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Sample records for zinc chromate pigments

  1. Single crystal X-ray structure of the artists' pigment zinc yellow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær; Christiansen, Marie Bitsch; Vinum, Morten Gotthold; Sanyova, Jana; Bendix, Jesper

    2017-08-01

    The artists' pigment zinc yellow is in general described as a complex potassium zinc chromate with the empirical formula 4ZnCrO4·K2O·3H2O. Even though the pigment has been in use since the second half of the 19th century also in large-scale industrial applications, the exact structure had hitherto been unknown. In this work, zinc yellow was synthesised by precipitation from an aqueous solution of zinc nitrate and potassium chromate under both neutral and basic conditions, and the products were compared with the pigment used in industrial paints. Analyses by Raman microscopy (MRS), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), showed that the synthesised products and the industrial pigment were identical. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography determined the structure of zinc yellow as KZn2(CrO4)2(H2O)(OH) or as KZn2(CrO4)2(H3O2) emphasizing the μ-H3O2- moiety. Notably, the zinc yellow is isostructural to the recently structurally characterized cadmium analog and both belong to the natrochalcite structure type.

  2. Pigment tests evaluated by a model of chromatic discrimination.

    PubMed

    Smith, V C; Pokorny, J; Yeh, T

    1993-08-01

    Clinical color-vision tests are evaluated within the framework of a model of chromatic discrimination in terms of cone excitation. The motivation for this study was to derive a method for evaluation of test design, test sensitivity, and observer performance. The discrimination model is based on the assumption that chromatic discrimination is mediated in two independent channels, one for short-wavelength cones and one for long- and middle-wavelength cones. Luminance-dependent templates are derived for each channel, and they describe chromatic-discrimination behavior of the young color-normal observer. The templates incorporate receptor- and opponent-level gain controls. We show how the chromaticities of clinical tests can be calculated in cone-excitation units and how discrimination behavior on the tests can be plotted on the templates. The tests include the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue, the Farnsworth Panel D-15, the Farnsworth Panel D-15 desaturated, the American Optical Hardy-Rand-Rittler, the Farnsworth F2 plate, the Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates, Part II, the Ishihara, and the Minimalist tests. Clinical-test data collected on young color-normal observers at different illumination levels show the validity of the techniques.

  3. Cancer mortality among workers exposed to zinc chromate paints.

    PubMed

    Dalager, N A; Mason, T J; Fraumeni, J F; Hoover, R; Payne, W W

    1980-01-01

    To evaluate the carcinogenicity of chromium compounds among user industries, the proportionate mortality experience of spray painters exposed to zinc chromate primer paints and electroplaters exposed to chromic acid in the aircraft maintenance industry was examined. Compared to the mortality patterns of U.S. white males, no excess of cancer was found in the 48 deaths among electroplaters. Analysis of the 202 deaths among spray painters revealed a significant excess of cancer, primarily of the respiratory tract. The relative increase of respiratory cancer showed a positive gradient with the length of estimated exposure time, and was confined to painters whose interval from first employment to death was at least 20 years. The findings consistent with occupational exposure to chromium compounds, previously shown to be carcinogenic in manufacturing processes, but the effect of other paint constituents, tobacco smoking, or methodologic limitations could not be discounted.

  4. [Effect of five kinds of pigments on the chromaticity of dental zirconia ceramic].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Zheng, Yuan-li; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2007-08-01

    All-ceramic dental restorations should match the colour of the natural teeth in order to fulfill aesthetic demands. The goal of this study was to evaluate the colouration of zirconia ceramic by adding five kinds of pigments. The influence of the pigments concentrations on the chromaticity were also analysed. Different concentrations of five kinds of pigments were added on zirconia powder, then compacted at 200MPa using cold isostatic pressure, sintered to 1400 degrees centigrade and hold for two hours. The chromaticity of sintered bodies were measured with chroma meter. The colours achieved by the different pigments were presented in the CIELab system. The a* value increased with the added amount of Er(2)O(3), while b* value raised with the increasing amount of CeO(2) and Pr(6)O(11). However, three pigments failed to decrease L* value and the sintered body looked too bright. The sintered bodies were brown when adding Fe(2)O(3) to zirconia. Adding MnO2 could decrease the L* value of sintered bodies significantly, but had little influence on the a* and b* value. Five kinds of colorized zirconia ceramic could cover with the chromaticity range of dental ceramic which necessitate further investigation.

  5. Zinc Chromate Induces Chromosome Instability and DNA Double Strand Breaks in Human Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hong; Holmes, Amie L.; Young, Jamie L.; Qin, Qin; Joyce, Kellie; Pelsue, Stephen C.; Peng, Cheng; Wise, Sandra S.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Wallace, William T.; Hammond, Dianne; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is a respiratory toxicant and carcinogen, with solubility playing an important role in its carcinogenic potential. Zinc chromate, a water insoluble or ‘particulate’ Cr(VI) compound, has been shown to be carcinogenic in epidemiology studies and to induce tumors in experimental animals, but its genotoxicity is poorly understood. Our study shows that zinc chromate induced concentration-dependent increases in cytotoxicity, chromosome damage and DNA double strand breaks in human lung cells. In response to zinc chromate-induced breaks, MRE11 expression was increased and ATM and ATR were phosphorylated, indicating that the DNA double strand break repair system was initiated in the cells. In addition, our data show that zinc chromate-induced double strand breaks were only observed in the G2/M phase population, with no significant amount of double strand breaks observed in G1 and S phase cells. These data will aid in understanding the mechanisms of zinc chromate toxicity and carcinogenesis. PMID:19027772

  6. Hemisynthesis and structural and chromatic characterization of delphinidin 3-O-glucoside-vescalagin hybrid pigments.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Jacquet, Rémi; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; Quideau, Stéphane

    2013-11-27

    During red wine maturation in the presence of oak wood, reactions involving anthocyanins and ellagitannins might affect wine organoleptic properties such as color and astringency. In this work, the condensation reaction between myrtillin (delphinidin 3-O-glucoside) and vescalagin has been performed to determine the behavior of this anthocyanin in this kind of reaction and to assess the possible impact of such a reaction in wine color modulation. Two different hybrid pigments have been hemisynthetized and characterized by HPLC-DAD-MS and NMR spectroscopy. These pigments have been identified as 1-deoxyvescalagin-(1β→8)-myrtillin (major) and 1-deoxyvescalagin-(1β→6)-myrtillin (minor). The minor pigment could be formed both by the condensation reaction and by a regioisomerization process from the major pigment. Moreover, the chromatic properties of these pigments have been studied and compared to those of myrtillin. The hybrid pigments showed an important bathochromic shift (ca. 20 nm) in the maximum absorbance wavelength and lower molar absorption coefficients.

  7. Accelerated Corrosion Results for Zinc/Nickel-Plated Automotive Parts Posttreated With Trivalent Chromate Rinse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    400 and 300 h in neutral salt spray. 5 Similarly plated samples post treated with trivalent chromium rinse lasted 450 and 200 h in neutral salt...Accelerated Corrosion Results for Zinc/Nickel-Plated Automotive Parts Posttreated With Trivalent Chromate Rinse by Chris E. Miller, Brian E...Posttreated With Trivalent Chromate Rinse Chris E. Miller and Brian E. Placzankis Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL I. Carl Handsy

  8. Chronic Exposure to Zinc Chromate Induces Centrosome Amplification and Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Bypass in Human Lung Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, Sandra S.; Pelsue, Stephen C.; Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim; Lingle, Wilma; Salisbury, Jeffery; Gallagher, Jamie; Wise, John Pierce

    2010-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are known human lung carcinogens. Solubility plays an important role in its carcinogenicity with the particulate or insoluble form being the most potent. Of the particulate Cr(VI) compounds, zinc chromate appears to be the most potent carcinogen, however, very few studies have investigated its carcinogenic mechanism. In this study, we investigated the ability of chronic exposure to zinc chromate to induce numerical chromosome instability. We found no increase in aneuploidy after a 24 hour exposure to zinc chromate, but with more chronic exposures, zinc chromate induced concentration- and time-dependent increases in aneuploidy in the form of hypodiploidy, hyperdiploidy and tetraploidy. Zinc chromate also induced centrosome amplification in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in both interphase and mitotic cells after chronic exposure, producing cells with centriolar defects. Further, chronic exposure to zinc chromate induced concentration- and time-dependent increases in spindle assembly checkpoint bypass with increases in centromere spreading, premature centromere division and premature anaphase. Lastly, we found that chronic exposure to zinc chromate induced a G2 arrest. All together, these data indicate that zinc chromate can induce chromosome instability after prolonged exposures. PMID:20030412

  9. Simultaneous determination of zinc and chromate in cooling water by differential pulse polarography

    SciT

    Jindal, V.K.; Kham, M.A.; Bhatnagar, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of differential pulse polarography (DPP) for the simultaneous determination of zinc and chromate in cooling water is reported where zinc (5 ppm), chromate (20 ppm), and polyphosphate (50 ppm) formulation is used as a corrosion inhibitor. This will help in effective control of cooling tower performance. The DPP method has been applied for the simultaneous determination of zinc and chromate ions in process and cooling water samples from fertilizer plants in India. The method is based on the reduction of Cr and Zn on SMDE in 1 M NH3-0.1 M NH/sub 4/Cl and 0.005% gelatine supporting electrolyte. Duemore » to interference it is essential to complex calcium ions by adding polyphosphate and to destroy NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ by adding sulfamic acid along with hydrochloric acid before the actual recording of DP polarograms. The present DP polarographic method for the simultaneous determination of zinc and chromate is comparable in its utility and applicability with spectrophotometric methods. The method has a better accuracy and higher sensitivity and is quick, as both of the ions can be determined in a single scan. 10 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.« less

  10. Non Chromate, ZVOC Coatings for Steel Substrates on Army and Navy Aircraft and Ground Vehicles: Non Chromate Sealers for Zinc Phosphate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-30

    Defense, “Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) System Application Procedures and Quality Control Inspection”, Washington, DC, June 2003. 4. Non ...WP-200906) Non -Chromate, ZVOC Coatings for Steel Substrates on Army and Navy Aircraft and Ground Vehicles Non -Chromate Sealers for Zinc...comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE

  11. Anticorrosion Properties of Pigments based on Ferrite Coated Zinc Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benda, P.; Kalendová, A.

    The paper deals with a new anticorrosion pigment, synthesized on a core-shell basis. For its syntheses a starting substance is used that forms the lamellar shaped core; namely lamellar zinc. The cover of the core is represented by zinc oxide, which is in fact partly oxidized lamellar zinc core, and is created during the calcination of the pigment. The compound that forms the top layer of the core, a ferrite, is also formed during calcination. The formula for the prepared pigment is then defined as MexZn1-xFe2O4/Zn and the formula of thin ferrite layer is MexZn1-xFe2O4 (where Me = Ca, Mg). Due to its shape, this anticorrosion pigment includes another anticorrosion effect, the so called "barrier effect". The mechanisms of anticorrosion effect, corrosion efficiency and mechanical properties were investigated for epoxy-ester paint systems with 10%pigment volume concentration (PVC). Mechanical tests were performed to determine the adhesiveness and mechanical resistance of paints and accelerated corrosion tests were carried out to evaluate efficiency against chemical degradation factors.

  12. Effect of Chromate and Chromate-Free Organic Coatings on Corrosion Fatigue of an Aluminum Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-20

    Investigations of alloy AA7075 corrosion in acid rain solution, inhibited by chromate-free blends of zinc phosphate with bentonite, zeolite and calcium...with solution components. Single use of zinc phosphate and these ion exchanged pigments for corrosion inhibition do not provide desired effect...primer performance against corrosion fatigue cracking under a commercial polyurethane topcoat. As a control , they used samples of chromated AA2024

  13. A Photoluminescence Study of the Changes Induced in the Zinc White Pigment by Formation of Zinc Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Artesani, Alessia; Gherardi, Francesca; Nevin, Austin; Valentini, Gianluca; Comelli, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    It is known that oil paintings containing zinc white are subject to rapid degradation. This is caused by the interaction between the active groups of binder and the metal ions of the pigment, which gives rise to the formation of new zinc complexes (metal soaps). Ongoing studies on zinc white paints have been limited to the chemical mechanisms that lead to the formation of zinc complexes. On the contrary, little is known of the photo-physical changes induced in the zinc oxide crystal structure following this interaction. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy has been applied to follow modifications in the luminescent zinc white pigment when mixed with binder. Significant changes in trap state photoluminescence emissions have been detected: the enhancement of a blue emission combined with a change of the decay kinetic of the well-known green emission. Complementary data from molecular analysis of paints using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms the formation of zinc carboxylates and corroborates the mechanism for zinc complexes formation. We support the hypothesis that zinc ions migrate into binder creating novel vacancies, affecting the photoluminescence intensity and lifetime properties of zinc oxide. Here, we further demonstrate the advantages of a time-resolved photoluminescence approach for studying defects in semiconductor pigments. PMID:28772700

  14. Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions

    SciT

    Bortolaz de Oliveira, Henrique; Wypych, Fernando, E-mail: wypych@ufpr.br

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZnHN) and Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts were synthesized and used to remove chromate ions from solutions at pH 8.0. The materials were characterized by many instrumental techniques before and after chromate ion removal. ZnHN decomposed after contact with the chromate solution, whereas the layered structure of Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate (Zn/NiHN) and Zn/Ni hydroxide acetate (Zn/NiHA) remained their layers intact after the topotactic anionic exchange reaction, only changing the basal distances. ZnHN, Zn/NiHN, and Zn/NiHA removed 210.1, 144.8, and 170.1 mg of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/g of material, respectively. Although the removal values obtained for Zn/NiHN andmore » Zn/NiHA were smaller than the values predicted for the ideal formulas of the solids (194.3 and 192.4 mg of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/g of material, respectively), the measured capacities were higher than the values achieved with many materials reported in the literature. Kinetic experiments showed the removal reaction was fast. To facilitate the solid/liquid separation process after chromium removal, Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts with magnetic supports were also synthesized, and their ability to remove chromate was evaluated. - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxide nitrate and Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate were synthesized. • The interlayer anions were replaced by chromate anions at pH=8.0. • Only Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate have the structure preserved after exchange. • Fast exchange reaction and high capacity of chromate removal were observed. • Magnetic materials were obtained to facilitate the solids removal the from solutions.« less

  15. Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Henrique Bortolaz; Wypych, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZnHN) and Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts were synthesized and used to remove chromate ions from solutions at pH 8.0. The materials were characterized by many instrumental techniques before and after chromate ion removal. ZnHN decomposed after contact with the chromate solution, whereas the layered structure of Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate (Zn/NiHN) and Zn/Ni hydroxide acetate (Zn/NiHA) remained their layers intact after the topotactic anionic exchange reaction, only changing the basal distances. ZnHN, Zn/NiHN, and Zn/NiHA removed 210.1, 144.8, and 170.1 mg of CrO42-/g of material, respectively. Although the removal values obtained for Zn/NiHN and Zn/NiHA were smaller than the values predicted for the ideal formulas of the solids (194.3 and 192.4 mg of CrO42-/g of material, respectively), the measured capacities were higher than the values achieved with many materials reported in the literature. Kinetic experiments showed the removal reaction was fast. To facilitate the solid/liquid separation process after chromium removal, Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts with magnetic supports were also synthesized, and their ability to remove chromate was evaluated.

  16. UV-A induced oxidative stress is more prominent in naturally pigmented aged human RPE cells compared to non-pigmented human RPE cells independent of zinc treatment.

    PubMed

    Biesemeier, Antje; Kokkinou, Despina; Julien, Sylvie; Heiduschka, Peter; Berneburg, Mark; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Schraermeyer, Ulrich

    2008-02-27

    To investigate the effects of zinc supplementation on human amelanotic (ARPE-19) and native pigmented retinal pigment epithelial cells (hRPE) under normal light conditions and after ultraviolet A light exposure. hRPE cells, containing both melanin and lipofuscin granules, were prepared from human donor eyes of 60-70 year old patients. Cells of the amelanotic ARPE-19 cell line and pigmented hRPE cells were treated with zinc chloride and subjected to oxidative stress by UV-A irradiation. Intracellular H(2)O(2) formation was measured using a fluorescence oxidation assay. Additionally, apoptosis and viability assays were performed. Control cells were treated identically except for irradiation and zinc supplementation. Under normal light conditions, zinc treated hRPE cells produced less H(2)O(2) than unsupplemented hRPE cells. Viability and apoptosis events did not change. After UV-A irradiation, ARPE and hRPE cells were greatly impaired in all tests performed compared to the non-irradiated controls. No differences were found after zinc supplementation. hRPE cells showed a higher apoptosis and mortality rate than non-pigmented cells when stressed by UV-A light. ARPE cells never showed any zinc related effects. In contrast, without irradiation, zinc supplementation reduced H(2)O(2) production in pigmented hRPE cells slightly. We did not find any zinc effect in irradiated hRPE cells. After UV light exposure, pigmented cells showed a higher apoptosis and mortality than cells lacking any pigmentation. We conclude that cells with pigmentation consisting of melanin and lipofuscin granules have more prooxidative than antioxidative capacity when stressed by UV light exposure compared to cells lacking any pigmentation.

  17. Characterisation of the rare cadmium chromate pigment in a 19th century tube colour by Raman, FTIR, X-ray and EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Marie Bitsch; Sørensen, Mikkel Agerbæk; Sanyova, Jana; Bendix, Jesper; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2017-03-01

    In an investigation of the artists' materials used by P. S. Krøyer the contents of the tube colours found in Krøyer's painting cabinet were examined. In most cases, the results of the pigment analyses were as expected based on our knowledge of artists' colours used in the late 1800s and early 1900s. However, in one of the tube colours labelled "Jaune de Cadmium Citron" (cadmium lemon yellow) an extremely rare cadmium chromate pigment was found. The pigment was analysed and characterised by Raman microscopy (MRS), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Cadmium chromate was synthesised by precipitation from an aqueous solution of cadmium nitrate and potassium chromate, and the resulting yellow crystals proved identical to the pigment found in the tube colour "Jaune de Cadmium Citron". The structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction identified the pigment as 2CdCrO4·KOH·H2O or more accurately as KCd2(CrO4)2(H3O2) illustrating the μ-H3O2- species. The yellow colour of the paint sample taken from the tube had a greenish hue, which became even more prominent upon storage and drying. EPR analysis of the sample showed the presence of paramagnetic degradation products containing Cr(III) and Cr(V).

  18. Characterisation of the rare cadmium chromate pigment in a 19th century tube colour by Raman, FTIR, X-ray and EPR.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Marie Bitsch; Sørensen, Mikkel Agerbæk; Sanyova, Jana; Bendix, Jesper; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2017-03-15

    In an investigation of the artists' materials used by P. S. Krøyer the contents of the tube colours found in Krøyer's painting cabinet were examined. In most cases, the results of the pigment analyses were as expected based on our knowledge of artists' colours used in the late 1800s and early 1900s. However, in one of the tube colours labelled "Jaune de Cadmium Citron" (cadmium lemon yellow) an extremely rare cadmium chromate pigment was found. The pigment was analysed and characterised by Raman microscopy (MRS), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Cadmium chromate was synthesised by precipitation from an aqueous solution of cadmium nitrate and potassium chromate, and the resulting yellow crystals proved identical to the pigment found in the tube colour "Jaune de Cadmium Citron". The structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction identified the pigment as 2CdCrO 4 ·KOH·H 2 O or more accurately as KCd 2 (CrO 4 ) 2 (H 3 O 2 ) illustrating the μ-H 3 O 2 - species. The yellow colour of the paint sample taken from the tube had a greenish hue, which became even more prominent upon storage and drying. EPR analysis of the sample showed the presence of paramagnetic degradation products containing Cr(III) and Cr(V). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Non-Chromate Passivations on Electroplated gamma-Phase Zinc Nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz, Steven Michael

    This research focused on the corrosion response and electrochemical behavior of electroplated low hydrogen embrittlement alkaline gamma-phase zinc nickel with passivation layers. The motivation was the need to replace hexavalent chromium conversion coatings in military grade electrical systems with a more environment friendly alternative. The passivation layers were employed for the purpose of mitigating corrosion attack while maintaining low contact resistance. Trivalent chromium-based passivations and cerium-based passivations were compared against the currently used hexavalent chromium conversion coating. The coating systems were compared using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic potentiodymanic scans, salt spray exposure testing, electrical resistance measurements, microstructure analysis, and compositional analysis. Coating systems with lower open circuit had a lower corrosion current and performed better during salt spray testing. All of the systems evaluated had corrosion products consistent with oxidized zinc compounds but the morphology of the passivation was dependent on the passivation. The electrical contact resistance ranged from 1 to 108 mO/cm 2, after salt spray testing. Two versions of Trivalent chromium-based passivations, were able to meet military performance specifications after corrosion testing.

  20. Ion beam modification of zinc white pigment characterized by ex situ and in situ μ-Raman and XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Gutiérrez, P. C.; Miro, S.; Miserque, F.

    2017-10-01

    Zinc oxide, known as zinc white, is one of the principal white pigments developed in the 18th century and was used by the Impressionist painters. ZnO as artists' pigment has occasionally been characterized by X-ray and ion beam techniques, but these studies are limited by the potential for visible radiation effect. Ion beam modifications of zinc oxide have extensively been investigated, but mainly for electronic and industrial applications. In this paper, we focus our investigation on ion beam modification of ZnO used as pigment. Two irradiation conditions have been used: an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam representative of PIXE analysis and 2 MeV H+ and 1.2 MeV Au + beams in vacuum to investigate irradiation modifications in electronic and nuclear energy loss regimes. Ion beam modification was characterized by ex situ and in situ micro-Raman spectrometry and XPS. The results shows that IBA of zinc white can be carried out safely in historical paintings with low current and dose.

  1. Chromate Dermatitis from Paint

    PubMed Central

    Engel, H. O.; Calnan, C. D.

    1963-01-01

    Among 250 workers engaged on wet sandpapering of primer paint on car bodies 65 developed a contact dermatitis. The average latent period before dermatitis developed was 4·6 months: only 60% of the patients made a completely satisfactory recovery. The average duration of dermatitis was 5·3 months. Two thirds of the men used one of two barrier creams supplied, while one third used none. Routine patch testing showed that the majority was allergic to chromate. It was found that a primer paint contained zinc chromate, which had been introduced into the paint by the manufacturers shortly before the first cases occurred. Removal of chromate from the paint resulted in a prompt cessation of new cases of dermatitis. Images PMID:14046155

  2. Chromate Dissociation from Primer Paint in Simulated Lung Fluid.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    not done properly. Chromium is found naturally in the earth’s crust; trivalent chromium is a necessary dietary mineral. Other oxidative states such...exposures to chromium can include welding , leather tanning, electroplating, textile manufacturing, photoengraving, copier servicing and paints/pigments...production, production of chromates and chromate pigments, leather tanning, chromium plating and welding . Unfortunately, no detailed health studies have

  3. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  4. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  5. Zinc

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  6. Chromated Arsenicals (CCA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a wood preservative pesticide containing chromium, copper, and arsenic that protects wood against termites, fungi, mites and other pests that can degrade or threaten the integrity of wood products.

  7. The darkening of zinc yellow: XANES speciation of chromium in artist;s paints after light and chemical exposures

    SciT

    Zanella, Luciana; Casadio, Francesca; Gray, Kimberly A.

    2012-03-14

    The color darkening of selected brushstrokes of the masterpiece A Sunday on La Grande Jatte - 1884 (by Georges Seurat) has been attributed to the alteration of the chromate pigment zinc yellow. The pigment originally displays a bright greenish-yellow color but may undergo, after aging, darkening to a dull, ocher tone. We used XANES to probe the oxidation state of Cr on paint reconstructions, and show that color changes are associated with the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Paint mixtures containing the pigment and linseed oil to mimic mixtures used in La Grande Jatte were subjected to artificial aging inmore » the presence of light, SO{sub 2}, and variable air humidity - 50 and 90% relative humidity. High relative humidity led to the largest degree of Cr(VI) reduction whereas low relative humidity promoted light-induced alterations. These results are corroborated by visible reflectance measurements on the same laboratory samples and contribute to a better understanding of the chemical reactivity of chromate pigments, which are present in many historical works of art.« less

  8. Development of an environmentally benign anticorrosion coating for aluminum alloy using green pigments and organofunctional silanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhangzhang

    Aerospace aluminum alloys such as Al alloy 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 are subject to localized corrosion due the existence of intermetallics containing Cu, Mg or Zn. Current protection measurement employs substantial use of chromate and high VOC organics, both of which are identified as environment and health hazards. The approach of this study is to utilize a combination of organofunctional silanes and a compatible inhibitor integrated into high-performance waterborne resins. First, an extensive pigment screening has been done to find replacements for chromates using the testing methodology for fast corrosion inhibition evaluation and pigment. Zinc phosphate and calcium zinc phosphomolybdate were found to have the best overall performance on Al alloys. Some new corrosion inhibitors were synthesized by chemical methods or modified by plasma polymerization for use in the coatings. Low-VOC, chromate-free primers (superprimer) were developed using these pigments with silane and acrylic-epoxy resins. The developed superprimer demonstrated good corrosion inhibition on aluminum substrates. The functions of inhibitor and silane in the coating were investigated. Both silane and inhibitor are critical for the performance of the superprimer. Silane was found to improve the adhesion of the coating to the substrate and also facilitate corrosion prevention. Addition of zinc phosphate to the coating improved the resistance of a scratched area against corrosion. The microstructure of the acrylic-epoxy superprimer coating was studied. SEM/EDAX revealed that the superprimer has a self-assembled stratified double-layer structure which accounts for the strong anti-corrosion performance of the zinc phosphate pigment. Zinc phosphate leaches out from the coating to actively protect the scratched area. The leaching of pigment was confirmed in the ICP-MS analysis and the leaching rate was measured. Coating-metal interface and the scribe of coated panels subjected to corrosion test was studied

  9. Camera processing with chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Korneliussen, Jan Tore; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-10-01

    Since the refractive index of materials commonly used for lens depends on the wavelengths of light, practical camera optics fail to converge light to a single point on an image plane. Known as chromatic aberration, this phenomenon distorts image details by introducing magnification error, defocus blur, and color fringes. Though achromatic and apochromatic lens designs reduce chromatic aberration to a degree, they are complex and expensive and they do not offer a perfect correction. In this paper, we propose a new postcapture processing scheme designed to overcome these problems computationally. Specifically, the proposed solution is comprised of chromatic aberration-tolerant demosaicking algorithm and post-demosaicking chromatic aberration correction. Experiments with simulated and real sensor data verify that the chromatic aberration is effectively corrected.

  10. Red pigment from Lithospermum erythrorhizon by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Eun-Jung; Song, Young-Keun; Byun, Sang Yo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a stable red pigment was prepared from Lithospermum erythrorhizon via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. The optimal extraction conditions were 400 bar and 60 degrees C. The patch tests indicated that up to 10% of the red pigment was acceptable from a skin irritation standpoint. According to the results of the CIE LAB chromaticity test, the color difference was acceptable when compared to commercial synthetic red pigments. The light-illuminated color stability test indicated that the pigment was more stable than the red pigment extracted with ethanol. The higher stability was also demonstrated in the DPPH antioxidant activity test. The supercritical red pigment harbored elevated amounts of shikonin and derivatives, and appears to be usable as a stable red pigment for cosmetic color products.

  11. Chromatic interocular-switch rivalry.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Jens H; D'Antona, Anthony D; Shevell, Steven K

    2017-05-01

    Interocular-switch rivalry (also known as stimulus rivalry) is a kind of binocular rivalry in which two rivalrous images are swapped between the eyes several times a second. The result is stable periods of one image and then the other, with stable intervals that span many eye swaps (Logothetis, Leopold, & Sheinberg, 1996). Previous work used this close kin of binocular rivalry with rivalrous forms. Experiments here test whether chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, in which the swapped stimuli differ in only chromaticity, results in slow alternation between two colors. Swapping equiluminant rivalrous chromaticities at 3.75 Hz resulted in slow perceptual color alternation, with one or the other color often continuously visible for two seconds or longer (during which there were 15+ eye swaps). A well-known theory for sustained percepts from interocular-switch rivalry with form is inhibitory competition between binocular neurons driven by monocular neurons with matched orientation tuning in each eye; such binocular neurons would produce a stable response when a given orientation is swapped between the eyes. A similar model can account for the percepts here from chromatic interocular-switch rivalry and is underpinned by the neurophysiological finding that color-preferring binocular neurons are driven by monocular neurons from each eye with well-matched chromatic selectivity (Peirce, Solomon, Forte, & Lennie, 2008). In contrast to chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, luminance interocular-switch rivalry with swapped stimuli that differ in only luminance did not result in slowly alternating percepts of different brightnesses.

  12. Chromatic interocular-switch rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Jens H.; D'Antona, Anthony D.; Shevell, Steven K.

    2017-01-01

    Interocular-switch rivalry (also known as stimulus rivalry) is a kind of binocular rivalry in which two rivalrous images are swapped between the eyes several times a second. The result is stable periods of one image and then the other, with stable intervals that span many eye swaps (Logothetis, Leopold, & Sheinberg, 1996). Previous work used this close kin of binocular rivalry with rivalrous forms. Experiments here test whether chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, in which the swapped stimuli differ in only chromaticity, results in slow alternation between two colors. Swapping equiluminant rivalrous chromaticities at 3.75 Hz resulted in slow perceptual color alternation, with one or the other color often continuously visible for two seconds or longer (during which there were 15+ eye swaps). A well-known theory for sustained percepts from interocular-switch rivalry with form is inhibitory competition between binocular neurons driven by monocular neurons with matched orientation tuning in each eye; such binocular neurons would produce a stable response when a given orientation is swapped between the eyes. A similar model can account for the percepts here from chromatic interocular-switch rivalry and is underpinned by the neurophysiological finding that color-preferring binocular neurons are driven by monocular neurons from each eye with well-matched chromatic selectivity (Peirce, Solomon, Forte, & Lennie, 2008). In contrast to chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, luminance interocular-switch rivalry with swapped stimuli that differ in only luminance did not result in slowly alternating percepts of different brightnesses. PMID:28510624

  13. Redefining White Light Chromaticity Boundaries for Aviation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-10-05

    Several aspects are involved in the recognition of an aviation signal light's color, including its chromaticity, layout on the airfield, and the chromaticity of other light sources in view. The LRC conducted a human factors investigation of the bound...

  14. The effects of luminance contribution from large fields to chromatic visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Rafal M; Duncan, Chad S; Crognale, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Though useful from a clinical and practical standpoint uniform, large-field chromatic stimuli are likely to contain luminance contributions from retinal inhomogeneities. Such contribution can significantly influence psychophysical thresholds. However, the degree to which small luminance artifacts influence the chromatic VEP has been debated. In particular, claims have been made that band-pass tuning observed in chromatic VEPs result from luminance intrusion. However, there has been no direct evidence presented to support these claims. Recently, large-field isoluminant stimuli have been developed to control for intrusion from retinal inhomogeneities with particular regard to the influence of macular pigment. We report here the application of an improved version of these full-field stimuli to directly test the influence of luminance intrusion on the temporal tuning of the chromatic VEP. Our results show that band-pass tuning persists even when isoluminance is achieved throughout the extent of the stimulus. In addition, small amounts of luminance intrusion affect neither the shape of the temporal tuning function nor the major components of the VEP. These results support the conclusion that the chromatic VEP can depart substantially from threshold psychophysics with regard to temporal tuning and that obtaining a low-pass function is not requisite evidence of selective chromatic activation in the VEP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electron-Transfer Secondary Reaction Matrices for MALDI MS Analysis of Bacteriochlorophyll a in Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Its Zinc and Copper Analogue Pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Ventura, Giovanni; Trotta, Massimo; Bianco, Giuliana; Cataldi, Tommaso R. I.; Palmisano, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriochlorophyll a ( BChl a), a photosynthetic pigment performing the same functions of chlorophylls in plants, features a bacteriochlorin macrocycle ring (18 π electrons) with two reduced pyrrole rings along with a hydrophobic terpenoid side chain (i.e., the phytol residue). Chlorophylls analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is not so straightforward since pheophytinization (i.e., release of the central metal ion) and cleavage of the phytol-ester linkage are invariably observed by employing protonating matrices such as 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, sinapinic acid, and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid. Using BChl a from Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26 strain as a model system, different electron-transfer (ET) secondary reaction matrices, leading to the formation of almost stable radical ions in both positive ([M]+•) and negative ([M]-•) ionization modes at m/z 910.55, were evaluated. Compared with ET matrices such as trans-2-[3-(4-t-butyl-phenyl)-2-methyl-2-propenylidene]malononitrile (DCTB), 2,2':5',2''-terthiophene (TER), anthracene (ANT), and 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DP-ANT), 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) was found to provide the highest ionization yield with a negligible fragmentation. DAN also displayed excellent ionization properties for two metal ion-substituted bacteriochlorophylls, (i.e., Zn- and Cu-BChl a at m/z 950.49 and 949.49), respectively. MALDI MS/MS of both radical charged molecular species provide complementary information, thus making analyte identification more straightforward.

  16. A luminescent zinc(ii) coordination polymer with unusual (3,4,4)-coordinated self-catenated 3D network for selective detection of nitroaromatics and ferric and chromate ions: a versatile luminescent sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Qian; Blatov, Vladislav A; Zheng, Tian-Rui; Yang, Chang-Hao; Qian, Lin-Lu; Li, Ke; Li, Bao-Long; Wu, Bing

    2018-05-01

    A zinc(ii) coordination polymer {[Zn3(mtrb)3(btc)2]·3H2O}n (1) was synthesized and characterized (mtrb = 1,3-bis(1,2,4-triazole-4-ylmethyl)benzene, btc = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate). The polymer 1 shows an unusual (3,4,4)-coordinated self-catenated 3D network with the point symbol of {63}2{62·82·102}{64·82}2. The polymer 1 is the first luminescent sensor for the detection of 2-amino-4-nitrophenol (ANP). The polymer 1 is also a good luminescence sensor for detection of TNP, 2,4-DNP, 4-NP, ANP and 2-NP in MeOH, particularly for TNP. The order of detection efficiency is TNP > 2,4-DNP > 4-NP > ANP > 2-NP. The polymer 1 also exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity as a luminescence sensor for the detection of Fe3+, Cr2O72- and CrO42- in aqueous solution. Our experiments showed that the presence of interfering ions had no significant effect on the sensing of Fe3+, Cr2O72- or CrO42- ions. The detection limits for TNP, ANP, Fe3+, Cr2O72- and CrO42- are 0.22 μM, 4.12 μM, 1.78 μM, 2.83 μM, and 4.52 μM, respectively. The luminescence sensor is stable and can be recycled for detection at least five times. The possible quenching mechanisms are discussed. The polymer 1 is also an effective photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible or UV light irradiation.

  17. Characterization of Sorolla's gouache pigments by means of spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Clodoaldo; Juanes, David; Ferrazza, Livio; Carballo, Jorgelina

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the Joaquín Sorolla's gouache sketches for the oil on canvas series "Vision of Spain" commissioned by A. M. Huntington to decorate the library of the Hispanic Society of America in New York. The analyses were focused on the identification of the elemental composition of the gouache pigments by means of portable EDXRF spectrometry in a non-destructive mode. Additionally, SEM-EDX and FTIR analyses of a selected set of micro-samples were carried out to identify completely the pigments, the paint technique and the binding media. The obtained results have confirmed the identification of lead and zinc white, vermillion, earth pigments, ochre, zinc yellow, chrome yellow, ultramarine, Prussian blue, chromium based and copper-arsenic based green pigments, bone black and carbon based black pigments, and the use of gum arabic as binding media in the gouache pigments.

  18. Semantics of color in chromatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Nikolai V.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of <>: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for <>, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  19. Novel Perceptually Uniform Chromatic Space.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, María; Samengo, Inés

    2018-06-01

    Chromatically perceptive observers are endowed with a sense of similarity between colors. For example, two shades of green that are only slightly discriminable are perceived as similar, whereas other pairs of colors, for example, blue and yellow, typically elicit markedly different sensations. The notion of similarity need not be shared by different observers. Dichromat and trichromat subjects perceive colors differently, and two dichromats (or two trichromats, for that matter) may judge chromatic differences inconsistently. Moreover, there is ample evidence that different animal species sense colors diversely. To capture the subjective metric of color perception, here we construct a notion of distance in color space based on the physiology of the retina, and is thereby individually tailored for different observers. By applying the Fisher metric to an analytical model of color representation, we construct a notion of distance that reproduces behavioral experiments of classical discrimination tasks. We then derive a coordinate transformation that defines a new chromatic space in which the Euclidean distance between any two colors is equal to the perceptual distance, as seen by one individual subject, endowed with an arbitrary number of color-sensitive photoreceptors, each with arbitrary absorption probability curves and appearing in arbitrary proportions.

  20. Accommodative performance for chromatic displays.

    PubMed

    Lovasik, J V; Kergoat, H

    1988-01-01

    Over the past few years, video display units (VDUs) have been incorporated into many varieties of workplaces and occupational demands. The success of electro-optical displays in facilitating and improving job performance has spawned interest in extracting further advantage from VDUs by incorporating colour coding into such communication systems. However, concerns have been raised about the effect of chromatic stimuli on the visual comfort and task efficiency, because of the chromatic aberration inherent in the optics of the human eye. In this study, we used a computer aided laser speckle optometer system to measure the accommodative responses to brightness-matched chromatic letters displayed on a high-resolution RGB monitor. Twenty, visually normal, paid volunteers in a 22-35 year age category served as subjects. Stimuli were 14, 21, 28 minutes of arc letters presented in a 'monochromatic' (white, red, green or blue, on a black background) or 'multichromatic' (blue-red, blue-green, red-green, foreground-background combinations) mode at 40 and 80 cm viewing distances. The results demonstrated that while the accommodative responses were strongly influenced by the foreground-background colour combination, the group-averaged dioptric difference across colours was relatively small. Further, accommodative responses were not guided in any systematic fashion by the size of letters presented for fixation. Implications of these findings for display designs are discussed.

  1. Does the chromatic Mach bands effect exist?

    PubMed

    Tsofe, Avital; Spitzer, Hedva; Einav, Shmuel

    2009-06-30

    The achromatic Mach bands effect is a well-known visual illusion, discovered over a hundred years ago. This effect has been investigated thoroughly, mainly for its brightness aspect. The existence of Chromatic Mach bands, however, has been disputed. In recent years it has been reported that Chromatic Mach bands are not perceived under controlled iso-luminance conditions. However, here we show that a variety of Chromatic Mach bands, consisting of chromatic and achromatic regions, separated by a saturation ramp, can be clearly perceived under iso-luminance and iso-brightness conditions. In this study, observers' eye movements were recorded under iso-brightness conditions. Several observers were tested for their ability to perceive the Chromatic Mach bands effect and its magnitude, across different cardinal and non-cardinal Chromatic Mach bands stimuli. A computational model of color adaptation, which predicted color induction and color constancy, successfully predicts this variation of Chromatic Mach bands. This has been tested by measuring the distance of the data points from the "achromatic point" and by calculating the shift of the data points from predicted complementary lines. The results suggest that the Chromatic Mach bands effect is a specific chromatic induction effect.

  2. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  3. chroma: Chromatic effects for LSST weak lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Joshua E.; Burchat, Patricia R.

    2018-04-01

    Chroma investigates biases originating from two chromatic effects in the atmosphere: differential chromatic refraction (DCR), and wavelength dependence of seeing. These biases arise when using the point spread function (PSF) measured with stars to estimate the shapes of galaxies with different spectral energy distributions (SEDs) than the stars.

  4. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of zinc molybdate nanocrystals and molybdate-doped epoxy/PDMS nanocomposite coatings for Mg alloy protection.

    PubMed

    Eduok, Ubong; Szpunar, Jerzy

    2018-06-01

    Zinc molybdate (ZM) is a safer anticorrosive additive for cooling systems when compared with chromates and lead salts, due to its insolubility in aqueous media. For most molybdate pigments, their molybdate anion (MoO 4 -2 ) acts as an anionic inhibitor and its passivation capacity is comparable with chromate anion (CrO 4 -2 ). To alleviate the environmental concerns involving chromates-based industrial protective coatings, we have proposed new alternative in this work. We have synthesized ZM nanocrystals via ultrasound-assisted process and encapsulated them within an epoxy/PDMS coating towards corrosion protection. The surface morphology and mechanical properties of these ZM doped epoxy/PDMS nanocomposite coatings is exhaustively discussed to show the effect of ZM content on protective properties. The presence of ZM nanocrystals significantly contributed to the corrosion barrier performance of the coating while the amount of ZM nanocrystals needed to prepare an epoxy coating with optimum barrier performance was established. Beyond 2 wt% ZM concentration, the siloxane-structured epoxy coating network became saturated with ZM pigments. This further broadened inherent pores channels, leading to the percolation of corrosion chloride ions through the coating. SEM evidence has revealed proof of surface delamination on ZM3 coating. A model mechanism of corrosion resistance has been proposed for ZM doped epoxy/PDMS nanocomposite coatings from exhaustive surface morphological investigations and evidence. This coating matrix may have emerging applications in cooling systems as anticorrosive surface paints as well as create an avenue for environmental corrosion remediation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chromatic induction in space and time.

