affecting the mucosal neuronal pathway.

  18. The 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuates stress-induced anorexia in conjunction with the suppression of hypothalamic serotonin release in rats.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, N; Hori, T; Ogino, C; Kawanishi, T; Hayashi, Y

    2000-12-22

    The effect of the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) on stress-induced anorexia and serotonin (5-HT) release in the rat hypothalamus was studied with brain microdialysis. Subcutaneous injection of 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the immobilization-induced anorexia for 3 h, but had no effect during the following 9 h. Injection of 8-OH-DPAT itself had no effect on basal release of 5-HT, while it significantly blocked the immobilization-induced 5-HT release in the lateral hypothalamus. The results suggest that 8-OH-DPAT attenuated the stress-induced anorexia through the activation of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors in dorsal raphe nucleus.

  19. Zinc sulfide and zinc selenide immersion gratings for astronomical high-resolution spectroscopy: evaluation of internal attenuation of bulk materials in the short near-infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kondo, Sohei; Yasui, Chikako; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Tokoro, Hitoshi; Terada, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    We measure the internal attenuation of bulk crystals of chemical vapor deposition zinc selenide (CVD-ZnS), chemical vapor deposition zinc sulfide (CVD-ZnSe), Si, and GaAs in the short near-infrared (sNIR) region to evaluate the possibility of astronomical immersion gratings with those high refractive index materials. We confirm that multispectral grade CVD-ZnS and CVD-ZnSe are best suited for the immersion gratings, with the smallest internal attenuation of αatt=0.01 to 0.03 cm-1 among the major candidates. The measured attenuation is roughly in proportion to λ-2, suggesting it is dominated by bulk scattering due to the polycrystalline grains rather than by absorption. The total transmittance in the immersion grating is estimated to be at least >80%, even for the spectral resolution of R=300,000. Two potential problems, the scattered light by the bulk material and the degradation of the spectral resolution due to the gradient illumination in the diffracted beam, are investigated and found to be negligible for usual astronomical applications. Since the remaining problem, the difficulty of cutting grooves on CVD-ZnS and CVD-ZnSe, has recently been overcome by the nanoprecision fly-cutting technique, ZnS and ZnSe immersion gratings for astronomy can be technically realized.

  20. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  1. Zinc

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  2. Increased ethanol preference and serotonin 1A receptor-dependent attenuation of ethanol-induced hypothermia in PACAP-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Kunishige-Yamamoto, Akiko; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Shintani, Norihito; Hayata, Atsuko; Baba, Akemichi

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-deficient mice display remarkable behavioral changes including increased novelty-seeking behavior and reduced hypothermia induced by either serotonin (5-HT)(1A) receptor agonists or ethanol. Because 5-HT(1A) receptors have been implicated in the development of alcohol dependence, we have examined ethanol preference in PACAP-deficient mice using a two-bottle choice and a conditioned place preference test, as well as additive effects of ethanol and 5-HT(1A) receptor agents on hypothermia. PACAP-deficient mice showed an increased preference towards ethanol compared with wild-type mice. However, they showed no preference for the ethanol compartment after conditioning and neither preference nor aversion to sucrose or quinine. The 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) restored the attenuated hypothermic response to ethanol in the mutants to similar levels in wild-type mice, with no effect in wild-types. In contrast, the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY-100635 attenuated the ethanol-induced hypothermia in wild-type mice, with no effect in the mutants. These results demonstrate increased ethanol preference in PACAP-deficient mice that may be mediated by 5-HT(1A) receptor-dependent attenuation of ethanol-induced central inhibition. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mitochondrial inhibitor models of Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease induce zinc accumulation and are attenuated by inhibition of zinc neurotoxicity in vitro or in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sheline, Christian T; Zhu, Julia; Zhang, Wendy; Shi, Chunxiao; Cai, Ai-Li

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of mitochondrial function occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases, and inhibitors of mitochondrial complexes I and II are used to model them. The complex II inhibitor, 3-nitroproprionic acid (3-NPA), kills the striatal neurons susceptible in Huntington's disease. The complex I inhibitor N-methyl-4-phenylpyridium (MPP(+)) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) are used to model Parkinson's disease. Zinc (Zn(2+)) accumulates after 3-NPA, 6-OHDA and MPP(+) in situ or in vivo. We will investigate the role of Zn(2+) neurotoxicity in 3-NPA, 6-OHDA and MPP(+). Murine striatal/midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase positive, or near-pure cortical neuronal cultures, or animals were exposed to 3-NPA or MPP(+) and 6-OHDA with or without neuroprotective compounds. Intracellular zinc ([Zn(2+)](i)), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), NADH, glycolytic intermediates and neurotoxicity were measured. We showed that compounds or genetics which restore NAD(+) and attenuate Zn(2+) neurotoxicity (pyruvate, nicotinamide, NAD(+), increased NAD(+) synthesis, sirtuin inhibition or Zn(2+) chelation) attenuated the neuronal death induced by these toxins. The increase in [Zn(2+)](i) preceded a reduction in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio that caused a reversible glycolytic inhibition. Pyruvate, nicotinamide and NAD(+) reversed the reductions in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, glycolysis and neuronal death after challenge with 3-NPA, 6-OHDA or MPP(+), as was previously shown for exogenous Zn(2+). To test efficacy in vivo, we injected 3-NPA into the striatum of rats and systemically into mice, with or without pyruvate. We observed early striatal Zn(2+) fluorescence, and pyruvate significantly attenuated the 3-NPA-induced lesion and restored behavioral scores. Together, these studies suggest that Zn(2+) accumulation caused by MPP(+) and 3-NPA is a novel preventable mechanism of the resultant neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Serotonin Reuptake Transporter Deficiency Modulates the Acute Thermoregulatory and Locomotor Activity Response to 3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and Attenuates Depletions in Serotonin Levels in SERT-KO Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lizarraga, Lucina E.; Phan, Andy V.; Cholanians, Aram B.; Herndon, Joseph M.; Lau, Serrine S.; Monks, Terrence J.

    2014-01-01

    3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a ring-substituted amphetamine derivative with potent psychostimulant properties. The neuropharmacological effects of MDMA are biphasic in nature, initially causing synaptic monoamine release, primarily of serotonin (5-HT), inducing thermogenesis and hyperactivity (5-HT syndrome). The long-term effects of MDMA manifest as a prolonged depletion in 5-HT, and structural damage to 5-HT nerve terminals. MDMA toxicity is in part mediated by an ability to inhibit the presynaptic 5-HT reuptake transporter (SERT). Using a SERT-knockout (SERT-KO) rat model, we determined the impact of SERT deficiency on thermoregulation, locomotor activity, and neurotoxicity in SERT-KO or Wistar-based wild-type (WT) rats exposed to MDMA. WT and SERT-KO animals exhibited the highest thermogenic responses to MDMA (four times 10 mg/kg, sc at 12 h intervals) during the diurnal (first and third) doses according to peak body temperature and area under the curve (∑°C × h) analysis. Although no differences in peak body temperature were observed between MDMA-treated WT and SERT-KO animals, ∑°C × h following the first MDMA dose was reduced in SERT-KO rats. Exposure to a single dose of MDMA stimulated horizontal velocity in both WT and SERT-KO rats, however, this effect was delayed and attenuated in the KO animals. Finally, SERT-KO rats were insensitive to MDMA-induced long-term (7 days) depletions in 5-HT and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, in both cortex and striatum. In conclusion, SERT deficiency modulated MDMA-mediated thermogenesis, hyperactivity and neurotoxicity in KO rats. The data confirm that the SERT is essential for the manifestation of the acute and long-term toxicities of MDMA. PMID:24595820

  5. Iron Sulfide Attenuates the Methanogenic Toxicity of Elemental Copper and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and their Soluble Metal Ion Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Gallagher, Sara; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A.

    2016-01-01

    Elemental copper (Cu0) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle (NP) toxicity to methanogens has been attributed to the release of soluble metal ions. Iron sulfide (FeS) partially controls the soluble concentration of heavy metals and their toxicity in aquatic environments. Heavy metals displace the Fe from FeS forming poorly soluble metal sulfides in the FeS matrix. Therefore, FeS may be expected to attenuate the NP toxicity. This work assessed FeS as an attenuator of the methanogenic toxicity of Cu0 and ZnO NPs and their soluble salt analogs. The toxicity attenuation capacity of fine (25–75 µm) and coarse (500 to 1200 µm) preparations of FeS (FeS-f and FeS-c respectively) was tested in the presence of highly inhibitory concentrations of CuCl2, ZnCl2 Cu0 and ZnO NPs. FeS-f attenuated methanogenic toxicity better than FeS-c. The results revealed that 2.5× less FeS-f than FeS-c was required to recover the methanogenic activity to 50% (activity normalized to uninhibited controls). The results also indicated that a molar FeS-f/Cu0 NP, FeS-f/ZnO NP, FeS-f/ZnCl2, and FeS-f/CuCl2 ratio of 2.14, 2.14, 4.28, and 8.56 respectively, was necessary to recover the methanogenic activity to >75%. Displacement experiments demonstrated that CuCl2 and ZnCl2 partially displaced Fe from FeS. As a whole, the results indicate that not all the sulfide in FeS was readily available to react with the soluble Cu and Zn ions which may explain the need for a large stoichiometric excesses of FeS to highly attenuate Cu and Zn toxicity. Overall, this study provides evidence that FeS attenuates the toxicity caused by Cu0 and ZnO NPs and their soluble ion analogs to methanogens. PMID:26803736

  6. Attenuation of oxidative stress and cardioprotective effects of zinc supplementation in experimental diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Barman, Susmita; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2017-02-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, which further exacerbates damage of cardiac, hepatic and other tissues. We have recently reported that Zn supplementation beneficially modulates hyperglycaemia and hypoinsulinaemia, with attendant reduction of associated metabolic abnormalities in diabetic rats. The present study assessed the potential of Zn supplementation in modulating oxidative stress and cardioprotective effects in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats with streptozotocin, and groups of diabetic rats were treated with 5- and 10-fold dietary Zn interventions (0·19 and 0·38 g Zn/kg diet) for 6 weeks. The markers of oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activities and concentrations of antioxidant molecules, lipid profile, and expressions of fibrosis and pro-apoptotic factors in the cardiac tissue were particularly assessed. Supplemental Zn showed significant attenuation of diabetes-induced oxidative stress in terms of altered antioxidant enzyme activities and increased the concentrations of antioxidant molecules. Hypercholesterolaemia and hyperlipidaemia were also significantly countered by Zn supplementation. Along with attenuated oxidative stress, Zn supplementation also showed significant cardioprotective effects by altering the mRNA expressions of fibrosis and pro-apoptotic factors (by >50 %). The expression of lipid oxidative marker 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) protein in cardiac tissue of diabetic animals was rectified (68 %) by Zn supplementation. Elevated cardiac and hepatic markers in circulation and pathological abnormalities in cardiac and hepatic tissue architecture of diabetic animals were ameliorated by dietary Zn intervention. The present study indicates that Zn supplementation can attenuate diabetes-induced oxidative stress in circulation as well as in cardiac and hepatic tissues.

  7. Serotonin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol ... Semen Analysis Serotonin Serum Free Light Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin ... Transferrin Receptor Stool Culture Stool Elastase Strep ...

  8. High accuracy experimental determination of copper and zinc mass attenuation coefficients in the 100 eV to 30 keV photon energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménesguen, Y.; Gerlach, M.; Pollakowski, B.; Unterumsberger, R.; Haschke, M.; Beckhoff, B.; Lépy, M.-C.

    2016-02-01

    The knowledge of atomic fundamental parameters such as mass attenuation coefficients with low uncertainties, is of decisive importance in elemental quantification using x-ray fluorescence analysis techniques. Several databases are accessible and frequently used within a large community of users. These compilations are most often in good agreement for photon energies in the hard x-ray ranges. However, they significantly differ for low photon energies and around the absorption edges of any element. In a joint cooperation of the metrology institutes of France and Germany, mass attenuation coefficients of copper and zinc were determined experimentally in the photon energy range from 100 eV to 30 keV by independent approaches using monochromatized synchrotron radiation at SOLEIL (France) and BESSY II (Germany), respectively. The application of high-accuracy experimental techniques resulted in mass attenuation coefficient datasets determined with low uncertainties that are directly compared to existing databases. The novel datasets are expected to enhance the reliability of mass attenuation coefficients.

  9. Prolactin receptor attenuation induces zinc pool redistribution through ZnT2 and decreases invasion in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bostanci, Zeynep, E-mail: zbostanci@hmc.psu.edu; The Pennsylvania State University Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Surgery, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033; Alam, Samina, E-mail: sra116@psu.edu

    2014-02-15

    Prolactin receptor (PRL-R) activation regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, cell survival and motility of breast cells. Prolactin (PRL) and PRL-R over-expression are strongly implicated in breast cancer, particularly contributing to tumor growth and invasion in the more aggressive estrogen-receptor negative (ER−) disease. PRL-R antagonists have been suggested as potential therapeutic agents; however, mechanisms through which PRL-R antagonists exert their actions are not well-understood. Zinc (Zn) is a regulatory factor for over 10% of the proteome, regulating critical cell processes such as proliferation, cell signaling, transcription, apoptosis and autophagy. PRL-R signaling regulates Zn metabolism in breast cells. Herein we determined effects ofmore » PRL-R attenuation on cellular Zn metabolism and cell function in a model of ER-, PRL-R over-expressing breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-453). PRL-R attenuation post-transcriptionally increased ZnT2 abundance and redistributed intracellular Zn pools into lysosomes and mitochondria. ZnT2-mediated lysosomal Zn sequestration was associated with reduced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity and decreased invasion. ZnT2-mediated Zn accumulation in mitochondria was associated with increased mitochondrial oxidation. Our results suggest that PRL-R antagonism in PRL-R over-expressing breast cancer cells may reduce invasion through the redistribution of intracellular Zn pools critical for cellular function. - Highlights: • PRL-R attenuation increased ZnT2 expression. • PRL-R attenuation increased lysosomal and mitochondrial Zn accumulation. • PRL-R attenuation decreased MMP-2 and invasion. • PRL-R antagonists may modulate lysosomal and mitochondrial Zn pools.« less

  10. Regulation of Bone Metabolism by Serotonin.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Brigitte; Lian, Jane B; Mawe, Gary M

    2017-01-01

    The processes of bone growth and turnover are tightly regulated by the actions of various signaling molecules, including hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Imbalances in these processes can lead to skeletal disorders such as osteoporosis or high bone mass disease. It is becoming increasingly clear that serotonin can act through a number of mechanisms, and at different locations in the body, to influence the balance between bone formation and resorption. Its actions on bone metabolism can vary, based on its site of synthesis (central or peripheral) as well as the cells and subtypes of receptors that are activated. Within the central nervous system, serotonergic neurons act via the hypothalamus to suppress sympathetic input to the bone. Since sympathetic input inhibits bone formation, brain serotonin has a net positive effect on bone growth. Gut-derived serotonin is thought to inhibit bone growth by attenuating osteoblast proliferation via activation of receptors on pre-osteoblasts. There is also evidence that serotonin can be synthesized within the bone and act to modulate bone metabolism. Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes all have the machinery to synthesize serotonin, and they also express the serotonin-reuptake transporter (SERT). Understanding the roles of serotonin in the tightly balanced system of bone modeling and remodeling is a clinically relevant goal. This knowledge can clarify bone-related side effects of drugs that affect serotonin signaling, including serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and receptor agonists and antagonists, and it can potentially lead to therapeutic approaches for alleviating bone pathologies.

  11. Regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) promotes anxiety and depression by attenuating serotonin-mediated activation of the 5-HT1A receptor-adenylyl cyclase axis

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Adele; Maity, Biswanath; Wunsch, Amanda M.; Meng, Fantao; Wu, Qi; Wemmie, John A.; Fisher, Rory A.

    2014-01-01

    Targeting serotonin (5-HT) bioavailability with selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) remains the most widely used treatment for mood disorders. However, their limited efficacy, delayed onset of action, and side effects restrict their clinical utility. Endogenous regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins have been implicated as key inhibitors of 5-HT1ARs, whose activation is believed to underlie the beneficial effects of SSRIs, but the identity of the specific RGS proteins involved remains unknown. We identify RGS6 as the critical negative regulator of 5-HT1AR-dependent antidepressant actions. RGS6 is enriched in hippocampal and cortical neurons, 5-HT1AR-expressing cells implicated in mood disorders. RGS6−/− mice exhibit spontaneous anxiolytic and antidepressant behavior rapidly and completely reversibly by 5-HT1AR blockade. Effects of the SSRI fluvoxamine and 5-HT1AR agonist 8-OH-DPAT were also potentiated in RGS6+/− mice. The phenotype of RGS6−/− mice was associated with decreased CREB phosphorylation in the hippocampus and cortex, implicating enhanced Gαi-dependent adenylyl cyclase inhibition as a possible causative factor in the behavior observed in RGS6−/− animals. Our results demonstrate that by inhibiting serotonergic innervation of the cortical-limbic neuronal circuit, RGS6 exerts powerful anxiogenic and prodepressant actions. These findings indicate that RGS6 inhibition may represent a viable means to treat mood disorders or enhance the efficacy of serotonergic agents.—Stewart, A., Maity, B., Wunsch, A. M., Meng, F., Wu, Q., Wemmie, J. A., Fisher, R. A. Regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) promotes anxiety and depression by attenuating serotonin-mediated activation of the 5-HT1A receptor-adenylyl cyclase axis. PMID:24421401

  12. The Serotonin 2C Receptor Agonist Lorcaserin Attenuates Intracranial Self-Stimulation and Blocks the Reward-Enhancing Effects of Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Fiona D; Higgins, Guy A; Fletcher, Paul J

    2015-07-15

    Lorcaserin, a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 2C receptor agonist, was recently approved for the treatment of obesity. We previously suggested that 5-HT2C receptor agonists affect reward processes and reduce the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. Here, we determined whether lorcaserin (1) decreases responding for brain stimulation reward (BSR) and (2) prevents nicotine from enhancing the efficacy of BSR. Rats were trained on the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigm to nosepoke for BSR of either the dorsal raphé nucleus or left medial forebrain bundle. In Experiment 1, lorcaserin (0.3-1.0 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced the efficacy of BSR. This effect was blocked by prior administration of the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB242084. In Experiment 2, separate groups of rats received saline or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) for eight sessions prior to testing. Although thresholds were unaltered in saline-treated rats, nicotine reduced reward thresholds. An injection of lorcaserin (0.3 mg/kg) prior to nicotine prevented the reward-enhancing effect of nicotine across multiple test sessions. These results demonstrated that lorcaserin reduces the rewarding value of BSR and also prevents nicotine from facilitating ICSS. Hence, lorcaserin may be effective in treating psychiatric disorders, including obesity and nicotine addiction, by reducing the value of food or drug rewards.

  13. Processes of zinc attenuation by biogenic manganese oxides forming in the hyporheic zone of Pinal Creek, Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Christopher C.; Bargar, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and speciation of Zn sorbed to biogenic Mn oxides forming in the hyporheic zone of Pinal Creek, AZ, was investigated using micro-focused Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray fluorescence (μSXRF) mapping , bulk EXAFS, and chemical extraction. μSXRF and chemical extractions show that contaminant Zn co-varied with Mn in streambed sediment grain coatings. Bulk and micro-focused EXAFS spectra of Zn in the biogenic Mn oxides coating are indicative of Zn forming triple corner sharing inner-sphere complexes over octahedral vacancies in the Mn oxide sheet structure. Zn desorbed in response to decreasing in pH in batch experiments and resulted in near-equal dissolved Zn at each pH over a 10-fold range in solid to solution ratio. The geometry of sorbed Zn was unchanged after 50% desorption at pH 5, indicating desorption is not controlled by dissolution of secondary Zn phases. In sum, these findings support the idea that Zn attenuation in Pinal Creek is largely controlled by sorption to microbial Mn oxides forming in the streambed during hyporheic exchange. Sorption to biogenic Mn oxides is likely an important process in Zn attenuation in circum-neutral pH reaches of many acid-mine drainage contaminated streams when dissolved Mn is present. PMID:24460038

  14. Processes of zinc attenuation by biogenic manganese oxides forming in the hyporheic zone of Pinal Creek, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Christopher C.; Bargar, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and speciation of Zn sorbed to biogenic Mn oxides forming in the hyporheic zone of Pinal Creek, AZ, was investigated using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and microfocused synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μSXRF) mapping, and chemical extraction. μSXRF and chemical extractions show that contaminant Zn co-varied with Mn in streambed sediment grain coatings. Bulk and microfocused EXAFS spectra of Zn in the biogenic Mn oxide coating are indicative of Zn forming triple-corner-sharing inner-sphere complexes over octahedral vacancies in the Mn oxide sheet structure. Zn desorbed in response to the decrease in pH in batch experiments and resulted in near-equal dissolved Zn at each pH over a 10-fold range in the solid/solution ratio. The geometry of sorbed Zn was unchanged after 50% desorption at pH 5, indicating that desorption is not controlled by dissolution of secondary Zn phases. In summary, these findings support the idea that Zn attenuation in Pinal Creek is largely controlled by sorption to microbial Mn oxides forming in the streambed during hyporheic exchange. Sorption to biogenic Mn oxides is likely an important process of Zn attenuation in circum-neutral pH reaches of many acid-mine drainage contaminated streams when dissolved Mn is present.

  15. The Attenuation of Central Angiotensin II-dependent Pressor Response and Intra-neuronal Signaling by Intracarotid Injection of Nanoformulated Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaugh, Erin G.; Roat, James; Gao, Lie; Yang, Rui-Fang; Manickam, Devika S.; Yin, Jing-Xiang; Schultz, Harold D.; Bronich, Tatiana K.; Batrakova, Elena V.; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Zucker, Irving H.; Zimmerman, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of the intracellular superoxide (O2•−) scavenging enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in the brain attenuates central angiotensin II (AngII)-induced cardiovascular responses. However, the therapeutic potential for adenoviral vectors is weakened by toxicity and the inability of adenoviral vectors to target the brain following peripheral administration. Therefore, we developed a non-viral delivery system in which CuZnSOD protein is electrostatically bound to a synthetic poly(ethyleneimine)-poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEI-PEG) polymer to form a polyion complex (CuZnSOD nanozyme). We hypothesized that PEI-PEG polymer increases transport of functional CuZnSOD to neurons, which inhibits AngII intra-neuronal signaling. The AngII-induced increase in O2•−, as measured by dihydroethidium fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, was significantly inhibited in CuZnSOD nanozyme-treated neurons compared to free CuZnSOD- and non-treated neurons. CuZnSOD nanozyme also attenuated the AngII-induced inhibition of K+ current in neurons. Intracarotid injection of CuZnSOD nanozyme into rabbits significantly inhibited the pressor response of intracerebroventricular-delivered AngII; however, intracarotid injection of free CuZnSOD or PEI-PEG polymer alone failed to inhibit this response. Importantly, neither the PEI-PEG polymer alone nor the CuZnSOD nanozyme induced neuronal toxicity. These findings indicate that CuZnSOD nanozyme inhibits AngII intra-neuronal signaling in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20378166

  16. Plasma serotonin in autism.

    PubMed

    Connors, Susan L; Matteson, Karla J; Sega, Gary A; Lozzio, Carmen B; Carroll, Roger C; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2006-09-01

    Serotonin is necessary for normal fetal brain development. Administration of serotonin inhibitors to pregnant rats results in offspring with abnormal behaviors, brain morphology, and serotonin receptor numbers. Low maternal plasma serotonin may contribute to abnormal brain development in autism. In this study, plasma serotonin levels in autism mothers and control mothers of typically developing children were compared, and plasma serotonin levels in children with autism (n = 17) and their family members were measured. Plasma serotonin levels in autism mothers were significantly lower than in mothers of normal children (P = 0.002). Plasma serotonin levels correlated between autism mothers and their children, but differed between autistic children and their fathers (P = 0.028) and siblings (P = 0.063). Low maternal plasma serotonin may be a risk factor for autism through effects on fetal brain development.

  17. Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce oxidative stress, inhibit growth, and attenuate biofilm formation activity of Streptococcus mitis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Ahmad, Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus mitis from the oral cavity causes endocarditis and other systemic infections. Rising resistance against traditional antibiotics amongst oral bacteria further aggravates the problem. Therefore, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized and characterized during this study against S. mitis ATCC 6249 and Ora-20 were evaluated in search of alternative antimicrobial agents. ZnO and TiO2-NPs exhibited an average size of 35 and 13 nm, respectively. The IC50 values of ZnO and TiO2-NPs against S. mitis ATCC 6249 were 37 and 77 µg ml(-1), respectively, while the IC50 values against S. mitis Ora-20 isolate were 31 and 53 µg ml(-1), respectively. Live and dead staining, biofilm formation on the surface of polystyrene plates, and extracellular polysaccharide production show the same pattern. Exposure to these nanoparticles also shows an increase (26-83 %) in super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Three genes, namely bapA1, sodA, and gtfB like genes from these bacteria were identified and sequenced for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. An increase in sodA gene (1.4- to 2.4-folds) levels and a decrease in gtfB gene (0.5- to 0.9-folds) levels in both bacteria following exposure to ZnO and TiO2-NPs were observed. Results presented in this study verify that ZnO-NPs and TiO2-NPs can control the growth and biofilm formation activities of these strains at very low concentration and hence can be used as alternative antimicrobial agents for oral hygiene.

  18. Serotonin blood test

    MedlinePlus

    5-HT level; 5-hydroxytryptamine level; Serotonin test ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) - serum or blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier ...

  19. Over-expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase in the median preoptic nucleus attenuates chronic angiotensin II-induced hypertension in the rat.

    PubMed

    Collister, John P; Bellrichard, Mitch; Drebes, Donna; Nahey, David; Tian, Jun; Zimmerman, Matthew C

    2014-12-02

    The brain senses circulating levels of angiotensin II (AngII) via circumventricular organs, such as the subfornical organ (SFO), and is thought to adjust sympathetic nervous system output accordingly via this neuro-hormonal communication. However, the cellular signaling mechanisms involved in these communications remain to be fully understood. Previous lesion studies of either the SFO, or the downstream median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) have shown a diminution of the hypertensive effects of chronic AngII, without providing a clear explanation as to the intracellular signaling pathway(s) involved. Additional studies have reported that over-expressing copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), an intracellular superoxide (O2·-) scavenging enzyme, in the SFO attenuates chronic AngII-induced hypertension. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that overproduction of O2·- in the MnPO is an underlying mechanism in the long-term hypertensive effects of chronic AngII. Adenoviral vectors encoding human CuZnSOD (AdCuZnSOD) or control vector (AdEmpty) were injected directly into the MnPO of rats implanted with aortic telemetric transmitters for recording of arterial pressure. After a 3 day control period of saline infusion, rats were intravenously infused with AngII (10 ng/kg/min) for ten days. Rats over-expressing CuZnSOD (n = 7) in the MnPO had a blood pressure increase of only 6 ± 2 mmHg after ten days of AngII infusion while blood pressure increased 21 ± 4 mmHg in AdEmpty-infected rats (n = 9). These results support the hypothesis that production of O2·- in the MnPO contributes to the development of chronic AngII-dependent hypertension.

  20. Rotavirus and Serotonin Cross-Talk in Diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Johan; Karlsson, Thommie; Sharma, Sumit; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Svensson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) has been shown to infect and stimulate secretion of serotonin from human enterochromaffin (EC) cells and to infect EC cells in the small intestine of mice. It remains to identify which intracellularly expressed viral protein(s) is responsible for this novel property and to further establish the clinical role of serotonin in RV infection. First, we found that siRNA specifically silencing NSP4 (siRNANSP4) significantly attenuated secretion of serotonin from Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) infected EC tumor cells compared to siRNAVP4, siRNAVP6 and siRNAVP7. Second, intracellular calcium mobilization and diarrhoeal capacity from virulent and avirulent porcine viruses correlated with the capacity to release serotonin from EC tumor cells. Third, following administration of serotonin, all (10/10) infants, but no (0/8) adult mice, responded with diarrhoea. Finally, blocking of serotonin receptors using Ondansetron significantly attenuated murine RV (strain EDIM) diarrhoea in infant mice (2.9 vs 4.5 days). Ondansetron-treated mice (n = 11) had significantly (p < 0.05) less diarrhoea, lower diarrhoea severity score and lower total diarrhoea output as compared to mock-treated mice (n = 9). Similarly, Ondansetron-treated mice had better weight gain than mock-treated animals (p < 0.05). A most surprising finding was that the serotonin receptor antagonist significantly (p < 0.05) also attenuated total viral shedding. In summary, we show that intracellularly expressed NSP4 stimulates release of serotonin from human EC tumor cells and that serotonin participates in RV diarrhoea, which can be attenuated by Ondansetron. PMID:27459372

  1. Stimulation of aortic smooth muscle cell mitogenesis by serotonin

    SciTech Connect

    Nemecek, G.M.; Coughlin, S.R.; Handley, D.A.

    1986-02-01

    Bovine aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro responded to 1 nM to 10 ..mu..M serotonin with increased incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA. The mitogenic effect of serotonin was half-maximal at 80 nM and maximal above 1 ..mu..M. At a concentration of 1 ..mu..M, serotonin stimulated smooth muscle cell mitogenesis to the same extent as human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) at 12 ng/ml. Tryptamine was approx. = 1/10th as potent as serotonin as a mitogen for smooth muscle cells. Other indoles that are structurally related to serotonin (D- and L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, melatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptophol) and quipazine weremore » inactive. The stimulatory effect of serotonin on smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis required prolonged (20-24 hr) exposure to the agonist and was attenuated in the presence of serotonin D receptor antagonists. When smooth muscle cells were incubated with submaximal concentrations of serotonin and PDGF, synergistic rather than additive mitogenic responses were observed. These data indicate that serotonin has a significant mitogenic effect on smooth muscle cells in vitro, which appears to be mediated by specific plasma membrane receptors.« less

  2. In vivo toxicity of copper oxide, lead oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles acting in different combinations and its attenuation with a complex of innocuous bio-protectors.

    PubMed

    Minigalieva, Ilzira A; Katsnelson, Boris A; Panov, Vladimir G; Privalova, Larisa I; Varaksin, Anatoly N; Gurvich, Vladimir B; Sutunkova, Marina P; Shur, Vladimir Ya; Shishkina, Ekaterina V; Valamina, Irene E; Zubarev, Ilya V; Makeyev, Oleg H; Meshtcheryakova, Ekaterina Y; Klinova, Svetlana V

    2017-04-01

    Stable suspensions of metal oxide nanoparticles (Me-NPs) obtained by laser ablation of 99.99% pure copper, zinc or lead under a layer of deionized water were used separately, in three binary combinations and a triple combination in two independent experiments on rats. In one of the experiments the rats were instilled with Me-NPs intratracheally (i.t.) (for performing a broncho-alveolar lavage in 24h to estimate the cytological and biochemical indices of the response of the lower airways), while in the other, Me-NPs were repeatedly injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) 18 times during 6 weeks (for estimating the accumulation of corresponding metals in the blood and their excretion with urine and feces and for assessing subchronic intoxication by a large number of functional and morphological indices). Mathematical description of the results from both experiments with the help of the Response Surface Methodology has shown that, as well as in the case of any other binary toxic combinations previously investigated by us, the response of the organism to a simultaneous exposure to any two of the Me-NPs under study is characterized by complex interactions between all possible types of combined toxicity (additivity, subadditivity or superadditivity of unidirectional action and different variants of opposite effects) depending on which effect it is estimated for as well as on the levels of the effect and dose. With any third Me-NP species acting in the background, the type of combined toxicity displayed by the other two may change significantly (as in the earlier described case of a triple combination of soluble metal salts). It is shown that various harmful effects produced by CuO-NP+ZnO-NP+PbO-NP combination may be substantially attenuated by giving rats per os a complex of innocuous bioactive substances theoretically expected to provide a protective integral and/or metal-specific effect during one month before i.t. instillation or during the entire period of i.p. injections

  3. Zinc and linoleic acid pre-treatment attenuates biochemical and histological changes in the midbrain of rats with rotenone-induced Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Mbiydzenyuy, Ngala Elvis; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Valladares, Miriela Betancourt; Pieme, Constant Anatole

    2018-05-09

    Studies have suggested the supplementation of Zinc and Linoleic acid in the management of neurodegenerative disorders but none has investigated the combined effects. Little is known about the neuroprotective effects of either Zinc or Linoleic acid or their combination against development of Parkinsonism. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Zinc and Linoleic acid in rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats. Thirty-six young adult female rats weighing 100-150 g divided into six groups were used. Rats were induced with Parkinsonism by subcutaneous administration of rotenone (2.5 mg/kg) once a day for seven consecutive days. The rats received dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/Olive oil or rotenone dissolved in DMSO/Olive oil. Groups III and IV received Zinc (30 mg/kg) or Linoleic acid (150 µl/kg) while group V received a combination of both, 2 weeks prior to rotenone injection. Groups II and VI served as negative (rotenone group) and positive (Levodopa groups) controls respectively. Oxidative stress levels were assessed by estimating Lipid peroxidation (MDA), total antioxidant capacity, Superoxide dismutase, reduced Glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase and catalase in the midbrain. Histological examination was done to assess structural changes in the midbrain. There was a significant prevention in lipid peroxidation and decrease in the antioxidant status in intervention-treated groups as compared to the rotenone treated group. In addition, histological examination revealed that Parkinsonian rat brains exhibited neuronal damage. Cell death and reduction in neuron size induced by rotenone was prevented by treatment with zinc, linoleic acid and their combination. These results suggest that zinc and linoleic acid and their combination showed significant neuroprotective activity most likely due to the antioxidant effect.

  4. Triptans, serotonin agonists, and serotonin syndrome (serotonin toxicity): a review.

    PubMed

    Gillman, P Ken

    2010-02-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have suggested that fatal serotonin syndrome (SS) is possible with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and triptans: this warning affects millions of patients as these drugs are frequently given simultaneously. SS is a complex topic about which there is much misinformation. The misconception that 5-HT1A receptors can cause serious SS is still widely perpetuated, despite quality evidence that it is activation of the 5-HT2A receptor that is required for serious SS. This review considers SS involving serotonin agonists: ergotamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, bromocriptine, and buspirone, as well as triptans, and reviews the experimental foundation underpinning the latest understanding of SS. It is concluded that there is neither significant clinical evidence, nor theoretical reason, to entertain speculation about serious SS from triptans and SSRIs. The misunderstandings about SS exhibited by the FDA, and shared by the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (in relation to methylene blue), are an important issue with wide ramifications.

  5. Serotonin Receptors in Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Berumen, Laura Cristina; Rodríguez, Angelina; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin is an ancient molecular signal and a recognized neurotransmitter brainwide distributed with particular presence in hippocampus. Almost all serotonin receptor subtypes are expressed in hippocampus, which implicates an intricate modulating system, considering that they can be localized as autosynaptic, presynaptic, and postsynaptic receptors, even colocalized within the same cell and being target of homo- and heterodimerization. Neurons and glia, including immune cells, integrate a functional network that uses several serotonin receptors to regulate their roles in this particular part of the limbic system. PMID:22629209

  6. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  7. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... dangerous reactions when combined with certain medications or herbal supplements. Serotonin syndrome. Rarely, an antidepressant can cause high ... antidepressants, certain pain or headache medications, and the herbal supplement St. John's wort. Signs and symptoms of serotonin ...

  8. Serotonin-induced hypophagia is mediated via α2 and β2 adrenergic receptors in neonatal layer-type chickens.

    PubMed

    Zendehdel, M; Sardari, F; Hassanpour, S; Rahnema, M; Adeli, A; Ghashghayi, E

    2017-06-01

    1. Serotoninergic and adrenergic systems play crucial roles in feed intake regulation in avians but there is no report on possible interactions among them. So, in this study, 5 experiments were designed to evaluate the interaction of central serotonergic and adrenergic systems on food intake regulation in 3 h food deprived (FD 3 ) neonatal layer-type chickens. 2. In Experiment 1, chickens received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of control solution, serotonin (56.74 nmol), prazosin (α 1 receptor antagonist, 10 nmol) and co-injection of serotonin plus prazosin. In Experiment 2, control solution, serotonin (56.74 nmol), yohimbine (α 2 receptor antagonist, 13 nmol) and co-injection of serotonin plus yohimbine were used. In Experiment 3, the birds received control solution, serotonin (56.74 nmol), metoprolol (β 1 receptor antagonist, 24 nmol) and co-injection of serotonin plus metoprolol. In Experiment 4, injections were control solution, serotonin (56.74 nmol), ICI 118.551 (β 2 receptor antagonist, 5 nmol) and serotonin plus ICI 118.551. In Experiment 5, control solution, serotonin (56.74 nmol), SR59230R (β 3 receptor antagonist, 20 nmol) and co-administration of serotonin and SR59230R were injected. In all experiments the cumulative food intake was measured until 120 min post injection. 3. The results showed that ICV injection of serotonin alone decreased food intake in chickens. A combined injection of serotonin plus ICI 118.551 significantly attenuated serotonin-induced hypophagia. Also, co-administration of serotonin and yohimbine significantly amplified the hypophagic effect of serotonin. However, prazosin, metoprolol and SR59230R had no effect on serotonin-induced hypophagia in chickens. 4. These results suggest that serotonin-induced feeding behaviour is probably mediated via α 2 and β 2 adrenergic receptors in neonatal layer-type chicken.

  9. Attenuation of progressive hearing loss in DBA/2J mice by reagents that affect epigenetic modifications is associated with up-regulation of the zinc importer Zip4.

    PubMed

    Mutai, Hideki; Miya, Fuyuki; Fujii, Masato; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Matsunaga, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Various factors that are important for proper hearing have been identified, including serum levels of zinc. Here we investigated whether epigenetic regulatory pathways, which can be modified by environmental factors, could modulate hearing. RT-PCR detected expression of genes encoding DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase (Hdac) in the postnatal as well as adult mouse auditory epithelium. DBA/2J mice, which are a model for progressive hearing loss, were injected subcutaneously with one or a combination of the following reagents: L-methionine as a methyl donor, valproic acid as a pan-Hdac inhibitor, and folic acid and vitamin B12 as putative factors involved in age-related hearing loss. The mice were treated from ages 4 to 12 weeks (N ≥ 5), and auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were measured at 8, 16, and 32 kHz. Treatment of the mice with a combination of L-methionine and valproic acid (M+V) significantly reduced the increase in the ABR threshold at 32 kHz. Treatment with any of these reagents individually produced no such effect. Microarray analyses detected 299 gene probes that were significantly up- or down-regulated in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V compared with the control vehicle-treated mice. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant up-regulation of a zinc importer gene, Zip4, in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated an intense Zip4 signal in cochlear tissues such as the lateral wall, organ of Corti, and spiral ganglion. Finally, mice treated with the Zip4 inducer (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate showed a significant reduction in the increase of the ABR threshold at 32 kHz and up-regulation of Zip4 expression in the cochlea. This study suggests that epigenetic regulatory pathways can modify auditory function and that zinc intake in the cochlea via Zip4 mediates maintenance of mammalian hearing.

  10. Serotonin and Social Norms

    PubMed Central

    Bilderbeck, Amy C.; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Read, Judi; Woolrich, Mark; Cowen, Phillip J.; Behrens, Tim E. J.

    2014-01-01

    How do people sustain resources for the benefit of individuals and communities and avoid the tragedy of the commons, in which shared resources become exhausted? In the present study, we examined the role of serotonin activity and social norms in the management of depletable resources. Healthy adults, alongside social partners, completed a multiplayer resource-dilemma game in which they repeatedly harvested from a partially replenishable monetary resource. Dietary tryptophan depletion, leading to reduced serotonin activity, was associated with aggressive harvesting strategies and disrupted use of the social norms given by distributions of other players’ harvests. Tryptophan-depleted participants more frequently exhausted the resource completely and also accumulated fewer rewards than participants who were not tryptophan depleted. Our findings show that rank-based social comparisons are crucial to the management of depletable resources, and that serotonin mediates responses to social norms. PMID:24815611

  11. Attenuation of Progressive Hearing Loss in DBA/2J Mice by Reagents that Affect Epigenetic Modifications Is Associated with Up-Regulation of the Zinc Importer Zip4

    PubMed Central

    Mutai, Hideki; Miya, Fuyuki; Fujii, Masato; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Matsunaga, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Various factors that are important for proper hearing have been identified, including serum levels of zinc. Here we investigated whether epigenetic regulatory pathways, which can be modified by environmental factors, could modulate hearing. RT-PCR detected expression of genes encoding DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase (Hdac) in the postnatal as well as adult mouse auditory epithelium. DBA/2J mice, which are a model for progressive hearing loss, were injected subcutaneously with one or a combination of the following reagents: L-methionine as a methyl donor, valproic acid as a pan-Hdac inhibitor, and folic acid and vitamin B12 as putative factors involved in age-related hearing loss. The mice were treated from ages 4 to 12 weeks (N ≥ 5), and auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were measured at 8, 16, and 32 kHz. Treatment of the mice with a combination of L-methionine and valproic acid (M+V) significantly reduced the increase in the ABR threshold at 32 kHz. Treatment with any of these reagents individually produced no such effect. Microarray analyses detected 299 gene probes that were significantly up- or down-regulated in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V compared with the control vehicle-treated mice. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant up-regulation of a zinc importer gene, Zip4, in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated an intense Zip4 signal in cochlear tissues such as the lateral wall, organ of Corti, and spiral ganglion. Finally, mice treated with the Zip4 inducer (–)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate showed a significant reduction in the increase of the ABR threshold at 32 kHz and up-regulation of Zip4 expression in the cochlea. This study suggests that epigenetic regulatory pathways can modify auditory function and that zinc intake in the cochlea via Zip4 mediates maintenance of mammalian hearing. PMID:25875282

  12. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  13. Serotonin produces monoamine oxidase-dependent oxidative stress in human heart valves.

    PubMed

    Peña-Silva, Ricardo A; Miller, Jordan D; Chu, Yi; Heistad, Donald D

    2009-10-01

    Heart valve disease and pulmonary hypertension, in patients with carcinoid tumors and people who used the fenfluramine-phentermine combination for weight control, have been associated with high levels of serotonin in blood. The mechanism by which serotonin induces valvular changes is not well understood. We recently reported that increased oxidative stress is associated with valvular changes in aortic valve stenosis in humans and mice. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that serotonin induces oxidative stress in human heart valves, and examined mechanisms by which serotonin may increase reactive oxygen species. Superoxide (O2*.-) was measured in heart valves from explanted human hearts that were not used for transplantation. (O2*.-) levels (lucigenin-enhanced chemoluminescence) were increased in homogenates of cardiac valves and blood vessels after incubation with serotonin. A nonspecific inhibitor of flavin-oxidases (diphenyliodonium), or inhibitors of monoamine oxidase [MAO (tranylcypromine and clorgyline)], prevented the serotonin-induced increase in (O2*.-). Dopamine, another MAO substrate that is increased in patients with carcinoid syndrome, also increased (O2*.-) levels in heart valves, and this effect was attenuated by clorgyline. Apocynin [an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase] did not prevent increases in (O2*.-) during serotonin treatment. Addition of serotonin to recombinant human MAO-A generated (O2*.-), and this effect was prevented by an MAO inhibitor. In conclusion, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby MAO-A can contribute to increased oxidative stress in human heart valves and pulmonary artery exposed to serotonin and dopamine.

  14. Humoral Responses to Islet Antigen-2 and Zinc Transporter 8 Are Attenuated in Patients Carrying HLA-A*24 Alleles at the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Long, Anna E.; Gillespie, Kathleen M.; Aitken, Rachel J.; Goode, Julia C.; Bingley, Polly J.; Williams, Alistair J.K.

    2013-01-01

    The HLA-A*24 allele has shown negative associations with autoantibodies to islet antigen-2 (IA-2) and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) in patients with established type 1 diabetes. Understanding how this HLA class I allele affects humoral islet autoimmunity gives new insights into disease pathogenesis. We therefore investigated the epitope specificity of associations between HLA-A*24 and islet autoantibodies at disease onset. HLA-A*24 genotype and autoantibody responses to insulin (IAA), glutamate decarboxylase (GADA), IA-2, IA-2β, and ZnT8 were analyzed in samples collected from patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes. After correction for age, sex, and HLA class II genotype, HLA-A*24 was shown to be a negative determinant of IA-2A and ZnT8A. These effects were epitope specific. Antibodies targeting the protein tyrosine phosphatase domains of IA-2 and IA-2β, but not the IA-2 juxtamembrane region, were less common in patients carrying HLA-A*24 alleles. The prevalence of ZnT8A specific or cross-reactive with the ZnT8 tryptophan-325 polymorphic residue, but not those specific to arginine-325, was reduced in HLA-A*24-positive patients. No associations were found between HLA-A*24 and IAA or GADA. Association of an HLA class I susceptibility allele with altered islet autoantibody phenotype at diagnosis suggests CD8 T-cell and/or natural killer cell–mediated killing modulates humoral autoimmune responses. PMID:23396399

  15. A calcium-channel homologue required for adaptation to dopamine and serotonin in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Schafer, W R; Kenyon, C J

    1995-05-04

    Processing and storage of information by the nervous system requires the ability to modulate the response of excitable cells to neurotransmitter. A simple process of this type, known as adaptation or desensitization, occurs when prolonged stimulation triggers processes that attenuate the response to neurotransmitter. Here we report that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene unc-2 is required for adaptation to two neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. A loss-of-function mutation in unc-2 resulted in failure to adapt either to paralysis by dopamine or to stimulation of egg laying by serotonin. In addition, unc-2 mutants displayed behaviours similar to those induced by serotonin treatment. We found that unc-2 encodes a homologue of a voltage-sensitive calcium-channel alpha-1 subunit. Expression of unc-2 occurs in two types of neurons implicated in the control of egg laying, a behaviour regulated by serotonin. Unc-2 appears to be required in modulatory neurons to downregulate the response of the egg-laying muscles to serotonin. We propose that adaptation to serotonin occurs through activation of an Unc-2-dependent calcium influx, which modulates the postsynaptic response to serotonin, perhaps by inhibiting the release of a potentiating neuropeptide.

  16. Serotonin and female psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Hall, Elise; Steiner, Meir

    2013-01-01

    There are sex differences in the prevalence and presentation of many psychiatric disorders. Various trends in symptomatology have emerged that are thought to be linked to periods of hormonal fluctuations such as with menses, pregnancy or menopause. With data from animal and human studies, it has become clear that there is an important interplay between the serotonergic system and gonadal hormones. The majority of the research to date has focused on the influence that estrogen has within the CNS and, in particular, how it leads to an overall increase in serotonin synthesis and availability. In reviewing this female-specific topic we hope to raise awareness to sex/gender differences in psychopathology, help identify at-risk populations and consider development of new treatment options. Future research will also need to consider the influence that progesterone and oxytocin may have on sex-specific psychopathology as well as incorporate neuroimaging and consider the influence of hormones on the serotonergic system at a genetic level.

  17. Serotonin Augmentation Reduces Response to Attack in Aggressive Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Mitchell E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Fanning, Jennifer R.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the theory that central serotonin (5- hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) activity regulates aggression by modulating response to provocation. Eighty men and women (40 with and 40 without a history of aggression) were randomly assigned to receive either 40 mg of paroxetine (to acutely augment serotonergic activity) or a placebo, administered using double-blind procedures. Aggression was assessed during a competitive reaction time game with a fictitious opponent. Shocks were selected by the participant and opponent before each trial, with the loser on each trial receiving the shock set by the other player. Provocation was manipulated by having the opponent select increasingly intense shocks for the participant and eventually an ostensibly severe shock toward the end of the trials. Aggression was measured by the number of severe shocks set by the participant for the opponent. As predicted, aggressive responding after provocation was attenuated by augmentation of serotonin in individuals with a pronounced history of aggression. PMID:19422623

  18. The Zinc Transporter Zip5 (Slc39a5) Regulates Intestinal Zinc Excretion and Protects the Pancreas against Zinc Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Jim; De Lisle, Robert C.; Andrews, Glen K.

    2013-01-01

    Background ZIP5 localizes to the baso-lateral membranes of intestinal enterocytes and pancreatic acinar cells and is internalized and degraded coordinately in these cell-types during periods of dietary zinc deficiency. These cell-types are thought to control zinc excretion from the body. The baso-lateral localization and zinc-regulation of ZIP5 in these cells are unique among the 14 members of the Slc39a family and suggest that ZIP5 plays a role in zinc excretion. Methods/Principal Findings We created mice with floxed Zip5 genes and deleted this gene in the entire mouse or specifically in enterocytes or acinar cells and then examined the effects on zinc homeostasis. We found that ZIP5 is not essential for growth and viability but total knockout of ZIP5 led to increased zinc in the liver in mice fed a zinc-adequate (ZnA) diet but impaired accumulation of pancreatic zinc in mice fed a zinc-excess (ZnE) diet. Loss-of-function of enterocyte ZIP5, in contrast, led to increased pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet and increased abundance of intestinal Zip4 mRNA. Finally, loss-of-function of acinar cell ZIP5 modestly reduced pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet but did not impair zinc uptake as measured by the rapid accumulation of 67zinc. Retention of pancreatic 67zinc was impaired in these mice but the absence of pancreatic ZIP5 sensitized them to zinc-induced pancreatitis and exacerbated the formation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles containing secretory protein in acinar cells. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that ZIP5 participates in the control of zinc excretion in mice. Specifically, they reveal a paramount function of intestinal ZIP5 in zinc excretion but suggest a role for pancreatic ZIP5 in zinc accumulation/retention in acinar cells. ZIP5 functions in acinar cells to protect against zinc-induced acute pancreatitis and attenuate the process of zymophagy. This suggests that it may play a role in autophagy. PMID:24303081

  19. Serotonin neurotransmission in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2012-09-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) show extreme dieting weight loss, hyperactivity, depression/anxiety, self-control, and behavioral impulsivity. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) is involved in almost all the behavioral changes observed in AN patients. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute toward the pathogenesis of AN. It is a frequent disorder among adolescent girls and young women and starts as an attempt to lose weight to look beautiful and attractive. Failure to see the turning point when fasting becomes unreasonable leads to malnutrition and AN. Tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin and an essential amino acid, is only available in the diet. It is therefore likely that excessive diet restriction and malnutrition decrease brain serotonin stores because the precursor is less available to the rate-limiting enzyme of 5-HT biosynthesis, which normally exists unsaturated with its substrate. Evidence shows that diet restriction-induced exaggerated feedback control over 5-HT synthesis and the smaller availability of tryptophan decreases serotonin neurotransmission at postsynaptic sites, leading to hyperactivity, depression, and behavioral impulsivity. A compensatory upregulation of postsynaptic 5-HT-1A receptors and hypophagic serotonin receptors may be involved in anxiety and suppression of appetite. It is suggested that tryptophan supplementation may improve pharmacotherapy in AN.

  20. On the Mechanism of Serotonin-Induced Dipsogenesis in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kikta, Dianne C.; Barney, Christopher C.; Threatte, Rose M.; Fregly, Melvin J.; Rowland, Neil E.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1983-01-01

    Subcutaneous administration of 1-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the precursor of serotonin, to female rats induces copious drinking accompanied by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Neither a reduction in blood pressure nor body temperature accompanied administration of 5-HTP. The objective of the present study was to determine whether serotonin-induced dipsogenesis, like that of 5-HTP, is mediated via the renin-angiotensin system. Serotonin (2 mg/kg, SC)-induced drinking was inhibited by the dopaminergic antagonist, haloperidol (150 /micro g/kg, IP), which also inhibits angiotensin II-induced drinking, Both captopril (35 mg/kg, IP), an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and propranolol (6 micro g/kg, IP), a beta-adrenergic antagonist, blocked serotonin-induced dipsogenesis. The alpha(sub a),-adrenergic agonist, clonidine (6.25 micro g/kg, SC), which suppresses renin release from the kidney, attenuated serotonin-induced water intake. The dipsogenic responses to submaximal concentrations of both serotonin (1 mg/kg, SC) and isoproterenol (8 micro g/kg, SC) were additive rather than interactive suggesting that similar pathways mediate both responses. The serotonergic receptor antagonist, methysergide (3 mg/kg, IP), inhibited serotonin-induced drinking but had no effect on isoproterenol (25micro g/kg, SC)-induced dipsogenesis. However, neither serotonin (2 mg/kg, SC) nor isoproterenol (25 micro g/kg, SC)-induced drinking was inhibited by cinansefin (25 micro g/kg, IP). These data indicate that serotonin induces drinking in rats via the renin-angiotensin system. However, the results of the studies using methysergide suggest that scrotonin appears to act at a point prior to activation of beta-adrenoceptors in the pathway leading to release of renin from the kidneys.

  1. What Gene Mutations Affect Serotonin in Mice?

    PubMed

    Tenpenny, Richard C; Commons, Kathryn G

    2017-05-17

    Although serotonin neurotransmission has been implicated in several neurodevelopmental and psychological disorders, the factors that drive dysfunction of the serotonin system are poorly understood. Current research regarding the serotonin system revolves around its dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders, but there is no database collating genetic mutations that result in serotonin abnormalities. To bridge this gap, we developed a list of genes in mice that, when perturbed, result in altered levels of serotonin either in brain or blood. Due to the intrinsic limitations of search, the current list should be considered a preliminary subset of all relevant cases. Nevertheless, it offered an opportunity to gain insight into what types of genes have the potential to impact serotonin by using gene ontology (GO). This analysis found that genes associated with monoamine metabolism were more often associated with increases in brain serotonin than decreases. Speculatively, this could be because several pathways (and therefore many genes) are responsible for the clearance and metabolism of serotonin whereas only one pathway (and therefore fewer genes) is directly involved in the synthesis of serotonin. Another contributor could be cross talk between monoamine systems such as dopamine. In contrast, genes that were associated with decreases in brain serotonin were more likely linked to a developmental process. Sensitivity of serotonin neurons to developmental perturbations could be due to their complicated neuroanatomy or possibly they may be negatively regulated by dysfunction of their innervation targets. Thus, these observations suggest hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying the vulnerability of brain serotonin neurotransmission.

  2. Inhibitors of the serotonin transporter protein (SERT): the design and synthesis of biotinylated derivatives of 3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridin-4-yl)-1H-indoles. High-affinity serotonergic ligands for conjugation with quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Ian D; Mason, John N; Blakely, Randy D; Rosenthal, Sandra J

    2005-12-01

    There is a growing demand for compounds with specificity for the serotonin transporter protein (SERT) that can be conjugated to cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide core shell nanocrystals. This letter describes the design and synthesis of two different biotinylated SERT antagonists that can be attached to streptavidin-coated cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide core shell nanocrystals.

  3. Tracing of Zinc Nanocrystals in the Anterior Pituitary of Zinc-Deficient Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kuldeep, Anjana; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to trace zinc nanocrystals in the anterior pituitary of zinc-deficient Wistar rats by using autometallographic technique. Male Wistar rats (30-40 days of age, pre-pubertal period) of 40-50 g body weight were divided into the following: the ZC (zinc control) group-fed with 100 ppm zinc in diet, the ZD (zinc-deficient) group-fed with zinc-deficient (1.00 ppm) diet and the PF (pair-fed) group-received 100 ppm zinc in diet. The experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. Pituitary was removed and processed for the autometallographic technique. The control and pair-fed groups retained their normal morphological features. However, male Wistar rats fed on zinc-deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks displayed a wide range of symptoms such as significant (P < 0.05) decrease in diet consumption, body weight and pituitary weight and decrease in gradation of intensity of zinc nanocrystals in the nuclei. The present findings suggest that the dietary zinc deficiency causes decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals localization and their distribution in the pituitary thereby contributing to the dysfunction of the pituitary of the male Wistar rats. The severity of zinc deficiency symptoms progressed after the second week of the experiment. Decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals attenuates the pituitary function which would exert its affect on other endocrine organs impairing their functions indicating that the metabolic regulation of pituitary is mediated to a certain extent by zinc and/or hypothalamus-hypophysial system which also reflects its essentiality during the period of growth.

  4. Serotonin and Blood Pressure Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Davis, Robert Patrick; Barman, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) was discovered more than 60 years ago as a substance isolated from blood. The neural effects of 5-HT have been well investigated and understood, thanks in part to the pharmacological tools available to dissect the serotonergic system and the development of the frequently prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. By contrast, our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the control and modification of blood pressure pales in comparison. Here we focus on the role of 5-HT in systemic blood pressure control. This review provides an in-depth study of the function and pharmacology of 5-HT in those tissues that can modify blood pressure (blood, vasculature, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, brain), with a focus on the autonomic nervous system that includes mechanisms of action and pharmacology of 5-HT within each system. We compare the change in blood pressure produced in different species by short- and long-term administration of 5-HT or selective serotonin receptor agonists. To further our understanding of the mechanisms through which 5-HT modifies blood pressure, we also describe the blood pressure effects of commonly used drugs that modify the actions of 5-HT. The pharmacology and physiological actions of 5-HT in modifying blood pressure are important, given its involvement in circulatory shock, orthostatic hypotension, serotonin syndrome and hypertension. PMID:22407614

  5. Serotonin, carbohydrates, and atypical depression.

    PubMed

    Møller, S E

    1992-01-01

    At least three categories of atypical depression have been described. The hysteroid dysphoria is characterized by repeated episodes of depressed mood in response to feeling rejected, and a craving for sweets and chocolate. Two other issues are characterized by a cyclical occurrence of changes of mood and appetite, i.e., the late luteal phase dysphoric disorder (DSM-III-R, appendix), or "the premenstrual syndrome" (PMS), and the major depression with seasonal pattern (DSM-III-R), or seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The reactive mood changes are frequently accompanied by features as hypersomnia, lethargy and increased appetite, particularly with a preference for carbohydrates. Central serotonin pathways participate in the regulation of mood and behavioural impulsivity, and modulate eating patterns qualitatively and quantitatively. Depressives with PMS og SAD benefit, in general, from treatments with serotonin potentiating drugs, suggesting that brain serotonin plays a role in the pathophysiology. Ingestion of carbohydrates increases the plasma ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids in man and animal, and the serotonin synthesis in the rat brain. Based on these findings it has been suggested that the excessive carbohydrate intake by patients with PMS and SAD reflects a self-medication that temporarily relieves the vegetative symptoms via an increased central serotonergic activity.

  6. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  7. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  8. Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

  9. Serotonin 6 receptor controls Alzheimer's disease and depression.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Sanghyeon; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-09-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression in late life are one of the most severe health problems in the world disorders. Serotonin 6 receptor (5-HT6R) has caused much interest for potential roles in AD and depression. However, a causative role of perturbed 5-HT6R function between two diseases was poorly defined. In the present study, we found that a 5-HT6R antagonist, SB271036 rescued memory impairment by attenuating the generation of Aβ via the inhibition of γ-secretase activity and the inactivation of astrocytes and microglia in the AD mouse model. It was found that the reduction of serotonin level was significantly recovered by SB271036, which was mediated by an indirect regulation of serotonergic neurons via GABA. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine significantly improved cognitive impairment and behavioral changes. In human brain of depression patients, we then identified the potential genes, amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 2 (APBA2), well known AD modulators by integrating datasets from neuropathology, microarray, and RNA seq. studies with correlation analysis tools. And also, it was demonstrated in mouse models and patients of AD. These data indicate functional network of 5-HT6R between AD and depression.

  10. Senescence-Induced Serotonin Biosynthesis and Its Role in Delaying Senescence in Rice Leaves1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kiyoon; Kim, Young-Soon; Park, Sangkyu; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin, which is well known as a pineal hormone in mammals, plays a key role in conditions such as mood, eating disorders, and alcoholism. In plants, although serotonin has been suggested to be involved in several physiological roles, including flowering, morphogenesis, and adaptation to environmental changes, its regulation and functional roles are as yet not characterized at the molecular level. In this study, we found that serotonin is greatly accumulated in rice (Oryza sativa) leaves undergoing senescence induced by either nutrient deprivation or detachment, and its synthesis is closely coupled with transcriptional and enzymatic induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes as well as tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC). Transgenic rice plants that overexpressed TDC accumulated higher levels of serotonin than the wild type and showed delayed senescence of rice leaves. However, transgenic rice plants, in which expression of TDC was suppressed through an RNA interference (RNAi) system, produced less serotonin and senesced faster than the wild type, suggesting that serotonin is involved in attenuating leaf senescence. The senescence-retarding activity of serotonin is associated with its high antioxidant activity compared to either tryptophan or chlorogenic acid. Results of TDC overexpression and TDC RNAi plants suggest that TDC plays a rate-limiting role for serotonin accumulation, but the synthesis of serotonin depends on an absolute amount of tryptophan accumulation by the coordinate induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes. In addition, immunolocalization analysis revealed that serotonin was abundant in the vascular parenchyma cells, including companion cells and xylem-parenchyma cells, suggestive of its involvement in maintaining the cellular integrity of these cells for facilitating efficient nutrient recycling from senescing leaves to sink tissues during senescence. PMID:19439571

  11. Response of hippocampal mossy fiber zinc to excessive glutamate release.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Minami, Akira; Sakurada, Naomi; Nakajima, Satoko; Oku, Naoto

    2007-01-01

    The response of hippocampal mossy fiber zinc to excessive glutamate release was examined to understand the role of the zinc in excessive excitation in the hippocampus. Extracellular zinc and glutamate concentrations during excessive stimulation with high K(+) were compared between the hippocampal CA3 and CA1 by the in vivo microdialysis. Zinc concentration in the CA3 was more increased than that in the CA1, while glutamate concentration in the CA3 was less increased than that in the CA1. It is likely that more increase in extracellular zinc is linked with less increase in extracellular glutamate in the CA3. To see zinc action in mossy fiber synapses during excessive excitation, furthermore, 1mM glutamate was regionally delivered to the stratum lucidum in the presence of zinc or CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator, and intracellular calcium signal was measured in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer. The persistent increase in calcium signal during stimulation with glutamate was significantly attenuated in the presence of 100 microM zinc, while significantly enhanced in the presence of 1mM CaEDTA. These results suggest that zinc released from mossy fibers attenuates the increase in intracellular calcium signal in mossy fiber synapses and postsynaptic CA3 neurons after excessive inputs to dentate granular cells.

  12. Linezolid-induced serotonin syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vishal; Karnik, Niteen D; Deshpande, Rushikesh; Patil, Meenakshi Amit

    2013-01-01

    A young drug abuser was admitted to our intensive care unit for organophosphorus poisoning. He required mechanical ventilation and was started empirically on linezolid for suspected nosocomial infection. The patient developed high-grade fever with altered sensorium and clonus. Serotonin syndrome was suspected and the patient was started on cyproheptadine. He recovered within 3 days of withdrawing linezolide and administering cyproheptadine. PMID:23513014

  13. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  14. Serotonin modulates insect hemocyte phagocytosis via two different serotonin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yi-xiang; Huang, Jia; Li, Meng-qi; Wu, Ya-su; Xia, Ren-ying; Ye, Gong-yin

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates both neural and immune responses in vertebrates, but its role in insect immunity remains uncertain. We report that hemocytes in the caterpillar, Pieris rapae are able to synthesize 5-HT following activation by lipopolysaccharide. The inhibition of a serotonin-generating enzyme with either pharmacological blockade or RNAi knock-down impaired hemocyte phagocytosis. Biochemical and functional experiments showed that naive hemocytes primarily express 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors. The blockade of 5-HT1B significantly reduced phagocytic ability; however, the blockade of 5-HT2B increased hemocyte phagocytosis. The 5-HT1B-null Drosophila melanogaster mutants showed higher mortality than controls when infected with bacteria, due to their decreased phagocytotic ability. Flies expressing 5-HT1B or 5-HT2B RNAi in hemocytes also showed similar sensitivity to infection. Combined, these data demonstrate that 5-HT mediates hemocyte phagocytosis through 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors and serotonergic signaling performs critical modulatory functions in immune systems of animals separated by 500 million years of evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12241.001 PMID:26974346

  15. Molecular fMRI of Serotonin Transport.

    PubMed

    Hai, Aviad; Cai, Lili X; Lee, Taekwan; Lelyveld, Victor S; Jasanoff, Alan

    2016-11-23

    Reuptake of neurotransmitters from the brain interstitium shapes chemical signaling processes and is disrupted in several pathologies. Serotonin reuptake in particular is important for mood regulation and is inhibited by first-line drugs for treatment of depression. Here we introduce a molecular-level fMRI technique for micron-scale mapping of serotonin transport in live animals. Intracranial injection of an MRI-detectable serotonin sensor complexed with serotonin, together with serial imaging and compartmental analysis, permits neurotransmitter transport to be quantified as serotonin dissociates from the probe. Application of this strategy to much of the striatum and surrounding areas reveals widespread nonsaturating serotonin removal with maximal rates in the lateral septum. The serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine selectively suppresses serotonin removal in septal subregions, whereas both fluoxetine and a dopamine transporter blocker depress reuptake in striatum. These results highlight promiscuous pharmacological influences on the serotonergic system and demonstrate the utility of molecular fMRI for characterization of neurochemical dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Serotonin: Modulator of a Drive to Withdraw

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tops, Mattie; Russo, Sascha; Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Tucker, Don M.

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin is a fundamental neuromodulator in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems, with a suspected role in many human mental disorders. Yet, because of the complexity of serotonergic function, researchers have been unable to agree on a general theory. One function suggested for serotonin systems is the avoidance of threat. We propose…

  17. [Synergistic application of zinc and vitamin C to support memory, attention and the reduction of the risk of the neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Gromova, O A; Torshin, I Yu; Pronin, A V; Kilchevsky, M A

    Zinc and vitamin C supplementation of the body is important for CNS functioning. Zinc ions are involved in the neurotransmission (signal transmission from acetylcholine, catecholamine, serotonin, prostaglandin receptors) and in ubiquitin-related protein degradation. Zinc deficits are associated with Alzheimer's disease and depression. Zinc supplementation (10-30 mg daily) improves neurologic recovery rate in patients with stroke and brain injury, has a positive impact on memory and reduces hyperactivity in children. Vitamin C, a zinc synergist, maintains antioxidant resources of the brain, synaptic activity and detoxification. Vitamin C in dose 130-500 mg daily should be used to prevent dementia and neurodegenerative pathology.

  18. Serotonin research: contributions to understanding psychoses.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Mark A; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2008-09-01

    The history of serotonin research is closely related to the study of hallucinogenic drugs that function as agonists at serotonin-2A receptors. The fundamental idea that psychotic states seen in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia might be attributable, in part, to abnormalities in serotonergic systems began with the almost simultaneous discovery of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin and serotonin. Sixty years of study have confirmed early speculations regarding the important relationship between serotonin and both drug-induced and disorder-based psychotic states. Now, modern biochemical, pharmacological, behavioral, neuroimaging, genetic and molecular biological sciences are converging to understand how serotonergic systems interact with other monoaminergic and glutamatergic systems to modulate states of consciousness and contribute to psychotic disorders such as the group of schizophrenias. This review summarizes experimental assessments of the serotonergic hallucinogen model psychosis in relation to the serotonin hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  19. Update on zinc biology.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has become a prominent nutrient of clinical and public health interest in the new millennium. Functions and actions for zinc emerge as increasingly ubiquitous in mammalian anatomy, physiology and metabolism. There is undoubtedly an underpinning in fundamental biology for all of the aspects of zinc in human health (clinical and epidemiological) in pediatric and public health practice. Unfortunately, basic science research may not have achieved a full understanding as yet. As a complement to the applied themes in the companion articles, a selection of recent advances in the domains homeostatic regulation and transport of zinc is presented; they are integrated, in turn, with findings on genetic expression, intracellular signaling, immunity and host defense, and bone growth. The elements include ionic zinc, zinc transporters, metallothioneins, zinc metalloenzymes and zinc finger proteins. In emerging basic research, we find some plausible mechanistic explanations for delayed linear growth with zinc deficiency and increased infectious disease resistance with zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  1. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  2. Impact of Maternal Serotonin Transporter Genotype on Placental Serotonin, Fetal Forebrain Serotonin, and Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Christopher L; Anacker, Allison MJ; Rogers, Tiffany D; Goeden, Nick; Keller, Elizabeth H; Forsberg, C Gunnar; Kerr, Travis M; Wender, Carly LA; Anderson, George M; Stanwood, Gregg D; Blakely, Randy D; Bonnin, Alexandre; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Biomarker, neuroimaging, and genetic findings implicate the serotonin transporter (SERT) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously, we found that adult male mice expressing the autism-associated SERT Ala56 variant have altered central serotonin (5-HT) system function, as well as elevated peripheral blood 5-HT levels. Early in gestation, before midbrain 5-HT projections have reached the cortex, peripheral sources supply 5-HT to the forebrain, suggesting that altered maternal or placenta 5-HT system function could impact the developing embryo. We therefore used different combinations of maternal and embryo SERT Ala56 genotypes to examine effects on blood, placenta and embryo serotonin levels and neurodevelopment at embryonic day E14.5, when peripheral sources of 5-HT predominate, and E18.5, when midbrain 5-HT projections have reached the forebrain. Maternal SERT Ala56 genotype was associated with decreased placenta and embryonic forebrain 5-HT levels at E14.5. Low 5-HT in the placenta persisted, but forebrain levels normalized by E18.5. Maternal SERT Ala56 genotype effects on forebrain 5-HT levels were accompanied by a broadening of 5-HT-sensitive thalamocortical axon projections. In contrast, no effect of embryo genotype was seen in concepti from heterozygous dams. Blood 5-HT levels were dynamic across pregnancy and were increased in SERT Ala56 dams at E14.5. Placenta RNA sequencing data at E14.5 indicated substantial impact of maternal SERT Ala56 genotype, with alterations in immune and metabolic-related pathways. Collectively, these findings indicate that maternal SERT function impacts offspring placental 5-HT levels, forebrain 5-HT levels, and neurodevelopment. PMID:27550733

  3. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter) seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence. PMID:26257650

  4. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Serotonin shapes risky decision making in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Long, Arwen B; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Platt, Michael L

    2009-12-01

    Some people love taking risks, while others avoid gambles at all costs. The neural mechanisms underlying individual variation in preference for risky or certain outcomes, however, remain poorly understood. Although behavioral pathologies associated with compulsive gambling, addiction and other psychiatric disorders implicate deficient serotonin signaling in pathological decision making, there is little experimental evidence demonstrating a link between serotonin and risky decision making, in part due to the lack of a good animal model. We used dietary rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) to acutely lower brain serotonin in three macaques performing a simple gambling task for fluid rewards. To confirm the efficacy of RTD experiments, we measured total plasma tryptophan using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. Reducing brain serotonin synthesis decreased preference for the safe option in a gambling task. Moreover, lowering brain serotonin function significantly decreased the premium required for monkeys to switch their preference to the risky option, suggesting that diminished serotonin signaling enhances the relative subjective value of the risky option. These results implicate serotonin in risk-sensitive decision making and, further, suggest pharmacological therapies for treating pathological risk preferences in disorders such as problem gambling and addiction.

  6. Total Zinc Intake May Modify the Glucose-Raising Effect of a Zinc Transporter (SLC30A8) Variant

    PubMed Central

    Kanoni, Stavroula; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Hivert, Marie-France; Ye, Zheng; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Shungin, Dmitry; Sonestedt, Emily; Ngwa, Julius S.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Anderson, Jennifer S.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hindy, George; Saylor, Georgia; Renstrom, Frida; Bennett, Amanda J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Florez, Jose C.; Fox, Caroline S.; Hofman, Albert; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Houston, Denise K.; Hu, Frank B.; Jacques, Paul F.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; McKeown, Nicola; Ordovas, Jose; Pankow, James S.; Sijbrands, Eric J.G.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Uitterlinden, André G.; Yannakoulia, Mary; Zillikens, M. Carola; Wareham, Nick J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Bandinelli, Stefania; Forouhi, Nita G.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J.; Hallmans, Goran; Dupuis, Josée; Langenberg, Claudia; Ferrucci, Luigi; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Ingelsson, Erik; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Siscovick, David S.; Meigs, James B.; Franks, Paul W.; Dedoussis, George V.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Many genetic variants have been associated with glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is important for β-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that zinc intake could influence the glucose-raising effect of specific variants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a 14-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction of 20 genetic variants known to be related to glycemic traits and zinc metabolism with dietary zinc intake (food sources) and a 5-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction with total zinc intake (food sources and supplements) on fasting glucose levels among individuals of European ancestry without diabetes. RESULTS We observed a significant association of total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels (β-coefficient ± SE per 1 mg/day of zinc intake: −0.0012 ± 0.0003 mmol/L, summary P value = 0.0003), while the association of dietary zinc intake was not significant. We identified a nominally significant interaction between total zinc intake and the SLC30A8 rs11558471 variant on fasting glucose levels (β-coefficient ± SE per A allele for 1 mg/day of greater total zinc intake: −0.0017 ± 0.0006 mmol/L, summary interaction P value = 0.005); this result suggests a stronger inverse association between total zinc intake and fasting glucose in individuals carrying the glucose-raising A allele compared with individuals who do not carry it. None of the other interaction tests were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that higher total zinc intake may attenuate the glucose-raising effect of the rs11558471 SLC30A8 (zinc transporter) variant. Our findings also support evidence for the association of higher total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels. PMID:21810599

  7. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  8. Neuroanatomical dichotomy of sexual behaviors in rodents: a special emphasis on brain serotonin.

    PubMed

    Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M

    2015-09-01

    Much of the social behavior in which rodents engage is related to reproduction, such as maintaining a breeding territory, seeking mates, mating, and caring for their young. Rodents belong to the internally fertilizing species that require sexual behavior for reproduction. The dyadic, heterosexual patterns of most mammalian species are sexually dimorphic, but they also share mutual components in both sexes: sexual attraction is reciprocal, sexual initiative is assumed, appetitive behavior is engaged in, and mating involves consummatory and postconsummatory phases in females as well as in males. Serotonin, a phylogenetically ancient molecule, is the most widely distributed neurotransmitter in the brain and its signaling pathways are essential for numerous functions including sexual behavior. Since the late 1960s, brain serotonergic neurotransmission has been considered to exert an inhibitory influence on the neural mechanisms mediating sexual behavior. This contention was based mainly on the observations that a decrease in central serotonergic activity facilitated the elicitation of sexual behavior, whereas an increase in central serotonergic activity attenuated it. However, the discovery of over 14 types of serotonin receptors has added numerous layers of complexity to the study of serotonin and sexual behavior. Evidence shows that, upon activation, certain receptor subtypes facilitate, whereas some others suppress, sexual behavior, as well as sexual arousal and motivation. Furthermore, the role of these receptors has been shown to be different in the male and female sexes. The use of serotonergic pharmacological interventions, mouse strains with genetic polymorphisms causing alterations in the levels of brain serotonin, and animal models with genetic manipulations of various serotonin effectors has helped delineate the fundamental role of this neurotransmitter in the regulation of sexual behavior. This review aims to examine the basics of the components of female

  9. Neuroanatomical dichotomy of sexual behaviors in rodents: a special emphasis on brain serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    Much of the social behavior in which rodents engage is related to reproduction, such as maintaining a breeding territory, seeking mates, mating, and caring for young. Rodents belong to the internally fertilizing species that require sexual behavior for reproduction. The dyadic, heterosexual patterns of most mammalian species are sexually dimorphic, but they also share mutual components in both sexes: sexual attraction is reciprocal, sexual initiative is assumed, appetitive behavior is engaged in and mating involves consummatory and postconsummatory phases in females as well as in males. Serotonin, a phylogenetically ancient molecule, is the most widely distributed neurotransmitter in the brain and its signaling pathways are essential for numerous functions including sexual behavior. Since the late 1960’s, brain serotonergic neurotransmission has been considered to exert an inhibitory influence on the neural mechanisms mediating sexual behavior. This contention was based mainly on the observations that a decrease in central serotonergic activity facilitated the elicitation of sexual behavior while an increase in central serotonergic activity attenuated it. However, the discovery of over 14 types of serotonin receptors has added numerous layers of complexity to the study of serotonin and sexual behavior. Evidence shows that upon activation, certain receptor subtypes facilitate while some others suppress sexual behavior as well as sexual arousal and motivation. Furthermore, the role of these receptors has been shown to be differential in males versus females. The use of serotonergic pharmacological interventions, mouse strains with genetic polymorphisms causing alterations in the levels of brain serotonin as well as animal models with genetic manipulations of various serotonin effectors has helped delineate the fundamental role of this neurotransmitter in the regulation of sexual behavior. This review aims to examine the basics of the components of female and male

  10. Urinary serotonin level is associated with serotonin syndrome after moclobemide, sertraline, and citalopram overdose.

    PubMed

    Brvar, Miran; Stajer, Dusan; Kozelj, Gordana; Osredkar, Josko; Mozina, Martin; Bunc, Matjaz

    2007-01-01

    Altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, and neuromuscular abnormalities are a characteristic triad of serotonin syndrome. No laboratory tests confirm the diagnosis of serotonin syndrome. A 35-year-old woman took moclobemide, sertraline, and citalopram in a suicide attempt. She was conscious with mild tachycardia, hypertension, and tachypnea one hour after ingestion. In the second hour after ingestion diaphoresis, mydriasis, horizontal nystagmus, trismus, hyperreflexia, clonus, and tremor appeared. She became agitated and unresponsive. In the third hour after ingestion she became comatose and hyperthermic. She was anesthetized, paralyzed, intubated, and ventilated for 24 hours. Serum moclobemide, sertraline, and citalopram levels were above therapeutic levels. The serum serotonin level was within normal limits and the urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid:creatinine ratio was below the average daily value. The urinary serotonin:creatinine ratio was increased on arrival (1 mg/g). The urinary serotonin level is increased in serotonin syndrome due to a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors overdose. It is possible that urinary serotonin concentration could be used as a biochemical marker of serotonin syndrome.

  11. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  12. [Metabolism of serotonin in autism in children].

    PubMed

    Bursztejn, C; Ferrari, P; Dreux, C; Braconnier, A; Lancrenon, S

    1988-01-01

    In this controlled study of 22 autistic children and 22 normal controls matched for age and sex, the frequency of hyperserotonemia in infantile autism was confirmed. Platelet serotonin was elevated in patients. Comparative to controls, serotonin was also high in urine of autistic patients, while, on the contrary there was no difference for the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA. No difference was observed either for serotonin uptake and efflux or for MAO activity, in isolated platelets. The elevation of plasma free tryptophan - significant only with the Kolmogorov Smirnov test - suggests that 5-HT biosynthesis might be enhanced. In the group of patient reported in this study, disorders of serotonin metabolism are associated with disturbances of platelet catecholamines, and also with elevated immunoglobulins and enhanced cellular immunity reactions.

  13. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  14. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  15. Zinc release contributes to hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sang Won; Garnier, Philippe; Aoyama, Koji; Chen, Yongmei; Swanson, Raymond A

    2004-08-01

    Neurons exposed to zinc exhibit activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), an enzyme that normally participates in DNA repair but promotes cell death when extensively activated. Endogenous, vesicular zinc in brain is released to the extracellular space under conditions causing neuronal depolarization. Here, we used a rat model of insulin-induced hypoglycemia to assess the role of zinc release in PARP-1 activation and neuronal death after severe hypoglycemia. Zinc staining with N-(6-methoxy-8-quinolyl)-para-toluenesulfonamide (TSQ) showed depletion of presynaptic vesicular zinc from hippocampal mossy fiber terminals and accumulation of weakly bound zinc in hippocampal CA1 cell bodies after severe hypoglycemia. Intracerebroventricular injection of the zinc chelator calcium ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (CaEDTA) blocked the zinc accumulation and significantly reduced hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death. CaEDTA also attenuated the accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose), the enzymatic product of PARP-1, in hippocampal neurons. These results suggest that zinc translocation is an intermediary step linking hypoglycemia to PARP-1 activation and neuronal death.

  16. Zinc release from Schaffer collaterals and its significance.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Nakajima, Satoko; Fuke, Sayuri; Sakurada, Naomi; Minami, Akira; Oku, Naoto

    2006-02-15

    On the basis of the evidence that approximately 45% of Schaffer collateral boutons are zinc-positive, zinc release from Schaffer collaterals and its action were examined in hippocampal slices. When zinc release from Schaffer collaterals was examined using ZnAF-2, a membrane-impermeable zinc indicator, ZnAF-2 signal in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 was increased by tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 1s, suggesting that zinc is released from Schaffer collaterals in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. An in vivo microdialysis experiment indicated that the perfusion with 10 microM zinc significantly decreases extracellular glutamate concentration in the CA1. When tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 5s were delivered to the dentate granule cells, the increase in calcium signal in the stratum radiatum of the CA1, as well as in the stratum lucidum of the CA3, was attenuated by addition of 10 microM zinc, while enhanced by addition of 1mM CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator. The increase in calcium signal in the CA1, in which Schaffer collateral synapses exist, during delivery of tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 1s to the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway was also significantly enhanced by addition of 1mM CaEDTA. These results suggest that zinc released from Schaffer collaterals suppressively modulates presynaptic and postsynaptic calcium signaling in the CA1, followed by the suppression of glutamate release.

  17. Serotonin syndrome: a complex but easily avoidable condition.

    PubMed

    Dvir, Yael; Smallwood, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction caused by excessive serotonergic agonism in central and peripheral nervous system serotonergic receptors (Boyer EW, Shannon M. The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1112-1120). Symptoms are characterized by a triad of neuron-excitatory features, which include (a) neuromuscular hyperactivity -- tremor, clonus, myoclonus, hyperreflexia and, in advanced stages, pyramidal rigidity; (b) autonomic hyperactivity -- diaphoresis, fever, tachycardia and tachypnea; (c) altered mental status -- agitation, excitement and, in advanced stages, confusion (Gillman PK. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. Br J Anaesth 2005;95:434-441). It arises when pharmacological agents increase serotonin neurotransmission at postsynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A and 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptors through increased serotonin synthesis, decreased serotonin metabolism, increased serotonin release, inhibition of serotonin reuptake or direct agonism of the serotonin receptors (Houlihan D. Serotonin syndrome resulting from coadministration of tramodol, venlafaxine, and mirtazapine. Ann Pharmacother 2004;38:411-413). The etiology is often the result of therapeutic drug use, intentional overdosing of serotonergic agents or complex interactions between drugs that directly or indirectly modulate the serotonin system (Boyer EW, Shannon M. The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1112-1120). Due to the increasing availability of agents with serotonergic activity, physicians need to more aware of serotonin syndrome. The following case highlights the complex nature in which serotonin syndrome can arise, as well as the proper recognition and treatment of a potentially life-threatening yet easily avoidable condition.

  18. Acute tryptophan depletion attenuates conscious appraisal of social emotional signals in healthy female volunteers.

    PubMed

    Beacher, Felix D C C; Gray, Marcus A; Minati, Ludovico; Whale, Richard; Harrison, Neil A; Critchley, Hugo D

    2011-02-01

    Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) decreases levels of central serotonin. ATD thus enables the cognitive effects of serotonin to be studied, with implications for the understanding of psychiatric conditions, including depression. To determine the role of serotonin in conscious (explicit) and unconscious/incidental processing of emotional information. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over design was used with 15 healthy female participants. Subjective mood was recorded at baseline and after 4 h, when participants performed an explicit emotional face processing task, and a task eliciting unconscious processing of emotionally aversive and neutral images presented subliminally using backward masking. ATD was associated with a robust reduction in plasma tryptophan at 4 h but had no effect on mood or autonomic physiology. ATD was associated with significantly lower attractiveness ratings for happy faces and attenuation of intensity/arousal ratings of angry faces. ATD also reduced overall reaction times on the unconscious perception task, but there was no interaction with emotional content of masked stimuli. ATD did not affect breakthrough perception (accuracy in identification) of masked images. ATD attenuates the attractiveness of positive faces and the negative intensity of threatening faces, suggesting that serotonin contributes specifically to the appraisal of the social salience of both positive and negative salient social emotional cues. We found no evidence that serotonin affects unconscious processing of negative emotional stimuli. These novel findings implicate serotonin in conscious aspects of active social and behavioural engagement and extend knowledge regarding the effects of ATD on emotional perception.

  19. Serotonin and decision making processes.

    PubMed

    Homberg, Judith R

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important player in decision making. Serotonergic antidepressant, anxiolytic and antipsychotic drugs are extensively used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by impaired decision making, and exert both beneficial and harmful effects in patients. Detailed insight into the serotonergic mechanisms underlying decision making is needed to strengthen the first and weaken the latter. Although much remains to be done to achieve this, accumulating studies begin to deliver a coherent view. Thus, high central 5-HT levels are generally associated with improved reversal learning, improved attentional set shifting, decreased delay discounting, and increased response inhibition, but a failure to use outcome representations. Based on 5-HT's evolutionary role, I hypothesize that 5-HT integrates expected, or changes in, relevant sensory and emotional internal/external information, leading to vigilance behaviour affecting various decision making processes. 5-HT receptor subtypes play distinctive roles in decision making. 5-HT(2A) agonists and 5-HT2c antagonists decrease compulsivity, whereas 5-HT(2A) antagonists and 5-HT(2C) agonists decrease impulsivity. 5-HT(6) antagonists univocally affect decision making processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Switching brain serotonin with oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Mottolese, Raphaelle; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Le Bars, Didier; Sirigu, Angela

    2014-06-10

    Serotonin (5-HT) and oxytocin (OXT) are two neuromodulators involved in human affect and sociality and in disorders like depression and autism. We asked whether these chemical messengers interact in the regulation of emotion-based behavior by administering OXT or placebo to 24 healthy subjects and mapping cerebral 5-HT system by using 2'-methoxyphenyl-(N-2'-pyridinyl)-p-[(18)F]fluoro-benzamidoethylpiperazine ([(18)F]MPPF), an antagonist of 5-HT1A receptors. OXT increased [(18)F]MPPF nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the core area of 5-HT synthesis, and in the amygdala/hippocampal complex, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex. Importantly, the amygdala appears central in the regulation of 5-HT by OXT: [(18)F]MPPF BPND changes in the DRN correlated with changes in right amygdala, which were in turn correlated with changes in hippocampus, insula, subgenual, and orbitofrontal cortex, a circuit implicated in the control of stress, mood, and social behaviors. OXT administration is known to inhibit amygdala activity and results in a decrease of anxiety, whereas high amygdala activity and 5-HT dysregulation have been associated with increased anxiety. The present study reveals a previously unidentified form of interaction between these two systems in the human brain, i.e., the role of OXT in the inhibitory regulation of 5-HT signaling, which could lead to novel therapeutic strategies for mental disorders.

  1. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  2. Toward Serotonin Fluorescent False Neurotransmitters: Development of Fluorescent Dual Serotonin and Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Substrates for Visualizing Serotonin Neurons.

    PubMed

    Henke, Adam; Kovalyova, Yekaterina; Dunn, Matthew; Dreier, Dominik; Gubernator, Niko G; Dincheva, Iva; Hwu, Christopher; Šebej, Peter; Ansorge, Mark S; Sulzer, David; Sames, Dalibor

    2018-05-16

    Ongoing efforts in our laboratories focus on design of optical reporters known as fluorescent false neurotransmitters (FFNs) that enable the visualization of uptake into, packaging within, and release from individual monoaminergic neurons and presynaptic sites in the brain. Here, we introduce the molecular probe FFN246 as an expansion of the FFN platform to the serotonergic system. Combining the acridone fluorophore with the ethylamine recognition element of serotonin, we identified FFN54 and FFN246 as substrates for both the serotonin transporter and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). A systematic structure-activity study revealed the basic structural chemotype of aminoalkyl acridones required for serotonin transporter (SERT) activity and enabled lowering the background labeling of these probes while maintaining SERT activity, which proved essential for obtaining sufficient signal in the brain tissue (FFN246). We demonstrate the utility of FFN246 for direct examination of SERT activity and SERT inhibitors in 96-well cell culture assays, as well as specific labeling of serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus in the living tissue of acute mouse brain slices. While we found only minor FFN246 accumulation in serotonergic axons in murine brain tissue, FFN246 effectively traces serotonin uptake and packaging in the soma of serotonergic neurons with improved photophysical properties and loading parameters compared to known serotonin-based fluorescent tracers.

  3. Zinc Signals and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc. PMID:29064429

  4. Oscillatory serotonin function in depression.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Ronald M; Cowan, Ronald L

    2013-11-01

    Oscillations in brain activities with periods of minutes to hours may be critical for normal mood behaviors. Ultradian (faster than circadian) rhythms of mood behaviors and associated central nervous system activities are altered in depression. Recent data suggest that ultradian rhythms in serotonin (5HT) function also change in depression. In two separate studies, 5HT metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured every 10 min for 24 h before and after chronic antidepressant treatment. Antidepressant treatments were associated with enhanced ultradian amplitudes of CSF metabolite levels. Another study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure amplitudes of dorsal raphé activation cycles following sham or active dietary depletions of the 5HT precursor (tryptophan). During depletion, amplitudes of dorsal raphé activation cycles increased with rapid 6 s periods (about 0.18 Hz) while functional connectivity weakened between dorsal raphé and thalamus at slower periods of 20 s (0.05 Hz). A third approach studied MDMA (ecstasy, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) users because of their chronically diminished 5HT function compared with non-MDMA polysubstance users (Karageorgiou et al., 2009). Compared with a non-MDMA using cohort, MDMA users showed diminished fMRI intra-regional coherence in motor regions along with altered functional connectivity, again suggesting effects of altered 5HT oscillatory function. These data support a hypothesis that qualities of ultradian oscillations in 5HT function may critically influence moods and behaviors. Dysfunctional 5HT rhythms in depression may be a common endpoint and biomarker for depression, linking dysfunction of slow brain network oscillators to 5HT mechanisms affected by commonly available treatments. 5HT oscillatory dysfunction may define illness subtypes and predict responses to serotonergic agents. Further studies of 5HT oscillations in depression are indicated. Copyright

  5. Zinc and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Juan P.; Guo, Liang; Yoo, Changwon; Stewart, Tiffanie S

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process through which cells overcome stressful conditions. Inasmuch as faulty autophagy has been associated with aging, neuronal degeneration disorders, diabetes, and fatty liver, autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning the role of zinc in the regulation of autophagy, the role of autophagy in zinc metabolism, and the potential role of autophagy as a mediator of the protective effects of zinc. Data from in vitro studies consistently support the notion that zinc is critical for early and late autophagy. Studies have shown inhibition of early and late autophagy in cells cultured in medium treated with zinc chelators. Conversely, excess zinc added to the medium has shown to potentiate the stimulation of autophagy by tamoxifen, H2O2, ethanol and dopamine. The potential role of autophagy in zinc homeostasis has just begun to be investigated.Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy dysregulation causes significant changes in cellular zinc homeostasis. Autophagy may mediate the protective effect of zinc against lipid accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation by promoting degradation of lipid droplets, inflammasomes, p62/SQSTM1 and damaged mitochondria.Studies with humans and animal models are necessary to determine whether autophagy is influenced by zinc intake. PMID:25012760

  6. Serotonin delays habituation of leech swim response to touch.

    PubMed

    Alkatout, Bilal A; Marvin, Nicole M; Crisp, Kevin M

    2007-08-22

    Serotonin, acting through a cAMP-signaling pathway, delayed habituation to criterion of the leech's swim response to touch. This delay was reversed by crushing the connective between serotonin-exposed and serotonin-naive ganglia, and correlated with an increase in spontaneous impulse activity in this connective. We suggest that increased activity in intersegmental interneurons may play a role in maintaining swim responsiveness when concentrations of serotonin are elevated.

  7. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  8. Serotonin-Labeled CdSe Nanocrystals: Applications for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippeny, Tadd; Adkins, Erika; Adams, Scott; Thomlinson, Ian; Schroeter, Sally; Defelice, Louis; Blakely, Randy; Rosenthal, Sandra

    2000-03-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter which has been linked to the regulation of critical behaviors including sleep, appetite, and mood. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is a 12-transmembrane domain protein responsible for clearance of serotonin from extracellular spaces following release. In order to assess the potential for use of ligand-conjugated nanocrystals to target cell surface receptors, ion channels, and transporters we have measured the ability of serotonin-labeled CdSe nanocrystals (SNACs) to block the uptake of tritiated serotonin by the human and Drosophila serotonin transporters (hSERT and dSERT). Estimated Ki values, the SNAC concentration at which half of the serotonin transport activity is blocked, were determined by nonlinear regression to be Ki (hSERT ) = 74uM and Ki (dSERT ) = 29uM. These values and our inability to detect free serotonin indicate that SNACs selectively interact with the serotonin recognition site of the transporter. We have also exposed the SNACs to cells containing ionotropic serotonin receptors and have measured the electrical response of the cell using a two microelectrode voltage clamp. We find that serotonin receptors do respond to the SNACs and we measure currents similar to the free serotonin response. These results indicate that ligand-conjugated nanocrystals can be used to label both receptor and transporter proteins. Initial fluorescence labeling experiments will be discussed.

  9. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  10. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remainedmore » constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.« less

  11. Enhancement of hippocampal mossy fiber activity in zinc deficiency and its influence on behavior.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Itoh, Hiromasa; Yamada, Kohei; Tamano, Haruna; Oku, Naoto

    2008-10-01

    The extracellular concentration of glutamate in the hippocampus is increased by hippocampal perfusion with CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator, suggesting that the activity of glutamatergic neurons in the hippocampus are influenced by the extracellular concentrations of zinc. In the present study, the relationship between the extracellular concentrations of zinc and mossy fiber activity in the hippocampus was examined in mice and rats fed a zinc-deficient diet for 4 weeks. Timm's stain, by which histochemically reactive zinc in the presynaptic vesicles is detected, was attenuated in the hippocampus in zinc deficiency. The extracellular signal of ZnAF-2, a membrane-impermeable zinc indicator, was also lower in the hippocampal CA3, suggesting that the basal extracellular concentrations of zinc are lower maintained in zinc deficiency. To check mossy fiber activity after 4-week zinc deprivation, the decrease in the signal of FM4-64, an indicator of presynaptic activity (exocytosis), at mossy fiber synapses was measured under the condition of spontaneous depolarization. The decrease was significantly facilitated by zinc deficiency, suggesting that the basal exocytosis at mossy fiber synapses is enhanced by zinc deficiency. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety-like behavior was observed in the open-field test after 4-week zinc deprivation. The present study demonstrates that the decrease in the basal extracellular concentrations of zinc may be linked to the enhancement of the basal mossy fiber activity in zinc deficiency. This decrease seems to be also involved in neuropsychological behavior in zinc deficiency.

  12. Measuring the serotonin uptake site using (/sup 3/H)paroxetine--a new serotonin uptake inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Gleiter, C.H.; Nutt, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that may be involved in ethanol preference and dependence. It is possible to label the serotonin uptake site in brain using the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, but this also binds to other sites. We have used the new high-affinity uptake blocker paroxetine to define binding to this site and report it to have advantages over imipramine as a ligand.

  13. Zinc triggers microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, “amoeboid” morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 μM zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 – 30 μM zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-κB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-κB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders. PMID:18509044

  14. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  15. [Zinc and chronic enteropathies].

    PubMed

    Giorgi, P L; Catassi, C; Guerrieri, A

    1984-01-01

    In recent years the nutritional importance of zinc has been well established; its deficiency and its symptoms have also been recognized in humans. Furthermore, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica has been isolated, a rare but severe disease, of which skin lesions, chronic diarrhoea and recurring infections are the main symptoms. The disease is related to the malfunctioning of intestinal absorption of zinc and can be treated by administering pharmacological doses of zinc orally. Good dietary sources of zinc are meat, fish and, to a less extent, human milk. The amount of zinc absorbed in the small intestine is influenced by other nutrients: some compounds inhibit this process (dietary fiber, phytate) while others (picolinic acid, citric acid), referred to as Zn-binding ligands (ZnBL) facilitate it. Citric acid is thought to be the ligand which accounts for the high level of bioavailability of zinc in human milk. zinc absorption occurs throughout the small intestine, not only in the prossimal tract (duodenum and jejunum) but also in the distal tract (ileum). Diarrhoea is one of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, thus many illnesses distinguished by chronic diarrhoea entail a bad absorption of zinc. In fact, in some cases of chronic enteropathies in infants, like coeliac disease and seldom cystic fibrosis, a deficiency of zinc has been isolated. Some of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, like retarded growth and hypogonadism, have been related to hypozinchemia which is present in this illness. Finally, it is possible that some of the dietary treatments frequently used for persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea (i.e. cow's milk exclusion, abuse and misuse of dietary fiber like carrot and carub powder, use of soy formula) can constitute a scarce supply of zinc and therefore could promote the persistency of diarrhoea itself.

  16. DC attenuation meter

    DOEpatents

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  17. Serotonin in Autism and Pediatric Epilepsies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chugani, Diane C.

    2004-01-01

    Serotonergic abnormalities have been reported in both autism and epilepsy. This association may provide insights into underlying mechanisms of these disorders because serotonin plays an important neurotrophic role during brain development--and there is evidence for abnormal cortical development in both autism and some forms of epilepsy. This…

  18. Docosahexaenoyl serotonin emerges as most potent inhibitor of IL-17 and CCL-20 released by blood mononuclear cells from a series of N-acyl serotonins identified in human intestinal tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Balvers, Michiel G J; Hendriks, Henk F J; Wilpshaar, Tessa; van Heek, Tjarda; Witkamp, Renger F; Meijerink, Jocelijn

    2017-09-01

    Fatty acid amides (FAAs), conjugates of fatty acids with ethanolamine, mono-amine neurotransmitters or amino acids are a class of molecules that display diverse functional roles in different cells and tissues. Recently we reported that one of the serotonin-fatty acid conjugates, docosahexaenoyl serotonin (DHA-5-HT), previously found in gut tissue of mouse and pig, attenuates the IL-23-IL-17 signaling axis in LPS-stimulated mice macrophages. However, its presence and effects in humans remained to be elucidated. Here, we report for the first time its identification in human intestinal (colon) tissue, along with a series of related N-acyl serotonins. Furthermore, we tested these fatty acid conjugates for their ability to inhibit the release of IL-17 and CCL-20 by stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Serotonin conjugates with palmitic acid (PA-5-HT), stearic acid (SA-5-HT) and oleic acid (OA-5-HT) were detected in higher levels than arachidonoyl serotonin (AA-5-HT) and DHA-5-HT, while eicosapentaenoyl serotonin (EPA-5-HT) could not be quantified. Among these, DHA-5-HT was the most potent in inhibiting IL-17 and CCL-20, typical Th17 pro-inflammatory mediators, by Concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated human PBMCs. These results underline the idea that DHA-5-HT is a gut-specific endogenously produced mediator with the capacity to modulate the IL-17/Th17 signaling response. Our findings may be of relevance in relation to intestinal inflammatory diseases like Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Modulation of defensive reflex conditioning in snails by serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Andrianov, Vyatcheslav V.; Bogodvid, Tatiana K.; Deryabina, Irina B.; Golovchenko, Aleksandra N.; Muranova, Lyudmila N.; Tagirova, Roza R.; Vinarskaya, Aliya K.; Gainutdinov, Khalil L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Daily injection of serotonin before a training session accelerated defensive reflex conditioning in snails.Daily injection of 5-hydroxytryptophan before a training session in snails with a deficiency of serotonin induced by the “neurotoxic” analog of serotonin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, restored the ability of snails to learn.After injection of the “neurotoxic” analogs of serotonin 5,6- and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine as well as serotonin, depolarization of the membrane and decrease of the threshold potential of premotor interneurons was observed. We studied the role of serotonin in the mechanisms of learning in terrestrial snails. To produce a serotonin deficit, the “neurotoxic” analogs of serotonin, 5,6- or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,6/5,7-DHT) were used. Injection of 5,6/5,7-DHT was found to disrupt defensive reflex conditioning. Within 2 weeks of neurotoxin application, the ability to learn had recovered. Daily injection of serotonin before a training session accelerated defensive reflex conditioning and daily injections of 5-HTP in snails with a deficiency of serotonin induced by 5,7-DHT restored the snail's ability to learn. We discovered that injections of the neurotoxins 5,6/5,7-DHT as well as serotonin, caused a decrease in the resting and threshold potentials of the premotor interneurons LPa3 and RPa3. PMID:26557063

  20. Perturbation of Serotonin Homeostasis during Adulthood Affects Serotonergic Neuronal Circuitry.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Marta; Migliarini, Sara; Pelosi, Barbara; Napolitano, Francesco; Usiello, Alessandro; Pasqualetti, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence shows that the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) modulates the fine-tuning of neuron development and the establishment of wiring patterns in the brain. However, whether serotonin is involved in the maintenance of neuronal circuitry in the adult brain remains elusive. Here, we use a Tph2 fl ° x conditional knockout (cKO) mouse line to assess the impact of serotonin depletion during adulthood on serotonergic system organization. Data show that the density of serotonergic fibers is increased in the hippocampus and decreased in the thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) as a consequence of brain serotonin depletion. Strikingly, these defects are rescued following reestablishment of brain 5-HT signaling via administration of the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). Finally, 3D reconstruction of serotonergic fibers reveals that changes in serotonin homeostasis affect axonal branching complexity. These data demonstrate that maintaining proper serotonin homeostasis in the adult brain is crucial to preserve the correct serotonergic axonal wiring.

  1. Positive regulation of raphe serotonin neurons by serotonin 2B receptors.

    PubMed

    Belmer, Arnauld; Quentin, Emily; Diaz, Silvina L; Guiard, Bruno P; Fernandez, Sebastian P; Doly, Stéphane; Banas, Sophie M; Pitychoutis, Pothitos M; Moutkine, Imane; Muzerelle, Aude; Tchenio, Anna; Roumier, Anne; Mameli, Manuel; Maroteaux, Luc

    2018-06-01

    Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in many psychiatric diseases. In humans, a lack of 5-HT 2B receptors is associated with serotonin-dependent phenotypes, including impulsivity and suicidality. A lack of 5-HT 2B receptors in mice eliminates the effects of molecules that directly target serotonergic neurons including amphetamine derivative serotonin releasers, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT 2B receptors directly and positively regulate raphe serotonin neuron activity. By ex vivo electrophysiological recordings, we report that stimulation by the 5-HT 2B receptor agonist, BW723C86, increased the firing frequency of serotonin Pet1-positive neurons. Viral overexpression of 5-HT 2B receptors in these neurons increased their excitability. Furthermore, in vivo 5-HT 2B -receptor stimulation by BW723C86 counteracted 5-HT 1A autoreceptor-dependent reduction in firing rate and hypothermic response in wild-type mice. By a conditional genetic ablation that eliminates 5-HT 2B receptor expression specifically and exclusively from Pet1-positive serotonin neurons (Htr2b 5-HTKO mice), we demonstrated that behavioral and sensitizing effects of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine), as well as acute behavioral and chronic neurogenic effects of the antidepressant fluoxetine, require 5-HT 2B receptor expression in serotonergic neurons. In Htr2b 5-HTKO mice, dorsal raphe serotonin neurons displayed a lower firing frequency compared to control Htr2b lox/lox mice as assessed by in vivo extracellular recordings and a stronger hypothermic effect of 5-HT 1A -autoreceptor stimulation was observed. The increase in head-twitch response to DOI (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine) further confirmed the lower serotonergic tone resulting from the absence of 5-HT 2B receptors in serotonin neurons. Together, these observations indicate that the 5-HT 2B receptor acts as a direct positive modulator of serotonin Pet1

  2. Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

  3. Serotonin neuron abnormalities in the BTBR mouse model of autism.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yue-Ping; Commons, Kathryn G

    2017-01-01

    The inbred mouse strain BTBR T + Itpr3 tf /J (BTBR) is studied as a model of idiopathic autism because they are less social and more resistant to change than other strains. Forebrain serotonin receptors and the response to serotonin drugs are altered in BTBR mice, yet it remains unknown if serotonin neurons themselves are abnormal. In this study, we found that serotonin tissue content and the density of serotonin axons is reduced in the hippocampus of BTBR mice in comparison to C57BL/6J (C57) mice. This was accompanied by possible compensatory changes in serotonin neurons that were most pronounced in regions known to provide innervation to the hippocampus: the caudal dorsal raphe (B6) and the median raphe. These changes included increased numbers of serotonin neurons and hyperactivation of Fos expression. Metrics of serotonin neurons in the rostral 2/3 of the dorsal raphe and serotonin content of the prefrontal cortex were less impacted. Thus, serotonin neurons exhibit region-dependent abnormalities in the BTBR mouse that may contribute to their altered behavioral profile. Autism Res 2017, 10: 66-77. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Serotonin Neuron Abnormalities in the BTBR Mouse Model of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yue-Ping; Commons, Kathryn G.

    2017-01-01

    The inbred mouse strain BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) i studied as a model of idiopathic autism because they are less social and more resistant to change than other strains. Forebrain serotonin receptors and the response to serotonin drugs are altered in BTBR mice, yet it remains unknown if serotonin neurons themselves are abnormal. In this study, we found that serotonin tissue content and the density of serotonin axons is reduced in the hippocampus of BTBR mice in comparison to C57BL/6J (C57) mice. This was accompanied by possible compensatory changes in serotonin neurons that were most pronounced in regions known to provide innervation to the hippocampus: the caudal dorsal raphe (B6) and the median raphe. These changes included increased numbers of serotonin neurons and hyperactivation of Fos expression. Metrics of serotonin neurons in the rostral 2/3 of the dorsal raphe and serotonin content of the prefrontal cortex were less impacted. Thus, serotonin neurons exhibit region-dependent abnormalities in the BTBR mouse that may contribute to their altered behavioral profile. PMID:27478061

  5. A serotonin and melanocortin circuit mediates D-fenfluramine anorexia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Jones, Juli E; Lauzon, Danielle A; Anderson, Jason G; Balthasar, Nina; Heisler, Lora K; Zinn, Andrew R; Lowell, Bradford B; Elmquist, Joel K

    2010-11-03

    D-Fenfluramine (D-Fen) increases serotonin (5-HT) content in the synaptic cleft and exerts anorexigenic effects in animals and humans. However, the neural circuits that mediate these effects are not fully identified. To address this issue, we assessed the efficacy of D-Fen-induced hypophagia in mouse models with manipulations of several genes in selective populations of neurons. Expectedly, we found that global deletion of 5-HT 2C receptors (5-HT(2C)Rs) significantly attenuated D-Fen-induced anorexia. These anorexigenic effects were restored in mice with 5-HT(2C)Rs expressed only in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. Further, we found that deletion of melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4Rs), a downstream target of POMC neurons, abolished anorexigenic effects of D-Fen. Reexpression of MC4Rs only in SIM1 neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and neurons in the amygdala was sufficient to restore the hypophagic property of D-Fen. Thus, our results identify a neurochemically defined neural circuit through which D-Fen influences appetite and thereby indicate that this 5-HT(2C)R/POMC-MC4R/SIM1 circuit may yield a more refined target to exploit for weight loss.