    PubMed

    Coia, Andrew J; Shevell, Steven K

    2018-04-01

    The color appearance of a light depends on variation in the complete visual field over both space and time. In the spatial domain, a chromatic stimulus within a patterned chromatic surround can appear a different hue than the same stimulus within a uniform surround. In the temporal domain, a stimulus presented as an element of a continuously changing chromaticity can appear a different color compared to the identical stimulus, presented simultaneously but viewed alone. This is the flash-lag effect for color, which has an analog in the domain of motion: a pulsed object seen alone can appear to lag behind an identical pulsed object that is an element of a motion sequence. Studies of the flash-lag effect for motion have considered whether it is mediated by a neural representation for the moving physical stimulus or, alternatively, for the perceived motion. The current study addresses this question for the flash-lag effect for color by testing whether the color flash lag depends on a representation of only the changing chromatic stimulus or, alternatively, its color percept, which can be altered by chromatic induction. baseline measurements for spatial chromatic induction determined the chromaticity of a flashed ring within a uniform surround that matched a flashed ring within a patterned surround. Baseline measurements for the color flash-lag effect determined the chromaticity of a pulsed ring presented alone (within a uniform surround) that matched a pulsed ring presented in a sequence of changing chromaticity over time (also within a uniform surround). Finally, the main experiments combined chromatic induction from a patterned surround and the flash-lag effect, in three conditions: (1) both the changing and pulsed rings were within a patterned chromatic surround; (2) the changing ring was within a patterned surround and the pulsed ring within a uniform surround; and (3) the changing ring was within a uniform surround and the pulsed ring within a patterned surround

  6. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  7. Pursuit Latency for Chromatic Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Ellis, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of eye movement response to a change in direction of stimulus motion has been used to compare the processing speeds of different types of stimuli (Mulligan, ARVO '97). In this study, the pursuit response to colored targets was measured to test the hypothesis that the slow response of the chromatic system (as measured using traditional temporal sensitivity measures such as contrast sensitivity) results in increased eye movement latencies. Subjects viewed a small (0.4 deg) Gaussian spot which moved downward at a speed of 6.6 deg/sec. At a variable time during the trajectory, the dot's direction of motion changed by 30 degrees, either to the right or left. Subjects were instructed to pursue the spot. Eye movements were measured using a video ophthalmoscope with an angular resolution of approximately 1 arc min and a temporal sampling rate of 60 Hz. Stimuli were modulated in chrominance for a variety of hue directions, combined with a range of small luminance increments and decrements, to insure that some of the stimuli fell in the subjects' equiluminance planes. The smooth portions of the resulting eye movement traces were fit by convolving the stimulus velocity with an exponential having variable onset latency, time constant and amplitude. Smooth eye movements with few saccades were observed for all stimuli. Pursuit responses to stimuli having a significant luminance component are well-fit by exponentials having latencies and time constants on the order of 100 msec. Increases in pursuit response latency on the order of 100-200 msec are observed in response to certain stimuli, which occur in pairs of complementary hues, corresponding to the intersection of the stimulus section with the subjects' equiluminant plane. Smooth eye movements can be made in response to purely chromatic stimuli, but are slower than responses to stimuli with a luminance component.

  8. Psychophysical chromatic mechanisms in macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Stoughton, Cleo M; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Gagin, Galina; Conway, Bevil R

    2012-10-24

    Chromatic mechanisms have been studied extensively with psychophysical techniques in humans, but the number and nature of the mechanisms are still controversial. Appeals to monkey neurophysiology are often used to sort out the competing claims and to test hypotheses arising from the experiments in humans, but psychophysical chromatic mechanisms have never been assessed in monkeys. Here we address this issue by measuring color-detection thresholds in monkeys before and after chromatic adaptation, employing a standard approach used to determine chromatic mechanisms in humans. We conducted separate experiments using adaptation configured as either flickering full-field colors or heterochromatic gratings. Full-field colors would favor activity within the visual system at or before the arrival of retinal signals to V1, before the spatial transformation of color signals by the cortex. Conversely, gratings would favor activity within the cortex where neurons are often sensitive to spatial chromatic structure. Detection thresholds were selectively elevated for the colors of full-field adaptation when it modulated along either of the two cardinal chromatic axes that define cone-opponent color space [L vs M or S vs (L + M)], providing evidence for two privileged cardinal chromatic mechanisms implemented early in the visual-processing hierarchy. Adaptation with gratings produced elevated thresholds for colors of the adaptation regardless of its chromatic makeup, suggesting a cortical representation comprised of multiple higher-order mechanisms each selective for a different direction in color space. The results suggest that color is represented by two cardinal channels early in the processing hierarchy and many chromatic channels in brain regions closer to perceptual readout.

  9. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  10. [Analysis of chromatic value of gingival porcelain].

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Jun; Chao, Yong-Lie

    2005-08-01

    To study the distribution of the chromatic value of gingival porcelains. The color change of Shofu VINTAGE and Vita VMK95 gingival porcelains on the black and white backings was determined with a spectrophotometer (PR-650). The results showed that the chromatic value of gingival porcelains was different on varying backings. The color space of gingival porcelain was L*: 41.85 - 50.64, a*: 12.46 - 19.46, b*: 1.33 - 4.62. The chromatic value distribution cannot cover the color region of natural gingiva.

  11. Newborns' Discrimination of Chromatic from Achromatic Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Russell J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments assessed the extent of newborns' ability to discriminate color. Results imply that newborns have some, albeit limited, capacity to discriminate chromatic from achromatic stimuli, and hence, are at least dichromats. (Author/DR)

  12. Investigating the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on fundus imaging in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Wenzhong; Zhang, Hao F.

    2015-10-01

    Rodent models are indispensable in studying various retinal diseases. Noninvasive, high-resolution retinal imaging of rodent models is highly desired for longitudinally investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. However, due to severe aberrations, the retinal image quality in rodents can be much worse than that in humans. We numerically and experimentally investigated the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on retinal imaging. We confirmed that the rat retinal image quality decreased with increasing illumination bandwidth. We achieved the retinal image resolution of 10 μm using a 19 nm illumination bandwidth centered at 580 nm in a home-built fundus camera. Furthermore, we observed higher chromatic aberration in albino rat eyes than in pigmented rat eyes. This study provides a design guide for high-resolution fundus camera for rodents. Our method is also beneficial to dispersion compensation in multiwavelength retinal imaging applications.

  13. Chromate dermatitis from a boiler lining.

    PubMed

    Rycroft, R J; Calnan, C D

    1977-08-01

    Chromate dermatitis is described in a mechanical fitter working inside boiler combustion chambers. A source of hexavalent chromate is traced to the action of the heat and alkaline fuel ash on trivalent chrome ore in parts of the refractory lining. Removal of the patient from this contact has resulted in almost complete clearing of his dermatitis, without any relapse, during a 9-month follow-up period.

  14. Overview of plant pigments

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  15. Enhanced Detection of Sub-Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Layer Deposits in Human and Murine Tissue: Imaging Zinc as a Biomarker for Age-Related Macular Degeneration (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    PubMed

    van Kuijk, Frederik J G M; McPherson, Scott W; Roehrich, Heidi

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the apparent paradoxical role of zinc in the pathogenesis and prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been limited by the lack of animal models for its detection in sub-retinal epithelial deposits (drusen), a definitive early hallmark of AMD. In-vitro studies using Zinpyr-1 showed drusen contained high levels of zinc, but the probe was not suitable for in-vivo studies. This study compares Zinpyr-1 to ZPP1, a new fluorescein-based probe for zinc, to assess the potential of ZPP1 for in-vivo detection of zinc in drusen. Flat mounts of human sub-RPE tissue using the probes were analyzed by fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Flat mounts of sub-RPE tissue from mice deficient in superoxide dismutase isoform-1 (CuZn-SOD-KO) or isoform-2 (Mn-SOD-RPE-KO) were analyzed with sub-RPE deposits confirmed by histology. Drusen are detected in greater numbers and intensity with ZPP1 compared to Zinpyr-1. Using ZPP1, drusen was detected in a sample from a 46-year old human donor without ocular history, suggesting that ZPP1 might be sensitive enough to detect drusen at an early stage. With CuZn-SOD KO mice, ZPP1 detected sub-RPE deposits at 10 months of age, whereas Zinpyr-1 required 14 months. Detection of sub-RPE deposits by ZPP1 was greatly enhanced compared to Zinpyr-1. This enhanced sensitivity will allow for more insightful analysis of zinc in AMD using human specimens and mouse models. This could result in the development of a sensitive in-vivo probe to enhance research on the role zinc in drusen formation and the early clinical diagnosis of AMD.

  16. Enhanced Detection of Sub-Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Layer Deposits in Human and Murine Tissue: Imaging Zinc as a Biomarker for Age-Related Macular Degeneration (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    van Kuijk, Frederik J.G.M.; McPherson, Scott W.; Roehrich, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Understanding the apparent paradoxical role of zinc in the pathogenesis and prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been limited by the lack of animal models for its detection in sub-retinal epithelial deposits (drusen), a definitive early hallmark of AMD. In-vitro studies using Zinpyr-1 showed drusen contained high levels of zinc, but the probe was not suitable for in-vivo studies. This study compares Zinpyr-1 to ZPP1, a new fluorescein-based probe for zinc, to assess the potential of ZPP1 for in-vivo detection of zinc in drusen. Methods Flat mounts of human sub-RPE tissue using the probes were analyzed by fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Flat mounts of sub-RPE tissue from mice deficient in superoxide dismutase isoform-1 (CuZn-SOD-KO) or isoform-2 (Mn-SOD-RPE-KO) were analyzed with sub-RPE deposits confirmed by histology. Results Drusen are detected in greater numbers and intensity with ZPP1 compared to Zinpyr-1. Using ZPP1, drusen was detected in a sample from a 46-year old human donor without ocular history, suggesting that ZPP1 might be sensitive enough to detect drusen at an early stage. With CuZn-SOD KO mice, ZPP1 detected sub-RPE deposits at 10 months of age, whereas Zinpyr-1 required 14 months. Conclusion Detection of sub-RPE deposits by ZPP1 was greatly enhanced compared to Zinpyr-1. This enhanced sensitivity will allow for more insightful analysis of zinc in AMD using human specimens and mouse models. This could result in the development of a sensitive in-vivo probe to enhance research on the role zinc in drusen formation and the early clinical diagnosis of AMD. PMID:29021717

  17. Passivation of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, E. P.; Sancier, K. M.; Morrison, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    Five powders were received for plasma calcining during this report period. The particle size using a fluid energy mill, and obtained pigments that could be plasma calcined. Optimum results are obtained in the plasma calcining of zinc orthotitanate when finely dispersed particles are subjected to a calculated plasma temperature of 1670 C. Increasing the plasma calcining time by using multiple passes through the plasma stabilized the pigment to vacuum UV irradiation was evidenced by the resulting ESR spectra but slightly decreased the whiteness of the pigment. The observed darkening is apparently associated with the formation of Ti(+3) color centers.

  18. Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses.

    PubMed

    Parry, Neil R A; Murray, Ian J; Panorgias, Athanasios; McKeefry, Declan J; Lee, Barry B; Kremers, Jan

    2012-07-01

    The parallel processing of information forms an important organisational principle of the primate visual system. Here we describe experiments which use a novel chromatic–achromatic temporal compound stimulus to simultaneously identify colour and luminance specific signals in the human electroretinogram (ERG). Luminance and chromatic components are separated in the stimulus; the luminance modulation has twice the temporal frequency of the chromatic modulation. ERGs were recorded from four trichromatic and two dichromatic subjects (1 deuteranope and 1 protanope). At isoluminance, the fundamental (first harmonic) response was elicited by the chromatic component in the stimulus. The trichromatic ERGs possessed low-pass temporal tuning characteristics, reflecting the activity of parvocellular post-receptoral mechanisms. There was very little first harmonic response in the dichromats' ERGs. The second harmonic response was elicited by the luminance modulation in the compound stimulus and showed, in all subjects, band-pass temporal tuning characteristic of magnocellular activity. Thus it is possible to concurrently elicit ERG responses from the human retina which reflect processing in both chromatic and luminance pathways. As well as providing a clear demonstration of the parallel nature of chromatic and luminance processing in the human retina, the differences that exist between ERGs from trichromatic and dichromatic subjects point to the existence of interactions between afferent post-receptoral pathways that are in operation from the earliest stages of visual processing.

  19. Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Neil R A; Murray, Ian J; Panorgias, Athanasios; McKeefry, Declan J; Lee, Barry B; Kremers, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The parallel processing of information forms an important organisational principle of the primate visual system. Here we describe experiments which use a novel chromatic–achromatic temporal compound stimulus to simultaneously identify colour and luminance specific signals in the human electroretinogram (ERG). Luminance and chromatic components are separated in the stimulus; the luminance modulation has twice the temporal frequency of the chromatic modulation. ERGs were recorded from four trichromatic and two dichromatic subjects (1 deuteranope and 1 protanope). At isoluminance, the fundamental (first harmonic) response was elicited by the chromatic component in the stimulus. The trichromatic ERGs possessed low-pass temporal tuning characteristics, reflecting the activity of parvocellular post-receptoral mechanisms. There was very little first harmonic response in the dichromats’ ERGs. The second harmonic response was elicited by the luminance modulation in the compound stimulus and showed, in all subjects, band-pass temporal tuning characteristic of magnocellular activity. Thus it is possible to concurrently elicit ERG responses from the human retina which reflect processing in both chromatic and luminance pathways. As well as providing a clear demonstration of the parallel nature of chromatic and luminance processing in the human retina, the differences that exist between ERGs from trichromatic and dichromatic subjects point to the existence of interactions between afferent post-receptoral pathways that are in operation from the earliest stages of visual processing. PMID:22586211

  20. Calcium movements during pigment aggregation in freshwater shrimp chromatophores.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Márcia; McNamara, John Campbell

    2007-02-01

    Pigment granule migration within crustacean chromatophores provides an excellent model with which to investigate cytoplasmic movements, given the antagonistic, neurosecretory peptide regulation of granule translocation, and the absence of innervation in these large, brightly colored cells. Red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) induces pigment aggregation in shrimp chromatophores via an increase in intracellular Ca2+; however, how this increase is brought about is not known. To examine the putative Ca2+ movements leading to pigment translocation in red, ovarian chromatophores of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium olfersii, this study manipulates intra- and extracellular Ca2+ employing ER Ca2+-ATPase inhibitors, ryanodine-sensitive, ER Ca2+ channel blockers, and EDTA/EGTA-buffered A23187/Ca2+-containing salines. Our findings reveal that during pigment aggregation, cytosolic Ca2+ apparently increases from an intracellular source, the abundant SER, loaded by the SERCA and released through ryanodine-sensitive receptor/channels, triggered by capacitative calcium influx and/or calcium-induced calcium release mechanisms. Aggregation also depends on external calcium, which may modulate RPCH/receptor coupling. Such calcium-regulated pigment movements form the basis of a complex system of chromatic adaptation, which confers selective advantages like camouflage and protection against ultra-violet radiation to this palaemonid shrimp.

  1. Multiscale Pigment Analysis of Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sestak, Erica; Manukyan, Khachatur; Wiescher, Michael; Gura, David

    2017-09-01

    Three medieval illuminated manuscripts (codd. Lat. b. 1; Lat. b. 2; Lat. e. 4), housed at the University of Notre Dame's Hesburgh Library, vary in style, pigments, scribes, and regions, despite all three being Psalters used in the Late Middle Ages. XRF and Raman spectroscopy, which provided the elemental and molecular composition of the pigments, respectively, were used to analyze the pigments' compositions in an attempt to narrow further the manuscripts' possible origins. This experimental investigation emphasizes the importance of understanding the history of the manuscript through their pigments. Codd. Lat. b. 1 and Lat. b. 2 are Latinate German Psalters from the fifteenth century likely used in Katharinenkloster in Nuremberg. While there are visible differences in style within each Psalter, the variations in some of the pigment compositions, such as the inconstant presence of zinc, suggest different admixtures. Cod. Lat. e. 4 is a Latinate English Psalter from the fourteenth century, and it was written by two scribes and illuminated by two distinct painters. It is currently being tested to determine whether there are any correlations between the scribes and painters. These physical analyses will clarify the origins and provenances of the manuscripts.

  2. Color constancy by characterization of illumination chromaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkanen, Jarno T.

    2011-05-01

    Computational color constancy algorithms play a key role in achieving desired color reproduction in digital cameras. Failure to estimate illumination chromaticity correctly will result in invalid overall colour cast in the image that will be easily detected by human observers. A new algorithm is presented for computational color constancy. Low computational complexity and low memory requirement make the algorithm suitable for resource-limited camera devices, such as consumer digital cameras and camera phones. Operation of the algorithm relies on characterization of the range of possible illumination chromaticities in terms of camera sensor response. The fact that only illumination chromaticity is characterized instead of the full color gamut, for example, increases robustness against variations in sensor characteristics and against failure of diagonal model of illumination change. Multiple databases are used in order to demonstrate the good performance of the algorithm in comparison to the state-of-the-art color constancy algorithms.

  3. Bees' subtle colour preferences: how bees respond to small changes in pigment concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papiorek, Sarah; Rohde, Katja; Lunau, Klaus

    2013-07-01

    Variability in flower colour of animal-pollinated plants is common and caused, inter alia, by inter-individual differences in pigment concentrations. If and how pollinators, especially bees, respond to these small differences in pigment concentration is not known, but it is likely that flower colour variability impacts the choice behaviour of all flower visitors that exhibit innate and learned colour preferences. In behavioural experiments, we simulated varying pigment concentrations and studied its impact on the colour choices of bumblebees and honeybees. Individual bees were trained to artificial flowers having a specific concentration of a pigment, i.e. Acridine Orange or Aniline Blue, and then given the simultaneous choice between three test colours including the training colour, one colour of lower and one colour of higher pigment concentration. For each pigment, two set-ups were provided, covering the range of low to middle and the range of middle to high pigment concentrations. Despite the small bee-subjective perceptual contrasts between the tested stimuli and regardless of training towards medium concentrations, bees preferred neither the training stimuli nor the stimuli offering the highest pigment concentration but more often chose those stimuli offering the highest spectral purity and the highest chromatic contrast against the background. Overall, this study suggests that bees choose an intermediate pigment concentration due to its optimal conspicuousness. It is concluded that the spontaneous preferences of bees for flower colours of high spectral purity might exert selective pressure on the evolution of floral colours and of flower pigmentation.

  4. Spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and converted zinc for use as a solar selective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Curtis, H. B.; Gianelos, L.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and chemically converted zinc were measured for both chromate and chloride conversion coatings. The reflectance properties were measured for various times of conversion and for conversion at various chromate concentrations. The values of absorptance, integrated over the solar spectrum, and of infrared emittance, integrated over black body radiation at 250 F were then calculated from the measured reflectance values. The interdependent variations of absorptance and infrared emittance were plotted. The results indicate that the optimum combination of the highest absorptance in the solar spectrum and the lowest emittance in the infrared of the converted electroplated zinc is produced by chromate conversion at 1/2 concentration of the standard NEOSTAR chromate black solution for 0.50 minute or by chloride conversion for 0.50 minute.

  5. Spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and converted zinc for use as a solar selective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Curtis, H. B.; Gianelos, L.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and chemically converted zinc were measured for both chromate and chloride conversion coatings. The reflectance properties were measured for various times of conversion and for conversion at various chromate concentrations. The values of absorptance, alpha, integrated over the solar spectrum, and of infrared emittance, epsilon, integrated over black body radiation at 250 F were then calculated from the measured reflectance values. The interdependent variations of alpha and epsilon were plotted. The results indicate that the optimum combination of the highest absorptance in the solar spectrum and the lowest emittance in the infrared of the converted electroplated zinc is produced by chromate conversion at 1/2 concentration of the standard NEOSTAR chromate black solution for 0.50 minute or by chloride conversion for 0.50 minute.

  6. Mechanisms and fitness implications of photomorphogenesis during chromatic acclimation in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Beronda L

    2016-07-01

    Photosynthetic organisms absorb photons and convert light energy to chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthetic efficiency is tuned in response to the availability of light, carbon dioxide and nutrients to promote maximal levels of carbon fixation, while simultaneously limiting the potential for light-associated damage or phototoxicity. Given the central dependence on light for energy production, photosynthetic organisms possess abilities to tune their growth, development and metabolism to external light cues in the process of photomorphogenesis. Photosynthetic organisms perceive light intensity and distinct wavelengths or colors of light to promote organismal acclimation. Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes that exhibit abilities to alter specific aspects of growth, including photosynthetic pigment composition and morphology, in responses to changes in available wavelengths and intensity of light. This form of photomorphogenesis is known as chromatic acclimation and has been widely studied. Recent insights into the photosensory photoreceptors found in cyanobacteria and developments in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms initiated by light sensing to affect the changes characteristic of chromatic acclimation are discussed. I consider cyanobacterial responses to light, the broad diversity of photoreceptors encoded by these organisms, specific mechanisms of photomorphogenesis, and associated fitness implications in chromatically acclimating cyanobacteria. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Suppression of mutants aberrant in light intensity responses of complementary chromatic adaptation.

    PubMed Central

    Casey, E S; Kehoe, D M; Grossman, A R

    1997-01-01

    Complementary chromatic adaptation is a process in which cyanobacteria alter the pigment protein (phycocyanin and phycoerythrin) composition of their light-harvesting complexes, the phycobilisomes, to help optimize the absorbance of prevalent wavelengths of light in the environment. Several classes of mutants that display aberrant complementary chromatic adaptation have been isolated. One of the mutant classes, designated "blue" or FdB, accumulates high levels of the blue chromoprotein phycocyanin in low-intensity green light, a condition that normally suppresses phycocyanin synthesis. We demonstrate here that the synthesis of the phycocyanin protein and mRNA in the FdB mutants can be suppressed by increasing the intensity of green light. Hence, these mutants have a decreased sensitivity to green light with respect to suppression of phycocyanin synthesis. Although we were unable to complement the blue mutants, we did isolate genes that could suppress the mutant phenotype. These genes, which have been identified previously, encode a histidine kinase sensor and response regulator protein that play key roles in controlling complementary chromatic adaptation. These findings are discussed with respect to the mechanism by which light quality and quantity control the biosynthesis of the phycobilisome. PMID:9226271

  8. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  9. Influence of pigments and opacifiers on color stability of an artificially aged facial silicone.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Moreno, Amália; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Haddad, Marcela Filiè

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two pigments (ceramic powder and oil paint) and one opacifier (barium sulfate) on the color stability of MDX4-4210 facial silicone submitted to accelerated aging. Sixty specimens of silicone were fabricated and divided into six groups--colorless (G1), colorless with opacifier (G2), ceramic (G3), ceramic with opacifier (G4), oil (G5), oil with opacifier (G6). All replicas were submitted to accelerated aging for 1008 hours. The evaluations of chromatic alteration through visual analysis and reflection spectrophotometry were carried out initially and after 252, 504, and 1008 hours of aging. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% level of significance. All groups exhibited chromatic alteration (ΔE > 0); however, this color alteration was not perceptible through visual analysis of the color. The pigmented groups with opacifier presented the lowest ΔE values, with a statistical difference from the other groups. For the groups without opacifier, the group pigmented with oil paint exhibited the lowest ΔE values in the different aging periods, with a statistical difference. Accelerated aging generated significant chromatic alterations in all groups after 252 hours, except for the colorless and oil groups, both with opacifier (G2 and G6). The opacifier protects facial silicones against color degradation, and oil paint is a stable pigment even without addition of opacifier. © 2010 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. Development of Chromatic Induction in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamura, Hiromi; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2007-01-01

    The perception of colour in an embedded field is affected by the surround colour. This phenomenon is known as chromatic induction. In the present study we investigated whether the colour perception by infants aged 5-7 months could be affected by the surround colour. In Experiments 1 and 2 each stimulus was composed of an array of six squares in…

  11. Chromatic Dimensions Earthy, Watery, Airy, and Fiery.

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In our study, for a small number of antonyms, we investigate whether they are cross-modally or ideaesthetically related to the space of colors. We analyze the affinities of seven antonyms (cold-hot, dull-radiant, dead-vivid, soft-hard, transparent-chalky, dry-wet, and acid-treacly) and their intermediate connotations (cool-warm, matt-shiny, numb-lively, mellow-firm, semi-transparent-opaque, semi-dry-moist, and sour-sweet) as a function of color. We find that some antonyms relate to chromatic dimensions, others to achromatic ones. The cold-hot antonym proves to be the most salient dimension. The dry-wet dimension coincides with the cold-hot dimension, with dry corresponding to hot and wet to cold. The acid-treacly dimension proves to be transversal to the cold-hot dimension; hence, the pairs mutually span the chromatic domain. The cold-hot and acid-treacly antonyms perhaps recall Hering's opponent color system. The dull-radiant, transparent-chalky, and dead-vivid pairs depend little upon chromaticity. Of all seven antonyms, only the soft-hard one turns out to be independent of the chromatic structure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  13. Acclimation of Haslea ostrearia to light of different spectral qualities - confirmation of 'chromatic adaptation' in diatoms.

    PubMed

    Mouget, Jean-Luc; Rosa, Philippe; Tremblin, Gérard

    2004-07-19

    The marine diatom Haslea ostrearia was cultured under light of different qualities, white (WL), blue (BL), green (GL), yellow (YL), red (RL), and far-red (FRL) and at two irradiance levels, low and high (20 and 100 micromolphotonsm(-2)s(-1), respectively). The effects of the different light regimes were studied on growth, pigment content, and photosynthesis, estimated by the modulated fluorescence of chlorophyll, as relative electron transport rate (rETR). For all the light qualities studied, growth rates were higher at high irradiance. Compared to the corresponding WL controls, growth was higher in BL and lower in YL at low irradiance, and lower in YL and GL at high irradiance. Except for YL, almost all the pigment contents of the cells were lower at high irradiance. At low irradiance, cell pigment contents (chlorophyll a and c, fucoxanthin) and pigment ratios (in function of chlorophyll a) were lower in YL, RL, and FRL. Whatever the irradiance level, the maximum PSII quantum efficiency (F(v)/F(m) remained almost constant for WL, BL, and GL. Other fluorescence parameters (photochemical quenching, rETR(max), and alpha, the maximum light utilization coefficient) were lower in GL, YL, RL, and FRL, at low irradiance. Although not statistically significant, BL caused an increase in these fluorescence parameters. These findings are interpreted as evidence that inverse chromatic acclimation occurs in diatoms.

  14. Chromate Reduction by a Pseudomonad Isolated from a Site Contaminated with Chromated Copper Arsenate

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Jeff; Beveridge, Terry J.

    2001-01-01

    A pseudomonad (CRB5) isolated from a decommissioned wood preservation site reduced toxic chromate [Cr(VI)] to an insoluble Cr(III) precipitate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. CRB5 tolerated up to 520 mg of Cr(VI) liter−1 and reduced chromate in the presence of copper and arsenate. Under anaerobic conditions it also reduced Co(III) and U(VI), partially internalizing each metal. Metal precipitates were also found on the surface of the outer membrane and (sometimes) on a capsule. The results showed that chromate reduction by CRB5 was mediated by a soluble enzyme that was largely contained in the cytoplasm but also found outside of the cells. The crude reductase activity in the soluble fraction showed a Km of 23 mg liter−1 (437 μM) and a Vmax of 0.98 mg of Cr h−1 mg of protein−1 (317 nmol min−1 mg of protein−1). Minor membrane-associated Cr(VI) reduction under anaerobiosis may account for anaerobic reduction of chromate under nongrowth conditions with an organic electron donor present. Chromate reduction under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions may be a detoxification strategy for the bacterium which could be exploited to bioremediate chromate-contaminated or other toxic heavy metal-contaminated environments. PMID:11229894

  15. Three-dimensional shape perception from chromatic orientation flows

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Qasim; Li, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The role of chromatic information in 3-D shape perception is controversial. We resolve this controversy by showing that chromatic orientation flows are sufficient for accurate perception of 3-D shape. Chromatic flows required less cone contrast to convey shape than did achromatic flows, thus ruling out luminance artifacts as a problem. Luminance artifacts were also ruled out by a protanope’s inability to see 3-D shape from chromatic flows. Since chromatic orientation flows can only be extracted from retinal images by neurons that are responsive to color modulations and selective for orientation, the psychophysical results also resolve the controversy over the existence of such neurons. In addition, we show that identification of 3-D shapes from chromatic flows can be masked by luminance modulations, indicating that it is subserved by orientation-tuned neurons sensitive to both chromatic and luminance modulations. PMID:16961963

  16. Thick lens chromatic effective focal length variation versus bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrold, Scott

    2017-11-01

    Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) can limit the optical performance in refractive optical systems. Understanding a singlet's chromatic change of effective focal leads to insights and methods to control LCA. Long established, first order theory, shows the chromatic change in focal length for a zero thickness lens is proportional to it's focal length divided by the lens V number or inverse dispersion. This work presents the derivation of an equation for a thick singlet's chromatic change in effective focal length as a function of center thickness, t, dispersion, V, index of refraction, n, and the Coddington shape factor, K. A plot of bending versus chromatic focal length variation is presented. Lens thickness does not influence chromatic variation of effective focal length for a convex plano or plano convex lens. A lens's center thickness'influence on chromatic focal length variation is more pronounced for lower indices of refraction.

  17. Ion transport in pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Oancea, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis.

  18. Ion transport in pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W.; Oancea, Elena V.

    2014-01-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system,, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis. PMID:25034214

  19. Multidepth imaging by chromatic dispersion confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsovsky, Cory A.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Saldua, Meagan A.; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Applegate, Brian E.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2012-03-01

    Confocal microscopy has shown potential as an imaging technique to detect precancer. Imaging cellular features throughout the depth of epithelial tissue may provide useful information for diagnosis. However, the current in vivo axial scanning techniques for confocal microscopy are cumbersome, time-consuming, and restrictive when attempting to reconstruct volumetric images acquired in breathing patients. Chromatic dispersion confocal microscopy (CDCM) exploits severe longitudinal chromatic aberration in the system to axially disperse light from a broadband source and, ultimately, spectrally encode high resolution images along the depth of the object. Hyperchromat lenses are designed to have severe and linear longitudinal chromatic aberration, but have not yet been used in confocal microscopy. We use a hyperchromat lens in a stage scanning confocal microscope to demonstrate the capability to simultaneously capture information at multiple depths without mechanical scanning. A photonic crystal fiber pumped with a 830nm wavelength Ti:Sapphire laser was used as a supercontinuum source, and a spectrometer was used as the detector. The chromatic aberration and magnification in the system give a focal shift of 140μm after the objective lens and an axial resolution of 5.2-7.6μm over the wavelength range from 585nm to 830nm. A 400x400x140μm3 volume of pig cheek epithelium was imaged in a single X-Y scan. Nuclei can be seen at several depths within the epithelium. The capability of this technique to achieve simultaneous high resolution confocal imaging at multiple depths may reduce imaging time and motion artifacts and enable volumetric reconstruction of in vivo confocal images of the epithelium.

  20. V1 mechanisms underlying chromatic contrast detection

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the cortical mechanisms of color vision, we recorded from individual primary visual cortex (V1) neurons in macaque monkeys performing a chromatic detection task. Roughly 30% of the neurons that we encountered were unresponsive at the monkeys' psychophysical detection threshold (PT). The other 70% were responsive at threshold but on average, were slightly less sensitive than the monkey. For these neurons, the relationship between neurometric threshold (NT) and PT was consistent across the four isoluminant color directions tested. A corollary of this result is that NTs were roughly four times lower for stimuli that modulated the long- and middle-wavelength sensitive cones out of phase. Nearly one-half of the neurons that responded to chromatic stimuli at the monkeys' detection threshold also responded to high-contrast luminance modulations, suggesting a role for neurons that are jointly tuned to color and luminance in chromatic detection. Analysis of neuronal contrast-response functions and signal-to-noise ratios yielded no evidence for a special set of “cardinal color directions,” for which V1 neurons are particularly sensitive. We conclude that at detection threshold—as shown previously with high-contrast stimuli—V1 neurons are tuned for a diverse set of color directions and do not segregate naturally into red–green and blue–yellow categories. PMID:23446689

  1. Accommodation to wavefront vergence and chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B; Li, James S; Lin, Peter L; Stark, Lawrence R

    2011-05-01

    Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In this study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less.

  2. Accommodation to Wavefront Vergence and Chromatic Aberration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B.; Li, James S.; Lin, Peter L.; Stark, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In the present study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Methods Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m2) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m2) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 mm and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Results Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Conclusions Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less. PMID:21317666

  3. Stimulus size dependence of hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Christian Johannes; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround induces a change in the perceived hue of a stimulus. This shift in hue depends on the chromatic difference between the stimulus and the surround. We investigated how chromatic induction varies with stimulus size and whether the size dependence depends on the surround hue. Subjects performed asymmetric matching of color stimuli with different sizes in surrounds of different chromaticities. Generally, induced hue shifts decreased with increasing stimulus size. This decrease was quantitatively different for different surround hues. However, when size effects were normalized to an overall induction strength, the chromatic specificity was largely reduced. The separability of inducer chromaticity and stimulus size suggests that these effects are mediated by different neural mechanisms.

  4. [Effect of three kinds of rare earth oxides on chromaticity and mechanical properties of zirconia ceramic].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the colouration of zirconia ceramic by adding three kinds of rare earth oxides. The influence of the pigments concentration on the mechanical properties and the microstructure was also analyzed. Added different concentrations of CeO(2), Er(2)O(3) and Pr(6)O(11) in tetragonal zirconia poly crystals stabilized with 3 mol% yttria (3Y-T2P) powder, compacted at 200 MPa using cold isostatic pressure, and sintered to 1 400 degrees C. The heating rate was 150 degrees C/h and the dwelling time was 2 hours. The chromaticity of sintered bodies was measured with chroma meter. The relative density, hardness, flexure strength and fracture toughness were investigated as well. The phase stability of the colorized and pure zirconia was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using an automated diffractometer. The microstructures of the specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Several kinds of color achieved by the different pigments praseodym oxide, cerium oxide and erbium oxide were presented in the CIELab system. The a* value increased with the added amount of Er(2)O(3), while b* value rose with the increasing amount of CeO(2) and Pr(6)O(11). However, three pigments failed to decrease L* value and the sintered body appeared too bright. Adding three pigments influenced flexure strength of zirconia ceramic significantly, but had little influence on the hardness and fracture toughness. Microscopy revealed the relationship between the porosity and shapes of grains was correlated to strength of the diphase ceramics. No additional phase could be detected by XRD, except t-ZrO(2) in all colorized samples after sintering at 1 400 degrees C for 120 min. Zirconia ceramic can be colorized by CeO(2), Er(2)O(3), and Pr(6)O(11). Pigments even in a small amount influence the mechanical properties of the colorized zirconia material, which necessitates further investigation.

  5. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  6. Chromatic induction from surrounding stimuli under perceptual suppression.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Koji; Kuriki, Ichiro; Tokunaga, Rumi; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    The appearance of colors can be affected by their spatiotemporal context. The shift in color appearance according to the surrounding colors is called color induction or chromatic induction; in particular, the shift in opponent color of the surround is called chromatic contrast. To investigate whether chromatic induction occurs even when the chromatic surround is imperceptible, we measured chromatic induction during interocular suppression. A multicolor or uniform color field was presented as the surround stimulus, and a colored continuous flash suppression (CFS) stimulus was presented to the dominant eye of each subject. The subjects were asked to report the appearance of the test field only when the stationary surround stimulus is invisible by interocular suppression with CFS. The resulting shifts in color appearance due to chromatic induction were significant even under the conditions of interocular suppression for all surround stimuli. The magnitude of chromatic induction differed with the surround conditions, and this difference was preserved regardless of the viewing conditions. The chromatic induction effect was reduced by CFS, in proportion to the magnitude of chromatic induction under natural (i.e., no-CFS) viewing conditions. According to an analysis with linear model fitting, we revealed the presence of at least two kinds of subprocesses for chromatic induction that reside at higher and lower levels than the site of interocular suppression. One mechanism yields different degrees of chromatic induction based on the complexity of the surround, which is unaffected by interocular suppression, while the other mechanism changes its output with interocular suppression acting as a gain control. Our results imply that the total chromatic induction effect is achieved via a linear summation of outputs from mechanisms that reside at different levels of visual processing.

  7. Third-rank chromatic aberrations of electron lenses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixiong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper the third-rank chromatic aberration coefficients of round electron lenses are analytically derived and numerically calculated by Mathematica. Furthermore, the numerical results are cross-checked by the differential algebraic (DA) method, which verifies that all the formulas for the third-rank chromatic aberration coefficients are completely correct. It is hoped that this work would be helpful for further chromatic aberration correction in electron microscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Replacement of chromates in paints and corrosion protection systems [Stage 1

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-05-01

    This technical report presents the first stage results of a multi-year project to develop chromate-free paints and corrosion protection systems. Chromate coatings and chromate-containing paints are very effective in providing corrosion resistance and...

  9. Chromatic Image Analysis For Quantitative Thermal Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    1995-01-01

    Chromatic image analysis system (CIAS) developed for use in noncontact measurements of temperatures on aerothermodynamic models in hypersonic wind tunnels. Based on concept of temperature coupled to shift in color spectrum for optical measurement. Video camera images fluorescence emitted by phosphor-coated model at two wavelengths. Temperature map of model then computed from relative brightnesses in video images of model at those wavelengths. Eliminates need for intrusive, time-consuming, contact temperature measurements by gauges, making it possible to map temperatures on complex surfaces in timely manner and at reduced cost.

  10. Reduced chromatic discrimination in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Anna; Sowden, Paul; Notman, Leslie; Gonzalez-Dixon, Melissa; West, Dorotea; Alexander, Iona; Loveday, Stephen; White, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Atypical perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is well documented (Dakin & Frith, 2005). However, relatively little is known about colour perception in ASD. Less accurate performance on certain colour tasks has led some to argue that chromatic discrimination is reduced in ASD relative to typical development (Franklin, Sowden, Burley, Notman & Alder, 2008). The current investigation assessed chromatic discrimination in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and typically developing (TD) children matched on age and non-verbal cognitive ability, using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (Experiment 1) and a threshold discrimination task (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, more errors on the chromatic discrimination task were made by the HFA than the TD group. Comparison with test norms revealed that performance for the HFA group was at a similar level to typically developing children around 3 years younger. In Experiment 2, chromatic thresholds were elevated for the HFA group relative to the TD group. For both experiments, reduced chromatic discrimination in ASD was due to a general reduction in chromatic sensitivity rather than a specific difficulty with either red-green or blue-yellow subsystems of colour vision. The absence of group differences on control tasks ruled out an explanation in terms of general task ability rather than chromatic sensitivity. Theories to account for the reduction in chromatic discrimination in HFA are discussed, and findings are related to cortical models of perceptual processing in ASD.

  11. Cement-Induced Chromate Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kridin, Khalaf; Bergman, Reuven; Khamaisi, Mogher; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Weltfriend, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium in cement is a common cause of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD). Analysis of patch test data during 1999 to 2013 was done. Patients with cement-induced chromate OACD filled the Dermatology Life Quality Index, graded 1 to 5. Of 4846 consecutive patients who were patch tested, 146 (3%) were chromate-sensitive. Of 46 (31.5%) who presented with chromate OACD, 27 (59%) had cement-induced chromate OACD. The proportion of chromate-sensitive patients with clinically relevant cement exposure increased from 7.7% in 2002 to 2004 to 28.7% in 2011 to 2013 (P = 0.04). The median age of presentation was younger than for other chromate-sensitive patients (32 vs 42 years). Hand eczema (88.9%) was the most frequent clinical presentation. Of the 27 with cement-induced chromate OACD, 21 (77.8%) had ongoing dermatitis at the time of the review. Although 14/27 (51.9%) changed their occupation to avoid exposure to cement, symptoms persisted in 9/14 (64.3%). Prolonged exposure to cement before development of symptoms was associated with chronicity. All the symptomatic patients experienced at least a moderate effect on their quality of life (grade 3 or higher on the Dermatology Life Quality Index). We recommend the adoption of the European legislation in Israel, to reduce the prevalence of chromate OACD from cement.

  12. Potential of Silanes for Chromate Replacement in Metal Finishing Industries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-16

    POTENTIAL OF SILANES FOR CHROMATE REPLACEMENT IN METAL FINISHING INDUSTRIES Wim J. van Ooij*, Danqing Zhu, Vignesh Palanivel, J. Anna Lamar...18 2 POTENTIAL OF SILANES FOR CHROMATE REPLACEMENT IN METAL FINISHING INDUSTRIES Wim J. van Ooij, Danqing Zhu, Vignesh Palanivel, J. Anna Lamar

  13. REDUCTIVE DETOXIFICATION AND IMMOBILIZATION OF CHROMATE PRESENT IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The in-situ permeable reactive barrier at the U.S. Coast Guard Air Support Center at Elizabeth City, North Carolina is very effective in remediating the contaminant plumes of TCE and chromate in the ground water, but it has limited effectiveness to attenuate chromate present as s...

  14. Understanding and controlling chromaticity shift in LED devices

    SciT

    Davis, Lynn; Mills, Karmann; Lamvik, Michael

    Chromaticity shift in light-emitting diode (LED) devices arises from multiple mechanisms, and at least five different chromaticity shift modes (CSMs) have been identified to date. This paper focuses on the impacts of irreversible phosphor degradation as a cause of chromaticity shifts in LED devices. The nitride phosphors used to produce warm white LEDs are especially vulnerable to degradation due to thermal and chemical effects such as reactions with oxygen and water. As a result, LED devices utilizing these phosphors were found to undergo either a green shift or, less commonly, a red shift depending on the phosphor mix in themore » LED devices. These types of chromaticity shifts are classified as CSM-2 (green shift) and CSM-5 (red shift). This paper provides an overview of the kinetic processes responsible for green and red chromaticity shifts along with examples from accelerated stress testing of 6” downlights. Both CSMs appear to proceed through analogous mechanisms that are initiated at the surface of the phosphor. A green shift is produced by the surface oxidation of the nitride phosphor that changes the emission profile to lower wavelengths. As the surface oxidation reaction proceeds, reactant limitations slow the rate and bulk oxidation processes become more prevalent. We found that a red chromaticity shift arises from quenching of the green phosphor, also possibly due to surface reactions of oxygen, which shift the emission chromaticity in the red direction. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of these findings on projecting chromaticity.« less

  15. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on photostress recovery, glare disability, and chromatic contrast.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Billy R; Fletcher, Laura M; Roos, Franz; Wittwer, Jonas; Schalch, Wolfgang

    2014-12-02

    Past studies have shown that higher macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) supplementation are related to improvements in glare disability, photostress recovery, and chromatic contrast. This study assessed those links using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. The visual effects of 1 year of supplementing L (10 mg/d) and Z (2 mg/d) were investigated. One hundred fifteen young, healthy subjects were recruited and randomized into the study (58 received placebo, 57 L+Z). Several dependent measures were collected at baseline and then once every 3 months: serum L and Z measured by HPLC chromatography; MPOD measured using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry; photostress recovery assessed by measuring the time needed to recover visual acquisition of a grating target after 30 seconds of an intense xenon white flash exposure; glare disability evaluated as the energy in a surrounding annulus necessary to veil a central grating target; and chromatic contrast assessed by measuring thresholds for a yellow grating target superposed on a 460-nm background. Macular pigment optical density increased significantly versus placebo at all eccentricities (10, 30, 60, and 105 minutes from the center of the macula). Serum L and Z also increased significantly by the first follow-up visit (at 3 months), and remained elevated throughout the intervention period of 1 year. Chromatic contrast and photostress recovery time improved significantly versus placebo. Glare disability was correlated with macular pigment density throughout the study period but did not increase significantly in the treated group. Daily supplementation with L+Z resulted in significant increase in serum levels and MPOD and improvements in chromatic contrast and recovery from photostress. These results are consistent with past studies showing that increasing MPOD leads to improved visual performance. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00909090.). Copyright 2014 The

  16. Luminance cues constrain chromatic blur discrimination in natural scene stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Rebecca J; McGraw, Paul V; Peirce, Jonathan W

    2013-03-22

    Introducing blur into the color components of a natural scene has very little effect on its percept, whereas blur introduced into the luminance component is very noticeable. Here we quantify the dominance of luminance information in blur detection and examine a number of potential causes. We show that the interaction between chromatic and luminance information is not explained by reduced acuity or spatial resolution limitations for chromatic cues, the effective contrast of the luminance cue, or chromatic and achromatic statistical regularities in the images. Regardless of the quality of chromatic information, the visual system gives primacy to luminance signals when determining edge location. In natural viewing, luminance information appears to be specialized for detecting object boundaries while chromatic information may be used to determine surface properties.

  17. Source apportionment and environmental fate of lead chromates in atmospheric dust in arid environments.

    PubMed

    Meza-Figueroa, Diana; González-Grijalva, Belem; Romero, Francisco; Ruiz, Joaquin; Pedroza-Montero, Martín; Rivero, Carlos Ibañez-Del; Acosta-Elías, Mónica; Ochoa-Landin, Lucas; Navarro-Espinoza, Sofía

    2018-07-15

    The environmental fate of lead derived from traffic paint has been poorly studied in developing countries, mainly in arid zones. For this purpose, a developing city located in the Sonoran desert (Hermosillo, Mexico), was chosen to conduct a study. In this paper the lead chromate (crocoite) sources in atmospheric dust were addressed using a combination of Raman microspectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Pb isotope measurements. A high concentration of Pb and Cr as micro- and nanostructured pigments of crocoite is reported in yellow traffic paint (n=80), road dust (n=146), settled dust in roofs (n=21), and atmospheric dust (n=20) from a developing city located in the Sonoran Desert. 10 samples of peri-urban soils were collected for local geochemical background. The paint photodegradation and erosion of the asphaltic cover are enhanced by the climate, and the presence of the mineral crocoite (PbCrO 4 ) in road dust with an aerodynamic diameter ranging from 100nm to 2μm suggests its integration into the atmosphere by wind resuspension processes. A positive PbCr correlation (R 2 =0.977) was found for all studied samples, suggesting a common source. The Pb-isotope data show signatures in atmospheric dust as a product of the mixing of two end members: i) local soils and ii) crocoite crystals as pigments in paint. The presence of lead chromates in atmospheric dust has not been previously documented in Latin America, and it represents an unknown health risk to the exposed population because the identified size of crystals can reach the deepest part of lungs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Familial grouped pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, P T; Delleman, J W

    1988-01-01

    Grouped pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium was found in a father and his son. They had a normal resting potential on the electro-oculogram, but the son had a lower normal light rise. We believe this is the first description of familial grouped pigmentation. Images PMID:3390419

  19. The effect of chromatic and luminance information on reaction times.

    PubMed

    O'Donell, Beatriz M; Barraza, Jose F; Colombo, Elisa M

    2010-07-01

    We present a series of experiments exploring the effect of chromaticity on reaction time (RT) for a variety of stimulus conditions, including chromatic and luminance contrast, luminance, and size. The chromaticity of these stimuli was varied along a series of vectors in color space that included the two chromatic-opponent-cone axes, a red-green (L-M) axis and a blue-yellow [S - (L + M)] axis, and intermediate noncardinal orientations, as well as the luminance axis (L + M). For Weber luminance contrasts above 10-20%, RTs tend to the same asymptote, irrespective of chromatic direction. At lower luminance contrast, the addition of chromatic information shortens the RT. RTs are strongly influenced by stimulus size when the chromatic stimulus is modulated along the [S - (L + M)] pathway and by stimulus size and adaptation luminance for the (L-M) pathway. RTs are independent of stimulus size for stimuli larger than 0.5 deg. Data are modeled with a modified version of Pieron's formula with an exponent close to 2, in which the stimulus intensity term is replaced by a factor that considers the relative effects of chromatic and achromatic information, as indexed by the RMS (square-root of the cone contrast) value at isoluminance and the Weber luminance contrast, respectively. The parameters of the model reveal how RT is linked to stimulus size, chromatic channels, and adaptation luminance and how they can be interpreted in terms of two chromatic mechanisms. This equation predicts that, for isoluminance, RTs for a stimulus lying on the S-cone pathway are higher than those for a stimulus lying on the L-M-cone pathway, for a given RMS cone contrast. The equation also predicts an asymptotic trend to the RT for an achromatic stimulus when the luminance contrast is sufficiently large.

  20. Interactions of natural resins and pigments in works of art.

    PubMed

    Poli, Tommaso; Piccirillo, Anna; Nervo, Marco; Chiantore, Oscar

    2017-10-01

    The degradation process involving the formation of metal soaps in drying oils is a well-known problem due to cations from pigments reacting with free fatty acids from the oil. The aggregation of these carboxylates in semi-crystalline structures can lead to eruptions through the paint layers and 'blooming' on the surface. In this work, the metal soaps formation in presence of natural resins has been assessed and studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with experiments concerning the ageing of drying oil and different natural resins (shellac, dammar and colophony) in the presence of common historic pigments (smalt, ochre, umber, azurite, lead white, zinc white and titanium white). Mixtures of resins and pigments have been exposed to photo-ageing in solar box up to 1000h, thermal ageing at 50°C up to 1100h and 6month of room conditions exposure as reference. The decrease in the intensity of the carbonyl band in the spectra, as well as the contemporary increase of the metal carboxylates (in the range from 1500 to 1650cm -1 ) absorption bands, were used as the main indicators of metal soap formation. It has been observed that some pigments, particularly zinc white and smalt, present a 'catalytic' effect favouring the simultaneous formation of associated oxalates. The formation of oxalates and different degradation products from natural resins in the presence of pigments is particularly important, as it deeply affects the removability of varnishes and, more generally, the cleaning processes. Moreover, it permanently modifies the interface between painting and varnish layers as well as the aesthetic aspects of the painted surfaces. The influence of natural resins reactivity with pigments and their role in the oxalate formation is an issue still unexplored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of chromatic and luminance distortions in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Ben J; Wang, Karen; Menzies, Samantha; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2015-09-01

    A number of studies have measured visual thresholds for detecting spatial distortions applied to images of natural scenes. In one study, Bex [J. Vis.10(2), 1 (2010)10.1167/10.2.231534-7362] measured sensitivity to sinusoidal spatial modulations of image scale. Here, we measure sensitivity to sinusoidal scale distortions applied to the chromatic, luminance, or both layers of natural scene images. We first established that sensitivity does not depend on whether the undistorted comparison image was of the same or of a different scene. Next, we found that, when the luminance but not chromatic layer was distorted, performance was the same regardless of whether the chromatic layer was present, absent, or phase-scrambled; in other words, the chromatic layer, in whatever form, did not affect sensitivity to the luminance layer distortion. However, when the chromatic layer was distorted, sensitivity was higher when the luminance layer was intact compared to when absent or phase-scrambled. These detection threshold results complement the appearance of periodic distortions of the image scale: when the luminance layer is distorted visibly, the scene appears distorted, but when the chromatic layer is distorted visibly, there is little apparent scene distortion. We conclude that (a) observers have a built-in sense of how a normal image of a natural scene should appear, and (b) the detection of distortion in, as well as the apparent distortion of, natural scene images is mediated predominantly by the luminance layer and not chromatic layer.

  2. Influence of Spatial and Chromatic Noise on Luminance Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Miquilini, Leticia; Walker, Natalie A; Odigie, Erika A; Guimarães, Diego Leite; Salomão, Railson Cruz; Lacerda, Eliza Maria Costa Brito; Cortes, Maria Izabel Tentes; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; Fitzgerald, Malinda E C; Ventura, Dora Fix; Souza, Givago Silva

    2017-12-05

    Pseudoisochromatic figures are designed to base discrimination of a chromatic target from a background solely on the chromatic differences. This is accomplished by the introduction of luminance and spatial noise thereby eliminating these two dimensions as cues. The inverse rationale could also be applied to luminance discrimination, if spatial and chromatic noise are used to mask those cues. In this current study estimate of luminance contrast thresholds were conducted using a novel stimulus, based on the use of chromatic and spatial noise to mask the use of these cues in a luminance discrimination task. This was accomplished by presenting stimuli composed of a mosaic of circles colored randomly. A Landolt-C target differed from the background only by the luminance. The luminance contrast thresholds were estimated for different chromatic noise saturation conditions and compared to luminance contrast thresholds estimated using the same target in a non-mosaic stimulus. Moreover, the influence of the chromatic content in the noise on the luminance contrast threshold was also investigated. Luminance contrast threshold was dependent on the chromaticity noise strength. It was 10-fold higher than thresholds estimated from non-mosaic stimulus, but they were independent of colour space location in which the noise was modulated. The present study introduces a new method to investigate luminance vision intended for both basic science and clinical applications.

  3. Interactions between chromatic- and luminance-contrast-sensitive stereopsis mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Simmons, David R; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2002-06-01

    It is well known that chromatic information can assist in solving the stereo correspondence problem. It has also been suggested that there are two independent first-order stereopsis mechanisms, one sensitive to chromatic contrast and the other sensitive to luminance contrast (Vision Research 37 (1997) 1271). Could the effect of chromatic information on stereo correspondence be subserved by interactions between these mechanisms? To address this question, disparity thresholds (1/stereoacuity) were measured using 0.5 cpd Gabor patches. The stimuli possessed different relative amounts of chromatic and luminance contrast which could be correlated or anti-correlated between the eyes. Stereoscopic performance with these compound stimuli was compared to that with purely isoluminant and isochromatic stimuli at different contrasts. It was found that anti-correlated chromatic contrast severely disrupted stereopsis with achromatic stimuli and that anti-correlated luminance contrast severely disrupted stereopsis with chromatic stimuli. Less dramatic, but still significant, was the improvement in stereoacuity obtained using correlated colour and luminance contrast. These data are consistent with there being positive and negative interactions between chromatic and achromatic stereopsis mechanisms that take place after the initial encoding of disparity information, but before the extraction of stereoscopic depth. These interactions can be modelled satisfactorily assuming probability summation of depth sign information between independent mechanisms.

  4. Spectrally balanced chromatic landing approach lighting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Red warning lights delineate the runway approach with additional blue lights juxtaposed with the red lights such that the red lights are chromatically balanced. The red/blue point light sources result in the phenomenon that the red lights appear in front of the blue lights with about one and one-half times the diameter of the blue. To a pilot observing these lights along a glide path, those red lights directly below appear to be nearer than the blue lights. For those lights farther away seen in perspective at oblique angles, the red lights appear to be in a position closer to the pilot and hence appear to be above the corresponding blue lights. This produces a very pronounced three dimensional effect referred to as chromostereopsis which provides valuable visual cues to enable the pilot to perceive his actual position above the ground and the actual distance to the runway.

  5. Chromatic dispersion concentrator applied to photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, G.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how it is possible to realize a chromatic dispersion concentrator which collects the different monochromatic components of the solar spectrum separately in subsequently concentric rings in the focal zone. This comes about without an increase in the energetic losses compared to any other type of concentrator. If different photovoltaic elements with energy gaps equal to the photon energy falling on the focal zone are put in the latter, energy losses due to incomplete utilization of the solar spectrum and to incomplete utilization of the energy of a single photon can be drastically reduced. How the losses due to the voltage factor and the fill-factor of the photovoltaic elements of the system can be reduced compared to the normal silicon cells is also demonstrated. The other contributions to losses in the conversion process have only been mentioned, foreseeing their possible variation.

  6. Chromatic control in coextruded layered polymer microlenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimanno, Michael; Oder, Tom N.; Andrews, James H.; Zhou, Chuanhong; Petrus, Joshua B.; Merlo, Cory; Bagheri, Cameron; Hetzel, Connor; Tancabel, James; Singer, Kenneth D.; Baer, Eric

    2014-12-01

    We describe the formation, characterization and theoretical understanding of microlenses comprised of alternating polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate layers produced by multilayer coextrusion. These lenses are fabricated by photolithography, using a grayscale mask followed by plasma etching, so that the refractive index alternation of the bilayer stack appears across the radius of the microlens. The alternating quarter-wave thick layers form a one-dimensional photonic crystal whose dispersion augments the material dispersion, allowing one to sculpt the chromatic dispersion of the lens by adjusting the layered structure. Using Huygen's principle, we model our experimental measurements of the focal length of these lenses across the reflection band of the multilayer polymer film from which the microlens is fashioned. For a 56 micron diameter multilayered lens of focal length 300 microns, we measured a nearly 25 percent variation in the focal length across a shallow, 50 nm-wide reflection band.

  7. Effects of chromatic image statistics on illumination induced color differences.

    PubMed

    Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo; Gijsenij, Arjan; Dekker, Niels

    2013-09-01

    We measure the color fidelity of visual scenes that are rendered under different (simulated) illuminants and shown on a calibrated LCD display. Observers make triad illuminant comparisons involving the renderings from two chromatic test illuminants and one achromatic reference illuminant shown simultaneously. Four chromatic test illuminants are used: two along the daylight locus (yellow and blue), and two perpendicular to it (red and green). The observers select the rendering having the best color fidelity, thereby indirectly judging which of the two test illuminants induces the smallest color differences compared to the reference. Both multicolor test scenes and natural scenes are studied. The multicolor scenes are synthesized and represent ellipsoidal distributions in CIELAB chromaticity space having the same mean chromaticity but different chromatic orientations. We show that, for those distributions, color fidelity is best when the vector of the illuminant change (pointing from neutral to chromatic) is parallel to the major axis of the scene's chromatic distribution. For our selection of natural scenes, which generally have much broader chromatic distributions, we measure a higher color fidelity for the yellow and blue illuminants than for red and green. Scrambled versions of the natural images are also studied to exclude possible semantic effects. We quantitatively predict the average observer response (i.e., the illuminant probability) with four types of models, differing in the extent to which they incorporate information processing by the visual system. Results show different levels of performance for the models, and different levels for the multicolor scenes and the natural scenes. Overall, models based on the scene averaged color difference have the best performance. We discuss how color constancy algorithms may be improved by exploiting knowledge of the chromatic distribution of the visual scene.

  8. Terahertz Analysis of Quinacridone Pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, A. D.; Kelly, M.; Lewis, R. A.

    2017-03-01

    We present terahertz spectroscopy and analysis of two commercially available quinacridone pigments in the 0.5-4.5 THz range. Our results show a clear distinction between quinacridone red and magenta pigments. We reveal four definite absorptions in the terahertz regime common to both pigments, but offset between the pigments by ˜0.2 THz. The lowest-energy line in each pigment is observed to increase in frequency by ˜0.1 THz as the temperature is reduced from 300 to 12 K.

  9. Abnormal pupillary light reflex with chromatic pupillometry in Gaucher disease

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Aya; Shirai, Kentarou; Kubota, Norika; Takayama, Rumiko; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Onuki, Takanori; Numakura, Chikahiko; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Yusuke; Sakai, Norio; Ohno, Atsuko; Asami, Maya; Matsushita, Shoko; Hayashi, Anri; Kumada, Tomohiro; Fujii, Tatsuya; Horino, Asako; Inoue, Takeshi; Kuki, Ichiro; Asakawa, Ken; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ohno, Koyo; Nishimura, Yoko; Tamasaki, Akiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Kousaku

    2014-01-01

    The hallmark of neuronopathic Gaucher disease (GD) is oculomotor abnormalities, but ophthalmological assessment is difficult in uncooperative patients. Chromatic pupillometry is a quantitative method to assess the pupillary light reflex (PLR) with minimal patient cooperation. Thus, we investigated whether chromatic pupillometry could be useful for neurological evaluations in GD. In our neuronopathic GD patients, red light-induced PLR was markedly impaired, whereas blue light-induced PLR was relatively spared. In addition, patients with non-neuronopathic GD showed no abnormalities. These novel findings show that chromatic pupillometry is a convenient method to detect neurological signs and monitor the course of disease in neuronopathic GD. PMID:25356393

  10. Abnormal pupillary light reflex with chromatic pupillometry in Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Narita, Aya; Shirai, Kentarou; Kubota, Norika; Takayama, Rumiko; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Onuki, Takanori; Numakura, Chikahiko; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Yusuke; Sakai, Norio; Ohno, Atsuko; Asami, Maya; Matsushita, Shoko; Hayashi, Anri; Kumada, Tomohiro; Fujii, Tatsuya; Horino, Asako; Inoue, Takeshi; Kuki, Ichiro; Asakawa, Ken; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ohno, Koyo; Nishimura, Yoko; Tamasaki, Akiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Kousaku

    2014-02-01

    The hallmark of neuronopathic Gaucher disease (GD) is oculomotor abnormalities, but ophthalmological assessment is difficult in uncooperative patients. Chromatic pupillometry is a quantitative method to assess the pupillary light reflex (PLR) with minimal patient cooperation. Thus, we investigated whether chromatic pupillometry could be useful for neurological evaluations in GD. In our neuronopathic GD patients, red light-induced PLR was markedly impaired, whereas blue light-induced PLR was relatively spared. In addition, patients with non-neuronopathic GD showed no abnormalities. These novel findings show that chromatic pupillometry is a convenient method to detect neurological signs and monitor the course of disease in neuronopathic GD.

  11. Binocular interactions in random chromatic changes at isoluminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, José M.

    2006-02-01

    To examine the type of chromatic interactions at isoluminance in the phenomenon of binocular vision, I have determined simple visual reaction times (VRT) under three observational conditions (monocular left, monocular right, and binocular) for different chromatic stimuli along random color axes at isoluminance (simultaneous L-, M-, and S-cone variations). Upper and lower boundaries of probability summation as well as the binocular capacity coefficient were estimated with observed distributions of reaction times. The results were not consistent with the notion of independent chromatic channels between eyes, suggesting the existence of excitatory and inhibitory binocular interactions at suprathreshold isoluminance conditions.

  12. Sequence divergence of the red and green visual pigments in great apes and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, S S; Jorgensen, A L; Battisti, L; Iwasaki, L; Motulsky, A G

    1994-01-01

    We have determined the coding sequences of red and green visual pigment genes of the chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan. The deduced amino acid sequences of these pigments are highly homologous to the equivalent human pigments. None of the amino acid differences occurred at sites that were previously shown to influence pigment absorption characteristics. Therefore, we predict the spectra of red and green pigments of the apes to have wavelengths of maximum absorption that differ by < 2 nm from the equivalent human pigments and that color vision in these nonhuman primates will be very similar, if not identical, to that in humans. A total of 14 within-species polymorphisms (6 involving silent substitutions) were observed in the coding sequences of the red and green pigment genes of the great apes. Remarkably, the polymorphisms at 6 of these sites had been observed in human populations, suggesting that they predated the evolution of higher primates. Alleles at polymorphic sites were often shared between the red and green pigment genes. The average synonymous rate of divergence of red from green sequences was approximately 1/10th that estimated for other proteins of higher primates, indicating the involvement of gene conversion in generating these polymorphisms. The high degree of homology and juxtaposition of these two genes on the X chromosome has promoted unequal recombination and/or gene conversion that led to sequence homogenization. However, natural selection operated to maintain the degree of separation in peak absorbance between the red and green pigments that resulted in optimal chromatic discrimination. This represents a unique case of molecular coevolution between two homologous genes that functionally interact at the behavioral level. PMID:8041777

  13. PIGMENTS OF THE RETINA

    PubMed Central

    Wald, George

    1936-01-01

    1. Visual purple from the sea robin, sea bass, and scup is almost identical spectroscopically with that from frogs. The interrelations of this pigment with vitamin A and retinene are also the same as in the frog. 2. In strong acids or at pH > 11, the visual yellow of sea robin retinas is converted irreversibly into a pH indicator, yellow in acid and almost colorless in alkaline solution. Unlike neutral visual yellow, the indicator is not removed to form either vitamin A or visual purple. In the ammoniacal retina the reversion of visual yellow itself to purple is accelerated. 3. The combined pigment epithelium and choroid layer in these fishes contain vitamin A, flavine, and an unidentified xanthophyll. PMID:19872983

  14. Spectrally-balanced chromatic approach-lighting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    Approach lighting system employing combinations of red and blue lights reduces problem of color-based optical illusions. System exploits inherent chromatic aberration of eye to create three-dimensional effect, giving pilot visual clues of position.

  15. Symplectic maps and chromatic optics in particle accelerators

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Yunhai

    2015-07-06

    Here, we have applied the nonlinear map method to comprehensively characterize the chromatic optics in particle accelerators. Our approach is built on the foundation of symplectic transfer maps of magnetic elements. The chromatic lattice parameters can be transported from one element to another by the maps. We also introduce a Jacobian operator that provides an intrinsic linkage between the maps and the matrix with parameter dependence. The link allows us to directly apply the formulation of the linear optics to compute the chromatic lattice parameters. As an illustration, we analyze an alternating-gradient cell with nonlinear sextupoles, octupoles, and decapoles andmore » derive analytically their settings for the local chromatic compensation. Finally, the cell becomes nearly perfect up to the third-order of the momentum deviation.« less

  16. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  17. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  18. In vivo chromatic aberration in eyes implanted with intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Llorente, Lourdes; Durán, Sonia; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio; Marcos, Susana

    2013-04-12

    To measure in vivo and objectively the monochromatic aberrations at different wavelengths, and the chromatic difference of focus between green and infrared wavelengths in eyes implanted with two models of intraocular lenses (IOL). EIGHTEEN EYES PARTICIPATED IN THIS STUDY: nine implanted with Tecnis ZB99 1-Piece acrylic IOL and nine implanted with AcrySof SN60WF IOL. A custom-developed laser ray tracing (LRT) aberrometer was used to measure the optical aberrations, at 532 nm and 785 nm wavelengths. The monochromatic wave aberrations were described using a fifth-order Zernike polynomial expansion. The chromatic difference of focus was estimated as the difference between the equivalent spherical errors corresponding to each wavelength. Wave aberration measurements were highly reproducible. Except for the defocus term, no significant differences in high order aberrations (HOA) were found between wavelengths. The average chromatic difference of focus was 0.46 ± 0.15 diopters (D) in the Tecnis group, and 0.75 ± 0.12 D in the AcrySof group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Chromatic difference of focus in the AcrySof group was not statistically significantly different from the Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) previously reported in a phakic population (0.78 ± 0.16 D). The impact of LCA on retinal image quality (measured in terms of Strehl ratio) was drastically reduced when considering HOA and astigmatism in comparison with a diffraction-limited eye, yielding the differences in retinal image quality between Tecnis and AcrySof IOLs not significant. LRT aberrometry at different wavelengths is a reproducible technique to evaluate the chromatic difference of focus objectively in eyes implanted with IOLs. Replacement of the crystalline lens by the IOL did not increase chromatic difference of focus above that of phakic eyes in any of the groups. The AcrySof group showed chromatic difference of focus values very similar to physiological

  19. On the discovery of an unusual luminescent pigment in Van Gogh's painting "Les bretonnes et le pardon de pont Aven"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comelli, D.; Nevin, A.; Brambilla, A.; Osticioli, I.; Valentini, G.; Toniolo, L.; Fratelli, M.; Cubeddu, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectrally and lifetime-resolved UV-induced luminescence imaging have been applied to the in situ analysis of Vincent Van Gogh's painting on paper "Les bretonnes et le pardon de pont Aven". The in situ investigation revealed the presence of an unusual microsecond green emission from the white painted areas of the watercolour, and this long-lived emission has not been reported in modern paintings by other authors. In order to attribute and suggest an identification of the luminescent pigment, our analysis was integrated with further measurements on commercially available modern white pigments (zinc white, Lithopone white, Blanc Fixe, zinc sulphide, and copper-doped zinc sulphide) and with an in-depth study of the synthesis processes of zinc-based pigments available at the end of the 19th century. Analysis suggested an attribution of the unusual emission from the Van Gogh painting to a particular variety of zinc sulphide pigment, characterized by the presence of copper impurities which were unintentionally introduced in the crystal matrix during its production. The present study is the first application of lifetime imaging for the mapping of long-lived luminescence from the semi-conductor pigment.

  20. Chromatic Perceptual Learning but No Category Effects without Linguistic Input.

    PubMed

    Grandison, Alexandra; Sowden, Paul T; Drivonikou, Vicky G; Notman, Leslie A; Alexander, Iona; Davies, Ian R L

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning involves an improvement in perceptual judgment with practice, which is often specific to stimulus or task factors. Perceptual learning has been shown on a range of visual tasks but very little research has explored chromatic perceptual learning. Here, we use two low level perceptual threshold tasks and a supra-threshold target detection task to assess chromatic perceptual learning and category effects. Experiment 1 investigates whether chromatic thresholds reduce as a result of training and at what level of analysis learning effects occur. Experiment 2 explores the effect of category training on chromatic thresholds, whether training of this nature is category specific and whether it can induce categorical responding. Experiment 3 investigates the effect of category training on a higher level, lateralized target detection task, previously found to be sensitive to category effects. The findings indicate that performance on a perceptual threshold task improves following training but improvements do not transfer across retinal location or hue. Therefore, chromatic perceptual learning is category specific and can occur at relatively early stages of visual analysis. Additionally, category training does not induce category effects on a low level perceptual threshold task, as indicated by comparable discrimination thresholds at the newly learned hue boundary and adjacent test points. However, category training does induce emerging category effects on a supra-threshold target detection task. Whilst chromatic perceptual learning is possible, learnt category effects appear to be a product of left hemisphere processing, and may require the input of higher level linguistic coding processes in order to manifest.

  1. Chromatic assimilation unaffected by perceived depth of inducing light.

    PubMed

    Shevell, Steven K; Cao, Dingcai

    2004-01-01

    Chromatic assimilation is a shift toward the color of nearby light. Several studies conclude that a neural process contributes to assimilation but the neural locus remains in question. Some studies posit a peripheral process, such as retinal receptive-field organization, while others claim the neural mechanism follows depth perception, figure/ground segregation, or perceptual grouping. The experiments here tested whether assimilation depends on a neural process that follows stereoscopic depth perception. By introducing binocular disparity, the test field judged in color was made to appear in a different depth plane than the light that induced assimilation. The chromaticity and spatial frequency of the inducing light, and the chromaticity of the test light, were varied. Chromatic assimilation was found with all inducing-light sizes and chromaticities, but the magnitude of assimilation did not depend on the perceived relative depth planes of the test and inducing fields. We found no evidence to support the view that chromatic assimilation depends on a neural process that follows binocular combination of the two eyes' signals.

  2. Representation of chromatic distribution for lighting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Maurizio; Musante, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    For the luminaire manufacturer, the measurement of the lighting intensity distribution (LID) emitted by lighting fixture is based on photometry. So light is measured as an achromatic value of intensity and there is no the possibility to discriminate the measurement of white vs. colored light. At the Laboratorio Luce of Politecnico di Milano a new instrument for the measurement of spectral radiant intensities distribution for lighting system has been built: the goniospectra- radiometer. This new measuring tool is based on a traditional mirror gonio-photometer with a CCD spectraradiometer controlled by a PC. Beside the traditional representation of photometric distribution we have introduced a new representation where, in addition to the information about the distribution of luminous intensity in space, new details about the chromaticity characteristic of the light sources have been implemented. Some of the results of this research have been applied in developing and testing a new line of lighting system "My White Light" (the research project "Light, Environment and Humans" funded in the Italian Lombardy region Metadistretti Design Research Program involving Politecnico di Milano, Artemide, Danese, and some other SME of the Lighting Design district), giving scientific notions and applicative in order to support the assumption that colored light sources can be used for the realization of interior luminaries that, other than just have low power consumption and long life, may positively affect the mood of people.

  3. Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

  4. The influence of chromatic context on binocular color rivalry: Perception and neural representation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sang Wook; Shevell, Steven K.

    2008-01-01

    The predominance of rivalrous targets is affected by surrounding context when stimuli rival in orientation, motion or color. This study investigated the influence of chromatic context on binocular color rivalry. The predominance of rivalrous chromatic targets was measured in various surrounding contexts. The first experiment showed that a chromatic surround's influence was stronger when the surround was uniform or a grating with luminance contrast (chromatic/black grating) compared to an equiluminant grating (chromatic/white). The second experiment revealed virtually no effect of the orientation of the surrounding chromatic context, using chromatically rivalrous vertical gratings. These results are consistent with a chromatic representation of the context by a non-oriented, chromatically selective and spatially antagonistic receptive field. Neither a double-opponent receptive field nor a receptive field without spatial antagonism accounts for the influence of context on binocular color rivalry. PMID:18331750

  5. Chromatic blur perception in the presence of luminance contrast.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Ben J; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2017-06-01

    Hel-Or showed that blurring the chromatic but not the luminance layer of an image of a natural scene failed to elicit any impression of blur. Subsequent studies have suggested that this effect is due either to chromatic blur being masked by spatially contiguous luminance edges in the scene (Journal of Vision 13 (2013) 14), or to a relatively compressed transducer function for chromatic blur (Journal of Vision 15 (2015) 6). To test between the two explanations we conducted experiments using as stimuli both images of natural scenes as well as simple edges. First, we found that in color-and-luminance images of natural scenes more chromatic blur was needed to perceptually match a given level of blur in an isoluminant, i.e. colour-only scene. However, when the luminance layer in the scene was rotated relative to the chromatic layer, thus removing the colour-luminance edge correlations, the matched blur levels were near equal. Both results are consistent with Sharman et al.'s explanation. Second, when observers matched the blurs of luminance-only with isoluminant scenes, the matched blurs were equal, against Kingdom et al.'s prediction. Third, we measured the perceived blur in a square-wave as a function of (i) contrast (ii) number of luminance edges and (iii) the relative spatial phase between the colour and luminance edges. We found that the perceived chromatic blur was dependent on both relative phase and the number of luminance edges, or dependent on the luminance contrast if only a single edge is present. We conclude that this Hel-Or effect is largely due to masking of chromatic blur by spatially contiguous luminance edges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vivo longitudinal chromatic aberration of pseudophakic eyes.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, Damian; Jóźwik, Agnieszka; Zając, Marek; Hill-Bator, Aneta; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna

    2014-02-01

    To present the results of longitudinal chromatic aberration measurements on two groups of pseudophakic eyes in comparison to healthy eyes. The longitudinal chromatic aberration of the eye, defined as chromatic difference of refraction with disabled accommodation, was measured with the use of a visual refractometer with a custom-designed target illuminator consisting of a narrow-band RGB diode (blue λb = 470 ± 15 nm; green λg = 525 ± 18 nm; red λr = 660 ± 10 nm). The measurements were performed on nine eyes implanted with AcrySof IQ SN60WF, 14 eyes implanted with AcrySof SA60AT, and 10 phakic eyes under cycloplegia. The mean values of the longitudinal chromatic aberration between 470 and 660 nm for the control group was 1.12 ± 0.14 D. For SA60AT group, it was 1.45 ± 0.42 D whereas for SN60WF it was 1.17 ± 0.52 D. The statistical test showed significant difference between SA60AT and the control group (p < 0.05) and no significant difference between SN60WF and the control groups (p = 0.64). The study showed that the longitudinal chromatic aberration in vivo can be easily and reliably estimated with an adapted visual refractometer. The two groups of pseudophakic eyes measured in this study showed different values of chromatic aberration. Its magnitude for SA60AT group was significantly larger than for the control group whereas for SN60WF the difference was not significant. The optical material used for intraocular lens design may have significant influence on the magnitude of the chromatic aberration of the pseudophakic eye, and therefore on its optical and visual performance in polychromatic light.

  7. Galvanic zinc-copper microparticles inhibit melanogenesis via multiple pigmentary pathways.

    PubMed

    Won, Yen-Kim; Lin, Connie B; Seiberg, Miri; Chen, Nannan; Hu, Yaping; Rossetti, Dianne; Saliou, Claude; Loy, Chong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous electrical field of human skin plays an important role in many skin functions. However, the biological effects and mechanism of action of externally applied electrical stimulation on skin remain unclear. Recent study showed that galvanic zinc-copper microparticles produce electrical stimulation and reduce inflammatory and immune responses in intact skin, suggesting the important role of electrical stimulation in non-wounded skin. The objective of this study is to investigate the biological effect of galvanic zinc-copper microparticles on skin pigmentation. Our findings showed that galvanic zinc-copper microparticles inhibited melanogenesis in a human melanoma cell line (MNT-1), human keratinocytes and melanoma cells co-cultures, and in pigmented epidermal equivalents. Treatment of galvanic zinc-copper microparticles inhibited melanogenesis by reducing the promoter transactivation of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 in human melanoma cells. In a co-culture Transwell system of keratinocytes and melanoma cells, galvanic zinc-copper microparticles reduced melanin production via downregulation of endothelin-1 secretion from keratinocytes and reduced tyrosinase gene expression in melanoma cells. In addition, exposure of pigmented epidermal equivalents to galvanic zinc-copper microparticles resulted in reduced melanin deposition. In conclusion, our data demonstrated for the first time that galvanic zinc-copper microparticles reduced melanogenesis in melanoma cells and melanin deposition in pigmented epidermal equivalents by affecting multiple pigmentary pathways.

  8. A multi-analytical investigation of semi-conductor pigments with time-resolved spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevin, A.; Cesaratto, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Valentini, Gianluca; Comelli, D.

    2013-05-01

    We present the non-invasive study of historical and modern Zn- and Cd-based pigments with time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence multispectral imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). Zinc oxide and Zinc sulphide are semiconductors which have been used as white pigments in paintings, and the luminescence of these pigments from trapped states is strongly dependent on the presence of impurities and crystal defects. Cadmium sulphoselenide pigments vary in hue from yellow to deep red based on their composition, and are another class of semiconductor pigments which emit both in the visible and the near infrared. The Fluorescence lifetime of historical and modern pigments has been measured using both an Optical Multichannel Analyser (OMA) coupled with a Nd:YAG nslaser, and a streak camera coupled with a ps-laser for spectrally-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements. For Znbased pigments we have also employed Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) for the measurement of luminescence. A case study of FLIM applied to the analysis of the painting by Vincent Van Gogh on paper - "Les Bretonnes et le pardon de Pont-Aven" (1888) is presented. Through the integration of complementary, portable and non-invasive spectroscopic techniques, new insights into the optical properties of Zn- and Cd-based pigments have been gained which will inform future analysis of late 19th] and early 20th C. paintings.

  9. Chromatic diversity: a new approach for characterizing spatiotemporal coupling of ultrashort pulses.

    PubMed

    Bahk, Seung-Whan; Dorrer, Christophe; Bromage, Jake

    2018-04-02

    Two-dimensional chromatic aberrations are characterized by a single-shot scheme based on a simultaneous measurement of chromatically diversified focal spots. The chromatic diversity is introduced by a 2-D grating with holographic defocus terms. The chromatic aberrations in the beam are either subtracted or added by the additional known chromatic aberrations in the grating, depending on the diffraction order. By analyzing the asymmetry in the size of diffracted focal spots, input beam chromatic aberrations can be deduced. Theoretical discussions and experimental results are presented.

  10. Chromatic diversity: a new approach for characterizing spatiotemporal coupling of ultrashort pulses

    DOE PAGES

    Bahk, Seung-Whan; Dorrer, Christophe; Bromage, Jake

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional chromatic aberrations are characterized by a single-shot scheme based on a simultaneous measurement of chromatically diversified focal spots. The chromatic diversity is introduced by a 2-D grating with holographic defocus terms. The chromatic aberrations in the beam are either subtracted or added by the additional known chromatic aberrations in the grating, depending on the diffraction order. By analyzing the asymmetry in the size of diffracted focal spots, input beam chromatic aberrations can be deduced. Theoretical discussions and experimental results are also presented.

  11. Crystal chemistry of thorium nitrates and chromates

    SciT

    Sigmon, Ginger E.; Burns, Peter C., E-mail: pburns@nd.ed

    2010-07-15

    The structures and infrared spectra of six novel thorium compounds are reported. Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (1) crystallizes in space group C2/c, a=14.050(1), b=8.992(7), c=5.954(5) A, {beta}=101.014(2){sup o}. K{sub 2}Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 6} (2), P-3, a=13.606(1), c=6.641(6) A. (C{sub 12}H{sub 28}N){sub 2}Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 6} (3), P2{sub 1}/c, a=14.643(4), b=15.772(5), c=22.316(5) A, {beta}=131.01(1){sup o}. KTh(NO{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (4), P2{sub 1}/c, a=10.070(8), b=12.731(9), c=13.231(8) A, {beta}=128.647(4){sup o}. Th(CrO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (5), P2{sub 1}/n, a=12.731(1), b=9.469(8), c=12.972(1) A, {beta}=91.793(2){sup o}. K{sub 2}Th{sub 3}(CrO{sub 4}){sub 7}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10} (6), Ama2, a=19.302(8), b=15.580(6), c=11.318(6) A. The coordination polyhedra about Thmore » in these structures are diverse. Th is coordinated by 9 O atoms in 5 and 6, seven of which are from monodentate (CrO{sub 4}) tetrahedra and two are (H{sub 2}O). The Th in compound 1 is coordinated by ten O atoms, four of which are O atoms of two bidentate (NO{sub 3}) triangles and six of which are (OH) and (H{sub 2}O). In compounds 2, 3 and 4 the Th is coordinate by 12 O atoms. In 2 and 3 there are six bidentate (NO{sub 3}) triangles, and in 4 ten of the O atoms are part of five bidentate (NO{sub 3}) triangles and the others are (H{sub 2}O) groups. The structural units of these compounds consist of a chain of thorium and nitrate polyhedra (1), isolated thorium hexanitrate clusters (2, 3), an isolated thorium pentanitrate dihydrate cluster (4), and a sheet (6) and framework (5) of thorium and chromate polyhedra. These structures illustrate the complexity inherent in the crystal chemistry of Th. - Graphical Abstract: The structures and infrared spectra of four new Th nitrates and two Th chromates are reported. The coordination numbers of the Th cations range from nine to 12 in these compounds. Structural units consist of isolated clusters, chains

  12. Comparative chromatography of chloroplast pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandolfo, M.; Sherma, J.; Strain, H. H.

    1969-01-01

    Methods for isolation of low concentration pigments of the cocklebur species are described. The methods entail two step chromatography so that the different sorption properties of the various pigments in varying column parameters can be utilized. Columnar and thin layer methods are compared. Many conditions influence separability of the chloroplasts.

  13. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    PubMed Central

    Cockell, Charles S.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data. Key Words: Biosignatures—Exoplanets—Halophiles—Pigmentation—Reflectance spectroscopy—Spectral models. Astrobiology 15, 341–361. PMID:25941875

  14. Changes in unique hues induced by chromatic surrounds.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround can have a strong influence on the perceived hue of a stimulus. We investigated whether chromatic induction has similar effects on the perception of colors that appear pure and unmixed (unique red, green, blue, and yellow) as on other colors. Subjects performed unique hue settings of stimuli in isoluminant surrounds of different chromaticities. Compared with the settings in a neutral gray surround, unique hue settings altered systematically with chromatic surrounds. The amount of induced hue shift depended on the difference between stimulus and surround hues, and was similar for unique hue settings as for settings of nonunique hues. Intraindividual variability in unique hue settings was roughly twice as high as for settings obtained in asymmetric matching experiments, which may reflect the presence of a reference stimulus in the matching task. Variabilities were also larger with chromatic surrounds than with neutral gray surrounds, for both unique hue settings and matching of nonunique hues. The results suggest that the neural representations underlying unique hue percepts are influenced by the same neural processing mechanisms as the percepts of other colors.

  15. Separating monocular and binocular neural mechanisms mediating chromatic contextual interactions.

    PubMed

    D'Antona, Anthony D; Christiansen, Jens H; Shevell, Steven K

    2014-04-17

    When seen in isolation, a light that varies in chromaticity over time is perceived to oscillate in color. Perception of that same time-varying light may be altered by a surrounding light that is also temporally varying in chromaticity. The neural mechanisms that mediate these contextual interactions are the focus of this article. Observers viewed a central test stimulus that varied in chromaticity over time within a larger surround that also varied in chromaticity at the same temporal frequency. Center and surround were presented either to the same eye (monocular condition) or to opposite eyes (dichoptic condition) at the same frequency (3.125, 6.25, or 9.375 Hz). Relative phase between center and surround modulation was varied. In both the monocular and dichoptic conditions, the perceived modulation depth of the central light depended on the relative phase of the surround. A simple model implementing a linear combination of center and surround modulation fit the measurements well. At the lowest temporal frequency (3.125 Hz), the surround's influence was virtually identical for monocular and dichoptic conditions, suggesting that at this frequency, the surround's influence is mediated primarily by a binocular neural mechanism. At higher frequencies, the surround's influence was greater for the monocular condition than for the dichoptic condition, and this difference increased with temporal frequency. Our findings show that two separate neural mechanisms mediate chromatic contextual interactions: one binocular and dominant at lower temporal frequencies and the other monocular and dominant at higher frequencies (6-10 Hz).

  16. A linear chromatic mechanism drives the pupillary response.

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimura, S.; Wolffsohn, J. S.; Gilmartin, B.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a chromatic mechanism can drive pupil responses. The aim of this research was to clarify whether a linear or nonlinear chromatic mechanism drives pupillary responses by using test stimuli of various colours that are defined in cone contrast space. The pupil and accommodation responses evoked by these test stimuli were continuously and simultaneously objectively measured by photorefraction. The results with isochromatic and isoluminant stimuli showed that the accommodative level remained approximately constant (< 0.25 D change in mean level) even when the concurrent pupillary response was large (ca. 0.30 mm). The pupillary response to an isoluminant grating was sustained, delayed (by ca. 60 ms) and larger in amplitude than that for a isochromatic uniform stimulus, which supports previous work suggesting that the chromatic mechanism contributes to the pupillary response. In a second experiment, selected chromatic test gratings were used and isoresponse contours in cone contrast space were obtained. The results showed that the isoresponse contour in cone contrast space is well described (r(2) = 0.99) by a straight line with a positive slope. The results indicate that a /L - M/ linear chromatic mechanism, whereby a signal from the long wavelength cone is subtracted from that of the middle wavelength cone and vice versa, drives pupillary responses. PMID:11674867

  17. Primary chromatic aberration elimination via optimization work with genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo-Wen; Liu, Tung-Kuan; Fang, Yi-Chin; Chou, Jyh-Horng; Tsai, Hsien-Lin; Chang, En-Hao

    2008-09-01

    Chromatic Aberration plays a part in modern optical systems, especially in digitalized and smart optical systems. Much effort has been devoted to eliminating specific chromatic aberration in order to match the demand for advanced digitalized optical products. Basically, the elimination of axial chromatic and lateral color aberration of an optical lens and system depends on the selection of optical glass. According to reports from glass companies all over the world, the number of various newly developed optical glasses in the market exceeds three hundred. However, due to the complexity of a practical optical system, optical designers have so far had difficulty in finding the right solution to eliminate small axial and lateral chromatic aberration except by the Damped Least Squares (DLS) method, which is limited in so far as the DLS method has not yet managed to find a better optical system configuration. In the present research, genetic algorithms are used to replace traditional DLS so as to eliminate axial and lateral chromatic, by combining the theories of geometric optics in Tessar type lenses and a technique involving Binary/Real Encoding, Multiple Dynamic Crossover and Random Gene Mutation to find a much better configuration for optical glasses. By implementing the algorithms outlined in this paper, satisfactory results can be achieved in eliminating axial and lateral color aberration.