  6. A Serotonin and Melanocortin Circuit Mediates d-Fenfluramine Anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yong; Jones, Juli E.; Lauzon, Danielle A.; Anderson, Jason G.; Balthasar, Nina; Heisler, Lora K.; Zinn, Andrew R.; Lowell, Bradford B.; Elmquist, Joel K.

    2012-01-01

    d-Fenfluramine (d-Fen) increases serotonin (5-HT) content in the synaptic cleft and exerts anorexigenic effects in animals and humans. However, the neural circuits that mediate these effects are not fully identified. To address this issue, we assessed the efficacy of d-Fen-induced hypophagia in mouse models with manipulations of several genes in selective populations of neurons. Expectedly, we found that global deletion of 5-HT 2C receptors (5-HT2CRs) significantly attenuated d-Fen-induced anorexia. These anorexigenic effects were restored in mice with 5-HT2CRs expressed only in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. Further, we found that deletion of melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4Rs), a downstream target of POMC neurons, abolished anorexigenic effects of d-Fen. Reexpression of MC4Rs only in SIM1 neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and neurons in the amygdala was sufficient to restore the hypophagic property of d-Fen. Thus, our results identify a neurochemically defined neural circuit through which d-Fen influences appetite and thereby indicate that this 5-HT2CR/POMC-MC4R/SIM1 circuit may yield a more refined target to exploit for weight loss. PMID:21048120

  7. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  8. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  9. Tramadol: seizures, serotonin syndrome, and coadministered antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2009-04-01

    This ongoing column is dedicated to the challenging clinical interface between psychiatry and primary care-two fields that are inexorably linked.Tramadol (Ultram(®)) is a commonly prescribed analgesic because of its relatively lower risk of addiction and better safety profile in comparison with other opiates. However, two significant adverse reactions are known to potentially occur with tramadol-seizures and serotonin syndrome. These two adverse reactions may develop during tramadol monotherapy, but appear much more likely to emerge during misuse/overdose as well as with the coadministration of other drugs, particularly antidepressants. In this article, we review the data relating to tramadol, seizures, and serotonin syndrome. This pharmacologic intersection is of clear relevance to both psychiatrists and primary care clinicians.

  10. Sleep, serotonin, and suicide in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Jun

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews evidence supporting the hypothesis that suicide rates in Japan could be reduced by elevating serotonin levels via increasing the average duration of sleep. Seven major relevant findings were apparent in the literature: 1) Sleep loss is associated with suicide, but the direction of causality is equivocal. 2) Decreased serotonergic activity may be involved in suicidal behavior. 3) Sleep debt may decrease serotonergic activity. 4) The suicide rate in Japan has remained at a heightened level for the past 12 years. 5) The average sleep duration in Japan has decreased over the past 40 years. 6) The average sleep duration in Japan is among the lowest in the world. 7) The average sleep duration in Japan plateaued in 1995 and has been relatively stable since. From the research reviewed, two major problematic issues were apparent: 1) Most people in Japan receive inadequate sleep. 2) Individuals whose sleep is inadequate are unlikely to be sufficiently physically active to stimulate serotonergic systems to a desirable level. I propose that public health initiatives encouraging a longer duration of sleep may provide a relatively simple way of addressing the disturbing current trend in Japan. The combination of actigraph and brain serotonin level measurement could allow large population-based cohort studies to be designed, to elucidate the causal links between sleep duration, serotonin levels, and suicide rates.

  11. Serotonin, atherosclerosis, and collateral vessel spasm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenberg, N.

    1988-01-01

    Studies on animal models demonstrate that platelet products contribute to vascular spasm in ischemic syndromes and that this is reversible with administration of ketanserin and thromboxane synthesis inhibitors. Laboratory animals (dogs, rabbits, and rats) that had femoral artery ligations exhibited supersensitivity to serotonin within days in their collateral blood vessels. This supersensitivity lasted at least 6 months. The response to serotonin was reversed by ketanserin, but not by 5HT-1 antagonists. Supersensitivity does not extend to norepinephrine, and alpha blockers do not influence the response to serotonin. It appears that platelet activation by endothelial injury contributes to ischemia through blood vessel occlusion and vascular spasm. When platelet activation occurs in vivo, blood vessel occlusion and vascular spasm are reversible in part by using ketanserin or agents that block thromboxane synthesis or its action. Combining both classes of agents reverses spasm completely. These findings support existing evidence that platelet products contribute to vascular disease, and provide an approach to improved management with currently available pharmacologic agents.

  12. Organization of monosynaptic inputs to the serotonin and dopamine neuromodulatorysystems

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Sachie K.; Cohen, Jeremiah Y.; Hwang, Dabin; Uchida, Naoshige; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Serotonin and dopamine are major neuromodulators. Here we used a modified rabies virus to identify monosynaptic inputs to serotonin neurons in the dorsal and median raphe (DR and MR). We found that inputs to DR and MR serotonin neurons are spatially shiftedin the forebrain, with MRserotonin neurons receiving inputs from more medial structures. We then compared these data with inputs to dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantianigra pars compacta (SNc). We found that DR serotonin neurons receive inputs from a remarkably similar set of areas as VTA dopamine neurons, apart from the striatum, which preferentially targets dopamine neurons. Ourresults suggest three majorinput streams: amedial stream regulates MR serotonin neurons, anintermediate stream regulatesDR serotonin and VTA dopamine neurons, and alateral stream regulatesSNc dopamine neurons. These results providefundamental organizational principlesofafferent control forserotonin and dopamine. PMID:25108805

  13. Peripheral Serotonin: a New Player in Systemic Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Namkung, Jun; Kim, Hail; Park, Sangkyu

    2015-01-01

    Whole body energy balance is achieved through the coordinated regulation of energy intake and energy expenditure in various tissues including liver, muscle and adipose tissues. A positive energy imbalance by excessive energy intake or insufficient energy expenditure results in obesity and related metabolic diseases. Although there have been many obesity treatment trials aimed at the reduction of energy intake, these strategies have achieved only limited success because of their associated adverse effects. An ancient neurotransmitter, serotonin is among those traditional pharmacological targets for anti-obesity treatment because it exhibits strong anorectic effect in the brain. However, recent studies suggest the new functions of peripheral serotonin in energy homeostasis ranging from the endocrine regulation by gut-derived serotonin to the autocrine/paracrine regulation by adipocyte-derived serotonin. Here, we discuss the role of serotonin in the regulation of energy homeostasis and introduce peripheral serotonin as a possible target for anti-obesity treatment. PMID:26628041

  14. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  15. Nutrition status, bone mass density, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kindilien, Shannon; Goldberg, Elle M; Roberts, Melissa H; Gonzales-Pacheco, Diana

    2018-05-07

    The association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use and bone mass density (BMD) has been debated. Inadequate diet, which may occur in depressed individuals prescribed SSRIs is also associated with decreased BMD. This study seeks to determine if SSRI use in adults is associated with lower than average BMD while controlling for nutrition related variables. Further, it investigates whether there are potential interactions between micronutrients and SSRI use on BMD. Adults, 655 with an SSRI prescription ≥180 days and 12,372 non-users, were identified in the 2005-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Survey respondents were propensity score matched on propensity to have an SSRI prescription and compared on femoral neck BMD t-scores. A sub-analysis within SSRI users was conducted to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of having a low (osteopenia or osteoporosis) BMD t-score given SSRI exposure and inadequate daily micronutrient intake. Inadequate daily micronutrient intake was common; over half of SSRI users and non-users had inadequate calcium, vitamin d, and potassium. SSRI use was associated with an absolute reduction of 0.11 in BMD t-score. Inadequate daily vitamin D intake was associated with lower BMD t-scores in both SSRI users and non-users. The interaction of SSRI use and inadequate daily intake of zinc was also associated with low BMD (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.01-1.23). Patient health may be improved by nutritional education, referral to a dietician, or by micronutrient monitoring by the prescribing physician. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Serotonin projection patterns to the cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A M; Thompson, G C

    2001-07-13

    The cochlear nucleus is well known as an obligatory relay center for primary auditory nerve fibers. Perhaps not so well known is the neural input to the cochlear nucleus from cells containing serotonin that reside near the midline in the midbrain raphe region. Although the specific locations of the main, if not sole, sources of serotonin within the dorsal cochlear nucleus subdivision are known to be the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, sources of serotonin located within other cochlear nucleus subdivisions are not currently known. Anterograde tract tracing was used to label fibers originating from the dorsal and median raphe nuclei while fluorescence immunohistochemistry was used to simultaneously label specific serotonin fibers in cat. Biotinylated dextran amine was injected into the dorsal and median raphe nuclei and was visualized with Texas Red, while serotonin was visualized with fluorescein. Thus, double-labeled fibers were unequivocally identified as serotoninergic and originating from one of the labeled neurons within the dorsal and median raphe nuclei. Double-labeled fiber segments, typically of fine caliber with oval varicosities, were observed in many areas of the cochlear nucleus. They were found in the molecular layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, in the small cell cap region, and in the granule cell and external regions of the cochlear nuclei, bilaterally, of all cats. However, the density of these double-labeled fiber segments varied considerably depending upon the exact region in which they were found. Fiber segments were most dense in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (especially in the molecular layer) and the large spherical cell area of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus; they were moderately dense in the small cell cap region; and fiber segments were least dense in the octopus and multipolar cell regions of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus. Because of the presence of labeled fiber segments in subdivisions of the cochlear nucleus other than the

  17. Metabolomics Approach Reveals Integrated Metabolic Network Associated with Serotonin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Tian, Yonglu; Burton, Casey; Xu, Xinyuan; Liu, Yi; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-07-08

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that broadly participates in various biological processes. While serotonin deficiency has been associated with multiple pathological conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, the serotonin-dependent mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel biomarkers and metabolic pathways perturbed by serotonin deficiency using metabolomics approach in order to gain new metabolic insights into the serotonin deficiency-related molecular mechanisms. Serotonin deficiency was achieved through pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) or genetic knockout of the neuronal specific Tph2 isoform. This dual approach improved specificity for the serotonin deficiency-associated biomarkers while minimizing nonspecific effects of pCPA treatment or Tph2 knockout (Tph2-/-). Non-targeted metabolic profiling and a targeted pCPA dose-response study identified 21 biomarkers in the pCPA-treated mice while 17 metabolites in the Tph2-/- mice were found to be significantly altered compared with the control mice. These newly identified biomarkers were associated with amino acid, energy, purine, lipid and gut microflora metabolisms. Oxidative stress was also found to be significantly increased in the serotonin deficient mice. These new biomarkers and the overall metabolic pathways may provide new understanding for the serotonin deficiency-associated mechanisms under multiple pathological states.

  18. Metabolomics Approach Reveals Integrated Metabolic Network Associated with Serotonin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Tian, Yonglu; Burton, Casey; Xu, Xinyuan; Liu, Yi; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that broadly participates in various biological processes. While serotonin deficiency has been associated with multiple pathological conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, the serotonin-dependent mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel biomarkers and metabolic pathways perturbed by serotonin deficiency using metabolomics approach in order to gain new metabolic insights into the serotonin deficiency-related molecular mechanisms. Serotonin deficiency was achieved through pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) or genetic knockout of the neuronal specific Tph2 isoform. This dual approach improved specificity for the serotonin deficiency-associated biomarkers while minimizing nonspecific effects of pCPA treatment or Tph2 knockout (Tph2-/-). Non-targeted metabolic profiling and a targeted pCPA dose-response study identified 21 biomarkers in the pCPA-treated mice while 17 metabolites in the Tph2-/- mice were found to be significantly altered compared with the control mice. These newly identified biomarkers were associated with amino acid, energy, purine, lipid and gut microflora metabolisms. Oxidative stress was also found to be significantly increased in the serotonin deficient mice. These new biomarkers and the overall metabolic pathways may provide new understanding for the serotonin deficiency-associated mechanisms under multiple pathological states. PMID:26154191

  19. Molecular imaging of serotonin degeneration in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gwenn S; Barrett, Frederick S; Joo, Jin Hui; Nassery, Najlla; Savonenko, Alena; Sodums, Devin J; Marano, Christopher M; Munro, Cynthia A; Brandt, Jason; Kraut, Michael A; Zhou, Yun; Wong, Dean F; Workman, Clifford I

    2017-09-01

    Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions and is found in high concentrations in the serotonergic cell bodies of origin of these projections (raphe nuclei). Twenty-eight participants with mild cognitive impairment (age 66.6±6.9, 16 males) and 28 healthy, cognitively normal, demographically matched controls (age 66.2±7.1, 15 males) underwent magnetic resonance imaging for measurement of grey matter volumes and high-resolution positron emission tomography with well-established radiotracers for the serotonin transporter and regional cerebral blood flow. Beta-amyloid imaging was performed to evaluate, in combination with the neuropsychological testing, the likelihood of subsequent cognitive decline in the participants with mild cognitive impairment. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) the serotonin transporter would be lower in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic regions, 2) in mild cognitive impairment relative to controls, the serotonin transporter would be lower to a greater extent and observed in a more widespread pattern than lower grey matter volumes or lower regional cerebral blood flow and 3) lower cortical and limbic serotonin transporters would be correlated with greater deficits in auditory-verbal and visual-spatial memory in mild cognitive impairment, not in controls. Reduced serotonin transporter availability was observed in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic

  20. Serotonin Control of Thermotaxis Memory Behavior in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuling; Wang, Daoyong; Li, Chaojun; Wang, Dayong

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf)) increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans. PMID:24223727

  1. Serotonin and conditioning: focus on Pavlovian psychostimulant drug conditioning.

    PubMed

    Carey, Robert J; Damianopoulos, Ernest N

    2015-04-01

    Serotonin containing neurons are located in nuclei deep in the brainstem and send axons throughout the central nervous system from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex. The vast scope of these connections and interactions enable serotonin and serotonin analogs to have profound effects upon sensory/motor processes. In that conditioning represents a neuroplastic process that leads to new sensory/motor connections, it is apparent that the serotonin system has the potential for a critical role in conditioning. In this article we review the basics of conditioning as well as the serotonergic system and point up the number of non-associative ways in which manipulations of serotonin neurotransmission have an impact upon conditioning. We focus upon psychostimulant drug conditioning and review the contribution of drug stimuli in the use of serotonin drugs to investigate drug conditioning and the important impact drug stimuli can have on conditioning by introducing new sensory stimuli that can create or mask a CS. We also review the ways in which experimental manipulations of serotonin can disrupt conditioned behavioral effects but not the associative processes in conditioning. In addition, we propose the use of the recently developed memory re-consolidation model of conditioning as an approach to assess the possible role of serotonin in associative processes without the complexities of performance effects related to serotonin treatment induced alterations in sensory/motor systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolomics Approach Reveals Integrated Metabolic Network Associated with Serotonin Deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Tian, Yonglu; Burton, Casey; Xu, Xinyuan; Liu, Yi; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-07-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that broadly participates in various biological processes. While serotonin deficiency has been associated with multiple pathological conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, the serotonin-dependent mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel biomarkers and metabolic pathways perturbed by serotonin deficiency using metabolomics approach in order to gain new metabolic insights into the serotonin deficiency-related molecular mechanisms. Serotonin deficiency was achieved through pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) or genetic knockout of the neuronal specific Tph2 isoform. This dual approach improved specificity for the serotonin deficiency-associated biomarkers while minimizing nonspecific effects of pCPA treatment or Tph2 knockout (Tph2-/-). Non-targeted metabolic profiling and a targeted pCPA dose-response study identified 21 biomarkers in the pCPA-treated mice while 17 metabolites in the Tph2-/- mice were found to be significantly altered compared with the control mice. These newly identified biomarkers were associated with amino acid, energy, purine, lipid and gut microflora metabolisms. Oxidative stress was also found to be significantly increased in the serotonin deficient mice. These new biomarkers and the overall metabolic pathways may provide new understanding for the serotonin deficiency-associated mechanisms under multiple pathological states.

  3. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  4. Neonatal methamphetamine-induced corticosterone release in rats is inhibited by adrenal autotransplantation without altering the effect of the drug on hippocampal serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Curtis E.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Gudelsky, Gary A.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2010-01-01

    Rat neonatal methamphetamine exposure results in corticosterone release and learning and memory impairments in later life; effects also observed after neonatal stress. Previous attempts to test the role of corticosterone release after methamphetamine using corticosterone inhibitors were unsuccessful and adrenalectomy caused reductions in hippocampal serotonin greater than those caused by methamphetamine alone. Here we tested whether adrenal autotransplantation could be used to attenuate methamphetamine-induced corticosterone release without also altering the effects of the drug on serotonin. Adrenal autotransplantation surgery occurred on postnatal day 9 followed by methamphetamine or saline treatment from postnatal day 11–20 (10 mg/kg/dose x 4/day). Plasma corticosterone and hippocampal serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were determined 30 min following the first treatment on each day between postnatal days 11–20. Adrenal autotransplantation attenuated neonatal methamphetamine-induced corticosterone release by ~70% initially, ~55% midway through treatment, and ~25% by the end of treatment. Methamphetamine reduced serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus to the same degree as in sham-surgery rats. The data show that neonatal adrenal autotransplantation is an effective method for partially reducing treatment-induce corticosterone release while providing sufficient corticosterone to sustain normal growth and development. The method should is applicable to other models of developmental stress/corticosterone release. PMID:20153424

  5. Endogenous Zinc in Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

  6. Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D is inversely correlated with foetal serotonin.

    PubMed

    Murthi, Padma; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Lappas, Martha; Singh, Harmeet; Mockler, Joanne; Rahman, Rahana; Lim, Rebecca; Leaw, Bryan; Doery, James; Wallace, Euan M; Ebeling, Peter R

    2017-03-01

    Maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been linked to impaired neurocognitive development in childhood. The mechanism by which vitamin D affects childhood neurocognition is unclear but may be via interactions with serotonin, a neurotransmitter involved in foetal brain development. In this study, we aimed to explore associations between maternal and foetal vitamin D concentrations, and foetal serotonin concentrations at term. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D, nmol/l) and serotonin (5-HT, nmol/l) concentrations were measured in maternal and umbilical cord blood from mother-infant pairs (n = 64). Association between maternal 25(OH)D, cord 25(OH)D and cord serotonin was explored using linear regression, before and after adjusting for maternal serotonin levels. We also assessed the effects of siRNA knockdown of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and administration of 10 nm 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 on serotonin secretion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. We observed an inverse relationship between both maternal and cord 25(OH)D concentrations with cord serotonin concentrations. The treatment of HUVECs with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 in vitro decreased the release of serotonin (193·9 ±14·8 nmol/l vs 458·9 ± 317·5 nmol/l, control, P < 0·05). Conversely, inactivation of VDR increased serotonin release in cultured HUVECs. These observations provide the first evidence of an inverse relationship between maternal 25(OH)D and foetal serotonin concentrations. We propose that maternal vitamin D deficiency increases foetal serotonin concentrations and thereby contributes to longer-term neurocognitive impairment in infants and children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  8. Suppression of zinc dendrites in zinc electrode power cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of zinc dendrites during charging of zinc electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.

  9. Acute tryptophan depletion attenuates conscious appraisal of social emotional signals in healthy female volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Marcus A.; Minati, Ludovico; Whale, Richard; Harrison, Neil A.; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) decreases levels of central serotonin. ATD thus enables the cognitive effects of serotonin to be studied, with implications for the understanding of psychiatric conditions, including depression. Objective To determine the role of serotonin in conscious (explicit) and unconscious/incidental processing of emotional information. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, cross-over design was used with 15 healthy female participants. Subjective mood was recorded at baseline and after 4 h, when participants performed an explicit emotional face processing task, and a task eliciting unconscious processing of emotionally aversive and neutral images presented subliminally using backward masking. Results ATD was associated with a robust reduction in plasma tryptophan at 4 h but had no effect on mood or autonomic physiology. ATD was associated with significantly lower attractiveness ratings for happy faces and attenuation of intensity/arousal ratings of angry faces. ATD also reduced overall reaction times on the unconscious perception task, but there was no interaction with emotional content of masked stimuli. ATD did not affect breakthrough perception (accuracy in identification) of masked images. Conclusions ATD attenuates the attractiveness of positive faces and the negative intensity of threatening faces, suggesting that serotonin contributes specifically to the appraisal of the social salience of both positive and negative salient social emotional cues. We found no evidence that serotonin affects unconscious processing of negative emotional stimuli. These novel findings implicate serotonin in conscious aspects of active social and behavioural engagement and extend knowledge regarding the effects of ATD on emotional perception. PMID:20596858

  10. Physical chemical effects of zinc on in vitro enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, N R; Mneimne, M; Hill, R G; Al-Jawad, M; Lynch, R J M; Anderson, P

    2014-09-01

    Zinc salts are formulated into oral health products as antibacterial agents, yet their interaction with enamel is not clearly understood. The aim was to investigate the effect of zinc concentration [Zn(2+)] on the in vitro demineralization of enamel during exposure to caries-simulating conditions. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of zinc's action for reducing demineralization was determined. Enamel blocks and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) were demineralized in a range of zinc-containing acidic solutions (0-3565ppm [Zn(2+)]) at pH 4.0 and 37°C. Inductively coupled-plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to measure ion release into solution. Enamel blocks were analysed by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and HAp by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and neutron diffraction (ND). ICP-OES analysis of the acidic solutions showed a decrease in [Ca(2+)] and [PO4(3-)] release with increasing [Zn(2+)]. FTIR revealed a α-hopeite (α-Zn3(PO4)2.4H2O)-like phase on the enamel surfaces at >107ppm [Zn(2+)]. XRD and ND analysis confirmed a zinc-phosphate phase present alongside the HAp. This study confirms that zinc reduces enamel demineralization. Under the conditions studied, zinc acts predominantly on enamel surfaces at PO4(3-) sites in the HAp lattice to possibly form an α-hopeite-like phase. These results have a significant implication on the understanding of the fundamental chemistry of zinc in toothpastes and demonstrate its therapeutic potential in preventing tooth mineral loss. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluoxetine coupled with zinc in a chronic mild stress model of depression: Providing a reservoir for optimum zinc signaling and neuronal remodeling.

    PubMed

    Omar, Nesreen Nabil; Tash, Reham Fathy

    2017-09-01

    Recently, depression has been envisioned as more than an alteration in neurotransmitters centered around receptor signaling pathways. Consequently, the precise mechanisms of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant drugs such as fluoxetine are being revisited. Zinc is a trace element that has been long implicated in the psychopathology and therapy of depression. Zinc has been found to be sequestered and dispensed during stress and inflammation through a family of proteins called metallothioneins (MTs). In addition, MTs are well known for their antioxidant and therefore cytoprotective action. Changes in MTs, their upstream regulators and downstream effectors in response to fluoxetine have not been yet studied. The aim of the present study is to examine whether depression-induced changes in protein levels and mRNA levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), MTs, antioxidant defensive enzyme heme oxygenase (HO-1), zinc-specific receptor GPR39 and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus can be reversed by fluoxetine treatment, zinc supplementation or a combination of the two. The present study investigated the effect of chronic (4weeks) combined treatment with zinc hydroaspartate (15mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10mg/kg) on a chronic mild stress model (CMS) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hippocampal mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2, HO-1, MTs, GPR39 (protein level only) and BDNF were significantly higher in response to a combined therapy of fluoxetine and zinc than to either monotherapy. Additionally, HO-1 and MTs gene expression was correlated with that of Nrf2 in the FLX-only group. Fluoxetine therapy activated the expression of MTs and HO-1 through an Nrf2-dependent pathway. When FLX was escorted by zinc, activated MTs had a positive impact on BDNF through the zinc signaling receptor GPR39, resulting in general improvement in neuronal plasticity as well as reduction of neuronal atrophy and neuronal cell loss. Copyright

  12. Brain serotonin and pituitary-adrenal functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Berger, P.; Barchas, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    It had been concluded by Scapagnini et al. (1971) that brain serotonin (5-HT) was involved in the regulation of the diurnal rhythm of the pituitary-adrenal system but not in the stress response. A study was conducted to investigate these findings further by evaluating the effects of altering brain 5-HT levels on the daily fluctuation of plasma corticosterone and on the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stressful or noxious stimulus in the rat. In a number of experiments brain 5-HT synthesis was inhibited with parachlorophenylalanine. In other tests it was tried to raise the level of brain 5-HT with precursors.

  13. Serotonin involvement in pituitary-adrenal function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Kellar, K. J.; Kent, D.; Gonzales, C.; Berger, P. A.; Barchas, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments clarifying the effects of serotonin (5-HT) in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system are surveyed. Lesion experiments which seek to determine functional maps of serotonergic input to areas involved in regulation are reported. Investigations of the effects of 5-HT levels on the plasma ACTH response to stress and the diurnal variation in basal plasma corticosterone are summarized, and the question of whether serotonergic transmission is involved in the regulation of all aspects of pituitary-adrenal function is considered with attention to the stimulatory and inhibitory action of 5-HT.

  14. Brain serotonin content - Increase following ingestion of carbohydrate diet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernstrom, J. D.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    In the rat, the injection of insulin or the consumption of carbohydrate causes sequential increases in the concentrations of tryptophan in the plasma and the brain and of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin-containing neurons may thus participate in systems whereby the rat brain integrates information about the metabolic state in its relation to control of homeostasis and behavior.

  15. Genes affecting sensitivity to serotonin in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Schafer, W R; Sanchez, B M; Kenyon, C J

    1996-07-01

    Regulating the response of a postsynaptic cell to neurotransmitter is an important mechanism for controlling synaptic strength, a process critical to learning. We have begun to define and characterize genes that may control sensitivity to the neurotransmitter serotonin in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by identifying serotonin-hypersensitive mutants. We reported previously that mutations in the gene unc-2, which encodes a putative calcium channel subunit, result in hypersensitivity to serotonin. Here we report that mutants defective in the unc-36 gene, which encodes a homologue of a calcium channel auxiliary subunit, are also serotonin-hypersensitive. Moreover, the unc-36 gene appears to be required in the same cells as unc-2 for control of the same behaviors. Mutations in several other genes, including unc-8, unc-10, unc-20, unc-35, unc-75, unc-77, and snt-1 also result in hypersensitivity to serotonin. Several of these mutations have previously been shown to confer resistance to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, suggesting that they may affect acetylcholine release. Moreover, we found that mutations that decrease acetylcholine synthesis cause defective egg-laying and serotonin hypersensitivity. Thus, acetylcholine appears to negatively regulate the response to serotonin and may participate in the process of serotonin desensitization.

  16. Genes Affecting Sensitivity to Serotonin in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, W. R.; Sanchez, B. M.; Kenyon, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Regulating the response of a postsynaptic cell to neurotransmitter is an important mechanism for controlling synaptic strength, a process critical to learning. We have begun to define and characterize genes that may control sensitivity to the neurotransmitter serotonin in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by identifying serotonin-hypersensitive mutants. We reported previously that mutations in the gene unc-2, which encodes a putative calcium channel subunit, result in hypersensitivity to serotonin. Here we report that mutants defective in the unc-36 gene, which encodes a homologue of a calcium channel auxiliary subunit, are also serotonin-hypersensitive. Moreover, the unc-36 gene appears to be required in the same cells as unc-2 for control of the same behaviors. Mutations in several other genes, including unc-8, unc-10, unc-20, unc-35, unc-75, unc-77, and snt-1 also result in hypersensitivity to serotonin. Several of these mutations have previously been shown to confer resistance to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, suggesting that they may affect acetylcholine release. Moreover, we found that mutations that decrease acetylcholine synthesis cause defective egg-laying and serotonin hypersensitivity. Thus, acetylcholine appears to negatively regulate the response to serotonin and may participate in the process of serotonin desensitization. PMID:8807295

  17. Multiple mechanisms of serotonin 5-HT2 receptor desensitization.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S; Neuman, R S

    1993-07-20

    Desensitization of serotonin 5-HT2 receptor-mediated enhancement of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) depolarization was studied in rat cortical neurons. Serotonin and (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) induced long term desensitization. Staurosporine, a nonspecific protein kinase C inhibitor, potentiated the serotonin and DOI facilitation, suggesting acute desensitization was operative. In the case of DOI, long term desensitization was prevented by staurosporine. Activators of protein kinase C abolished the serotonin facilitation, an action prevented by staurosporine. Concanavalin A potentiated the facilitation at 100 microM, but not 30 microM serotonin, suggesting these receptors undergo dose dependent internalization. Calmodulin antagonists prevent long term desensitization induced by serotonin. The depolarization induced by NMDA alone was not altered by staurosporine, protein kinase C activators, concanavalin A or calmodulin antagonists. Serotonin at 100 microM, but not 30 microM, induced heterologous desensitization of phenylephrine and carbachol induced facilitation of the NMDA depolarization. We conclude that serotonin 5-HT2 receptors both induce and undergo several forms of desensitization.

  18. Dietary Precursors of Serotonin and Newborn State Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yogman, Michael W.; Zeisel, Steven

    Although previous research with adult humans and nonhumans has suggested a relationship between sleep behavior and brain serotonin levels, no studies have been made of the relationship of normal children's or infants' sleep patterns to serotonin levels, tryptophan metabolism, or diet. This study investigates the relationship between dietary…

  19. Zinc and Diarrheal Disease: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe diarrhea disease in children less than 5 years worldwide and continues to have a major global...impact on childhood morbidity and mortality. In 2006, two new (live, oral. attenuated) vaccines against rotavirus werc licensed, Zinc and diarrheal...8217fhese new rota virus vaccines offer thc best hope of reducing the toll of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in both developed and dcvc10ping countries

  20. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, S.R.

    1987-05-29

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

  1. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  2. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  3. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Gangwal, Santosh K.; Jain, Suresh C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  4. A specific role for serotonin in overcoming effort cost.

    PubMed

    Meyniel, Florent; Goodwin, Guy M; Deakin, Jf William; Klinge, Corinna; MacFadyen, Christine; Milligan, Holly; Mullings, Emma; Pessiglione, Mathias; Gaillard, Raphaël

    2016-11-08

    Serotonin is implicated in many aspects of behavioral regulation. Theoretical attempts to unify the multiple roles assigned to serotonin proposed that it regulates the impact of costs, such as delay or punishment, on action selection. Here, we show that serotonin also regulates other types of action costs such as effort. We compared behavioral performance in 58 healthy humans treated during 8 weeks with either placebo or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram. The task involved trading handgrip force production against monetary benefits. Participants in the escitalopram group produced more effort and thereby achieved a higher payoff. Crucially, our computational analysis showed that this effect was underpinned by a specific reduction of effort cost, and not by any change in the weight of monetary incentives. This specific computational effect sheds new light on the physiological role of serotonin in behavioral regulation and on the clinical effect of drugs for depression. ISRCTN75872983.

  5. Zinc supplementation leads to immune modulation and improved survival in a juvenile model of murine sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ganatra, Hammad A; Varisco, Brian M; Harmon, Kelli; Lahni, Patrick; Opoka, Amy; Wong, Hector R

    2017-01-01

    Children with severe sepsis are known to have altered zinc homeostasis and decreased circulating zinc levels, suggesting a role for zinc supplementation to improve outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that zinc supplementation would improve survival in a juvenile model of polymicrobial sepsis. Juvenile (13-14-d-old) C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10 mg/kg of zinc via i.p. injections (or vehicle) for 3 d prior to induction of polymicrobial sepsis via i.p. cecal slurry injections. Survival after sepsis was followed for 3 d, and bacterial clearance, ex vivo phagocytosis, systemic inflammatory markers and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation were quantified. We found a significant survival benefit and decreased bacterial burden among zinc supplemented mice when compared with the control group. Zinc supplementation also resulted in enhanced phagocytic activity, greater neutrophil recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and NET formation, suggesting a possible mechanism for improved bacterial clearance and survival. We also noted decreased serum cytokine levels and decreased myeloperoxidase activity in lung tissue following zinc supplementation, suggesting attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response. In conclusion, zinc supplementation improves bacterial clearance, and hence survival, in juvenile mice with polymicrobial sepsis.

  6. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D.

    1981-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

  7. History of zinc in agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, over 20 years would past before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure a parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it wa...

  8. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  9. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  10. A Dualistic Conformational Response to Substrate Binding in the Human Serotonin Transporter Reveals a High Affinity State for Serotonin*

    PubMed Central

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Severinsen, Kasper; Said, Saida; Wiborg, Ove; Sinning, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is modulated by the membrane-embedded serotonin transporter (SERT). SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neurons. Conformational changes in SERT occur upon binding of ions and substrate and are crucial for translocation of serotonin across the membrane. Our understanding of these conformational changes is mainly based on crystal structures of a bacterial homolog in various conformations, derived homology models of eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters, and substituted cysteine accessibility method of SERT. However, the dynamic changes that occur in the human SERT upon binding of ions, the translocation of substrate, and the role of cholesterol in this interplay are not fully elucidated. Here we show that serotonin induces a dualistic conformational response in SERT. We exploited the substituted cysteine scanning method under conditions that were sensitized to detect a more outward-facing conformation of SERT. We found a novel high affinity outward-facing conformational state of the human SERT induced by serotonin. The ionic requirements for this new conformational response to serotonin mirror the ionic requirements for translocation. Furthermore, we found that membrane cholesterol plays a role in the dualistic conformational response in SERT induced by serotonin. Our results indicate the existence of a subpopulation of SERT responding differently to serotonin binding than hitherto believed and that membrane cholesterol plays a role in this subpopulation of SERT. PMID:25614630

  11. NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION IN NY/NJ HARBOR

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Lelie, D.; Reid-Green, J. D.; Stern, E. A.

    2003-12-31

    We have investigated the feasibility of using natural attenuation methods for ecosystem restoration in New York/New Jersey Harbor. Measurements were made of the most probable number of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in native sediments and in samples, which had been supplemented with an appropriate electron donor and electron acceptor. The results showed that the activity of the endogenous microbial population in the native sediment was high enough to make possible adequate chemical transformation rates. The bioavailability of the zinc in the sediments was measured using the BIOMET biosensor technique. The bioavailability of the zinc was effectively eliminated following the microbial activities.more » We concluded that natural attenuation could be used effectively in treating sediments from Newark Bay and surrounding waters and that the resultant materials could likely be used in environmental restoration projects of the type proposed for construction in South Kearny, NJ.« less

  12. The role of serotonin in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, N; van Praag, H M

    1995-01-01

    The hypothesis that the LSD psychosis and by inference schizophrenic psychoses are related to dysfunctions in central serotonergic systems, formulated by Woolley and Shaw in the early 1950s was the first testable theory of modern biological psychiatry. Initially, it did not get the scientific attention it deserved. First, because LSD fell into disrepute and was to all intents and purposes banned from human experimentation. Secondly, the antipsychotics were discovered in the same period, and it became clear that these compounds block dopaminergic transmission and hence for many years thereafter the dopaminergic system occupied center stage in biological schizophrenia research. Presently, interest in the relation between serotonin and schizophrenia has been revived, due to the development of serotonin-blocking agents that appear to exert therapeutic effects in schizophrenia. In this paper the evidence for and against a link between serotonergic defects and schizophrenia psychopathology is critically discussed. The conclusion to be reached is threefold. (1) Interruption of certain serotonergic circuits represents an antipsychotic principle. (2) Tentative evidence suggests the involvement of serotonergic dysfunctions in the pathogenesis of schizophrenic psychoses. (3) It is not yet known whether serotonergic lesions contribute directly to the occurrence of schizophrenic psychopathology or via alterations in the dopaminergic system.

  13. Serotonin and central nervous system fatigue: nutritional considerations.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Alderson, N L; Welsh, R S

    2000-08-01

    Fatigue from voluntary muscular effort is a complex phenomenon involving the central nervous system (CNS) and muscle. An understanding of the mechanisms within muscle that cause fatigue has led to the development of nutritional strategies to enhance performance. Until recently, little was known about CNS mechanisms of fatigue, even though the inability or unwillingness to generate and maintain central activation of muscle is the most likely explanation of fatigue for most people during normal daily activities. A possible role of nutrition in central fatigue is receiving more attention with the development of theories that provide a clue to its biological mechanisms. The focus is on the neurotransmitter serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] because of its role in depression, sensory perception, sleepiness, and mood. Nutritional strategies have been designed to alter the metabolism of brain 5-HT by affecting the availability of its amino acid precursor. Increases in brain 5-HT concentration and overall activity have been associated with increased physical and perhaps mental fatigue during endurance exercise. Carbohydrate (CHO) or branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) feedings may attenuate increases in 5-HT and improve performance. However, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of CHO on the brain and those on the muscles themselves, and most studies involving BCAA show no performance benefits. It appears that important relations exist between brain 5-HT and central fatigue. Good theoretical rationale and data exist to support a beneficial role of CHO and BCAA on brain 5-HT and central fatigue, but the strength of evidence is presently weak.

  14. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  15. Zinc and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 66 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  16. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  17. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  18. Serotonin 2c receptors in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons regulate energy and glucose homeostasis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Energy and glucose homeostasis are regulated by central serotonin 2C receptors. These receptors are attractive pharmacological targets for the treatment of obesity; however, the identity of the serotonin 2C receptor-expressing neurons that mediate the effects of serotonin and serotonin 2C receptor a...

  19. Serotonin uptake inhibitors: uses in clinical therapy and in laboratory research.

    PubMed

    Fuller, R W

    1995-01-01

    Fluoxetine, zimelidine, sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, indalpine and citalopram are the selective inhibitors of serotonin uptake that have been most widely studied. Some of these compounds are or have been used clinically in the treatment of mental depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and bulimia, and therapeutic benefit has been claimed in additional diseases as well. By blocking the membrane uptake carrier which transports serotonin from the extracellular space to inside the serotonin nerve terminals, these compounds increase extracellular concentrations of serotonin and amplify signals sent by serotonin neurons. Because serotonin neurons are widespread in the central nervous system, the functional consequences of blocking serotonin uptake are diverse, but are generally subtle. Animals treated with serotonin uptake inhibitors look normal in gross appearance, but effects such as reduced aggressive behavior, decreased food intake and altered food selection, analgesia, anticonvulsant activity, endocrine changes and neurochemical changes have been demonstrated and characterized. Serotonin uptake inhibitors have helped in revealing some dynamics of serotonin neurons; for example, when uptake is inhibited and extracellular serotonin concentration increases, presynaptic as well as postsynaptic receptors for serotonin are activated to a greater degree. A consequence of increased activation of autoreceptors on serotonin cell bodies and nerve terminals is a reduction in firing of serotonin neurons and a decrease in serotonin synthesis and release. The result is a limit on the degree to which extracellular serotonin and serotonergic neurotransmission are increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Electrochemical quantification of serotonin in the live embryonic zebrafish intestine

    PubMed Central

    Njagi, John; Ball, Michael; Best, Marc; Wallace, Kenneth N.; Andreescu, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    We monitored real-time in vivo levels of serotonin release in the digestive system of intact zebrafish embryos during early development (5 dpf) using differential pulse voltammetry with implanted carbon fiber microelectrodes modified with carbon nanotubes dispersed in nafion. A detection limit of 1 nM, a linear range between 5 to 200 nM and a sensitivity of 83.65 nA·μM−1 were recorded. The microelectrodes were implanted at various locations in the intestine of zebrafish embryos. Serotonin levels of up to 29.9(±1.13) nM were measured in vivo in normal physiological conditions. Measurements were performed in intact live embryos without additional perturbation beyond electrode insertion. The sensor was able to quantify pharmacological alterations in serotonin release and provide the longitudinal distribution of this neurotransmitter along the intestine with high spatial resolution. In the presence of fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), concentrations of 54.1(±1.05) nM were recorded while in the presence of p-chloro-phenylalanine (PCPA), a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, the serotonin levels decreased to 7.2(±0.45) nM. The variation of serotonin levels was correlated with immunohistochemical analysis. We have demonstrated the first use of electrochemical microsensors for in vivo monitoring of intestinal serotonin levels in intact zebrafish embryos. PMID:20148518

  1. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants’ happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers’ attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels. PMID:28683075

  2. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  3. Serotonin syndrome following methylene blue administration during cardiothoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christina J; Wang, Dorothy; Sgambelluri, Anna; Kramer, Robert S; Gagnon, David J

    2015-04-01

    Despite its favorable safety profile, there have been reports of methylene blue-induced encephalopathy and serotonin syndrome in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy. We report a case of serotonin syndrome following methylene blue administration in a cardiothoracic surgery patient. A 59-year-old woman taking preoperative venlafaxine and trazodone was given a single dose of 2 mg/kg methylene blue (167 mg) during a planned coronary artery bypass and mitral valve repair. Postoperatively, she was febrile to 38.7°C and developed full-body tremors, rhythmic twitching of the perioral muscles, slow conjugate roving eye movements, and spontaneous movements of the upper extremities. Electroencephalography revealed generalized diffuse slowing consistent with toxic encephalopathy, and a computed tomography scan showed no acute process. The patient's symptoms were most consistent with a methylene blue-induced serotonin syndrome. Her motor symptoms resolved within 48 hours and she was eventually discharged home. Only 2 cases of methylene blue-induced serotonin syndrome during cardiothoracic surgery have been described in the literature, with this report representing the third case. Methylene blue and its metabolite, azure B, are potent, reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A which is responsible for serotonin metabolism. Concomitant administration of methylene blue with serotonin-modulating agents may precipitate serotonin syndrome. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Zinc supplementation in public health.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is necessary for physiological processes including defense against infections. Zinc deficiency is responsible for 4% of global child morbidity and mortality. Zinc supplements given for 10-14 days together with low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (Lo-ORS) are recommended for the treatment of childhood diarrhea. In children aged ≥ 6 months, daily zinc supplements reduce the duration of acute diarrhea episodes by 12 h and persistent diarrhea by 17 h. Zinc supplements could reduce diarrhea mortality in children aged 12-59 months by an estimated 23%; they are very safe but are associated with an increase in vomiting especially with the first dose. Heterogeneity between the results of trials is not understood but may be related to dose and the etiology of the diarrhea infection. Integration of zinc and Lo-ORS into national programs is underway but slowly, procurement problems are being overcome and the greatest challenge is changing health provider and caregiver attitudes to diarrhea management. Fewer trials have been conducted of zinc adjunct therapy in severe respiratory tract infections and there is as yet insufficient evidence to recommend addition of zinc to antibiotic therapy. Daily zinc supplements for all children >12 months of age in zinc deficient populations are estimated to reduce diarrhea incidence by 11-23%. The greatest impact is in reducing multiple episodes of diarrhea. The effect on duration of diarrheal episodes is less clear, but there may be up to 9% reduction. Zinc is also efficacious in reducing dysentery and persistent diarrhea. Zinc supplements may also prevent pneumonia by about 19%, but heterogeneity across studies has not yet been explained. When analyses are restricted to better quality studies using CHERG (Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group) methodology, zinc supplements are estimated to reduce diarrheal deaths by 13% and pneumonia deaths by 20%. National-level programs to combat childhood zinc deficiency should be

  5. Serotonin Transporter Polymorphism Mediates Vulnerability to Loss of Incentive Motivation Following Acute Tryptophan Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Roiser, Jonathan P; Blackwell, Andrew D; Cools, Roshan; Clark, Luke; Rubinsztein, David C; Robbins, Trevor W; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2007-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) system is implicated in incentive motivational processes. The present study utilized the acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) procedure to investigate the effect of temporarily lowering 5-HT synthesis on motivation in healthy volunteers, stratifying the results by allelic variation at the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR). ATD resulted in a robust reduction in plasma tryptophan concentration. Consistent with a previous study, ATD attenuated motivationally speeded action on the Cued-Reinforcement Reaction Time task. The present investigation revealed that this effect was restricted to volunteers of the ss genotype, whereas ll volunteers exhibited intact motivationally speeded action following ATD (treatment × reinforcement probability × genotype interaction: F1,26 = 5.8, p = 0.024). Furthermore, tryptophan availability to the brain was correlated positively with motivationally speeded action following ATD in the ss genotype group (ρ13 = 0.71, p = 0.006), whereas this correlation was negative in the ll genotype group (ρ14 = −0.60, p = 0.023). This is the first study to suggest that allelic variation at the 5-HTTLPR mediates motivational responses to ATD in healthy volunteers. These data indicate that the s allele at the 5-HTTLPR may confer risk for depression via its effect on incentive motivational processing, and highlight the importance of genetic variation in determining individual responses to pharmacological treatments. PMID:16541086

  6. The Role of Serotonin in Ventricular Repolarization in Pregnant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyelim; Mun, Dasom; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hyoeun; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Hail; Kim, Michael; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The mechanisms underlying repolarization abnormalities during pregnancy are not fully understood. Although maternal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) production is an important determinant for normal fetal development in mice, its role in mothers remains unclear. We evaluated the role of serotonin in ventricular repolarization in mice hearts via 5Htr3 receptor (Htr3a) and investigated the mechanism of QT-prolongation during pregnancy. Materials and Methods We measured current amplitudes and the expression levels of voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels in freshly-isolated left ventricular myocytes from wild-type non-pregnant (WT-NP), late-pregnant (WT-LP), and non-pregnant Htr3a homozygous knockout mice (Htr3a−/−-NP). Results During pregnancy, serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, were markedly increased in hearts and serum. Serotonin increased Kv current densities concomitant with the shortening of the QT interval in WT-NP mice, but not in WT-LP and Htr3a−/−-NP mice. Ondansetron, an Htr3 antagonist, decreased Kv currents in WT-LP mice, but not in WT-NP mice. Kv4.3 directly interacted with Htr3a, and this binding was facilitated by serotonin. Serotonin increased the trafficking of Kv4.3 channels to the cellular membrane in WT-NP. Conclusion Serotonin increases repolarizing currents by augmenting Kv currents. Elevated serotonin levels during pregnancy counterbalance pregnancy-related QT prolongation by facilitating Htr3-mediated Kv currents. PMID:29436197

  7. The Role of Serotonin in Ventricular Repolarization in Pregnant Mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shanyu; Park, Hyewon; Park, Hyelim; Mun, Dasom; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyoeun; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Hail; Kim, Michael; Pak, Hui Nam; Lee, Moon Hyoung; Joung, Boyoung

    2018-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying repolarization abnormalities during pregnancy are not fully understood. Although maternal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) production is an important determinant for normal fetal development in mice, its role in mothers remains unclear. We evaluated the role of serotonin in ventricular repolarization in mice hearts via 5Htr3 receptor (Htr3a) and investigated the mechanism of QT-prolongation during pregnancy. We measured current amplitudes and the expression levels of voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channels in freshly-isolated left ventricular myocytes from wild-type non-pregnant (WT-NP), late-pregnant (WT-LP), and non-pregnant Htr3a homozygous knockout mice (Htr3a(-/-)-NP). During pregnancy, serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, were markedly increased in hearts and serum. Serotonin increased Kv current densities concomitant with the shortening of the QT interval in WT-NP mice, but not in WT-LP and Htr3a(-/-)-NP mice. Ondansetron, an Htr3 antagonist, decreased Kv currents in WT-LP mice, but not in WT-NP mice. Kv4.3 directly interacted with Htr3a, and this binding was facilitated by serotonin. Serotonin increased the trafficking of Kv4.3 channels to the cellular membrane in WT-NP. Serotonin increases repolarizing currents by augmenting Kv currents. Elevated serotonin levels during pregnancy counterbalance pregnancy-related QT prolongation by facilitating Htr3-mediated Kv currents. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018

  8. Transient uptake of serotonin by newborn olfactory projection neurons

    PubMed Central

    Beltz, Barbara S.; Benton, Jeanne L.; Sullivan, Jeremy M.

    2001-01-01

    A life-long turnover of sensory and interneuronal populations has been documented in the olfactory pathways of both vertebrates and invertebrates, creating a situation where the axons of new afferent and interneuronal populations must insert into a highly specialized glomerular neuropil. A dense serotonergic innervation of the primary olfactory processing areas where these neurons synapse also is a consistent feature across species. Prior studies in lobsters have shown that serotonin promotes the branching of olfactory projection neurons. This paper presents evidence that serotonin also regulates the proliferation and survival of projection neurons in lobsters, and that the serotonergic effects are associated with a transient uptake of serotonin into newborn neurons. PMID:11675504

  9. 4-haloethenylphenyl tropane:serotonin transporter imaging agents

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Martarello, Laurent

    2005-01-18

    A series of compounds in the 4-fluoroalkyl-3-halophenyl nortropanes and 4-haloethenylphenyl tropane families are described as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for diseases associated with serotonin transporter dysfunction. These compounds bind to serotonin transporter protein with high affinity and selectivity. The invention provides methods of synthesis which incorporate radioisotopic halogens at a last step which permit high radiochemical yield and maximum usable product life. The radiolabeled compounds of the invention are useful as imaging agents for visualizing the location and density of serotonin transporter by PET and SPECT imaging.

  10. Differences in the dynamics of serotonin reuptake transporter occupancy may explain superior clinical efficacy of escitalopram versus citalopram.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Siegfried; Sacher, Julia; Klein, Nikolas; Mossaheb, Nilufar; Attarbaschi-Steiner, Trawat; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Spindelegger, Christoph; Asenbaum, Susanne; Holik, Alexander; Dudczak, Robert

    2009-05-01

    Escitalopram the S-enantiomer of the racemate citalopram, is clinically more effective than citalopram in the treatment of major depressive disorder. However, the precise mechanism by which escitalopram achieves superiority over citalopram is yet to be determined. It has been hypothesized that the therapeutically inactive R-enantiomer competes with the serotonin-enhancing S-enantiomer at a low-affinity allosteric site on serotonin reuptake transporters (SERTs), and reduces the effectiveness of the S-enantiomer at the primary, high-affinity serotonin-binding site. This study summarizes the results of two recent single-photon emission computerized tomography studies measuring SERT occupancy in citalopram-treated and escitalopram-treated healthy volunteers, after a single dose and multiple doses (i.e. under steady-state conditions). The single-dose study showed no attenuating effect of R-citalopram. After multiple dosing, however, SERT occupancy was significantly reduced in the presence of R-citalopram. Under steady-state conditions, R-enantiomer concentrations were greater than for the S-enantiomer because of slower clearance of R-citalopram. A pooled analysis suggests that build-up of the R-enantiomer after repeated citalopram dosing may lead to increased inhibition of S-enantiomer occupancy of SERT. This review adds to the growing body of evidence regarding differences in the dynamics of SERT occupancy, that is, molecular mechanisms underlying the often-observed superior clinical efficacy of escitalopram compared with citalopram in major depressive disorder.

  11. Origins of serotonin innervation of forebrain structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellar, K. J.; Brown, P. A.; Madrid, J.; Bernstein, M.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Mehler, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    The tryptophan hydroxylase activity and high-affinity uptake of (3H) serotonin ((3H)5-HT) were measured in five discrete brain regions of rats following lesions of the dorsal or median raphe nuclei. Dorsal raphe lesions reduced enzyme and uptake activity in the striatum only. Median raphe lesions reduced activities in the hippocampus, septal area, frontal cortex, and, to a lesser extent, in the hypothalamus. These data are consistent with the suggestion that the dorsal and median raphe nuclei are the origins of two separate ascending serotonergic systems - one innervating striatal structures and the other mesolimbic structures, predominantly. In addition, the data suggest that measurements of high-affinity uptake of (3H)5-HT may be a more reliable index of innervation than either 5-HT content or tryptophan hydroxylase activity.

  12. Serotonin toxicity involving MDMA (ecstasy) and moclobemide.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, J L; Gerostamoulos, D; Woodford, N; Drummer, Olaf H

    2012-02-10

    The use of MDMA (ecstasy) in Australia is a widespread and growing problem, promoting acute toxicity and disease which can lead to premature death in users. We report four cases of fatal serotonin toxicity caused by the combination of MDMA and moclobemide, a reversible MAO-A inhibitor with potent serotonergic activity. Despite the highly reported toxicity of this drug combination, there are very few reports of fatalities attributed to a MDMA and moclobemide interaction. Pathology and toxicology reports, initial police reports and coroners' findings were examined to determine the circumstances of the deaths. Symptoms of some of the four cases as reported by paramedics and medical staff included hyperthermia, hyperkalemia, profuse sweating, twitching and shaking. Two cases involved moclobemide concentrations consistent with common prescribed doses, while the other two cases involved much higher concentrations often associated with toxicity. Three of these cases presented with some form of heart disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute changes in cellular zinc alters zinc uptake rates prior to zinc transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C

    2015-12-01

    A coordinated network of zinc transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular zinc levels. Canonical responses to zinc availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key zinc transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual zinc uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound zinc transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular zinc levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous zinc sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess zinc resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the zinc exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of zinc importers did not change during this time period. Zinc chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of zinc importers did not change. Overall, zinc transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular zinc uptake with exogenous zinc or TPEN treatments. This suggests zinc transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in zinc within Jurkat cells.