  18. Chromatic confocal microscope using hybrid aspheric diffractive lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayer, Mathieu; Mansfield, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    A chromatic confocal microscope is a single point non-contact distance measurement sensor. For three decades the vast majority of the chromatic confocal microscope use refractive-based lenses to code the measurement axis chromatically. However, such an approach is limiting the range of applications. In this paper the performance of refractive, diffractive and Hybrid aspheric diffractive are compared. Hybrid aspheric diffractive lenses combine the low geometric aberration of a diffractive lens with the high optical power of an aspheric lens. Hybrid aspheric diffractive lenses can reduce the number of elements in an imaging system significantly or create large hyper- chromatic lenses for sensing applications. In addition, diffractive lenses can improve the resolution and the dynamic range of a chromatic confocal microscope. However, to be suitable for commercial applications, the diffractive optical power must be significant. Therefore, manufacturing such lenses is a challenge. We show in this paper how a theoretical manufacturing model can demonstrate that the hybrid aspheric diffractive configuration with the best performances is achieved by step diffractive surface. The high optical quality of step diffractive surface is then demonstrated experimentally. Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 5/10/14, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 5/19/14. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance.

  19. New directions in phthalocyanine pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Diep VO

    1994-01-01

    Phthalocyanines have been used as a pigment in coatings and related applications for many years. These pigments are some of the most stable organic pigments known. The phthalo blue and green pigments have been known to be ultraviolet (UV) stable and thermally stable to over 400 C. These phthalocyanines are both a semiconductor and photoconductor, exhibiting catalytic activity and photostabilization capability of polymers. Many metal free and metallic phthalocyanine derivatives have been prepared. Development of the new classes of phthalocyanine pigment could be used as coating on NASA spacecraft material such as glass to decrease the optical degradation from UV light, the outside of the space station modules for UV protection, and coating on solar cells to increase lifetime and efficiency.

  20. Iris phenotypes and pigment dispersion caused by genes influencing pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Norman L.; Trantow, Colleen M.; Chang, Bo; John, Simon W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Spontaneous mutations altering mouse coat colors have been a classic resource for discovery of numerous molecular pathways. Although often overlooked, the mouse iris is also densely pigmented and easily observed, thus representing a similarly powerful opportunity for studying pigment cell biology. Here, we present an analysis of iris phenotypes among sixteen mouse strains with mutations influencing melanosomes. Many of these strains exhibit biologically and medically relevant phenotypes, including pigment dispersion, a common feature of several human ocular diseases. Pigment dispersion was identified in several strains with mutant alleles known to influence melanosomes, including beige, light, and vitiligo. Pigment dispersion was also detected in the recently arising spontaneous coat color variant, nm2798. We have identified the nm2798 mutation as a missense mutation in the Dct gene, an identical re-occurrence of the slaty light mutation. These results suggest that dysregulated events of melanosomes can be potent contributors to the pigment dispersion phenotype. Combined, these findings illustrate the utility of studying iris phenotypes as a means of discovering new pathways, and re-linking old ones, to processes of pigmented cells in health and disease. PMID:18715234

  1. Iris phenotypes and pigment dispersion caused by genes influencing pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael G; Hawes, Norman L; Trantow, Colleen M; Chang, Bo; John, Simon W M

    2008-10-01

    Spontaneous mutations altering mouse coat colors have been a classic resource for discovery of numerous molecular pathways. Although often overlooked, the mouse iris is also densely pigmented and easily observed, thus representing a similarly powerful opportunity for studying pigment cell biology. Here, we present an analysis of iris phenotypes among 16 mouse strains with mutations influencing melanosomes. Many of these strains exhibit biologically and medically relevant phenotypes, including pigment dispersion, a common feature of several human ocular diseases. Pigment dispersion was identified in several strains with mutant alleles known to influence melanosomes, including beige, light, and vitiligo. Pigment dispersion was also detected in the recently arising spontaneous coat color variant, nm2798. We have identified the nm2798 mutation as a missense mutation in the Dct gene, an identical re-occurrence of the slaty light mutation. These results suggest that dysregulated events of melanosomes can be potent contributors to the pigment dispersion phenotype. Combined, these findings illustrate the utility of studying iris phenotypes as a means of discovering new pathways, and re-linking old ones, to processes of pigmented cells in health and disease.

  2. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the enigmatic Comper pigments.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Wolstenholme, Rosalind; Wilkinson, David S; Brooke, Christopher; Pepper, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    An early church decoration project carried out by Sir Ninian Comper in 1896-98, involving the rood screen and canopy in St. Mary's, Egmanton, is currently undergoing restoration. Despite the rather prolific works of this famous ecclesiastical architect, there is little information available about the actual pigments that he used in his projects that gave rise to the special nomenclature "Comper green" and "Comper red". Specimens of green, red, black, grey, white and blue paint from this work have been made available for Raman spectroscopic analysis, and their identification has been achieved for the first time. The characteristic red and green pigments used in Comper's work, Comper green and Comper red, are both seen to be mixtures; in the former, Raman bands from chrome yellow (lead(II) chromate) and Prussian blue are identified, and the latter is confirmed as being a mixture of vermilion (mercury(II) sulfide) and barytes (barium sulfate). The other colours are found to represent a rich diversity of palette and include haematite, lead tin yellow (type II), lamp black, gypsum, anhydrite, hydrocerussite and calcite. The information from this first Raman spectroscopic study of Comper's palette will assist the conservation and restoration of an important nineteenth century church decoration.

  3. [Sepsis caused by pigmented and no pigmented Chromobacterium violaceum].

    PubMed

    Guevara, Armando; Salomón, Marlly; Oliveros, María; Guevara, Esmirna; Guevara, Milarys; Medina, Laida

    2007-10-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum sepsis is rare but associated with a high mortality rate. We report a fatal case of C. violaceum sepsis in a 6 years old Venezuelan indian boy. Clinical manifestations were fever and swelling in the right inguinal region. The initial diagnosis was an appendicular plastron. Appendicectomy was performed and during surgery a right psoas abscess was identified that resulted culture positive for pigmented C. violaceum. Blood cultures were positive for a pigmented and non pigmented C. violaceum strain. Imipenem and amikacin were administered despite of which the child died 9 days after hospital admission.

  4. Natural pigments and sacred art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  5. Measuring chromatic aberrations in imaging systems using plasmonic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Sylvain D; Roschuk, Tyler R; Maier, Stefan A; Oulton, Rupert F

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a method to measure chromatic aberrations of microscope objectives with metallic nanoparticles using white light. Extinction spectra are recorded while scanning a single nanoparticle through a lens's focal plane. We show a direct correlation between the focal wavelength and the longitudinal chromatic focal shift through our analysis of the variations between the scanned extinction spectra at each scan position and the peak extinction over the entire scan. The method has been tested on achromat and apochromat objectives using aluminum disks varying in size from 260-520 nm. Our method is straightforward, robust, low cost, and broadband with a sensitivity suitable for assessing longitudinal chromatic aberrations in high-numerical-aperture apochromatic corrected lenses.

  6. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  7. Stereo chromatic contrast sensitivity model to blue-yellow gratings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiachen; Lin, Yancong; Liu, Yun

    2016-03-07

    As a fundamental metric of human visual system (HVS), contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is typically measured by sinusoidal gratings at the detection of thresholds for psychophysically defined cardinal channels: luminance, red-green, and blue-yellow. Chromatic CSF, which is a quick and valid index to measure human visual performance and various retinal diseases in two-dimensional (2D) space, can not be directly applied into the measurement of human stereo visual performance. And no existing perception model considers the influence of chromatic CSF of inclined planes on depth perception in three-dimensional (3D) space. The main aim of this research is to extend traditional chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics to 3D space and build a model applicable in 3D space, for example, strengthening stereo quality of 3D images. This research also attempts to build a vision model or method to check human visual characteristics of stereo blindness. In this paper, CRT screen was clockwise and anti-clockwise rotated respectively to form the inclined planes. Four inclined planes were selected to investigate human chromatic vision in 3D space and contrast threshold of each inclined plane was measured with 18 observers. Stimuli were isoluminant blue-yellow sinusoidal gratings. Horizontal spatial frequencies ranged from 0.05 to 5 c/d. Contrast sensitivity was calculated as the inverse function of the pooled cone contrast threshold. According to the relationship between spatial frequency of inclined plane and horizontal spatial frequency, the chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics in 3D space have been modeled based on the experimental data. The results show that the proposed model can well predicted human chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics in 3D space.

  8. Mapping chromatic pathways in the Drosophila visual system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Yang; Luo, Jiangnan; Shinomiya, Kazunori; Ting, Chun-Yuan; Lu, Zhiyuan; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Lee, Chi-Hon

    2016-02-01

    In Drosophila, color vision and wavelength-selective behaviors are mediated by the compound eye's narrow-spectrum photoreceptors R7 and R8 and their downstream medulla projection (Tm) neurons Tm5a, Tm5b, Tm5c, and Tm20 in the second optic neuropil or medulla. These chromatic Tm neurons project axons to a deeper optic neuropil, the lobula, which in insects has been implicated in processing and relaying color information to the central brain. The synaptic targets of the chromatic Tm neurons in the lobula are not known, however. Using a modified GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners (GRASP) method to probe connections between the chromatic Tm neurons and 28 known and novel types of lobula neurons, we identify anatomically the visual projection neurons LT11 and LC14 and the lobula intrinsic neurons Li3 and Li4 as synaptic targets of the chromatic Tm neurons. Single-cell GRASP analyses reveal that Li4 receives synaptic contacts from over 90% of all four types of chromatic Tm neurons, whereas LT11 is postsynaptic to the chromatic Tm neurons, with only modest selectivity and at a lower frequency and density. To visualize synaptic contacts at the ultrastructural level, we develop and apply a "two-tag" double-labeling method to label LT11's dendrites and the mitochondria in Tm5c's presynaptic terminals. Serial electron microscopic reconstruction confirms that LT11 receives direct contacts from Tm5c. This method would be generally applicable to map the connections of large complex neurons in Drosophila and other animals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Chromatic Perceptual Learning but No Category Effects without Linguistic Input

    PubMed Central

    Grandison, Alexandra; Sowden, Paul T.; Drivonikou, Vicky G.; Notman, Leslie A.; Alexander, Iona; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning involves an improvement in perceptual judgment with practice, which is often specific to stimulus or task factors. Perceptual learning has been shown on a range of visual tasks but very little research has explored chromatic perceptual learning. Here, we use two low level perceptual threshold tasks and a supra-threshold target detection task to assess chromatic perceptual learning and category effects. Experiment 1 investigates whether chromatic thresholds reduce as a result of training and at what level of analysis learning effects occur. Experiment 2 explores the effect of category training on chromatic thresholds, whether training of this nature is category specific and whether it can induce categorical responding. Experiment 3 investigates the effect of category training on a higher level, lateralized target detection task, previously found to be sensitive to category effects. The findings indicate that performance on a perceptual threshold task improves following training but improvements do not transfer across retinal location or hue. Therefore, chromatic perceptual learning is category specific and can occur at relatively early stages of visual analysis. Additionally, category training does not induce category effects on a low level perceptual threshold task, as indicated by comparable discrimination thresholds at the newly learned hue boundary and adjacent test points. However, category training does induce emerging category effects on a supra-threshold target detection task. Whilst chromatic perceptual learning is possible, learnt category effects appear to be a product of left hemisphere processing, and may require the input of higher level linguistic coding processes in order to manifest. PMID:27252669

  10. Replacement of chromates in paints and corrosion protection systems [Stage 2

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-05-01

    This technical report presents the second stage results of a multi-year project to develop chromate-free paints and corrosion protection systems. Chromate-containing coatings and paints are very effective in providing corrosion resistance and are wid...

  11. Preparation of pigments for space-stable thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. B.; Smith, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The identification and control of vapor phase reaction kinetics to produce pigments by homogeneous nucleation were achieved. A vapor phase apparatus was designed, fabricated, and calibrated through 1800 C. Vapor phase reactions were analyzed, calculations made, and powders of alumina, rutile, zinc orthotitanate (in a mixed phase), calcium tungstate, and lanthana were produced by homogeneous nucleation. Electron microscopy shows uniform particle morphology and size, and supports anticipated advantages of vapor-phase homogeneous nucleation; namely, purity, freedom from defects, and uniform particle sizing without grinding.

  12. Study of Chromatic parameters of Line, Total, Middle graphs and Graph operators of Bipartite graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarathinam, R.; Parvathi, N.

    2018-04-01

    Chromatic parameters have been explored on the basis of graph coloring process in which a couple of adjacent nodes receives different colors. But the Grundy and b-coloring executes maximum colors under certain restrictions. In this paper, Chromatic, b-chromatic and Grundy number of some graph operators of bipartite graph has been investigat

  13. KINETICS OF CHROMATE REDUCTION DURING NAPHTHALENE DEGRADATION IN A MIXED CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mixed culture of Bacillus sp. K1 and Sphingomonas paucimobilis EPA 505 was exposed to chromate and naphthalene. Batch experiments showed that chromate was reduced and naphthalene was degraded by the mixed culture. Chromate reduction occurred initially at a high rate followed by...

  14. Phycoerythrin-specific bilin lyase-isomerase controls blue-green chromatic acclimation in marine Synechococcus.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Animesh; Biswas, Avijit; Blot, Nicolas; Partensky, Frédéric; Karty, Jonathan A; Hammad, Loubna A; Garczarek, Laurence; Gutu, Andrian; Schluchter, Wendy M; Kehoe, David M

    2012-12-04

    The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus is the second most abundant phytoplanktonic organism in the world's oceans. The ubiquity of this genus is in large part due to its use of a diverse set of photosynthetic light-harvesting pigments called phycobiliproteins, which allow it to efficiently exploit a wide range of light colors. Here we uncover a pivotal molecular mechanism underpinning a widespread response among marine Synechococcus cells known as "type IV chromatic acclimation" (CA4). During this process, the pigmentation of the two main phycobiliproteins of this organism, phycoerythrins I and II, is reversibly modified to match changes in the ambient light color so as to maximize photon capture for photosynthesis. CA4 involves the replacement of three molecules of the green light-absorbing chromophore phycoerythrobilin with an equivalent number of the blue light-absorbing chromophore phycourobilin when cells are shifted from green to blue light, and the reverse after a shift from blue to green light. We have identified and characterized MpeZ, an enzyme critical for CA4 in marine Synechococcus. MpeZ attaches phycoerythrobilin to cysteine-83 of the α-subunit of phycoerythrin II and isomerizes it to phycourobilin. mpeZ RNA is six times more abundant in blue light, suggesting that its proper regulation is critical for CA4. Furthermore, mpeZ mutants fail to normally acclimate in blue light. These findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling an ecologically important photosynthetic process and identify a unique class of phycoerythrin lyase/isomerases, which will further expand the already widespread use of phycoerythrin in biotechnology and cell biology applications.

  15. Phycoerythrin-specific bilin lyase–isomerase controls blue-green chromatic acclimation in marine Synechococcus

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Animesh; Biswas, Avijit; Blot, Nicolas; Partensky, Frédéric; Karty, Jonathan A.; Hammad, Loubna A.; Garczarek, Laurence; Gutu, Andrian; Schluchter, Wendy M.; Kehoe, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus is the second most abundant phytoplanktonic organism in the world's oceans. The ubiquity of this genus is in large part due to its use of a diverse set of photosynthetic light-harvesting pigments called phycobiliproteins, which allow it to efficiently exploit a wide range of light colors. Here we uncover a pivotal molecular mechanism underpinning a widespread response among marine Synechococcus cells known as “type IV chromatic acclimation” (CA4). During this process, the pigmentation of the two main phycobiliproteins of this organism, phycoerythrins I and II, is reversibly modified to match changes in the ambient light color so as to maximize photon capture for photosynthesis. CA4 involves the replacement of three molecules of the green light-absorbing chromophore phycoerythrobilin with an equivalent number of the blue light-absorbing chromophore phycourobilin when cells are shifted from green to blue light, and the reverse after a shift from blue to green light. We have identified and characterized MpeZ, an enzyme critical for CA4 in marine Synechococcus. MpeZ attaches phycoerythrobilin to cysteine-83 of the α-subunit of phycoerythrin II and isomerizes it to phycourobilin. mpeZ RNA is six times more abundant in blue light, suggesting that its proper regulation is critical for CA4. Furthermore, mpeZ mutants fail to normally acclimate in blue light. These findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling an ecologically important photosynthetic process and identify a unique class of phycoerythrin lyase/isomerases, which will further expand the already widespread use of phycoerythrin in biotechnology and cell biology applications. PMID:23161909

  16. Update on zinc biology.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has become a prominent nutrient of clinical and public health interest in the new millennium. Functions and actions for zinc emerge as increasingly ubiquitous in mammalian anatomy, physiology and metabolism. There is undoubtedly an underpinning in fundamental biology for all of the aspects of zinc in human health (clinical and epidemiological) in pediatric and public health practice. Unfortunately, basic science research may not have achieved a full understanding as yet. As a complement to the applied themes in the companion articles, a selection of recent advances in the domains homeostatic regulation and transport of zinc is presented; they are integrated, in turn, with findings on genetic expression, intracellular signaling, immunity and host defense, and bone growth. The elements include ionic zinc, zinc transporters, metallothioneins, zinc metalloenzymes and zinc finger proteins. In emerging basic research, we find some plausible mechanistic explanations for delayed linear growth with zinc deficiency and increased infectious disease resistance with zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  18. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  19. Effects of visual attention on chromatic and achromatic detection sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Uchikawa, Keiji; Sato, Masayuki; Kuwamura, Keiko

    2014-05-01

    Visual attention has a significant effect on various visual functions, such as response time, detection and discrimination sensitivity, and color appearance. It has been suggested that visual attention may affect visual functions in the early visual pathways. In this study we examined selective effects of visual attention on sensitivities of the chromatic and achromatic pathways to clarify whether visual attention modifies responses in the early visual system. We used a dual task paradigm in which the observer detected a peripheral test stimulus presented at 4 deg eccentricities while the observer concurrently carried out an attention task in the central visual field. In experiment 1, it was confirmed that peripheral spectral sensitivities were reduced more for short and long wavelengths than for middle wavelengths with the central attention task so that the spectral sensitivity function changed its shape by visual attention. This indicated that visual attention affected the chromatic response more strongly than the achromatic response. In experiment 2 it was obtained that the detection thresholds increased in greater degrees in the red-green and yellow-blue chromatic directions than in the white-black achromatic direction in the dual task condition. In experiment 3 we showed that the peripheral threshold elevations depended on the combination of color-directions of the central and peripheral stimuli. Since the chromatic and achromatic responses were separately processed in the early visual pathways, the present results provided additional evidence that visual attention affects responses in the early visual pathways.

  20. Reduced Chromatic Discrimination in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Anna; Sowden, Paul; Notman, Leslie; Gonzalez-Dixon, Melissa; West, Dorotea; Alexander, Iona; Loveday, Stephen; White, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Atypical perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is well documented (Dakin & Frith, 2005). However, relatively little is known about colour perception in ASD. Less accurate performance on certain colour tasks has led some to argue that chromatic discrimination is reduced in ASD relative to typical development (Franklin, Sowden, Burley,…

  1. Alternatives to chromated copper arsenate (CCA) for residential construction.

    Stan Lebow

    2004-01-01

    For decades chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was the primary preservative for treated wood used in residential construction. However, recent label changes submitted by CCA registrants will withdraw CCA from most residential applications. This action has increased interest in arsenic-free preservative systems that have been standardized by the American Wood Preservers’...

  2. Alternatives to chromated copper arsenate for residential construction

    Stan T. Lebow

    2004-01-01

    For decades chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was the primary preservative for treated wood used in residential construction. However, recent label changes submitted by CCA registrants will withdraw CCA from most residential applications. This action has increased interest in arsenic free preservative systems that have been standardized by the American Wood Preservers...

  3. Contrast gain control: a bilinear model for chromatic selectivity.

    PubMed

    Singer, B; D'Zmura, M

    1995-04-01

    We report the results of psychophysical experiments on color contrast induction. In earlier work [Vision Res. 34, 3111 (1994)], we showed that modulating the spatial contrast of an annulus in time induces an apparent modulation of the contrast of a central disk, at isoluminance. Here we vary the chromatic properties of disk and annulus systematically in a study of the interactions among the luminance and the color-opponent channels. Results show that induced contrast depends linearly on both disk and annulus contrast, at low and moderate contrast levels. This dependence leads us to propose a bilinear model for color contrast gain control. The model predicts the magnitude and the chromatic properties of induced contrast. In agreement with experimental results, the model displays chromatic selectivity in contrast gain control and a negligible effect of contrast modulation at isoluminance on the appearance of achromatic contrast. We show that the bilinear model for chromatic selectivity may be realized as a feed-forward multiplicative gain control. Data collected at high contrast levels are fit by embellishing the model with saturating nonlinearities in the contrast gain control of each color channel.

  4. COUPLED IRON CORROSION AND CHROMATE REDUCTION: MECHANISMS FOR SUBSURFACE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reduction of chromium from the Cr(VI) to the Cr- (Ill) state by the presence of elemental, or zero-oxidation-state, iron metal was studied to evaluate the feasibility of such a process for subsurface chromate remediation. Reactions were studied in systems of natural aquifer m...

  5. Functionalized granular activated carbon and surface complexation with chromates and bi-chromates in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Singha, Somdutta; Sarkar, Ujjaini; Luharuka, Pallavi

    2013-03-01

    Cr(VI) is present in the aqueous medium as chromate (CrO4(2-)) and bi-chromate (HCrO4(-)). Functionalized granular activated carbons (FACs) are used as adsorbents in the treatment of wastewaters containing hexavalent chromium. The FACs are prepared by chemical modifications of granular activated carbons (GACs) using functionalizing agents like HNO3, HCl and HF. The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface areas of FAC-HCl (693.5m(2)/g), FAC-HNO3 (648.8m(2)/g) and FAC-HF (726.2m(2)/g) are comparable to the GAC (777.7m(2)/g). But, the adsorption capacity of each of the FAC-HNO3, FAC-HCl and FAC-HF is found to be higher than the GAC. The functional groups play an important role in the adsorption process and pH has practically no role in this specific case. The FACs have hydrophilic protonated external surfaces in particular, along with the functional surface sites capable to make complexes with the CrO4(2-) and HCrO4(-) present. Surface complex formation is maximized in the order FAC-HNO3>FAC-HF>FAC-HCl, in proportion to the total surface acidity. This is also confirmed by the well-known pseudo second-order kinetic model. Physi-sorption equilibrium isotherms are parameterized by using standard Freundlich and Langmuir models. Langmuir fits better. The formation of surface complexes with the functional groups and hexavalent chromium is also revealed in the images of field emission scanning electron micrograph; energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis after adsorption. The intra-particle diffusion is not the only rate-controlling factor. The Boyd's film diffusion model fits very well with R(2) as high as 98.1% for FAC-HNO3. This result demonstrates that the functionalization of the GAC by acid treatments would increase the diffusion rate, predominantly with a boundary layer diffusion effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Computerized pigment design based on property hypersurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halova, Jaroslava; Sulcova, Petra; Kupka, Karel

    2007-05-01

    Competition is tough in the pigment market. Rational pigment design has therefore a competitive advantage, saving time and money. The aim of this work is to provide methods that can assist in designing pigments with defined properties. These methods include partial least squares regression (PLSR), neural network (NN) and generalized regression ANOVA model. Authors show how PLS bi-plot can be used to identify market gaps poorly covered by pigment manufacturers, thus giving an opportunity to develop pigments with potentially profitable properties.

  7. Impact of Atmospheric Chromatic Effects on Weak Lensing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Joshua E.; Burchat, Patricia R.

    2015-07-01

    Current and future imaging surveys will measure cosmic shear with statistical precision that demands a deeper understanding of potential systematic biases in galaxy shape measurements than has been achieved to date. We use analytic and computational techniques to study the impact on shape measurements of two atmospheric chromatic effects for ground-based surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST): (1) atmospheric differential chromatic refraction and (2) wavelength dependence of seeing. We investigate the effects of using the point-spread function (PSF) measured with stars to determine the shapes of galaxies that have different spectral energy distributions than the stars. We find that both chromatic effects lead to significant biases in galaxy shape measurements for current and future surveys, if not corrected. Using simulated galaxy images, we find a form of chromatic “model bias” that arises when fitting a galaxy image with a model that has been convolved with a stellar, instead of galactic, PSF. We show that both forms of atmospheric chromatic biases can be predicted (and corrected) with minimal model bias by applying an ordered set of perturbative PSF-level corrections based on machine-learning techniques applied to six-band photometry. Catalog-level corrections do not address the model bias. We conclude that achieving the ultimate precision for weak lensing from current and future ground-based imaging surveys requires a detailed understanding of the wavelength dependence of the PSF from the atmosphere, and from other sources such as optics and sensors. The source code for this analysis is available at https://github.com/DarkEnergyScienceCollaboration/chroma.

  8. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Color quality of pigments in cochineals (Dactylopius coccus Costa). Geographical origin characterization using multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Jesús; González, Mónica; Lobo, M Gloria; Carnero, Aurelio

    2004-03-10

    The commercial value of a cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) sample is associated with its color quality. Because the cochineal is a legal food colorant, its color quality is generally understood as its pigment content. Simply put, the higher this content, the more valuable the sample is to the market. In an effort to devise a way to measure the color quality of a cochineal, the present study evaluates different parameters of color measurement such as chromatic attributes (L*, and a*), percentage of carminic acid, tint determination, and chromatographic profile of pigments. Tint determination did not achieve this objective because this parameter does not correlate with carminic acid content. On the other hand, carminic acid showed a highly significant correlation (r = - 0.922, p = 0.000) with L* values determined from powdered cochineal samples. The combination of the information from the spectrophotometric determination of carminic acid with that of the pigment profile acquired by liquid chromatography (LC) and the composition of the red and yellow pigment groups, also acquired by LC, enables greater accuracy in judging the quality of the final sample. As a result of this study, it was possible to achieve the separation of cochineal samples according to geographical origin using two statistical techniques: cluster analysis and principal component analysis.

  10. The effects of longitudinal chromatic aberration and a shift in the peak of the middle-wavelength sensitive cone fundamental on cone contrast

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, F. J.; Osorio, D.

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal chromatic aberration is a well-known imperfection of visual optics, but the consequences in natural conditions, and for the evolution of receptor spectral sensitivities are less well understood. This paper examines how chromatic aberration affects image quality in the middle-wavelength sensitive (M-) cones, viewing broad-band spectra, over a range of spatial frequencies and focal planes. We also model the effects on M-cone contrast of moving the M-cone fundamental relative to the long- and middle-wavelength (L- and M-cone) fundamentals, while the eye is accommodated at different focal planes or at a focal plane that maximizes luminance contrast. When the focal plane shifts towards longer (650 nm) or shorter wavelengths (420 nm) the effects on M-cone contrast are large: longitudinal chromatic aberration causes total loss of M-cone contrast above 10 to 20 c/d. In comparison, the shift of the M-cone fundamental causes smaller effects on M-cone contrast. At 10 c/d a shift in the peak of the M-cone spectrum from 560 nm to 460 nm decreases M-cone contrast by 30%, while a 10 nm blue-shift causes only a minor loss of contrast. However, a noticeable loss of contrast may be seen if the eye is focused at focal planes other than that which maximizes luminance contrast. The presence of separate long- and middle-wavelength sensitive cones therefore has a small, but not insignificant cost to the retinal image via longitudinal chromatic aberration. This aberration may therefore be a factor limiting evolution of visual pigments and trichromatic color vision. PMID:18639571

  11. NON-POLLUTING REPLACEMENT FOR CHROMATE CONVERSION COATING & ZINC PHOSPHATING IN POWDER COATING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Picklex, a proprietary formulation, is an alternative to conventional metal surface pretreatments. Its developers claim that it does not produce waste or lower production rates, and it will maintain performance compared to conventional processes. A laboratory program was designed...

  12. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    SciT

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  13. Astaxanthin and papilioerythrinone in the skin of birds: a chromatic convergence of two metabolic routes with different precursors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-de Blas, Esther; Mateo, Rafael; Guzmán Bernardo, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa Carmen; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Carotenoids are organic pigments involved in several important physiological functions and may serve as indicators of individual quality in animals. These pigments are only obtained by animals from the diet, but they can be later transformed into other carotenoids by specific enzymatic reactions. The diet of farm-reared and probably wild red-legged partridges ( Alectoris rufa) is mainly based on cereals that contain high levels of lutein and zeaxanthin. These two carotenoids are also predominant in internal tissues and blood of red-legged partridges. However, in their integuments, astaxanthin and papilioerythrinone (the last one identified in this work) are mainly present in their free form and esterified with fatty acids. According to available literature about carotenoid metabolism in animals, we propose that astaxanthin ( λ max = 478 nm) and papilioerythrinone ( λ max = 452-478 nm) are the result of a chromatic convergence of the transformation of dietary zeaxanthin and lutein, respectively. Moreover, the results obtained in this work provide the first identification by liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer system of papilioerythrinone ( m/z 581.3989 [M + H]+) in the skin (i.e., not feathers) of a vertebrate. Astaxanthin and papilioerythrinone are very close in terms of chemical structure and coloration, and the combination of these two keto-carotenoids is responsible for the red color of the ornaments in red-legged partridges.

  14. Annular and central heavy pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in the pigment dispersion syndrome: pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in the pigment dispersion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Burak; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Deniz, Nurettin; Catak, Onur

    2008-12-01

    To report annular and central heavy pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in a case of pigment dispersion syndrome. Case report. A 36-year-old female with bilateral pigment dispersion syndrome presented with progressive decrease in visual acuity in the right eye over the past 1-2 years. Clinical examination revealed the typical findings of pigment dispersion syndrome including bilateral Krunkenberg spindles, iris transillumination defects, and dense trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Remarkably, annular and central dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule was noted in the right eye. Annular pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule may be a rare finding associated with pigment dispersion syndrome. Such a finding suggests that there may be aqueous flow into the retrolental space in some patients with this condition. The way of central pigmentation is the entrance of aqueous to Berger's space. In our case, it is probable that spontaneous detachment of the anterior hyaloid membrane aided this entrance.

  15. Effects of cadmium and zinc on ozone-induced phytotoxicity in cress and lettuce

    SciT

    Czuba, M.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1973-01-01

    Cadmium or zinc solutions were applied to the foliage or roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) and cress (Lepidium sativum L. cv. Fine Curled) at concentrations of 100 parts per million (ppm) every four days for several weeks. Four weeks after sowing, plants were fumigated with 35 parts per hundred million (pphm) ozone, for 6 hours. Cress plants which had received root application of cadmium showed markedly increased ozone-induced phytotoxicity in terms of visible leaf damage and pigment degradation; in lettuce only pigment degradation was evident. There was less effect of zinc or foliar-applied cadmium on ozonemore » phytotoxicity.« less

  16. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  17. Zinc sulfide in intestinal cell granules of Ancylostoma caninum adults

    SciT

    Gianotti, A.J.; Clark, D.T.; Dash, J.

    1991-04-01

    A source of confusion has existed since the turn of the century about the reddish brown, weakly birefringent 'sphaerocrystals' located in the intestines of strongyle nematodes, Strongylus and Ancylostoma. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometric analyses were used for accurate determination of the crystalline order and elemental composition of the granules in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. The composition of the intestinal pigmented granules was identified unequivocally as zinc sulfide. It seems most probable that the granules serve to detoxify high levels of metallic ions (specifically zinc) present due to the large intake of host blood.

  18. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  19. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  20. Non-chromate Passivation for LHE ZnNi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    control of coatings and processes. Development of an alternative methodology that is simple, repeatable, non -destructive, and capable of scanning across...FINAL REPORT Non -chromate Passivation for LHE ZnNi SERDP Project WP-2527 JANUARY 2017 Matt O’Keefe Missouri S&T...valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From

  1. Influence of chromatic aberrations on space charge ion optics.

    PubMed

    Whealton, J H; Tsai, C C

    1978-04-01

    By solution to the Poisson-Vlasov equation the influence of fluctuations (chromatic aberrations) on ion optics is shown for various accelerator designs : (1) cylindrical bore triode with various aspect ratios, (2) pseudo-Pierce shaped electrode triode at various aspect ratios, (3) insulated coating emission electrode triode for various preacceleration potentials, and (4) cylindrical bore tetrodes for various field distributions. Fluctuation levels of 20% can be very important in limiting the ion optics in certain cases.

  2. Longitudinal chromatic aberration and emmetropization: results from the chicken eye.

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, B; Schaeffel, F; Zrenner, E

    1992-01-01

    1. Due to the chromatic dispersion of the ocular media, the focal length of the optics of the eye is about 3 diopters longer for red light than for blue light. Because emmetropization in the chicken (Gallus domesticus) does not require colour cues and operates properly in monochromatic light, one can, therefore, expect that chickens raised in red light become more myopic (with longer eyes) than chicks raised in short wavelength light. Prior to conducting this experiment, we matched the brightness of both light conditions by means of flicker electroretinograms such that equiluminance was obtained for the chickens. 2. Unexpectedly, refractive development was not different from controls in white light for either red or near-ultraviolet light. 3. We tested whether the visual mechanisms guiding refractive development were still sensitive to defocus under both illuminations by treating the chicks with spectacle lenses. 4. Similar to a previous experiment in white light, the growth of the eye in red light also changed such that it compensated for the imposed defocus. It failed to do so, however, in near-ultraviolet light. 5. A histological analysis of the sampling intervals for the ultraviolet receptor system revealed that its spatial resolving power was too low to detect the defocus imposed by the lenses, whereas the long wavelength receptors provided sufficiently good visual acuity. 6. The results show that, during emmetropization, the chicken eye elegantly bypasses the problem of multiple chromatic focal planes by having a low sensitivity to defocus in the blue end of the spectrum. Because the chromatic dispersion function is steep in the blue range but flat at the red end of the spectrum, the remaining chromatic defocus in the spectral range of high visual acuity is low and may match the depth of field of the eye. PMID:1522513

  3. Implementing New Non-Chromate Coatings Systems (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-09

    Initiate Cr6+ authorization process for continued Cr6+ use using the form, Authorization to Use Hexavalent Chromium. YES NO • Approval of...Aluminum and magnesium anodizing • Hard Chrome Plating • Type II conversion coating on aluminum alloys under chromated primer • Type II conversion coating...Elimination of Hexavalent Chromium 80% 5% 14% 1% Type II Type III Type IC Type IC Fatigue Critical 50% 50% Type II Type IC FRC-SE (JAX) Fully Integrated FRC

  4. Triggerfish uses chromaticity and lightness for object segregation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Humans group components of visual patterns according to their colour, and perceive colours separately from shape. This property of human visual perception is the basis behind the Ishihara test for colour deficiency, where an observer is asked to detect a pattern made up of dots of similar colour with variable lightness against a background of dots made from different colour(s) and lightness. To find out if fish use colour for object segregation in a similar manner to humans, we used stimuli inspired by the Ishihara test. Triggerfish (Rhinecanthus aculeatus) were trained to detect a cross constructed from similarly coloured dots against various backgrounds. Fish detected this cross even when it was camouflaged using either achromatic or chromatic noise, but fish relied more on chromatic cues for shape segregation. It remains unknown whether fish may switch to rely primarily on achromatic cues in scenarios where target objects have higher achromatic contrast and lower chromatic contrast. Fish were also able to generalize between stimuli of different colours, suggesting that colour and shape are processed by fish independently. PMID:29308267

  5. Evaluation of chromatic cues for trapping Bactrocera tau.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Ma, Huabo; Niu, Liming; Han, Dongyin; Zhang, Fangping; Chen, Junyu; Fu, Yueguan

    2017-01-01

    Trapping technology based on chromatic cues is an important strategy in controlling Tephritidae (fruit flies). The objectives of this present study were to evaluate the preference of Bactrocera tau for different chromatic cues, and to explore an easy method to print and reproduce coloured paper. Chromatic cues significantly affected the preference of adult B. tau. Wavelengths in the 515-604 nm range were the suitable wavelengths for trapping B. tau. Different-day-old B. tau had different colour preferences. Virtual wavelengths of 595 nm (yellow) and 568 nm (yellowish green) were the optimum wavelengths for trapping 5-7-day-old B. tau and 30-32-day-old B. tau respectively. The trap type and height significantly influenced B. tau attraction efficiency. The number of B. tau on coloured traps hung perpendicular to plant rows was not significantly higher than the number on traps hung parallel to plant rows. The quantisation of colour on the basis of Bruton's wavelength to RGB function can serve as an alternative method for printing and reproducing coloured paper, but a corrected equation should be established between the theoretical wavelength and actual wavelength of coloured paper. Results show that a compound paper coloured yellow (595 nm) and yellowish green (568 nm) installed at 60 and 90 cm above the ground shows the maximum effect for trapping B. tau. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Speed and the coherence of superimposed chromatic gratings.

    PubMed

    Bosten, J M; Smith, L; Mollon, J D

    2016-05-01

    On the basis of measurements of the perceived coherence of superimposed drifting gratings, Krauskopf and Farell (1990) proposed that motion is analysed independently in different chromatic channels. They found that two gratings appeared to slip if each modulated one of the two 'cardinal' color mechanisms S/(L+M) and L/(L+M). If the gratings were defined along intermediate color directions, observers reported a plaid, moving coherently. We hypothesised that slippage might occur in chromatic gratings if the motion signal from the S/(L+M) channel is weak and equivalent to a lower speed. We asked observers to judge coherence in two conditions. In one, S/(L+M) and L/(L+M) gratings were physically the same speed. In the other, the two gratings had perceptually matched speeds. We found that the relative incoherence of cardinal gratings is the same whether gratings are physically or perceptually matched in speed. Thus our hypothesis was firmly contradicted. In a control condition, observers were asked to judge the coherence of stationary gratings. Interestingly, the difference in judged coherence between cardinal and intermediate gratings remained as strong as it was when the gratings moved. Our results suggest a possible alternative interpretation of Krauskopf and Farell's result: the processes of object segregation may precede the analysis of the motion of chromatic gratings, and the same grouping signals may prompt object segregation in the stationary and moving cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Joint denoising, demosaicing, and chromatic aberration correction for UHD video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanov, Ljubomir; Philips, Wilfried; Damstra, Klaas Jan; Ellenbroek, Frank

    2017-09-01

    High-resolution video capture is crucial for numerous applications such as surveillance, security, industrial inspection, medical imaging and digital entertainment. In the last two decades, we are witnessing a dramatic increase of the spatial resolution and the maximal frame rate of video capturing devices. In order to achieve further resolution increase, numerous challenges will be facing us. Due to the reduced size of the pixel, the amount of light also reduces, leading to the increased noise level. Moreover, the reduced pixel size makes the lens imprecisions more pronounced, which especially applies to chromatic aberrations. Even in the case when high quality lenses are used some chromatic aberration artefacts will remain. Next, noise level additionally increases due to the higher frame rates. To reduce the complexity and the price of the camera, one sensor captures all three colors, by relying on Color Filter Arrays. In order to obtain full resolution color image, missing color components have to be interpolated, i.e. demosaicked, which is more challenging than in the case of lower resolution, due to the increased noise and aberrations. In this paper, we propose a new method, which jointly performs chromatic aberration correction, denoising and demosaicking. By jointly performing the reduction of all artefacts, we are reducing the overall complexity of the system and the introduction of new artefacts. In order to reduce possible flicker we also perform temporal video enhancement. We evaluate the proposed method on a number of publicly available UHD sequences and on sequences recorded in our studio.

  8. Chromaticity of color perception and object color knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Nina S; Frankland, Steven M; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Sensorimotor theories of semantic memory require overlap between conceptual and perceptual representations. One source of evidence for such overlap comes from neuroimaging reports of co-activation during memory retrieval and perception; for example, regions involved in color perception (i.e., regions that respond more to colored than grayscale stimuli) are activated by retrieval of object color. One unanswered question from these studies is whether distinctions that are observed during perception are likewise observed during memory retrieval. That is, are regions defined by a chromaticity effect in perception similarly modulated by the chromaticity of remembered objects (e.g., lemons more than coal)? Subjects performed color perception and color retrieval tasks while undergoing fMRI. We observed increased activation during both perception and memory retrieval of chromatic compared to achromatic stimuli in overlapping areas of the left lingual gyrus, but not in dorsal or anterior regions activated during color perception. These results support sensorimotor theories but suggest important distinctions within the conceptual system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A simple handheld pupillometer for chromatic Flicker studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabei, M.; Tinarelli, R.; Peretto, L.; Rovati, L.

    2014-02-01

    A portable pupillometer has been developed which is capable of performing accurate measurements of the pupil diameter during chromatic flicker stimulations. The handheld measuring system records the near-infrared image of the pupil at the rate of 25 fps and simultaneously stimulates the eye using a diffused flicker light generated by light emitting diodes (LEDs). Intensity, frequency and chromatic coordinates of the stimulus can be easily adjusted using a user-friendly graphical interface. Thanks to a chromatic monitoring of the stimulus close to the plane of the eye, photopically matched conditions can be easily achieved. The pupil diameter/area can be measured during flickering stimuli that are generated with frequency in a range of 0.1-20 Hz. The electronic unit, properly connected to the personal computer through a USB port, drives the optical unit, which can be easily held in a hand. The software interface controlling the system was developed in LabVIEW. This paper describes the instrument optical setup, front-end electronics and data processing. Moreover preliminary results obtained on a voluntary are reported.

  10. Zinc-induced Self-association of Complement C3b and Factor H

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Ruodan; Tetchner, Stuart; Rodriguez, Elizabeth; Pao, Po-Jung; Gor, Jayesh; Lengyel, Imre; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits that are a hallmark of age-related macular degeneration contain both C3b and millimolar levels of zinc. C3 is the central protein of complement, whereas C3u is formed by the spontaneous hydrolysis of the thioester bridge in C3. During activation, C3 is cleaved to form active C3b, then C3b is inactivated by Factor I and Factor H to form the C3c and C3d fragments. The interaction of zinc with C3 was quantified using analytical ultracentrifugation and x-ray scattering. C3, C3u, and C3b associated strongly in >100 μm zinc, whereas C3c and C3d showed weak association. With zinc, C3 forms soluble oligomers, whereas C3u and C3b precipitate. We conclude that the C3, C3u, and C3b association with zinc depended on the relative positions of C3d and C3c in each protein. Computational predictions showed that putative weak zinc binding sites with different capacities exist in all five proteins, in agreement with experiments. Factor H forms large oligomers in >10 μm zinc. In contrast to C3b or Factor H alone, the solubility of the central C3b-Factor H complex was much reduced at 60 μm zinc and even more so at >100 μm zinc. The removal of the C3b-Factor H complex by zinc explains the reduced C3u/C3b inactivation rates by zinc. Zinc-induced precipitation may contribute to the initial development of sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits in the retina as well as reducing the progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration in higher risk patients. PMID:23661701

  11. Long anterior zonules and pigment dispersion.

    PubMed

    Moroi, Sayoko E; Lark, Kurt K; Sieving, Paul A; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Katz, Gregory J; Ritch, Robert

    2003-12-01

    To describe pigment dispersion associated with long anterior zonules. Multicenter observational case series. Fifteen patients, seven of whom were treated for glaucoma or ocular hypertension, were identified with long anterior zonules and pigment dispersion. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on one anterior capsule specimen. All patients had anterior zonules that inserted centrally on the lens capsule. Signs of pigment dispersion included corneal endothelial pigmentation, loss of the pupillary ruff, and variable trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Ultrasound biomicroscopy verified the lack of posterior iris insertion and concavity. There was no exfoliation material. Transmission electron microscopy showed zonular lamellae with adherent pigment granules, and no exfoliation material. Long anterior zonules inserted onto the central lens capsule may cause mechanical disruption of the pigment epithelium at the pupillary ruff and central iris leading to pigment dispersion.

  12. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  13. Study of chromatic adaptation via neutral white matches on different viewing media.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qiyan; Luo, Ming R

    2018-03-19

    Two experiments were carried out to study the neutral white and the chromatic adaptation in human vision and color science. After matching neutral whites under different illuminants using both surface and self-luminous colors, the result were used to verify the previous study about the chromatic adaptation. Not all the white illuminants were found neutral even the adaptation time is long. The baseline illuminant of the two-step chromatic adaptation transform was found as the illuminant with the same chromaticity of the neutral white under it and depended on viewing medium in the present study. The results were also used as corresponding colors to derive models of the effective degree of chromatic adaptation, which were found highly associated with the chromaticity of the adapting illuminant.

  14. Psychophysical and physiological responses to gratings with luminance and chromatic components of different spatial frequencies.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Bonnie; Sun, Hao; Lee, Barry B

    2012-02-01

    Gratings that contain luminance and chromatic components of different spatial frequencies were used to study the segregation of signals in luminance and chromatic pathways. Psychophysical detection and discrimination thresholds to these compound gratings, with luminance and chromatic components of the one either half or double the spatial frequency of the other, were measured in human observers. Spatial frequency tuning curves for detection of compound gratings followed the envelope of those for luminance and chromatic gratings. Different grating types were discriminable at detection threshold. Fourier analysis of physiological responses of macaque retinal ganglion cells to compound waveforms showed chromatic information to be restricted to the parvocellular pathway and luminance information to the magnocellular pathway. Taken together, the human psychophysical and macaque physiological data support the strict segregation of luminance and chromatic information in independent channels, with the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways, respectively, serving as likely the physiological substrates. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  15. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... astaxanthin level. (2) Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with paracoccus pigment may contain only...) Astaxanthin, not less than 1.75 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Paracoccus pigment may be safely used in... astaxanthin in finished feed, from paracoccus pigment when used alone or in combination with other astaxanthin...

  16. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... astaxanthin level. (2) Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with paracoccus pigment may contain only...) Astaxanthin, not less than 1.75 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Paracoccus pigment may be safely used in... astaxanthin in finished feed, from paracoccus pigment when used alone or in combination with other astaxanthin...

  17. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... astaxanthin level. (2) Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with paracoccus pigment may contain only...) Astaxanthin, not less than 1.75 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Paracoccus pigment may be safely used in... astaxanthin in finished feed, from paracoccus pigment when used alone or in combination with other astaxanthin...

  18. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... astaxanthin level. (2) Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with paracoccus pigment may contain only...) Astaxanthin, not less than 1.75 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Paracoccus pigment may be safely used in... astaxanthin in finished feed, from paracoccus pigment when used alone or in combination with other astaxanthin...

  19. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... astaxanthin level. (2) Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with paracoccus pigment may contain only...) Astaxanthin, not less than 1.75 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Paracoccus pigment may be safely used in... astaxanthin in finished feed, from paracoccus pigment when used alone or in combination with other astaxanthin...

  20. BACILLUS PYOCYANEUS AND ITS PIGMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Edwin O.

    1899-01-01

    The principal conclusions that seem to me justified are as follows: 1. The fluorescent pigment formed by some varieties of B. pyocyaneus is produced under conditions identical with those governing the production of the pigment by other "fluorescent bacteria." 2. The production of pyocyanin is not dependent upon the presence of either phosphate or sulfate in the culture medium. It is formed in non-proteid as well as in proteid media, but is not a necessary accompaniment of the metabolic activities of the organism (e. g. tartrate solution). 3. The power of producing pyocyanin under conditions of artificial cultivation is lost sooner than the fluorescigenic power. 4. There are greater natural and acquired differences in pyocyanigenic power than in fluorescigenic. 5. The fluorescent pigment may be oxidized slowly by the action of light and air as well as by reagents into a yellow pigment, and pyocyanin may be similarly oxidized into a black pigment. 6. A convenient separation of B. pyocyaneus into four varieties would be the following: var. α, pyocyanigenic and fluorescigenic (most common); var. β, pyocyanigenic only (rare); var. γ, fluorescigenic only (not uncommon, closely related to "B. fluorescens liquefaciens"); var. δ, non-chromogenic. 7. Except for the occasional loss of one or another function the different varieties are not so plastic as sometimes assumed, and cannot be readily converted into one another by subjection to varying conditions of life. 8. The signification and correlation of the almost countless physiological variations among the members of this group in respect to growth in gelatin, behavior to temperature, indol production, etc., remain to be determined. It is not yet clear that the variations in chromogenic power can be in any way correlated with the presence or absence of other physiological functions. PMID:19866929

  1. Zinc Signals and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc. PMID:29064429

  2. Visual pigments, oil droplets, lens, and cornea characterization in the whooping crane (Grus americana)

    Porter, Megan L.; Kingston, Alexandra C. N.; McCready, Robert; Cameron, Evan G.; Hofmann, Christopher M.; Suarez, Lauren; Olsen, Glenn H.; Cronin, Thomas W.; Robinson, Phyllis R.

    2014-01-01

    Vision has been investigated in many species of birds, but few studies have considered the visual systems of large birds and the particular implications of large eyes and long-life spans on visual system capabilities. To address these issues we investigated the visual system of the whooping crane, Grus americana (Gruiformes: Gruidae). G. americana (an endangered species) is one of only two North American crane species and represents a large, long-lived bird where ultraviolet sensitivity may be degraded by chromatic aberrations and entrance of ultraviolet light into the eye could be detrimental to retinal tissues. To investigate the whooping crane visual system we used microspectrophotometry to determine the absorbance spectra of retinal oil droplets and to investigate if the ocular media (i.e., the lens and cornea) absorbs UV light. In vitro expression and reconstitution was used to determine the absorbance spectra of rod and cone visual pigments. The rod visual pigments had wavelengths of peak absorbance (λmax) at 500 nm, while the cone visual pigments λmax values were determined to be 404 nm (SWS1), 450 nm (SWS2), 499 nm (RH2), and 561 nm (LWS), similar to other characterized bird visual pigment absorbance values. The oil droplet cutoff wavelength (λcut) values similarly fell within ranges recorded from other avian species: 576 nm (R-type), 522 nm (Y-type), 506 nm (P-type), and 448 nm (C-type). We confirm that G. americana has a violet-sensitive visual system, although based on the λmax of the SWS1 visual pigment (404 nm) may also have some ability for UV sensitivity.

  3. Characterization of visual pigments, oil droplets, lens and cornea in the whooping crane Grus americana

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Megan L.; Kingston, Alexandra C. N.; McCready, Robert; Cameron, Evan G.; Hofmann, Christopher M.; Suarez, Lauren; Olsen, Glenn H.; Cronin, Thomas W.; Robinson, Phyllis R.

    2014-01-01

    Vision has been investigated in many species of birds, but few studies have considered the visual systems of large birds and the particular implications of large eyes and long-life spans on visual system capabilities. To address these issues we investigated the visual system of the whooping crane Grus americana (Gruiformes, Gruidae), which is one of only two North American crane species. It is a large, long-lived bird in which UV sensitivity might be reduced by chromatic aberration and entrance of UV radiation into the eye could be detrimental to retinal tissues. To investigate the whooping crane visual system we used microspectrophotometry to determine the absorbance spectra of retinal oil droplets and to investigate whether the ocular media (i.e. the lens and cornea) absorb UV radiation. In vitro expression and reconstitution was used to determine the absorbance spectra of rod and cone visual pigments. The rod visual pigments had wavelengths of peak absorbance (λmax) at 500 nm, whereas the cone visual pigment λmax values were determined to be 404 nm (SWS1), 450 nm (SWS2), 499 nm (RH2) and 561 nm (LWS), similar to other characterized bird visual pigment absorbance values. The oil droplet cut-off wavelength (λcut) values similarly fell within ranges recorded in other avian species: 576 nm (R-type), 522 nm (Y-type), 506 nm (P-type) and 448 nm (C-type). We confirm that G. americana has a violet-sensitive visual system; however, as a consequence of the λmax of the SWS1 visual pigment (404 nm), it might also have some UV sensitivity. PMID:25267845

  4. Fast online simultaneous monitoring of PMD and chromatic dispersion with reduced polarization dependent gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, G.; Shum, P.; Aditya, S.; Gong, Yandong

    2006-09-01

    We use the expression relating the output state of polarization and PMD vector. Based on this expression we get the power fading including first-order PMD and chromatic dispersion, which is dependent on the angle of precession of output state of polarization around the PMD vector. From the expression for power fading, we get the average power penalty for chromatic dispersion and PMD. We propose a novel and fast PMD and chromatic dispersion monitoring technology. Measured results agree well with theoretical analysis.

  5. Macular pigment optical density measured by heterochromatic modulation photometry.

    PubMed

    Huchzermeyer, Cord; Schlomberg, Juliane; Welge-Lüssen, Ulrich; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Pokorny, Joel; Kremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    To psychophysically determine macular pigment optical density (MPOD) employing the heterochromatic modulation photometry (HMP) paradigm by estimating 460 nm absorption at central and peripheral retinal locations. For the HMP measurements, two lights (B: 460 nm and R: 660 nm) were presented in a test field and were modulated in counterphase at medium or high frequencies. The contrasts of the two lights were varied in tandem to determine flicker detection thresholds. Detection thresholds were measured for different R:B modulation ratios. The modulation ratio with minimal sensitivity (maximal threshold) is the point of equiluminance. Measurements were performed in 25 normal subjects (11 male, 14 female; age: 30 ± 11 years, mean ± sd) using an eight channel LED stimulator with Maxwellian view optics. The results were compared with those from two published techniques - one based on heterochromatic flicker photometry (Macular Densitometer) and the other on fundus reflectometry (MPR). We were able to estimate MPOD with HMP using a modified theoretical model that was fitted to the HMP data. The resultant MPODHMP values correlated significantly with the MPODMPR values and with the MPODHFP values obtained at 0.25° and 0.5° retinal eccentricity. HMP is a flicker-based method with measurements taken at a constant mean chromaticity and luminance. The data can be well fit by a model that allows all data points to contribute to the photometric equality estimate. Therefore, we think that HMP may be a useful method for MPOD measurements, in basic and clinical vision experiments.

  6. Chromatic aberrations correction for imaging spectrometer based on acousto-optic tunable filter with two transducers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huijie; Wang, Ziye; Jia, Guorui; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Zefu

    2017-10-02

    The acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) with wide wavelength range and high spectral resolution has long crystal and two transducers. A longer crystal length leads to a bigger chromatic focal shift and the double-transducer arrangement induces angular mutation in diffracted beam, which increase difficulty in longitudinal and lateral chromatic aberration correction respectively. In this study, the two chromatic aberrations are analyzed quantitatively based on an AOTF optical model and a novel catadioptric dual-path configuration is proposed to correct both the chromatic aberrations. The test results exhibit effectiveness of the optical configuration for this type of AOTF-based imaging spectrometer.

  7. Bandwidth correction for LED chromaticity based on Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chan; Jin, Shiqun; Xia, Guo

    2017-10-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) is widely employed in industrial applications and scientific researches. With a spectrometer, the chromaticity of LED can be measured. However, chromaticity shift will occur due to the broadening effects of the spectrometer. In this paper, an approach is put forward to bandwidth correction for LED chromaticity based on Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. We compare chromaticity of simulated LED spectra by using the proposed method and differential operator method to bandwidth correction. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves an excellent performance in bandwidth correction which proves the effectiveness of the approach. The method has also been tested on true blue LED spectra.

  8. Kinetics of chromate reduction during naphthalene degradation in a mixed culture

    SciT

    Shen, H.; Sewell, G.W.; Pritchard, P.H.

    A mixed culture of Bacillus sp. K1 and Sphingomonas paucimobilis EPA 505 was exposed to chromate and naphthalene. Batch experiments showed that chromate was reduced and naphthalene was degraded by the mixed culture. Chromate reduction occurred initially at a high rate followed by a decrease in rate until chromate reduction ceased. Chromate reduction decreased in the mixed culture when a lower ratio of S. paucimobilis EPA 505 to Bacillus sp. K1 was utilized. A kinetic model incorporating a term for the cell density ratio is proposed to describe chromate reduction in the mixed culture under both chromate limited and electronmore » donor limited conditions. The validity of the model, and its parameter values, was verified by experimental data generated under a variety of initial population compositions and a broad range of chromate concentrations. The consistent result of experimental data with model predictions implies that the model is useful for evaluating the interactions and the use of mixed culture for chromate removal.« less

  9. On the locating-chromatic number for graphs with two homogenous components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welyyanti, Des; Baskoro, Edy Tri; Simajuntak, Rinovia; Uttunggadewa, Saladin

    2017-10-01

    The locating-chromatic number of a graph was introduced by Chartrand et al. in 2002. The concept of the locating-chromatic number is a marriage between graph coloring and the notion of graph partition dimension. This concept is only for connected graphs. In [8], we extended this concept also for disconnected graphs. In this paper, we determine the locating- chromatic number of a graph with two components. In particular, we determine such values if the components are homogeneous and each component has locating-chromatic number 3.

  10. Chromatic characterization of a three-channel colorimeter using back-propagation neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, P. J.; Pérez, A. L.; Suero, M. I.

    2004-09-01

    This work describes a method for the chromatic characterization of a three-channel colorimeter of recent design and construction dedicated to color vision research. The colorimeter consists of two fixed monochromators and a third monochromator interchangeable with a cathode ray tube or any other external light source. Back-propagation neural networks were used for the chromatic characterization to establish the relationship between each monochromator's input parameters and the tristimulus values of each chromatic stimulus generated. The results showed the effectiveness of this type of neural-network-based system for the chromatic characterization of the stimuli produced by any monochromator.

  11. Efficient estimation and large-scale evaluation of lateral chromatic aberration for digital image forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloe, Thomas; Borowka, Karsten; Winkler, Antje

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of lateral chromatic aberration forms another ingredient for a well equipped toolbox of an image forensic investigator. Previous work proposed its application to forgery detection1 and image source identification.2 This paper takes a closer look on the current state-of-the-art method to analyse lateral chromatic aberration and presents a new approach to estimate lateral chromatic aberration in a runtime-efficient way. Employing a set of 11 different camera models including 43 devices, the characteristic of lateral chromatic aberration is investigated in a large-scale. The reported results point to general difficulties that have to be considered in real world investigations.

  12. Ocular Chromatic Aberrations and Their Effects on Polychromatic Retinal Image Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao

    Previous studies of ocular chromatic aberrations have concentrated on chromatic difference of focus (CDF). Less is known about the chromatic difference of image position (CDP) in the peripheral retina and no experimental attempt has been made to measure the ocular chromatic difference of magnification (CDM). Consequently, theoretical modelling of human eyes is incomplete. The insufficient knowledge of ocular chromatic aberrations is partially responsible for two unsolved applied vision problems: (1) how to improve vision by correcting ocular chromatic aberration? (2) what is the impact of ocular chromatic aberration on the use of isoluminance gratings as a tool in spatial-color vision?. Using optical ray tracing methods, MTF analysis methods of image quality, and psychophysical methods, I have developed a more complete model of ocular chromatic aberrations and their effects on vision. The ocular CDM was determined psychophysically by measuring the tilt in the apparent frontal parallel plane (AFPP) induced by interocular difference in image wavelength. This experimental result was then used to verify a theoretical relationship between the ocular CDM, the ocular CDF and the entrance pupil of the eye. In the retinal image after correcting the ocular CDF with existing achromatizing methods, two forms of chromatic aberration (CDM and chromatic parallax) were examined. The CDM was predicted by theoretical ray tracing and measured with the same method used to determine ocular CDM. The chromatic parallax was predicted with a nodal ray model and measured with the two-color vernier alignment method. The influence of these two aberrations on polychromatic MTF were calculated. Using this improved model of ocular chromatic aberration, luminance artifacts in the images of isoluminance gratings were calculated. The predicted luminance artifacts were then compared with experimental data from previous investigators. The results show that: (1) A simple relationship exists between

  13. Pterin pigments amplify iridescent ultraviolet signal in males of the orange sulphur butterfly, Colias eurytheme

    PubMed Central

    Rutowski, R.L; Macedonia, J.M; Morehouse, N; Taylor-Taft, L

    2005-01-01

    Animal colouration is typically the product of nanostructures that reflect or scatter light and pigments that absorb it. The interplay between these colour-producing mechanisms may influence the efficacy and potential information content of colour signals, but this notion has received little empirical attention. Wing scales in the male orange sulphur butterfly (Colias eurytheme) possess ridges with lamellae that produce a brilliant iridescent ultraviolet (UV) reflectance via thin-film interference. Curiously, these same scales contain pterin pigments that strongly absorb wavelengths below 550 nm. Given that male UV reflectance functions as a sexual signal in C. eurytheme, it is paradoxical that pigments in the wing scales are highly UV absorbing. We present spectrophotometric analyses of the wings before and after pterin removal that show that pterins both depress the amplitude of UV iridescence and suppress a diffuse UV reflectance that emanates from the scales. This latter effect enhances the directionality and spectral purity of the iridescence, and increases the signal's chromaticity and potential signal content. Our findings also suggest that pterins amplify the contrast between iridescent UV reflectance and scale background colour as a male's wings move during flight. PMID:16191648

  14. Pterin pigments amplify iridescent ultraviolet signal in males of the orange sulphur butterfly, Colias eurytheme.

    PubMed

    Rutowski, R L; Macedonia, J M; Morehouse, N; Taylor-Taft, L

    2005-11-07

    Animal colouration is typically the product of nanostructures that reflect or scatter light and pigments that absorb it. The interplay between these colour-producing mechanisms may influence the efficacy and potential information content of colour signals, but this notion has received little empirical attention. Wing scales in the male orange sulphur butterfly (Colias eurytheme) possess ridges with lamellae that produce a brilliant iridescent ultraviolet (UV) reflectance via thin-film interference. Curiously, these same scales contain pterin pigments that strongly absorb wavelengths below 550 nm. Given that male UV reflectance functions as a sexual signal in C. eurytheme, it is paradoxical that pigments in the wing scales are highly UV absorbing. We present spectrophotometric analyses of the wings before and after pterin removal that show that pterins both depress the amplitude of UV iridescence and suppress a diffuse UV reflectance that emanates from the scales. This latter effect enhances the directionality and spectral purity of the iridescence, and increases the signal's chromaticity and potential signal content. Our findings also suggest that pterins amplify the contrast between iridescent UV reflectance and scale background colour as a male's wings move during flight.

  15. Phylogeography and pigment type diversity of Synechococcus cyanobacteria in surface waters of the northwestern pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaomin; Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence; Suzuki, Koji; Guo, Cui; Yan Cheung, Shun; Liu, Hongbin

    2017-01-01

    The widespread unicellular cyanobacteria Synechococcus are major contributors to global marine primary production. Here, we report their abundance, phylogenetic diversity (as assessed using the RNA polymerase gamma subunit gene rpoC1) and pigment diversity (as indirectly assessed using the laterally transferred cpeBA genes, encoding phycoerythrin-I) in surface waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean, sampled over nine distinct cruises (2008-2015). Abundance of Synechococcus was low in the subarctic ocean and South China Sea, intermediate in the western subtropical Pacific Ocean, and the highest in the Japan and East China seas. Clades I and II were by far the most abundant Synechococcus lineages, the former dominating in temperate cold waters and the latter in (sub)tropical waters. Clades III and VI were also fairly abundant in warm waters, but with a narrower distribution than clade II. One type of chromatic acclimater (3dA) largely dominated the Synechococcus communities in the subarctic ocean, while another (3dB) and/or cells with a fixed high phycourobilin to phycoerythrobilin ratio (pigment type 3c) predominated at mid and low latitudes. Altogether, our results suggest that the variety of pigment content found in most Synechococcus clades considerably extends the niches that they can colonize and therefore the whole genus habitat. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Technical note: comparing von Luschan skin color tiles and modern spectrophotometry for measuring human skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Swiatoniowski, Anna K; Quillen, Ellen E; Shriver, Mark D; Jablonski, Nina G

    2013-06-01

    Prior to the introduction of reflectance spectrophotometry into anthropological field research during the 1950s, human skin color was most commonly classified by visual skin color matching using the von Luschan tiles, a set of 36 standardized, opaque glass tiles arranged in a chromatic scale. Our goal was to establish a conversion formula between the tile-based color matching method and modern reflectance spectrophotometry to make historical and contemporary data comparable. Skin pigmentation measurements were taken on the forehead, inner upper arms, and backs of the hands using both the tiles and a spectrophotometer on 246 participants showing a broad range of skin pigmentation. From these data, a second-order polynomial conversion formula was derived by jackknife analysis to estimate melanin index (M-index) based on tile values. This conversion formula provides a means for comparing modern data to von Luschan tile measurements recorded in historical reports. This is particularly important for populations now extinct, extirpated, or admixed for which tile-based measures of skin pigmentation are the only data available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Zinc and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Juan P.; Guo, Liang; Yoo, Changwon; Stewart, Tiffanie S

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process through which cells overcome stressful conditions. Inasmuch as faulty autophagy has been associated with aging, neuronal degeneration disorders, diabetes, and fatty liver, autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning the role of zinc in the regulation of autophagy, the role of autophagy in zinc metabolism, and the potential role of autophagy as a mediator of the protective effects of zinc. Data from in vitro studies consistently support the notion that zinc is critical for early and late autophagy. Studies have shown inhibition of early and late autophagy in cells cultured in medium treated with zinc chelators. Conversely, excess zinc added to the medium has shown to potentiate the stimulation of autophagy by tamoxifen, H2O2, ethanol and dopamine. The potential role of autophagy in zinc homeostasis has just begun to be investigated.Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy dysregulation causes significant changes in cellular zinc homeostasis. Autophagy may mediate the protective effect of zinc against lipid accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation by promoting degradation of lipid droplets, inflammasomes, p62/SQSTM1 and damaged mitochondria.Studies with humans and animal models are necessary to determine whether autophagy is influenced by zinc intake. PMID:25012760

  18. Effects of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) on the light and temperature stability of a pigment from Beta vulgaris and its potential food industry applications.

    PubMed

    Molina, Gustavo A; Hernández-Martínez, Angel Ramon; Cortez-Valadez, Manuel; García-Hernández, Fernando; Estevez, Miriam

    2014-11-05

    A novel, simple and inexpensive modification method using TEOS to increase the UV light, pH and temperature stability of a red-beet-pigment extracted from Beta vulgaris has been proposed. The effects on the molecular structure of betalains were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. The presence of betacyanin was verified by UV-Vis spectroscopy and its degradation in modified red-beet-pigment was evaluated and compared to the unmodified red-beet-pigment; performance improvements of 88.33%, 16.84% and 20.90% for UV light, pH and temperature stability were obtained, respectively,. Measurements of reducing sugars, phenol, and antioxidant contents were performed on unmodified and modified red-beet-pigment and losses of close to 21%, 54% and 36%, respectively, were found to be caused by the addition of TEOS. Polar diagrams of color by unmodified and modified red-beet-pigment in models of a beverage and of a yogurt were obtained and the color is preserved, although here is a small loss in the chromaticity parameter of the modified red-beet-pigment.

  19. Raman analysis of complex pigment mixtures in 20th century metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, Clara Bratt; Sanyova, Jana; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-11-05

    The pigment composition of six painted metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant dating from the second half of the 20th century belonging to the Danish royal collection were studied using Raman microscopy. By focusing a 785 nm laser with a 50× objective on particles in paint cross sections, it was possible to identify the following 20 compounds: hematite, goethite, chrome red/orange, chrome yellow, zinc chrome yellow, carbon black, toluidine red PR3, chlorinated para red PR4, dinitroaniline orange PO5, phthalocyanine blue PB15, indanthrone blue PB60, ultramarine, Prussian blue, lead white, anatase, rutile, calcium carbonate, barium sulphate, gypsum and dolomite. The components were frequently present in complex pigment mixtures. Additional information was obtained by elemental analysis with scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) to identify cobalt blue, zinc white and cadmium red, as well as to indicate the presence of zinc white in some pigment mixtures. The study allowed a comparison between the industrially applied preparation layers and the artistic paint layers applied by the heraldic painter. Differences in the choice of paint and pigment types were observed on the earliest knight shields, demonstrating a general delay of industrial materials into artist paints. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  1. Individual and age-related variation in chromatic contrast adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sarah L.; Werner, John S.; Webster, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Precortical color channels are tuned primarily to the LvsM (stimulation of L and M cones varied, but S cone stimulation held constant) or SvsLM (stimulation of S cones varied, but L and M cone stimulation held constant) cone-opponent (cardinal) axes, but appear elaborated in the cortex to form higher-order mechanisms tuned to both cardinal and intermediate directions. One source of evidence for these higher-order mechanisms has been the selectivity of color contrast adaptation for noncardinal directions, yet the degree of this selectivity has varied widely across the small sample of observers tested in previous studies. This study explored the possible bases for this variation, and in particular tested whether it reflected age-related changes in the distribution or tuning of color mechanisms. Observers included 15 younger (18–22 years of age) and 15 older individuals (66–82), who adapted to temporal modulations along one of four chromatic axes (two cardinal and two intermediate axes) and then matched the hue and contrast of test stimuli lying along eight different directions in the equiluminant plane. All observers exhibited aftereffects that were selective for both the cardinal and intermediate directions, although selectivity was weaker for the intermediate axes. The degree of selectivity increased with the magnitude of adaptation for all axes, and thus adaptation strength alone may account for much of the variance in selectivity among observers. Older observers showed a stronger magnitude of adaptation thus, surprisingly, more conspicuous evidence for higher-order mechanisms. For both age groups the aftereffects were well predicted by response changes in chromatic channels with linear spectral sensitivities, and there was no evidence for weakened channel tuning with aging. The results suggest that higher-order mechanisms may become more exposed in observers or conditions in which the strength of adaptation is greater, and that both chromatic contrast

  2. Relationship of Hydrogen Bioavailability to Chromate Reduction in Aquifer Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Tamara L.; McInerney, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Biological Cr(VI) reduction was studied in anaerobic sediments from an aquifer in Norman, Okla. Microcosms containing sediment and mineral medium were amended with various electron donors to determine those most important for biological Cr(VI) reduction. Cr(VI) (about 340 μM) was reduced with endogenous substrates (no donor), or acetate was added. The addition of formate, hydrogen, and glucose stimulated Cr(VI) reduction compared with reduction in unamended controls. From these sediments, an anaerobic Cr(VI)-utilizing enrichment was obtained that was dependent upon hydrogen for both growth and Cr(VI) reduction. No methane was produced by the enrichment, which reduced about 750 μM Cr(VI) in less than six days. The dissolved hydrogen concentration was used as an indicator of the terminal electron accepting process occurring in the sediments. Microcosms with sediments, groundwater, and chromate metabolized hydrogen to a concentration below the detection limits of the mercury vapor gas chromatograph. In microcosms without chromate, the hydrogen concentration was about 8 nM, a concentration comparable to that under methanogenic conditions. When these microcosms were amended with 500 μM Cr(VI), the dissolved hydrogen concentration quickly fell below the detection limits. These results showed that the hydrogen concentration under chromate-reducing conditions became very low, as low as that reported under nitrate- and manganese-reducing conditions, a result consistent with the free energy changes for these reactions. The utilization of formate, lactate, hydrogen, and glucose as electron donors for Cr(VI) reduction indicates that increasing the availability of hydrogen results in a greater capacity for Cr(VI) reduction. This conclusion is supported by the existence of an enrichment dependent upon hydrogen for growth and Cr(VI) reduction. PMID:11282599

  3. Chromatic Properties of Index of Refraction Gradients in Glass.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan-Howard, Danette Patrice

    The chromatic properties of index of refraction gradients have been predicted theoretically and verified experimentally. The use of these materials in the design of color corrected optical systems has been investigated and confirmed by the evaluation of two fabricated lenses. A model for the chromatic properties of gradient index materials has been developed. The index of refraction is calculated based on the composition of the material. Since the index of refraction and the conventional Abbe number change as a function of the composition of the glass, a gradient Abbe number and a partial dispersion are defined. Analysis of combinations of ion exchange pairs and glasses result in a wide range of gradient Abbe numbers and partial dispersions. These ranges can be further extended by using glasses which contain more than one exchange ion or by using mixed salt baths. The chromatic properties were measured with a multiple wavelength A.C. interferometer. The gradient Abbe numbers and partial dispersions for a number of samples were calculated. Evaluation of the samples showed that the index and dispersion data correlated well with that predicted by the model. Thin lens formulae for the paraxial axial color and secondary spectrum of a radial gradient singlet with curves were examined. The design of a single element 10x microscope objective verified the applicability of these formulae. The design of a two element 40x microscope objective showed that a six element diffraction limited 40x objective can be replaced with a two element system composed of one homogeneous lens and one gradient lens without sacrificing either monochromatic performance or color correction. A previously fabricated axial gradient collimator and a fabricated Wood element were evaluated. Correlation of the directly measured quantities, paraxial axial color, secondary spectrum and spherochromatism with the values predicted by the model verified that the predicted superior performance of gradient

  4. Automated thermal mapping techniques using chromatic image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    1989-01-01

    Thermal imaging techniques are introduced using a chromatic image analysis system and temperature sensitive coatings. These techniques are used for thermal mapping and surface heat transfer measurements on aerothermodynamic test models in hypersonic wind tunnels. Measurements are made on complex vehicle configurations in a timely manner and at minimal expense. The image analysis system uses separate wavelength filtered images to analyze surface spectral intensity data. The system was initially developed for quantitative surface temperature mapping using two-color thermographic phosphors but was found useful in interpreting phase change paint and liquid crystal data as well.

  5. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  6. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  7. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciT

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remainedmore » constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.« less

  8. Spatio-Chromatic Adaptation via Higher-Order Canonical Correlation Analysis of Natural Images

    PubMed Central

    Gutmann, Michael U.; Laparra, Valero; Hyvärinen, Aapo; Malo, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Independent component and canonical correlation analysis are two general-purpose statistical methods with wide applicability. In neuroscience, independent component analysis of chromatic natural images explains the spatio-chromatic structure of primary cortical receptive fields in terms of properties of the visual environment. Canonical correlation analysis explains similarly chromatic adaptation to different illuminations. But, as we show in this paper, neither of the two methods generalizes well to explain both spatio-chromatic processing and adaptation at the same time. We propose a statistical method which combines the desirable properties of independent component and canonical correlation analysis: It finds independent components in each data set which, across the two data sets, are related to each other via linear or higher-order correlations. The new method is as widely applicable as canonical correlation analysis, and also to more than two data sets. We call it higher-order canonical correlation analysis. When applied to chromatic natural images, we found that it provides a single (unified) statistical framework which accounts for both spatio-chromatic processing and adaptation. Filters with spatio-chromatic tuning properties as in the primary visual cortex emerged and corresponding-colors psychophysics was reproduced reasonably well. We used the new method to make a theory-driven testable prediction on how the neural response to colored patterns should change when the illumination changes. We predict shifts in the responses which are comparable to the shifts reported for chromatic contrast habituation. PMID:24533049

  9. Spatio-chromatic adaptation via higher-order canonical correlation analysis of natural images.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, Michael U; Laparra, Valero; Hyvärinen, Aapo; Malo, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Independent component and canonical correlation analysis are two general-purpose statistical methods with wide applicability. In neuroscience, independent component analysis of chromatic natural images explains the spatio-chromatic structure of primary cortical receptive fields in terms of properties of the visual environment. Canonical correlation analysis explains similarly chromatic adaptation to different illuminations. But, as we show in this paper, neither of the two methods generalizes well to explain both spatio-chromatic processing and adaptation at the same time. We propose a statistical method which combines the desirable properties of independent component and canonical correlation analysis: It finds independent components in each data set which, across the two data sets, are related to each other via linear or higher-order correlations. The new method is as widely applicable as canonical correlation analysis, and also to more than two data sets. We call it higher-order canonical correlation analysis. When applied to chromatic natural images, we found that it provides a single (unified) statistical framework which accounts for both spatio-chromatic processing and adaptation. Filters with spatio-chromatic tuning properties as in the primary visual cortex emerged and corresponding-colors psychophysics was reproduced reasonably well. We used the new method to make a theory-driven testable prediction on how the neural response to colored patterns should change when the illumination changes. We predict shifts in the responses which are comparable to the shifts reported for chromatic contrast habituation.

  10. Delays in using chromatic and luminance information to correct rapid reaches.

    PubMed

    Kane, Adam; Wade, Alex; Ma-Wyatt, Anna

    2011-09-07

    People can use feedback to make online corrections to movements but only if there is sufficient time to integrate the new information and make the correction. A key variable in this process is therefore the speed at which the new information about the target location is coded. Conduction velocities for chromatic signals are lower than for achromatic signals so it may take longer to correct reaches to chromatic stimuli. In addition to this delay, the sensorimotor system may prefer achromatic information over the chromatic information as delayed information may be less valuable when movements are made under time pressure. A down-weighting of chromatic information may result in additional latencies for chromatically directed reaches. In our study, participants made online corrections to reaches to achromatic, (L-M)-cone, and S-cone stimuli. Our chromatic stimuli were carefully adjusted to minimize stimulation of achromatic pathways, and we equated stimuli both in terms of detection thresholds and also by their estimated neural responses. Similar stimuli were used throughout the subjective adjustments and final reaching experiment. Using this paradigm, we found that responses to achromatic stimuli were only slightly faster than responses to (L-M)-cone and S-cone stimuli. We conclude that the sensorimotor system treats chromatic and achromatic information similarly and that the delayed chromatic responses primarily reflect early conduction delays.

  11. Uncertainty of chromatic dispersion estimation from transmitted waveforms in direct detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Zbigniew T.

    2017-08-01

    A possibility is shown of a non-disruptive estimation of chromatic dispersion in a fiber of an intensity modulation communication line under work conditions. Uncertainty of the chromatic dispersion estimates is analyzed and quantified with the use of confidence intervals.

  12. Cloning and sequence analysis demonstrate the chromate reduction ability of a novel chromate reductase gene from Serratia sp.

    PubMed

    Deng, Peng; Tan, Xiaoqing; Wu, Ying; Bai, Qunhua; Jia, Yan; Xiao, Hong

    2015-03-01

    The ChrT gene encodes a chromate reductase enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of Cr(VI). The chromate reductase is also known as flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase (FMN_red). The aim of the present study was to clone the full-length ChrT DNA from Serratia sp. CQMUS2 and analyze the deduced amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. The putative ChrT gene fragment of Serratia sp. CQMUS2 was isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), according to the known FMN_red gene sequence from Serratia sp. AS13. The flanking sequences of the ChrT gene were obtained by high efficiency TAIL-PCR, while the full-length gene of ChrT was cloned in Escherichia coli for subsequent sequencing. The nucleotide sequence of ChrT was submitted onto GenBank under the accession number, KF211434. Sequence analysis of the gene and amino acids was conducted using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, and open reading frame (ORF) analysis was performed using ORF Finder software. The ChrT gene was found to be an ORF of 567 bp that encodes a 188-amino acid enzyme with a calculated molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. In addition, the ChrT protein was hypothesized to be an NADPH-dependent FMN_red and a member of the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. The amino acid sequence of ChrT showed high sequence similarity to the FMN reductase genes of Klebsiella pneumonia and Raoultella ornithinolytica , which belong to the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. Furthermore, ChrT was shown to have a 85.6% similarity to the three-dimensional structure of Escherichia coli ChrR, sharing four common enzyme active sites for chromate reduction. Therefore, ChrT gene cloning and protein structure determination demonstrated the ability of the gene for chromate reduction. The results of the present study provide a basis for further studies on ChrT gene expression and protein function.

  13. Cloning and sequence analysis demonstrate the chromate reduction ability of a novel chromate reductase gene from Serratia sp

    PubMed Central

    DENG, PENG; TAN, XIAOQING; WU, YING; BAI, QUNHUA; JIA, YAN; XIAO, HONG

    2015-01-01

    The ChrT gene encodes a chromate reductase enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of Cr(VI). The chromate reductase is also known as flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase (FMN_red). The aim of the present study was to clone the full-length ChrT DNA from Serratia sp. CQMUS2 and analyze the deduced amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. The putative ChrT gene fragment of Serratia sp. CQMUS2 was isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), according to the known FMN_red gene sequence from Serratia sp. AS13. The flanking sequences of the ChrT gene were obtained by high efficiency TAIL-PCR, while the full-length gene of ChrT was cloned in Escherichia coli for subsequent sequencing. The nucleotide sequence of ChrT was submitted onto GenBank under the accession number, KF211434. Sequence analysis of the gene and amino acids was conducted using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, and open reading frame (ORF) analysis was performed using ORF Finder software. The ChrT gene was found to be an ORF of 567 bp that encodes a 188-amino acid enzyme with a calculated molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. In addition, the ChrT protein was hypothesized to be an NADPH-dependent FMN_red and a member of the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. The amino acid sequence of ChrT showed high sequence similarity to the FMN reductase genes of Klebsiella pneumonia and Raoultella ornithinolytica, which belong to the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. Furthermore, ChrT was shown to have a 85.6% similarity to the three-dimensional structure of Escherichia coli ChrR, sharing four common enzyme active sites for chromate reduction. Therefore, ChrT gene cloning and protein structure determination demonstrated the ability of the gene for chromate reduction. The results of the present study provide a basis for further studies on ChrT gene expression and protein function. PMID:25667630

  14. Chromatic discrimination: differential contributions from two adapting fields

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dingcai; Lu, Yolanda H.

    2012-01-01

    To test whether a retinal or cortical mechanism sums contributions from two adapting fields to chromatic discrimination, L/M discrimination was measured with a test annulus surrounded by an inner circular field and an outer rectangular field. A retinal summation mechanism predicted that the discrimination pattern would not change with a change in the fixation location. Therefore, the fixation was set either in the inner or the outer field in two experiments. When one of the adapting fields was “red” and the other was “green,” the adapting field where the observer fixated always had a stronger influence on chromatic discrimination. However, when one adapting field was “white” and the other was red or green, the white field always weighted more heavily than the other adapting field in determining discrimination thresholds, whether the white field or the fixation was in the inner or outer adapting field. These results suggest that a cortical mechanism determines the relative contributions from different adapting fields. PMID:22330364

  15. The Impact Of Multimode Fiber Chromatic Dispersion On Data Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackert, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Capability for the lowest cost is the goal of contemporary communications managers. With all of the competitive pressures that modern businesses are experiencing these days, communications needs must be met with the most information carrying capacity for the lowest cost. Optical fiber communication systems meet these requirements while providing reliability, system integrity, and potential future upgradability. Consequently, optical fiber is finding numerous applications in addition to its traditional telephony plant. Fiber based systems are meeting these requirements in building networks and computer interconnects at a lower cost than copper based systems. A fiber type being chosen by industry to meet these needs in standard systems such as FDDI, is multimode fiber. Multimode fiber systems offer cost advantages over single-mode fiber through lower fiber connection costs. Also, system designers can gain savings by using low cost, high reliability, wide spectral width sources such as LEDs instead of lasers and by operating at higher bit rates than used for multimode systems in the past. However, in order to maximize the cost savings while ensuring the system will operate as intended, the chromatic dispersion of the fiber must be taken into account. This paper explains how to do that and shows how to calculate multimode chromatic dispersion for each of the standard fiber sizes (50 μm, 62.5 μm, 85 μm, and 100μm core diameter).

  16. Chromatic aberration, accommodation, and color preference in asthenopia.

    PubMed

    Drew, Stefanie A; Borsting, Eric; Stark, Lawrence R; Chase, Chris

    2012-07-01

    Asthenopia is a common problem associated with near work and reports suggest that colored lenses or overlays may be applied to reduce symptoms. In this study, we examine the relationship between eyestrain, color preferences, and function of the accommodation and vergence system. Specifically, we examine whether symptomatic observers select colors that reduce accommodative demand based on longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA). Forty-seven undergraduate students participated in this study. Visual discomfort symptoms were assessed using the Conlon survey. A Mark 2 Intuitive Colorimeter was used to obtain optimal colored light preferences. LCA was modeled using the Chromatic Eye and spectral power density data. A comprehensive evaluation of accommodation and vergence was performed following standard procedures. A significant negative correlation (r = -0.51) was found between eyestrain symptoms and the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) v' axis of colors preferences. Additionally, a significant negative correlation (r = -0.31) was found between eyestrain symptoms and LCA accommodation. Two thirds of the participants in the high discomfort group chose colors that decreased accommodative demand. Accommodative amplitude and vergence facility also correlated with LCA, accounting for 25% of the variance. The color preferences of individuals are systematically influenced by the functioning of their accommodation and vergence systems with increased symptomatology resulting in color selections that reduce LCA accommodative stimulus demand.