  14. Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ananda S

    2008-01-01

    Although the essentiality of zinc for plants and animals has been known for many decades, the essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized only 40 years ago in the Middle East. The zinc-deficient patients had severe immune dysfunctions, inasmuch as they died of intercurrent infections by the time they were 25 years of age. In our studies in an experimental human model of zinc deficiency, we documented decreased serum testosterone level, oligospermia, severe immune dysfunctions mainly affecting T helper cells, hyperammonemia, neurosensory disorders, and decreased lean body mass. It appears that zinc deficiency is prevalent in the developing world and as many as two billion subjects may be growth retarded due to zinc deficiency. Besides growth retardation and immune dysfunctions, cognitive impairment due to zinc deficiency also has been reported recently. Our studies in the cell culture models showed that the activation of many zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors were adversely affected due to zinc deficiency. In HUT-78 (T helper 0 [Th(0)] cell line), we showed that a decrease in gene expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor alpha(IL-2Ralpha) were due to decreased activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in zinc deficient cells. Decreased NF-kappaB activation in HUT-78 due to zinc deficiency was due to decreased binding of NF-kappaB to DNA, decreased level of NF-kappaB p105 (the precursor of NF-kappaB p50) mRNA, decreased kappaB inhibitory protein (IkappaB) phosphorylation, and decreased Ikappa kappa. These effects of zinc were cell specific. Zinc also is an antioxidant and has anti-inflammatory actions. The therapeutic roles of zinc in acute infantile diarrhea, acrodermatitis enteropathica, prevention of blindness in patients with age-related macular degeneration, and treatment of common cold with zinc have been reported. In HL-60 cells (promyelocytic leukemia cell line), zinc enhances the up-regulation of A20 mRNA, which, via TRAF

  15. RADIO FREQUENCY ATTENUATOR

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, S.

    1963-11-12

    A high peak power level r-f attenuator that is readily and easily insertable along a coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer annular conductor without breaking the ends thereof is presented. Spaced first and second flares in the outer conductor face each other with a slidable cylindrical outer conductor portion therebetween. Dielectric means, such as water, contact the cable between the flares to attenuate the radio-frequency energy received thereby. The cylindrical outer conductor portion is slidable to adjust the voltage standing wave ratio to a low level, and one of the flares is slidable to adjust the attenuation level. An integral dielectric container is also provided. (AFC)

  16. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  17. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  18. Norepinephrine-deficient mice lack responses to antidepressant drugs, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, John F.; O'Leary, Olivia F.; Jin, Sung-Ha; Friedland, Julie C.; Ouyang, Ming; Hirsch, Bradford R.; Page, Michelle E.; Dalvi, Ashutosh; Thomas, Steven A.; Lucki, Irwin

    2004-01-01

    Mice unable to synthesize norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine due to targeted disruption of the dopamine β-hydroxylase gene, Dbh, were used to critically test roles for NE in mediating acute behavioral changes elicited by different classes of antidepressants. To this end, we used the tail suspension test, one of the most widely used paradigms for assessing antidepressant activity and depression-related behaviors in normal and genetically modified mice. Dbh–/– mice failed to respond to the behavioral effects of various antidepressants, including the NE reuptake inhibitors desipramine and reboxetine, the monoamine oxidase inhibitor pargyline, and the atypical antidepressant bupropion, even though they did not differ in baseline immobility from Dbh+/– mice, which have normal levels of NE. Surprisingly, the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine were also absent or severely attenuated in the Dbh–/– mice. In contrast, citalopram (the most selective SSRI) was equally effective at reducing immobility in mice with and without NE. Restoration of NE by using l-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine reinstated the behavioral effects of both desipramine and paroxetine in Dbh–/– mice, thus demonstrating that the reduced sensitivity to antidepressants is related to NE function, as opposed to developmental abnormalities resulting from chronic NE deficiency. Microdialysis studies demonstrated that the ability of fluoxetine to increase hippocampal serotonin was blocked in Dbh–/– mice, whereas citalopram's effect was only partially attenuated. These data show that NE plays an important role in mediating acute behavioral and neurochemical actions of many antidepressants, including most SSRIs. PMID:15148402

  19. Zinc and Zinc Transporters: Novel Regulators of Ventricular Myocardial Development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen; Li, Deqiang

    2018-06-01

    Ventricular myocardial development is a well-orchestrated process involving different cardiac structures, multiple signal pathways, and myriad proteins. Dysregulation of this important developmental event can result in cardiomyopathies, such as left ventricle non-compaction, which affect the pediatric population and the adults. Human and mouse studies have shed light upon the etiology of some cardiomyopathy cases and highlighted the contribution of both genetic and environmental factors. However, the regulation of ventricular myocardial development remains incompletely understood. Zinc is an essential trace metal with structural, enzymatic, and signaling function. Perturbation of zinc homeostasis has resulted in developmental and physiological defects including cardiomyopathy. In this review, we summarize several mechanisms by which zinc and zinc transporters can impact the regulation of ventricular myocardial development. Based on our review, we propose that zinc deficiency and mutations of zinc transporters may underlie some cardiomyopathy cases especially those involving ventricular myocardial development defects.

  20. Serotonin-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase in Neural Tissue and Its Similarity to the Serotonin Receptor: A Possible Site of Action of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, James A.; Greengard, Paul

    1974-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) that is activated specifically by low concentrations of serotonin has been identified in homogenates of the thoracic ganglia of an insect nervous system. The activation of this enzyme by serotonin was selectively inhibited by extremely low concentrations of D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 2-bromo-LSD, and cyproheptadine, agents which are known to block certain serotonin receptors in vivo. The inhibition was competitive with respect to serotonin, and the calculated inhibitory constant of LSD for this serotonin-sensitive adenylate cyclase was 5 nM. The data are consistent with a model in which the serotonin receptor of neural tissue is intimately associated with a serotonin-sensitive adenylate cyclase which mediates serotonergic neurotransmission. The results are also compatible with the possibility that some of the physiological effects of LSD may be mediated through interaction with serotonin-sensitive adenylate cyclase. PMID:4595572

  1. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Jura, M.

    1982-01-01

    IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

  2. Attenuator And Conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Carson, Richard F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; Kemme, Shanalyn Adair; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.

    2006-04-04

    An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.

  3. Serotonin Affects Movement Gain Control in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Joshua I.; Deng, Linna; Thompson, Christopher K.; Stevenson, Ian H.; Wang, Qining; Hornby, Thomas George; Heckman, Charles J.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental challenge for the nervous system is to encode signals spanning many orders of magnitude with neurons of limited bandwidth. To meet this challenge, perceptual systems use gain control. However, whether the motor system uses an analogous mechanism is essentially unknown. Neuromodulators, such as serotonin, are prime candidates for gain control signals during force production. Serotonergic neurons project diffusely to motor pools, and, therefore, force production by one muscle should change the gain of others. Here we present behavioral and pharmaceutical evidence that serotonin modulates the input–output gain of motoneurons in humans. By selectively changing the efficacy of serotonin with drugs, we systematically modulated the amplitude of spinal reflexes. More importantly, force production in different limbs interacts systematically, as predicted by a spinal gain control mechanism. Psychophysics and pharmacology suggest that the motor system adopts gain control mechanisms, and serotonin is a primary driver for their implementation in force production. PMID:25232107

  4. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    PubMed Central

    Torfs, Sara C.; Maes, An A.; Delesalle, Catherine J.; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M.; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI colic were collected at several pre- and post-operative time points. Serotonin concentrations were determined using liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results were compared with those for 24 healthy control animals. The serotonin concentrations in PPP were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in pre- and post-operative samples from surgical SI colic horses compared to controls. However, no association with postoperative ileus or non-survival could be demonstrated at any time point. In this clinical study, plasma serotonin was not a suitable prognostic factor in horses with SI surgical colic. PMID:25694668

  5. Serotonin blockade delays learning performance in a cooperative fish.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marta C; Paula, José R; Bshary, Redouan

    2016-09-01

    Animals use learning and memorizing to gather information that will help them to make ecologically relevant decisions. Neuro-modulatory adjustments enable them to make associations between stimuli and appropriate behavior. A key candidate for the modulation of cooperative behavior is serotonin. Previous research has shown that modulation of the serotonergic system spontaneously affects the behavior of the cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus during interactions with so-called 'client' reef fish. Here, we asked whether shifts in serotonin function affect the cleaners' associative learning abilities when faced with the task to distinguish two artificial clients that differ in their value as a food source. We found that the administration of serotonin 1A receptor antagonist significantly slowed learning speed in comparison with saline treated fish. As reduced serotonergic signaling typically enhances fear, we discuss the possibility that serotonin may affect how cleaners appraise, acquire information and respond to client-derived stimuli via manipulation of the perception of danger.

  6. Effects of prenatal maternal stress on serotonin and fetal development.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Joey; Laurent, Laetitia; King, Suzanne; Vaillancourt, Cathy

    2016-12-01

    Fetuses are exposed to many environmental perturbations that can influence their development. These factors can be easily identifiable such as drugs, chronic diseases or prenatal maternal stress. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the serotonin synthetized by the placenta was crucial for fetal brain development. Moreover, many studies show the involvement of serotonin system alteration in psychiatric disease during childhood and adulthood. This review summarizes existing studies showing that prenatal maternal stress, which induces alteration of serotonin systems (placenta and fetal brain) during a critical window of early development, could lead to alteration of fetal development and increase risks of psychiatric diseases later in life. This phenomenon, termed fetal programming, could be moderated by the sex of the fetus. This review highlights the need to better understand the modification of the maternal, placental and fetal serotonin systems induced by prenatal maternal stress in order to find early biomarkers of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma serotonin in patients with chronic tension headaches.

    PubMed

    Anthony, M; Lance, J W

    1989-02-01

    Previous reports have suggested that platelet level of serotonin in chronic tension headache (CTH) is lower than in normal control subjects, and that there is continuous activation of platelets both in migraine and in CTH. In this study we compared platelet serotonin concentration in 95 patients with CTH, 166 patients with migraine and 35 normal control subjects. Mean platelet serotonin (ng/10(9) platelets) was 310 for the CTH group, 384 during migraine headache, 474 for normal control subjects and 514 in headache-free migrainous patients. There was significant statistical difference of values between CTH patients and those of normal control subjects as well as headache-free migrainous patients, but not of those of migrainous patients during headache. It is suggested that CTH is a low serotonin syndrome, representing one end of the spectrum of idiopathic headache, the other end being represented by migraine.

  8. Relationships of Whole Blood Serotonin and Plasma Norepinephrine within Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Bennett L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study of 47 families of autistic probands found that whole blood serotonin was positively correlated between autistic children and their mothers, fathers, and siblings, but plasma norepinephrine levels were not. (Author/JDD)

  9. Effects of zinc supplementation on Shiga toxin 2e-producing Escherichia coli in vitro.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Ryoko; Katsuge, Tomoko; Sasaki, Yosuke; Goto, Shinya; Sueyoshi, Masuo

    2017-10-07

    Swine edema disease is caused by Shiga toxin (Stx) 2e-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Addition of highly concentrated zinc formulations to feed has been used to treat and prevent the disease, but the mechanism of the beneficial effect is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of highly concentrated zinc formulations on bacterial growth, hemolysin production, and an Stx2e release by STEC in vitro. STEC strain MVH269 isolated from a piglet with edema disease was cultured with zinc oxide (ZnO) or with zinc carbonate (ZnCO 3 ), each at up to 3,000 ppm. There was no effect of zinc addition on bacterial growth. Nonetheless, the cytotoxic activity of Stx2e released into the supernatant was significantly attenuated in the zinc-supplemented media compared to that in the control, with the 50% cytotoxic dose values of 163.2 ± 12.7, 211.6 ± 33.1 and 659.9 ± 84.2 after 24 hr of growth in the presence of ZnO, ZnCO 3 , or no supplemental zinc, respectively. The hemolytic zones around colonies grown on sheep blood agar supplemented with zinc were significantly smaller than those of colonies grown on control agar. Similarly, hemoglobin absorbance after exposure to the supernatants of STEC cultures incubated in sheep blood broth supplemented with zinc was significantly lower than that resulting from exposure to the control supernatant. These in vitro findings indicated that zinc formulations directly impair the factors associated with the virulence of STEC, suggesting a mechanism by which zinc supplementation prevents swine edema disease.

  10. Effects of methiothepin on changes in brain serotonin release induced by repeated administration of high doses of anorectic serotoninergic drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardier, A. M.; Kaakkola, S.; Erfurth, A.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    We previously observed, using in vivo microdialysis, that the potassium-evoked release of frontocortical serotonin (5-HT) is suppressed after rats receive high doses (30 mg/kg, i.p., daily for 3 days) of fluoxetine, a selective blocker of 5-HT reuptake. We now describe similar impairments in 5-HT release after repeated administration of two other 5-HT uptake blockers, zimelidine and sertraline (both at 20 mg/kg, i.p. for 3 days) as well as after dexfenfluramine (7.5 mg/kg, i.p. daily for 3 days), a drug which both releases 5-HT and blocks its reuptake. Doses of these indirect serotonin agonists were about 4-6 times the drug's ED50 in producing anorexia, a serotonin-related behavior. In addition, methiothepin (20 microM), a non-selective receptor antagonist, locally perfused through the dialysis probe 24 h after the last drug injection, enhanced K(+)-evoked release of 5-HT at serotoninergic nerve terminals markedly in control rats and slightly in rats treated with high doses of dexfenfluramine or fluoxetine. On the other hand, pretreatment with methiothepin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) one hour before each of the daily doses of fluoxetine or dexfenfluramine given for 3 days, totally prevented the decrease in basal and K(+)-evoked release of 5-HT. Finally, when methiothepin was injected systemically the day before the first of 3 daily injections of dexfenfluramine, it partially attenuated the long-term depletion of brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels induced by repeated administration of high doses of dexfenfluramine. These data suggest that drugs which bring about the prolonged blockade of 5-HT reuptake - such as dexfenfluramine and fluoxetine - can, by causing prolonged increases in intrasynaptic 5-HT levels as measured by in vivo microdialysis, produce receptor-mediated long-term changes in the processes controlling serotonin levels and dynamics.

  11. Zinc Signal in Brain Diseases.

    PubMed

    Portbury, Stuart D; Adlard, Paul A

    2017-11-23

    The divalent cation zinc is an integral requirement for optimal cellular processes, whereby it contributes to the function of over 300 enzymes, regulates intracellular signal transduction, and contributes to efficient synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Given the critical role of zinc in a breadth of cellular processes, its cellular distribution and local tissue level concentrations remain tightly regulated via a series of proteins, primarily including zinc transporter and zinc import proteins. A loss of function of these regulatory pathways, or dietary alterations that result in a change in zinc homeostasis in the brain, can all lead to a myriad of pathological conditions with both acute and chronic effects on function. This review aims to highlight the role of zinc signaling in the central nervous system, where it may precipitate or potentiate diverse issues such as age-related cognitive decline, depression, Alzheimer's disease or negative outcomes following brain injury.

  12. Halogenated naphthyl methoxy piperidines for mapping serotonin transporter sites

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, M.M.; Faraj, B.

    1999-07-06

    Halogenated naphthyl methoxy piperidines having a strong affinity for the serotonin transporter are disclosed. Those compounds can be labeled with positron-emitting and/or gamma emitting halogen isotopes by a late step synthesis that maximizes the useable lifeterm of the label. The labeled compounds are useful for localizing serotonin transporter sites by positron emission tomography and/or single photon emission computed tomography.

  13. Serotonin and pituitary-adrenal function. [in rat under stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, P. A.; Barchas, J. D.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to evaluate the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stress stimulus in the rat. In the investigation brain serotonin synthesis was inhibited with p-chlorophenylalanine. In other tests the concentration of serotonin was enhanced with precursors such as tryptophan or 5-hydroxytryptophan. On the basis of the results obtained in the study it is speculated that in some disease states there is a defect in serotonergic neuronal processes which impairs pituitary-adrenal feedback mechanisms.

  14. Halogenated naphthyl methoxy piperidines for mapping serotonin transporter sites

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Faraj, Bahjat

    1999-01-01

    Halogenated naphthyl methoxy piperidines having a strong affinity for the serotonin transporter are disclosed. Those compounds can be labeled with positron-emitting and/or gamma emitting halogen isotopes by a late step synthesis that maximizes the useable lifeterm of the label. The labeled compounds are useful for localizing serotonin transporter sites by positron emission tomography and/or single photon emission computed tomography.

  15. Tryptophan availability modulates serotonin release from rat hypothalamic slices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the tryptophan availability and serononin release from rat hypothalamus was investigated using a new in vitro technique for estimating rates at which endogenous serotonin is released spontaneously or upon electrical depolarization from hypothalamic slices superfused with a solution containing various amounts of tryptophan. It was found that the spontaneous, as well as electrically induced, release of serotonin from the brain slices exhibited a dose-dependent relationship with the tryptophan concentration of the superfusion medium.

  16. Regulation of Pituitary Beta Endorphin Release: Role of Serotonin Neurons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-15

    degradable by peptidases , and had a molecular weight of 800-1200. Subsequently, the active factor present in extracts of pig brain was purified...argylene, a drug which prolong’s serotonin’s action at the synapse bv inhibiting enzvmatic degradation of serotonin, also ele- vated circulating...either he re-incorporated into storage granules or degraded enzymatically bv a monoamine oxidase (^tAO)/aldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH) nathvTay to 5

  17. Brain serotonin transporter density and aggression in abstinent methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yoshimoto; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Takei, Nori; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Futatsubashi, Masami; Okada, Hiroyuki; Minabe, Yoshio; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Tsukada, Hideo; Iyo, Masaomi; Mori, Norio

    2006-01-01

    In animals, methamphetamine is known to have a neurotoxic effect on serotonin neurons, which have been implicated in the regulation of mood, anxiety, and aggression. It remains unknown whether methamphetamine damages serotonin neurons in humans. To investigate the status of brain serotonin neurons and their possible relationship with clinical characteristics in currently abstinent methamphetamine abusers. Case-control analysis. A hospital research center. Twelve currently abstinent former methamphetamine abusers (5 women and 7 men) and 12 age-, sex-, and education-matched control subjects recruited from the community. The brain regional density of the serotonin transporter, a structural component of serotonin neurons, was estimated using positron emission tomography and trans-1,2,3,5,6,10-beta-hexahydro-6-[4-(methylthio)phenyl]pyrrolo-[2,1-a]isoquinoline ([(11)C](+)McN-5652). Estimates were derived from region-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping methods, followed by within-case analysis using the measures of clinical variables. The duration of methamphetamine use, the magnitude of aggression and depressive symptoms, and changes in serotonin transporter density represented by the [(11)C](+)McN-5652 distribution volume. Methamphetamine abusers showed increased levels of aggression compared with controls. Region-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping analyses revealed that the serotonin transporter density in global brain regions (eg, the midbrain, thalamus, caudate, putamen, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum) was significantly lower in methamphetamine abusers than in control subjects, and this reduction was significantly inversely correlated with the duration of methamphetamine use. Furthermore, statistical parametric mapping analyses indicated that the density in the orbitofrontal, temporal, and anterior cingulate areas was closely associated with the magnitude of aggression in methamphetamine abusers. Protracted abuse of methamphetamine may reduce

  18. Serotonin as a Biomarker: Stress Resilience among Battlefield Airmen Trainees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-21

    Report 3 . DATES COVERED (From – To) January 2015 – May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Serotonin as a Biomarker: Stress Resilience among Battlefield...failed (33.3%), and 3 (14.3%) self-initiated elimination. Discriminant analysis showed that subjects with increased serotonin levels were more likely to... 3 Table 2. p-Values for t-Tests for Differences between Graduates and Failures and p-values for F

  19. [Tyramine and serotonin syndromes. Pharmacological, medical and legal remarks].

    PubMed

    Toro-Martínez, Esteban

    2005-01-01

    The tyramine syndrome and the serotonin syndrome are a complex of signs and symptoms that are thought to be largely attributable to drug - drug interactions or drug - food interactions that enhances norepinephrine o serotonin activity. This article reviews: pharmacological basis of those syndromes; clinical features; forbidden foods, drug-drug interactions, and treatment options. Finally a set of legal recommendations are proposed to avoid liability litigations.

  20. Zinc deficiency-induced iron accumulation, a consequence of alterations in iron regulatory protein-binding activity, iron transporters, and iron storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Niles, Brad J; Clegg, Michael S; Hanna, Lynn A; Chou, Susan S; Momma, Tony Y; Hong, Heeok; Keen, Carl L

    2008-02-22

    One consequence of zinc deficiency is an elevation in cell and tissue iron concentrations. To examine the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon, Swiss 3T3 cells were cultured in zinc-deficient (D, 0.5 microM zinc), zinc-supplemented (S, 50 microM zinc), or control (C, 4 microM zinc) media. After 24 h of culture, cells in the D group were characterized by a 50% decrease in intracellular zinc and a 35% increase in intracellular iron relative to cells in the S and C groups. The increase in cellular iron was associated with increased transferrin receptor 1 protein and mRNA levels and increased ferritin light chain expression. The divalent metal transporter 1(+)iron-responsive element isoform mRNA was decreased during zinc deficiency-induced iron accumulation. Examination of zinc-deficient cells revealed increased binding of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) and decreased binding of IRP1 to a consensus iron-responsive element. The increased IRP2-binding activity in zinc-deficient cells coincided with an increased level of IRP2 protein. The accumulation of IRP2 protein was independent of zinc deficiency-induced intracellular nitric oxide production but was attenuated by the addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or ascorbate to the D medium. These data support the concept that zinc deficiency can result in alterations in iron transporter, storage, and regulatory proteins, which facilitate iron accumulation.

  1. Effects of Serotonin 2C Receptor Agonists on the Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Cocaine in Squirrel Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Manvich, Daniel F.; Kimmel, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the serotonin system modulates the behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine, but the receptor subtypes mediating these effects remain unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that pharmacological activation of the serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) attenuates the behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine in rodents, but such compounds have not been systematically evaluated in nonhuman primates. The present experiments sought to determine the impact of pretreatment with the preferential 5-HT2CR agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and the selective 5-HT2CR agonist Ro 60-0175 [(α-S)-6-chloro-5-fluoro-α-methyl-1H-indole-1-ethanamine fumarate] on the behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine in squirrel monkeys. In subjects trained to lever-press according to a 300-s fixed-interval schedule of stimulus termination, pretreatment with either 5-HT2CR agonist dose-dependently and insurmountably attenuated the behavioral stimulant effects of cocaine. In subjects trained to self-administer cocaine, both compounds dose-dependently and insurmountably attenuated cocaine-induced reinstatement of previously extinguished responding in an antagonist-reversible manner, and the selective agonist Ro 60-0175 also attenuated the reinforcing effects of cocaine during ongoing cocaine self-administration. It is noteworthy that the selective agonist Ro 60-0175 exhibited behavioral specificity because it did not significantly alter nondrug-maintained responding. Finally, in vivo microdialysis studies revealed that pretreatment with Ro 60-0175 caused a reduction of cocaine-induced dopamine increases within the nucleus accumbens, but not the caudate nucleus. These results suggest that 5-HT2CR agonists functionally antagonize the behavioral effects of cocaine in nonhuman primates, possibly via a selective modulation of cocaine-induced dopamine increases within the mesolimbic dopamine system and may therefore represent a novel class of

  2. Multiple Cellular Responses to Serotonin Contribute to Epithelial Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Vaibhav P.; Horseman, Nelson D.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial homeostasis incorporates the paradoxical concept of internal change (epithelial turnover) enabling the maintenance of anatomical status quo. Epithelial cell differentiation and cell loss (cell shedding and apoptosis) form important components of epithelial turnover. Although the mechanisms of cell loss are being uncovered the crucial triggers that modulate epithelial turnover through regulation of cell loss remain undetermined. Serotonin is emerging as a common autocrine-paracine regulator in epithelia of multiple organs, including the breast. Here we address whether serotonin affects epithelial turnover. Specifically, serotonin's roles in regulating cell shedding, apoptosis and barrier function of the epithelium. Using in vivo studies in mouse and a robust model of differentiated human mammary duct epithelium (MCF10A), we show that serotonin induces mammary epithelial cell shedding and disrupts tight junctions in a reversible manner. However, upon sustained exposure, serotonin induces apoptosis in the replenishing cell population, causing irreversible changes to the epithelial membrane. The staggered nature of these events induced by serotonin slowly shifts the balance in the epithelium from reversible to irreversible. These finding have very important implications towards our ability to control epithelial regeneration and thus address pathologies of aberrant epithelial turnover, which range from degenerative disorders (e.g.; pancreatitis and thyrioditis) to proliferative disorders (e.g.; mastitis, ductal ectasia, cholangiopathies and epithelial cancers). PMID:21390323

  3. Serotonin induces peripheral antinociception via the opioidergic system.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Danielle Aguiar; Petrocchi, Júlia Alvarenga; Navarro, Larissa Caldeira; Souza, Tâmara Cristina; Castor, Marina Gomes Miranda E; Duarte, Igor Dimitri Gama; Romero, Thiago Roberto Lima

    2018-01-01

    Studies conducted since 1969 have shown that the release of serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord contributes to opioid analgesia. In the present study, the participation of the opioidergic system in antinociceptive effect serotonin at the peripheral level was examined. The paw pressure test was used with mice (Swiss, males from 35 g) which had increased pain sensitivity by intraplantar injection of PGE 2 (2 μg). Serotonin (250 ng), administered locally to the right paw of animals, produces antinociception in this model. The selective antagonists for mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors, clocinnamox clocinnamox (40 μg), naltrindole (60 μg) and nor-binaltorfimina (200 μg), respectively, inhibited the antinociceptive effect induced by serotonin. Additionally, bestatin (400 μg), an inhibitor of enkephalinases that degrade peptides opioids, enhanced the antinociceptive effect induced by serotonin (low dose of 62.5 ng). These results suggest that serotonin possibly induce peripheral antinociception through the release of endogenous opioid peptides, possible from immune cells or keratinocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Serotonin Regulates the Feeding and Reproductive Behaviors of Pratylenchus penetrans.

    PubMed

    Han, Ziduan; Boas, Stephanie; Schroeder, Nathan E

    2017-07-01

    The success of all plant-parasitic nematodes is dependent on the completion of several complex behaviors. The lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans is an economically important parasite of a diverse range of plant hosts. Unlike the cyst and root-knot nematodes, P. penetrans moves both within and outside of the host roots and can feed from both locations. Adult females of P. penetrans require insemination by actively moving males for reproduction and can lay eggs both within and outside of the host roots. We do not have a complete understanding of the molecular basis for these behaviors. One candidate modulator of these behaviors is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Previous research demonstrated an effect of exogenously applied serotonin on the feeding and male mating behaviors of cyst and root-knot nematodes. However, there are no data on the role of exogenous serotonin on lesion nematodes. Similarly, there are no data on the presence and function of endogenous serotonin in any plant-parasitic nematode. Here, we establish that exogenous serotonin applied to P. penetrans regulates both feeding and sex-specific behaviors. Furthermore, using immunohistochemistry and pharmacological assays, our data suggest that P. penetrans utilizes endogenous serotonin to regulate both feeding and sex-specific behaviors.

  5. Activity patterns of serotonin neurons underlying cognitive flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Sara; Lottem, Eran; Dugué, Guillaume P; Mainen, Zachary F

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin is implicated in mood and affective disorders. However, growing evidence suggests that a core endogenous role is to promote flexible adaptation to changes in the causal structure of the environment, through behavioral inhibition and enhanced plasticity. We used long-term photometric recordings in mice to study a population of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons, whose activity we could link to normal reversal learning using pharmacogenetics. We found that these neurons are activated by both positive and negative prediction errors, and thus report signals similar to those proposed to promote learning in conditions of uncertainty. Furthermore, by comparing the cue responses of serotonin and dopamine neurons, we found differences in learning rates that could explain the importance of serotonin in inhibiting perseverative responding. Our findings show how the activity patterns of serotonin neurons support a role in cognitive flexibility, and suggest a revised model of dopamine–serotonin opponency with potential clinical implications. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20552.001 PMID:28322190

  6. Noninvasive measurement of lung carbon-11-serotonin extraction in man

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, G.; Firnau, G.; Meyer, G.J.

    1991-04-01

    The fraction of serotonin extracted on a single passage through the lungs is being used as an early indicator of lung endothelial damage but the existing techniques require multiple arterial blood samples. We have developed a noninvasive technique to measure lung serotonin uptake in man. We utilized the double indicator diffusion principle, a positron camera, {sup 11}C-serotonin as the substrate, and {sup 11}CO-erythrocytes as the vascular marker. From regions of interest around each lung, we recorded time-activity curves in 0.5-sec frames for 30 sec after a bolus injection of first the vascular marker {sup 11}CO-erythrocytes and 10 min later {supmore » 11}C-serotonin. A second uptake measurement was made after imipramine 25-35 mg was infused intravenously. In three normal volunteers, the single-pass uptake of {sup 11}C-serotonin was 63.9% +/- 3.6%. This decreased in all subjects to a mean of 53.6% +/- 1.4% after imipramine. The rate of lung washout of {sup 11}C was also significantly prolonged after imipramine. This noninvasive technique can be used to measure lung serotonin uptake to detect early changes in a variety of conditions that alter the integrity of the pulmonary endothelium.« less

  7. Lung damage and pulmonary uptake of serotonin in intact dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, C.A.; Christensen, C.W.; Rickaby, D.A.

    1985-06-01

    The authors examined the influence of glass bead embolization and oleic acid, dextran, and imipramine infusion on the pulmonary uptake of trace doses of (/sup 3/H)serotonin and the extravascular volume accessible to (/sup 14/C)antipyrine in anesthetized dogs. Embolization and imipramine decreased serotonin uptake by 53 and 61%, respectively, but no change was observed with oleic acid or dextran infusion. The extravascular volume accessible to the antipyrine was reduced by 77% after embolization and increased by 177 and approximately 44% after oleic acid and dextran infusion, respectively. The results suggest that when the perfused endothelial surface is sufficiently reduced, as withmore » embolization, the uptake of trace doses of serotonin will be depressed. In addition, decreases in serotonin uptake in response to imipramine in this study and in response to certain endothelial toxins in other studies suggest that serotonin uptake can reveal certain kinds of changes in endothelial function. However, the lack of a response to oleic acid-induced damage in the present study suggests that serotonin uptake is not sensitive to all forms of endothelial damage.« less

  8. Increased hypothalamic serotonin turnover in inflammation-induced anorexia.

    PubMed

    Dwarkasing, J T; Witkamp, R F; Boekschoten, M V; Ter Laak, M C; Heins, M S; van Norren, K

    2016-05-20

    Anorexia can occur as a serious complication of disease. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation plays a major role, along with a hypothalamic dysregulation characterized by locally elevated serotonin levels. The present study was undertaken to further explore the connections between peripheral inflammation, anorexia and hypothalamic serotonin metabolism and signaling pathways. First, we investigated the response of two hypothalamic neuronal cell lines to TNFα, IL-6 and LPS. Next, we studied transcriptomic changes and serotonergic activity in the hypothalamus of mice after intraperitoneal injection with TNFα, IL-6 or a combination of TNFα and IL-6. In vitro, we showed that hypothalamic neurons responded to inflammatory mediators by releasing cytokines. This inflammatory response was associated with an increased serotonin release. Mice injected with TNFα and IL-6 showed decreased food intake, associated with altered expression of inflammation-related genes in the hypothalamus. In addition, hypothalamic serotonin turnover showed to be elevated in treated mice. Overall, our results underline that peripheral inflammation reaches the hypothalamus where it affects hypothalamic serotoninergic metabolism. These hypothalamic changes in serotonin pathways are associated with decreased food intake, providing evidence for a role of serotonin in inflammation-induced anorexia.

  9. Serotonin effects on sleep and emotional disorders in adolescent migraine.

    PubMed

    Pakalnis, Ann; Splaingard, Mark; Splaingard, Deborah; Kring, Donna; Colvin, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    To determine frequency of emotional disorders and sleep disturbances in adolescent migraineurs with episodic and chronic headaches. To determine the relationship of whole blood serotonin, caffeine consumption, and frequency of sleep and mood disorders. The neurotransmitter serotonin has been implicated to play a role in the initiation and maintenance of sleep and in modulating mood. A putative role in migraine pathophysiology is also known. Adolescents from 13 to 17 years of age were identified from our headache clinic with episodic or chronic migraine (according to International Classification of Headache Disorders-Second Edition criteria) and healthy controls enrolled. Psychological rating scales were completed, including Adolescent Symptom Inventory (4th Edition) and Child Depression Inventory. Sleep questionnaires (Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire and Child Sleep Habit Questionnaire) were completed by the teenager's parents/guardian. Whole blood serotonin levels were drawn and analyzed and caffeine consumption obtained by history. A total of 18 controls (8 girls) and 15 patients each with episodic migraines (9 girls) and chronic migraine (10 girls) were studied. Patients with headache had significantly more sleep problems than controls. Patients with chronic migraines had increased daytime sleepiness and dysthymia compared with teenagers with episodic migraines. Serotonin levels were not significantly different, and no association was noted between serotonin levels and sleep abnormalities or emotional rating scales. Increased caffeine intake was related to sleep and depressive complaints. Sleep and emotional disorders were common in adolescents with migraine. Sleep disorders and dysthymia were more prevalent with increased headache frequency. No correlation was noted with whole blood serotonin levels.

  10. Aging-induced changes in brain regional serotonin receptor binding: Effect of Carnosine.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S; Poddar, M K

    2016-04-05

    Monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) has its own specific receptors in both pre- and post-synapse. In the present study the role of carnosine on aging-induced changes of [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding in different brain regions in a rat model was studied. The results showed that during aging (18 and 24 months) the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding was reduced in hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD but in cerebral cortex the [(3)H]-5-HT binding was increased with the increase of its only Bmax. The aging-induced changes in [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with carnosine (2.0 μg/kg/day, intrathecally, for 21 consecutive days) attenuated in (a) 24-month-aged rats irrespective of the brain regions with the attenuation of its Bmax except hypothalamus where both Bmax and KD were significantly attenuated, (b) hippocampus and hypothalamus of 18-month-aged rats with the attenuation of its Bmax, and restored toward the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding that observed in 4-month-young rats. The decrease in pons-medullary [(3)H]-5-HT binding including its Bmax of 18-month-aged rats was promoted with carnosine without any significant change in its cerebral cortex. The [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with the same dosages of carnosine in 4-month-young rats (a) increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus with the increase in their only Bmax whereas (b) decreased in hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD. These results suggest that carnosine treatment may (a) play a preventive role in aging-induced brain region-specific changes in serotonergic activity (b) not be worthy in 4-month-young rats in relation to the brain regional serotonergic activity. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurochemical, behavioral and physiological effects of pharmacologically enhanced serotonin levels in serotonin transporter (SERT)-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Meredith A.; Jensen, Catherine L.; French, Helen T.; Stein, Alison R.; Huang, Su-Jan; Tolliver, Teresa J.; Murphy, Dennis L.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale Serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout (−/−) mice have an altered phenotype in adulthood, including high baseline anxiety and depressive-like behaviors, associated with increased baseline extracellular serotonin levels throughout life. Objectives To examine the effects of increases in serotonin following administration of the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) in SERT wildtype (+/+), heterozygous (+/−) and −/− mice. Results 5-HTP increased serotonin in all five brain areas examined, with ~2–5-fold increases in SERT +/+ and +/− mice, and greater 4.5–11.7-fold increases in SERT −/− mice. Behaviorally, 5-HTP induced exaggerated serotonin syndrome behaviors in SERT −/− mice, with similar effects in male and female mice. Studies suggest promiscuous serotonin uptake by the dopamine transporter (DAT) in SERT −/− mice, and here, the DAT blocker GBR 12909 enhanced 5-HTP-induced behaviors in SERT −/− mice. Physiologically, 5-HTP induced exaggerated temperature effects in SERT-deficient mice. The 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100635 decreased 5-HTP-induced hypothermia in SERT +/+ and +/− mice, with no effect in SERT −/− mice, whereas the 5-HT7 antagonist SB 269970 decreased this exaggerated response in SERT −/− mice only. WAY 100635 and SB 269970 together completely blocked 5-HTP-induced hypothermia in SERT +/− and −/− mice. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that SERT −/− mice have exaggerated neurochemical, behavioral and physiological responses to further increases in serotonin, and provide the first evidence of intact 5-HT7 receptor function in SERT −/− mice, with interesting interactions between 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors. As roles for 5-HT7 receptors in anxiety and depression were recently established, the current findings have implications for understanding the high anxiety and depressive-like phenotype of SERT-deficient mice. PMID:18712364

  12. Ecstasy use and serotonin syndrome: a neglected danger to adolescents and young adults prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dobry, Yuriy; Rice, Timothy; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    At present, there are scarce clinical and basic lab data concerning the risk of acute serotonin toxicity from selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) co-administration. The health care community can strongly benefit from efforts to address the high risks associated with serotonin syndrome from this specific drug combination. The aim of this work is to review the risk of serotonin syndrome in adolescents and young adults prescribed with SSRIs and are concurrently using ecstasy. An electronic search of the major behavioral science bibliographic databases (Pubmed, PsycINFO, Medline) was conducted to retrieve peer-reviewed articles, which detail the clinical characteristics, biological mechanisms and social implications of SSRIs, MDMA, and their potential synergism in causing serotonin syndrome in the pediatric and young adult population. Search terms included "serotonin syndrome", "ecstasy", "MDMA", "pediatric", and "SSRI". Additional references were incorporated from the bibliographies of these retrieved articles. MDMA, in combination with the widely-prescribed SSRI antidepressant class, can lead to rapid, synergistic rise of serotonin (5-HT) concentration in the central nervous system, leading to the acute medical emergency known as serotonin syndrome. This review addresses such complication through an exploration of the theoretical mechanisms and clinical manifestations of this life-threatening pharmacological interaction. The increasing incidences of recreational ecstasy use and SSRI pharmacotherapy among multiple psychiatric disorders in the adolescent population have made this an overlooked yet increasingly relevant danger, which poses a threat to public health. This can be curbed through further research, as well as greater health care provision and attention from a regulatory body owing.

  13. Zinc supplementation for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Person, Osmar C; Puga, Maria Es; da Silva, Edina Mk; Torloni, Maria R

    2016-11-23

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound without external acoustic stimuli. Patients with severe tinnitus may have physical and psychological complaints and their tinnitus can cause deterioration in their quality of life. At present no specific therapy for tinnitus has been found to be satisfactory in all patients. In recent decades, a number of reports have suggested that oral zinc supplementation may be effective in the management of tinnitus. Since zinc has a role in cochlear physiology and in the synapses of the auditory system, there is a plausible mechanism of action for this treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral zinc supplementation in the management of patients with tinnitus. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 6); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 14 July 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing zinc supplementation versus placebo in adults (18 years and over) with tinnitus. We used the standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Our primary outcome measures were improvement in tinnitus severity and disability, measured by a validated tinnitus-specific questionnaire, and adverse effects. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, change in socioeconomic impact associated with work, change in anxiety and depression disorders, change in psychoacoustic parameters, change in tinnitus loudness, change in overall severity of tinnitus and change in thresholds on pure tone audiometry. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included three trials involving a total of 209 participants. The studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. All included studies had differences in participant selection criteria, length of follow-up and outcome measurement

  14. The permissive effect of zinc deficiency on uroguanylin and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene upregulation in rat intestine induced by interleukin 1alpha is rapidly reversed by zinc repletion.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li; Blanchard, Raymond K; Cousins, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    Deficient intake of zinc from the diet upregulates both uroguanylin (UG) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rats. Because these changes influence intestinal fluid secretion and intestinal cell pathophysiology, they relate to the incidence of diarrheal disease and its reversal by zinc as well as intestinal inflammation in general. A model of moderate zinc deficiency in rats, which changes molecular indices of zinc deficiency, was used to further explore the effects of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1alpha and zinc repletion on these changes. IL-1alpha has been shown to have a role in the intestinal inflammation that occurs with bacterial infection. Our results showed a permissive effect of zinc deficiency on both UG and iNOS expression. Specifically, UG expression was responsive to zinc deficiency and IL-1alpha challenge, which were additive when combined, whereas iNOS expression was upregulated by IL-1alpha only during the deficiency. Immunohistochemistry showed that the increase in UG was limited to enterocytes of the upper villus but, in contrast, the increase in iNOS was principally in cells of the lamina propria of IL-1alpha-treated rats. Cells exhibiting UG upregulation did not co-express serotonin. Repletion with zinc reversed upregulation of the iNOS gene within 1 d, whereas UG upregulation required 3-4 d to return to normal. This differential response to repletion suggests that mechanisms of UG and iNOS dysregulation are different. Dysregulation of both genes may contribute to the severity of zinc-responsive diarrheal disease and intestinal inflammatory disease.

  15. Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 effective against serotonin syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Boban Blagaic, Alenka; Blagaic, Vladimir; Mirt, Mirela; Jelovac, Nikola; Dodig, Goran; Rucman, Rudolf; Petek, Marijan; Turkovic, Branko; Anic, Tomislav; Dubovecak, Miroslav; Staresinic, Mario; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2005-04-11

    Serotonin syndrome commonly follows irreversible monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibition and subsequent serotonin (5-HT) substrate (in rats with fore paw treading, hind limbs abduction, wet dog shake, hypothermia followed by hyperthermia). A stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 with very safe profile (inflammatory bowel disease clinical phase II, PL-10, PLD-116, PL-14736, Pliva) reduced the duration of immobility to a greater extent than imipramine, and, given peripherally, has region specific influence on brain 5-HT synthesis (alpha-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan autoradiographic measurements) in rats, different from any other serotonergic drug. Thereby, we investigate this peptide (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg/kg i.p.) in (i) full serotonin syndrome in rat combining pargyline (irreversible MAO-inhibition; 75 mg/kg i.p.) and subsequent L-tryptophan (5-HT precursor; 100 mg/kg i.p.; BPC 157 as a co-treatment), or (ii, iii) using pargyline or L-tryptophan given separately, as a serotonin-substrate with (ii) pargyline (BPC 157 as a 15-min posttreatment) or as a potential serotonin syndrome inductor with (iii) L-tryptophan (BPC 157 as a 15 min-pretreatment). In all experiments, gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 contrasts with serotonin-syndrome either (i) presentation (i.e., particularly counteracted) or (ii) initiation (i.e., neither a serotonin substrate (counteraction of pargyline), nor an inductor for serotonin syndrome (no influence on L-tryptophan challenge)). Indicatively, severe serotonin syndrome in pargyline + L-tryptophan rats is considerably inhibited even by lower pentadecapeptide BPC 157 doses regimens (particularly disturbances such as hyperthermia and wet dog shake thought to be related to stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors), while the highest pentadecapeptide dose counteracts mild disturbances present in pargyline rats (mild hypothermia, feeble hind limbs abduction). Thereby, in severe serotonin syndrome, gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (alone, no behavioral or

  16. Nicotine Administration Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Novel Object Recognition Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; McFadden, Lisa M.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Smith, Misty D.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine abuse leads to memory deficits and these are associated with relapse. Furthermore, extensive evidence indicates that nicotine prevents and/or improves memory deficits in different models of cognitive dysfunction and these nicotinic effects might be mediated by hippocampal or cortical nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The present study investigated whether nicotine attenuates methamphetamine-induced novel object recognition deficits in rats and explored potential underlying mechanisms. Methods: Adolescent or adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received either nicotine water (10–75 μg/mL) or tap water for several weeks. Methamphetamine (4×7.5mg/kg/injection) or saline was administered either before or after chronic nicotine exposure. Novel object recognition was evaluated 6 days after methamphetamine or saline. Serotonin transporter function and density and α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density were assessed on the following day. Results: Chronic nicotine intake via drinking water beginning during either adolescence or adulthood attenuated the novel object recognition deficits caused by a high-dose methamphetamine administration. Similarly, nicotine attenuated methamphetamine-induced deficits in novel object recognition when administered after methamphetamine treatment. However, nicotine did not attenuate the serotonergic deficits caused by methamphetamine in adults. Conversely, nicotine attenuated methamphetamine-induced deficits in α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the hippocampal CA1 region. Furthermore, nicotine increased α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the hippocampal CA3, dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex in both saline- and methamphetamine-treated rats. Conclusions: Overall, these findings suggest that nicotine-induced increases in α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex might be one mechanism by which

  17. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  18. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    PubMed

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  19. Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under zinc starvation. Zinc depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for zinc-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by zinc starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed zinc starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant zinc proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to zinc-binding proteins. When cellular zinc is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing zinc from the degraded proteins and recycling zinc for other essential purposes. PMID:28264932

  20. Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-05-19

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under zinc starvation. Zinc depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for zinc-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by zinc starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed zinc starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant zinc proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to zinc-binding proteins. When cellular zinc is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing zinc from the degraded proteins and recycling zinc for other essential purposes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Pulmonary serotonin and histamine in experimental asbestosis

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, I.M.; Day, R.; Lemaire, S.

    1986-03-01

    Adult male Wistar rats were treated once with tracheal instillation of 5 mg Crysotile B asbestos fibers in 0.5 ml saline under ketamine/xylaxine anesthesia. Control rats (n = 37) received 0.5 ml saline. Test and control rats were killed at 7 and 14 d., and 1, 3 and 6 mo. post instillation. Serotonin (5-HT) was quantitated in lung tissue homogenate from all rats using HPLC and electrochemical detection. Among rats killed at 1, 3 and 6 mo., lung tissue histamine-o-phthaldialdehyde complex was quantitated using reverse phase HPLC coupled to a fluorometric detector. Furthermore, 5-HT was quantitated in the cytoplasm ofmore » grouped (NEB) and individual (NEC) neuroendocrine cells and in mast cells using formaldehyde-vapor-induced fluorescence and microspectrofluorometry, and mast cell numbers were determined. Test rats had higher pulmonary 5-HT and histamine levels than controls at 1, 3 and 6 mo. Test rats also had higher cellular 5-HT compared to controls in NEB's at 1 mo., but not in NECs, and tended to have higher 5-HT-levels in mast cells at 6 mo. Mast cell numbers were higher among tests at 1 and 3 mo. The authors results suggest that NEBs may contribute to the early asbestos induced rise in 5-HT, and that the major source of 5-HT and histamine is from the increased numbers of mast cells.« less

  2. Modulation for emergent networks: serotonin and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Weng, Juyang; Paslaski, Stephen; Daly, James; VanDam, Courtland; Brown, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    In autonomous learning, value-sensitive experiences can improve the efficiency of learning. A learning network needs be motivated so that the limited computational resources and the limited lifetime are devoted to events that are of high value for the agent to compete in its environment. The neuromodulatory system of the brain is mainly responsible for developing such a motivation system. Although reinforcement learning has been extensively studied, many existing models are symbolic whose internal nodes or modules have preset meanings. Neural networks have been used to automatically generate internal emergent representations. However, modeling an emergent motivational system for neural networks is still a great challenge. By emergent, we mean that the internal representations emerge autonomously through interactions with the external environments. This work proposes a generic emergent modulatory system for emergent networks, which includes two subsystems - the serotonin system and the dopamine system. The former signals a large class of stimuli that are intrinsically aversive (e.g., stress or pain). The latter signals a large class of stimuli that are intrinsically appetitive (e.g., pleasure or sweet). We experimented with this motivational system for two settings. The first is a visual recognition setting to investigate how such a system can learn through interactions with a teacher, who does not directly give answers, but only punishments and rewards. The second is a setting for wandering in the presence of a friend and a foe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [The serotonin syndrome. Fatal course of intoxication with citalopram and moclobemide].

    PubMed

    Cassens, S; Nickel, E A; Quintel, M; Neumann, P

    2006-11-01

    The serotonin syndrome is caused by a drug-induced increase of the intrasynaptic serotonin concentration. Milder forms of the syndrome may be difficult to diagnose because of the variability of symptoms. Severe forms often rapidly turn into a life-threatening situation, therefore the serotonin syndrome may be a challenge for physicians. We describe the pathophysiology and therapeutic options of the serotonin syndrome and report about a 42-year-old female patient who ingested large amounts of moclobemide, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, for attempted suicide. Within a few hours the patient developed a lethal serotonin syndrome although ICU therapy was initiated immediately.

  4. Myocardial serotonin exchange: negligible uptake by capillary endothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Moffett, T.C.; Chan, I.S.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.

    1988-03-01

    The extraction of serotonin from the blood during transorgan passage through the heart was studied using Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Outflow dilution curves of /sup 131/I- or /sup 125/I-labeled albumin, (/sup 14/C)sucrose, and (3H)serotonin injected simultaneously into the inflow were fitted with an axially distributed blood-tissue exchange model to examine the extraction process. The model fits of the albumin and sucrose outflow dilution curves were used to define flow heterogeneity, intravascular dispersion, capillary permeability, and the volume of the interstitial space, which reduced the degrees of freedom in fitting the model to the serotonin curves. Serotonin extractions, measured against albumin, duringmore » single transcapillary passage, ranged from 24 to 64%. The ratio of the capillary permeability-surface area products for serotonin and sucrose, based on the maximum instantaneous extraction, was 1.37 +/- 0.2 (n = 18), very close to the predicted value of 1.39, the ratio of free diffusion coefficients calculated from the molecular weights. This result shows that the observed uptake of serotonin can be accounted for solely on the basis of diffusion between endothelial cells into the interstitial space. Thus it appears that the permeability of the luminal surface of the endothelial cell is negligible in comparison to diffusion through the clefts between endothelial cells. In 18 sets of dilution curves, with and without receptor and transport blockers or competitors (ketanserin, desipramine, imipramine, serotonin), the extractions and estimates of the capillary permeability-surface area product were not reduced, nor were the volumes of distribution. The apparent absence of transporters and receptors in rabbit myocardial capillary endothelium contrasts with their known abundance in the pulmonary vasculature.« less

  5. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  6. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ

    2009-11-10

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  7. Gene Therapy by Targeted Adenovirus-mediated Knockdown of Pulmonary Endothelial Tph1 Attenuates Hypoxia-induced Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Morecroft, Ian; White, Katie; Caruso, Paola; Nilsen, Margaret; Loughlin, Lynn; Alba, Raul; Reynolds, Paul N; Danilov, Sergei M; Baker, Andrew H; MacLean, Margaret R

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin is produced by pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAEC) via tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (Tph1). Pathologically, serotonin acts on underlying pulmonary arterial cells, contributing to vascular remodeling associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The effects of hypoxia on PAEC-Tph1 activity are unknown. We investigated the potential of a gene therapy approach to PAH using selective inhibition of PAEC-Tph1 in vivo in a hypoxic model of PAH. We exposed cultured bovine pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (bPASMCs) to conditioned media from human PAECs (hPAECs) before and after hypoxic exposure. Serotonin levels were increased in hypoxic PAEC media. Conditioned media evoked bPASMC proliferation, which was greater with hypoxic PAEC media, via a serotonin-dependent mechanism. In vivo, adenoviral vectors targeted to PAECs (utilizing bispecific antibody to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) as the selective targeting system) were used to deliver small hairpin Tph1 RNA sequences in rats. Hypoxic rats developed PAH and increased lung Tph1. PAEC-Tph1 expression and development of PAH were attenuated by our PAEC-Tph1 gene knockdown strategy. These results demonstrate that hypoxia induces Tph1 activity and selective knockdown of PAEC-Tph1 attenuates hypoxia-induced PAH in rats. Further investigation of pulmonary endothelial-specific Tph1 inhibition via gene interventions is warranted. PMID:22525513

  8. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli. PMID:28629136

  9. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-06-17

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  10. The ZIP family zinc transporters support the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Do, Eunsoo; Hu, Guanggan; Caza, Mélissa; Kronstad, James W.; Jung, Won Hee

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element in living organisms and a cofactor for various metalloproteins. To disseminate and survive, a pathogenic microbe must obtain zinc from the host, which is an environment with extremely limited zinc availability. In this study, we investigated the roles of the ZIP family zinc transporters Zip1 and Zip2 in the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Zip1 and Zip2 are homologous to Zrt1 and Zrt2 of the model fungus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively. We found that the expression of ZIP1 was regulated by the zinc concentration in the environment. Furthermore, the mutant lacking ZIP1 displayed a severe growth defect under zinc-limited conditions, while the mutant lacking ZIP2 displayed normal growth. Inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectroscopy analysis showed that the absence of Zip1 expression significantly reduced total cellular zinc levels relative to that in the wild type, while overexpression of Zip1 was associated with increased cellular zinc levels. These findings suggested that Zip1 plays roles in zinc uptake in C. neoformans. We also constructed a Zip1-FLAG fusion protein and found, by immunofluorescence, not only that the protein was localized to the periphery implying it is a membrane transporter, but also that the protein was N-glycosylated. Furthermore, the mutant lacking ZIP1 showed attenuated virulence in a murine inhalation model of cryptococcosis and reduced survival within murine macrophages. Overall, our data suggest that Zip1 plays essential roles in zinc transport and the virulence of C. neoformans. PMID:27118799

  11. Negative modulation of presynaptic activity by zinc released from Schaffer collaterals.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Fuke, Sayuri; Tsutsumi, Wataru; Oku, Naoto

    2007-12-01

    The role of zinc in excitation of Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses is poorly understood. Schaffer collaterals stained with ZnAF-2 or ZnAF-2DA, a membrane-impermeable or a membrane-permeable zinc indicator, respectively, were treated by tetanic stimulation (200 Hz, 1 sec). Extracellular and intracellular ZnAF-2 signals were increased in the stratum radiatum of the CA1, in which Schaffer collateral synapses exist. Both the increases were completely blocked in the presence of 1 mM CaEDAT, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator, suggesting that 1 mM CaEDTA is effective for chelating zinc released from Schaffer collaterals. The role of Schaffer collateral zinc in presynaptic activity was examined by using FM4-64, a fluorescent indicator for vesicular exocytosis. The decrease in FM4-64 signal during tetanic stimulation (10 Hz, 180 sec) was enhanced in Schaffer collaterals in the presence of 1 mM CaEDTA but suppressed in the presence of 5 microM ZnC1(2), suggesting that zinc released from Schaffer collaterals suppresses presynaptic activity during tetanic stimulation. When Schaffer collateral synapses stained with calcium orange AM, a membrane-permeable calcium indicator, were regionally stimulated with 1 mM glutamate, calcium orange signal was increased in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. This increase was enhanced in the presence of CaEDTA and attenuated in the presence of zinc. These results suggest that zinc attenuates excitation of Schaffer collateral synapses elicited with glutamate via suppression of presynaptic activity. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Computer-controlled attenuator.