  17. Chromatic discrimination: differential contributions from two adapting fields.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dingcai; Lu, Yolanda H

    2012-02-01

    To test whether a retinal or cortical mechanism sums contributions from two adapting fields to chromatic discrimination, L/M discrimination was measured with a test annulus surrounded by an inner circular field and an outer rectangular field. A retinal summation mechanism predicted that the discrimination pattern would not change with a change in the fixation location. Therefore, the fixation was set either in the inner or the outer field in two experiments. When one of the adapting fields was "red" and the other was "green," the adapting field where the observer fixated always had a stronger influence on chromatic discrimination. However, when one adapting field was "white" and the other was red or green, the white field always weighted more heavily than the other adapting field in determining discrimination thresholds, whether the white field or the fixation was in the inner or outer adapting field. These results suggest that a cortical mechanism determines the relative contributions from different adapting fields. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  18. Chromate content versus particle size for aircraft paints.

    PubMed

    LaPuma, Peter T; Rhodes, Brian S

    2002-12-01

    Many industries rely on the corrosion inhibiting properties of chromate-containing primer paints to protect metal from oxidation. However, chromate contains hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)), a known human carcinogen. The concentration of Cr(6+) as a function of paint particle size has important implications to worker health and environmental release from paint facilities. This research examines Cr(6+) content as a function of particle size for three types of aircraft primer paints: solvent-based epoxy-polyamide, water-based epoxy-polyamide, and solvent-based polyurethane. Cascade impactors were used to collect and separate paint particles based on their aerodynamic diameter, from 0.7 to 34.1 microm. The mass of the dry paint collected at each stage was determined and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used to analyze for Cr(6+) content. For all three paints, particles less than 7.0 microm contained disproportionately less Cr(6+) per mass of dry paint than larger particles, and the Cr(6+)concentration decreased substantially as particle size decreased. The smallest particles, 0.7 to 1.0 microm, contained approximately 10% of the Cr(6+) content, per mass of dry paint, compared to particles larger than 7.0 microm. The paint gun settings of air to paint ratio was found to have no influence on the Cr(6+) bias.

  19. Chromatic effect in a novel THz generation scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Zhang, Wenyan; Liu, Xiaoqing; Deng, Haixiao; Lan, Taihe; Liu, Bo; Liu, Jia; Wang, Xingtao; Zeng, Zhinan; Zhang, Lijian

    2017-11-01

    Deriving single or few cycle terahertz (THz) pulse by an intense femtosecond laser through cascaded optical rectification is a crucial technique in cutting-edge time-resolved spectroscopy to characterize micro-scale structures and ultrafast dynamics. Due to the broadband nature of the ultrafast driving laser, the chromatic effect limits the THz conversion efficiency in optical rectification crystals, especially for those implementing the pulse-front tilt scheme, e.g. lithium niobate (LN) crystal, has been prevalently used in the past decade. In this research we developed a brand new type of LN crystal utilizing Brewster coupling, and conducted systematically experimental and simulative investigation for the chromatic effect and multi-dimensionally entangled parameters in THz generation, predicting that an extreme conversion efficiency of ˜10% would be potentially achievable at the THz absorption coefficient of ˜0.5 cm-1. Moreover, we first discovered that the chirp of the driving laser plays a decisive role in the pulse-front tilt scheme, and the THz generation efficiency could be enhanced tremendously by applying an appropriate chirp.

  20. Calculating correlated color temperatures across the entire gamut of daylight and skylight chromaticities.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Andrés, J; Lee, R L; Romero, J

    1999-09-20

    Natural outdoor illumination daily undergoes large changes in its correlated color temperature (CCT), yet existing equations for calculating CCT from chromaticity coordinates span only part of this range. To improve both the gamut and accuracy of these CCT calculations, we use chromaticities calculated from our measurements of nearly 7000 daylight and skylight spectra to test an equation that accurately maps CIE 1931 chromaticities x and y into CCT. We extend the work of McCamy [Color Res. Appl. 12, 285-287 (1992)] by using a chromaticity epicenter for CCT and the inverse slope of the line that connects it to x and y. With two epicenters for different CCT ranges, our simple equation is accurate across wide chromaticity and CCT ranges (3000-10(6) K) spanned by daylight and skylight.

  1. Independence and interaction of luminance and chromatic contributions to spatial hyperacuity performance.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Bonnie; Lee, Barry B

    2014-04-01

    Here we test interactions of luminance and chromatic input to spatial hyperacuity mechanisms. First, we tested alignment of luminance and chromatic gratings matched or mismatched in contrast polarity or grating type. Thresholds with matched gratings were low while all mismatched pairs were elevated. Second, we determined alignment acuity as a function of luminance or chromatic contrast alone or in the presence of constant contrast components of the other type. For in-phase components, performance followed the envelope of the more sensitive mechanism. However, polarity reversals revealed an asymmetric effect for luminance and chromatic conditions, which suggested that luminance can override chromatic mechanisms in hyperacuity; we interpret these findings in the context of spatial mechanisms.

  2. Construction of special eye models for investigation of chromatic and higher-order aberrations of eyes.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; He, Yuanqing; Chang, Shengjiang

    2014-01-01

    An achromatic element eliminating only longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) while maintaining transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is established for the eye model, which involves the angle formed by the visual and optical axis. To investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations on vision, the actual data of higher-order aberrations of human eyes with three typical levels are introduced into the eye model along visual axis. Moreover, three kinds of individual eye models are established to investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations, chromatic aberration (LCA+TCA), LCA and TCA on vision under the photopic condition, respectively. Results show that for most human eyes, the impact of chromatic aberration on vision is much stronger than that of higher-order aberrations, and the impact of LCA in chromatic aberration dominates. The impact of TCA is approximately equal to that of normal level higher-order aberrations and it can be ignored when LCA exists.

  3. Chromatic-achromatic perimetry in four clinic cases: Glaucoma and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cabezos, Inmaculada; Luque, Maria Jos; de Fez, Dolores; Moncho, Vicenta; Camps, Vicente

    2015-02-01

    Some diseases that affect the visual system may show loss of chromatic-achromatic sensitivity before obvious physical signs appear in the usual examination of the eye's posterior segment. A perimetric study has been conducted with four typical patients with glaucoma and diabetes, at different stages of the disease. In addition to the standard white-on-white (standard automated perimetry [SAP]), a test battery has been used to study patient's contrast sensitivity, using stimuli with different chromatic, spatial, and temporal content (multichannel perimetry). The choice of stimuli tries to maximize the response of different visual mechanisms: Achromatic (parvocellular and magnocellular origin); chromatic red-green (parvocellular origin); and chromatic blue-yellow (koniocellular origin). The results seem to indicate losses in the achromatic-parvocellular perimetry and both chromatic perimetry tests, undetected by conventional SAP. Our results illustrate that our patients without visible retinal alterations show signs of suspicion in multichannel perimetry.

  4. Visual reaction time for chromaticity changes at constant luminance in different color representation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenezdel Barco, L.; Jimenez, J. R.; Rubino, M.; Diaz, J. A.

    1996-09-01

    The results obtained by different authors show that when a color stimulus changes in both luminance and chromaticity, the visual reaction time (VRT) of an observer in detecting this chromatic change depends on nothing more than the luminance change and is regulated by Pieron's law. In the present work, we evaluate the VRT needed by an observer to detect the chromaticity difference between an adapting and variable stimulus. For this, we have used the experimental method of hue substitution, which allows us to maintain the luminance channel constant and thereby study the temporal response to changes only in chromaticity. The experiments were carried out with a CRT color monitor and the experimental results are expressed in different color-representation systems. The systems UCS-CIE 1964 (U*, V*, W*) and CIELUV show good correlations between the VRT and the chromaticity difference expressed in these systems, adjusting the VRT to an expression following Pieron's law: VRT-VRTon=k( Delta E)- beta .

  5. Dynamics of chromatic visual system processing differ in complexity between children and adults.

    PubMed

    Boon, Mei Ying; Suttle, Catherine M; Henry, Bruce I; Dain, Stephen J

    2009-06-30

    Measures of chromatic contrast sensitivity in children are lower than those of adults. This may be related to immaturities in signal processing at or near threshold. We have found that children's VEPs in response to low contrast supra-threshold chromatic stimuli are more intra-individually variable than those recorded from adults. Here, we report on linear and nonlinear analyses of chromatic VEPs recorded from children and adults. Two measures of signal-to-noise ratio are similar between the adults and children, suggesting that relatively high noise is unlikely to account for the poor clarity of negative and positive peak components in the children's VEPs. Nonlinear analysis indicates higher complexity of adults' than children's chromatic VEPs, at levels of chromatic contrast around and well above threshold.

  6. Effect of Zinc Phosphate on the Corrosion Behavior of Waterborne Acrylic Coating/Metal Interface

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Hongxia; Song, Dongdong; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Dawei; Gao, Jin; Du, Cuiwei

    2017-01-01

    Waterborne coating has recently been paid much attention. However, it cannot be used widely due to its performance limitations. Under the specified conditions of the selected resin, selecting the function pigment is key to improving the anticorrosive properties of the coating. Zinc phosphate is an environmentally protective and efficient anticorrosion pigment. In this work, zinc phosphate was used in modifying waterborne acrylic coatings. Moreover, the disbonding resistance of the coating was studied. Results showed that adding zinc phosphate can effectively inhibit the anode process of metal corrosion and enhance the wet adhesion of the coating, and consequently prevent the horizontal diffusion of the corrosive medium into the coating/metal interface and slow down the disbonding of the coating. PMID:28773013

  7. Zinc triggers microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, “amoeboid” morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 μM zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 – 30 μM zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-κB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-κB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders. PMID:18509044

  8. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  9. [Zinc and chronic enteropathies].

    PubMed

    Giorgi, P L; Catassi, C; Guerrieri, A

    1984-01-01

    In recent years the nutritional importance of zinc has been well established; its deficiency and its symptoms have also been recognized in humans. Furthermore, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica has been isolated, a rare but severe disease, of which skin lesions, chronic diarrhoea and recurring infections are the main symptoms. The disease is related to the malfunctioning of intestinal absorption of zinc and can be treated by administering pharmacological doses of zinc orally. Good dietary sources of zinc are meat, fish and, to a less extent, human milk. The amount of zinc absorbed in the small intestine is influenced by other nutrients: some compounds inhibit this process (dietary fiber, phytate) while others (picolinic acid, citric acid), referred to as Zn-binding ligands (ZnBL) facilitate it. Citric acid is thought to be the ligand which accounts for the high level of bioavailability of zinc in human milk. zinc absorption occurs throughout the small intestine, not only in the prossimal tract (duodenum and jejunum) but also in the distal tract (ileum). Diarrhoea is one of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, thus many illnesses distinguished by chronic diarrhoea entail a bad absorption of zinc. In fact, in some cases of chronic enteropathies in infants, like coeliac disease and seldom cystic fibrosis, a deficiency of zinc has been isolated. Some of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, like retarded growth and hypogonadism, have been related to hypozinchemia which is present in this illness. Finally, it is possible that some of the dietary treatments frequently used for persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea (i.e. cow's milk exclusion, abuse and misuse of dietary fiber like carrot and carub powder, use of soy formula) can constitute a scarce supply of zinc and therefore could promote the persistency of diarrhoea itself.

  10. Color-motion feature-binding errors are mediated by a higher-order chromatic representation.

    PubMed

    Shevell, Steven K; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Peripheral and central moving objects of the same color may be perceived to move in the same direction even though peripheral objects have a different true direction of motion [Nature429, 262 (2004)10.1038/429262a]. The perceived, illusory direction of peripheral motion is a color-motion feature-binding error. Recent work shows that such binding errors occur even without an exact color match between central and peripheral objects, and, moreover, the frequency of the binding errors in the periphery declines as the chromatic difference increases between the central and peripheral objects [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A31, A60 (2014)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.31.000A60]. This change in the frequency of binding errors with the chromatic difference raises the general question of the chromatic representation from which the difference is determined. Here, basic properties of the chromatic representation are tested to discover whether it depends on independent chromatic differences on the l and the s cardinal axes or, alternatively, on a more specific higher-order chromatic representation. Experimental tests compared the rate of feature-binding errors when the central and peripheral colors had the identical s chromaticity (so zero difference in s) and a fixed magnitude of l difference, while varying the identical s level in center and periphery (thus always keeping the s difference at zero). A chromatic representation based on independent l and s differences would result in the same frequency of color-motion binding errors at everyslevel. The results are contrary to this prediction, thus showing that the chromatic representation at the level of color-motion feature binding depends on a higher-order chromatic mechanism.

  11. Color-motion feature-binding errors are mediated by a higher-order chromatic representation

    PubMed Central

    Shevell, Steven K.; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral and central moving objects of the same color may be perceived to move in the same direction even though peripheral objects have a different true direction of motion [Nature 429, 262 (2004)]. The perceived, illusory direction of peripheral motion is a color-motion feature-binding error. Recent work shows that such binding errors occur even without an exact color match between central and peripheral objects, and, moreover, the frequency of the binding errors in the periphery declines as the chromatic difference increases between the central and peripheral objects [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A60 (2014)]. This change in the frequency of binding errors with the chromatic difference raises the general question of the chromatic representation from which the difference is determined. Here, basic properties of the chromatic representation are tested to discover whether it depends on independent chromatic differences on the l and the s cardinal axes or, alternatively, on a more specific higher-order chromatic representation. Experimental tests compared the rate of feature-binding errors when the central and peripheral colors had the identical s chromaticity (so zero difference in s) and a fixed magnitude of l difference, while varying the identical s level in center and periphery (thus always keeping the s difference at zero). A chromatic representation based on independent l and s differences would result in the same frequency of color-motion binding errors at every s level. The results are contrary to this prediction, thus showing that the chromatic representation at the level of color-motion feature binding depends on a higherorder chromatic mechanism. PMID:26974945

  12. [Preparation and component analysis of tea pigments].

    PubMed

    Li, Daxiang; Wan, Xiaochun; Xia, Tao

    2004-11-01

    To prepare tea pigments. Tea pigments are prepared by solvent extraction from Sri lanka black tea. Tea pigments contains the components as follows: caffeine 1.77%, epigallocatechin 1.37%, catechin 1.20%, epicatechin 9.55%, epigallocatechin gallate 10.52%, epicatechin gallate 9.94%, theaflavin 10.34%, theaflavin monogallate 9.57%, theaflavin digallate 4.81%, thearubigin about 40.93%. The best proportions of the compound that are obtained with HPLC analysis.

  13. Dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule associated with the pigment dispersion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Danny Y; Volpicelli, Mark; Singh, Kuldev

    2003-12-01

    To report an unusual case of pigment dispersion syndrome associated with unilateral dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule. Case report. A 59-year-old male with bilateral pigment dispersion syndrome presented with progressive decrease in visual acuity in the left eye over the past 10 to 20 years. Clinical examination revealed the typical findings of pigment dispersion syndrome including the presence of bilateral Krunkenberg spindles, iris transillumination defects, and heavy trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Of note, there was remarkably dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule in the eye with decreased visual acuity. Pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule may be a rare finding associated with pigment dispersion syndrome. Such a finding suggests that there may be aqueous flow into the retrolental space in some patients with this condition. The optimal treatment of this unusual condition remains undetermined.

  14. Evolution of vertebrate visual pigments.

    PubMed

    Bowmaker, James K

    2008-09-01

    The visual pigments of vertebrates evolved about 500 million years ago, before the major evolutionary step of the development of jaws. Four spectrally distinct classes of cone opsin evolved through gene duplication, followed by the rod opsin class that arose from the duplication of the middle-wave-sensitive cone opsin. All four cone classes are present in many extant teleost fish, reptiles and birds, but one or more classes have been lost in primitive fish, amphibians and mammals. Gene duplication within the cone classes, especially in teleosts, has resulted in multiple opsins being available, both temporally and spatially, during development.

  15. Preparation of nearly monodisperse nanoscale inorganic pigments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingsheng; Liang, Xin; Li, Yadong

    2006-07-17

    Many different important commercial pigments have been synthesized based on the liquid-solid-solution (LSS) phase-transfer and separation process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement results show that they are very small in size and have a narrow size distribution. Visible absorption spectra were taken to examine the very pure and brilliant colors of the pigments. They can be well-dispersed in cyclohexane and remain non-agglomerated, even over several months. These nearly monodisperse nanoscale inorganic pigments may have wide applications in many important fields and could bring about new developments in the pigment industry.

  16. Skin Color and Pigmentation in Ethnic Skin.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O

    2017-02-01

    Skin coloration is highly diverse, partly due to the presence of pigmentation. Color variation is related to the extent of ultraviolet radiation exposure, as well as other factors. Inherent skin coloration arises from differences in basal epidermal melanin amount and type. Skin color is influenced by both the quantity and distribution of melanocytes. The effectiveness of inherent pigmentation for protecting living cells also varies. This article discusses skin color, pigmentation, and ethnicity in relation to clinical practice. Color perception, skin typing/classification, and quantitation of pigmentation are reviewed in relation to ethnicity, environmental stresses/irritants, and potential treatment effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chromatic Modulator for a High-Resolution CCD or APS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank; Hull, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    A chromatic modulator has been proposed to enable the separate detection of the red, green, and blue (RGB) color components of the same scene by a single charge-coupled device (CCD), active-pixel sensor (APS), or similar electronic image detector. Traditionally, the RGB color-separation problem in an electronic camera has been solved by use of either (1) fixed color filters over three separate image detectors; (2) a filter wheel that repeatedly imposes a red, then a green, then a blue filter over a single image detector; or (3) different fixed color filters over adjacent pixels. The use of separate image detectors necessitates precise registration of the detectors and the use of complicated optics; filter wheels are expensive and add considerably to the bulk of the camera; and fixed pixelated color filters reduce spatial resolution and introduce color-aliasing effects. The proposed chromatic modulator would not exhibit any of these shortcomings. The proposed chromatic modulator would be an electromechanical device fabricated by micromachining. It would include a filter having a spatially periodic pattern of RGB strips at a pitch equal to that of the pixels of the image detector. The filter would be placed in front of the image detector, supported at its periphery by a spring suspension and electrostatic comb drive. The spring suspension would bias the filter toward a middle position in which each filter strip would be registered with a row of pixels of the image detector. Hard stops would limit the excursion of the spring suspension to precisely one pixel row above and one pixel row below the middle position. In operation, the electrostatic comb drive would be actuated to repeatedly snap the filter to the upper extreme, middle, and lower extreme positions. This action would repeatedly place a succession of the differently colored filter strips in front of each pixel of the image detector. To simplify the processing, it would be desirable to encode information on

  18. The Baroque monuments of Modica (Eastern Sicily): assessment of causes of chromatic alteration of stone building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfiore, Cristina M.; La Russa, Mauro F.; Pezzino, Antonino; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella

    2010-09-01

    The Baroque monuments of several cities in eastern Sicily, built of local calcarenitic stone, are often subjected to conservation treatments, since they undergo many forms of alteration and degradation which can cause significant damage. However, a recent study of these building materials (Barone et al. in Environ. Geol. 54:1501, 2008) has demonstrated that some protective products, once applied, cause irreversible chromatic alterations. The façades of the monuments of the historic city centre of Modica are typically creamy yellow in colour, sometimes varying slightly due to the use of various pigments, such as clayey and gypseous earths (La Russa et al. in Appl. Phys. A 92:185, 2008). However, in some cases, these nuances are lost due to the application of protective products. This work provides a petrographic and colorimetric characterisation of the calcarenitic stone used to create the façades of the churches of S. Pietro, S. Maria del Soccorso and S. Maria dell’Annunziata in Modica, also by comparisons with locally quarried samples. In addition, it aims to identify protective substances which may have been used during previous restoration work. Analytical techniques included polarising optical microscopy, spectrophotometric colorimetric tests, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

  19. Interactions of chromatic and lens-induced defocus during visual control of eye growth in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liqin; Zhang, Sen; Schaeffel, Frank; Xiong, Shibo; Zheng, Yibo; Zhou, Xiangtian; Lu, Fan; Qu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated that chromaticity could affect eye growth and refractive development in guinea pigs but it remained unclear whether correction with spectacle lenses could balance these effects and how retinal responses change with different spectral compositions of light. Three illumination conditions were tested: blue, red and white light. Animals were raised without or with monocular spectacle lenses from three to seven weeks of age. Luminance electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded to explore retinal responses with the different spectral compositions. In our special colony of pigmented guinea pigs, characterized by residual hyperopia, spontaneous myopia and poor emmetropization, red light induced early thinning of the choroid and relative myopia, compared to white light. Effects of red light could not be suppressed if positive spectacle lenses were worn. ERGs showed that red light failed to elicit robust retinal responses. Blue light inhibited axial eye growth, even when animals were reared with negative lenses. Intensity-matched blue and white light elicited similar a-waves but different b-waves, suggesting that the wavelength of light affects visual control of eye growth through different processing in the inner retina. We hypothesize that blue light might stimulate preferentially the ON pathway to inhibit myopia induced by negative lenses, at least in guinea pigs. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Constant phycobilisome size in chromatically adapted cells of the cyanobacterium Tolypothrix tenuis, and variation in Nostoc sp

    SciT

    Ohki, K.; Gantt, E.; Lipschultz, C.A.

    1985-12-01

    Phycobilisomes of Tolypothrix tenuis, a cyanobacterium capable of complete chromatic adaptation, were studied from cells grown in red and green light, and in darkness. The phycobilisome size remained constant irrespective of the light quality. The hemidiscoidal phycobilisomes had an average diameter of about 52 nanometers and height of about 33 nanometers, by negative staining. The thickness was equivalent to a physocyanin molecule (about 10 nanometers). The molar ratio of allophycocyanin, relative to other phycobiliproteins always remained at about 1:3. Phycobilisomes from red light grown cells and cells grown heterotrophically in darkness were indistinguishable in their pigment composition, polypeptide pattern, andmore » size. Eight polypeptides were resolved in the phycobilin region (17.5 to 23.5 kilodaltons) by isoelectric focusing followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Half of these were invariable, while others were variable in green and red light. It is inferred that phycoerythrin synthesis in green light resulted in a one for one substitution of phycocyanin, thus retaining a constant phycobilisome size. Tolypothrix appears to be one of the best examples of phycobiliprotein regulation with wavelength. By contrast, in Nostoc sp., the decrease in phycoerythrin in red light cells was accompanied by a decrease in phycobilisome size but not a regulated substitution.« less

  1. Measurement and correction of transverse chromatic offsets for multi-wavelength retinal microscopy in the living eye.

    PubMed

    Harmening, Wolf M; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Roorda, Austin; Sincich, Lawrence C

    2012-09-01

    A special challenge arises when pursuing multi-wavelength imaging of retinal tissue in vivo, because the eye's optics must be used as the main focusing elements, and they introduce significant chromatic dispersion. Here we present an image-based method to measure and correct for the eye's transverse chromatic aberrations rapidly, non-invasively, and with high precision. We validate the technique against hyperacute psychophysical performance and the standard chromatic human eye model. In vivo correction of chromatic dispersion will enable confocal multi-wavelength images of the living retina to be aligned, and allow targeted chromatic stimulation of the photoreceptor mosaic to be performed accurately with sub-cellular resolution.

  2. Luminance and chromatic contributions to a hyperacuity task: isolation by contrast polarity and target separation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Cooper, Bonnie; Lee, Barry B

    2012-03-01

    Vernier thresholds are known to be elevated when a target pair has opposite contrast polarity. Polarity reversal is used to assess the role of luminance and chromatic pathways in hyperacuity performance. Psychophysical hyperacuity thresholds were measured for pairs of gratings of various combinations of luminance (Lum) and chromatic (Chr) contrast polarities, at different ratios of luminance to chromatic contrast. With two red-green gratings of matched luminance and chromatic polarity (+Lum+Chr), there was an elevation of threshold at isoluminance. When both luminance and chromatic polarity were mismatched (-Lum-Chr), thresholds were substantially elevated under all conditions. With the same luminance contrast polarity and opposite chromatic polarity (+Lum-Chr) thresholds were only elevated close to isoluminance; in the reverse condition (-Lum+Chr), thresholds were elevated as in the -Lum-Chr condition except close to equiluminance. Similar data were obtained for gratings isolating the short-wavelength cone mechanism. Further psychophysical measurements assessed the role of target separation with matched or mismatched contrast polarity; similar results were found for luminance and chromatic gratings. Comparison physiological data were collected from parafoveal ganglion cells of the macaque retina. Positional precision of ganglion cell signals was assessed under conditions related to the psychophysical measurements. On the basis of these combined observations, it is argued that both magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular pathways have access to cortical positional mechanisms associated with vernier acuity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Luminance and chromatic contributions to a hyperacuity task: isolation by contrast polarity and target separation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Cooper, Bonnie; Lee, Barry B.

    2012-01-01

    Vernier thresholds are known to be elevated when a target pair has opposite contrast polarity. Polarity reversal is used to assess the role of luminance and chromatic pathways in hyperacuity performance. Psychophysical hyperacuity thresholds were measured for pairs of gratings of various combinations of luminance (Lum) and chromatic (Chr) contrast polarities, at different ratios of luminance to chromatic contrast. With two red-green gratings of matched luminance and chromatic polarity (+Lum+Chr), there was an elevation of threshold at isoluminance. When both luminance and chromatic polarity were mismatched (−Lum−Chr), thresholds were substantially elevated under all conditions. With the same luminance contrast polarity and opposite chromatic polarity (+Lum−Chr) thresholds were only elevated close to isoluminance; in the reverse condition (−Lum+Chr), thresholds were elevated as in the −Lum−Chr condition except close to equiluminance. Similar data were obtained for gratings isolating the short-wavelength cone mechanism. Further psychophysical measurements assessed the role of target separation with matched or mismatched contrast polarity; similar results were found for luminance and chromatic gratings. Comparison physiological data were collected from parafoveal ganglion cells of the macaque retina. Positional precision of ganglion cell signals was assessed under conditions related to the psychophysical measurements. On the basis of these combined observations, it is argued that both magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular pathways have access to cortical positional mechanisms associated with vernier acuity. PMID:22306680

  4. Efficient removal of chromate and arsenate from individual and mixed system by malachite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jiban; Saha, Bedabrata; Das, Gopal

    2011-02-15

    Malachite nanoparticles of 100-150 nm have been efficiently and for the first time used as an adsorbent for the removal of toxic arsenate and chromate. We report a high adsorption capacity for chromate and arsenate on malachite nanoparticle from both individual and mixed solution in pH ∼4-5. However, the adsorption efficiency decreases with the increase of solution pH. Batch studies revealed that initial pH, temperature, malachite nanoparticles dose and initial concentration of chromate and arsenate were important parameters for the adsorption process. Thermodynamic analysis showed that adsorption of chromate and arsenate on malachite nanoparticles is endothermic and spontaneous. The adsorption of these anions has also been investigated quantitatively with the help of adsorption kinetics, isotherm, and selectivity coefficient (K) analysis. The adsorption data for both chromate and arsenate were fitted well in Langmuir isotherm and preferentially followed the second order kinetics. The binding affinity of chromate is found to be slightly higher than arsenate in a competitive adsorption process which leads to the comparatively higher adsorption of chromate on malachite nanoparticles surface. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Using chromate to investigate the impact of natural organics on the surface reactivity of nanoparticulate magnetite

    Swindle, Andrew L.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Elwood Madden, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Chromate was used as a chemical probe to investigate the size-dependent influence of organics on nanoparticle surface reactivity. Magnetite–chromate sorption experiments were conducted with ∼90 and ∼6 nm magnetite nanoparticles in the presence and absence of fulvic acid (FA), natural organic matter (NOM), and isolated landfill leachate (LL). Results indicated that low concentrations (1 mg/L) of organics had no noticeable impact on chromate sorption, whereas concentrations of 50 mg/L or more resulted in decreased amounts of chromate sorption. The adsorption of organics onto the magnetite surfaces interfered equally with the ability of the 6 and 90 nm particles to sorb chromate from solution, despite the greater surface area of the smaller particles. Results indicate the presence of organics did not impact the redox chemistry of the magnetite–chromate system over the duration of the experiments (8 h), nor did the organics interact with the chromate in solution. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results indicate that the organics blocked the surface reactivity by occupying surface sites on the particles. The similarity of results with FA and NOM suggests that coverage of the reactive mineral surface is the main factor behind the inhibition of surface reactivity in the presence of organics.

  6. Nonlocal interactions in color perception: nonlinear processing of chromatic signals from remote inducers.

    PubMed

    Wachtler, T; Albright, T D; Sejnowski, T J

    2001-05-01

    The perceived color of an object depends on the chromaticity of its immediate background. But color appearance is also influenced by remote chromaticities. To quantify these influences, the effects of remote color fields on the appearance of a fixated 2 degrees test field were measured using a forced-choice method. Changes in the appearance of the test field were induced by chromaticity changes of the background and of 2 degrees color fields not adjacent to the test field. The appearance changes induced by the color of the background corresponded to a fraction of between 0.5 and 0.95 of the cone contrast of the background change, depending on the observer. The magnitude of induction by the background color was modulated on average by 7.6% by chromaticity changes in the remote color fields. Chromaticity changes in the remote fields had virtually no inducing effect when they occurred without a change in background color. The spatial range of these chromatic interactions extended over at least 10 degrees from the fovea. They were established within the first few hundred milliseconds after the change of background color and depended only weakly on the number of inducing fields. These results may be interpreted as reflecting rapid chromatic interactions that support robustness of color vision under changing viewing conditions.

  7. Chromatic perception of non-invasive lighting of cave paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoido, Jesús; Vazquez, Daniel; Álvarez, Antonio; Bernabeu, Eusebio; García, Ángel; Herraez, Juán A.; del Egido, Marian

    2009-08-01

    This work is intended to deal with the problems which arise when illuminanting Paleolithic cave paintings. We have carried out the spectral and colorimetric characterization of some paintings located in the Murcielagos (bats) cave (Zuheros, Córdoba, Spain). From this characterization, the chromatic changes produced under different lighting conditions are analysed. The damage function is also computed for the different illuminants used. From the results obtained, it is proposed an illuminant whose spectral distribution diminishes the damage by minimizing the absorption of radiation and optimises the color perception of the paintings in this cave. The procedure followed in this study can be applied to optimise the lighting systems used when illuminating any other art work

  8. Effects of longitudinal chromatic aberration on accommodation and emmetropization.

    PubMed

    Seidemann, Anne; Schaeffel, Frank

    2002-09-01

    Less accommodation was found when human subjects read in blue (peak at about 440 nm) than when they read in red light (above 600 nm; [Kroger & Binder, British Journal of Ophthalmology 84 (2000) 890]). On the other hand, emmetropization in chickens did not appear to compensate for the chromatic defocus (385 nm versus 665 nm; [Rohrer, Schaeffel & Zrenner, Journal of Physiology 449 (1992) 363]). The apparently contradictory result was studied in more detail in humans and chickens. Accommodation was measured with an eccentric infrared photorefractor, the PowerRefractor, in human subjects reading under quasi-monochromatic illumination conditions. Chickens were refracted in quasi-monochromatic ambient illumination but with no particular fixation target. In a second experiment, they were also raised in monochromatic light for two days and subsequently refracted both in complete darkness, in monochromatic light, and in white light, both without and with cycloplegia. Consistent with the initial report by Kroger and Binder [British Journal of Ophthalmology 84 (2000) 890], accommodation in human subjects was found to shift in accordance with the chromatic aberration function. An immediate shift in accommodation tonus was also found in the chickens when they were refracted under red and in blue ambient illumination (average difference between refractions in both conditions: 1.26+/-0.54 D, p<0.001 paired t-test). This value is close to the chromatic focus difference between the two wavelengths (1.5 D [Mandelman & Sivak, Vision Research 23 (1983) 1555]). When chickens were raised in blue or red light for two days, and their refractions were subsequently measured in complete darkness, they showed also a difference in refractions (1.41+/-1.00 D; ANOVA: p<0.0012, post hoc t-test: at least p<0.05 among different groups). This difference was no longer significant when they were refracted in white light but became again significant when they were cyclopleged (0.57+/-0.58 D, p=0

  9. Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

  10. Pupillary response to direct and consensual chromatic light stimuli.

    PubMed

    Traustason, Sindri; Brondsted, Adam Elias; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2016-02-01

    To assess whether the direct and consensual postillumination (ipRGC-driven) pupil light responses to chromatic light stimuli are equal in healthy subjects. Pupil responses in healthy volunteers were recorded using a prototype binocular chromatic pupillometer (IdeaMedical, Copenhagen), which is capable of both direct and consensual pupillometry measurements. The device uses a pair of dual monochromatic narrow bandwidth LED light sources, red (660 nm) and blue (470 nm). Pupil light responses were recorded with infrared video cameras and analysed using custom-made circuitry and software. Subjects were randomized to receive light stimuli at either the right or left eye after 5 min of dark adaptation. Pupil light responses were recorded in both eyes for 10 seconds before illumination, during illumination and 50 seconds after illumination with red and blue light. Three variables were defined for the recorded pupil responses: the maximal constriction amplitude (CAmax ), the pupil response during illumination and postillumination pupil response (PIPR). No difference was found in the pupil response to blue light. With red light, the pupil response during illumination was slightly larger during consensual illumination compared to direct illumination (0.54 and 0.52, respectively, p = 0.027, paired Wilcoxon's test, n = 12), while no differences were found for CAmax or the PIPR. No difference was found between direct and consensual pupil response to either red or blue light in the postillumination period. Direct and consensual responses can readily be compared when examining the postillumination pupil response to blue light as estimation of photosensitive retinal ganglion cell activation. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Novel technique: a pupillometer-based objective chromatic perimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotenstreich, Ygal; Skaat, Alon; Sher, Ifat; Kolker, Andru; Rosenfeld, Elkana; Melamed, Shlomo; Belkin, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of visual field (VF) is important for clinical diagnosis and patient monitoring. The current VF methods are subjective and require patient cooperation. Here we developed a novel objective perimetry technique based on the pupil response (PR) to multifocal chromatic stimuli in normal subjects and in patients with glaucoma and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). A computerized infrared video pupillometer was used to record PR to short- and long-wavelength stimuli (peak 485 nm and 620 nm, respectively) at light intensities of 15-100 cd-s/m2 at thirteen different points of the VF. The RP study included 30 eyes of 16 patients and 20 eyes of 12 healthy participants. The glaucoma study included 22 eyes of 11 patients and 38 eyes of 19 healthy participants. Significantly reduced PR was observed in RP patients in response to short-wavelength stimuli at 40 cd-s/m2 in nearly all perimetric locations (P <0.05). By contrast, RP patients demonstrated nearly normal PR to long-wavelength in majority of perimetric locations. The glaucoma group showed significantly reduced PR to long- and short-wavelength stimuli at high intensity in all perimetric locations (P <0.05). The PR of glaucoma patients was significantly lower than normal in response to short-wavelength stimuli at low intensity mostly in central and 20° locations (p<0.05). This study demonstrates the feasibility of using pupillometer-based chromatic perimetry for objectively assessing VF defects and retinal function and optic nerve damage in patients with retinal dystrophies and glaucoma. Furthermore, this method may be used to distinguish between the damaged cells underlying the VF defect.

  12. Chromate reduction and heavy metal fixation in soil

    SciT

    Schwitzgebel, K.

    In situ reduction of chromates and the fixation of the metals Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and Ni in soil was investigated using Fe II and soluble silica. Fe II fulfills two functions. It reduces chromates (CrVI) at soil pH to CrIII and the reaction products, Fe(OH)[sub 3] and Cr(OH)[sub 3], coprecipitate/adsorb heavy metals. In the absence of CrVI iron is added as FeIII. Destabilized silica also fulfills two functions. It reacts with the metal and metal hydroxides and reduces the soil permeability. The leaching rate (mg/m[sup 2]s) of a metal is the product of leachate flow rate ([ell]/M[sup 2]s)more » and the leachate concentration (mg/[ell]). The leachate flow rate is directly proportional to the hydraulic coefficient (Darcy's Law). Treatment with destabilized silica reduces the hydraulic coefficient of virgin soil (K[sub h] = 10[sup [minus]2]...10[sup [minus]4]) to K[sub h]=10[sup [minus]7] (cm/s) resulting in a flow rate reduction of 3--5 orders of magnitude. Iron plus silica treatment results in a leachate concentration reduction of up to 2 orders of magnitude (Cr:95--99%;Pb:99%;Zn 95--99%; Cd:93--99%; Ni:75--94%). Combined effect of flow rate reduction and leachate concentration reduction results in a potential leaching rate reduction of five to seven orders of magnitude. Iron-silica treatment may be developed into an efficient containment technology, provided the silica gel integrity does not change with time.« less

  13. Chromate reduction and heavy metal fixation in soil. Final report

    SciT

    Schwitzgebel, K.

    In situ reduction of chromates and the fixation of the metals Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and Ni in soil was investigated using Fe II and soluble silica. Fe II fulfills two functions. It reduces chromates (CrVI) at soil pH to CrIII and the reaction products, Fe(OH){sub 3} and Cr(OH){sub 3}, coprecipitate/adsorb heavy metals. In the absence of CrVI iron is added as FeIII. Destabilized silica also fulfills two functions. It reacts with the metal and metal hydroxides and reduces the soil permeability. The leaching rate (mg/m{sup 2}s) of a metal is the product of leachate flow rate ({ell}/M{sup 2}s)more » and the leachate concentration (mg/{ell}). The leachate flow rate is directly proportional to the hydraulic coefficient (Darcy`s Law). Treatment with destabilized silica reduces the hydraulic coefficient of virgin soil (K{sub h} = 10{sup {minus}2}...10{sup {minus}4}) to K{sub h}=10{sup {minus}7} (cm/s) resulting in a flow rate reduction of 3--5 orders of magnitude. Iron plus silica treatment results in a leachate concentration reduction of up to 2 orders of magnitude (Cr:95--99%;Pb:99%;Zn 95--99%; Cd:93--99%; Ni:75--94%). Combined effect of flow rate reduction and leachate concentration reduction results in a potential leaching rate reduction of five to seven orders of magnitude. Iron-silica treatment may be developed into an efficient containment technology, provided the silica gel integrity does not change with time.« less

  14. Dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Emiroglu, Nazan; Su, Ozlem; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Bahali, Anil Gulsel; Yildiz, Pelin; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Onsun, Nahide

    2016-01-01

    Pigmented purpuric dermatosis is a chronic skin disorder of unknown aetiology characterised by symmetrical petechial and pigmented macules, often confined to the lower limbs. The aetiology of pigmented purpuric dermatosis is unknown. Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that allows the visualisation of morphological features invisible to the naked eye; it combines a method that renders the corneal layer of the skin translucent with an optical system that magnifies the image projected onto the retina. The aim of this study is to investigate the dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. This study enrolled patients diagnosed histopathologically with pigmented purpuric dermatosis who had dermatoscopic records. We reviewed the dermatoscopic images of PPD patients who attended the outpatient clinic in the Istanbul Dermatovenereology Department at the Bezmialem Vakıf University Medical Faculty. Dermatoscopy showed: coppery-red pigmentation (97%, n = 31) in the background, a brown network (34%, n = 11), linear vessels (22%, n = 7), round to oval red dots, globules, and patches (69%, n = 22; 75%, n = 24; 34%, n = 11; respectively), brown globules (26%, n = 8) and dots (53%, n = 17), linear brown lines (22%, n = 7), and follicular openings (13%, n = 4). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the dermatoscopy of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. In our opinion, dermatoscopy can be useful in the diagnosis of pigmented purpuric dermatosis.

  15. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  16. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  17. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  18. Development of Non-Chromate Waterborne Wash Primer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    Corrosion Inhibitor in Ammonia Water on Magnesium Panels .... ............ .. 72 Table 5 - Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibitors in Witco iChemical... anticorrosion pigments have been investigated (2, 3, 5& 6 (7, 11, 18, 21, 28, 29, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44 &45 (50, 53, 55, 56, 59, 62, 63, 65, 67...application method first tried. The major problem found with this formulation was adhesion of dried film to both * metal substrates. Films could be easily

  19. Identification of polymer stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal display by chromaticity diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yi-Fen; Tsai, Cheng-Yeh; Wang, Ling-Yung; Ku, Po-Jen; Huang, Tai-Hsiang; Liu, Chu-Yu; Sugiura, Norio

    2012-04-01

    We reported an identification method of blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) display status by using Commission International de l'Éclairage (CIE) chromaticity diagram. The BPLC was injected into in-plane-switch (IPS) cell, polymer stabilized (PS) by ultraviolet cured process and analyzed by luminance colorimeter. The results of CIE chromaticity diagram showed a remarkable turning point when polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal II (PSBPLC-II) formed in the IPS cell. A mechanism of CIE chromaticity diagram identify PSBPLC display status was proposed, and we believe this finding will be useful to application and production of PSBPLC display.

  20. Effect of Kombucha tea on chromate(VI)-induced oxidative stress in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sai Ram, M; Anju, B; Pauline, T; Dipti, P; Kain, A K; Mongia, S S; Sharma, S K; Singh, B; Singh, R; Ilavazhagan, G; Kumar, D; Selvamurthy, W

    2000-07-01

    The effect of Kombucha tea (KT) on oxidative stress induced changes in rats subjected to chromate treatment are reported. KT feeding alone did not show any significant change in malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, but did enhance humoral response and delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) response appreciably over control animals. Chromate treatment significantly enhanced plasma and tissue MDA levels, decreased DTH response considerably, enhanced glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities; however, no change in GSH, superoxide dismutase and antibody titres was noticed. KT feeding completely reversed the chromate-induced changes. These results show that Kombucha tea has potent anti-oxidant and immunopotentiating activities.

  1. Traverse Focusing of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Chromatic Effects for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciT

    James M. Mitrani, Igor D. Kaganovich, Ronald C. Davidson

    A fi nal focusing scheme designed to minimize chromatic effects is discussed. The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II) will apply a velocity tilt for longitudinal bunch compression, and a fi nal focusing solenoid (FFS) for transverse bunch compression. In the beam frame, neutralized drift compression causes a suffi ciently large spread in axial momentum, pz , resulting in chromatic effects to the fi nal focal spot during transverse bunch compression. Placing a weaker solenoid upstream of a stronger fi nal focusing solenoid (FFS) mitigates chromatic effects and improves transverse focusing by a factor of approximately 2-4 for appropriate NDCX-II parameters.