    PubMed

    Mitov, D; Grozev, Z

    1991-01-01

    Various possibilities for applying electronic computer-controlled attenuators for the automation of physiological experiments are considered. A detailed description is given of the design of a 4-channel computer-controlled attenuator, in two of the channels of which the output signal can change by a linear step, in the other two channels--by a logarithmic step. This, together with the existence of additional programmable timers, allows to automate a wide range of studies in different spheres of physiology and psychophysics, including vision and hearing.

  13. Dual activities of ritanserin and R59022 as DGKα inhibitors and serotonin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Boroda, Salome; Niccum, Maria; Raje, Vidisha; Purow, Benjamin W; Harris, Thurl E

    2017-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinase alpha (DGKα) catalyzes the conversion of diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidic acid (PA). Recently, DGKα was identified as a therapeutic target in various cancers, as well as in immunotherapy. Application of small-molecule DGK inhibitors, R59022 and R59949, induces cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo. The pharmacokinetics of these compounds in mice, however, are poor. Thus, there is a need to discover additional DGK inhibitors not only to validate these enzymes as targets in oncology, but also to achieve a better understanding of their biology. In the present study, we investigate the activity of ritanserin, a compound structurally similar to R59022, against DGKα. Ritanserin, originally characterized as a serotonin (5-HT) receptor (5-HTR) antagonist, underwent clinical trials as a potential medicine for the treatment of schizophrenia and substance dependence. We document herein that ritanserin attenuates DGKα kinase activity while increasing the enzyme's affinity for ATP in vitro. In addition, R59022 and ritanserin function as DGKα inhibitors in cultured cells and activate protein kinase C (PKC). While recognizing that ritanserin attenuates DGK activity, we also find that R59022 and R59949 are 5-HTR antagonists. In conclusion, ritanserin, R59022 and R59949 are combined pharmacological inhibitors of DGKα and 5-HTRs in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MDMA attenuates THC withdrawal syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Touriño, Clara; Maldonado, Rafael; Valverde, Olga

    2007-07-01

    3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and cannabis are widely abused illicit drugs that are frequently consumed in combination. Interactions between these two drugs have been reported in several pharmacological responses observed in animals, such as body temperature, anxiety, cognition, and reward. However, the interaction between MDMA and cannabis in addictive processes such as physical dependence has not been elucidated yet. In this study, the effects of acute and chronic MDMA were evaluated on the behavioral manifestations of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) abstinence in mice. THC withdrawal syndrome was precipitated by injecting the cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice chronically treated with THC and receiving MDMA (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg i.p.) or saline just before the withdrawal induction or chronically after the THC administration. Both chronic and acute MDMA decreased in a dose-dependent manner the severity of THC withdrawal. In vivo microdialysis experiments showed that acute MDMA (5 mg/kg, i.p.) administration increased extracellular serotonin levels in the prefrontal cortex, but not dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Our results also indicate that the attenuation of THC abstinence symptoms was not due to a direct interaction between rimonabant and MDMA nor to the result of the locomotor stimulating effects of MDMA. The modulation of the cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome by acute or chronic MDMA suggests a possible mechanism to explain the associated consumption of these two drugs in humans.

  15. Implications of genetic research on the role of the serotonin in depression: emphasis on the serotonin type 1A receptor and the serotonin transporter.

    PubMed

    Neumeister, Alexander; Young, Theresa; Stastny, Juergen

    2004-08-01

    Serotonin systems appear to play a key role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Consequently, ongoing research determines whether serotonin related genes account for the very robust differential behavioral and neural mechanisms that discriminate patients with depression from healthy controls. Serotonin type 1(A) receptors and the serotonin transporters are reduced in depression, and recent genetic research in animals and humans has implicated both in depression. Preclinical studies have utilized a variety of animal models that have been used to explain pathophysiological mechanisms in humans, although it is not clear at all whether these models constitute relevant models for depression in humans. However, data from preclinical studies can generate hypotheses that are tested in humans by combining genetic data with behavioral and physiological challenge paradigms and neuroimaging. These studies will enhance our understanding about combined influences from multiple interacting genes, as well as from environmental factors on brain circuits and their function, and about how these mechanisms may contribute to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. Voltammetric and Mathematical Evidence for Dual Transport Mediation of Serotonin Clearance In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kevin M.; Zeqja, Anisa; Nijhout, H. Frederik; Reed, Michael C.; Best, Janet; Hashemi, Parastoo

    2014-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin underlies many of the brain’s functions. Understanding serotonin neurochemistry is important for improving treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Antidepressants commonly target serotonin clearance via serotonin transporters (SERTs) and have variable clinical effects. Adjunctive therapies, targeting other systems including serotonin autoreceptors, also vary clinically and carry adverse consequences. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is particularly well suited for studying antidepressant effects on serotonin clearance and autoreceptors by providing real-time chemical information on serotonin kinetics in vivo. However, the complex nature of in vivo serotonin responses makes it difficult to interpret experimental data with established kinetic models. Here, we electrically stimulated the mouse medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to provoke and detect terminal serotonin in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr). In response to MFB stimulation we found three dynamically distinct serotonin signals. To interpret these signals we developed a computational model that supports two independent serotonin reuptake mechanisms (high affinity, low efficiency reuptake mechanism and low affinity, high efficiency reuptake system) and bolsters an important inhibitory role for the serotonin autoreceptors. Our data and analysis, afforded by the powerful combination of voltammetric and theoretical methods, gives new understanding of the chemical heterogeneity of serotonin dynamics in the brain. This diverse serotonergic matrix likely contributes to clinical variability of antidepressants. PMID:24702305

  17. Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Inga; Maywald, Martina; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14), zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10), and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function. PMID:29186856

  18. Increased brain serotonin turnover in panic disorder patients in the absence of a panic attack: reduction by a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Esler, Murray; Lambert, Elisabeth; Alvarenga, Marlies; Socratous, Florentia; Richards, Jeff; Barton, David; Pier, Ciaran; Brenchley, Celia; Dawood, Tye; Hastings, Jacqueline; Guo, Ling; Haikerwal, Deepak; Kaye, David; Jennings, Garry; Kalff, Victor; Kelly, Michael; Wiesner, Glen; Lambert, Gavin

    2007-08-01

    Since the brain neurotransmitter changes characterising panic disorder remain uncertain, we quantified brain noradrenaline and serotonin turnover in patients with panic disorder, in the absence of a panic attack. Thirty-four untreated patients with panic disorder and 24 matched healthy volunteers were studied. A novel method utilising internal jugular venous sampling, with thermodilution measurement of jugular blood flow, was used to directly quantify brain monoamine turnover, by measuring the overflow of noradrenaline and serotonin metabolites from the brain. Radiographic depiction of brain venous sinuses allowed differential venous sampling from cortical and subcortical regions. The relation of brain serotonin turnover to serotonin transporter genotype and panic disorder severity were evaluated, and the influence of an SSRI drug, citalopram, on serotonin turnover investigated. Brain noradrenaline turnover in panic disorder patients was similar to that in healthy subjects. In contrast, brain serotonin turnover, estimated from jugular venous overflow of the metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, was increased approximately 4-fold in subcortical brain regions and in the cerebral cortex (P < 0.01). Serotonin turnover was highest in patients with the most severe disease, was unrelated to serotonin transporter genotype, and was reduced by citalopram (P < 0.01). Normal brain noradrenaline turnover in panic disorder patients argues against primary importance of the locus coeruleus in this condition. The marked increase in serotonin turnover, in the absence of a panic attack, possibly represents an important underlying neurotransmitter substrate for the disorder, although this point remains uncertain. Support for this interpretation comes from the direct relationship which existed between serotonin turnover and illness severity, and the finding that SSRI administration reduced serotonin turnover. Serotonin transporter genotyping suggested that increased whole brain

  19. Structure and Function of Serotonin G protein Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    McCorvy, John D.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin receptors are prevalent throughout the nervous system and the periphery, and remain one of the most lucrative and promising drug discovery targets for disorders ranging from migraine headaches to neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. There are 14 distinct serotonin receptors, of which 13 are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are targets for approximately 40% of the approved medicines. Recent crystallographic and biochemical evidence has provided a converging understanding of the basic structure and functional mechanics of GPCR activation. Currently, two GPCR crystal structures exist for the serotonin family, the 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptor, with the antimigraine and valvulopathic drug ergotamine bound. The first serotonin crystal structures not only provide the first evidence of serotonin receptor topography but also provide mechanistic explanations into functional selectivity or biased agonism. This review will detail the findings of these crystal structures from a molecular and mutagenesis perspective for driving rational drug design for novel therapeutics incorporating biased signaling. PMID:25601315

  20. A case of serotonin syndrome associated with methadone overdose.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Terry T; Martinez, Daniel N

    2008-01-01

    A chronic pain patient prescribed 20 mg of methadone per day was seen at the Emergency Department within one hour following a witnessed intentional 200 mg ingestion. In addition, he was taking the serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressant drugs, sertraline and venlafaxine as prescribed. Methadone is also a serotonin re-uptake inhibitor which has been involved in serotonin toxicity reactions. Initially, no symptoms of narcotic overdose (depressed central nervous system, respiration, or blood pressure) could be distinguished, and the standard narcotic urine screen was negative. No decontamination or antagonist therapy was given, and the patient was discharged to a psychiatric unit for observation. At 5 hours post-ingestion he presented in a panic with hallucinations and elevated blood pressure, pulse, and respiration. These symptoms are characteristic of serotonin syndrome which is often described as mental status changes, autonomic hyperactivity, and neuromuscular abnormalities. At 10 hours post-ingestion the patient was found unconscious. He had aspirated stomach contents into his lungs. His respiration, blood pressure, and pulse were all severely depressed. He never regained conciousness, and he died 5 days later. The medical examiner's finding was probable acute methadone intoxication. In this case serotonin syndrome appears to have opposed and delayed typical narcotic symptoms. Methadone has additional pharmacologic and toxicologic properties which may complicate the assessment and treatment in overdose situations.

  1. Serotonin enhances the impact of health information on food choice.

    PubMed

    Vlaev, Ivo; Crockett, Molly J; Clark, Luke; Müller, Ulrich; Robbins, Trevor W

    2017-06-01

    Serotonin has been implicated in promoting self-control, regulation of hunger and physiological homeostasis, and regulation of caloric intake. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of serotonin on caloric intake reflect purely homeostatic mechanisms, or whether serotonin also modulates cognitive processes involved in dietary decision making. We investigated the effects of an acute dose of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on choices between food items that differed along taste and health attributes, compared with placebo and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. Twenty-seven participants attended three sessions and received single doses of atomoxetine, citalopram, and placebo in a double-blind randomised cross-over design. Relative to placebo, citalopram increased choices of more healthy foods over less healthy foods. Citalopram also increased the emphasis on health considerations in decisions. Atomoxetine did not affect decision making relative to placebo. The results support the hypothesis that serotonin may influence food choice by enhancing a focus on long-term goals. The findings are relevant for understanding decisions about food consumption and also for treating health conditions such as eating disorders and obesity.

  2. Serotonin inhibits low-threshold spike interneurons in the striatum

    PubMed Central

    Cains, Sarah; Blomeley, Craig P; Bracci, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Low-threshold spike interneurons (LTSIs) are important elements of the striatal architecture and the only known source of nitric oxide in this nucleus, but their rarity has so far prevented systematic studies. Here, we used transgenic mice in which green fluorescent protein is expressed under control of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) promoter and striatal NPY-expressing LTSIs can be easily identified, to investigate the effects of serotonin on these neurons. In sharp contrast with its excitatory action on other striatal interneurons, serotonin (30 μm) strongly inhibited LTSIs, reducing or abolishing their spontaneous firing activity and causing membrane hyperpolarisations. These hyperpolarisations persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin, were mimicked by 5-HT2C receptor agonists and reversed by 5-HT2C antagonists. Voltage-clamp slow-ramp experiments showed that serotonin caused a strong increase in an outward current activated by depolarisations that was blocked by the specific M current blocker XE 991. In current-clamp experiments, XE 991 per se caused membrane depolarisations in LTSIs and subsequent application of serotonin (in the presence of XE 991) failed to affect these neurons. We concluded that serotonin strongly inhibits striatal LTSIs acting through postsynaptic 5-HT2C receptors and increasing an M type current. PMID:22495583

  3. Genetic linkage study of bipolar disorder and the serotonin transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsoe, J.R.; Morison, M.; Mroczkowski-Parker, Z.

    1996-04-09

    The serotonin transporter (HTT) is an important candidate gene for the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder. It is the site of action of many antidepressants, and plays a key role in the regulation of serotonin neurotransmission. Many studies of affectively ill patients have found abnormalities in serotonin metabolism, and dysregulation of the transporter itself. The human serotonin transporter has been recently cloned and mapped to chromosome 17. We have identified a PstI RFLP at the HTT locus, and here report our examination of this polymorphism for possible linkage to bipolar disorder. Eighteen families were examined from three populations: the Oldmore » Order Amish, Iceland, and the general North American population. In addition to HTT, three other microsatellite markers were examined, which span an interval known to contain HTT. Linkage analyses were conducted under both dominant and recessive models, as well as both narrow (bipolar only) and broad (bipolar + recurrent unipolar) diagnostic models. Linkage could be excluded to HTT under all models examined. Linkage to the interval spanned by the microsatellites was similarly excluded under the dominant models. In two individual families, maximum lod scores of 1.02 and 0.84 were obtained at D17S798 and HTT, respectively. However, these data overall do not support the presence of a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder near the serotonin transporter. 20 refs., 2 tabs.« less

  4. A Theoretical Study of the Conformational Landscape of Serotonin

    SciTech Connect

    Mourik, Van Tonja; Emson, Laura E.

    2002-10-25

    The conformational landscape of neutral serotonin has been investigated by several theoretical methods. The potential energy surface was scanned by systematically varying the three dihedral angles that determine the conformation of the alkyl side chain. In addition, the two possible conformations of the phenol hydroxyl group (anti and syn with respect to the indole NH) were considered. The OH-anti stationary points located with SCF/6-31G* have been re-optimized with B3LYP/6-31+G*, which resulted in twelve true minima. Eleven of these have a corresponding OH-syn conformer that is 1-4 kJ/mol higher in energy. IR vibrational spectra of all twenty-three serotonin conformers, computed atmore » the B3LYP/6-31+G* level f theory, are presented. The initial scan of the serotonin potential energy surface has been repeated with several computationally cheaper methods, to assess their reliability for locating the correct serotonin conformers. It is found that the semi-empirical methods AM1 and PM3 do no t yield sufficiently accurate results, due to their inability to account for subtle intramolecular interactions within the serotonin molecule. On the other hand, SCF in combination with the 3-21G* basis set is ascertained to be a good alternative to SCF/6-31G* for performing the initial scan of the potential energy surface of flexible molecules.« less

  5. Social regulation of serotonin in the auditory midbrain

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ian C.; Sell, Gabrielle L.; Hurley, Laura M .

    2011-01-01

    The neuromodulator serotonin regulates auditory processing and can increase within minutes in response to stimuli like broadband noise as well as non-auditory stressors. Little is known about the serotonergic response in the auditory system to more natural stimuli such as social interactions, however. Using carbon-fiber voltammetry, we measured extracellular serotonin in the auditory midbrain of resident male mice during encounters with a male intruder. Serotonin increased in the inferior colliculus (IC) over the course of a 15 minute interaction, but not when mice were separated with a perforated barrier. Several behaviors, including the amount of immobility and anogenital investigation performed by the resident, were correlated with the serotonergic response. Multiple intrinsic factors associated with individual mice also correlated with the serotonergic response. One of these was age: older mice had smaller serotonergic responses to the social interaction. In a second interaction, individual identity predicted serotonergic responses that were highly consistent with those in the first interaction, even when mice were paired with different intruders. Serotonin was also significantly elevated in the second social interaction relative to the first, suggesting a role for social experience. These findings show that during social interaction, serotonin in the IC is influenced by extrinsic factors such as the directness of social interaction and intrinsic factors including age, individual identity, and experience. PMID:21787041

  6. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shi Wu; Yang, Qiuying; Garner, Peter; Fraser, William; Olatunbosun, Olufemi; Nimrod, Carl; Walker, Mark

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnancy. We carried out a retrospective cohort study of 972 pregnant women who had been given at least 1 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor prescription in the year before delivery and 3878 pregnant women who did not receive selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and who were matched by the year of the infant's birth, the type of institute at birth, and the mother's postal code from 1990 to 2000 in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The risks of low birth weight (adjusted odds ratio, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.19, 2.11), preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.28, 1.92), fetal death (adjusted odds ratio, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.01, 4.93), and seizures (adjusted odds ratio, 3.87; 95% CI, 1.00, 14.99) were increased in infants who were born to mothers who had received selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnancy may increase the risks of low birth weight, preterm birth, fetal death, and seizures.

  7. Effects of acute combined serotonin and dopamine depletion on cue-induced drinking intention/desire and cognitive function in patients with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Qiang; Liu, Yu; Li, Peng; Bao, Yan-Ping; Sheng, Li-Xia; Zhang, Rui-Ling; Cao, Yan-Jun; Di, Xiao-Lan; Yang, Fu-De; Wang, Fan; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Lu, Lin

    2012-08-01

    Alcohol cues can precipitate the desire to drink and cause relapse in recovering alcohol-dependent patients. Serotonin and dopamine may play a role in alcohol cue-induced craving. Acute combined tryptophan (Trp), tyrosine (Tyr), and phenylalanine (Phe) depletion (CMD) in the diet attenuates the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine in the human brain. However, no study of the effects of acute CMD has been previously conducted. Therefore, we investigated whether the attenuation of serotonin and dopamine synthesis changes cue-induced alcohol craving in recently abstinent alcoholics. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 male patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, criteria for alcohol dependence were divided into two conditions: (1) monoamine depletion (i.e., consumption of a concentrated amino acid beverage that resulted in a rapid and significant decrease in plasma-free Tyr/Phe/Trp) and (2) balanced condition (i.e., consumption of a similar beverage that contained Tyr/Phe/Trp). The participants were scheduled for two experimental sessions, with an interval of ≥7 days. The cue-induced craving test session was conducted 6h after each amino acid beverage administration. Drinking urge, blood pressure, heart rate, working memory, and attention/psychomotor performance were assessed before and after administration. Compared with the balanced condition, the monoamine depletion condition significantly increased drinking intention/desire and diastolic blood pressure. Cognitive performance was not different between the two conditions. Acute combined serotonin and dopamine depletion may increase drinking intention/desire and diastolic blood pressure without influencing cognitive function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor-mediated inhibition of the M-current in hypothalamic POMC neurons.

    PubMed

    Roepke, T A; Smith, A W; Rønnekleiv, O K; Kelly, M J

    2012-06-01

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are controlled by many central signals, including serotonin. Serotonin increases POMC activity and reduces feeding behavior via serotonion [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] receptors by modulating K(+) currents. A potential K(+) current is the M-current, a noninactivating, subthreshold outward K(+) current. Previously, we found that M-current activity was highly reduced in fasted vs. fed states in neuropeptide Y neurons. Because POMC neurons also respond to energy states, we hypothesized that fasting may alter the M-current and/or its modulation by serotonergic input to POMC neurons. Using visualized-patch recording in neurons from fed male enhanced green fluorescent protein-POMC transgenic mice, we established that POMC neurons expressed a robust M-current (102.1 ± 6.7 pA) that was antagonized by the selective KCNQ channel blocker XE-991 (40 μM). However, the XE-991-sensitive current in POMC neurons did not differ between fed and fasted states. To determine if serotonin suppresses the M-current via the 5-HT(2C) receptor, we examined the effects of the 5-HT(2A)/5-HT(2C) receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) on the M-current. Indeed, DOI attenuated the M-current by 34.5 ± 6.9% and 42.0 ± 5.3% in POMC neurons from fed and fasted male mice, respectively. In addition, the 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(2C) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine attenuated the M-current by 42.4 ± 5.4% in POMC neurons from fed male mice. Moreover, the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist RS-102221 abrogated the actions of DOI in suppressing the M-current. Collectively, these data suggest that although M-current expression does not differ between fed and fasted states in POMC neurons, serotonin inhibits the M-current via activation of 5-HT(2C) receptors to increase POMC neuronal excitability and, subsequently, reduce food intake.

  9. Plasma serotonin level is a predictor for recurrence and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yan; Wang, Dawei; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Zhihao; Pang, Li

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of plasma serotonin levels in colorectal cancer (CRC). Preoperative plasma serotonin levels of 150 healthy control (HC) cases, 150 benign colorectal polyp (BCP) cases, and 176 CRC cases were determined using radioimmunoassay assay. Serotonin levels were compared between HC, BCP, and CRC cases, and those in CRC patients were related to 5-year outcome. Plasma serotonin levels were markedly higher in CRC patients than in either HCs or BCP cases. An elevated serotonin level was significantly associated with advanced tumor node metastasis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the level of serotonin had a high predictive value for disease recurrence and mortality. Multivariate analysis revealed that high serotonin level was significantly associated with poor recurrence-free survival and overall survival. Our results suggest that a high peri-operative plasma serotonin level is useful as a prognostic biomarker for CRC recurrence and poor survival. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Regulation of serotonin release from enterochromaffin cells of rat cecum mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, C.; Ternaux, J.P.

    1990-05-01

    The release of endogenous serotonin or previously taken up tritiated serotonin from isolated strips of rat cecum mucosa containing enterochromaffin cells was studied in vitro. Release of tritiated serotonin was increased by potassium depolarization and was decreased by tetrodotoxin, veratridine and the absence of calcium. Endogenous serotonin was released at a lower rate than tritiated serotonin; endogenous serotonin release was stimulated by potassium depolarization but was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, veratridine or the absence of calcium. Carbachol, norepinephrine, clonidine and isoproterenol decreased release of tritiated serotonin but had less or reverse effect on release of endogenous serotonin. The results suggest twomore » different serotoninergic pools within the enterochromaffin cell population.« less

  11. The zinc paradigm for metalloneurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Barr, Chelsea A; Burdette, Shawn C

    2017-05-09

    Neurotransmission and sensory perception are shaped through metal ion-protein interactions in various brain regions. The term "metalloneurochemistry" defines the unique field of bioinorganic chemistry focusing on these processes, and zinc has been the leading target of metalloneurochemists in the almost 15 years since the definition was introduced. Zinc in the hippocampus interacts with receptors that dictate ion flow and neurotransmitter release. Understanding the intricacies of these interactions is crucial to uncovering the role that zinc plays in learning and memory. Based on receptor similarities and zinc-enriched neurons (ZENs) in areas of the brain responsible for sensory perception, such as the olfactory bulb (OB), and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), zinc participates in odor and sound perception. Development and improvement of methods which allow for precise detection and immediate manipulation of zinc ions in neuronal cells and in brain slices will be critical in uncovering the synaptic action of zinc and, more broadly, the bioinorganic chemistry of cognition. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. A study of blood serotonin and serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism in Egyptian autistic children.

    PubMed

    Meguid, Nagwa A; Gebril, Ola H; Khalil, Rehab O

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex, heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder with onset during early childhood. Most studies have reported an elevation in platelet serotonin in persons with autism. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) transporter in the brain uptakes 5-HT from extracellular spaces. It is also present in platelets, where it takes up 5-HT from plasma. Polymorphisms in serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) were frequently studied in many neuropsychiatric disorders. We have measured the plasma 5-HT levels in 20 autistic male children and 20 control male children by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In addition, the SLC6A4 promoter region (5-HTTLPR) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism was studied, using whole genomic DNA. Plasma serotonin was significantly low in autistic children compared to control (P = 0.001), although correlation to severity of autism was not significant. The frequency of short (S) allele in autism cases was 10% and in the control group it was absent. Our study demonstrated an increased prevalence of 5-HTTLPR S allele in autism subjects. Significantly decreased plasma serotonin was detected in autism subjects, with no significant relationship between 5-HTTLPR genotype and plasma 5-HT being evident.

  13. A study of blood serotonin and serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism in Egyptian autistic children

    PubMed Central

    Meguid, Nagwa A.; Gebril, Ola H.; Khalil, Rehab O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex, heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder with onset during early childhood. Most studies have reported an elevation in platelet serotonin in persons with autism. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) transporter in the brain uptakes 5-HT from extracellular spaces. It is also present in platelets, where it takes up 5-HT from plasma. Polymorphisms in serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) were frequently studied in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Materials and Methods: We have measured the plasma 5-HT levels in 20 autistic male children and 20 control male children by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In addition, the SLC6A4 promoter region (5-HTTLPR) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism was studied, using whole genomic DNA. Results: Plasma serotonin was significantly low in autistic children compared to control (P = 0.001), although correlation to severity of autism was not significant. The frequency of short (S) allele in autism cases was 10% and in the control group it was absent. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated an increased prevalence of 5-HTTLPR S allele in autism subjects. Significantly decreased plasma serotonin was detected in autism subjects, with no significant relationship between 5-HTTLPR genotype and plasma 5-HT being evident. PMID:26015920

  14. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  15. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate...

  16. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate...

  17. Protonated serotonin: Geometry, electronic structures and photophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidyan, Reza; Amanollahi, Zohreh; Azimi, Gholamhassan

    2017-07-01

    The geometry and electronic structures of protonated serotonin have been investigated by the aim of MP2 and CC2 methods. The relative stabilities, transition energies and geometry of sixteen different protonated isomers of serotonin have been presented. It has been predicted that protonation does not exhibit essential alteration on the S1 ← S0 electronic transition energy of serotonin. Instead, more complicated photophysical nature in respect to its neutral analogue is suggested for protonated system owing to radiative and non-radiative deactivation pathways. In addition to hydrogen detachment (HD), hydrogen/proton transfer (H/PT) processes from ammonium to indole ring along the NH+⋯ π hydrogen bond have been predicted as the most important photophysical consequences of SERH+ at S1 excited state. The PT processes is suggested to be responsible for fluorescence of SERH+ while the HD driving coordinate is proposed for elucidation of its nonradiative deactivation mechanism.

  18. Sex Differences in Serotonin 1 Receptor Binding in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischette, Christine T.; Biegon, Anat; McEwen, Bruce S.

    1983-10-01

    Male and female rats exhibit sex differences in binding by serotonin 1 receptors in discrete areas of the brain, some of which have been implicated in the control of ovulation and of gonadotropin release. The sex-specific changes in binding, which occur in response to the same hormonal (estrogenic) stimulus, are due to changes in the number of binding sites. Castration alone also affects the number of binding sites in certain areas. The results lead to the conclusion that peripheral hormones modulate binding by serotonin 1 receptors. The status of the serotonin receptor system may affect the reproductive capacity of an organism and may be related to sex-linked emotional disturbances in humans.

  19. Effects of delayed laboratory processing on platelet serotonin levels.

    PubMed

    Sanner, Jennifer E; Frazier, Lorraine; Udtha, Malini

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of established guidelines for measuring platelet serotonin, these guidelines may be difficult to follow in a hospital setting where time to processing may vary from sample to sample. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the time to processing of human blood samples on the stability of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of platelet serotonin levels in human plasma. Human blood samples collected from a convenience sample of eight healthy volunteers were analyzed to determine platelet serotonin levels from plasma collected in ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and stored at 4°C for 3 hr, 5 hr, 8 hr, and 12 hr. Refrigeration storage at 4°C for 3 hr, 5 hr, 8 hr, and 12 hr altered the platelet serotonin measurement when compared to immediate processing. The bias for the samples stored at 4°C for 3 hr was 102.3 (±217.39 ng/10(9) platelets), for 5 hr was 200.1 (±132.76 ng/10(9) platelets), for 8 hr was 146.9 (±221.41 ng/10(9) platelets), and for 12 hr was -67.6 (±349.60 ng/10(9) platelets). Results from this study show that accurate measurement of platelet serotonin levels is dependent on time to processing. Researchers should therefore follow a standardized laboratory guideline for obtaining immediate platelet serotonin levels after blood sample collection.

  20. Brain serotonin content regulates the manifestation of tramadol-induced seizures in rats: disparity between tramadol-induced seizure and serotonin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Yohei; Funao, Tomoharu; Suehiro, Koichi; Takahashi, Ryota; Mori, Takashi; Nishikawa, Kiyonobu

    2015-01-01

    Tramadol-induced seizures might be pathologically associated with serotonin syndrome. Here, the authors investigated the relationship between serotonin and the seizure-inducing potential of tramadol. Two groups of rats received pretreatment to modulate brain levels of serotonin and one group was treated as a sham control (n = 6 per group). Serotonin modulation groups received either para-chlorophenylalanine or benserazide + 5-hydroxytryptophan. Serotonin, dopamine, and histamine levels in the posterior hypothalamus were then measured by microdialysis, while simultaneously infusing tramadol until seizure onset. In another experiment, seizure threshold with tramadol was investigated in rats intracerebroventricularly administered with either a serotonin receptor antagonist (methysergide) or saline (n = 6). Pretreatment significantly affected seizure threshold and serotonin fluctuations. The threshold was lowered in para-chlorophenylalanine group and raised in benserazide + 5-hydroxytryptophan group (The mean ± SEM amount of tramadol needed to induce seizures; sham: 43.1 ± 4.2 mg/kg, para-chlorophenylalanine: 23.2 ± 2.8 mg/kg, benserazide + 5-hydroxytryptophan: 59.4 ± 16.5 mg/kg). Levels of serotonin at baseline, and their augmentation with tramadol infusion, were less in the para-chlorophenylalanine group and greater in the benserazide + 5-hydroxytryptophan group. Furthermore, seizure thresholds were negatively correlated with serotonin levels (correlation coefficient; 0.71, P < 0.01), while intracerebroventricular methysergide lowered the seizure threshold (P < 0.05 vs. saline). The authors determined that serotonin-reduced rats were predisposed to tramadol-induced seizures, and that serotonin concentrations were negatively associated with seizure thresholds. Moreover, serotonin receptor antagonism precipitated seizure manifestation, indicating that tramadol-induced seizures are distinct from serotonin syndrome.

  1. Serotonin is an endogenous regulator of intestinal CYP1A1 via AhR.

    PubMed

    Manzella, Christopher; Singhal, Megha; Alrefai, Waddah A; Saksena, Seema; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Gill, Ravinder K

    2018-04-17

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a nuclear receptor that controls xenobiotic detoxification via induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and regulates immune responses in the intestine. Metabolites of L-tryptophan activate AhR, which confers protection against intestinal inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that serotonin (5-HT) is an endogenous activator of AhR in intestinal epithelial cells. Treatment of Caco-2 monolayers with 5-HT induced CYP1A1 mRNA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and also stimulated CYP1A1 activity. CYP1A1 induction by 5-HT was dependent upon uptake via serotonin transporter (SERT). Antagonism of AhR and knockdown of AhR and its binding partner aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) attenuated CYP1A1 induction by 5-HT. Activation of AhR was evident by its nuclear translocation after 5-HT treatment and by induction of an AhR-responsive luciferase reporter. In vivo studies showed a dramatic decrease in CYP1A1 expression and other AhR target genes in SERT KO ileal mucosa by microarray analysis. These results suggest that intracellular accumulation of 5-HT via SERT induces CYP1A1 expression via AhR in intestinal epithelial cells, and SERT deficiency in vivo impairs activation of AhR. Our studies provide a novel link between the serotonergic and AhR pathways which has implications in xenobiotic metabolism and intestinal inflammation.

  2. Cortical serotonin-S2 receptor binding in Lewy body dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

    PubMed

    Cheng, A V; Ferrier, I N; Morris, C M; Jabeen, S; Sahgal, A; McKeith, I G; Edwardson, J A; Perry, R H; Perry, E K

    1991-11-01

    The binding of the selective 5-HT2 antagonist [3H]ketanserin has been investigated in the temporal cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease (SDAT), Parkinson's disease (PD), senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) and neuropathologically normal subjects (control). 5-HT2 binding was reduced in SDAT, PD with dementia and SDLT. SDAT showed a 5-HT2 receptor deficit across most of the cortical layers. A significant decrease in 5-HT2 binding in the deep cortical layers was found in those SDLT cases without hallucinations. SDLT cases with hallucinations only showed a deficit in one upper layer. There was a significant difference in cortical layers III and V between SDLT without hallucinations and SDLT with hallucinations. The results confirm an abnormality of serotonin binding in various forms of dementia and suggest that preservation of 5-HT2 receptor in the temporal cortex may differentiate hallucinating from non-hallucinating cases of SDLT.

  3. Association of Serotonin Concentration to Behavior and IQ in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Samuel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The IQ and behavior patterns on the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) of 25 boys were compared to blood concentrations of platelet rich plasma (PRP) serotonin. Although no correlations were found between serotonin levels and IQ or ABC scales, four individual ABC items did correlate with serotonin concentrations. (Author/DB)

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WHOLE BLOOD SEROTONIN AND REPETITIVE BEHAVIORS IN AUTISM

    PubMed Central

    Kolevzon, Alexander; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Kryzak, Lauren; Chaplin, William; Watner, Dryden; Hollander, Eric; Smith, Christopher J.; Cook, Edwin H.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between whole blood serotonin level and behavioral symptoms in 78 subjects with autism. No significant associations were found between serotonin level and the primary behavioral outcome measures. However, a significant inverse relationship between serotonin level and self-injury was demonstrated. PMID:20044143

  5. Coaction of Stress and Serotonin Transporter Genotype in Predicting Aggression at the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Christopher C.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Lind, Penelope A.; Najman, Jake M.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that serotonin functioning affects stress reactivity and vulnerability to aggression, research on serotonin gene-stress interactions (G x E) in the development of aggression remains limited. The present study investigated variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) as a moderator of the…

  6. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid...

  7. Serum serotonin concentration associated with bone mineral density in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiu-Shi; Chen, Zhen-Qiu; Tan, Xin; Kang, Lu-Chen; Jiang, Xiao-Bing; Liang, Jiang; He, Wei; Deng, Wei-Min

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that circulating serotonin plays a potential role in bone metabolism. However, conflicting results have been reported for the relationship between serum serotonin concentrations and bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated whether the serum serotonin concentrations related to BMD in Chinese postmenopausal women. Serum serotonin and bone turnover concentrations of 117 premenopausal women and 262 asymptomatic postmenopausal women were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The relationship between serotonin and BMD was investigated. The postmenopausal women had lower mean serum serotonin concentrations compared to the premenopausal women. Serotonin concentrations were negatively associated with age, weight, BMI, fat mass, and β-CTX concentrations in postmenopausal women. No significant correlations were found between serotonin and these parameters in premenopausal women. In postmenopausal women, age- and BMI-adjusted serotonin concentrations were positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Multiple regression analyses showed serum serotonin and β-CTX were the predictors for lumbar spine BMD. Only serum serotonin was the determinant for femoral neck BMD. In conclusion, lower serum serotonin concentrations are linked to low lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD in postmenopausal women.

  8. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid...

  11. Mineral resource of the month: zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2009-01-01

    The article provides information on zinc, the fourth most-widely consumed metal. It traces the first use of zinc with the Romans' production of brass. It describes the presence of zinc in Earth's crust and the importance of sphalerite as a source of zinc and other some minor metal production. The production and consumption of zinc as well as the commercial and industrial uses of this metal are also discussed.

  12. Zinc: an essential but elusive nutrient123

    PubMed Central

    King, Janet C

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is essential for multiple aspects of metabolism. Physiologic signs of zinc depletion are linked with diverse biochemical functions rather than with a specific function, which makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of zinc nutrition. Nutrients, such as zinc, that are required for general metabolism are called type 2 nutrients. Protein and magnesium are examples of other type 2 nutrients. Type 1 nutrients are required for one or more specific functions: examples include iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate, and copper. When dietary zinc is insufficient, a marked reduction in endogenous zinc loss occurs immediately to conserve the nutrient. If zinc balance is not reestablished, other metabolic adjustments occur to mobilize zinc from small body pools. The location of those pools is not known, but all cells probably have a small zinc reserve that includes zinc bound to metallothionein or zinc stored in the Golgi or in other organelles. Plasma zinc is also part of this small zinc pool that is vulnerable to insufficient intakes. Plasma zinc concentrations decline rapidly with severe deficiencies and more moderately with marginal depletion. Unfortunately, plasma zinc concentrations also decrease with a number of conditions (eg, infection, trauma, stress, steroid use, after a meal) due to a metabolic redistribution of zinc from the plasma to the tissues. This redistribution confounds the interpretation of low plasma zinc concentrations. Biomarkers of metabolic zinc redistribution are needed to determine whether this redistribution is the cause of a low plasma zinc rather than poor nutrition. Measures of metallothionein or cellular zinc transporters may fulfill that role. PMID:21715515

  13. A dynamic model for predicting growth in zinc-deficient stunted infants given supplemental zinc.

    PubMed

    Wastney, Meryl E; McDonald, Christine M; King, Janet C

    2018-05-01

    Zinc deficiency limits infant growth and increases susceptibility to infections, which further compromises growth. Zinc supplementation improves the growth of zinc-deficient stunted infants, but the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc supplementation required to restore growth in an individual child is unknown. A dynamic model of zinc metabolism that predicts changes in weight and length of zinc-deficient, stunted infants with dietary zinc would be useful to define effective zinc supplementation regimens. The aims of this study were to develop a dynamic model for zinc metabolism in stunted, zinc-deficient infants and to use that model to predict the growth response when those infants are given zinc supplements. A model of zinc metabolism was developed using data on zinc kinetics, tissue zinc, and growth requirements for healthy 9-mo-old infants. The kinetic model was converted to a dynamic model by replacing the rate constants for zinc absorption and excretion with functions for these processes that change with zinc intake. Predictions of the dynamic model, parameterized for zinc-deficient, stunted infants, were compared with the results of 5 published zinc intervention trials. The model was then used to predict the results for zinc supplementation regimes that varied in the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc dosing. Model predictions agreed with published changes in plasma zinc after zinc supplementation. Predictions of weight and length agreed with 2 studies, but overpredicted values from a third study in which other nutrient deficiencies may have been growth limiting; the model predicted that zinc absorption was impaired in that study. The model suggests that frequent, smaller doses (5-10 mg Zn/d) are more effective for increasing growth in stunted, zinc-deficient 9-mo-old infants than are larger, less-frequent doses. The dose amount affects the duration of dosing necessary to restore and maintain plasma zinc concentration and growth.

  14. Optical Attenuation Coefficient Meter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-22

    detector 43 is measured and recorded at the Pico Scope 80 to validate the laser pulse strength (which is proportional to the output and time wave shape ...unusable. [0004] As such, there is a need for a meter, recognizing back scattering by a pulsed laser source, that would allow a propagation path which...an attenuation meter with a transmitter and receiver is provided in which the transmitter produces a laser pulse of a duration and water

  15. Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    attenuation capacity of the aquifer downgradient from the source (e.g., permeable reactive barriers or phytoremediation ) Selection of EA remedies should be...ranging from very aggressive source destruction and removal methods to less energy-intensive methods, such as phytoremediation . In many cases, it...plumes that include chlorinated organics. The flux of organic-rich leachate to underlying aquifers can create favorable conditions for the natural

  16. Serotonin Transporter Gene (SLC6A4) Polymorphism and Mucosal Serotonin Levels in Southeastern Iranian Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mojgan; Tahmasebi Abdar, Hossein; Mollaei, Hamid Reza; Hajghani, Hossein; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a digestive system disorder with an unknown etiology. Serotonin has a key role in the secretion and motility of the intestine. Polymorphism in serotonin re-uptake transporter (SERT or SLC6A4) gene may have a functional role in the gut of patients with IBS. The aims of the present study were to investigate the association between SLC6A4 gene polymorphism and IBS and to detect the correlation between rectal serotonin levels and IBS sub-types. METHODS SLC6A4 gene polymorphism in 131 patients with IBS and 211 healthy controls were analysed using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction high-resolution melting (qPCR-HRM) curve technique. Serotonin was measured in rectal biopsies of patients with IBS using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. RESULTS The patients were categorized into three groups: IBS with diarrhoea (IBS-D): 70 patients, IBS with constipation (IBS-C): 18 patients, and IBS with mixed symptoms (IBS-M): 43 patients. The frequency of SLC6A4 s/s and l/s genotypes was significantly higher in IBS-C than IBS-D, IBS-M, and controls (p=0.036). Serotonin levels were similar in IBS sub-types. CONCLUSION SLC6A4 polymorphism is a possible candidate gene associated with the pathogenesis of IBS-C. Although serotonin levels did not differ in rectal biopsies of IBS sub-types, further investigation is recommended. PMID:28316763

  17. Serum thymulin in human zinc deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A S; Meftah, S; Abdallah, J; Kaplan, J; Brewer, G J; Bach, J F; Dardenne, M

    1988-01-01

    The activity of thymulin (a thymic hormone) is dependent on the presence of zinc in the molecule. We assayed serum thymulin activity in three models of mildly zinc-deficient (ZD) human subjects before and after zinc supplementation: (a) two human volunteers in whom a specific and mild zinc deficiency was induced by dietary means; (b) six mildly ZD adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) subjects; and (c) six mildly ZD adult non-SCA subjects. Their plasma zinc levels were normal and they showed no overt clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency. The diagnosis of mild zinc deficiency was based on the assay of zinc in lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets. Serum thymulin activity was decreased as a result of mild zinc deficiency and was corrected by in vivo and in vitro zinc supplementation, suggesting that this parameter was a sensitive indicator of zinc deficiency in humans. An increase in T101-, sIg-cells, decrease in T4+/T8+ ratio, and decreased IL 2 activity were observed in the experimental human model during the zinc depletion phase, all of which were corrected after repletion with zinc. Similar changes in lymphocyte subpopulation, correctable with zinc supplementation, were also observed in mildly ZD SCA subjects. Inasmuch as thymulin is known to induce intra- and extrathymic T cell differentiation, our studies provide a possible mechanism for the role of zinc on T cell functions. Images PMID:3262625

  18. Stabilized nickel-zinc battery

    SciTech Connect

    Himy, A.; Wagner, O.C.

    An alkaline nickel-zinc cell which has (1) a nickel-nickel hydroxide cathode; (2) a zinc-zinc oxide anode containing (A) a corrosion inhibitor such as PBO, SNO2, Tl2O3, in(OH)3 or mixtures thereof; (B) a slight corrosion accelerator such as cdo, bi2o3, ga2o3, or mixtures thereof; and (C) a zinc active material; (3) a mass-transport separator; (4) an alkaline electrolyte; and (5) means for charging the cell with an interrupted current having a frequency of from more than zero to 16 hertz with a rest period of not less than 60 milliseconds. Another desirable feature is the use of a pressure-cutoff switch tomore » terminate charging when the internal pressure of the cell reaches a selected value in the range of from 5 to 8 psig.« less

  19. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.

    2008-01-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  20. The serotonin transporter: Examination of the changes in transporter affinity induced by ligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    The plasmalemmal serotonin transporter uses transmembrane gradients of Na{sup +}, Cl{sup {minus}} and K{sup +} to accumulate serotonin within blood platelets. Transport is competitively inhibited by the antidepressant imipramine. Like serotonin transport, imipramine binding requires Na{sup +}. Unlike serotonin, however, imipramine does not appear to be transported. To gain insight into the mechanism of serotonin transport the author have analyzed the influences of Na{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}}, the two ions cotransported with serotonin, on both serotonin transport and the interaction of imipramine and other antidepressant drugs with the plasmalemmal serotonin transporter of human platelets. Additionally, the author have synthesized,more » purified and characterized the binding of 2-iodoimipramine to the serotonin transporter. Finally, the author have conducted a preliminary study of the inhibition of serotonin transport and imipramine binding produced by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. My results reveal many instances of positive heterotropic cooperativity in ligand binding to the serotonin transporter. Na{sup +} binding enhances the transporters affinity for imipramine and several other antidepressant drugs, and also increases the affinity for Cl{sup {minus}}. Cl{sup {minus}} enhances the transporters affinity for imipramine, as well as for Na{sup +}. At concentrations in the range of its K{sub M} for transport serotonin is a competitive inhibitor of imipramine binding. At much higher concentrations, however, serotonin also inhibits imipramines dissociation rate constant. This latter effect which is Na{sup +}-independent and species specific, is apparently produced by serotonin binding at a second, low affinity site on, or near, the transporter complex. Iodoimipramine competitively inhibit both ({sup 3}H)imipramine binding and ({sup 3}H)serotonin transport.« less

  1. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not require a priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current

  2. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Scott S; Pelc, Norbert J

    2014-06-01

    The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not require a priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current modulation) without

  3. Plasma and serum serotonin concentrations and surface-bound platelet serotonin expression in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Signe E; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Reimann, Maria J; Eriksen, Nynne B; Petersen, Stine F; Marschner, Clara B; Tarnow, Inge; Oyama, Mark A; Olsen, Lisbeth H

    2015-06-01

    To investigate serum and plasma serotonin concentrations, percentage of serotonin-positive platelets, level of surface-bound platelet serotonin expression (mean fluorescence intensity [MFI]), and platelet activation (CD62 expression) in platelet-rich plasma from Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Healthy dogs (n = 15) and dogs with mild MMVD (18), moderate-severe MMVD (19), or severe MMVD with congestive heart failure (CHF; 10). Blood samples were collected from each dog. Serum and plasma serotonin concentrations were measured with an ELISA, and surface-bound platelet serotonin expression and platelet activation were determined by flow cytometry. Dogs with mild MMVD had higher median serum (746 ng/mL) and plasma (33.3 ng/mL) serotonin concentrations, compared with MMVD-affected dogs with CHF (388 ng/mL and 9.9 ng/mL, respectively), but no other group differences were found. Among disease groups, no differences in surface-bound serotonin expression or platelet activation were found. Thrombocytopenic dogs had lower serum serotonin concentration (482 ng/mL) than nonthrombocytopenic dogs (731 ng/mL). In 26 dogs, a flow cytometry scatterplot subpopulation (FSSP) of platelets was identified; dogs with an FSSP had a higher percentage of serotonin-positive platelets (11.0%), higher level of surface-bound serotonin expression (MFI, 32,068), and higher platelet activation (MFI, 2,363) than did dogs without an FSSP (5.7%, 1,230, and 1,165, respectively). An FSSP was present in 93.8% of thrombocytopenic dogs and in 29.5% of nonthrombocytopenic dogs. A substantive influence of circulating serotonin on MMVD stages prior to CHF development in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels was not supported by the study findings. An FSSP of highly activated platelets with pronounced serotonin binding was strongly associated with thrombocytopenia but not MMVD.

  4. Brief Report: Platelet-Poor Plasma Serotonin in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, George M.; Hertzig, Margaret E.; McBride, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Possible explanations for the well-replicated platelet hyperserotonemia of autism include an alteration in the platelet's handling of serotonin (5-hydroxyserotonin, 5-HT) or an increased exposure of the platelet to 5-HT. Measurement of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) levels of 5-HT appears to provide the best available index of in vivo exposure of the…

  5. Platelet Serotonin, A Possible Marker for Familial Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piven, Joseph; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Platelet serotonin (5HT) levels of 5 autistic subjects (ages 16-37) who had siblings with either autism or pervasive developmental disorder were significantly higher than levels of 23 autistic subjects without affected siblings. Autistic subjects without affected siblings had 5HT levels significantly higher than 10 normal controls. Sex, age, and…

  6. A new Drosophila octopamine receptor responds to serotonin.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yi-Xiang; Xu, Gang; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Mao, Fen; Ye, Gong-Yin; Liu, Weiwei; Huang, Jia

    2017-11-01

    As the counterparts of the vertebrate adrenergic transmitters, octopamine and tyramine are important physiological regulators in invertebrates. They control and modulate many physiological and behavioral functions in insects. In this study, we reported the pharmacological properties of a new α2-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (CG18208) from Drosophila melanogaster, named DmOctα2R. This new receptor gene encodes two transcripts by alternative splicing. The long isoform DmOctα2R-L differs from the short isoform DmOctα2R-S by the presence of an additional 29 amino acids within the third intracellular loop. When heterologously expressed in mammalian cell lines, both receptors were activated by octopamine, tyramine, epinephrine and norepinephrine, resulting in the inhibition of cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. The long form is more sensitive to the above ligands than the short form. The adrenergic agonists naphazoline, tolazoline and clonidine can stimulate DmOctα2R as full agonists. Surprisingly, serotonin and serotoninergic agonists can also activate DmOctα2R. Several tested adrenergic antagonists and serotonin antagonists blocked the action of octopamine or serotonin on DmOctα2R. The data presented here reported an adrenergic-like G protein-coupled receptor activated by serotonin, suggesting that the neurotransmission and neuromodulation in the nervous system could be more complex than previously thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A role for serotonin in piglet preweaning mortality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improving piglet survivability rate is of high priority for swine production as well as for piglet well-being. Dysfunction in the serotonin system has been associated with growth deficiencies, infant mortality or failure to thrive (FTT) in human infants. The aim of this study was to examine the role...

  8. Tall Fescue Alkaloids Bind Serotonin Receptors in Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The serotonin (5HT) receptor 5HT2A is involved in the tall fescue alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in the bovine periphery. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing different tall fescue/endophyte combinations. The contr...

  9. Nutraceutical up-regulation of serotonin paradoxically induces compulsive behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The role of diet in either the etiology or treatment of complex mental disorder is highly controversial in psychiatry. However, physiological mechanisms by which diet can influence brain chemistry – particularly that of serotonin – are well established. Here we show that dietary up-regulation of br...

  10. Alterations to embryonic serotonin change aggression and fearfulness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prenatal environment, including maternal hormones, affects the development of the serotonin (5-HT) system, with long-lasting effects on mood and behavioral exhibition in children and adults. The chicken provides a unique animal model to study the effects of embryonic development on childhood and ado...

  11. Effects of Postnatal Serotonin Agonism on Fear Response and Memory

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) also acts as a neurogenic compound in the developing brain. Early administration of a 5-HT agonist could alter the development of the serotonergic circuitry, altering behaviors mediated by 5-HT signaling, such as memory, fear and aggression. White leghorn chicks...

  12. Can olanzapine be implicated in causing serotonin syndrome?

    PubMed

    Haslett, Christopher David; Kumar, Shailesh

    2002-10-01

    The present paper describes a case of serotonin syndrome (SS), which developed in a patient with bipolar affective disorder after the addition of olanzapine to her regimen of lithium and citalopram. This appears to be the first report that implicates olanzapine with SS. Clinicians should be aware of the risk of SS when adding atypical antipsychotics, such as olanzapine, to serotonergic agents.

  13. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors and breastfeeding: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Orsolini, Laura; Bellantuono, Cesario

    2015-01-01

    The postnatal period represents a critical phase for mothers because of physiological hormonal changes, the increase of emotional reactions and a greater susceptibility for the onset/recrudescence of psychiatric disorders. Despite the evidence of an increasing utilization of antidepressant drugs during breastfeeding, there is still few reliable information on the neonatal safety of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) [serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs)] in nursing mothers. The aim of this study is to provide a systematic review on the neonatal safety profile of these drugs during breastfeeding, also assessing the limits of available tools. MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched without any language restrictions by using the following set of keywords: ((SSRIs OR selective serotonin inhibitor reuptake OR SNRIs OR selective serotonin noradrenaline inhibitor reuptake) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation OR breast milk)). A separate search was also performed for each SSRIs (paroxetine, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, sertraline, citalopram and escitalopram) and SNRIs (venlafaxine and duloxetine). Sertraline and paroxetine show a better neonatal safety profile during breastfeeding as compared with other SRIs. Less data are available for fluvoxamine, escitalopram and duloxetine. Few studies followed up infants breastfeed for assessing the neurodevelopmental outcomes. Literature review clearly indicates paroxetine and sertraline as the drugs that should be preferred as first line choice in nursing women who need an antidepressant treatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Acute serotonin depletion releases motivated inhibition of response vigour.

    PubMed

    den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Swart, Jennifer C; Schmidt, Kristin; Fekkes, Durk; Geurts, Dirk E M; Cools, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin has long been implicated in the motivational control of behaviour. Recent theories propose that the role of serotonin can be understood in terms of an interaction between a motivational and a behavioural activation axis. Experimental support for these ideas, however, has been mixed. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of serotonin (5HT) in behavioural vigour as a function of incentive motivation. We employed dietary acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower the 5HT precursor tryptophan during the performance of a speeded visual discrimination task. Feedback valence and feedback probability were manipulated independently and cued prior to target onset. On feedback trials, fast correct responses led to either reward or avoidance of punishment, while slow or incorrect responses led to reward omission or punishment. We show that behavioural responding is inhibited under high incentive motivation (i.e. high-feedback probability) at baseline 5HT levels and that lowering these leads to behavioural disinhibition, while leaving accuracy unaffected. Surprisingly, there were no differential effects of motivational valence, with 5HT depletion releasing behavioural inhibition under both appetitive and aversive motivation. Our findings extend current theories on the role of 5HT in behavioural inhibition by showing that reductions in serotonin lead to increased behavioural vigour only if there is a motivational drive to inhibit behaviour at baseline.

  15. Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel.

    PubMed

    Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A

    2014-03-01

    Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Serotonin-1A Receptor Polymorphism (rs6295) Associated with Thermal Pain Perception

    PubMed Central

    Lindstedt, Fredrik; Karshikoff, Bianka; Schalling, Martin; Olgart Höglund, Caroline; Ingvar, Martin; Lekander, Mats; Kosek, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Background Serotonin (5-HT) is highly involved in pain regulation and serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptors are important in determining central 5-HT tone. Accordingly, variation in the 5-HT1A receptor gene (HTR1A) may contribute to inter-individual differences in human pain sensitivity. The minor G-allele of the HTR1A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6295 attenuates firing of serotonergic neurons and reduces postsynaptic expression of the receptor. Experiments in rodents suggest that 5-HT1A-agonism modulates pain in opposite directions at mild compared to high noxious intensities. Based upon this and several other similar observations, we hypothesized that G-carriers would exhibit a relative hypoalgesia at mild thermal stimuli but tend towards hyperalgesia at higher noxious intensities. Methods Fourty-nine healthy individuals were selectively genotyped for rs6295. Heat- and cold-pain thresholds were assessed along with VAS-ratings of a range of suprathreshold noxious heat intensities (45°C–49°C). Nociceptive-flexion reflex (NFR) thresholds were also assessed. Results Volunteers did not deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. G-carriers were less sensitive to threshold-level thermal pain. This relative hypoalgesia was abolished at suprathreshold noxious intensities where G-carriers instead increased their ratings of heat-pain significantly more than C-homozygotes. No differences with regard to NFR-thresholds emerged. Conclusion/Significance To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of human pain perception on the basis of variation in HTR1A. The results illustrate the importance of including a range of stimulus intensities in assessments of pain sensitivity. In speculation, we propose that an attenuated serotonergic tone may be related to a ‘hypo- to hyperalgesic’ response-pattern. The involved mechanisms could be of clinical interest as variation in pain regulation is known to influence the risk of developing pain pathologies

  17. Reduced efficacy of fluoxetine following MDMA ("Ecstasy")-induced serotonin loss in rats.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Sarah; Prendergast, Alison; Harkin, Andrew

    2008-12-12

    Long-term serotonin (5-HT) neuronal loss is currently a major cause of concern associated with recreational use of the substituted amphetamine 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy"). Such loss may be problematic considering that psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety and responses to first line treatments for these disorders are associated with 5-HT. In this study the effects of prior exposure to MDMA on behavioural and central neurochemical changes induced by the serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor and antidepressant fluoxetine were examined in rats. Animals were administered MDMA (10 mg/kg. i.p.) four times daily for two consecutive days. One week later the animals were subjected to treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Fluoxetine treatment groups received either acute (saline injections for 20 days followed by 3 fluoxetine treatments over 24 h) or chronic (once daily fluoxetine for 21 days) drug administration. Prior exposure to MDMA resulted in an attenuation of fluoxetine-induced swimming behaviour in the modified forced swimming test (FST); a behavioural test of antidepressant action. In parallel MDMA treatment resulted in significant regional depletions of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) accompanied by a reduction in cortical [3H] paroxetine binding to nerve terminal 5-HT transporters. MDMA-induced 5-HT loss was enhanced in animals following chronic fluoxetine administration. Elimination of fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine from the brain abolished this interaction between MDMA and fluoxetine treatment. Fluoxetine administration reduced both 5-HIAA and the 5-HIAA:5-HT metabolism ratio, which was attenuated in animals pre-treated with MDMA. Overall the results show that MDMA induces long-term 5-HT loss in the rodent brain and consequently diminishes behaviour and reductions in 5-HT metabolism induced by the antidepressant fluoxetine. These results have potential clinical relevance

  18. Zinc in innate and adaptive tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is important. It is the second most abundant trace metal with 2-4 grams in humans. It is an essential trace element, critical for cell growth, development and differentiation, DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation. Zinc deficiency has adverse consequences during embryogenesis and early childhood development, particularly on immune functioning. It is essential in members of all enzyme classes, including over 300 signaling molecules and transcription factors. Free zinc in immune and tumor cells is regulated by 14 distinct zinc importers (ZIP) and transporters (ZNT1-8). Zinc depletion induces cell death via apoptosis (or necrosis if apoptotic pathways are blocked) while sufficient zinc levels allows maintenance of autophagy. Cancer cells have upregulated zinc importers, and frequently increased zinc levels, which allow them to survive. Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate zinc levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor apoptosis are in order. PMID:21087493

  19. Oxytocin and Serotonin Brain Mechanisms in the Nonhuman Primate.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Arthur; Richard, Nathalie; Jazayeri, Mina; Beuriat, Pierre-Aurélien; Fieux, Sylvain; Zimmer, Luc; Duhamel, Jean-René; Sirigu, Angela

    2017-07-12

    Oxytocin (OT) is increasingly studied for its therapeutic potential in psychiatric disorders, which are associated with the deregulation of several neurotransmission systems. Studies in rodents demonstrated that the interaction between OT and serotonin (5-HT) is critical for several aspects of social behavior. Using PET scan in humans, we have recently found that 5-HT 1A receptor (5-HT 1A R) function is modified after intranasal oxytocin intake. However, the underlying mechanism between OT and 5-HT remains unclear. To understand this interaction, we tested 3 male macaque monkeys using both [ 11 C]DASB and [ 18 F]MPPF, two PET radiotracers, marking the serotonin transporter and the 5-HT 1A R, respectively. Oxytocin (1 IU in 20 μl of ACSF) or placebo was injected into the brain lateral ventricle 45 min before scans. Additionally, we performed postmortem autoradiography. Compared with placebo, OT significantly reduced [ 11 C]DASB binding potential in right amygdala, insula, and hippocampus, whereas [ 18 F]MPPF binding potential increased in right amygdala and insula. Autoradiography revealed that [ 11 C]DASB was sensitive to physiological levels of 5-HT modification, and that OT does not act directly on the 5-HT 1A R. Our results show that oxytocin administration in nonhuman primates influences serotoninergic neurotransmission via at least two ways: (1) by provoking a release of serotonin in key limbic regions; and (2) by increasing the availability of 5-HT 1A R receptors in the same limbic areas. Because these two molecules are important for social behavior, our study sheds light on the specific nature of their interaction, therefore helping to develop new mechanisms-based therapies for psychiatric disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Social behavior is largely controlled by brain neuromodulators, such as oxytocin and serotonin. While these are currently targeted in the context of psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, a new promising pharmaceutical

  20. Serotonin and calcium homeostasis during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Weaver, S R; Laporta, J; Moore, S A E; Hernandez, L L

    2016-07-01

    The transition from pregnancy to lactation puts significant, sudden demands on maternal energy and calcium reserves. Although most mammals are able to effectively manage these metabolic adaptations, the lactating dairy cow is acutely susceptible to transition-related disorders because of the high amounts of milk being produced. Hypocalcemia is a common metabolic disorder that occurs at the onset of lactation. Hypocalcemia is also known to result in poor animal welfare conditions. In addition, cows that develop hypocalcemia are more susceptible to a host of other negative health outcomes. Different feeding tactics, including manipulating the dietary cation-anion difference and administering low-calcium diets, are commonly used preventative strategies. Despite these interventions, the incidence of hypocalcemia in the subclinical form is still as high as 25% to 30% in the United States dairy cow population, with a 5% to 10% incidence of clinical hypocalcemia. In addition, although there are various effective treatments in place, they are administered only after the cow has become noticeably ill, at which point there is already significant metabolic damage. This emphasizes the need for developing alternative prevention strategies, with the monoamine serotonin implicated as a potential therapeutic target. Our research in rodents has shown that serotonin is critical for the induction of mammary parathyroid hormone-related protein, which is necessary for the mobilization of bone tissue and subsequent restoration of maternal calcium stores during lactation. We have shown that circulating serotonin concentrations are positively correlated with serum total calcium on the first day of lactation in dairy cattle. Administration of serotonin's immediate precursor through feeding, injection, or infusion to various mammalian species has been shown to increase circulating serotonin concentrations, with positive effects on other components of maternal metabolism. Most recently

  1. Comparison of serum serotonin and serum 5-HIAA LC-MS/MS assays in the diagnosis of serotonin producing neuroendocrine neoplasms: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Mikael; Tohmola, Niina; Renkonen, Risto; Hämäläinen, Esa; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Itkonen, Outi

    2018-07-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytyramine) is a mediator of gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction, and is secreted by neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). We developed a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for serum serotonin to be used in NEN diagnostics and follow-up. We used serum samples from healthy volunteers (n = 31) and patients suspected or monitored for NEN (n = 98). Serotonin-D 4 internal standard was added to samples before solid phase extraction (SPE) and quantification by LC-MS/MS. The effects of sample handling and preparation on serotonin stability were studied. Finally, we established a provisional reference range for serum serotonin and compared our assay with serum 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) for detection of NENs. Our assay is sensitive and has a wide linear range (10-10,000 nmol/l). Serum serotonin is stable for 7 days at room temperature and for 3 months at -20 °C. Sampling temperature is not critical. Normal range for serum serotonin was 270-1490 nmol/l. We found that serum serotonin and 5-HIAA performed equally well as diagnostic tests for NENs. Our LC-MS/MS assay for serum serotonin is well suited for clinical research and patient diagnostics. Our results confirm that it can complement 5-HIAA in diagnosis of NENs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Single crystal X-ray structure of the artists' pigment zinc yellow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær; Christiansen, Marie Bitsch; Vinum, Morten Gotthold; Sanyova, Jana; Bendix, Jesper

    2017-08-01

    The artists' pigment zinc yellow is in general described as a complex potassium zinc chromate with the empirical formula 4ZnCrO4·K2O·3H2O. Even though the pigment has been in use since the second half of the 19th century also in large-scale industrial applications, the exact structure had hitherto been unknown. In this work, zinc yellow was synthesised by precipitation from an aqueous solution of zinc nitrate and potassium chromate under both neutral and basic conditions, and the products were compared with the pigment used in industrial paints. Analyses by Raman microscopy (MRS), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), showed that the synthesised products and the industrial pigment were identical. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography determined the structure of zinc yellow as KZn2(CrO4)2(H2O)(OH) or as KZn2(CrO4)2(H3O2) emphasizing the μ-H3O2- moiety. Notably, the zinc yellow is isostructural to the recently structurally characterized cadmium analog and both belong to the natrochalcite structure type.

  3. Zinc for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi R

    2011-02-16

    The common cold is one of the most widespread illnesses and is a leading cause of visits to the doctor and absenteeism from school and work. Trials conducted since 1984 investigating the role of zinc for the common cold symptoms have had mixed results. Inadequate treatment masking and reduced bioavailability of zinc from some formulations have been cited as influencing results. To assess the effect of zinc on common cold symptoms. We searched CENTRAL (2010, Issue 2) which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to May week 3, 2010) and EMBASE (1974 to June 2010). Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using zinc for at least five consecutive days to treat, or for at least five months to prevent the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We included 13 therapeutic trials (966 participants) and two preventive trials (394 participants). Intake of zinc is associated with a significant reduction in the duration (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.56 to -0.38) (P = 0.001), and severity of common cold symptoms (SMD -0.39; 95% CI -0.77 to -0.02) (P = 0.04). There was a significant difference between the zinc and control group for the proportion of participants symptomatic after seven days of treatment (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.00) (P = 0.05). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of developing a cold (IRR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.88) (P = 0.006), school absence (P = 0.0003) and prescription of antibiotics (P < 0.00001) was lower in the zinc group. Overall adverse events (OR 1.59; 95% CI 0.97 to 2.58) (P = 0.06), bad taste (OR 2.64; 95% CI 1.91 to 3.64) (P < 0.00001) and nausea (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 to 3.23) (P = 0.002) were higher in the zinc group. Zinc administered within 24 hours of onset of symptoms reduces the duration and severity of the common cold in healthy people. When supplemented for at least five months, it reduces cold

  4. Receptors and Other Signaling Proteins Required for Serotonin Control of Locomotion in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gürel, Güliz; Gustafson, Megan A.; Pepper, Judy S.; Horvitz, H. Robert; Koelle, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of signaling by the neurotransmitter serotonin is required to assess the hypothesis that defects in serotonin signaling underlie depression in humans. Caenorhabditis elegans uses serotonin as a neurotransmitter to regulate locomotion, providing a genetic system to analyze serotonin signaling. From large-scale genetic screens we identified 36 mutants of C. elegans in which serotonin fails to have its normal effect of slowing locomotion, and we molecularly identified eight genes affected by 19 of the mutations. Two of the genes encode the serotonin-gated ion channel MOD-1 and the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptor SER-4. mod-1 is expressed in the neurons and muscles that directly control locomotion, while ser-4 is expressed in an almost entirely non-overlapping set of sensory and interneurons. The cells expressing the two receptors are largely not direct postsynaptic targets of serotonergic neurons. We analyzed animals lacking or overexpressing the receptors in various combinations using several assays for serotonin response. We found that the two receptors act in parallel to affect locomotion. Our results show that serotonin functions as an extrasynaptic signal that independently activates multiple receptors at a distance from its release sites and identify at least six additional proteins that appear to act with serotonin receptors to mediate serotonin response. PMID:23023001

  5. Non-conventional features of peripheral serotonin signalling - the gut and beyond.

    PubMed

    Spohn, Stephanie N; Mawe, Gary M

    2017-07-01

    Serotonin was first discovered in the gut, and its conventional actions as an intercellular signalling molecule in the intrinsic and extrinsic enteric reflexes are well recognized, as are a number of serotonin signalling pharmacotherapeutic targets for treatment of nausea, diarrhoea or constipation. The latest discoveries have greatly broadened our understanding of non-conventional actions of peripheral serotonin within the gastrointestinal tract and in a number of other tissues. For example, it is now clear that bacteria within the lumen of the bowel influence serotonin synthesis and release by enterochromaffin cells. Also, serotonin can act both as a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signalling molecule in the intestinal mucosa via activation of serotonin receptors (5-HT 7 or 5-HT 4 receptors, respectively). For decades, serotonin receptors have been known to exist in a variety of tissues other than the gut, but studies have now provided strong evidence for physiological roles of serotonin in several important processes, including haematopoiesis, metabolic homeostasis and bone metabolism. Furthermore, evidence for serotonin synthesis in peripheral tissues outside of the gut is emerging. In this Review, we expand the discussion beyond gastrointestinal functions to highlight the roles of peripheral serotonin in colitis, haematopoiesis, energy and bone metabolism, and how serotonin is influenced by the gut microbiota.

  6. Action potential-independent and pharmacologically unique vesicular serotonin release from dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Lesley A.; Cavolo, Samantha L.; Commons, Kathryn G.; Levitan, Edwin S.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin released within the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) induces feedback inhibition of serotonin neuron activity and consequently regulates mood-controlling serotonin release throughout the forebrain. Serotonin packaged in vesicles is released in response to action potentials by the serotonin neuron soma and terminals, but the potential for release by dendrites is unknown. Here three-photon (3P) microscopy imaging of endogenous serotonin in living rat brain slice, immunofluorescence and immuno-gold electron microscopy detection of VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2) establish the presence of vesicular serotonin within DR dendrites. Furthermore, activation of glutamate receptors is shown to induce vesicular serotonin release from dendrites. However, unlike release from the soma and terminals, dendritic serotonin release is independent of action potentials, relies on L-type Ca2+ channels, is induced preferentially by NMDA, and displays distinct sensitivity to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant fluoxetine. The unique control of dendritic serotonin release has important implications for DR physiology and the antidepressant action of SSRIs, dihydropyridines and NMDA receptor antagonists. PMID:23136413

  7. Repeated MDMA ("Ecstasy") exposure in adolescent male rats alters temperature regulation, spontaneous motor activity, attention, and serotonin transporter binding.

    PubMed

    Piper, Brian J; Fraiman, Joseph B; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2005-09-01

    Previous research in our laboratory found that repeated exposure of adolescent rats to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) impaired working memory and reduced anxiety. The present experiment extended these findings by investigating the physiological, behavioral, and neurotoxic effects of a modified MDMA treatment regimen. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 5 mg/kg of MDMA hourly for a period of 4 hr on every fifth day from postnatal day 35-60. Acute effects of the MDMA treatment included hypothermia, serotonin syndrome behavior, and ejaculation. Body weight gain was attenuated by repeated drug administration. The animals completed anxiety and working memory tests beginning 4 days after the final MDMA dose. MDMA altered habituation to the open-field, increased locomotor activity in the elevated plus-maze, decreased attention in the novel object-recognition test, and reduced serotonin transporter binding in the neocortex. These results indicate that repeated exposure to a relatively moderate MDMA dose during adolescence produces later changes in behavior and neurochemistry. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  8. Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide123

    PubMed Central

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnić, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6–71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6–71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9–57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  9. On the possible quantum role of serotonin in consciousness.

    PubMed

    Tonello, Lucio; Cocchi, Massimo; Gabrielli, Fabio; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2015-09-01

    Cell membrane's fatty acids (FAs) have been carefully investigated in neurons and platelets in order to study a possible connection to psychopathologies. An important link between the FA distribution and membrane dynamics appears to emerge with the cytoskeleton dynamics. Microtubules (MTs) in particular have been implicated in some recent quantum consciousness models and analyses. The recently proposed quantum model of Craddock et al. (2014) states that MTs possess structural and functional characteristics that are consistent with collective quantum coherent excitations in the aromatic groups of their tryptophan residues. These excitations are consistent with a clocking mechanism on a sub-nanosecond scale. This mechanism and analogous phenomena in light-harvesting complexes in plants and bacteria, are induced by photons and have been touted as evidence of quantum processes in biology. A possible source of intra-cellular photons could be membrane lipid peroxidation processes, so the FA profile could then be linked to the bio-photon emission. The model presented here suggests new ways to understand the role serotonin plays in relation to FAs. In plants, tryptophan conversion of light to exciton energy can participate in the directional orientation of leaves toward sunlight. Since serotonin is structurally similar to tryptophan, in the human brain, neurons could use tryptophan to capture photons and also use serotonin to initiate movement toward the source of light. Hence, we postulate two possible new roles for serotonin: (1) as an antioxidant, in order to counter-balance the oxidative effect of FAs, and (2) to participate in quantum interactions with MTs, in the same way as anesthetics and psychoactive compounds have been recently shown to act. In this latter case, the FA profile could provide an indirect measure of serotonin levels.

  10. Exercise and sleep in aging: emphasis on serotonin.

    PubMed

    Melancon, M O; Lorrain, D; Dionne, I J

    2014-10-01

    Reductions in central serotonin activity with aging might be involved in sleep-related disorders in later life. Although the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on sleep are not new, sleep represents a complex recurring state of unconsciousness involving many lines of transmitters which remains only partly clear despite intense ongoing research. It is known that serotonin released into diencephalon and cerebrum might play a key inhibitory role to help promote sleep, likely through an active inhibition of supraspinal neural networks. Several lines of evidence support the stimulatory effects of exercise on higher serotonergic pathways. Hence, exercise has proved to elicit acute elevations in forebrain serotonin concentrations, an effect that waned upon cessation of exercise. While adequate exercise training might lead to adaptations in higher serotonergic networks (desensitization of forebrain receptors), excessive training has been linked to serious brain serotonergic maladaptations accompanied by insomnia. Dietary supplementation of tryptophan (the only serotonin precursor) is known to stimulate serotonergic activity and promote sleep, whereas acute tryptophan depletion causes deleterious effects on sleep. Regarding sleep-wake regulation, exercise has proved to accelerate resynchronization of the biological clock to new light-dark cycles following imposition of phase shifts in laboratory animals. Noteworthy, the effect of increased serotonergic transmission on wake state appears to be biphasic, i.e. promote wake and thereafter drowsiness. Therefore, it might be possible that acute aerobic exercise would act on sleep by increasing activity of ascending brain serotonergic projections, though additional work is warranted to better understand the implication of serotonin in the exercise-sleep axis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Serotonin, tryptophan metabolism and the brain-gut-microbiome axis.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, S M; Clarke, G; Borre, Y E; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2015-01-15

    The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Serotonin functions as a key neurotransmitter at both terminals of this network. Accumulating evidence points to a critical role for the gut microbiome in regulating normal functioning of this axis. In particular, it is becoming clear that the microbial influence on tryptophan metabolism and the serotonergic system may be an important node in such regulation. There is also substantial overlap between behaviours influenced by the gut microbiota and those which rely on intact serotonergic neurotransmission. The developing serotonergic system may be vulnerable to differential microbial colonisation patterns prior to the emergence of a stable adult-like gut microbiota. At the other extreme of life, the decreased diversity and stability of the gut microbiota may dictate serotonin-related health problems in the elderly. The mechanisms underpinning this crosstalk require further elaboration but may be related to the ability of the gut microbiota to control host tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway, thereby simultaneously reducing the fraction available for serotonin synthesis and increasing the production of neuroactive metabolites. The enzymes of this pathway are immune and stress-responsive, both systems which buttress the brain-gut axis. In addition, there are neural processes in the gastrointestinal tract which can be influenced by local alterations in serotonin concentrations with subsequent relay of signals along the scaffolding of the brain-gut axis to influence CNS neurotransmission. Therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota might be a viable treatment strategy for serotonin-related brain-gut axis disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypolocomotion, anxiety and serotonin syndrome-like behavior contribute to the complex phenotype of serotonin transporter knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kalueff, A V; Fox, M A; Gallagher, P S; Murphy, D L

    2007-06-01

    Although mice with a targeted disruption of the serotonin transporter (SERT) have been studied extensively using various tests, their complex behavioral phenotype is not yet fully understood. Here we assess in detail the behavior of adult female SERT wild type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-) and knockout (-/-) mice on an isogenic C57BL/6J background subjected to a battery of behavioral paradigms. Overall, there were no differences in the ability to find food or a novel object, nest-building, self-grooming and its sequencing, and horizontal rod balancing, indicating unimpaired sensory functions, motor co-ordination and behavioral sequencing. In contrast, there were striking reductions in exploration and activity in novelty-based tests (novel object, sticky label and open field tests), accompanied by pronounced thigmotaxis, suggesting that combined hypolocomotion and anxiety (rather than purely anxiety) influence the SERT -/- behavioral phenotype. Social interaction behaviors were also markedly reduced. In addition, SERT -/- mice tended to move close to the ground, frequently displayed spontaneous Straub tail, tics, tremor and backward gait - a phenotype generally consistent with 'serotonin syndrome'-like behavior. In line with replicated evidence of much enhanced serotonin availability in SERT -/- mice, this serotonin syndrome-like state may represent a third factor contributing to their behavioral profile. An understanding of the emerging complexity of SERT -/- mouse behavior is crucial for a detailed dissection of their phenotype and for developing further neurobehavioral models using these mice.

  13. Serotonin disrupts esophageal mucosal integrity: an investigation using a stratified squamous epithelial model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liping; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2016-11-01

    Serotonin regulates gastrointestinal function, and mast cells are a potential nonneuronal source of serotonin in the esophagus. Tight junction (TJ) proteins in the esophageal epithelium contribute to the barrier function, and the serotonin signaling pathway may contribute to epithelial leakage in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of serotonin on barrier function, TJ proteins, and related signaling pathways. Normal primary human esophageal epithelial cells were cultured with use of an air-liquid interface system. Serotonin was added to the basolateral compartment, and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured. The expression of TJ proteins and serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT 7 ) was assessed by Western blotting. The involvement of 5-HT 7 was assessed with use of an antagonist and an agonist. The underlying cellular signaling pathways were examined with use of specific blockers. Serotonin decreased TEER and reduced the expression of TJ proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin 1, but not claudin 4. A 5-HT 7 antagonist blocked the serotonin-induced decrease in TEER, and a 5-HT 7 agonist decreased TEER. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) reduced the serotonin-induced decrease in TEER. Inhibition of p38 MAPK blocked the decrease of ZO-1 levels, whereas extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibition blocked the decrease in occludin levels. Cell signaling pathway inhibitors had no effect on serotonin-induced alterations in claudin 1 and claudin 4 levels. Serotonin induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK, and a 5-HT 7 antagonist partially blocked serotonin-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK but not that of ERK. Serotonin disrupted esophageal squamous epithelial barrier function by modulating the levels of TJ proteins. Serotonin signaling pathways may mediate the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  14. No effect of C1473G polymorphism in the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene on the response of the brain serotonin system to chronic fluoxetine treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Bazhenova, Ekaterina Y; Sinyakova, Nadezhda A; Kulikova, Elizabeth A; Kazarinova, Irina A; Bazovkina, Daria V; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Kulikov, Alexander V

    2017-07-13

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressants that block serotonin transporter (SERT) and increase serotonin (5-HT) level in the synaptic cleft. The interaction between SERT and the key enzyme of 5-HT synthesis in the brain, tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), is essential to maintain the brain 5-HT level. The G allele of C1473G polymorphism in Tph2 gene decreases enzyme activity by half in mouse brain. Here we studied effect of C1473G polymorphism on the reaction of brain 5-HT system to chronic fluoxetine treatment (120mg/l in drinking water, for 3 weeks) in adult males of the congenic B6-1473C and B6-1473G mouse lines with high and low enzyme activity, respectively. The polymorphism did not affect the levels of 5-HT, its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and Tph2 gene mRNA in the brain. Fluoxetine significantly attenuated 5-HT levels in the cortex and striatum, 5-HIAA concentrations in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum and midbrain, and Tph2 gene expression in the midbrain. However, we did not observed any effect of the genotype x treatment interaction on these neurochemical characteristics. Therefore, C1473G polymorphism does not seem to play an essential role in the reaction of the brain 5-HT system to chronic fluoxetine treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Zinc for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi R

    2013-06-18

    The common cold is one of the most widespread illnesses and is a leading cause of visits to the doctor and absenteeism from school and work. Trials conducted in high-income countries since 1984 investigating the role of zinc for the common cold symptoms have had mixed results. Inadequate treatment masking and reduced bioavailability of zinc from some formulations have been cited as influencing results. To assess whether zinc (irrespective of the zinc salt or formulation used) is efficacious in reducing the incidence, severity and duration of common cold symptoms. In addition, we aimed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity in results obtained and to assess their clinical significance. In this updated review, we searched CENTRAL (2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 2, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to January 2013), CINAHL (1981 to January 2013), Web of Science (1985 to January 2013), LILACS (1982 to January 2013), WHO ICTRP and clinicaltrials.gov. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using zinc for at least five consecutive days to treat, or for at least five months to prevent the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Five trials were identified in the updated searches in January 2013 and two of them did not meet our inclusion criteria. We included 16 therapeutic trials (1387 participants) and two preventive trials (394 participants). Intake of zinc was associated with a significant reduction in the duration (days) (mean difference (MD) -1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.72 to -0.34) (P = 0.003) (I(2) statistic = 89%) but not the severity of common cold symptoms (MD -1.06, 95% CI -2.36 to 0.23) (P = 0.11) (I(2) statistic = 84%). The proportion of participants who were symptomatic after seven days of treatment was significantly smaller (odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.00) (P = 0.05) than those in the control, (I(2 )statistic = 75%). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of developing a

  16. Tramadol and another atypical opioid meperidine have exaggerated serotonin syndrome behavioral effects, but decreased analgesic effects, in genetically-deficient serotonin transporter (SERT) mice

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Meredith A.; Jensen, Catherine L.; Murphy, Dennis L.

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin syndrome is a potential side effect of serotonin-enhancing drugs, including antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). We recently reported a genetic mouse model for the serotonin syndrome, as serotonin transporter (SERT)-deficient mice have exaggerated serotonin syndrome behavioral responses to the MAOI tranylcypromine and the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP). As numerous case reports implicate the atypical opioids tramadol and meperidine in the development of the human serotonin syndrome, we examined tramadol and meperidine as possible causative drugs in the rodent model of the serotonin syndrome in SERT wildtype (+/+), heterozygous (+/−) and knockout (−/−) mice. Comparisons were made to SERT mice treated with either vehicle or morphine, an opioid not implicated in the serotonin syndrome in humans. Here we show that tramadol and meperidine, but not morphine, induce serotonin syndrome-like behaviors in mice, and we show that this response is exaggerated in mice lacking one or two copies of SERT. The exaggerated response to tramadol in SERT −/− mice was blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100635. Further, we show that morphine-, meperidine- and tramadol-induced analgesia is markedly decreased in SERT −/− mice. These studies suggest that caution seems warranted in prescribing or not warning patients receiving SSRIs or MAOIs, that dangerous side effects may occur during concurrent use of tramadol and similar agents. These findings suggest that it is conceivable that there might be increased vulnerability in individuals with SERT polymorphisms that may reduce SERT by more than 50%, the level in SERT +/− mice. PMID:19275775

  17. Transmembrane domain I contributes to the permeation pathway for serotonin and ions in the serotonin transporter.

    PubMed

    Barker, E L; Moore, K R; Rakhshan, F; Blakely, R D

    1999-06-15

    Mutation of a conserved Asp (D98) in the rat serotonin (5HT) transporter (rSERT) to Glu (D98E) led to decreased 5HT transport capacity, diminished coupling to extracellular Na+ and Cl-, and a selective loss of antagonist potencies (cocaine, imipramine, and citalopram but not paroxetine or mazindol) with no change in 5HT Km value. D98E, which extends the acidic side chain by one carbon, affected the rank-order potency of substrate analogs for inhibition of 5HT transport, selectively increasing the potency of two analogs with shorter alkylamine side chains, gramine, and dihydroxybenzylamine. D98E also increased the efficacy of gramine relative to 5HT for inducing substrate-activated currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes, but these currents were noticeably dependent on extracellular medium acidification. I-V profiles for substrate-independent and -dependent currents indicated that the mutation selectively impacts ion permeation coupled to 5HT occupancy. The ability of the D98E mutant to modulate selective aspects of substrate recognition, to perturb ion dependence as well as modify substrate-induced currents, suggests that transmembrane domain I plays a critical role in defining the permeation pathway of biogenic amine transporters.

  18. Mutational scanning of the human serotonin transporter reveals fast translocating serotonin transporter mutants.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Anders S; Larsen, Mads B; Johnsen, Laust B; Wiborg, Ove

    2004-03-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) belongs to a family of sodium-chloride-dependent transporters responsible for uptake of amino acids and biogenic amines from the extracellular space. SERT represents a major pharmacological target in the treatment of several clinical conditions, including depression and anxiety. In the present study we have undertaken a mutational scanning of human SERT in order to identify residues that are responsible for individual differences among related monoamine transporters. One mutant, G100A, was inactive in transport. However, ligand binding affinity was similar to wild-type, suggesting that G100A amongst different possible SERT conformations is restrained to a binding conformation. We suggest that the main role of glycine-100 is to confer structural flexibility during substrate translocation. For the two single mutants, T178A and F263C, uptake rates and K(m) values were both several-fold higher than wild-type while binding affinities and inhibitory potencies decreased considerably for several drugs. Ion dependency increased and only at hyperosmotic concentrations were K(m) values partly restored. For the double mutant, T178A/F263C, shifts in uptake kinetics and ligand affinities, as well as ion dependencies, were drastic. Effects were synergistic compared to the corresponding single mutants. In conclusion, we suggest that mutating threonine-178 to an alanine and phenylalanine-263 to a cysteine mainly alter the overall uptake kinetics of SERT by affecting the conformational equilibrium of different transporter conformations.

  19. Targeting Oxidative Stress, Cytokines and Serotonin Interactions Via Indoleamine 2, 3 Dioxygenase by Coenzyme Q10: Role in Suppressing Depressive Like Behavior in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abuelezz, Sally A; Hendawy, Nevien; Magdy, Yosra

    2017-06-01

    Depression is a major health problem in which oxidative stress and inflammation are inextricably connected in its pathophysiology. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an important anti-oxidant compound with anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective properties. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that CoQ10 by its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials can alleviate depressive- like behavior by restoring the balance of the tryptophan catabolites kynurenine/serotonin toward the serotonin pathway by down-regulation of hippocampal indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1). Depressive-like behavior was induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) protocol including food or water deprivation, cage tilting, reversed light cycle etc. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups; Control, CUMS, CUMS and CoQ10 (50,100 and 200 mg/kg/day i.p. respectively) groups. CoQ10 effects on different behavioral and biochemical tests were analyzed. CoQ10 showed significant antidepressant efficacy, as evidenced by significantly decreased stress induced changes to forced swimming challenge and open field test, as well as attenuating raised corticosterone level and adrenal glands weight. The anti-oxidant effect of CoQ10 was exhibited by its ability to significantly reduce hippocampal elevated malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal levels and elevate the reduced glutathione and catalase levels. CoQ10 significantly reduced different pro-inflammatory cytokines levels including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. It suppressed hippocampal IDO-1 and subsequent production of kynurenine and enhanced the hippocampal contents of tryptophan and serotonin. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CoQ10 was able to attenuate the elevated microglial CD68 and elevate the astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein compared to CUMS group. CoQ10 exhibited antidepressant-like effects on rats exposed to CUMS. This could be attributed to its ability to reduce

  20. History of Zinc in Agriculture12

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Forrest H.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

  1. Influence of DNA-methylation on zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of intracellular zinc, predominantly regulated through zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular zinc levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed zinc homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) zinc transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the zinc importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular zinc levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas zinc exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated zinc levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of zinc binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore zinc homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting zinc binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for fibromyalgia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Walitt, Brian; Urrútia, Gerard; Nishishinya, María Betina; Cantrell, Sarah E; Häuser, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia is a clinically well-defined chronic condition with a biopsychosocial aetiology. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain, sleep problems, cognitive dysfunction, and fatigue. Patients often report high disability levels and poor quality of life. Since there is no specific treatment that alters the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia, drug therapy focuses on pain reduction and improvement of other aversive symptoms. Objectives The objective was to assess the benefits and harms of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2014), EMBASE (1946 to June 2014), and the reference lists of reviewed articles. Selection criteria We selected all randomized, double-blind trials of SSRIs used for the treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms in adult participants. We considered the following SSRIs in this review: citalopram, fluoxetine, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline. Data collection and analysis Three authors extracted the data of all included studies and assessed the risks of bias of the studies. We resolved discrepancies by discussion. Main results The quality of evidence was very low for each outcome. We downgraded the quality of evidence to very low due to concerns about risk of bias and studies with few participants. We included seven placebo-controlled studies, two with citalopram, three with fluoxetine and two with paroxetine, with a median study duration of eight weeks (4 to 16 weeks) and 383 participants, who were pooled together. All studies had one or more sources of potential major bias. There was a small (10%) difference in patients who reported a 30% pain reduction between SSRIs (56/172 (32.6%)) and placebo (39/171 (22.8%)) risk difference (RD) 0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.20; number needed to treat for an additional

  3. Zinc finger proteins in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Jen, Jayu; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2016-07-13

    Zinc finger proteins are the largest transcription factor family in human genome. The diverse combinations and functions of zinc finger motifs make zinc finger proteins versatile in biological processes, including development, differentiation, metabolism and autophagy. Over the last few decades, increasing evidence reveals the potential roles of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. However, the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression vary in different cancer types and even in the same cancer type under different types of stress. Here, we discuss general mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in transcription regulation and summarize recent studies on zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. In this review, we also emphasize the importance of further investigations in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression.

  4. Evaluation of zinc coating procedures : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-01-01

    This research project was conducted in order to compare the existing procedure of zinc coating by hot-dip galvanizing with the other zinc coating systems of painting and electroplating. : Hardware coated by these processes was exposed to varied labor...

  5. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ∼3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

  6. LINE-ABOVE-GROUND ATTENUATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wilds, R.B.; Ames, J.R.

    1957-09-24

    The line-above-ground attenuator provides a continuously variable microwave attenuator for a coaxial line that is capable of high attenuation and low insertion loss. The device consists of a short section of the line-above- ground plane type transmission lime, a pair of identical rectangular slabs of lossy material like polytron, whose longitudinal axes are parallel to and indentically spaced away from either side of the line, and a geared mechanism to adjust amd maintain this spaced relationship. This device permits optimum fineness and accuracy of attenuator control which heretofore has been difficult to achieve.

  7. Platelet serotonin promotes the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of acute inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Suidan, Georgette L.; Demers, Melanie; Herr, Nadine; Carbo, Carla; Brill, Alexander; Cifuni, Stephen M.; Mauler, Maximilian; Cicko, Sanja; Bader, Michael; Idzko, Marco; Bode, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The majority of peripheral serotonin is stored in platelets, which secrete it on activation. Serotonin releases Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) and we asked whether absence of platelet serotonin affects neutrophil recruitment in inflammatory responses. Tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph)1–deficient mice, lacking non-neuronal serotonin, showed mild leukocytosis compared with wild-type (WT), primarily driven by an elevated neutrophil count. Despite this, 50% fewer leukocytes rolled on unstimulated mesenteric venous endothelium of Tph1−/− mice. The velocity of rolling leukocytes was higher in Tph1−/− mice, indicating fewer selectin-mediated interactions with endothelium. Stimulation of endothelium with histamine, a secretagogue of WPBs, or injection of serotonin normalized the rolling in Tph1−/− mice. Diminished rolling in Tph1−/− mice resulted in reduced firm adhesion of leukocytes after lipopolysaccharide treatment. Blocking platelet serotonin uptake with fluoxetine in WT mice reduced serum serotonin by > 80% and similarly reduced leukocyte rolling and adhesion. Four hours after inflammatory stimulation, neutrophil extravasation into lung, peritoneum, and skin wounds was reduced in Tph1−/− mice, whereas in vitro neutrophil chemotaxis was independent of serotonin. Survival of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock was improved in Tph1−/− mice. In conclusion, platelet serotonin promotes the recruitment of neutrophils in acute inflammation, supporting an important role for platelet serotonin in innate immunity. PMID:23243271

  8. The serotonin system in autism spectrum disorder: from biomarker to animal models

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Christopher L.; Anacker, Allison M.J.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Elevated whole blood serotonin, or hyperserotonemia, was the first biomarker identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is present in more than 25% of affected children. The serotonin system is a logical candidate for involvement in ASD due to its pleiotropic role across multiple brain systems both dynamically and across development. Tantalizing clues connect this peripheral biomarker with changes in brain and behavior in ASD, but the contribution of the serotonin system to ASD pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. Studies of whole blood serotonin levels in ASD and in a large founder population indicate greater heritability than for the disorder itself and suggest an association with recurrence risk. Emerging data from both neuroimaging and postmortem samples also indicate changes in the brain serotonin system in ASD. Genetic linkage and association studies of both whole blood serotonin levels and of ASD risk point to the chromosomal region containing the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene in males but not in females. In ASD families with evidence of linkage to this region, multiple rare SERT amino acid variants lead to a convergent increase in serotonin uptake in cell models. A knock-in mouse model of one of these variants, SERT Gly56Ala, recapitulates the hyperserotonemia biomarker and shows increased brain serotonin clearance, increased serotonin receptor sensitivity, and altered social, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Data from other rodent models also suggest an important role for the serotonin system in social behavior, in cognitive flexibility, and in sensory development. Recent work indicates that reciprocal interactions between serotonin and other systems, such as oxytocin, may be particularly important for social behavior. Collectively, these data point to the serotonin system as a prime candidate for treatment development in a subgroup of children defined by a robust, heritable biomarker. PMID:26577932

  9. Anorectic activities of serotonin uptake inhibitors: correlation with their potencies at inhibiting serotonin uptake in vivo and /sup 3/H-mazindol binding in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, I.; Taranger, M.A.; Claustre, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism of anorectic action of several serotonin uptake inhibitors was investigated by comparing their anorectic potencies with several biochemical and pharmacological properties and in reference to the novel compound SL 81.0385. The anorectic effect of the potent serotonin uptake inhibitor SL 81.0385 was potentiated by pretreatment with 5-hydroxytryptophan and blocked by the serotonin receptor antagonist metergoline. A good correlation was obtained between the ED/sub 50/ values of anorectic action and the ED/sub 50/ values of serotonin uptake inhibition in vivo (but not in vitro) for several specific serotonin uptake inhibitors. Most of the drugs tested displaced (/sup 3/H)-mazindol frommore » its binding to the anorectic recognition site in the hypothalamus, except the pro-drug zimelidine which was inactive. Excluding zimelidine, a good correlation was obtained between the affinities of these drugs for (/sup 3/H)-mazindol binding and their anorectic action indicating that their anorectic activity may be associated with an effect mediated through this site. Taken together these results suggest that the anorectic action of serotonin uptake inhibitors is directly associated to their ability to inhibit serotonin uptake and thus increasing the synaptic levels of serotonin. The interactions of these drugs with the anorectic recognition site labelled with (/sup 3/H)-mazindol is discussed in connection with the serotonergic regulation of carbohydrate intake.« less

  10. Low-Resistivity Zinc Selenide for Heterojunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetron reactive sputtering enables doping of this semiconductor. Proposed method of reactive sputtering combined with doping shows potential for yielding low-resistivity zinc selenide films. Zinc selenide attractive material for forming heterojunctions with other semiconductor compounds as zinc phosphide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor junctions promising for future optoelectronic devices, including solar cells and electroluminescent displays. Resistivities of zinc selenide layers deposited by evaporation or chemical vapor deposition too high to form practical heterojunctions.

  11. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-07-27

    Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  12. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  13. Effect of chronic d-fenfluramine administration on rat hypothalamic serotonin levels and release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    D-fenfluramine, an anorectic agent in rats and man, was administered daily at doses 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days, and sacrificed 6 days later. Hypothalamic serotonin (5-HT) levels were unchanged in rats receiving 1.25-5 mg/kg/day of d-fenfluramine but reduced by 22 percent (p less than 0.01) at the highest drug dose (10 mg/kg/day); hypothalamic 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were reduced by 15 percent (p less than 0.05) or 28 percent (p less than 0.01) in rats receiving 5 or 10 mg/kg/day of the drug, respectively. Hypothalamic slices prepared from rats which were previously treated with any of the drug doses spontaneously released endogenous 5-HT at rates that did not differ from those of vehicle-treated rats. 5-HT released with electrical field-stimulation was unaffected by prior d-fenfluramine treatment at doses of 1.25-5 mg/kg/day, and was reduced by 20 percent (p less than 0.05) from slices prepared from rats which received 10 mg/kg/day. 5-HIAA efflux was also attenuated by the highest drug dose. These data indicate that chronic administration to rats of customary anorectic doses of d-fenfluramine (i.e. 0.06-1.25 mg/kg) fail to cause long-lasting reductions in brain 5-HT release.

  14. Serotonin 5-HT1A agonist improves motor complications in rodent and primate parkinsonian models.

    PubMed

    Bibbiani, F; Oh, J D; Chase, T N

    2001-11-27

    Serotoninergic transmission in the basal ganglia is known to influence dopaminergic mechanisms and motor function. To evaluate the possibility that serotoninergic 5-HT1A autoreceptors (by regulating the release of serotonin as well as dopamine formed from exogenous levodopa) affect the response alterations complicating levodopa treatment of PD. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist sarizotan (EMD128130) was systemically administered alone and together with levodopa to parkinsonian rats and nonhuman primates. In 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, sarizotan (2.5 mg/kg PO) had no effect on the acute rotational response to levodopa but did attenuate the shortening in motor response duration induced by chronic levodopa treatment. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned monkeys, sarizotan (2 mg/kg PO) alone had no effect on parkinsonian severity or on the antiparkinsonian response to levodopa. In contrast, the same dose of sarizotan reduced levodopa-induced choreiform dyskinesias by 91 +/- 5.9%. In both species, the motoric effects of sarizotan were blocked by the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635 (0.1 mg/kg SC), indicating that the observed sarizotan responses were probably mediated at the 5-HT1A autoreceptor. Pharmaceuticals acting to stimulate 5-HT1A receptors could prove useful in the treatment of the motor response complications in parkinsonian patients.

  15. Serotonin (5-HT) augmentation reduces provoked aggression associated with primary psychopathy traits.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Jennifer R; Berman, Mitchell E; Guillot, Casey R; Marsic, Angelika; McCloskey, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathy has long been associated with aggressive behavior; however, the neurochemical underpinnings of this relationship are poorly understood. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system abnormalities have been associated with provoked aggression in general. In addition, 5-HT dysregulation has been linked to empathy, a trait that is lacking in individuals who score high on primary psychopathy. The purpose of this study was to determine if 5-HT modulates the relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression. Participants (N = 47) completed a self-report measure of psychopathy and were then administered either 40 mg paroxetine (acutely augmenting 5-HT) or placebo. Aggression was assessed during a competitive reaction-time game in which electric shocks were exchanged with an increasingly provocative fictitious opponent. Results indicated that primary psychopathy (but not secondary psychopathy) was related to aggressive responding to provocation. Moreover, 5-HT augmentation attenuated this effect, supporting the notion that aggressive responding associated with primary psychopathic traits may be due in part to 5-HT dysregulation.

  16. Zinc supplementation during pregnancy protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced fetal growth restriction and demise through its anti-inflammatory effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhao, Mei; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Hua; Huang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, De-Xiang

    2012-07-01

    LPS is associated with adverse developmental outcomes, including preterm delivery, fetal death, teratogenicity, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Previous reports showed that zinc protected against LPS-induced teratogenicity. In the current study, we investigated the effects of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on LPS-induced preterm delivery, fetal death and IUGR. All pregnant mice except controls were i.p. injected with LPS (75 μg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 15 to GD17. Some pregnant mice were administered zinc sulfate through drinking water (75 mg elemental Zn per liter) throughout the pregnancy. As expected, an i.p. injection with LPS daily from GD15 to GD17 resulted in 36.4% (4/11) of dams delivered before GD18. In dams that completed the pregnancy, 63.2% of fetuses were dead. Moreover, LPS significantly reduced fetal weight and crown-rump length. Of interest, zinc supplementation during pregnancy protected mice from LPS-induced preterm delivery and fetal death. In addition, zinc supplementation significantly alleviated LPS-induced IUGR and skeletal development retardation. Further experiments showed that zinc supplementation significantly attenuated LPS-induced expression of placental inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2. Zinc supplementation also significantly attenuated LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling in mononuclear sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells of the labyrinth zone. It inhibited LPS-induced placental AKT phosphorylation as well. In conclusion, zinc supplementation during pregnancy protects against LPS-induced fetal growth restriction and demise through its anti-inflammatory effect.

  17. [Improvement in zinc nutrition due to zinc transporter-targeting strategy].

    PubMed

    Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-01

    Adequate intake of zinc from the daily diet is indispensable to maintain health. However, the dietary zinc content often fails to fulfill the recommended daily intake, leading to zinc deficiency and also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, particularly in elderly individuals. Therefore, increased attention is required to overcome zinc deficiency and it is important to improve zinc nutrition in daily life. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for zinc absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding zinc deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient zinc absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing zinc deficiency and improving human health.

  18. Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc...). It is principally composed of Zn. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with zinc oxide may...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  4. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use...

  7. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc...

  9. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chickedema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chickedema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  17. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50 grams per pound bacitracin. (b) Approvals. See No. 046573 in...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  1. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick...

  4. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.1991...

  5. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50 grams per pound bacitracin. (b) Approvals. See No. 046573 in...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  14. Ferritin: a zinc detoxicant and a zinc ion donor.

    PubMed Central

    Price, D; Joshi, J G

    1982-01-01

    Rats were injected with 1 mg of Zn2+ as zinc sulfate or 2 mg of Cd2+ as cadmium sulfate per kg of body weight on a daily basis. After seven injections, ferritin and metallothionein were isolated from the livers of the rats. Significant amounts of zinc were associated with ferritin. Incubation of such ferritin with apoenzymes of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase, yeast phosphoglucomutase, and yeast aldolase restored their enzymic activity. The amount of zinc injected was insufficient to stimulate significant synthesis of metallothionein, but similar experiments with injection of cadmium did stimulate the synthesis of metallothionein. The amount of Zn2+ in ferritin of Cd-injected rats was greater than that in ferritin in Zn-injected rats, which was greater than that in ferritin of normal rats. Thus at comparable protein concentration ferritin from Cd-injected rats was a better Zn2+ donor than was ferritin from Zn-injected or normal animals. Ferritin is a normal constituent of several tissues, whereas metallothionein is synthesized under metabolic stress. Thus ferritin may function as a "metal storage and transferring agent" for iron and for zinc. It is suggested that ferritin probably serves as the initial chelator for Zn2+ and perhaps other metal ions as well and that under very high toxic levels of metal ions the synthesis of metallothionein is initiated as the second line of defense. PMID:6212927

  15. Rationality and emotionality: serotonin transporter genotype influences reasoning bias.

    PubMed

    Stollstorff, Melanie; Bean, Stephanie E; Anderson, Lindsay M; Devaney, Joseph M; Vaidya, Chandan J

    2013-04-01

    Reasoning often occurs under emotionally charged, opinion-laden circumstances. The belief-bias effect indexes the extent to which reasoning is based upon beliefs rather than logical structure. We examined whether emotional content increases this effect, particularly for adults genetically predisposed to be more emotionally reactive. SS/SL(G) carriers of the serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) were less accurate selectively for evaluating emotional relational reasoning problems with belief-logic conflict relative to L(A)L(A) carriers. Trait anxiety was positively associated with emotional belief-bias, and the 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly accounted for the variance in this association. Thus, deductive reasoning, a higher cognitive ability, is sensitive to differences in emotionality rooted in serotonin neurotransmitter function.

  16. Rationality and emotionality: serotonin transporter genotype influences reasoning bias

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Stephanie E.; Anderson, Lindsay M.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning often occurs under emotionally charged, opinion-laden circumstances. The belief-bias effect indexes the extent to which reasoning is based upon beliefs rather than logical structure. We examined whether emotional content increases this effect, particularly for adults genetically predisposed to be more emotionally reactive. SS/SLG carriers of the serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) were less accurate selectively for evaluating emotional relational reasoning problems with belief-logic conflict relative to LALA carriers. Trait anxiety was positively associated with emotional belief-bias, and the 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly accounted for the variance in this association. Thus, deductive reasoning, a higher cognitive ability, is sensitive to differences in emotionality rooted in serotonin neurotransmitter function. PMID:22275169

  17. Unifying concept of serotonin transporter-associated currents.

    PubMed

    Schicker, Klaus; Uzelac, Zeljko; Gesmonde, Joan; Bulling, Simon; Stockner, Thomas; Freissmuth, Michael; Boehm, Stefan; Rudnick, Gary; Sitte, Harald H; Sandtner, Walter

    2012-01-02

    Serotonin (5-HT) uptake by the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) is driven by ion gradients. The stoichiometry of transported 5-HT and ions is predicted to result in electroneutral charge movement. However, hSERT mediates a current when challenged with 5-HT. This discrepancy can be accounted for by an uncoupled ion flux. Here, we investigated the mechanistic basis of the uncoupled currents and its relation to the conformational cycle of hSERT. Our observations support the conclusion that the conducting state underlying the uncoupled ion flux is in equilibrium with an inward facing state of the transporter with K+ bound. We identified conditions associated with accumulation of the transporter in inward facing conformations. Manipulations that increased the abundance of inward facing states resulted in enhanced steady-state currents. We present a comprehensive kinetic model of the transport cycle, which recapitulates salient features of the recorded currents. This study provides a framework for exploring transporter-associated currents.