  2. Macular Pigment Optical Density Measured by Heterochromatic Modulation Photometry

    PubMed Central

    Huchzermeyer, Cord; Schlomberg, Juliane; Welge-Lüssen, Ulrich; Berendschot, Tos T. J. M.; Pokorny, Joel; Kremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To psychophysically determine macular pigment optical density (MPOD) employing the heterochromatic modulation photometry (HMP) paradigm by estimating 460 nm absorption at central and peripheral retinal locations. Methods For the HMP measurements, two lights (B: 460 nm and R: 660 nm) were presented in a test field and were modulated in counterphase at medium or high frequencies. The contrasts of the two lights were varied in tandem to determine flicker detection thresholds. Detection thresholds were measured for different R:B modulation ratios. The modulation ratio with minimal sensitivity (maximal threshold) is the point of equiluminance. Measurements were performed in 25 normal subjects (11 male, 14 female; age: 30±11 years, mean ± sd) using an eight channel LED stimulator with Maxwellian view optics. The results were compared with those from two published techniques – one based on heterochromatic flicker photometry (Macular Densitometer) and the other on fundus reflectometry (MPR). Results We were able to estimate MPOD with HMP using a modified theoretical model that was fitted to the HMP data. The resultant MPODHMP values correlated significantly with the MPODMPR values and with the MPODHFP values obtained at 0.25° and 0.5° retinal eccentricity. Conclusions HMP is a flicker-based method with measurements taken at a constant mean chromaticity and luminance. The data can be well fit by a model that allows all data points to contribute to the photometric equality estimate. Therefore, we think that HMP may be a useful method for MPOD measurements, in basic and clinical vision experiments. PMID:25354049

  3. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    PubMed Central

    Narsing Rao, Manik Prabhu; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications. PMID:28690593

  4. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  5. Achromatic-chromatic colorimetric sensors for on-off type detection of analytes.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jun Hyuk; Cho, Hui Hun; Lee, Jin Woong; Lee, Jung Heon

    2014-12-21

    We report the development of achromatic colorimetric sensors; sensors changing their colors from achromatic black to other chromatic colors. An achromatic colorimetric sensor was prepared by mixing a general colorimetric indicator, whose color changes between chromatic colors, and a complementary colored dye with no reaction to the targeted analyte. As the color of an achromatic colorimetric sensor changes from black to a chromatic color, the color change could be much easily recognized than general colorimetric sensors with naked eyes. More importantly, the achromatic colorimetric sensors enable on-off type recognition of the presence of analytes, which have not been achieved from most colorimetric sensors. In addition, the color changes from some achromatic colorimetric sensors (achromatic Eriochrome Black T and achromatic Benedict's solution) could be recognized with naked eyes at much lower concentration ranges than normal chromatic colorimetric sensors. These results provide new opportunities in the use of colorimetric sensors for diverse applications, such as harsh industrial, environmental, and biological detection.

  6. On the r-dynamic chromatic number of the corronation by complete graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah Kristiana, Arika; Imam Utoyo, M.; Dafik

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we will study the r-dynamic chromatic number of the coronation by complete graph. A proper k-coloring of graph G such that the neighbors of any vertex v receive at least min{r, d(v)} different colors. The r-dynamic chromatic number, χ r (G) is the minimum k such that graph G has an r-dynamic k-coloring. We will obtain lower bound of the r-dynamic chromatic number of {χ }r({K}nȯ H), and {χ }r(Hȯ {K}m) We also study the exact value of the r-dynamic chromatic number of {χ }r({K}nȯ {S}m),{χ }r({K}nȯ {F}m),{χ }r({S}nȯ {K}m),{χ }r({F}nȯ {K}m) and {χ }r({K}nȯ {K}m) for m, n > 3.

  7. ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE CCA (CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE) ON TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of young children contacting arsenic and chromium residues while playing on and around Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated wood playground structures and decks. Although CCA registrants voluntarily canceled treated wood for re...

  8. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Mierlo, Camille Van; Pinto, Luis Abegão; Stalmans, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic pigment dispersion syndrome generally originates from a repetitive, mechanical trauma to the pigmented posterior epithelium of the iris. This trauma can arise after intraocular surgery, most commonly due to an abnormal contact between the intraocular lens (IOL) and the iris. Whether surgical removal of this primary insult can lead to a successful intraocular pressure (IOP) control remains unclear. Case-series. Patients with IOP elevation and clinical signs of pigment dispersion were screened for a diagnosis of iatrogenic IOL-related pigment dispersion. Three patients in which the IOL or the IOL-bag complex caused a pigment dispersion through a repetitive iris chafing were selected. In two cases, replacement of a sulcus-based single-piece IOL (patient 1) or a sub-luxated in-the-bag IOL (patient 2) by an anterior-chamber (AC) iris-fixed IOL led to a sustained decrease in IOP. In the third case, extensive iris atrophy and poor anatomical AC parameters for IOL implantation precluded further surgical intervention. IOL-exchange appears to be a useful tool in the management of iatrogenic pigment dispersion glaucoma due to inappropriate IOL implantation. This cause-oriented approach seems to be effective in controlling IOP, but should be offered only if safety criteria are met. How to cite this article: Van Mierlo C, Abegao Pinto L, Stalmans I. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):28-32.

  9. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Suo, Yujuan; Zhang, Daofeng; Jin, Fangning; Zhao, Hang; Shi, Chunlei

    2018-01-01

    Staphyloxanthin (STX), a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus , is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to clarify the genetic and virulent differences between the two groups. Here, 132 S. aureus isolates were divided into two phenotype groups depending on the absorbance (OD 450 ) of the extracted carotenoids. Then, all isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and then the detection of presence of 30 virulence factors and the gene integrity of crtN and crtM . Furthermore, 24 typical S. aureus isolates and 4 S. argenteus strains were selected for the murine infection assay of in vivo virulence, in which the histological observation and enumeration of CFUs were carried out. These isolates were distributed in 26 sequence types (STs) and 49 spa types. The pigmented isolates were scattered in 25 STs, while the non-pigmented isolates were more centralized, which mainly belonged to ST20 (59%) and ST25 (13%). Among the 54 non-pigmented isolates, about 20% carried intact crtN and crtM genes. The in vivo assay suggested that comparing with pigmented S. aureus , non-pigmented S. aureus and S. argenteus strains did not show a reduced virulence in murine sepsis models. Therefore, it suggested that there were no significant genetic and virulent differences between pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus .

  10. Calculating Correlated Color Temperatures Across the Entire Gamut of Daylight and Skylight Chromaticities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-20

    c o i b f t c c c c w n c s p t s Calculating correlated color temperatures across the entire gamut of daylight and skylight chromaticities Javier...temperature ~CCT!, yet existing equations for calculating CCT from chromaticity coordinates span only part of this range. To improve both the gamut and accuracy...00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Calculating correlated color temperatures across the entire gamut of daylight and skylight

  11. Chromatic aberration compensation in numerical reconstruction of digital holograms by Fresnel-Bluestein propagation.

    PubMed

    Hincapie, Diego; Velasquez, Daniel; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2017-12-15

    In this Letter, we present a method for chromatic compensation in numerical reconstruction of digitally recorded holograms based on Fresnel-Bluestein propagation. The proposed technique is applied to correct the chromatic aberration that arises in the reconstruction of RGB holograms of both millimeter- and micrometer-sized objects. The results show the feasibility of this strategy to remove the wavelength dependence of the size of the numerically propagated wavefields.

  12. Chelation in metal intoxication. VIII. Removal of chromium from organs of potassium chromate administered rats.

    PubMed

    Behari, J R; Tandon, S K

    1980-03-01

    Some polyaminocarboxylic acids were examined for their ability to mobilize chromium from certain vital organs, their subcellular fractions, and blood cells of potassium chromate administered rats. Hexamethylene 1,6-diamino tetraacetic acid (TDTA), triethylene tetramine hexaacetic acid (TTHA), and ethylene diamine di (O-hydroxylphenyl acetic acid) (EDDHA) may be useful in preventing or reducing chromate toxicity. No definite relationship could be observed between the structure of the chelating agents and their chromium-removing capacity.

  13. Exosomes released by keratinocytes modulate melanocyte pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Cicero, Alessandra Lo; Delevoye, Cédric; Gilles-Marsens, Floriane; Loew, Damarys; Dingli, Florent; Guéré, Christelle; André, Nathalie; Vié, Katell; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2015-01-01

    Cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, which transfer proteins, lipids and RNAs to regulate recipient cell functions. Skin pigmentation relies on a tight dialogue between keratinocytes and melanocytes in the epidermis. Here we report that exosomes secreted by keratinocytes enhance melanin synthesis by increasing both the expression and activity of melanosomal proteins. Furthermore, we show that the function of keratinocyte-derived exosomes is phototype-dependent and is modulated by ultraviolet B. In sum, this study uncovers an important physiological function for exosomes in human pigmentation and opens new avenues in our understanding of how pigmentation is regulated by intercellular communication in both healthy and diseased states. PMID:26103923

  14. The sandstone's chromatic alteration of the florentine cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettori, S.; Pecchioni, E.; Cantisani, E.; Ricci, M.; Fratini, F.; Garzonio, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    Pietra Serena is one of the materials more used in Florentine architecture. It is a sandstone that outcrops in the hills north of the city in the municipality of Fiesole and it has been employed mainly for ornamental purposes. This litotype belongs to the the Macigno Formation (Oligocene Upper- Miocene Lower) which consists of beds of turbiditic sandstones separated by pelitic levels which are the finest components of each single turbidity layer. Petrographically, Pietra Serena can be defined as a medium-coarse-grained greywacke made of quartz, feldspars, micas, fragments of metamorphic and magmatic rocks. The clayey matrix is quite abundant, mainly composed by illite, kaolinite and chlorite-vermiculite (present only in some quarries). It is well known that the processes of decay of the sandstones are related to the type of matrix, the amount of cement, the kind of clay minerals and to the pore size distribution, which lead to water infiltrations, swelling of the clay minerals, separation of the clayey matrix, with resulting exfoliation and peeling of the stone artefacts. Pietra Serena has a bluish-grey colour in fresh cut, but many times it is easily oxidized acquiring an ochraceous-reddish brown colour on buildings. Such changes in colour, appear to be due in part to the oxidation of iron, proceeding very quickly from the surface to the inside, though the cohesion is not affected. It is possible to hypothesize that the chromatic changes not necessarily involve a progressive state of alteration of the artefact, but they may often to represents a natural patina acquired with the time. Nevertheless it is necessary to remember that the oxidized layer and its hardness could also be the result of treatments performed in the past. In Florence, several monuments and buildings are affected by such phenomenon, in particular it is possible to note an intense and diffuse reddish colouring on the Pietra Serena utilized for columns and for façade's decorations. In this work

  15. Influence of storage duration and processing on chromatic attributes and flavonoid content of moxa floss.

    PubMed

    Lim, Min Yee; Huang, Jian; Zhao, Bai-xiao; Zou, Hui-qin; Yan, Yong-hong

    2016-01-01

    Moxibustion is an important traditional Chinese medicine therapy using heat from ignited moxa floss for disease treatment. The purpose of the present study is to establish a reproducible method to assess the color of moxa floss, discriminate the samples based on chromatic coordinates and explore the relationship between chromatic coordinates and total flavonoid content (TFC). Moxa floss samples of different storage years and production ratios were obtained from a moxa production factory in Henan Province, China. Chromatic coordinates (L*, a* and b*) were analyzed with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer and the chroma (C*) and hue angle (h°) values were calculated. TFC was determined by a colorimetric method. Data were analyzed with correlation, principal component analysis (PCA). Significant differences in the chromatic values and TFC were observed among samples of different storage years and production ratios. Samples of higher production ratio displayed higher chromatic characteristics and lower TFC. Samples of longer storage years contained higher TFC. Preliminary separation of moxa floss production ratio was obtained by means of color feature maps developed using L*-a* or L*-b* as coordinates. PCA allowed the separation of the samples from their storage years and production ratios based on their chromatic characteristics and TFC. The use of a colorimetric technique and CIELAB coordinates coupled with chemometrics can be practical and objective for discriminating moxa floss of different storage years and production ratios. The development of color feature maps could be used as a model for classifying the color grading of moxa floss.

  16. Very-long-term and short-term chromatic adaptation: are their influences cumulative?

    PubMed

    Belmore, Suzanne C; Shevell, Steven K

    2011-02-09

    Very-long-term (VLT) chromatic adaptation results from exposure to an altered chromatic environment for days or weeks. Color shifts from VLT adaptation are observed hours or days after leaving the altered environment. Short-term chromatic adaptation, on the other hand, results from exposure for a few minutes or less, with color shifts measured within seconds or a few minutes after the adapting light is extinguished; recovery to the pre-adapted state is complete in less than an hour. Here, both types of adaptation were combined. All adaptation was to reddish-appearing long-wavelength light. Shifts in unique yellow were measured following adaptation. Previous studies demonstrate shifts in unique yellow due to VLT chromatic adaptation, but shifts from short-term chromatic adaptation to comparable adapting light can be far greater than from VLT adaptation. The question considered here is whether the color shifts from VLT adaptation are cumulative with large shifts from short-term adaptation or, alternatively, does simultaneous short-term adaptation eliminate color shifts caused by VLT adaptation. The results show the color shifts from VLT and short-term adaptation together are cumulative, which indicates that both short-term and very-long-term chromatic adaptation affect color perception during natural viewing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Endogenous Zinc in Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

  18. Report on a fundamental chromaticity diagram with physiologically significant axes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vienot, Francoise

    2002-06-01

    The scope of TC 1-36 is to supplement the CIE colorimetric observers with color matching data that make a clear connection between the color specification and the underlying physiology. After careful examination of color matching data, TC 1- 36 has agreed on proposing a continuous fundamental observer with data from 10° to 1°. The 10° color matching measurements of Stiles and Burch (1959) will provide the basic data for this continuous fundamental observer. Fundamental response curves will be derived as a function of field size, taking into account the macular pigment, the ocular media and the photopigment optical densities.

  19. 99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  20. Suppression of zinc dendrites in zinc electrode power cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of zinc dendrites during charging of zinc electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.

  1. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill.

    PubMed

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-07-13

    In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl) carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  2. Comparative chemical characterization of pigmented and less pigmented cell walls of Alternaria tenuissima.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Kankipati Hara; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Misra, Sunil; Reddy, Chinnathimma Rajagopal; Murty, Upadyayula Suryanarayana

    2005-12-01

    Alternaria tenuissima, the parasitic fungus, was obtained from the pruned upper-cut surfaces of mulberry stems. This fungus contains dark pigment because of the presence of melanin in the cell wall. To obtain less-pigmented cell walls, this fungus was grown under dark condition. When the pigmented and less-pigmented cell walls were chemically analyzed, no differences were observed in amino-acid composition, hexoses, or pentoses. However, in pigmented cell walls, higher contents of melanin (2.6%) were found than in less-pigmented cell walls (0.3%). Interestingly, a significant difference was observed in the relative fatty-acid compositions between these two types of cell walls. Among the major fatty acids, there were increased concentrations of tetradecanoic acid (C14:0), hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), 9-hexadecenoic acid (C16: 1,Delta 9), and 9-octadecanoic acid (C18:1,Delta 9) and a concomitant decrease in 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2,Delta 9,12) in less-pigmented compared with pigmented cell walls. This difference in fatty-acid composition may be related to the higher percentage of melanin in the pigmented than the less-pigmented cell walls. Lesser amounts of 9,12-octadecadienoic acid in less-pigmented cell walls may have been caused by the growth of the fungus under environmental stress conditions. An interesting observation was the presence in pigmented cell walls only of methyl-substituted fatty acids with carbon numbers C14 to C17, but their occurrence could not be ascertained in the present study.

  3. Receptoral and postreceptoral visual processes in recovery from chromatic adaptation.

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, D; Hurvich, L M; Varner, F D

    1979-01-01

    The time course of recovery from chromatic adaptation in human vision was tracked by determining the wavelength of light that appears uniquely yellow (neither red nor green) both before and after exposure to yellowish green and yellowish red adapting lights. Recovery is complete within 5 min after steady light exposure. After exposure to the alternating repeated sequence 10-sec light/10-sec dark, the initial magnitude of the aftereffect is reduced but recovery is retarded. The results are interpreted in terms of two processes located at different levels in the hierarchical organization of the visual system. One is a change in the balance of cone receptor sensitivities; the second is a shift in the equilibrium baseline between opposite-signed responses of the red/green channel at the opponent-process neural level. The baseline-shift mechanism is effective in the condition in which repeated input signals originating at the receptors are of sufficient strength to activate the system effectively. Hence, this process is revealed in the alternating adaptation condition when the receptors undergo partial recovery after each light exposure, but receptor adaptation during continued steady light exposure effectively protects the subsequent neural systems from continued strong activation. PMID:288087

  4. Selection of Optical Glasses Using Buchdahl's Chromatic Coordinate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, DeVon W.

    1999-01-01

    This investigation attempted to extend the method of reducing the size of glass catalogs to a global glass selection technique with the hope of guiding glass catalog offerings. Buchdahl's development of optical aberration coefficients included a transformation of the variable in the dispersion equation from wavelength to a chromatic coordinate omega defined as omega = (lambda - lambda(sub 0))/ 1 + 2.5(lambda - lambda(sub 0)) where lambda is the wavelength at which the wavelength is calculated and lambda(sub 0) is a base wavelength about which the expansion is performed. The advantage of this approach is that the dispersion equation may be written in terms of a simple power series and permits direct calculation of dispersion coefficients. While several promising examples were given, a systematic application of the technique to an entire glass catalog and analysis of the subsequent predictions was not performed. The goal of this work was to apply the technique in a systematic fashion to glasses in the Schoft catalog and assess the quality of the predictions.

  5. Processing of chromatic information in a deep convolutional neural network.

    PubMed

    Flachot, Alban; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2018-04-01

    Deep convolutional neural networks are a class of machine-learning algorithms capable of solving non-trivial tasks, such as object recognition, with human-like performance. Little is known about the exact computations that deep neural networks learn, and to what extent these computations are similar to the ones performed by the primate brain. Here, we investigate how color information is processed in the different layers of the AlexNet deep neural network, originally trained on object classification of over 1.2M images of objects in their natural contexts. We found that the color-responsive units in the first layer of AlexNet learned linear features and were broadly tuned to two directions in color space, analogously to what is known of color responsive cells in the primate thalamus. Moreover, these directions are decorrelated and lead to statistically efficient representations, similar to the cardinal directions of the second-stage color mechanisms in primates. We also found, in analogy to the early stages of the primate visual system, that chromatic and achromatic information were segregated in the early layers of the network. Units in the higher layers of AlexNet exhibit on average a lower responsivity for color than units at earlier stages.

  6. Crystalline lens thickness determines the perceived chromatic difference in magnification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Schaeffel, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Since the origin of the high interindividual variability of the chromatic difference in retinal image magnification (CDM) in the human eye is not well understood, optical parameters that might determine its magnitude were studied in 21 healthy subjects with ages ranging from 21 to 58 years. Two psychophysical procedures were used to quantify CDM. They produced highly correlated results. First, a red and a blue square, presented on a black screen, had to be matched in size by the subjects with their right eyes. Second, a filled red and blue square, flickering on top of each other at 2 Hz, had to be adjusted in perceived brightness and then in size to minimize the impression of flicker. CDM varied widely among subjects from 0.0% to 3.6%. Biometric ocular parameters were measured with low coherence interferometry and crystalline lens tilt and decentration with a custom-built Purkinjemeter. Correlations were studied between CDM and corneal power, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, lens tilt and lens decentration, and vitreous chamber depths. Lens thickness was found significantly correlated with CDM and accounted for 64% of its variance. Vertical lens tilt and decentration were also significantly correlated. It was also found that CDM increased by 3.5% per year, and part of this change can be attributed to the age-related increase in lens thickness.

  7. Chromatic VEP in children with congenital colour vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tekavčič Pompe, Manca; Stirn Kranjc, Branka; Brecelj, Jelka

    2010-09-01

    Visual evoked potentials to chromatic stimulus (cVEP) are believed to selectively test the parvocellular visual pathway which is responsible for processing information about colour. The aim was to evaluate cVEP in children with red-green congenital colour vision deficiency. VEP responses of 15 colour deficient children were compared to 31 children with normal colour vision. An isoluminant red-green stimulus composed of horizontal gratings was presented in an onset-offset manner. The shape of the waveform was studied, as well as the latency and amplitude of positive (P) and negative (N) waves. cVEP response did not change much with increased age in colour deficient children, whereas normative data showed changes from a predominantly positive to a negative response with increased age. A P wave was present in 87% of colour deficient children (and in 100% of children with normal colour vision), whereas the N wave was absent in a great majority of colour deficient children and was present in 80% of children with normal colour vision. Therefore, the amplitude of the whole response (N-P) decreased linearly with age in colour deficient children, whereas in children with normal colour vision it increased linearly. P wave latency shortened with increased age in both groups. cVEP responses differ in children with congenital colour vision deficiency compared to children with normal colour vision. © 2010 The Authors, Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics © 2010 The College of Optometrists.

  8. Extended depth of focus intraocular lens: Chromatic performance

    PubMed Central

    Millán, Maria S.; Vega, Fidel

    2017-01-01

    We describe a first-and-second-diffractive-order intraocular lens ((1st,2nd)DIOL) within the class of hybrid refractive-diffractive designs for intraocular lenses (IOLs) and analyse its properties of focus extension and compensation of longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA), particularly for lenses with low addition. Power, energy efficiency and their wavelength dependence are extended from monofocal IOL and conventional bifocal zeroth-and-first-diffractive-order IOL ((0th,1st)DIOL) to (1st,2nd)DIOL of low addition. Compensation of LCA is experimentally assessed in optical bench through the through-focus energy efficiency of three Tecnis IOLs with red, green and blue illuminations: ZA9003 (monofocal), ZKB00 (bifocal (0th,1st)DIOL with + 2.75 D add) and Symfony ZXR00. We prove Tecnis Symfony ZXR00 IOL can be considered an example of (1st,2nd)DIOL design of low addition, with LCA compensation in both the distance and intermediate foci, whereas the bifocal (0th,1st)DIOL does not compensate in the distance focus. However, the energy efficiency of (1st,2nd)DIOL for wavelengths other than the design wavelength is markedly more asymmetric. PMID:28966865

  9. Chromatic patchy particles: Effects of specific interactions on liquid structure

    DOE PAGES

    Vasilyev, Oleg A.; Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Klumov, Boris A.

    2015-07-13

    We study the structural and thermodynamic properties of patchy particle liquids, with a special focus on the role of “color,” i.e., specific interactions between individual patches. A possible experimental realization of such “chromatic” interactions is by decorating the particle patches with single-stranded DNA linkers. The complementarity of the linkers can promote selective bond formation between predetermined pairs of patches. By using MD simulations, we compare the local connectivity, the bond orientation order, and other structural properties of the aggregates formed by the “colored” and “colorless” systems. The analysis is done for spherical particles with two different patch arrangements (tetrahedral andmore » cubic). It is found that the aggregated (liquid) phase of the “colorless” patchy particles is better connected, denser and typically has stronger local order than the corresponding “colored” one. This, in turn, makes the colored liquid less stable thermodynamically. Specifically, we predict that in a typical case the chromatic interactions should increase the relative stability of the crystalline phase with respect to the disordered liquid, thus expanding its region in the phase diagram.« less

  10. Gravity Chromatic Imaging of the Eta Car's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Bermudez, Joel

    2018-04-01

    Eta Car is one of the most massive, and intriguing, Luminous Blue Variables known. In its core resides a binary with a 5.54 years orbital period. Visible, infrared, and X-raobservations suggest that the primary star exhibits a very dense wind with a terminal velocity of about 420 km/s, while the secondary shows a much faster and less dense wind with a terminal velocity of 3000 km/s. The wind-wind collision zone at the core of Eta Car is thus a complex region that deserves a detailed study to understand the effect of the binary interaction in the evolution of the system. Here, we will present a unique imaging campaign with GRAVITY/VLTI of the Eta Car's core. The superb quality of our interferometric data, together with state-of-the-art image reconstruction techniques, allowed us to obtain, with milliarcsecond resolution, continuum and chromatic images cross the BrG and HeI lines in the Eta Car K-band spectrum (R 4000). These new data together with models of the primary wind of Eta Car has letting us to characterize the spatial distribution of the dust and gas in the inner 40 AU wind-wind collision zone of the target.

  11. New Directions in Phthalocyanine Pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were the following: (1) investigation of the synthesis of new phthalocyanines; (2) characterization of the new phthalocyanines synthesized; (3) investigate the properties of the newly synthesized phthalocyanines with emphasis on UV protection of plastics and coatings; and (4) utilize quantum mechanics to evaluate the structural relationships with possible properties and synthetic approaches. The proposed research targeted the synthesis of phthalocyanines containing an aromatic bridge between two phthalocyanine rings. The goal was to synthesize pigments which would protect plastics when exposed to the photodegradation effects of the sun in space. The stability and extended conjugation of the phthalocyanines offer a unique opportunity for energy absorption and numerous radiative and non-radiative energy loss mechanisms. Although the original targeted phthalocyanines were changed early in the project, several new and unique phthalocyanine compounds were prepared. The basic goals of this work were met and some unique and unexpected outcomes of the work were the result of the integral use of quantum mechanics and molecular modeling with the synthetic effort.

  12. Pseudoephedrine may cause "pigmenting" fixed drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Esen; Elinç-Aslan, Meryem Sevinç

    2011-05-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a distinctive drug eruption characterized by recurrent well-defined lesions in the same location each time the responsible drug is taken. Two different clinical forms have been described: the common classic pigmenting form and the rare nonpigmenting form. Nonpigmenting FDE is mainly characterized by symmetrical large erythematous plaques and the dermal histopathologic reaction pattern. Pseudoephedrine is known as the major inducer of nonpigmenting FDE. Pigmenting FDE from pseudoephedrine has not been reported previously. Here, the first case of pseudoephedrine-induced pigmenting FDE is reported, showing the characteristic features of classic pigmenting FDE such as asymmetry, normal-sized lesions, and the epidermodermal histopathologic reaction pattern. Moreover, a positive occlusive patch-test reaction to pseudoephedrine could be demonstrated on postlesional FDE skin for the first time.

  13. Skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma - pigmented (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer appears as a 2 to 3 centimeter skin spot. The tissue has become destroyed (forming an atrophic plaque). There is a brownish color because of increased skin pigment (hyperpigmentation) and a slightly elevated, rolled, pearl- ...

  14. Pigment Production Analysis in Human Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Hopkin, Amelia Soto; Paterson, Elyse K; Ruiz, Rolando; Ganesan, Anand K

    2016-05-25

    The human epidermal melanocyte is a highly specialized pigmented cell that serves to protect the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) damage through the production of melanin, or melanogenesis. Misregulation in melanogenesis leading to either hyper- or hypo-pigmentation is found in human diseases such as malasma and vitiligo. Current therapies for these diseases are largely unsuccessful and the need for new therapies is necessary. In order to identify genes and or compounds that can alter melanogenesis, methods are required that can detect changes in pigment production as well as expression of key melanogenesis transcription factors and enzymes. Here we describe methods to detect changes in melanogenesis in a human melanoma cell line, MNT-1, by (1) analyzing pigment production by measuring the absorbance of melanin present by spectrophotometry, (2) analyzing transcript expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by qunatitative reverse-transcription (RT)PCR and (3) analyzing protein expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by Western blot (WB).

  15. Color characterization of coatings with diffraction pigments.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, A; Bernad, B; Campos, J; Perales, E; Velázquez, J L; Martínez-Verdú, F M

    2016-10-01

    Coatings with diffraction pigments present high iridescence, which needs to be characterized in order to describe their appearance. The spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of six coatings with SpectraFlair diffraction pigments were measured using the robot-arm-based goniospectrophotometer GEFE, designed and developed at CSIC. Principal component analysis has been applied to study the coatings of BRDF data. From data evaluation and based on theoretical considerations, we propose a relevant geometric factor to study the spectral reflectance and color gamut variation of coatings with diffraction pigments. At fixed values of this geometric factor, the spectral BRDF component due to diffraction is almost constant. Commercially available portable goniospectrophotometers, extensively used in several industries (automotive and others), should be provided with more aspecular measurement angles to characterize the complex reflectance of goniochromatic coatings based on diffraction pigments, but they would not require either more than one irradiation angle or additional out-of-plane geometries.

  16. Familial occurrence of pigment dispersion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bovell, A M; Damji, K F; Dohadwala, A A; Hodge, W G; Allingham, R R

    2001-02-01

    Pigment dispersion syndrome affects up to 4% of the white population. It is characterized by the presence of transillumination defects, Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Open-angle glaucoma will develop in as many as 50% of affected patients. In this study we describe the familial occurrence of pigment dispersion syndrome in six North American pedigrees and the phenotypic characteristics with respect to pigment dispersion syndrome and glaucoma. Probands with pigment dispersion syndrome were identified in glaucoma clinics at university eye centres in Ottawa and Durham, NC. Families with two or more affected members were evaluated. All willing members in each family underwent a thorough clinical examination and were classified as affected with pigment dispersion syndrome, suspect or unaffected. The previous medical records were reviewed to obtain the past medical and ocular history, including risk factors for glaucoma. All six families are white. Three families show at least two generations of affected members. Of the 43 subjects examined 58% were women. All 14 affected members showed moderate to heavy trabecular meshwork pigmentation and either Krukenberg's spindle or transillumination defects. The affected members were also considerably more myopic (mean spherical equivalent for the right eye -4.72 dioptres) than the suspect group or the unaffected group (mean spherical equivalent -0.79 D and +1.19 D respectively) (p < or = 0.001), and the intraocular pressure was higher for the affected than the unaffected group (mean for the right eye 20 mm Hg vs. 16 mm Hg) (p = 0.004). Half of those affected also had open-angle glaucoma. We have identified and phenotypically characterized six North American families with autosomal dominant pigment dispersion syndrome. Our ultimate goal is to identify the gene(s) that causes this disorder in order to clarify its molecular etiology and pathophysiology. This may give rise to a molecular classification

  17. THE NATURE OF THE GECKO VISUAL PIGMENT

    PubMed Central

    Crescitelli, Frederick

    1956-01-01

    Retinal extracts of the Australian gecko, Phyllurus milii (White), have revealed the presence of a photosensitive pigment, unusual for terrestrial animals, because of its absorption maximum at 524 mµ. This pigment has an absorption spectrum which is identical in form with that of other visual chromoproteins. It is not a porphyropsin, for bleaching revealed the presence, not of retinene2, but of retinene1 as a chromophore. Photolabile pigments with characteristics similar to those of the Phyllurus visual pigment were also detected in retinal extracts of six other species of nocturnal geckos. The presence of this retinal chromoprotein adequately accounts for the unusual visual sensitivity curve described by Denton for the nocturnal gecko. This pigment may have special biological significance in terms of the unique phylogenetic position of geckos as living representatives of nocturnal animals which retain some of the characteristics of their diurnal ancestors. The occurrence of this retinene1 pigment, intermediate in spectral position between rhodopsin and iodopsin, is interpreted in support of the transmutation theory of Walls. The results and interpretation of this investigation point up the fact that, from a phylogenetic point of view, too great an emphasis on the duplicity theory may serve to detract attention from the evolutionary history of the retina and the essential unitarianism of the visual cells. PMID:13385449

  18. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  19. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Gangwal, Santosh K.; Jain, Suresh C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  20. Potassium and zinc increase tolerance to salt stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Jan, Amin Ullah; Hadi, Fazal; Midrarullah; Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Rahman, Khaista

    2017-07-01

    Potassium and zinc are essential elements in plant growth and metabolism and plays a vital role in salt stress tolerance. To investigate the physiological mechanism of salt stress tolerance, a pot experiment was conducted. Potassium and zinc significantly minimize the oxidative stress and increase root, shoot and spike length in wheat varieties. Fresh and dry biomass were significantly increased by potassium followed by zinc as compared to control C. The photosynthetic pigment and osmolyte regulator (proline, total phenolic, and total carbohydrate) were significantly enhanced by potassium and zinc. Salt stress increases MDA content in wheat varieties while potassium and zinc counteract the adverse effect of salinity and significantly increased membrane stability index. Salt stress decreases the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) while the exogenous application of potassium and zinc significantly enhanced the activities of these enzymes. A significant positive correlation was found of spike length with proline (R 2  = 0.966 ∗∗∗ ), phenolic (R 2  = 0.741 ∗ ) and chlorophyll (R 2  = 0.853 ∗∗ ). The MDA content showed significant negative correlation (R 2  = 0.983 ∗∗∗ ) with MSI. It is concluded that potassium and zinc reduced toxic effect of salinity while its combine application showed synergetic effect and significantly enhanced salt tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D.

    1981-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

  2. Pupillometer-based objective chromatic perimetry in normal eyes and patients with retinal photoreceptor dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Skaat, Alon; Sher, Ifat; Kolker, Andrew; Elyasiv, Sivan; Rosenfeld, Elkana; Mhajna, Mohamad; Melamed, Shlomo; Belkin, Michael; Rotenstreich, Ygal

    2013-04-17

    To evaluate a novel objective perimetry using multifocal chromatic pupil light reflex in normal participants and patients with photoreceptor dysfunction, and to relate this new technique with subjective dark-adapted chromatic Goldmann perimetry. Thirty-two eyes of 17 retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or cone-rod dystrophy patients and 20 eyes of 12 healthy individuals were tested. A computerized infrared video pupillometer was used to record changes in pupil diameter in response to short- and long-wavelength stimuli (peak 485 and 640 nm, respectively; light intensity 40 cd/m(2)) at 13 different points of the 30° visual field (VF), under background illumination of 2.7 cd/m(2). The pupillary response (PR) of patients was compared with PR obtained from normal control participants. In 11 patients, the pupillary responses were also compared with their findings on dark-adapted chromatic Goldmann perimetry. Significantly reduced pupillary responses were obtained in RP patients in response to the short-wavelength stimulus in nearly all perimetric locations (P < 0.03). By contrast, in response to the long-wavelength stimulus, RP patients demonstrated significantly reduced PR mostly in peripheral locations (P ≤ 0.02). In a cone-rod dystrophy patient, the PR to both long- and short-wavelength stimuli was significantly lower in the scotoma area identified by the dark-adapted chromatic Goldmann perimetry. In all patients that were tested by the chromatic Goldmann, minimal PR was recorded in areas that were nondetected in the chromatic Goldmann perimetry. This study demonstrates the potential feasibility of using pupillometer-based chromatic perimetry for objectively assessing VF defects and retinal function in patients with retinal dystrophies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01021982.).

  3. Fluctuations in the prevalence of chromate allergy in Denmark and exposure to chrome-tanned leather.

    PubMed

    Carøe, Caroline; Andersen, Klaus E; Thyssen, Jacob P; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2010-12-01

    A recent Danish study showed a significant increase in the prevalence of chromate contact allergy after the mid-1990s, probably as a result of exposure to leather products. To reproduce the results by analysing data from the period 1992-2009 at Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The temporal development in the occurrence of chromate contact allergy and assumed causative exposures were investigated. A retrospective analysis of patch test data was performed (n = 8483), and medical charts from patients with chromate allergy (n = 231) were reviewed. Comparisons were made using the χ(2) -test. A test of the reproducibility of the TRUE Test® was also performed. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations. No significant changes in the prevalence or exposure sources of chromate allergy during 1992-2009 were identified. Leather shoes (24.4%) were the most frequent exposure sources in chromate allergy, and were mainly registered in women, although the difference between men and women was not significant (P = 0.07). Cement and leather glove exposure occurred significantly more often in men than in women (P = 0.002). Foot dermatitis (40.3%) was the most frequent anatomical location, apart from hand eczema (60.6%). The reproducibility of the TRUE Test® was 93.3%. Apart from hand eczema, the most frequent clinical picture of chromate allergy was foot dermatitis caused by leather shoe exposure. A tendency for an increasing prevalence of chromate contact allergy from 1997 was shown, but no significant change was detectable. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. History of zinc in agriculture

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, over 20 years would past before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure a parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it wa...

  5. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  6. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  7. Effects of ocular transverse chromatic aberration on peripheral word identification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shun-Nan; Tai, Yu-chi; Laukkanen, Hannu; Sheedy, James E

    2011-11-01

    Transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) smears the retinal image of peripheral stimuli. We previously found that TCA significantly reduces the ability to recognize letters presented in the near fovea by degrading image quality and exacerbating crowding effect from adjacent letters. The present study examined whether TCA has a significant effect on near foveal and peripheral word identification, and whether within-word orthographic facilitation interacts with TCA effect to affect word identification. Subjects were briefly presented a 6- to 7-letter word of high or low frequency in each trial. Target words were generated with weak or strong horizontal color fringe to attenuate the TCA in the right periphery and exacerbate it in the left. The center of the target word was 1°, 2°, 4°, and 6° to the left or right of a fixation point. Subject's eye position was monitored with an eye-tracker to ensure proper fixation before target presentation. They were required to report the identity of the target word as soon and accurately as possible. Results show significant effect of color fringe on the latency and accuracy of word recognition, indicating existing TCA effect. Observed TCA effect was more salient in the right periphery, and was affected by word frequency more there. Individuals' subjective preference of color-fringed text was correlated to the TCA effect in the near periphery. Our results suggest that TCA significantly affects peripheral word identification, especially when it is located in the right periphery. Contextual facilitation such as word frequency interacts with TCA to influence the accuracy and latency of word recognition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Accelerated redox reaction between chromate and phenolic pollutants during freezing.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jinjung; Kim, Jaesung; Vetráková, Ľubica; Seo, Jiwon; Heger, Dominik; Lee, Changha; Yoon, Ho-Il; Kim, Kitae; Kim, Jungwon

    2017-05-05

    The redox reaction between 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and chromate (Cr(VI)) (i.e., the simultaneous oxidation of 4-CP by Cr(VI) and reduction of Cr(VI) by 4-CP) in ice (i.e., at -20°C) was compared with the corresponding reaction in water (i.e., at 25°C). The redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI), which was negligible in water, was significantly accelerated in ice. This accelerated redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) in ice is ascribed to the freeze concentration effect occurring during freezing, which excludes solutes (i.e., 4-CP and Cr(VI)) and protons from the ice crystals and subsequently concentrates them in the liquid brine. The concentrations of Cr(VI) and protons in the liquid brine were confirmed by measuring the optical image and the UV-vis absorption spectra of cresol red (CR) as a pH indicator of frozen solution. The redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) was observed in water when the concentrations of 4-CP/protons or Cr(VI)/protons increased by 100/1000-fold. These results corroborate the freeze concentration effect as the reason for the accelerated redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) in ice. The redox conversion of various phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) and 4-CP/Cr(VI) in real wastewater was successfully achieved in ice, which verifies the environmental relevance and importance of freezing-accelerated redox conversion of phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) in cold regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines: chromatic properties and global phenolic composition by means of UV-Vis spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-González, M; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2013-09-01

    Valdeorras (the N.W. corner of Spain) wants to promote the production and marketing of new sweet wines. The present work represents the first study on sweet wines manufactured with red grapes Vitis vinifera L. Garnacha Tintorera, a teinturier cultivar. Two different red sweet wines were elaborated: the first one was made with dried grapes; Vitis vinifera L. Garnacha Tintorera has excellent potential to produce wines from raisined grapes; the second one, a fortified sweet wine aged in oak barrels. Different red Garnacha Tintorera-based wines (a dry base wine, GBW; a naturally sweet wine, GNSW; and a fortified sweet wine, GFSW) were characterized. Chromatic characteristics and phenolic compounds were established by spectrophotometric methods in order to assess the technology of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines. High molecular weight brown polymers, produced during the grape drying process and isolated from sweet wines by the dialysis process, were responsible for the brown colour of sweet wines. As a consequence, yellowness of sweet wines was also higher which was confirmed by colorimetric indexes. With respect to phenolic content, GFSW presented the lowest content because the maceration-alcoholic fermentation was stopped through the addition of alcohol before the diffusion of red pigments from skins to must was complete. GNSW presented the highest phenolic content due to the concentration effect resulting from evaporation of water from the grapes. Anthocyanins of sweet wines were polymerised in great extent. The percentage of polymerised tannins was sufficient to guarantee the aging process of sweet wines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spectral shifts of mammalian ultraviolet-sensitive pigments (short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1) are associated with eye length and photic niche evolution

    PubMed Central

    Emerling, Christopher A.; Huynh, Hieu T.; Nguyen, Minh A.; Meredith, Robert W.; Springer, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal opsin photopigments initiate mammalian vision when stimulated by light. Most mammals possess a short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1) pigment that is primarily sensitive to either ultraviolet or violet light, leading to variation in colour perception across species. Despite knowledge of both ultraviolet- and violet-sensitive SWS1 classes in mammals for 25 years, the adaptive significance of this variation has not been subjected to hypothesis testing, resulting in minimal understanding of the basis for mammalian SWS1 spectral tuning evolution. Here, we gathered data on SWS1 for 403 mammal species, including novel SWS1 sequences for 97 species. Ancestral sequence reconstructions suggest that the most recent common ancestor of Theria possessed an ultraviolet SWS1 pigment, and that violet-sensitive pigments evolved at least 12 times in mammalian history. We also observed that ultraviolet pigments, previously considered to be a rarity, are common in mammals. We then used phylogenetic comparative methods to test the hypotheses that the evolution of violet-sensitive SWS1 is associated with increased light exposure, extended longevity and longer eye length. We discovered that diurnal mammals and species with longer eyes are more likely to have violet-sensitive pigments and less likely to possess UV-sensitive pigments. We hypothesize that (i) as mammals evolved larger body sizes, they evolved longer eyes, which limited transmittance of ultraviolet light to the retina due to an increase in Rayleigh scattering, and (ii) as mammals began to invade diurnal temporal niches, they evolved lenses with low UV transmittance to reduce chromatic aberration and/or photo-oxidative damage. PMID:26582021

  11. Spectral shifts of mammalian ultraviolet-sensitive pigments (short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1) are associated with eye length and photic niche evolution.

    PubMed

    Emerling, Christopher A; Huynh, Hieu T; Nguyen, Minh A; Meredith, Robert W; Springer, Mark S

    2015-11-22

    Retinal opsin photopigments initiate mammalian vision when stimulated by light. Most mammals possess a short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1) pigment that is primarily sensitive to either ultraviolet or violet light, leading to variation in colour perception across species. Despite knowledge of both ultraviolet- and violet-sensitive SWS1 classes in mammals for 25 years, the adaptive significance of this variation has not been subjected to hypothesis testing, resulting in minimal understanding of the basis for mammalian SWS1 spectral tuning evolution. Here, we gathered data on SWS1 for 403 mammal species, including novel SWS1 sequences for 97 species. Ancestral sequence reconstructions suggest that the most recent common ancestor of Theria possessed an ultraviolet SWS1 pigment, and that violet-sensitive pigments evolved at least 12 times in mammalian history. We also observed that ultraviolet pigments, previously considered to be a rarity, are common in mammals. We then used phylogenetic comparative methods to test the hypotheses that the evolution of violet-sensitive SWS1 is associated with increased light exposure, extended longevity and longer eye length. We discovered that diurnal mammals and species with longer eyes are more likely to have violet-sensitive pigments and less likely to possess UV-sensitive pigments. We hypothesize that (i) as mammals evolved larger body sizes, they evolved longer eyes, which limited transmittance of ultraviolet light to the retina due to an increase in Rayleigh scattering, and (ii) as mammals began to invade diurnal temporal niches, they evolved lenses with low UV transmittance to reduce chromatic aberration and/or photo-oxidative damage. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  13. Zinc and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 66 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  14. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  15. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  16. Chromatic aberration correction: an enhancement to the calibration of low-cost digital dermoscopes.