  18. Expression analysis for inverted effects of serotonin transporter inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Manabu; Okamura-Oho, Yuko; Shimokawa, Kazuro

    2008-03-28

    Inactivation of serotonin transporter (HTT) by pharmacologically in the neonate or genetically increases risk for depression in adulthood, whereas pharmacological inhibition of HTT ameliorates symptoms in depressed patients. The differing role of HTT function during early development and in adult brain plasticity in causing or reversing depression remains an unexplained paradox. To address this we profiled the gene expression of adult Htt knockout (Htt KO) mice and HTT inhibitor-treated mice. Inverted profile changes between the two experimental conditions were seen in 30 genes. Consistent results of the upstream regulatory element search and the co-localization search of these genes indicated thatmore » the regulation may be executed by Pax5, Pax7 and Gata3, known to be involved in the survival, proliferation, and migration of serotonergic neurons in the developing brain, and these factors are supposed to keep functioning to regulate downstream genes related to serotonin system in the adult brain.« less

  19. Serotonin syndrome versus neuroleptic malignant syndrome: a challenging clinical quandary

    PubMed Central

    Dosi, Rupal; Ambaliya, Annirudh; Joshi, Harshal; Patell, Rushad

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin syndrome and neuroleptic malignant syndrome are two drug toxidromes that have often overlapping and confusing clinical pictures. We report a case of a young man who presented with alteration of mental status, autonomic instability and neuromuscular hyperexcitability following ingestion of multiple psychiatric and antiepileptic medications. The patient satisfied criteria for serotonin syndrome and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and based on the characteristic clinical features, laboratory findings and clinical course it was concluded that the patient had both toxidromes. The patient was managed with cyproheptadine and supportive measures, and recovered over the course of 3 weeks. A brief review of literature highlighting the diagnostic clues as well as the importance of recognising and distinguishing the often missed and confounding diagnoses follows. PMID:24957740

  20. Opponency Revisited: Competition and Cooperation Between Dopamine and Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Boureau, Y-Lan; Dayan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Affective valence lies on a spectrum ranging from punishment to reward. The coding of such spectra in the brain almost always involves opponency between pairs of systems or structures. There is ample evidence for the role of dopamine in the appetitive half of this spectrum, but little agreement about the existence, nature, or role of putative aversive opponents such as serotonin. In this review, we consider the structure of opponency in terms of previous biases about the nature of the decision problems that animals face, the conflicts that may thus arise between Pavlovian and instrumental responses, and an additional spectrum joining invigoration to inhibition. We use this analysis to shed light on aspects of the role of serotonin and its interactions with dopamine. PMID:20881948

  1. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  2. Revisiting the Serotonin Hypothesis: Implications for Major Depressive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Fakhoury, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heritable neuropsychiatric disease associated with severe changes at cellular and molecular levels. Its diagnosis mainly relies on the characterization of a wide range of symptoms including changes in mood and behavior. Despite the availability of antidepressant drugs, 10 to 30 % of patients fail to respond after a single or multiple treatments, and the recurrence of depression among responsive patients is very high. Evidence from the past decades suggests that the brain neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is incriminated in MDD, and that a dysfunction of 5-HT receptors may play a role in the genesis of this disease. The 5-HT membrane transporter protein (SERT), which helps regulate the serotonergic transmission, is also implicated in MDD and is one of the main targets of antidepressant therapy. Although a number of behavioral tests and animal models have been developed to study depression, little is known about the neurobiological bases of MDD. Understanding the role of the serotonergic pathway will significantly help improve our knowledge of the pathophysiology of depression and may open up avenues for the development of new antidepressant drugs. The overarching goal of this review is to present recent findings from studies examining the serotonergic pathway in MDD, with a focus on SERT and the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A), serotonin 1B (5-HT1B), and serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors. This paper also describes some of the main molecules involved in the internalization of 5-HT receptors and illustrates the changes in 5-HT neurotransmission in knockout mice and animal model of depression.

  3. Neuronal serotonin regulates growth of the intestinal mucosa in mice.

    PubMed

    Gross, Erica R; Gershon, Michael D; Margolis, Kara G; Gertsberg, Zoya V; Li, Zhishan; Cowles, Robert A

    2012-08-01

    The enteric abundance of serotonin (5-HT), its ability to promote proliferation of neural precursors, and reports that 5-HT antagonists affect crypt epithelial proliferation led us to investigate whether 5-HT affects growth and maintenance of the intestinal mucosa in mice. cMice that lack the serotonin re-uptake transporter (SERTKO mice) and wild-type mice were given injections of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (gain-of-function models). We also analyzed mice that lack tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1KO mice, which lack mucosal but not neuronal 5-HT) and mice deficient in tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2KO mice, which lack neuronal but not mucosal 5-HT) (loss-of-function models). Wild-type and SERTKO mice were given ketanserin (an antagonist of the 5-HT receptor, 5-HT(2A)) or scopolamine (an antagonist of the muscarinic receptor). 5-HT(2A) receptors and choline acetyltransferase were localized by immunocytochemical analysis. Growth of the mucosa and proliferation of mucosal cells were significantly greater in SERTKO mice and in mice given selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors than in wild-type mice, but were diminished in TPH2KO (but not in TPH1KO) mice. Ketanserin and scopolamine each prevented the ability of SERT knockout or inhibition to increase mucosal growth and proliferation. Cholinergic submucosal neurons reacted with antibodies against 5-HT(2A). 5-HT promotes growth and turnover of the intestinal mucosal epithelium. Surprisingly, these processes appear to be mediated by neuronal, rather than mucosal, 5-HT. The 5-HT(2A) receptor activates cholinergic neurons, which provide a muscarinic innervation to epithelial effectors. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. How the serotonin story is being rewritten by new gene-based discoveries principally related to SLC6A4, the serotonin transporter gene, which functions to influence all cellular serotonin systems.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Dennis L; Fox, Meredith A; Timpano, Kiara R; Moya, Pablo R; Ren-Patterson, Renee; Andrews, Anne M; Holmes, Andrew; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Wendland, Jens R

    2008-11-01

    Discovered and crystallized over sixty years ago, serotonin's important functions in the brain and body were identified over the ensuing years by neurochemical, physiological and pharmacological investigations. This 2008 M. Rapport Memorial Serotonin Review focuses on some of the most recent discoveries involving serotonin that are based on genetic methodologies. These include examples of the consequences that result from direct serotonergic gene manipulation (gene deletion or overexpression) in mice and other species; an evaluation of some phenotypes related to functional human serotonergic gene variants, particularly in SLC6A4, the serotonin transporter gene; and finally, a consideration of the pharmacogenomics of serotonergic drugs with respect to both their therapeutic actions and side effects. The serotonin transporter (SERT) has been the most comprehensively studied of the serotonin system molecular components, and will be the primary focus of this review. We provide in-depth examples of gene-based discoveries primarily related to SLC6A4 that have clarified serotonin's many important homeostatic functions in humans, non-human primates, mice and other species.

  5. An autism-associated serotonin transporter variant disrupts multisensory processing.

    PubMed

    Siemann, J K; Muller, C L; Forsberg, C G; Blakely, R D; Veenstra-VanderWeele, J; Wallace, M T

    2017-03-21

    Altered sensory processing is observed in many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with growing evidence that these impairments extend to the integration of information across the different senses (that is, multisensory function). The serotonin system has an important role in sensory development and function, and alterations of serotonergic signaling have been suggested to have a role in ASD. A gain-of-function coding variant in the serotonin transporter (SERT) associates with sensory aversion in humans, and when expressed in mice produces traits associated with ASD, including disruptions in social and communicative function and repetitive behaviors. The current study set out to test whether these mice also exhibit changes in multisensory function when compared with wild-type (WT) animals on the same genetic background. Mice were trained to respond to auditory and visual stimuli independently before being tested under visual, auditory and paired audiovisual (multisensory) conditions. WT mice exhibited significant gains in response accuracy under audiovisual conditions. In contrast, although the SERT mutant animals learned the auditory and visual tasks comparably to WT littermates, they failed to show behavioral gains under multisensory conditions. We believe these results provide the first behavioral evidence of multisensory deficits in a genetic mouse model related to ASD and implicate the serotonin system in multisensory processing and in the multisensory changes seen in ASD.

  6. Crystal Structure of an LSD-Bound Human Serotonin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Daniel; Wang, Sheng; McCorvy, John D; Betz, Robin M; Venkatakrishnan, A J; Levit, Anat; Lansu, Katherine; Schools, Zachary L; Che, Tao; Nichols, David E; Shoichet, Brian K; Dror, Ron O; Roth, Bryan L

    2017-01-26

    The prototypical hallucinogen LSD acts via serotonin receptors, and here we describe the crystal structure of LSD in complex with the human serotonin receptor 5-HT 2B . The complex reveals conformational rearrangements to accommodate LSD, providing a structural explanation for the conformational selectivity of LSD's key diethylamide moiety. LSD dissociates exceptionally slow from both 5-HT 2B R and 5-HT 2A R-a major target for its psychoactivity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that LSD's slow binding kinetics may be due to a "lid" formed by extracellular loop 2 (EL2) at the entrance to the binding pocket. A mutation predicted to increase the mobility of this lid greatly accelerates LSD's binding kinetics and selectively dampens LSD-mediated β-arrestin2 recruitment. This study thus reveals an unexpected binding mode of LSD; illuminates key features of its kinetics, stereochemistry, and signaling; and provides a molecular explanation for LSD's actions at human serotonin receptors. PAPERCLIP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Crystal Structure of an LSD-Bound Human Serotonin Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, Daniel; Wang, Sheng; McCorvy, John D.

    The prototypical hallucinogen LSD acts via serotonin receptors, and here we describe the crystal structure of LSD in complex with the human serotonin receptor 5-HT2B. The complex reveals conformational rearrangements to accommodate LSD, providing a structural explanation for the conformational selectivity of LSD’s key diethylamide moiety. LSD dissociates exceptionally slow from both 5-HT2BR and 5-HT2AR—a major target for its psychoactivity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that LSD’s slow binding kinetics may be due to a “lid” formed by extracellular loop 2 (EL2) at the entrance to the binding pocket. A mutation predicted to increase the mobility of this lid greatlymore » accelerates LSD’s binding kinetics and selectively dampens LSD-mediated β-arrestin2 recruitment. This study thus reveals an unexpected binding mode of LSD; illuminates key features of its kinetics, stereochemistry, and signaling; and provides a molecular explanation for LSD’s actions at human serotonin receptors.« less

  8. Physiologically Relevant Changes in Serotonin Resolved by Fast Microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Online microdialysis is a sampling and detection method that enables continuous interrogation of extracellular molecules in freely moving subjects under behaviorally relevant conditions. A majority of recent publications using brain microdialysis in rodents report sample collection times of 20–30 min. These long sampling times are due, in part, to limitations in the detection sensitivity of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By optimizing separation and detection conditions, we decreased the retention time of serotonin to 2.5 min and the detection threshold to 0.8 fmol. Sampling times were consequently reduced from 20 to 3 min per sample for online detection of serotonin (and dopamine) in brain dialysates using a commercial HPLC system. We developed a strategy to collect and to analyze dialysate samples continuously from two animals in tandem using the same instrument. Improvements in temporal resolution enabled elucidation of rapid changes in extracellular serotonin levels associated with mild stress and circadian rhythms. These dynamics would be difficult or impossible to differentiate using conventional microdialysis sampling rates. PMID:23614776

  9. Fatal serotonin toxicity caused by moclobemide and fluoxetine overdose.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Ling; Deng, Jou-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Both moclobemide and fluoxetine are used in the treatment of depression, and have been shown to produce fewer side effects than conventional tricyclic antidepressants. A combination of moclobemide and fluoxetine has been used in refractory depression, however there is potential for severe serotonin toxicity. We describe a lethal case of serotonin toxicity in a 36 year-old woman after she ingested multiple drugs, including moclobemide 4500 mg, fluoxetine 200 mg, propranolol 300 mg and several benzodiazepines. The clinical features included coma, mydriasis, hyperthermia, tremor, hyperreflexia, rhabdomyolysis, renal failure and respiratory insufficiency. Eventually, the patient died of disseminated intravascular coagulation and circulatory collapse at 22.5 h postingestion. Toxicological analysis of the patient's blood confirmed high levels of moclobemide 150 μg/mL (therapeutic 1-3 μg/mL), fluoxetine 3750 ng/mL (therapeutic 47-469 ng/mL) and several benzodiazepines. In conclusion, a combination of moclobemide and fluoxetine should be avoided in depressed patients with high suicidal tendencies. Moreover, early recognition and aggressive intervention are the mainstays in the management of potentially life-threatening serotonin toxicity.

  10. Structure and variation of three canine genes involved in serotonin binding and transport: the serotonin receptor 1A gene (htr1A), serotonin receptor 2A gene (htr2A), and serotonin transporter gene (slc6A4).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, L; Kwant, L; Hestand, M S; van Oost, B A; Leegwater, P A J

    2005-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the most frequently encountered behavioral problem in dogs. Abnormalities in brain serotonin metabolism have been described in aggressive dogs. We studied canine serotonergic genes to investigate genetic factors underlying canine aggression. Here, we describe the characterization of three genes of the canine serotonergic system: the serotonin receptor 1A and 2A gene (htr1A and htr2A) and the serotonin transporter gene (slc6A4). We isolated canine bacterial artificial chromosome clones containing these genes and designed oligonucleotides for genomic sequencing of coding regions and intron-exon boundaries. Golden retrievers were analyzed for DNA sequence variations. We found two nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding sequence of htr1A; one SNP close to a splice site in htr2A; and two SNPs in slc6A4, one in the coding sequence and one close to a splice site. In addition, we identified a polymorphic microsatellite marker for each gene. Htr1A is a strong candidate for involvement in the domestication of the dog. We genotyped the htr1A SNPs in 41 dogs of seven breeds with diverse behavioral characteristics. At least three SNP haplotypes were found. Our results do not support involvement of the gene in domestication.

  11. Zinc lozenges and the common cold: a meta-analysis comparing zinc acetate and zinc gluconate, and the role of zinc dosage.

    PubMed

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of zinc acetate lozenges with zinc gluconate lozenges in common cold treatment and to examine the dose-dependency of the effect. Meta-analysis. Placebo-controlled zinc lozenge trials, in which the zinc dose was > 75 mg/day. The pooled effect of zinc lozenges on common cold duration was calculated by using inverse-variance random-effects method. Seven randomised trials with 575 participants with naturally acquired common colds. Duration of the common cold. The mean common cold duration was 33% (95% CI 21% to 45%) shorter for the zinc groups of the seven included trials. Three trials that used lozenges composed of zinc acetate found that colds were shortened by 40% and four trials that used zinc gluconate by 28%. The difference between the two salts was not significant: 12 percentage points (95% CI: -12 to + 36). Five trials used zinc doses of 80-92 mg/day, common cold duration was reduced by 33%, and two trials used zinc doses of 192-207 mg/day and found an effect of 35%. The difference between the high-dose and low-dose zinc trials was not significant: 2 percentage points (95% CI: -29 to + 32). Properly composed zinc gluconate lozenges may be as effective as zinc acetate lozenges. There is no evidence that zinc doses over 100 mg/day might lead to greater efficacy in the treatment of the common cold. Common cold patients may be encouraged to try zinc lozenges for treating their colds. The optimal lozenge composition and dosage scheme need to be investigated further.

  12. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  13. Plasma levels of serotonin, gastrointestinal symptoms,and sleep problems in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Kheirouri, Sorayya; Kalejahi, Parinaz; Noorazar, Seyyed Gholamreza

    2016-12-20

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder identified with higher frequency of serotonin abnormalities and gastrointestinal (GI) and sleep problems. This study aimed to evaluate the plasma levels of serotonin, GI symptoms, and sleep problems, and their relationship with autism severity in children with autism. Thirty-five children with autism and 31 healthy subjects were studied. GI problems, sleep disorders, and severity of disorder were assessed. Plasma serotonin was determined using ELISA. There was no significant association between GI problems and autism severity, but a significant positive correlation was seen between different indicators of sleep disorder and severity of autism. Plasma levels of serotonin were significantly higher in autistic children and a significant negative correlation was observed between plasma levels of serotonin and autism severity (r = -0.39, P = 0.02). Elevated plasma serotonin in autistic children and its negative correlation with disease severity may indicate involvement of the neurotransmitter in the neurophysiologic mechanism of autism.

  14. Demonstration of clomipramine and venlafaxine occupation at serotonin reuptake sites in man in vivo.

    PubMed

    Malizia, A L; Melichar, J M; Brown, D J; Gunn, R N; Reynolds, A; Jones, T; Nutt, D J

    1997-01-01

    We describe the use of 11CRTI-55 and the Multiple Objects Coincidences Counter (MOCC) to detect in-vivo binding to peripheral serotonin reuptake sites (left chest comprising platelet and lung serotonin reuptake sites) in man. Displacement and preloading experiments with clomipramine and venlafaxine in two healthy volunteers demonstrated that 11CRTI-55 binding is decreased in a dose-dependent fashion by both these drugs which bind to the serotonin transporter. In addition parallel data from the total head curve (representing 11CRTI-55 binding to central serotonin and dopamine (DA) reuptake sites) suggest that prior blockade of the serotonin transporter may be a useful strategy to maximize radioactive counts in the head when measuring the DA transporter. The MOCC is likely to be useful to determine sequential indices of relative serotonin reuptake blockade in patients on treatment.

  15. Zinc transport and diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ewan

    2014-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have previously identified variants in SLC30A8, encoding the zinc transporter ZnT8, associated with diabetes risk. A rare variant association study has now established the direction of effect, surprisingly showing that loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 are protective against diabetes.

  16. Improved colorimetric determination of serum zinc.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D J; Djuh, Y Y; Bruton, J; Williams, H L

    1977-07-01

    We show how zinc may easily be quantified in serum by first using an optimum concentration of guanidine hydrochloride to cause release of zinc from proteins, followed by complexation of released metals with cyanide. The cyanide complex of zinc is preferentially demasked with chloral hydrate, followed by a colorimetric reaction between zinc and 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. This is a sensitive water-soluble ligand; its complex with zinc has an absorption maximum at 497 nm. Values found by this technique compare favorably with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  17. Nutrient-induced glucagon like peptide-1 release is modulated by serotonin.

    PubMed

    Ripken, Dina; van der Wielen, Nikkie; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Meijerink, Jocelijn; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2016-06-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serotonin are both involved in food intake regulation. GLP-1 release is stimulated upon nutrient interaction with G-protein coupled receptors by enteroendocrine cells (EEC), whereas serotonin is released from enterochromaffin cells (ECC). The central hypothesis for the current study was that nutrient-induced GLP-1 release from EECs is modulated by serotonin through a process involving serotonin receptor interaction. This was studied by assessing the effects of serotonin reuptake inhibition by fluoxetine on nutrient-induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release from isolated pig intestinal segments. Next, serotonin-induced GLP-1 release was studied in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells, where effects of serotonin receptor inhibition were studied using specific and non-specific antagonists. Casein (1% w/v), safflower oil (3.35% w/v), sucrose (50mM) and rebaudioside A (12.5mM) stimulated GLP-1 release from intestinal segments, whereas casein only stimulated PYY and CCK release. Combining nutrients with fluoxetine further increased nutrient-induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release. Serotonin release from intestinal tissue segments was stimulated by casein and safflower oil while sucrose and rebaudioside A had no effect. The combination with fluoxetine (0.155μM) further enhanced casein and safflower oil induced-serotonin release. Exposure of ileal tissue segments to serotonin (30μM) stimulated GLP-1 release whereas it did not induce PYY and CCK release. Serotonin (30 and 100μM) also stimulated GLP-1 release from STC-1 cells, which was inhibited by the non-specific 5HT receptor antagonist asenapine (1 and 10μM). These data suggest that nutrient-induced GLP-1 release is modulated by serotonin through a receptor mediated process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 5-HT2A SEROTONIN RECEPTOR BIOLOGY: Interacting proteins, kinases and paradoxical regulation

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Bryan L

    2011-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) serotonin receptors are important pharmacological targets for a large number of central nervous system and peripheral serotonergic medications. In this review article I summarize work mainly from my lab regarding serotonin receptor anatomy, pharmacology, signaling and regulation. I highlight the role of serotonin receptor interacting proteins and the emerging paradigm of G-protein coupled receptor functional selectivity. PMID:21288474

  19. Regulated release of serotonin from axonal growth cones isolated from the fetal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Mercado, R; Floran, B; Hernandez, J

    1998-01-01

    In the present work we propose an hypothetical model related to a molecular recognizing system for serotonin in isolated growth cone particles. This model is supported by previous results from our laboratory plus new ones which show that growth cones release serotonin tonically and such release can be stimulated by potassium in a calcium-dependent manner. The present results, together with other author's data, suggest a physiological basis for the putative role of serotonin as a trophic factor during nervous system development.

  20. Characterization and regulation of (/sup 3/H)-serotonin uptake and release in rodent spinal

    SciTech Connect

    Stauderman, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake and release of (/sup 3/H)-serotonin were investigated in rat spinal cord synaptosomes. In the uptake experiments, sodium-dependent and sodium-independent (/sup 3/H)-serotonin accumulation processes were found. Sodium-dependent (/sup 3/H)-serotonin accumulation was: linear with sodium concentrations up to 180 mM; decreased by disruption of membrane integrity or ionic gradients; associated with purified synaptosomal fractions; and reduced after description of descending serotonergic neurons in the spinal cord. Of the uptake inhibitors tested, the most potent was fluoxetine (IC/sub 50/ 75 nM), followed by desipramine (IC/sub 50/ 430 nM) and nomifensine (IC/sub 50/ 950 nM). The sodium-independent (/sup 3/H)-serotonin accumulation process wasmore » insensitive to most treatments and probably represents nonspecific membrane binding. Thus, only sodium-dependent (/sup 3/H)-serotonin uptake represents the uptake process of serotonergic nerve terminals in rat spinal cord homogenates. In the release experiments, K/sup +/-induced release of previously accumulated (/sup 3/H)-serotonin was Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent, and originated from serotonergic synaptosomes. Exogenous serotonin and 5-methyoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine inhibited (/sup 3/H)-serotonin release in a concentration-dependent way. Of the antagonists tested, only methiothepin effectively blocked the effect of serotonin. These data support the existence of presynaptic serotonin autoreceptors on serotonergic nerve terminals in the rat spinal cord that act to inhibit a voltage and Ca/sup 2 +/-sensitive process linked to serotonin release. Alteration of spinai cord serotonergic function may therefore be possible by drugs acting on presynaptic serotonin autoreceptors in the spinal cord.« less

  1. Conundrums in neurology: diagnosing serotonin syndrome - a meta-analysis of cases.

    PubMed

    Werneke, Ursula; Jamshidi, Fariba; Taylor, David M; Ott, Michael

    2016-07-12

    Serotonin syndrome is a toxic state, caused by serotonin (5HT) excess in the central nervous system. Serotonin syndrome's main feature is neuro-muscular hyperexcitability, which in many cases is mild but in some cases can become life-threatening. The diagnosis of serotonin syndrome remains challenging since it can only be made on clinical grounds. Three diagnostic criteria systems, Sternbach, Radomski and Hunter classifications, are available. Here we test the validity of four assumptions that have become widely accepted: (1) The Hunter classification performs clinically better than the Sternbach and Radomski criteria; (2) in contrast to neuroleptic malignant syndrome, the onset of serotonin syndrome is usually rapid; (3) hyperthermia is a hallmark of severe serotonin syndrome; and (4) serotonin syndrome can readily be distinguished from neuroleptic malignant syndrome on clinical grounds and on the basis of medication history. Systematic review and meta-analysis of all cases of serotonin syndrome and toxicity published between 2004 and 2014, using PubMed and Web of Science. Two of the four assumptions (1 and 2) are based on only one published study each and have not been independently validated. There is little agreement between current criteria systems for the diagnosis of serotonin syndrome. Although frequently thought to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of the serotonin syndrome, the Hunter criteria did not perform better than the Sternbach and Radomski criteria. Not all cases seem to be of rapid onset and only relatively few cases may present with hyperthermia. The 0 differential diagnosis between serotonin syndrome and neuroleptic malignant syndrome is not always clear-cut. Our findings challenge four commonly made assumptions about serotonin syndrome. We propose our meta-analysis of cases (MAC) method as a new way to systematically pool and interpret anecdotal but important clinical information concerning uncommon or emergent phenomena that cannot be

  2. Moclobemide poisoning: toxicokinetics and occurrence of serotonin toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Hackett, L P; Dawson, Andrew H; Whyte, Ian M; Smith, Anthony J

    2003-01-01

    Aims To investigate the spectrum of toxicity of moclobemide overdose, the occurrence of serotonin toxicity, and to estimate toxicokinetic parameters. Methods All moclobemide overdoses presenting over a 10-year period to the Hunter Area Toxicology Service were reviewed. Clinical features, complications, length of stay (LOS) and intensive care (ICU) admission rate were extracted from a standardized, prospectively collected database. Comparisons were made between moclobemide alone and moclobemide with a serotonergic coingestant poisoning. Serotonin toxicity was defined by a combination of Sternbach's criteria and a clinical toxicologist's diagnosis. In five patients serial moclobemide concentrations were measured. Time to maximal plasma concentration (Tmax), peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and terminal elimination half-lives were estimated. Results Of 106 included patients, 33 ingested moclobemide alone, 21 ingested moclobemide with another serotonergic agent (in some cases in therapeutic doses) and 52 ingested moclobemide with a nonserotonergic agent. Eleven (55%) of 21 patients coingesting a serotonergic drug developed serotonin toxicity, which was significantly more than one (3%) of 33 moclobemide-alone overdoses (odds ratio 35, 95% confidence inteval 4, 307; P < 0.0001). In six of these 21 cases severe serotonin toxicity developed with temperature> 38.5 °C and muscle rigidity requiring intubation and paralysis. The 21 patients had a significantly increased LOS (34 h) compared with moclobemide alone overdoses (12 h) (P < 0.0001) and a significantly increased ICU admission rate of 57% vs. 3% (P < 0.0001). Time to peak plasma concentration was delayed in two patients where prepeak samples were obtained. Cmax increased slightly with dose, but all three patients ingesting ≥ 6 g vomited or had charcoal. The mean elimination half-life of moclobemide in the five patients in whom serial moclobemide concentrations were measured was 6.3 h and elimination was first order

  3. Moclobemide poisoning: toxicokinetics and occurrence of serotonin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Hackett, L P; Dawson, Andrew H; Whyte, Ian M; Smith, Anthony J

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the spectrum of toxicity of moclobemide overdose, the occurrence of serotonin toxicity, and to estimate toxicokinetic parameters. All moclobemide overdoses presenting over a 10-year period to the Hunter Area Toxicology Service were reviewed. Clinical features, complications, length of stay (LOS) and intensive care (ICU) admission rate were extracted from a standardized, prospectively collected database. Comparisons were made between moclobemide alone and moclobemide with a serotonergic coingestant poisoning. Serotonin toxicity was defined by a combination of Sternbach's criteria and a clinical toxicologist's diagnosis. In five patients serial moclobemide concentrations were measured. Time to maximal plasma concentration (Tmax), peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and terminal elimination half-lives were estimated. Of 106 included patients, 33 ingested moclobemide alone, 21 ingested moclobemide with another serotonergic agent (in some cases in therapeutic doses) and 52 ingested moclobemide with a nonserotonergic agent. Eleven (55%) of 21 patients coingesting a serotonergic drug developed serotonin toxicity, which was significantly more than one (3%) of 33 moclobemide-alone overdoses (odds ratio 35, 95% confidence interval 4, 307; P < 0.0001). In six of these 21 cases severe serotonin toxicity developed with temperature >38.5 degrees C and muscle rigidity requiring intubation and paralysis. The 21 patients had a significantly increased LOS (34 h) compared with moclobemide alone overdoses (12 h) (P < 0.0001) and a significantly increased ICU admission rate of 57% vs. 3% (P < 0.0001). Time to peak plasma concentration was delayed in two patients where prepeak samples were obtained. Cmax increased slightly with dose, but all three patients ingesting > or = 6 g vomited or had charcoal. The mean elimination half-life of moclobemide in the five patients in whom serial moclobemide concentrations were measured was 6.3 h and elimination was first order in all

  4. A Zinc Morpholine Complex Prevents HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcers in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Suzy M.; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; AlRashdi, Ahmed S.; Khalifa, Shaden A. M.; Abdulla, Mahmood A.; Ali, Hapipah M.; El-Seedi, Hesham R.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is a naturally occurring element with roles in wound healing and rescuing tissue integrity, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, where it can be detected in the mucosal and submucosal layers. Zinc chelates are known to have beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal mucosa and in cases of gastric ulcer. We synthesized complexes of zinc featuring a heterocyclic amine binding amino acids then investigated their ability to enhance the gastric self-repair. Zinc-morpholine complex, Zn(L)SCN, namely showed strong free-radical scavenging, promotion of the DNA and RNA polymerases reconstruction and suppression of cell damage. The complex’s mode of action is proposed to involve hydrogen bond formation via its bis(thiocyanato-k)zinc moiety. Zn(L)SCN complex had potent effects on gastric enzymatic activity both in vitro and in vivo. The complex disrupted the ulcerative process as demonstrated by changes in the intermediate metabolites of the oxidative pathway – specifically, reduction in the MDA levels and elevation of reduced glutathione together with an attenuation of oxidative DNA damage. Additionally, Zn(L)SCN restored the gastric mucosa, inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF and the caspases), and preserved the gastric mucous balance. Zn(L)SCN thus exhibited anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities, all of which have cytoprotective effects on the gastric lining. PMID:27460157

  5. Severe dermatitis with loss of epidermal Langerhans cells in human and mouse zinc deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Ogawa, Youichi; Nakamura, Yuumi; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Ohta, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Hajime; Kabashima, Kenji; Katayama, Ichiro; Koizumi, Schuichi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Nakao, Atsuhito; Shimada, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    Zinc deficiency can be an inherited disorder, in which case it is known as acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE), or an acquired disorder caused by low dietary intake of zinc. Even though zinc deficiency diminishes cellular and humoral immunity, patients develop immunostimulating skin inflammation. Here, we have demonstrated that despite diminished allergic contact dermatitis in mice fed a zinc-deficient (ZD) diet, irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) in these mice was more severe and prolonged than that in controls. Further, histological examination of ICD lesions in ZD mice revealed subcorneal vacuolization and epidermal pallor, histological features of AE. Consistent with the fact that ATP release from chemically injured keratinocytes serves as a causative mediator of ICD, we found that the severe ICD response in ZD mice was attenuated by local injection of soluble nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase. In addition, skin tissue from ZD mice with ICD showed increased levels of ATP, as did cultured wild-type keratinocytes treated with chemical irritants and the zinc-chelating reagent TPEN. Interestingly, numbers of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), which play a protective role against ATP-mediated inflammatory signals, were decreased in ZD mice as well as samples from ZD patients. These findings suggest that upon exposure to irritants, aberrant ATP release from keratinocytes and impaired LC-dependent hydrolysis of nucleotides may be important in the pathogenesis of AE. PMID:22214844

  6. Interaction of zinc with dental mineral.

    PubMed

    Ingram, G S; Horay, C P; Stead, W J

    1992-01-01

    As some currently available toothpastes contain zinc compounds, the reaction of zinc with dental mineral and its effect on crystal growth rates were studied using three synthetic calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites (HAP) as being representative of dental mineral. Zinc was readily acquired by all HAP samples in the absence of added calcium, the amount adsorbed being proportional to the HAP surface area; about 9 mumol Zn/m2 was adsorbed at high zinc concentrations. As zinc was acquired, calcium was released, consistent with 1:1 Ca:Zn exchange. Soluble calcium reduced zinc uptake and similarly, calcium post-treatment released zinc. Pretreatment of HAP with 0.5 mM zinc reduced its subsequent ability to undergo seeded crystal growth, as did extracts of a toothpaste containing 0.5% zinc citrate, even in the presence of saliva. The reverse reaction, i.e. displacement of adsorbed zinc by salivary levels of calcium, however, indicates the mechanism by which zinc can reduce calculus formation in vivo by inhibiting plaque mineralisation without adversely affecting the anti-caries effects of fluoride.

  7. Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

  8. Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2011-01-01

    Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

  9. Serotonin induces ecdysteroidogenesis and methyl farnesoate synthesis in the mud crab, Scylla serrata.

    PubMed

    Girish, B P; Swetha, C H; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2017-09-02

    In the current study, we have examined the role of serotonin in regulating the levels of methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroids in the giant mud crab Scylla serrata and validated that serotonin indeed is a reproductive hormone. Administration of serotonin elevated circulatory levels of methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroids in crabs. Since methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroid act through retinoid X receptor (RXR) and ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) respectively and these receptors are involved in the regulation of reproduction in crustaceans, we have determined the mRNA levels of RXR and EcR in hepatopancreas and ovary after serotonin administration. The expression levels of both RXR and EcR increased significantly in the hepatopancreas and ovary of serotonin injected crabs when compared to the controls. In vitro organ culture studies revealed that incubation of Y-orgas and mandibular organ explants in the presence of serotonin resulted in a significant increase in the secretion of ecdysteroids by Y-organs, but without alterations in MF synthesis in mandibular organs. From the above studies it is evident that serotonin stimulates Y organs resulting in increased ecdysteroidogenesis. Though the circulatory levels methyl farnesoate elevated after serotonin administration, organ culture studies revealed serotonin mediated methyl farnesaote synthesis is indirect probably by inhibiting release of mandibular organ inhibiting hormone from eyestalks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Serotonin-induced contractile responses of esophageal smooth muscle in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Shiina, T; Naitou, K; Nakamori, H; Suzuki, Y; Horii, K; Sano, Y; Shimaoka, H; Shimizu, Y

    2016-11-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a regulatory factor in motility of the gastrointestinal tract including the esophagus. Although we proposed that vagal cholinergic and mast cell-derived non-cholinergic components including serotonin coordinately shorten the esophagus, the precise mechanism of serotonin-induced contractions in the suncus esophagus is still unclear. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine characteristics of contractile responses induced by serotonin and to identify 5-HT receptor subtypes responsible for regulating motility in the suncus esophagus. An isolated segment of the suncus esophagus was placed in an organ bath, and longitudinal or circular mechanical responses were recorded using a force transducer. Serotonin evoked contractile responses of the suncus esophagus in the longitudinal direction but not in the circular direction. Tetrodotoxin did not affect the serotonin-induced contractions. Pretreatment with a non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist or double application of 5-HT 1 and 5-HT 2 receptor antagonists blocked the serotonin-induced contractions. 5-HT 1 and 5-HT 2 receptor agonists, but not a 5-HT 3 receptor agonist, evoked contractile responses in the suncus esophagus. The findings suggest that serotonin induces contractile responses of the longitudinal smooth muscle in the muscularis mucosae of the suncus esophagus that are mediated via 5-HT 1 and 5-HT 2 receptors on muscle cells. The serotonin-induced contractions might contribute to esophageal peristalsis and emetic response. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on serotonin metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.

    Serotonin and two of its metabolites, melatonin and 5-methoxytryptophol, exhibit circadian rhythmicity in the pineal gland. We recently reported a marked reduction in the normal night-time increase in melatonin concentration in the pineal glands of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Concomitant with the apparent abolition of melatonin rhythmicity, serotonin-N-acetyl transferase (SNAT) activity was suppressed. We have now conducted studies to determine if abolition of the rhythm in melatonin production in electric-field-exposed rats arises solely from interference in SNAT activity, or if the availability of pineal serotonin is a factor that is affected by exposure. Pineal serotonin concentrations were comparedmore » in rats that were either exposed or sham exposed to 65 kV/m for 30 days. Sham-exposed animals exhibited normal diurnal rhythmicity for pineal concentrations of both melatonin and serotonin; melatonin levels increased markedly during the dark phase with a concurrent decrease in serotonin levels. In the exposed animals, however, normal serotonin rhythmicity was abolished; serotonin levels in these animals did not increase during the light period. The conclusion that electric field exposure results in a biochemical alteration in SNAT enzyme activity can be inferred from the loss of both serotonin and melatonin rhythmicity, as well as by direct measurement of SNAT activity itself. 35 references, 3 figures, 1 table.« less

  12. Serotonin receptors influencing cell proliferation in the jejunal crypt epithelium and in colonic adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1986-01-01

    Serotonin has previously been shown to stimulate cell proliferation in the jejunal crypt epithelium and in colonic tumours. The original classification of serotonin receptors into D and M groups was not conductive to the understanding of these observations. The more recent classification of serotonin receptors into 5HT1 and 5HT2 groups is considered in this report. On the balance of evidence it appears that similar receptors mediate the response to serotonin in the two tissues under consideration and that these receptors resemble those of the 5HT1 group. Such receptors are usually positively linked to adenylate cyclase.

  13. [The effect of mineral water on serotonin and insulin production (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Polushina, N D

    1998-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (DRG kits) and orthotoluidine test were conducted to measure blood serotonin, insulin and glucose in 70 intact Wistar rat males before and after a course of drinking mineral water Essentuki 17 (MW). After the MW drinking course, a single dose of mineral water increases basal levels of serotonin and insulin, sensitivity of endocrine cells to MW. Serotonin and insulin rose maximally on minute 5 after the drink while in contrast to minute 15 and 30 before initiation of the MW drinking course. A direct correlation was found between blood concentrations of serotonin and insulin.

  14. Pride attenuates nonconscious mimicry.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Leah; DeSteno, David

    2014-02-01

    Positive affect has been associated with increased nonconscious mimicry-an association that is quite logical given ties between positive mood and desires for social bonding. Yet positive emotions vary with respect to function, leading to the prediction that not all positive states might similarly increase mimicry. Pride, due to its association with higher status and self-focus, could be expected to attenuate affiliative behaviors such as mimicry. Participants in the present study were induced to experience one of three affective states (neutral, pride, general positivity), after which they interacted with a confederate who expressed a specific, neutral nonverbal behavior (i.e., foot shaking). Supporting past research, participants experiencing general positive affect evidenced greater mimicry as compared to participants in a neutral mood. In accord with predictions, participants experiencing pride mimicked the confederate's behavior significantly less than did those experiencing general positive affect or a neutral state. Regression analyses also confirmed that increasing intensities of pride predicted decreasing mimicry. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Association between Maternal Zinc Status, Dietary Zinc Intake and Pregnancy Complications: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rebecca L.; Grieger, Jessica A.; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Roberts, Claire T.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate zinc stores in the body are extremely important during periods of accelerated growth. However, zinc deficiency is common in developing countries and low maternal circulating zinc concentrations have previously been associated with pregnancy complications. We reviewed current literature assessing circulating zinc and dietary zinc intake during pregnancy and the associations with preeclampsia (PE); spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB); low birthweight (LBW); and gestational diabetes (GDM). Searches of MEDLINE; CINAHL and Scopus databases identified 639 articles and 64 studies were reviewed. In 10 out of 16 studies a difference was reported with respect to circulating zinc between women who gave birth to a LBW infant (≤2500 g) and those who gave birth to an infant of adequate weight (>2500 g), particularly in populations where inadequate zinc intake is prevalent. In 16 of our 33 studies an association was found between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and circulating zinc; particularly in women with severe PE (blood pressure ≥160/110 mmHg). No association between maternal zinc status and sPTB or GDM was seen; however; direct comparisons between the studies was difficult. Furthermore; only a small number of studies were based on women from populations where there is a high risk of zinc deficiency. Therefore; the link between maternal zinc status and pregnancy success in these populations cannot be established. Future studies should focus on those vulnerable to zinc deficiency and include dietary zinc intake as a measure of zinc status. PMID:27754451

  16. Effects of serum zinc level on tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Berkiten, Güler; Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Salturk, Ziya; Uyar, Yavuz; Atar, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess zinc levels in tinnitus patients, and to evaluate the effects of zinc deficiency on tinnitus and hearing loss. One-hundred patients, who presented to an outpatient clinic with tinnitus between June 2009 and 2014, were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (patients between 18 and 30years of age); Group II (patients between 31 and 60years of age); and Group III (patients between 61 and 78years of age). Following a complete ear, nose and throat examination, serum zinc levels were measured and the severity of tinnitus was quantified using the Tinnitus Severity Index Questionnaire (TSIQ). Patients were subsequently asked to provide a subjective judgment regarding the loudness of their tinnitus. The hearing status of patients was evaluated by audiometry and high-frequency audiometry. An average hearing sensitivity was calculated as the mean value of hearing thresholds between 250 and 20,000Hz. Serum zinc levels between 70 and 120μg/dl were considered normal. The severity and loudness of tinnitus, and the hearing thresholds of the normal zinc level and zinc-deficient groups, were compared. Twelve of 100 (12%) patients exhibited low zinc levels. The mean age of the zinc-deficient group was 65.41±12.77years. Serum zinc levels were significantly lower in group III (p<0.01). The severity and loudness of tinnitus were greater in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.011 and p=0.015, respectively). Moreover, the mean thresholds of air conduction were significantly higher in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.000). We observed that zinc levels decrease as age increases. In addition, there was a significant correlation between zinc level and the severity and loudness of tinnitus. Zinc deficiency was also associated with impairments in hearing thresholds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential contributions of serotonin receptors to the behavioral effects of indoleamine hallucinogens in mice

    PubMed Central

    Halberstadt, Adam L; Koedood, Liselore; Powell, Susan B; Geyer, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Psilocin (4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is a hallucinogen that acts as an agonist at 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C receptors. Psilocin is the active metabolite of psilocybin, a hallucinogen that is currently being investigated clinically as a potential therapeutic agent. In the present investigation, we used a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches to identify the serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes responsible for mediating the effects of psilocin on head twitch response (HTR) and the behavioral pattern monitor (BPM) in C57BL/6J mice. We also compared the effects of psilocin with those of the putative 5-HT2C receptor-selective agonist 1-methylpsilocin and the hallucinogen and non-selective serotonin receptor agonist 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT). Psilocin, 1-methylpsilocin, and 5-MeO-DMT induced the HTR, effects that were absent in mice lacking the 5-HT2A receptor gene. When tested in the BPM, psilocin decreased locomotor activity, holepoking, and time spent in the center of the chamber, effects that were blocked by the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100635 but were not altered by the selective 5-HT2C antagonist SB 242,084 or by 5-HT2A receptor gene deletion. 5-MeO-DMT produced similar effects when tested in the BPM, and the action of 5-MeO-DMT was significantly attenuated by WAY-100635. Psilocin and 5-MeO-DMT also decreased the linearity of locomotor paths, effects that were mediated by 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A receptors, respectively. In contrast to psilocin and 5-MeO-DMT, 1-methylpsilocin (0.6–9.6 mg/kg) was completely inactive in the BPM. These findings confirm that psilocin acts as an agonist at 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C receptors in mice, whereas the behavioral effects of 1-methylpsilocin indicate that this compound is acting at 5-HT2A sites but is inactive at the 5-HT1A receptor. The fact that 1-methylpsilocin displays greater pharmacological selectivity than psilocin indicates that 1-methylpsilocin represents a potentially useful

  18. The biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Krężel, Artur; Maret, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    The solution and complexation chemistry of zinc ions is the basis for zinc biology. In living organisms, zinc is redox-inert and has only one valence state: Zn(II). Its coordination environment in proteins is limited by oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur donors from the side chains of a few amino acids. In an estimated 10% of all human proteins, zinc has a catalytic or structural function and remains bound during the lifetime of the protein. However, in other proteins zinc ions bind reversibly with dissociation and association rates commensurate with the requirements in regulation, transport, transfer, sensing, signalling, and storage. In contrast to the extensive knowledge about zinc proteins, the coordination chemistry of the "mobile" zinc ions in these processes, i.e. when not bound to proteins, is virtually unexplored and the mechanisms of ligand exchange are poorly understood. Knowledge of the biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions is essential for understanding its cellular biology and for designing complexes that deliver zinc to proteins and chelating agents that remove zinc from proteins, for detecting zinc ion species by qualitative and quantitative analysis, and for proper planning and execution of experiments involving zinc ions and nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO). In most investigations, reference is made to zinc or Zn 2+ without full appreciation of how biological zinc ions are buffered and how the d-block cation Zn 2+ differs from s-block cations such as Ca 2+ with regard to significantly higher affinity for ligands, preference for the donor atoms of ligands, and coordination dynamics. Zinc needs to be tightly controlled. The interaction with low molecular weight ligands such as water and inorganic and organic anions is highly relevant to its biology but in contrast to its coordination in proteins has not been discussed in the biochemical literature. From the discussion in this article, it is becoming evident that zinc ion speciation is

  19. Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity is attenuated in transgenic mice with a null mutation for interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Ladenheim, B; Krasnova, I N; Deng, X; Oyler, J M; Polettini, A; Moran, T H; Huestis, M A; Cadet, J L

    2000-12-01

    Increasing evidence implicates apoptosis as a major mechanism of cell death in methamphetamine (METH) neurotoxicity. The involvement of a neuroimmune component in apoptotic cell death after injury or chemical damage suggests that cytokines may play a role in METH effects. In the present study, we examined if the absence of IL-6 in knockout (IL-6-/-) mice could provide protection against METH-induced neurotoxicity. Administration of METH resulted in a significant reduction of [(125)I]RTI-121-labeled dopamine transporters in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and cortex as well as depletion of dopamine in the CPu and frontal cortex of wild-type mice. However, these METH-induced effects were significantly attenuated in IL-6-/- animals. METH also caused a decrease in serotonin levels in the CPu and hippocampus of wild-type mice, but no reduction was observed in IL-6-/- animals. Moreover, METH induced decreases in [(125)I]RTI-55-labeled serotonin transporters in the hippocampal CA3 region and in the substantia nigra-reticulata but increases in serotonin transporters in the CPu and cingulate cortex in wild-type animals, all of which were attenuated in IL-6-/- mice. Additionally, METH caused increased gliosis in the CPu and cortices of wild-type mice as measured by [(3)H]PK-11195 binding; this gliotic response was almost completely inhibited in IL-6-/- animals. There was also significant protection against METH-induced DNA fragmentation, measured by the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeled (TUNEL) cells in the cortices. The protective effects against METH toxicity observed in the IL-6-/- mice were not caused by differences in temperature elevation or in METH accumulation in wild-type and mutant animals. Therefore, these observations support the proposition that IL-6 may play an important role in the neurotoxicity of METH.

  20. Worker safety during operations with mobile attenuators.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-05-01

    While most transportation agencies are very familiar with truck-mounted attenuators, trailer-mounted : attenuators are increasing in popularity. There is a concern for the level of protection that attenuators : provide for workers when they are mount...

  1. A Citizen's Guide to Monitored Natural Attenuation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Citizen's Guide describing how natural attenuation relies on natural processes to decrease or attenuate concentrations of contaminants in soil and groundwater. Scientists monitor these conditions to make sure natural attenuation is working.

  2. Effects of Antioxidant Components of AREDS Vitamins and Zinc Ions on Endothelial Cell Activation: Implications for Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shemin; Hernández, Jasmine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate whether the benefit of Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formula multivitamins and zinc in the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may occur through inhibiting inflammatory events in the choroid. Methods. Mouse C166 endothelial cells (ECs) and, for some experiments, human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)–choroid organ cultures were treated with AREDS multivitamin solution (MVS) or ZnCl2. The cytotoxicity of MVS was evaluated using a lactate dehydrogenase colorimetric assay. Cell motility was assessed using a scratch assay. Macrophage adhesion to EC monolayers or ICAM-1 protein was determined after MVS and zinc treatment and with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and Western blot analysis were used to determine the effects of MVS on the expression of proinflammatory molecules in treated and untreated cells. Results. AREDS MVS and zinc did not affect C166 EC viability until the 56th hour after treatment. Scratch assays showed partial inhibition of MVS and zinc on EC migration. In cell adhesion assays, MVS and zinc decreased the number of macrophages bound to EC and to ICAM-1 protein. Quantitative PCR showed that LPS increased the expression of ICAM-1 in both C166 and human RPE-choroid cultures, which was partially offset by MVS and zinc. MVS and zinc also mitigated LPS-induced ICAM-1 protein expression on Western blot analysis. Conclusions. Treatment with AREDS MVS and zinc may affect both angiogenesis and endothelial-macrophage interactions. These results suggest that AREDS vitamins and zinc ions may slow the progression of AMD, in part through the attenuation of EC activation. PMID:22247465

  3. Effects of antioxidant components of AREDS vitamins and zinc ions on endothelial cell activation: implications for macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shemin; Hernández, Jasmine; Mullins, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    To investigate whether the benefit of Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formula multivitamins and zinc in the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may occur through inhibiting inflammatory events in the choroid. Mouse C166 endothelial cells (ECs) and, for some experiments, human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid organ cultures were treated with AREDS multivitamin solution (MVS) or ZnCl(2). The cytotoxicity of MVS was evaluated using a lactate dehydrogenase colorimetric assay. Cell motility was assessed using a scratch assay. Macrophage adhesion to EC monolayers or ICAM-1 protein was determined after MVS and zinc treatment and with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and Western blot analysis were used to determine the effects of MVS on the expression of proinflammatory molecules in treated and untreated cells. AREDS MVS and zinc did not affect C166 EC viability until the 56th hour after treatment. Scratch assays showed partial inhibition of MVS and zinc on EC migration. In cell adhesion assays, MVS and zinc decreased the number of macrophages bound to EC and to ICAM-1 protein. Quantitative PCR showed that LPS increased the expression of ICAM-1 in both C166 and human RPE-choroid cultures, which was partially offset by MVS and zinc. MVS and zinc also mitigated LPS-induced ICAM-1 protein expression on Western blot analysis. Treatment with AREDS MVS and zinc may affect both angiogenesis and endothelial-macrophage interactions. These results suggest that AREDS vitamins and zinc ions may slow the progression of AMD, in part through the attenuation of EC activation.

  4. Multiple receptor subtypes mediate the effects of serotonin on rat subfornical organ neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scrogin, K. E.; Johnson, A. K.; Schmid, H. A.

    1998-01-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) receives significant serotonergic innervation. However, few reports have examined the functional effects of serotonin on SFO neurons. This study characterized the effects of serotonin on spontaneously firing SFO neurons in the rat brain slice. Of 31 neurons tested, 80% responded to serotonin (1-100 microM) with either an increase (n = 15) or decrease (n = 10) in spontaneous activity. Responses to serotonin were dose dependent and persisted after synaptic blockade. Excitatory responses could also be mimicked by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI; 1-10 microM) and could be blocked by the 5-HT2A/2C-receptor antagonist LY-53,857 (10 microM). LY-53,857 unmasked inhibitory responses to serotonin in 56% of serotonin-excited cells tested. Serotonin-inhibited cells were also inhibited by the 5-HT1A-receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT; 1-10 microM; n = 7). The data indicate that SFO neurons are responsive to serotonin via postsynaptic activation of multiple receptor subtypes. The results suggest that excitatory responses to serotonin are mediated by 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors and that inhibitory responses may be mediated by 5-HT1A receptors. In addition, similar percentages of serotonin-excited and -inhibited cells were also sensitive to ANG II. As such the functional relationship between serotonin and ANG II in the SFO remains unclear.

  5. Decreased contractile response of peripheral arterioles to serotonin after CPB in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sabe, Sharif A; Feng, Jun; Liu, Yuhong; Scrimgeour, Laura A; Ehsan, Afshin; Sellke, Frank W

    2018-05-11

    Regulation of coronary vasomotor tone by serotonin is significantly changed after cardioplegic arrest and reperfusion. The current study investigates whether cardiopulmonary bypass may also affect peripheral arteriolar response to serotonin in patients with or without diabetes. Human peripheral microvessels (90-180 µm diameter) were dissected from harvested skeletal muscle tissues from diabetic and non-diabetic patients before and after cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac surgery (n = 8/group). In vitro contractile response to serotonin was assessed by videomicroscopy in the presence or absence of serotonin alone (10 -9 -10 -5 M) or combined with the selective serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1B) antagonist, SB224289 (10 -6 M). 5-HT1A/1B protein expression in the skeletal muscle was measured by Western-blot and immunohistochemistry. There were no significant differences in contractile response of peripheral arterioles to serotonin (10 -5 M) pre-cardiopulmonary bypass between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. After cardiopulmonary bypass, contractile response to serotonin was significantly impaired in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients compared to their pre-cardiopulmonary bypass counterparts (P < .05). This effect was more pronounced in diabetic patients than non-diabetic patients (P < .05 versus non-diabetic). The contractile response to serotonin was significantly inhibited by the 5-HT1B antagonist in both diabetic and non-diabetic vessels (P < .05 versus serotonin alone). There were no significant differences in the expression/distribution of 5-HT1A/1B between non-diabetic and diabetic groups or between pre- versus post- cardiopulmonary bypass vessels. Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with decreased contractile response of peripheral arterioles to serotonin and this effect was exaggerated in the presence of diabetes. Serotonin-induced contractile response of the peripheral arterioles was via 5-HT1B in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Copyright

  6. Multiple receptor subtypes mediate the effects of serotonin on rat subfornical organ neurons.

    PubMed

    Scrogin, K E; Johnson, A K; Schmid, H A

    1998-12-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) receives significant serotonergic innervation. However, few reports have examined the functional effects of serotonin on SFO neurons. This study characterized the effects of serotonin on spontaneously firing SFO neurons in the rat brain slice. Of 31 neurons tested, 80% responded to serotonin (1-100 microM) with either an increase (n = 15) or decrease (n = 10) in spontaneous activity. Responses to serotonin were dose dependent and persisted after synaptic blockade. Excitatory responses could also be mimicked by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI; 1-10 microM) and could be blocked by the 5-HT2A/2C-receptor antagonist LY-53,857 (10 microM). LY-53,857 unmasked inhibitory responses to serotonin in 56% of serotonin-excited cells tested. Serotonin-inhibited cells were also inhibited by the 5-HT1A-receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT; 1-10 microM; n = 7). The data indicate that SFO neurons are responsive to serotonin via postsynaptic activation of multiple receptor subtypes. The results suggest that excitatory responses to serotonin are mediated by 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors and that inhibitory responses may be mediated by 5-HT1A receptors. In addition, similar percentages of serotonin-excited and -inhibited cells were also sensitive to ANG II. As such the functional relationship between serotonin and ANG II in the SFO remains unclear.

  7. Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc, a redox inactive metal, has been long viewed as a component of the antioxidant network, and growing evidence points to its involvement in redox-regulated signaling. These actions are exerted through several mechanisms based on the unique chemical and functional properties of zinc. Overall, zinc contributes to maintain the cell redox balance through different mechanisms including: i) the regulation of oxidant production and metal-induced oxidative damage; ii) the dynamic association of zinc with sulfur in protein cysteine clusters, from which the metal can be released by nitric oxide, peroxides, oxidized glutathione and other thiol oxidant species; iii) zinc-mediated induction of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein, which releases the metal under oxidative conditions and act per se scavenging oxidants; iv) the involvement of zinc in the regulation of glutathione metabolism and of the overall protein thiol redox status; and v) a direct or indirect regulation of redox signaling. Findings of oxidative stress, altered redox signaling, and associated cell/tissue disfunction in cell and animal models of zinc deficiency, stress the relevant role of zinc in the preservation of cell redox homeostasis. However, while the participation of zinc in antioxidant protection, redox sensing, and redox-regulated signaling is accepted, the involved molecules, targets and mechanisms are still partially known and the subject of active research. PMID:22960578

  8. Zinc Regulation of Aminopeptidase B Involved in Neuropeptide Production

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Shin-Rong; Hook, Vivian

    2009-01-01

    Aminopeptidase B (AP-B) is a metallopeptidase that removes basic residues from the N-termini of neuropeptide substrates in secretory vesicles. This study assessed zinc regulation of AP-B activity, since secretory vesicles contain endogenous zinc. AP-B was inhibited by zinc at concentrations typically present in secretory vesicles. Zinc effects were dependent on concentration, incubation time, and the molar ratio of zinc to enzyme. AP-B activity was recovered upon removal of zinc. AP-B with zinc became susceptible to degradation by trypsin, suggesting that zinc alters enzyme conformation. Zinc regulation demonstrates the metallopeptidase property of AP-B. PMID:18571504

  9. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Rosenhoover, William A.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  10. [Zinc and treatment of diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, O

    2006-06-01

    Recently WHO and UNICEF issued a joint statement revising guidelines for clinical management of diarrhoea. These updated recommendations take into account new research findings showing the beneficial effects of oral rehydration salts (ORS) containing lower concentrations of glucose and salts and of zinc supplementation. In combination with prevention and treatment of dehydration with appropriate fluids, breastfeeding, continued feeding and selective use of antibiotics, these two advances can drastically diminish the number of child deaths by reducing the duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes and lowering their incidence. The purpose of this report is to present the research findings that demonstrated the efficacy of zinc supplementation in the management of diarrhoea and led to revision of WHO/UNCEF guidelines.

  11. Zinc and its transporters, pancreatic beta cells, and insulin metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc is an essential trace metal for life. Two families of zinc transporters, SLC30A (ZnT) and SLC39A (ZIP) are required for maintaining cellular zinc homeostasis. ZnTs function to decrease cytoplasmic zinc concentrations whereas ZIPs do the opposite. Expression of zinc transporters can be tissue/ce...

  12. Taurine zinc solid dispersions enhance bile-incubated L02 cell viability and improve liver function by inhibiting ERK2 and JNK phosphorylation during cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lai, Xiaofang; Xu, Donghui

    2016-07-29

    Dietary intakes of taurine and zinc are associated with decreased risk of liver disease. In this study, solid dispersions (SDs) of a taurine zinc complex on hepatic injury were examined in vitro using the immortalized human hepatocyte cell line L02 and in a rat model of bile duct ligation. Sham-operated and bile duct ligated Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the vehicle alone or taurine zinc (40, 80, 160mg/kg) for 17days. Bile duct ligation significantly increased blood lipid levels, and promoted hepatocyte apoptosis, inflammation and compensatory biliary proliferation. In vitro, incubation with bile significantly reduced L02 cell viability; this effect was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and enhanced when co-incubated with taurine zinc SDs. In vivo, administration of taurine zinc SDs decreased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in a dose-dependent manner and attenuated the increases in serum total bilirubin, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels after bile duct ligation. Additionally, taurine zinc SDs downregulated the expression of interleukin-1β and inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase2 (ERK2) in the liver after bile duct ligation. Moreover, taurine zinc SDs had more potent blood lipid regulatory and anti-apoptotic effects than the physical mixture of taurine and zinc acetate. Therefore, we speculate that taurine zinc SDs protect liver function at least in part via a mechanism linked to reduce phosphorylation of JNK and ERK2, which suppresses inflammation, apoptosis and cholangiocyte proliferation during cholestasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Serotonin and brain function: a tale of two receptors

    PubMed Central

    Carhart-Harris, RL; Nutt, DJ

    2017-01-01

    Previous attempts to identify a unified theory of brain serotonin function have largely failed to achieve consensus. In this present synthesis, we integrate previous perspectives with new and older data to create a novel bipartite model centred on the view that serotonin neurotransmission enhances two distinct adaptive responses to adversity, mediated in large part by its two most prevalent and researched brain receptors: the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. We propose that passive coping (i.e. tolerating a source of stress) is mediated by postsynaptic 5-HT1AR signalling and characterised by stress moderation. Conversely, we argue that active coping (i.e. actively addressing a source of stress) is mediated by 5-HT2AR signalling and characterised by enhanced plasticity (defined as capacity for change). We propose that 5-HT1AR-mediated stress moderation may be the brain’s default response to adversity but that an improved ability to change one’s situation and/or relationship to it via 5-HT2AR-mediated plasticity may also be important – and increasingly so as the level of adversity reaches a critical point. We propose that the 5-HT1AR pathway is enhanced by conventional 5-HT reuptake blocking antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), whereas the 5-HT2AR pathway is enhanced by 5-HT2AR-agonist psychedelics. This bipartite model purports to explain how different drugs (SSRIs and psychedelics) that modulate the serotonergic system in different ways, can achieve complementary adaptive and potentially therapeutic outcomes. PMID:28858536

  14. High Affinity Binding of Epibatidine to Serotonin Type 3 Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Drisdel, Renaldo C.; Sharp, Douglas; Henderson, Tricia; Hales, Tim G.; Green, William N.

    2008-01-01

    Epibatidine and mecamylamine are ligands used widely in the study of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the present study, we find that nicotine blocks only 75% of 125I-epibatidine binding to rat brain membranes, whereas ligands specific for serotonin type 3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) block the remaining 25%. 125I-Epibatidine binds with a high affinity to native 5-HT3Rs of N1E-115 cells and to receptors composed of only 5-HT3A subunits expressed in HEK cells. In these cells, serotonin, the 5-HT3R-specific antagonist MDL72222, and the 5-HT3R agonist chlorophenylbiguanide readily competed with 125I-epibatidine binding to 5-HT3Rs. Nicotine was a poor competitor for 125I-epibatidine binding to 5-HT3Rs. However, the noncompetitive nAChR antagonist mecamylamine acted as a potent competitive inhibitor of 125I-epibatidine binding to 5-HT3Rs. Epibatidine inhibited serotonin-induced currents mediated by endogenous 5-HT3Rs in neuroblastoma cell lines and 5-HT3ARs expressed in HEK cells in a competitive manner. Our results demonstrate that 5-HT3Rs are previously uncharacterized high affinity epibatidine binding sites in the brain and indicate that epibatidine and mecamylamine act as 5-HT3R antagonists. Previous studies that depended on epibatidine and mecamylamine as nAChR-specific ligands, in particular studies of analgesic properties of epibatidine, may need to be reinterpreted with respect to the potential role of 5-HT3Rs. PMID:17702741

  15. Serotonin and brain function: a tale of two receptors.

    PubMed

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Nutt, D J

    2017-09-01

    Previous attempts to identify a unified theory of brain serotonin function have largely failed to achieve consensus. In this present synthesis, we integrate previous perspectives with new and older data to create a novel bipartite model centred on the view that serotonin neurotransmission enhances two distinct adaptive responses to adversity, mediated in large part by its two most prevalent and researched brain receptors: the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. We propose that passive coping (i.e. tolerating a source of stress) is mediated by postsynaptic 5-HT1AR signalling and characterised by stress moderation. Conversely, we argue that active coping (i.e. actively addressing a source of stress) is mediated by 5-HT2AR signalling and characterised by enhanced plasticity (defined as capacity for change). We propose that 5-HT1AR-mediated stress moderation may be the brain's default response to adversity but that an improved ability to change one's situation and/or relationship to it via 5-HT2AR-mediated plasticity may also be important - and increasingly so as the level of adversity reaches a critical point. We propose that the 5-HT1AR pathway is enhanced by conventional 5-HT reuptake blocking antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), whereas the 5-HT2AR pathway is enhanced by 5-HT2AR-agonist psychedelics. This bipartite model purports to explain how different drugs (SSRIs and psychedelics) that modulate the serotonergic system in different ways, can achieve complementary adaptive and potentially therapeutic outcomes.

  16. Serotonin increases synaptic activity in olfactory bulb glomeruli

    PubMed Central

    Brill, Julia; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C.; Wachowiak, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Serotoninergic fibers densely innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the first sites of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Acting through 5HT2A receptors, serotonin (5HT) directly excites external tufted cells (ETCs), key excitatory glomerular neurons, and depolarizes some mitral cells (MCs), the olfactory bulb's main output neurons. We further investigated 5HT action on MCs and determined its effects on the two major classes of glomerular interneurons: GABAergic/dopaminergic short axon cells (SACs) and GABAergic periglomerular cells (PGCs). In SACs, 5HT evoked a depolarizing current mediated by 5HT2C receptors but did not significantly impact spike rate. 5HT had no measurable direct effect in PGCs. Serotonin increased spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) in PGCs and SACs. Increased sEPSCs were mediated by 5HT2A receptors, suggesting that they are primarily due to enhanced excitatory drive from ETCs. Increased sIPSCs resulted from elevated excitatory drive onto GABAergic interneurons and augmented GABA release from SACs. Serotonin-mediated GABA release from SACs was action potential independent and significantly increased miniature IPSC frequency in glomerular neurons. When focally applied to a glomerulus, 5HT increased MC spontaneous firing greater than twofold but did not increase olfactory nerve-evoked responses. Taken together, 5HT modulates glomerular network activity in several ways: 1) it increases ETC-mediated feed-forward excitation onto MCs, SACs, and PGCs; 2) it increases inhibition of glomerular interneurons; 3) it directly triggers action potential-independent GABA release from SACs; and 4) these network actions increase spontaneous MC firing without enhancing responses to suprathreshold sensory input. This may enhance MC sensitivity while maintaining dynamic range. PMID:26655822

  17. Serotonin increases synaptic activity in olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Brill, Julia; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Wachowiak, Matt; Shipley, Michael T

    2016-03-01

    Serotoninergic fibers densely innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the first sites of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Acting through 5HT2A receptors, serotonin (5HT) directly excites external tufted cells (ETCs), key excitatory glomerular neurons, and depolarizes some mitral cells (MCs), the olfactory bulb's main output neurons. We further investigated 5HT action on MCs and determined its effects on the two major classes of glomerular interneurons: GABAergic/dopaminergic short axon cells (SACs) and GABAergic periglomerular cells (PGCs). In SACs, 5HT evoked a depolarizing current mediated by 5HT2C receptors but did not significantly impact spike rate. 5HT had no measurable direct effect in PGCs. Serotonin increased spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) in PGCs and SACs. Increased sEPSCs were mediated by 5HT2A receptors, suggesting that they are primarily due to enhanced excitatory drive from ETCs. Increased sIPSCs resulted from elevated excitatory drive onto GABAergic interneurons and augmented GABA release from SACs. Serotonin-mediated GABA release from SACs was action potential independent and significantly increased miniature IPSC frequency in glomerular neurons. When focally applied to a glomerulus, 5HT increased MC spontaneous firing greater than twofold but did not increase olfactory nerve-evoked responses. Taken together, 5HT modulates glomerular network activity in several ways: 1) it increases ETC-mediated feed-forward excitation onto MCs, SACs, and PGCs; 2) it increases inhibition of glomerular interneurons; 3) it directly triggers action potential-independent GABA release from SACs; and 4) these network actions increase spontaneous MC firing without enhancing responses to suprathreshold sensory input. This may enhance MC sensitivity while maintaining dynamic range. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor suppression of HIV infectivity and replication.

    PubMed

    Benton, Tami; Lynch, Kevin; Dubé, Benoit; Gettes, David R; Tustin, Nancy B; Ping Lai, Jian; Metzger, David S; Blume, Joshua; Douglas, Steven D; Evans, Dwight L

    2010-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram would down-regulate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity and that the greatest effects would be seen in people with depression. Depression is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathobiology of depression, and pharmacologic therapies for depression target this system. The 5-HT transporter and 5-HT receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous and immune systems. Depression has been associated with suppression of natural killer cells and CD8(+) lymphocytes, key regulators of HIV infection. Ex vivo models for acute and chronic HIV infection were used to study the effects of citalopram on HIV viral infection and replication in 48 depressed and nondepressed women. For both the acute and chronic infection models, HIV reverse transcriptase activity was measured in the citalopram treatment condition and the control condition. The SSRI significantly down-regulated the reverse transcriptase response in both the acute and chronic infection models. Specifically, citalopram significantly decreased the acute HIV infectivity of macrophages. Citalopram also significantly decreased HIV viral replication in the latently infected T-cell line and in the latently infected macrophage cell line. There was no difference in down-regulation by depression status. These studies suggest that an SSRI enhances natural killer/CD8 noncytolytic HIV suppression in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and decreases HIV viral infectivity of macrophages, ex vivo, suggesting the need for in vivo studies to determine a potential role for agents targeting serotonin in the host defense against HIV.

  19. Zinc promotes the death of hypoxic astrocytes by upregulating hypoxia-induced hypoxiainducible factor-1alpha expression via Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase -1

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Chen; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Ke Jian

    2013-01-01

    Aim Pathological release of excess zinc ions has been implicated in ischemic brain cell death. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In stroke, ischemia-induced zinc release and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) accumulation concurrently occur in the ischemic tissue. The present study testes the hypothesis that the presence of high intracellular zinc concentration is a major cause of modifications to PARP-1 and HIF-1α during hypoxia, which significantly contributes to cell death during ischemia. Methods Primary cortical astrocytes and C8-D1A cells were exposed to different concentrations of zinc chloride. Cell death rate and protein expression of HIF-1 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 were examined after 3-hour hypoxic treatment. Results Although 3-hr hypoxia or 100 μM of zinc alone did not induce noticeable cytotoxicity, their combination led to a dramatic increase in astrocytic cell death in a zinc concentration dependent manner. Exposure of astrocytes to hypoxia for 3-hr remarkably increased the levels of intracellular zinc and HIF-1α protein, which was further augmented by added exogenous zinc. Notably HIF-1α knockdown blocked zinc-induced astrocyte death. Moreover, knockdown of PARP-1, another important protein in the response of hypoxia, attenuated the overexpression of HIF-1α and reduced the cell death rate. Conclusions Our studies show that zinc promotes hypoxic cell death through overexpression of the hypoxia response factor HIF-1α via the cell fate determine factor PARP-1 modification, which provides a novel mechanism for zinc-mediated ischemic brain injury. PMID:23582235

  20. Discovery of a Potent, Dual Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the described research effort was to identify a novel serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) with improved norepinephrine transporter activity and acceptable metabolic stability and exhibiting minimal drug–drug interaction. We describe herein the discovery of a series of 3-substituted pyrrolidines, exemplified by compound 1. Compound 1 is a selective SNRI in vitro and in vivo, has favorable ADME properties, and retains inhibitory activity in the formalin model of pain behavior. Compound 1 thus represents a potential new probe to explore utility of SNRIs in central nervous system disorders, including chronic pain conditions. PMID:24900709

  1. Zinc in Cellular Regulation: The Nature and Significance of "Zinc Signals".

    PubMed

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-10-31

    In the last decade, we witnessed discoveries that established Zn 2+ as a second major signalling metal ion in the transmission of information within cells and in communication between cells. Together with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ covers biological regulation with redox-inert metal ions over many orders of magnitude in concentrations. The regulatory functions of zinc ions, together with their functions as a cofactor in about three thousand zinc metalloproteins, impact virtually all aspects of cell biology. This article attempts to define the regulatory functions of zinc ions, and focuses on the nature of zinc signals and zinc signalling in pathways where zinc ions are either extracellular stimuli or intracellular messengers. These pathways interact with Ca 2+ , redox, and phosphorylation signalling. The regulatory functions of zinc require a complex system of precise homeostatic control for transients, subcellular distribution and traffic, organellar homeostasis, and vesicular storage and exocytosis of zinc ions.

  2. Zinc and Wound Healing: A Review of Zinc Physiology and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Samuel; Sood, Aditya; Garnick, Mark S

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of the role of zinc in normal human physiology is constantly expanding, yet there are major gaps in our knowledge with regard to the function of zinc in wound healing. This review aims to provide the clinician with sufficient understanding of zinc biology and an up-to-date perspective on the role of zinc in wound healing. Zinc is an essential ion that is crucial for maintenance of normal physiology, and zinc deficiency has many manifestations ranging from delayed wound healing to immune dysfunction and impairment of multiple sensory systems. While consensus has been reached regarding the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency on wound healing, there is considerable discord in the literature on the optimal methods and true benefits of zinc supplementation.

  3. FOXO1 orchestrates the bone-suppressing function of gut-derived serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Kode, Aruna; Mosialou, Ioanna; Silva, Barbara C.; Rached, Marie-Therese; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Ji; Townes, Tim M.; Hen, Rene; DePinho, Ronald A.; Guo, X. Edward; Kousteni, Stavroula

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin is a critical regulator of bone mass, fulfilling different functions depending on its site of synthesis. Brain-derived serotonin promotes osteoblast proliferation, whereas duodenal-derived serotonin suppresses it. To understand the molecular mechanisms of duodenal-derived serotonin action on osteoblasts, we explored its transcriptional mediation in mice. We found that the transcription factor FOXO1 is a crucial determinant of the effects of duodenum-derived serotonin on bone formation We identified two key FOXO1 complexes in osteoblasts, one with the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element–binding protein 1 (CREB) and another with activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Under normal levels of circulating serotonin, the proliferative activity of FOXO1 was promoted by a balance between its interaction with CREB and ATF4. However, high circulating serotonin levels prevented the association of FOXO1 with CREB, resulting in suppressed osteoblast proliferation. These observations identify FOXO1 as the molecular node of an intricate transcriptional machinery that confers the signal of duodenal-derived serotonin to inhibit bone formation. PMID:22945629

  4. Asthma Medication and the Role of Serotonin in the Development of Cognitive and Psychological Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, E.

    2005-01-01

    This literature review will focus on the discussion of asthma and how it affects the sufferer. The role of serotonin and its physiological working at a neural level will follow, as well as the effects of corticosteroids on the brain and how low serotonin levels are linked to depression and corticosteroid use.

  5. Resistance of rice to insect pests mediated by suppression of serotonin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai-Ping; Luo, Ting; Fu, Hao-Wei; Wang, Long; Tan, Yuan-Yuan; Huang, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Qing; Ye, Gong-Yin; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Lou, Yong-Gen; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2018-05-07

    Rice is one of the world's most important foods, but its production suffers from insect pests, causing losses of billions of dollars, and extensive use of environmentally damaging pesticides for their control 1,2 . However, the molecular mechanisms of insect resistance remain elusive. Although a few resistance genes for planthopper have been cloned, no rice germplasm is resistant to stem borers. Here, we report that biosynthesis of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in mammals 3 , is induced by insect infestation in rice, and its suppression confers resistance to planthoppers and stem borers, the two most destructive pests of rice 2 . Serotonin and salicylic acid derive from chorismate 4 . In rice, the cytochrome P450 gene CYP71A1 encodes tryptamine 5-hydroxylase, which catalyses conversion of tryptamine to serotonin 5 . In susceptible wild-type rice, planthopper feeding induces biosynthesis of serotonin and salicylic acid, whereas in mutants with an inactivated CYP71A1 gene, no serotonin is produced, salicylic acid levels are higher and plants are more insect resistant. The addition of serotonin to the resistant rice mutant and other brown planthopper-resistant genotypes results in a loss of insect resistance. Similarly, serotonin supplementation in artificial diet enhances the performance of both insects. These insights demonstrate that regulation of serotonin biosynthesis plays an important role in defence, and may prove valuable for breeding insect-resistant cultivars of rice and other cereal crops.

  6. Serotonin 2C receptors in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons regulate energy and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Eric D; Liu, Chen; Sohn, Jong-Woo; Liu, Tiemin; Kim, Mi Hwa; Lee, Charlotte E; Vianna, Claudia R; Williams, Kevin W; Xu, Yong; Elmquist, Joel K

    2013-12-01

    Energy and glucose homeostasis are regulated by central serotonin 2C receptors. These receptors are attractive pharmacological targets for the treatment of obesity; however, the identity of the serotonin 2C receptor-expressing neurons that mediate the effects of serotonin and serotonin 2C receptor agonists on energy and glucose homeostasis are unknown. Here, we show that mice lacking serotonin 2C receptors (Htr2c) specifically in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons had normal body weight but developed glucoregulatory defects including hyperinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. Moreover, these mice did not show anorectic responses to serotonergic agents that suppress appetite and developed hyperphagia and obesity when they were fed a high-fat/high-sugar diet. A requirement of serotonin 2C receptors in POMC neurons for the maintenance of normal energy and glucose homeostasis was further demonstrated when Htr2c loss was induced in POMC neurons in adult mice using a tamoxifen-inducible POMC-cre system. These data demonstrate that serotonin 2C receptor-expressing POMC neurons are required to control energy and glucose homeostasis and implicate POMC neurons as the target for the effect of serotonin 2C receptor agonists on weight-loss induction and improved glycemic control.

  7. Effects of early serotonin programming on behavior and central monoamine concentrations in an avian model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Serotonin (5-HT) acts as a neurogenic compound in the developing brain; however serotonin altering drugs such as SSRIs are often prescribed to pregnant and lactating mothers. Early agonism of 5-HT receptors could alter the development of serotonergic circuitry, altering neurotransmission and behavio...

  8. Serotonin is critical for rewarded olfactory short-term memory in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sitaraman, Divya; LaFerriere, Holly; Birman, Serge; Zars, Troy

    2012-06-01

    The biogenic amines dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin are critical in establishing normal memories. A common view for the amines in insect memory performance has emerged in which dopamine and octopamine are largely responsible for aversive and appetitive memories. Examination of the function of serotonin begins to challenge the notion of one amine type per memory because altering serotonin function also reduces aversive olfactory memory and place memory levels. Could the function of serotonin be restricted to the aversive domain, suggesting a more specific dopamine/serotonin system interaction? The function of the serotonergic system in appetitive olfactory memory was examined. By targeting the tetanus toxin light chain (TNT) and the human inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.1) to the serotonin neurons with two different GAL4 driver combinations, the serotonergic system was inhibited. Additional use of the GAL80(ts1) system to control expression of transgenes to the adult stage of the life cycle addressed a potential developmental role of serotonin in appetitive memory. Reduction in appetitive olfactory memory performance in flies with these transgenic manipulations, without altering control behaviors, showed that the serotonergic system is also required for normal appetitive memory. Thus, serotonin appears to have a more general role in Drosophila memory, and implies an interaction with both the dopaminergic and octopaminergic systems.

  9. Ligand Induced Conformational Changes of the Human Serotonin Transporter Revealed by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Grouleff, Julie; Schiøtt, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The competitive inhibitor cocaine and the non-competitive inhibitor ibogaine induce different conformational states of the human serotonin transporter. It has been shown from accessibility experiments that cocaine mainly induces an outward-facing conformation, while the non-competitive inhibitor ibogaine, and its active metabolite noribogaine, have been proposed to induce an inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter similar to what has been observed for the endogenous substrate, serotonin. The ligand induced conformational changes within the human serotonin transporter caused by these three different types of ligands, substrate, non-competitive and competitive inhibitors, are studied from multiple atomistic molecular dynamics simulations initiated from a homology model of the human serotonin transporter. The results reveal that diverse conformations of the human serotonin transporter are captured from the molecular dynamics simulations depending on the type of the ligand bound. The inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter is reached with noribogaine bound, and this state resembles a previously identified inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter obtained from molecular dynamics simulation with bound substrate, but also a recently published inward-facing conformation of a bacterial homolog, the leucine transporter from Aquifex Aoelicus. The differences observed in ligand induced behavior are found to originate from different interaction patterns between the ligands and the protein. Such atomic-level understanding of how an inhibitor can dictate the conformational response of a transporter by ligand binding may be of great importance for future drug design. PMID:23776432

  10. Brief Report: Whole Blood Serotonin Levels and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marler, Sarah; Ferguson, Bradley J.; Lee, Evon Batey; Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; McDonnell, Erin; Macklin, Eric A.; Levitt, Pat; Gillespie, Catherine Hagan; Anderson, George M.; Margolis, Kara Gross; Beversdorf, David Q.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Elevated whole blood serotonin levels are observed in more than 25% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Co-occurring gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are also common in ASD but have not previously been examined in relationship with hyperserotonemia, despite the synthesis of serotonin in the gut. In 82 children and adolescents with ASD,…

  11. Long life, rechargeable nickel-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.

    1974-01-01

    A production version of the inorganic separator was evaluated for improving the life of the nickel-zinc system. Nickel-zinc cells (7-10 Ah capacities) of different electrode separator configurations were constructed and tested. The nickel-zinc cells using the inorganic separator encasing the zinc electrode, the nickel electrode, or both electrodes had shorter lives than cells using Visking and cellophane separation. Cells with the inorganic separation all fell below 70% of their theoretical capacity within 30 cycles, but the cells constructed with organic separation required 80 cycles. Failure of the cells using the ceramic separator was irreversible capacity degradation due to zinc loss through cracks developed in the inorganic separator. Zinc loss through the separator was minimized with the use of combinations of the inorganic separator with Visking and cellophane. Cells using the combined separation operated 130 duty cycles before degrading to 70% of their theoretical capacity.

  12. High performance zinc anode for battery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, John E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved zinc anode for use in a high density rechargeable alkaline battery is disclosed. A process for making the zinc electrode comprises electrolytic loading of the zinc active material from a slightly acidic zinc nitrate solution into a substrate of nickel, copper or silver. The substrate comprises a sintered plaque having very fine pores, a high surface area, and 80-85 percent total initial porosity. The residual porosity after zinc loading is approximately 25-30%. The electrode of the present invention exhibits reduced zinc mobility, shape change and distortion, and demonstrates reduced dendrite buildup cycling of the battery. The disclosed battery is useful for applications requiring high energy density and multiple charge capability.

  13. Higher serotonin transporter occupancy after multiple dose administration of escitalopram compared to citalopram: an [123I]ADAM SPECT study.

    PubMed

    Klein, Nikolas; Sacher, Julia; Geiss-Granadia, Thomas; Mossaheb, Nilufar; Attarbaschi, Trawat; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Spindelegger, Christoph; Holik, Alexander; Asenbaum, Susanne; Dudczak, Robert; Tauscher, Johannes; Kasper, Siegfried

    2007-04-01

    Previous studies have investigated the occupancy of the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) after clinical doses of citalopram and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In the present study, the occupancies of SERT after multiple doses of escitalopram and citalopram were compared using the radioligand [(123)I]ADAM and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Fifteen healthy subjects received escitalopram 10 mg/day (n = 6) or citalopram 20 mg/day (n = 9) for a total of 10 days. SERT occupancies in midbrain were determined with SPECT and [(123)I]ADAM at three different time points: at baseline (no medication) and at 6 and 54 h after last drug intake. At 6 h after the last dose, mean SERT occupancies were 81.5 +/- 5.4% (mean+/-SD) for escitalopram and 64.0 +/- 12.7% for citalopram (p < 0.01). At 54 h after the last dose, mean SERT occupancies were 63.3 +/- 12.1% for escitalopram and 49.0 +/- 11.7% for citalopram (p < 0.05). The plasma concentrations of the S-enantiomer were of the same magnitude in both substances. For both drugs, the elimination rate of the S-enantiomer in plasma was markedly higher than the occupancy decline rate in the midbrain. The significantly higher occupancy of SERT after multiple doses of escitalopram compared to citalopram indicates an increased inhibition of SERT by escitalopram. The results can also be explained by an attenuating effect of R-citalopram on the occupancy of S-citalopram at the SERT.

  14. Zinc pharmacokinetic parameters in the determination of body zinc status in children.

    PubMed

    Vale, S H L; Leite, L D; Alves, C X; Dantas, M M G; Costa, J B S; Marchini, J S; França, M C; Brandão-Neto, J

    2014-02-01

    Serum or tissue zinc concentrations are often used to assess body zinc status. However, all of these methods are relatively inaccurate. Thus, we investigated three different kinetic methods for the determination of zinc clearance to establish which of these could detect small changes in the body zinc status of children. Forty apparently healthy children were studied. Renal handling of zinc was investigated during intravenous zinc administration (0.06537 mg Zn/kg of body weight), both before and after oral zinc supplementation (5 mg Zn/day for 3 months). Three kinetic methods were used to determine zinc clearance: CZn-Formula A and CZn-Formula B were both used to calculate systemic clearance; the first is a general formula and the second is used for the specific analysis of a single-compartment model; CZn-Formula C is widely used in medical practices to analyze kinetic routine. Basal serum zinc values, which were within the reference range for healthy children, increased significantly after oral zinc supplementation. The three formulas used gave different results for zinc clearance both before and after oral zinc supplementation. CZn-Formula B showed a positive correlation with basal serum zinc concentration after oral supplementation (R2=0.1172, P=0.0306). In addition, CZn-Formula B (P=0.0002) was more effective than CZn-Formula A (P=0.6028) and CZn-Formula C (P=0.0732) in detecting small variations in body zinc status. All three of the formulas used are suitable for studying zinc kinetics; however, CZn-Formula B is particularly effective at detecting small changes in body zinc status in healthy children.

  15. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  16. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  18. Zinc alloy enhances strength and creep resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Machler, M.

    1996-10-01

    A family of high-performance ternary zinc-copper-aluminum alloys has been developed that provides higher strength, hardness, and creep resistance than the traditional zinc-aluminum alloys Zamak 3, Zamak 5, and ZA-8. Designated ACuZinc, mechanical properties comparable to those of more expensive materials make it suitable for high-load applications and those at elevated temperatures. This article describes the alloy`s composition, properties, and historical development.

  19. Directed spatial organization of zinc oxide nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Julia [Albuquerque, NM; Liu, Jun [Richland, WA

    2009-02-17

    A method for controllably forming zinc oxide nanostructures on a surface via an organic template, which is formed using a stamp prepared from pre-defined relief structures, inking the stamp with a solution comprising self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecules, contacting the stamp to the surface, such as Ag sputtered on Si, and immersing the surface with the patterned SAM molecules with a zinc-containing solution with pH control to form zinc oxide nanostructures on the bare Ag surface.

  20. Serotonin signaling in the brain of adult female mice is required for sexual preference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677

  1. A new balancing act: The many roles of melatonin and serotonin in plant growth and development

    PubMed Central

    Erland, Lauren A E; Murch, Susan J; Reiter, Russel J; Saxena, Praveen K

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin and serotonin are indoleamines first identified as neurotransmitters in vertebrates; they have now been found to be ubiquitously present across all forms of life. Both melatonin and serotonin were discovered in plants several years after their discovery in mammals, but their presence has now been confirmed in almost all plant families. The mechanisms of action of melatonin and serotonin are still poorly defined. Melatonin and serotonin possess important roles in plant growth and development, including functions in chronoregulation and modulation of reproductive development, control of root and shoot organogenesis, maintenance of plant tissues, delay of senescence, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. This review focuses on the roles of melatonin and serotonin as a novel class of plant growth regulators. Their roles in reproductive and vegetative plant growth will be examined including an overview of current hypotheses and knowledge regarding their mechanisms of action in specific responses. PMID:26418957

  2. Brief Report: Whole Blood Serotonin Levels and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Marler, Sarah; Ferguson, Bradley J; Lee, Evon Batey; Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C; McDonnell, Erin; Macklin, Eric A; Levitt, Pat; Gillespie, Catherine Hagan; Anderson, George M; Margolis, Kara Gross; Beversdorf, David Q; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2016-03-01

    Elevated whole blood serotonin levels are observed in more than 25% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Co-occurring gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are also common in ASD but have not previously been examined in relationship with hyperserotonemia, despite the synthesis of serotonin in the gut. In 82 children and adolescents with ASD, we observed a correlation between a quantitative measure of lower GI symptoms and whole blood serotonin levels. No significant association was seen between functional constipation diagnosis and serotonin levels in the hyperserotonemia range, suggesting that this correlation is not driven by a single subgroup. More specific assessment of gut function, including the microbiome, will be necessary to evaluate the contribution of gut physiology to serotonin levels in ASD.

  3. Human Beta Cells Produce and Release Serotonin to Inhibit Glucagon Secretion from Alpha Cells.

    PubMed

    Almaça, Joana; Molina, Judith; Menegaz, Danusa; Pronin, Alexey N; Tamayo, Alejandro; Slepak, Vladlen; Berggren, Per-Olof; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2016-12-20

    In the pancreatic islet, serotonin is an autocrine signal increasing beta cell mass during metabolic challenges such as those associated with pregnancy or high-fat diet. It is still unclear whether serotonin is relevant for regular islet physiology and hormone secretion. Here, we show that human beta cells produce and secrete serotonin when stimulated with increases in glucose concentration. Serotonin secretion from beta cells decreases cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in neighboring alpha cells via 5-HT 1F receptors and inhibits glucagon secretion. Without serotonergic input, alpha cells lose their ability to regulate glucagon secretion in response to changes in glucose concentration, suggesting that diminished serotonergic control of alpha cells can cause glucose blindness and the uncontrolled glucagon secretion associated with diabetes. Supporting this model, pharmacological activation of 5-HT 1F receptors reduces glucagon secretion and has hypoglycemic effects in diabetic mice. Thus, modulation of serotonin signaling in the islet represents a drug intervention opportunity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Effect of chronic D-fenfluramine administration on rat hypothalamic serotonin levels and release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of administering to rats (in doses of 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days) of an anorectic agent, D-fenfluramine, on the serotonin levels in hypothalamic tissue and on the in vitro release of serotonin by hypothalamic slices was investigated in rats which were sacrificed six days after the end of treatment. It was found that D-fenfuramine had no effect on tissue serotonin in doses from 1.25 to 5 mg/kg. However, given at 10 mg/kg level, serotonin led to a 22 percent decrease. The release of serotonin was found to be not affected by D-fenfluramine.

  5. Intact coding region of the serotonin transporter gene in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Altemus, M.; Murphy, D.L.; Greenberg, B.

    1996-07-26

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that obsessive-compulsive disorder is genetically transmitted in some families, although no genetic abnormalities have been identified in individuals with this disorder. The selective response of obsessive-compulsive disorder to treatment with agents which block serotonin reuptake suggests the gene coding for the serotonin transporter as a candidate gene. The primary structure of the serotonin-transporter coding region was sequenced in 22 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, using direct PCR sequencing of cDNA synthesized from platelet serotonin-transporter mRNA. No variations in amino acid sequence were found among the obsessive-compulsive disorder patients or healthy controls. These results do not support a rolemore » for alteration in the primary structure of the coding region of the serotonin-transporter gene in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder. 27 refs.« less

  6. Boosting serotonin in the brain: is it time to revamp the treatment of depression?

    PubMed

    Torrente, Mariana P; Gelenberg, Alan J; Vrana, Kent E

    2012-05-01

    Abnormalities in serotonin systems are presumably linked to various psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and depression. Medications intended for these disorders aim to either block the reuptake or the degradation of this neurotransmitter. In an alternative approach, efforts have been made to enhance serotonin levels through dietary manipulation of precursor levels with modest clinical success. In the last 30 years, there has been little improvement in the pharmaceutical management of depression, and now is the time to revisit therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this disease. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin. A recently discovered isoform, TPH2, is responsible for serotonin biosynthesis in the brain. Learning how to activate this enzyme (and its polymorphic versions) may lead to a new, more selective generation of antidepressants, able to regulate the levels of serotonin in the brain with fewer side effects.

  7. A new balancing act: The many roles of melatonin and serotonin in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Erland, Lauren A E; Murch, Susan J; Reiter, Russel J; Saxena, Praveen K

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin and serotonin are indoleamines first identified as neurotransmitters in vertebrates; they have now been found to be ubiquitously present across all forms of life. Both melatonin and serotonin were discovered in plants several years after their discovery in mammals, but their presence has now been confirmed in almost all plant families. The mechanisms of action of melatonin and serotonin are still poorly defined. Melatonin and serotonin possess important roles in plant growth and development, including functions in chronoregulation and modulation of reproductive development, control of root and shoot organogenesis, maintenance of plant tissues, delay of senescence, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. This review focuses on the roles of melatonin and serotonin as a novel class of plant growth regulators. Their roles in reproductive and vegetative plant growth will be examined including an overview of current hypotheses and knowledge regarding their mechanisms of action in specific responses.

  8. The serotonin transporter plays an important role in male sexual behavior: a study in serotonin transporter knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Chan, Johnny S W; Snoeren, Eelke M S; Cuppen, Edwin; Waldinger, Marcel D; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald S

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter for sexual behaviors. Heterozygous (+/-) serotonin transporter (SERT) rats and SERT knockout rats (-/-) have serotonergic disturbances with significant elevations of basal extracellular 5-HT levels. To investigate the putative role of the SERT in male sexual behavior. After extensive sexual training, the effects of the 5-HT(1A/7) receptor agonist ± 8-OH-DPAT, the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100 635 and a combination of both on sexual behaviors of SERT(-/-) and SERT(+/-) knockout and wildtype (SERT(+/+) ) male Wistar rats were examined. Male rat sexual behaviors of mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations. SERT(-/-) had lower basal ejaculation frequencies than SERT(+/-) and SERT(+/+) animals. ± 8-OH-DPAT enhanced sexual performance in all three genotypes to the same extent. WAY100635 dose-dependently inhibited sexual behavior in all three genotypes with significant dose to genotype interactions. WAY100635 exerted the strongest effects in SERT(-/-) animals. The combination of a dose range of ± 8-OH-DPAT and a selected dose of WAY100635 revealed only partial antagonism by ± 8-OH-DPAT of the sexual inhibitory effects of WAY100635. Absence of the serotonin transporter reduces basal ejaculatory performance in male rats. Pharmacological experiments suggest that separate pools of 5-HT(1A) receptors regulate different aspects of sexual performance in male rats. 5-HT(7) receptors may play a minor role in the partial recovery of sexual behavior after combination of ± 8-OH-DPAT and WAY100635. The SERT(-/-) rat may be a model for chronic SSRI treatment, delayed ejaculation, anorgasmia, and/or low libido. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Interaction between Serotonin Transporter and Serotonin Receptor 1 B genes polymorphisms may be associated with antisocial alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have hypothesized that genes regulating the components of the serotonin system, including serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and serotonin 1 B receptor (5-HT1B), may be associated with alcoholism, but their results are contradictory because of alcoholism’s heterogeneity. Therefore, we examined whether the 5-HTTLPR gene and 5-HT1B gene G861C polymorphism are susceptibility factors for a specific subtype of alcoholism, antisocial alcoholism in Han Chinese in Taiwan. Methods We recruited 273 Han Chinese male inmates with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) [antisocial alcoholism (AS-ALC) group (n = 120) and antisocial non-alcoholism (AS-N-ALC) group (n = 153)] and 191 healthy male controls from the community. Genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. Results There were no significant differences in the genotypic frequency of the 5-HT1B G861C polymorphism between the 3 groups. Although AS-ALC group members more frequently carried the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/LG, and LG/LG genotypes than controls, the difference became non-significant after controlling for the covarying effects of age. However, the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/LG, and LG/LG genotypes may have interacted with the 5-HT1B G861C C/C polymorphism and increased the risk of becoming antisocial alcoholism. Conclusion Our study suggests that neither the 5-HTTLPR gene nor the 5-HT1B G861C polymorphism alone is a risk factor for antisocial alcoholism in Taiwan’s Han Chinese population, but that the interaction between both genes may increase susceptibility to antisocial alcoholism. PMID:22550993

  10. Interaction between serotonin transporter and serotonin receptor 1 B genes polymorphisms may be associated with antisocial alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Chen-Lin; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lu, Ru-Band

    2012-07-11

    Several studies have hypothesized that genes regulating the components of the serotonin system, including serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and serotonin 1 B receptor (5-HT1B), may be associated with alcoholism, but their results are contradictory because of alcoholism's heterogeneity. Therefore, we examined whether the 5-HTTLPR gene and 5-HT1B gene G861C polymorphism are susceptibility factors for a specific subtype of alcoholism, antisocial alcoholism in Han Chinese in Taiwan. We recruited 273 Han Chinese male inmates with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) [antisocial alcoholism (AS-ALC) group (n=120) and antisocial non-alcoholism (AS-N-ALC) group (n=153)] and 191 healthy male controls from the community. Genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. There were no significant differences in the genotypic frequency of the 5-HT1B G861C polymorphism between the 3 groups. Although AS-ALC group members more frequently carried the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/LG, and LG/LG genotypes than controls, the difference became non-significant after controlling for the covarying effects of age. However, the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/LG, and LG/LG genotypes may have interacted with the 5-HT1B G861C C/C polymorphism and increased the risk of becoming antisocial alcoholism. Our study suggests that neither the 5-HTTLPR gene nor the 5-HT1B G861C polymorphism alone is a risk factor for antisocial alcoholism in Taiwan's Han Chinese population, but that the interaction between both genes may increase susceptibility to antisocial alcoholism.

  11. Bronze Alloy Development for Zinc Vapor Capture

    DOE PAGES

    Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-04-24

    After gamma-emitting 65Zinc was detected in a vacuum pumping system contained in a tritium glovebox, a series of experiments were undertaken to develop a method and material to trap zinc vapors in an area that is more suitable for preventing dose to workers. In this study, bronze alloys with 0–30% tin were prepared using a powder metallurgical process and exposed to three levels of zinc vapors. Furthermore, all of the alloys demonstrated acceptable zinc gettering capacity; however, low tin content bronzes are considered for further testing.

  12. Status of zinc injection in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, C.A.

    1995-03-01

    Based on laboratory and other studies, it was concluded that zinc addition in a PWR primary coolant should result in reduced Alloy 600 PWSCC and general corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Because of these positive results, a Westinghouse Owner`s Subgroup, EPRI, and Westinghouse provided funds to continue the development and application of zinc in an operating plant. As part of the program, Southern Operating Nuclear Company agreed to operate the Farley 2 plant with zinc addition as a demonstration test of the effectiveness of zinc. Since zinc is incorporated in the corrosion oxide film on the primary systemmore » surfaces and Farley 2 is a mature plant, it was estimated that about 10 kgs of zinc would be needed to condition the plant before an equilibrium value in the coolant would be reached. The engineered aspects of a Zinc Addition and Monitoring System (ZAMS) considered such items as the constitutents, location, sizing and water supply of the ZAMS. Baseline data such as the PWSCC history of the Alloy 600 steam generator tubing, fuel oxide thickness, fuel crud deposits, radiation levels, and RCP seal leak-off rates were obtained before zinc addition is initiated. This presentation summarizes some of the work performed under the program, and the status of zinc injection in the Farley 2 plant.« less

  13. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating effects, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes have consistently shown a limited benefit. We hypothesize, therefore, that zinc homeostatic adjustments during pregnancy and lactation improve zinc utilization sufficiently to provide the increased zinc needs in these stages and, therefore, mitigate immediate detrimental effects due to a low zinc intake. The specific questions addressed are the following: How is zinc utilization altered during pregnancy and lactation? Are those homeostatic adjustments influenced by maternal zinc status, dietary zinc, or zinc supplementation? These questions are addressed by critically reviewing results from published human studies on zinc homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation carried out in different populations worldwide. PMID:22852063

  14. Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

    2014-12-01

    Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

  15. Is Serum Serotonin Involved in the Bone Loss of Young Females with Anorexia Nervosa?

    PubMed

    Maïmoun, L; Guillaume, S; Lefebvre, P; Philibert, P; Bertet, H; Picot, M-C; Courtet, P; Mariano-Goulart, D; Renard, E; Sultan, C

    2016-03-01

    Recent experimental data suggest that circulating serotonin interacts with bone metabolism, although this is less clear in humans. This study investigated whether serum serotonin interferes with bone metabolism in young women with anorexia nervosa (AN), a clinical model of energy deprivation. Serum serotonin, markers of bone turnover [osteocalcin (OC), procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), type I-C telopeptide breakdown products (CTX)], leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its binding protein (IGFBP-3) were assessed. Whole body, spine, hip, and radius areal bone mineral density BMD (aBMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 21 patients with AN and 19 age-matched controls. Serum serotonin, leptin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, OC, PINP, and aBMD at all sites, radius excepted, were significantly reduced in AN whereas CTX and sOB-R were increased compared with controls. Serum serotonin levels were positively correlated with weight, body mass index, whole body fat mass, leptin, and IGF-1, and negatively with CTX for the entire population. Low serum serotonin levels are observed in patients with AN. Although no direct link between low serum serotonin levels and bone mass was identified in these patients, the negative relationship between serotonin and markers of bone resorption found in all population nevertheless suggests the implication of serotonin in bone metabolism. Impact of low serum serotonin on bone in AN warrants further studies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Dextromethorphan, chlorphenamine and serotonin toxicity: case report and systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Monte, Andrew A; Chuang, Ryan; Bodmer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review was to describe a patient with serotonin toxicity after an overdose of dextromethorphan and chlorphenamine and to perform a systematic literature review exploring whether dextromethorphan and chlorphenamine may be equally contributory in the development of serotonin toxicity in overdose. A Medline literature review was undertaken to identify cases of serotonin toxicity due to dextromethorphan and/or chlorphenamine. Case reports were included if they included information on the ingested dose or plasma concentrations of dextromethorphan and/or chlorphenamine, information about co-ingestions and detailed clinical information to evaluate for serotonin toxicity. Cases were reviewed by two toxicologists and serotonin toxicity, defined by the Hunter criteria, was diagnosed when appropriate. The literature was then reviewed to evaluate whether chlorphenamine may be a serotonergic agent. One hundred and fifty-five articles of dextromethorphan or chlorphenamine poisoning were identified. There were 23 case reports of dextromethorphan, of which 18 were excluded for lack of serotonin toxicity. No cases were identified in which serotonin toxicity could be solely attributed to chlorphenamine. This left six cases of dextrometorphane and/or chlorphenamine overdose, including our own, in which serotonin toxicity could be diagnosed based on the presented clinical information. In three of the six eligible cases dextromethorphan and chlorphenamine were the only overdosed drugs. There is substantial evidence from the literature that chlorphenamine is a similarly potent serotonin re-uptake inhibitor when compared with dextrometorphan. Chlorphenamine is a serotonergic medication and combinations of chlorphenamine and dextromethorphan may be dangerous in overdose due to an increased risk of serotonin toxicity. PMID:21175434

  17. Glucocorticoids Inhibit Basal and Hormone-Induced Serotonin Synthesis in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hasni Ebou, Moina; Singh-Estivalet, Amrit; Launay, Jean-Marie; Callebert, Jacques; Tronche, François; Ferré, Pascal; Gautier, Jean-François; Guillemain, Ghislaine; Bréant, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a major complication of chronic Glucocorticoids (GCs) treatment. GCs induce insulin resistance and also inhibit insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Yet, a full understanding of this negative regulation remains to be deciphered. In the present study, we investigated whether GCs could inhibit serotonin synthesis in beta cell since this neurotransmitter has been shown to be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion. To this aim, serotonin synthesis was evaluated in vitro after treatment with GCs of either islets from CD1 mice or MIN6 cells, a beta-cell line. We also explored the effect of GCs on the stimulation of serotonin synthesis by several hormones such as prolactin and GLP 1. We finally studied this regulation in islet in two in vivo models: mice treated with GCs and with liraglutide, a GLP1 analog, and mice deleted for the glucocorticoid receptor in the pancreas. We showed in isolated islets and MIN6 cells that GCs decreased expression and activity of the two key enzymes of serotonin synthesis, Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) and 2 (Tph2), leading to reduced serotonin contents. GCs also blocked the induction of serotonin synthesis by prolactin or by a previously unknown serotonin activator, the GLP-1 analog exendin-4. In vivo, activation of the Glucagon-like-Peptide-1 receptor with liraglutide during 4 weeks increased islet serotonin contents and GCs treatment prevented this increase. Finally, islets from mice deleted for the GR in the pancreas displayed an increased expression of Tph1 and Tph2 and a strong increased serotonin content per islet. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an original inhibition of serotonin synthesis by GCs, both in basal condition and after stimulation by prolactin or activators of the GLP-1 receptor. This regulation may contribute to the deleterious effects of GCs on beta cells. PMID:26901633

  18. The level of serotonin in the superficial masseter muscle in relation to local pain and allodynia.

    PubMed

    Ernberg, M; Hedenberg-Magnusson, B; Alstergren, P; Kopp, S

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if serotonin is present in the human masseter muscle and if so, whether it is involved in the modulation of local muscle pain or allodynia. Thirty-five patients with pain and tenderness of the masseter muscle as well as ten healthy individuals were included in the study. Of the patients, 18 suffered from fibromyalgia and 17 had localized myalgia, e.g. myofascial pain in the temporomandibular system. The participants were examined clinically with special consideration to the masseter muscle and the pressure pain threshold as well as tolerance levels of this muscle were assessed. Intramuscular microdialysis was performed in order to sample serotonin and a venous blood sample was collected for analysis of the serum level of serotonin. Serotonin was present in the masseter muscle and the level was significantly higher in the initial sample than in the sample collected during steady state. The level of serotonin in the masseter muscle in relation to the level of serotonin in the blood serum was calculated. This fraction of serotonin was higher in the patients with fibromyalgia than in healthy individuals and high level of serotonin was associated with pain as well as allodynia of the masseter muscle. In conclusion, the results of this study show that serotonin is present in the human masseter muscle both immediately following puncture and in a subsequent steady state and that it is associated with pain and allodynia. The origin of the serotonin seems partly to be the blood, but our results indicate that peripheral release also occurs.

  19. Positron emission tomography quantification of serotonin transporter in suicide attempters with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeffrey M; Hesselgrave, Natalie; Ogden, R Todd; Sullivan, Gregory M; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V

    2013-08-15

    Several lines of evidence implicate abnormal serotonergic function in suicidal behavior and completed suicide, including low serotonin transporter binding in postmortem studies of completed suicide. We have also reported low in vivo serotonin transporter binding in major depressive disorder (MDD) during a major depressive episode using positron emission tomography (PET) with [(11)C]McN5652. We quantified regional brain serotonin transporter binding in vivo in depressed suicide attempters, depressed nonattempters, and healthy controls using PET and a superior radiotracer, [(11)C]DASB. Fifty-one subjects with DSM-IV current MDD, 15 of whom were past suicide attempters, and 32 healthy control subjects underwent PET scanning with [(11)C]DASB to quantify in vivo regional brain serotonin transporter binding. Metabolite-corrected arterial input functions and plasma free-fraction were acquired to improve quantification. Depressed suicide attempters had lower serotonin transporter binding in midbrain compared with depressed nonattempters (p = .031) and control subjects (p = .0093). There was no difference in serotonin transporter binding comparing all depressed subjects with healthy control subjects considering six a priori regions of interest simultaneously (p = .41). Low midbrain serotonin transporter binding appears to be related to the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior rather than of major depressive disorder. This is consistent with postmortem work showing low midbrain serotonin transporter binding capacity in depressed suicides and may partially explain discrepant in vivo findings quantifying serotonin transporter in depression. Future studies should investigate midbrain serotonin transporter binding as a predictor of suicidal behavior in MDD and determine the cause of low binding. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Serotonin targets inhibitory synapses to induce modulation of network functions

    PubMed Central

    Manzke, Till; Dutschmann, Mathias; Schlaf, Gerald; Mörschel, Michael; Koch, Uwe R.; Ponimaskin, Evgeni; Bidon, Olivier; Lalley, Peter M.; Richter, Diethelm W.

    2009-01-01

    The cellular effects of serotonin (5-HT), a neuromodulator with widespread influences in the central nervous system, have been investigated. Despite detailed knowledge about the molecular biology of cellular signalling, it is not possible to anticipate the responses of neuronal networks to a global action of 5-HT. Heterogeneous expression of various subtypes of serotonin receptors (5-HTR) in a variety of neurons differently equipped with cell-specific transmitter receptors and ion channel assemblies can provoke diverse cellular reactions resulting in various forms of network adjustment and, hence, motor behaviour. Using the respiratory network as a model for reciprocal synaptic inhibition, we demonstrate that 5-HT1AR modulation primarily affects inhibition through glycinergic synapses. Potentiation of glycinergic inhibition of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons induces a functional reorganization of the network leading to a characteristic change of motor output. The changes in network operation are robust and help to overcome opiate-induced respiratory depression. Hence, 5-HT1AR activation stabilizes the rhythmicity of breathing during opiate medication of pain. PMID:19651659