    PubMed

    Wighton, Paul; Lee, Tim K; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David; Atkins, M Stella

    2011-08-01

    We present a method for calibrating low-cost digital dermoscopes that corrects for color and inconsistent lighting and also corrects for chromatic aberration. Chromatic aberration is a form of radial distortion that often occurs in inexpensive digital dermoscopes and creates red and blue halo-like effects on edges. Being radial in nature, distortions due to chromatic aberration are not constant across the image, but rather vary in both magnitude and direction. As a result, distortions are not only visually distracting but could also mislead automated characterization techniques. Two low-cost dermoscopes, based on different consumer-grade cameras, were tested. Color is corrected by imaging a reference and applying singular value decomposition to determine the transformation required to ensure accurate color reproduction. Lighting is corrected by imaging a uniform surface and creating lighting correction maps. Chromatic aberration is corrected using a second-order radial distortion model. Our results for color and lighting calibration are consistent with previously published results, while distortions due to chromatic aberration can be reduced by 42-47% in the two systems considered. The disadvantages of inexpensive dermoscopy can be quickly substantially mitigated with a suitable calibration procedure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Mixing of Chromatic and Luminance Retinal Signals in Primate Area V1.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobing; Chen, Yao; Lashgari, Reza; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Swadlow, Harvey A; Lee, Barry B; Alonso, Jose Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Vision emerges from activation of chromatic and achromatic retinal channels whose interaction in visual cortex is still poorly understood. To investigate this interaction, we recorded neuronal activity from retinal ganglion cells and V1 cortical cells in macaques and measured their visual responses to grating stimuli that had either luminance contrast (luminance grating), chromatic contrast (chromatic grating), or a combination of the two (compound grating). As with parvocellular or koniocellular retinal ganglion cells, some V1 cells responded mostly to the chromatic contrast of the compound grating. As with magnocellular retinal ganglion cells, other V1 cells responded mostly to the luminance contrast and generated a frequency-doubled response to equiluminant chromatic gratings. Unlike magnocellular and parvocellular retinal ganglion cells, V1 cells formed a unimodal distribution for luminance/color preference with a 2- to 4-fold bias toward luminance. V1 cells associated with positive local field potentials in deep layers showed the strongest combined responses to color and luminance and, as a population, V1 cells encoded a diverse combination of luminance/color edges that matched edge distributions of natural scenes. Taken together, these results suggest that the primary visual cortex combines magnocellular and parvocellular retinal inputs to increase cortical receptive field diversity and to optimize visual processing of our natural environment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Mixing of Chromatic and Luminance Retinal Signals in Primate Area V1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaobing; Chen, Yao; Lashgari, Reza; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Swadlow, Harvey A.; Lee, Barry B.; Alonso, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Vision emerges from activation of chromatic and achromatic retinal channels whose interaction in visual cortex is still poorly understood. To investigate this interaction, we recorded neuronal activity from retinal ganglion cells and V1 cortical cells in macaques and measured their visual responses to grating stimuli that had either luminance contrast (luminance grating), chromatic contrast (chromatic grating), or a combination of the two (compound grating). As with parvocellular or koniocellular retinal ganglion cells, some V1 cells responded mostly to the chromatic contrast of the compound grating. As with magnocellular retinal ganglion cells, other V1 cells responded mostly to the luminance contrast and generated a frequency-doubled response to equiluminant chromatic gratings. Unlike magnocellular and parvocellular retinal ganglion cells, V1 cells formed a unimodal distribution for luminance/color preference with a 2- to 4-fold bias toward luminance. V1 cells associated with positive local field potentials in deep layers showed the strongest combined responses to color and luminance and, as a population, V1 cells encoded a diverse combination of luminance/color edges that matched edge distributions of natural scenes. Taken together, these results suggest that the primary visual cortex combines magnocellular and parvocellular retinal inputs to increase cortical receptive field diversity and to optimize visual processing of our natural environment. PMID:24464943

  19. Spectral discrimination in color blind animals via chromatic aberration and pupil shape.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Alexander L; Stubbs, Christopher W

    2016-07-19

    We present a mechanism by which organisms with only a single photoreceptor, which have a monochromatic view of the world, can achieve color discrimination. An off-axis pupil and the principle of chromatic aberration (where different wavelengths come to focus at different distances behind a lens) can combine to provide "color-blind" animals with a way to distinguish colors. As a specific example, we constructed a computer model of the visual system of cephalopods (octopus, squid, and cuttlefish) that have a single unfiltered photoreceptor type. We compute a quantitative image quality budget for this visual system and show how chromatic blurring dominates the visual acuity in these animals in shallow water. We quantitatively show, through numerical simulations, how chromatic aberration can be exploited to obtain spectral information, especially through nonaxial pupils that are characteristic of coleoid cephalopods. We have also assessed the inherent ambiguity between range and color that is a consequence of the chromatic variation of best focus with wavelength. This proposed mechanism is consistent with the extensive suite of visual/behavioral and physiological data that has been obtained from cephalopod studies and offers a possible solution to the apparent paradox of vivid chromatic behaviors in color blind animals. Moreover, this proposed mechanism has potential applicability in organisms with limited photoreceptor complements, such as spiders and dolphins.

  20. Spectral discrimination in color blind animals via chromatic aberration and pupil shape

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Alexander L.; Stubbs, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    We present a mechanism by which organisms with only a single photoreceptor, which have a monochromatic view of the world, can achieve color discrimination. An off-axis pupil and the principle of chromatic aberration (where different wavelengths come to focus at different distances behind a lens) can combine to provide “color-blind” animals with a way to distinguish colors. As a specific example, we constructed a computer model of the visual system of cephalopods (octopus, squid, and cuttlefish) that have a single unfiltered photoreceptor type. We compute a quantitative image quality budget for this visual system and show how chromatic blurring dominates the visual acuity in these animals in shallow water. We quantitatively show, through numerical simulations, how chromatic aberration can be exploited to obtain spectral information, especially through nonaxial pupils that are characteristic of coleoid cephalopods. We have also assessed the inherent ambiguity between range and color that is a consequence of the chromatic variation of best focus with wavelength. This proposed mechanism is consistent with the extensive suite of visual/behavioral and physiological data that has been obtained from cephalopod studies and offers a possible solution to the apparent paradox of vivid chromatic behaviors in color blind animals. Moreover, this proposed mechanism has potential applicability in organisms with limited photoreceptor complements, such as spiders and dolphins. PMID:27382180

  1. Variation in Extracellular Detoxification Is a Link to Different Carcinogenicity among Chromates in Rodent and Human Lungs.

    PubMed

    Krawic, Casey; Luczak, Michal W; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2017-09-18

    Inhalation of soluble chromium(VI) is firmly linked with higher risks of lung cancer in humans. However, comparative studies in rats have found a high lung tumorigenicity for moderately soluble chromates but no tumors for highly soluble chromates. These major species differences remain unexplained. We investigated the impact of extracellular reducers on responses of human and rat lung epithelial cells to different Cr(VI) forms. Extracellular reduction of Cr(VI) is a detoxification process, and rat and human lung lining fluids contain different concentrations of ascorbate and glutathione. We found that reduction of chromate anions in simulated lung fluids was principally driven by ascorbate with only minimal contribution from glutathione. The addition of 500 μM ascorbate (∼rat lung fluid concentration) to culture media strongly inhibited cellular uptake of chromate anions and completely prevented their cytotoxicity even at otherwise lethal doses. While proportionally less effective, 50 μM extracellular ascorbate (∼human lung fluid concentration) also decreased uptake of chromate anions and their cytotoxicity. In comparison to chromate anions, uptake and cytotoxicity of respirable particles of moderately soluble CaCrO 4 and SrCrO 4 were much less sensitive to suppression by extracellular ascorbate, especially during early exposure times and in primary bronchial cells. In the absence of extracellular ascorbate, chromate anions and CaCrO 4 /SrCrO 4 particles produced overall similar levels of DNA double-stranded breaks, with less soluble particles exhibiting a slower rate of breakage. Our results indicate that a gradual extracellular dissolution and a rapid internalization of calcium chromate and strontium chromate particles makes them resistant to detoxification outside the cells, which is extremely effective for chromate anions in the rat lung fluid. The detoxification potential of the human lung fluid is significant but much lower and insufficient to provide a

  2. Fish pigmentation and the melanocortin system.

    PubMed

    Cal, Laura; Suarez-Bregua, Paula; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Braasch, Ingo; Rotllant, Josep

    2017-09-01

    The melanocortin system is a complex neuroendocrine signaling mechanism involved in numerous physiological processes in vertebrates, including pigmentation, steroidogenesis and metabolic control. This review focuses at one of its most fascinating function in fish, its regulatory role in the control of pigmentation, in which the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), its agonist α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-Msh), and the endogenous antagonist agouti signaling protein (Asip1) are the main players. Functional control of Mc1r, which is highly expressed in fish skin and whose activation stimulates melanin production and melanosome dispersion in fish melanophores, is considered a key mechanism for vertebrate pigment phenotypes. The α-Msh peptide, the most documented Mc1r agonist involved in pigmentation, is produced in the pituitary gland, activating melanin synthesis by binding to Mc1r in fish melanophores. Finally, Asip1 is the putative factor for establishing the evolutionarily conserved dorso-ventral pigment pattern found across vertebrates. However, we are just starting to understand how other melanocortin system components are acting in this complex regulatory network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Recreating a functional ancestral archosaur visual pigment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Belinda S W; Jönsson, Karolina; Kazmi, Manija A; Donoghue, Michael J; Sakmar, Thomas P

    2002-09-01

    The ancestors of the archosaurs, a major branch of the diapsid reptiles, originated more than 240 MYA near the dawn of the Triassic Period. We used maximum likelihood phylogenetic ancestral reconstruction methods and explored different models of evolution for inferring the amino acid sequence of a putative ancestral archosaur visual pigment. Three different types of maximum likelihood models were used: nucleotide-based, amino acid-based, and codon-based models. Where possible, within each type of model, likelihood ratio tests were used to determine which model best fit the data. Ancestral reconstructions of the ancestral archosaur node using the best-fitting models of each type were found to be in agreement, except for three amino acid residues at which one reconstruction differed from the other two. To determine if these ancestral pigments would be functionally active, the corresponding genes were chemically synthesized and then expressed in a mammalian cell line in tissue culture. The expressed artificial genes were all found to bind to 11-cis-retinal to yield stable photoactive pigments with lambda(max) values of about 508 nm, which is slightly redshifted relative to that of extant vertebrate pigments. The ancestral archosaur pigments also activated the retinal G protein transducin, as measured in a fluorescence assay. Our results show that ancestral genes from ancient organisms can be reconstructed de novo and tested for function using a combination of phylogenetic and biochemical methods.

  4. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  5. Zinc supplementation in public health.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is necessary for physiological processes including defense against infections. Zinc deficiency is responsible for 4% of global child morbidity and mortality. Zinc supplements given for 10-14 days together with low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (Lo-ORS) are recommended for the treatment of childhood diarrhea. In children aged ≥ 6 months, daily zinc supplements reduce the duration of acute diarrhea episodes by 12 h and persistent diarrhea by 17 h. Zinc supplements could reduce diarrhea mortality in children aged 12-59 months by an estimated 23%; they are very safe but are associated with an increase in vomiting especially with the first dose. Heterogeneity between the results of trials is not understood but may be related to dose and the etiology of the diarrhea infection. Integration of zinc and Lo-ORS into national programs is underway but slowly, procurement problems are being overcome and the greatest challenge is changing health provider and caregiver attitudes to diarrhea management. Fewer trials have been conducted of zinc adjunct therapy in severe respiratory tract infections and there is as yet insufficient evidence to recommend addition of zinc to antibiotic therapy. Daily zinc supplements for all children >12 months of age in zinc deficient populations are estimated to reduce diarrhea incidence by 11-23%. The greatest impact is in reducing multiple episodes of diarrhea. The effect on duration of diarrheal episodes is less clear, but there may be up to 9% reduction. Zinc is also efficacious in reducing dysentery and persistent diarrhea. Zinc supplements may also prevent pneumonia by about 19%, but heterogeneity across studies has not yet been explained. When analyses are restricted to better quality studies using CHERG (Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group) methodology, zinc supplements are estimated to reduce diarrheal deaths by 13% and pneumonia deaths by 20%. National-level programs to combat childhood zinc deficiency should be

  6. Attenuated total reflection micro FTIR characterisation of pigment-binder interaction in reconstructed paint films.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, R; Prati, S; Quaranta, M; Joseph, E; Kendix, E; Galeotti, M

    2008-09-01

    The interaction of pigments and binding media may result in the production of metal soaps on the surface of paintings which modifies their visible appearance and state of conservation. To characterise more fully the metal soaps found on paintings, several historically accurate oil and egg yolk tempera paint reconstructions made with different pigments and naturally aged for 10 years were submitted to attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR FTIR) microspectroscopic analyses. Standard metal palmitates were synthesised and their ATR spectra recorded in order to help the identification of metal soaps. Among the different lead-based pigments, red lead and litharge seemed to produce a larger amount of carboxylates compared with lead white, Naples yellow and lead tin yellow paints. Oil and egg tempera litharge and red lead paints appeared to be degraded into lead carbonate, a phenomenon which has been observed for the first time. The formation of metal soaps was confirmed on both oil and egg tempera paints based on zinc, manganese and copper and in particular on azurite paints. ATR mapping analyses showed how the areas where copper carboxylates were present coincided with those in which azurite was converted into malachite. Furthermore, the key role played by manganese in the production of metals soaps on burnt and raw sienna and burnt and raw umber paints has been observed for the first time. The formation of copper, lead, manganese, cadmium and zinc metal soaps was also identified on egg tempera paint reconstructions even though, in this case, the overlapping of the spectral region of the amide II band with that of metal carboxylates made their identification difficult.

  7. Chromatic aberration of light focusing in hyperbolic anisotropic metamaterial made of metallic slit array.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai; Liu, Jianlong; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shutian

    2012-12-17

    The dispersion of a hyperbolic anisotropic metamaterial (HAM) and the chromatic aberration of light focusing in this kind of HAM are studied. The HAM is formed by alternately stacking metal and dielectric layers. The rules of materials and filling factors affecting the optical property of HAM are given. The chromatic aberration of light focusing is demonstrated both theoretically and numerically. By comparing the theory with the simulation results, the factors influencing the focal length, including the heat loss of material and low spatial frequency modes, are discussed. The investigation emphasizes the anomalous properties, such as chromatic aberration and low spatial frequency modes influencing focus position, of HAM compared with that in conventional lens. Based on the analysis, the possibility of using HAM to focus light with two different wavelengths at the same point is studied.

  8. Obstructions to the realization of distance graphs with large chromatic numbers on spheres of small radii

    SciT

    Kupavskii, A B; Raigorodskii, A M

    2013-10-31

    We investigate in detail some properties of distance graphs constructed on the integer lattice. Such graphs find wide applications in problems of combinatorial geometry, in particular, such graphs were employed to answer Borsuk's question in the negative and to obtain exponential estimates for the chromatic number of the space. This work is devoted to the study of the number of cliques and the chromatic number of such graphs under certain conditions. Constructions of sequences of distance graphs are given, in which the graphs have unit length edges and contain a large number of triangles that lie on a sphere of radius 1/√3more » (which is the minimum possible). At the same time, the chromatic numbers of the graphs depend exponentially on their dimension. The results of this work strengthen and generalize some of the results obtained in a series of papers devoted to related issues. Bibliography: 29 titles.« less

  9. Chromatic refraction with global ozone monitoring by occultation of stars. I. Description and scintillation correction.

    PubMed

    Dalaudier, F; Kan, V; Gurvich, A S

    2001-02-20

    We describe refractive and chromatic effects, both regular and random, that occur during star occultations by the Earth's atmosphere. The scintillation that results from random density fluctuations, as well as the consequences of regular chromatic refraction, is qualitatively described. The resultant chromatic scintillation will produce random features on the Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) spectrometer, with an amplitude comparable with that of some of the real absorbing features that result from atmospheric constituents. A correction method that is based on the use of fast photometer signals is described, and its efficiency is discussed. We give a qualitative (although accurate) description of the phenomena, including numerical values when needed. Geometrical optics and the phase-screen approximation are used to keep the description simple.

  10. Design of measurement system of 3D surface profile based on chromatic confocal technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, An-su; Xie, Bin; Liu, Zi-wei

    2018-01-01

    Chromatic confocal 3D profilometer has widely used in science investigation and industry fields recently for its high precision, great measuring range and numerical surface characteristic. It can provide exact and omnidirectional solution for manufacture and research by 3D non-contact surface analysis technique. The article analyzes the principle of surface measurement with chromatic confocal technology, and provides the designing indicators and requirements of the confocal system. As the key component, the dispersive objective used to achieve longitudinal focus vibration with wavelength was designed. The objective disperses the focus of wavelength between 400 700 nm to 15 mm longitudinal range. With selected spectrometer, the resolution of chromatic confocal 3D profilometer is no more than 5 μm, which can meet needs for the high precision non-contact surface profile measurement.

  11. Mitigating chromatic effects for the transverse focusing of intense charged particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrani, James; Kaganovich, Igor; Davidson, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    A final focusing scheme designed to minimize chromatic effects is discussed. Solenoids are often used for transverse focusing in accelerator systems that require a charged particle beam with a small focal spot and/or large energy density A sufficiently large spread in axial momentum will reduce the effectiveness of transverse focusing, and result in chromatic effects on the final focal spot. Placing a weaker solenoid upstream of a stronger final focusing solenoid (FFS) mitigates chromatic effects on transverse beam focusing. J.M. Mitrani et al., Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. A (2013) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2013.05.09 This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  12. Amino-functionalized MCM-41 and MCM-48 for the removal of chromate and arsenate.

    PubMed

    Benhamou, A; Basly, J P; Baudu, M; Derriche, Z; Hamacha, R

    2013-08-15

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the efficiency of three amino-functionalized (hexadecylamine, dodecylamine, and dimethyldodecylamine) mesoporous silicas (MCM-41 and MCM-48) toward the adsorption of arsenate and chromate. Hexadecylamine-functionalized materials were characterized; BET surface areas, pore volumes, and sizes decreased with the functionalization, whereas XRD patterns show that the hexagonal structure of MCM-41 and the cubic structure of MCM-48 were not modified. The zeta potential decreases with pH and the highest arsenate and chromate removal was observed at the lowest pHs. Adsorption of chromium and arsenate was significantly enhanced after functionalization and amino-functionalized MCM-41 adsorb larger amounts of arsenate when compared to expanded MCM-48 materials. Chromate sorption capacities increased with the chain length and the larger capacities were obtained with hexadecylamine-functionalized mesoporous silicas. Mesoporous silicas modified by dimethyldodecylamine exhibited the higher arsenate sorption capacities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Lateral chromatic aberrations correction for AOTF imaging spectrometer based on doublet prism].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui-Jie; Zhou, Peng-Wei; Zhang, Ying; Li, Chong-Chong

    2013-10-01

    An user defined surface function method was proposed to model the acousto-optic interaction of AOTF based on wave-vector match principle. Assessment experiment result shows that this model can achieve accurate ray trace of AOTF diffracted beam. In addition, AOTF imaging spectrometer presents large residual lateral color when traditional chromatic aberrations correcting method is adopted. In order to reduce lateral chromatic aberrations, a method based on doublet prism is proposed. The optical material and angle of the prism are optimized automatically using global optimization with the help of user defined AOTF surface. Simulation result shows that the proposed method provides AOTF imaging spectrometer with great conveniences, which reduces the lateral chromatic aberration to less than 0.000 3 degrees and improves by one order of magnitude, with spectral image shift effectively corrected.

  14. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  15. Detection of Pigment Networks in Dermoscopy Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltayef, Khalid; Li, Yongmin; Liu, Xiaohui

    2017-02-01

    One of the most important structures in dermoscopy images is the pigment network, which is also one of the most challenging and fundamental task for dermatologists in early detection of melanoma. This paper presents an automatic system to detect pigment network from dermoscopy images. The design of the proposed algorithm consists of four stages. First, a pre-processing algorithm is carried out in order to remove the noise and improve the quality of the image. Second, a bank of directional filters and morphological connected component analysis are applied to detect the pigment networks. Third, features are extracted from the detected image, which can be used in the subsequent stage. Fourth, the classification process is performed by applying feed-forward neural network, in order to classify the region as either normal or abnormal skin. The method was tested on a dataset of 200 dermoscopy images from Hospital Pedro Hispano (Matosinhos), and better results were produced compared to previous studies.

  16. Corneal collagen crosslinking and pigment dispersion syndrome.

    PubMed

    LaHood, Benjamin R; Moore, Sacha

    2017-03-01

    We describe the case of a keratoconus patient with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) who was treated for progressive corneal ectasia with corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL). Pigment dispersion syndrome has been shown to have associated morphologic changes of the corneal endothelium. Corneal CXL has the potential to cause toxicity to the corneal endothelium, and adjacent pigment might increase the likelihood of damage. In this case, the presence of PDS had no detrimental effect on the outcome of treatment, and no complications were observed at 12 months follow-up, indicating that it may be safe to perform corneal CXL in the setting of PDS. This is an important observation as the number of indications for corneal CXL grows. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Unraveling the chemical identity of meat pigments.

    PubMed

    Pegg, R B; Shahidi, F

    1997-10-01

    This review examines the chemistry of nitrite curing of meat and meat products as it relates to the development of cured meat color and provides a detailed account of how nitrite-free processed meats could be prepared using the preformed cooked cured-meat pigment (CCMP). Thus, a chemical description of meat color, both raw and cooked, and characterization of nitrosylheme pigments follows. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), visible and infrared spectroscopic studies, evidence has been provided to support the hypothesis that the chemical structure of the preformed CCMP is identical to that of the pigment prepared in situ after thermal processing of nitrite-cured meat and is in fact a mononitrosylheme complex. An appendix, which describes the basic principles of EPR spectroscopy used in the context of this review, is attached.

  18. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Synthetic Organic Pigments.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Naeko; Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Tanaka, Nobuko; Okubo, Ichiro; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2018-04-18

    Though synthetic organic colorants are used in various applications nowadays, there is the concern that impurities by-produced during the manufacturing and degradation products in some of these colorants are persistent organic pollutants and carcinogens. Thus, it is important to identify the synthetic organic colorants in various products, such as commercial paints, ink, cosmetics, food, textile, and plastics. Dyes, which are soluble in water and other solvents, could be analyzed by chromatographic methods. In contrast, it is difficult to analyze synthetic organic pigments by these methods because of their insolubility. This review is an overview of mass spectrometric analysis of synthetic organic pigments by various ionization methods. We highlight a recent study of textile samples by atmospheric pressure solid analysis probe MS. Furthermore, the mass spectral features of synthetic organic pigments and their separation from other components such as paint media and plasticizers are discussed.

  19. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  20. Retinal pigment epithelium changes in Kartagener syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Maria D; Ventura, Camila V; Dias, João R; Chang, Ta Chen P; Berrocal, Audina M

    2018-06-01

    We present the first case in the literature of a patient with Kartagener syndrome and ocular findings of nonexudative age-related macular degeneration. A 55-year-old woman with Kartagener syndrome and chronic angle closure glaucoma presented for evaluation of the retina. Optos ultra-widefield imaging of the fundus showed glaucomatous cupping, drusen, and retinal pigment epithelium changes within the macular region. Humphrey visual field testing confirmed glaucomatous changes. Drusenoid pigment epithelial detachments were observed bilaterally with optical coherence tomography. We hypothesize that in addition to the lungs, spermatozoa and the Fallopian tubes, the retinal pigment epithelium may also be affected by ciliary dysfunction in individuals with Kartagener syndrome. Given recent advances in our knowledge of retinal ciliopathies, further studies are needed to understand how ciliary dysfunction affects the retina in Kartagener syndrome.

  1. Chromatic signals control proboscis movements during hovering flight in the hummingbird hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum.

    PubMed

    Goyret, Joaquín; Kelber, Almut

    2012-01-01

    Most visual systems are more sensitive to luminance than to colour signals. Animals resolve finer spatial detail and temporal changes through achromatic signals than through chromatic ones. Probably, this explains that detection of small, distant, or moving objects is typically mediated through achromatic signals. Macroglossum stellatarum are fast flying nectarivorous hawkmoths that inspect flowers with their long proboscis while hovering. They can visually control this behaviour using floral markings known as nectar guides. Here, we investigate whether this is mediated by chromatic or achromatic cues. We evaluated proboscis placement, foraging efficiency, and inspection learning of naïve moths foraging on flower models with coloured markings that offered either chromatic, achromatic or both contrasts. Hummingbird hawkmoths could use either achromatic or chromatic signals to inspect models while hovering. We identified three, apparently independent, components controlling proboscis placement: After initial contact, 1) moths directed their probing towards the yellow colour irrespectively of luminance signals, suggesting a dominant role of chromatic signals; and 2) moths tended to probe mainly on the brighter areas of models that offered only achromatic signals. 3) During the establishment of the first contact, naïve moths showed a tendency to direct their proboscis towards the small floral marks independent of their colour or luminance. Moths learned to find nectar faster, but their foraging efficiency depended on the flower model they foraged on. Our results imply that M. stellatarum can perceive small patterns through colour vision. We discuss how the different informational contents of chromatic and luminance signals can be significant for the control of flower inspection, and visually guided behaviours in general.

  2. Chronic exposure to particulate chromate induces spindle assembly checkpoint bypass in human lung cells.

    PubMed

    Wise, Sandra S; Holmes, Amie L; Xie, Hong; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise, John Pierce

    2006-11-01

    One of the hallmarks of lung cancer is chromosome instability (CIN), particularly a tetraploid phenotype, which is normally prevented by the spindle assembly checkpoint. Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is an established human lung carcinogen, and Cr(VI) induces tumors at lung bifurcation sites where Cr(VI) particles impact and persist. However, the effects of Cr(VI) on the spindle assembly checkpoint are unknown and little is known about prolonged exposure to particulate Cr(VI). Accordingly, we investigated particulate Cr(VI)-induced bypass of the spindle assembly checkpoint after several days of exposure in WHTBF-6 cells. We found that lead chromate indeed induces spindle assembly checkpoint bypass in human lung cells, as 72, 96, and 120 h treatments with 0.5 or 1 microg/cm2 lead chromate induced significant increases in the percentage of cells with aberrant mitotic figures. For example, treatment with 1 microg/cm2 lead chromate for 96 h induced 11, 12.3, and 14% of cells with premature anaphase, centromere spreading and premature centromere division, respectively. In addition, we found a disruption of mitosis with more cells accumulating in anaphase; cells treated for 96 h increased from 18% in controls to 31% in cells treated with lead chromate. To confirm involvement of the spindle assembly checkpoint, Mad2 expression was used as a marker. Mad2 expression was decreased in cells exposed to chronic treatments of lead chromate, consistent with disruption of the checkpoint. We also found concentration- and time-dependent increases in tetraploid cells, which continued to grow and form colonies. When cells were treated with chronic lead alone there was no increase in aberrant mitotic cells or polyploidy; however, chronic exposure to a soluble Cr(VI) showed an increase in aberrant mitotic cells and polyploidy. These data suggest that lead chromate does induce CIN and may be one mechanism in the development of Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer.

  3. An alternate to chromate conversion coatings for the corrosion protection of aluminum 2024-T3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ruiguang

    Corrosion of high-strength aluminum alloys used for airspace application is an expensive and serious problem. The most significant environmental factor contributing to the corrosion of these alloys is water condensed from humid air and contaminated with soluble chloride salts. The Al 2024 series used for aircraft are particularly susceptible to corrosion in aqueous chloride solutions due to alloying constituents such as copper and other impurities. Chromates are efficient inhibitors of corrosion of aluminum in near neutral aqueous environments containing aggressive anions such as chlorides. Usually, aluminum alloys are initially protected by chromate conversion coatings. Additional polymer coatings are sometimes added during exposure to corrosive atmospheres such as marine environments. Although chromate coatings are widely used, they require the use of noxious solutions, so they have always presented effluent disposal problems. There are health and safety concerns over the use of chromates due to their toxicity and carcinogenic nature and, as a consequence, the environmental and health risks associated with the use of such coatings will be restricted in the future. It was these health and safety concerns that led to the development of alternative non-toxic coating processes with comparable adhesion properties and corrosion protection. A variety of process technologies are under development and are vying for acceptance in industrial markets. As an alternate conversion coating, a new titanate conversion coating was systematically researched and developed. Research concentrated on producing passive surfaces from a simple titanate solution using an immersion process. The corrosion resistance of the treated surface has been evaluated using simple, rapid electrochemical techniques as well as a more long-term salt spray test. Passivation by titanate conversion treatment exhibits many similarities to chromate conversion treatment. Based on this study of corrosion

  4. Cardinal and anti-cardinal points, equalities and chromatic dependence.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tanya; Harris, William F

    2017-05-01

    Cardinal points are used for ray tracing through Gaussian systems. Anti-principal and anti-nodal points (which we shall refer to as the anti-cardinal points), along with the six familiar cardinal points, belong to a much larger set of special points. The purpose of this paper is to obtain a set of relationships and resulting equalities among the cardinal and anti-cardinal points and to illustrate them using Pascal's ring. The methodology used relies on Gaussian optics and the transference T. We make use of two equations, obtained via the transference, which give the locations of the six cardinal and four anti-cardinal points with respect to the system. We obtain equalities among the cardinal and anti-cardinal points. We utilise Pascal's ring to illustrate which points depend on frequency and their displacement with change in frequency. Pascal described a memory schema in the shape of a hexagon for remembering equalities among the points and illustrating shifts in these points when an aspect of the system changes. We modify and extend Pascal's ring to include the anti-cardinal points. We make use of Pascal's ring extended to illustrate which points are dependent on the frequency of light and the direction of shift of the equalities with change in frequency. For the reduced eye the principal and nodal points are independent of frequency, but the focal points and the anti-cardinal points depend on frequency. For Le Grand's four-surface model eye all six cardinal and four anti-cardinal points depend on frequency. This has implications for definitions, particularly of chromatic aberrations of the eye, that make use of cardinal points and that themselves depend on frequency. Pascal's ring and Pascal's ring extended are novel memory schema for remembering the equalities among the cardinal and anti-cardinal points. The rings are useful for illustrating changes among the equalities and direction of shift of points when an aspect of a system changes. Care should be taken

  5. Acute changes in cellular zinc alters zinc uptake rates prior to zinc transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C

    2015-12-01

    A coordinated network of zinc transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular zinc levels. Canonical responses to zinc availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key zinc transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual zinc uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound zinc transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular zinc levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous zinc sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess zinc resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the zinc exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of zinc importers did not change during this time period. Zinc chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of zinc importers did not change. Overall, zinc transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular zinc uptake with exogenous zinc or TPEN treatments. This suggests zinc transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in zinc within Jurkat cells.

  6. Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ananda S

    2008-01-01

    Although the essentiality of zinc for plants and animals has been known for many decades, the essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized only 40 years ago in the Middle East. The zinc-deficient patients had severe immune dysfunctions, inasmuch as they died of intercurrent infections by the time they were 25 years of age. In our studies in an experimental human model of zinc deficiency, we documented decreased serum testosterone level, oligospermia, severe immune dysfunctions mainly affecting T helper cells, hyperammonemia, neurosensory disorders, and decreased lean body mass. It appears that zinc deficiency is prevalent in the developing world and as many as two billion subjects may be growth retarded due to zinc deficiency. Besides growth retardation and immune dysfunctions, cognitive impairment due to zinc deficiency also has been reported recently. Our studies in the cell culture models showed that the activation of many zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors were adversely affected due to zinc deficiency. In HUT-78 (T helper 0 [Th(0)] cell line), we showed that a decrease in gene expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor alpha(IL-2Ralpha) were due to decreased activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in zinc deficient cells. Decreased NF-kappaB activation in HUT-78 due to zinc deficiency was due to decreased binding of NF-kappaB to DNA, decreased level of NF-kappaB p105 (the precursor of NF-kappaB p50) mRNA, decreased kappaB inhibitory protein (IkappaB) phosphorylation, and decreased Ikappa kappa. These effects of zinc were cell specific. Zinc also is an antioxidant and has anti-inflammatory actions. The therapeutic roles of zinc in acute infantile diarrhea, acrodermatitis enteropathica, prevention of blindness in patients with age-related macular degeneration, and treatment of common cold with zinc have been reported. In HL-60 cells (promyelocytic leukemia cell line), zinc enhances the up-regulation of A20 mRNA, which, via TRAF

  7. UV-B affects the immune system and promotes nuclear abnormalities in pigmented and non-pigmented bullfrog tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Fanali, Lara Zácari; De Oliveira, Classius

    2018-03-01

    Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation is a stressor of the immune system and causes DNA damage. Leukocytes can change in response to environmental changes in anurans, making them an important biomarker of stressful situations. The initial barrier against UV in ectothermic animals is melanin-containing cells in skin and in their internal organs. Here, we tested the effects of UV exposure on immune cells and DNA integrity in pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles of Lithobates catesbeianus. We used an inflammation model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli to test synergic effects of UV and LPS. We tested the following hypotheses: 1) DNA damage caused by UV will be more pronounced in non-pigmented than in pigmented animals; 2) LPS increases leukocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented animals by systemic inflammation; 3) The combined LPS and UV exposure will decrease the number of leukocytes. We found that the frequency of immune cells differed between pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. UV exposure increased mast cells and DNA damage in erythrocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles, while leukocytes decreased after UV exposure. Non-pigmented tadpoles experienced DNA damage and a lower lymphocyte count earlier than pigmented tadpoles. UV altered immune cells likely as a consequence of local and systemic inflammation. These alterations were less severe in pigmented than in non-pigmented animals. UV and LPS increased internal melanin in pigmented tadpoles, which were correlated with DNA damage and leukocytes. Here, we described for the first time the effects of UV and LPS in immune cells of pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. In addition, we demonstrated that internal melanin in tadpoles help in these defenses, since leukocyte responses were faster in non-pigmented animals, supporting the hypothesis that melanin is involved in the initial innate immune response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. UHF Signal Processing and Pattern Recognition of Partial Discharge in Gas-Insulated Switchgear Using Chromatic Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohua; Li, Xi; Rong, Mingzhe; Xie, Dingli; Ding, Dan; Wang, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    The ultra-high frequency (UHF) method is widely used in insulation condition assessment. However, UHF signal processing algorithms are complicated and the size of the result is large, which hinders extracting features and recognizing partial discharge (PD) patterns. This article investigated the chromatic methodology that is novel in PD detection. The principle of chromatic methodologies in color science are introduced. The chromatic processing represents UHF signals sparsely. The UHF signals obtained from PD experiments were processed using chromatic methodology and characterized by three parameters in chromatic space (H, L, and S representing dominant wavelength, signal strength, and saturation, respectively). The features of the UHF signals were studied hierarchically. The results showed that the chromatic parameters were consistent with conventional frequency domain parameters. The global chromatic parameters can be used to distinguish UHF signals acquired by different sensors, and they reveal the propagation properties of the UHF signal in the L-shaped gas-insulated switchgear (GIS). Finally, typical PD defect patterns had been recognized by using novel chromatic parameters in an actual GIS tank and good performance of recognition was achieved. PMID:28106806

  9. UHF Signal Processing and Pattern Recognition of Partial Discharge in Gas-Insulated Switchgear Using Chromatic Methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohua; Li, Xi; Rong, Mingzhe; Xie, Dingli; Ding, Dan; Wang, Zhixiang

    2017-01-18

    The ultra-high frequency (UHF) method is widely used in insulation condition assessment. However, UHF signal processing algorithms are complicated and the size of the result is large, which hinders extracting features and recognizing partial discharge (PD) patterns. This article investigated the chromatic methodology that is novel in PD detection. The principle of chromatic methodologies in color science are introduced. The chromatic processing represents UHF signals sparsely. The UHF signals obtained from PD experiments were processed using chromatic methodology and characterized by three parameters in chromatic space ( H , L , and S representing dominant wavelength, signal strength, and saturation, respectively). The features of the UHF signals were studied hierarchically. The results showed that the chromatic parameters were consistent with conventional frequency domain parameters. The global chromatic parameters can be used to distinguish UHF signals acquired by different sensors, and they reveal the propagation properties of the UHF signal in the L-shaped gas-insulated switchgear (GIS). Finally, typical PD defect patterns had been recognized by using novel chromatic parameters in an actual GIS tank and good performance of recognition was achieved.

  10. Green pigments of the Pompeian artists' palette.

    PubMed

    Aliatis, Irene; Bersani, Danilo; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Mantovan, Silvia; Marino, Iari-Gabriel; Ospitali, Francesca

    2009-08-01

    Green colored samples on wall paintings and green powder from a pigment pot found in Pompeii area are investigated by micro-Raman, FT-IR and, for one sample, SEM-EDX. To obtain the green color, green earths and malachite were used, together with mixture of Egyptian blue and yellow ochre. The mineralogical identification of the green earths has been attempted through the comparison of the vibrational features, discriminating between celadonite and glauconite spectra. Traces of a modern synthetic pigment containing copper phthalocyanine were found in a fresco fragment.

  11. Green pigments of the Pompeian artists' palette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliatis, Irene; Bersani, Danilo; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Mantovan, Silvia; Marino, Iari-Gabriel; Ospitali, Francesca

    2009-08-01

    Green colored samples on wall paintings and green powder from a pigment pot found in Pompeii area are investigated by micro-Raman, FT-IR and, for one sample, SEM-EDX. To obtain the green color, green earths and malachite were used, together with mixture of Egyptian blue and yellow ochre. The mineralogical identification of the green earths has been attempted through the comparison of the vibrational features, discriminating between celadonite and glauconite spectra. Traces of a modern synthetic pigment containing copper phthalocyanine were found in a fresco fragment.

  12. Pigmentation, anesthesia, behavioral factors, and salicylate uptake.

    PubMed

    Jastreboff, P J; Issing, W; Brennan, J F; Sasaki, C T

    1988-02-01

    In four experiments, 54 pigmented rats were used to examine the time course of sodium salicylate uptake in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and perilymph. Subjects were tested under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia or while conscious. Compared with previously reported data from albino rats, pigmented subjects generally showed increased salicylate uptake. Moreover, the data suggested two different, time-dependent clearance mechanisms in conscious animals not observed in anesthetized rats. Daily injections of salicylate did not produce an accumulation of salicylate in serum. Systematically higher levels of salicylate were observed in perilymph compared with cerebrospinal fluid. Behavioral procedures, including water deprivation and conditioned suppression of ongoing drinking levels, had no effect on salicylate levels.

  13. RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE DYE AND PIGMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This risk assessment calculates the maximum loadings of constituents found in dyes and pigment industries waste streams which can be disposed in different types of waste management units without causing health benchmarks to be exceeded at plausible receptor locations. The assessment focuses on potential risks from volatilization and leaching to groundwater of constituents disposed in surface impoundments and landfills with either clay liners or composite liners. This product will be used by EPA decision makers to assist in determining whether certain waste streams generated by the dyes and pigments industries should be designated as hazardous.

  14. Longitudinal measurement of chromatic dispersion along an optical fiber transmission system with a new correction factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Madiha; Imran Baig, Mirza; Shafique Shaikh, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    At present existence OTDR based techniques have become a standard practice for measuring chromatic dispersion distribution along an optical fiber transmission link. A constructive measurement technique has been offered in this paper, in which a four wavelength bidirectional optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) has been used to compute the chromatic dispersion allocation beside an optical fiber transmission system. To improve the correction factor a novel formulation has been developed, which leads to an enhanced and defined measurement. The investigational outcomes obtained are in good harmony.

  15. Methods and optical fibers that decrease pulse degradation resulting from random chromatic dispersion

    DOEpatents

    Chertkov, Michael; Gabitov, Ildar

    2004-03-02

    The present invention provides methods and optical fibers for periodically pinning an actual (random) accumulated chromatic dispersion of an optical fiber to a predicted accumulated dispersion of the fiber through relatively simple modifications of fiber-optic manufacturing methods or retrofitting of existing fibers. If the pinning occurs with sufficient frequency (at a distance less than or are equal to a correlation scale), pulse degradation resulting from random chromatic dispersion is minimized. Alternatively, pinning may occur quasi-periodically, i.e., the pinning distance is distributed between approximately zero and approximately two to three times the correlation scale.

  16. Retinal image contrast obtained by a model eye with combined correction of chromatic and spherical aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuma, Kazuhiko; Kayanuma, Hiroyuki; Lawu, Tjundewo; Negishi, Kazuno; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Noda, Toru

    2011-01-01

    Correcting spherical and chromatic aberrations in vitro in human eyes provides substantial visual acuity and contrast sensitivity improvements. We found the same improvement in the retinal images using a model eye with/without correction of longitudinal chromatic aberrations (LCAs) and spherical aberrations (SAs). The model eye included an intraocular lens (IOL) and artificial cornea with human ocular LCAs and average human SAs. The optotypes were illuminated using a D65 light source, and the images were obtained using two-dimensional luminance colorimeter. The contrast improvement from the SA correction was higher than the LCA correction, indicating the benefit of an aspheric achromatic IOL. PMID:21698008

  17. Exploiting chromatic aberration to spectrally encode depth in reflectance confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Shelton, Ryan L.; Olsovsky, Cory; Saldua, Meagan; Applegate, Brian E.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2011-06-01

    We present chromatic confocal microscopy as a technique to axially scan the sample by spectrally encoding depth information to avoid mechanical scanning of the lens or sample. We have achieved an 800 μm focal shift over a range of 680-1080 nm using a hyperchromat lens as the imaging lens. A more complex system that incorporates a water immersion objective to improve axial resolution was built and tested. We determined that increasing objective magnification decreases chromatic shift while improving axial resolution. Furthermore, collimating after the hyperchromat at longer wavelengths yields an increase in focal shift.

  18. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  19. Zinc and Zinc Transporters: Novel Regulators of Ventricular Myocardial Development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen; Li, Deqiang

    2018-06-01

    Ventricular myocardial development is a well-orchestrated process involving different cardiac structures, multiple signal pathways, and myriad proteins. Dysregulation of this important developmental event can result in cardiomyopathies, such as left ventricle non-compaction, which affect the pediatric population and the adults. Human and mouse studies have shed light upon the etiology of some cardiomyopathy cases and highlighted the contribution of both genetic and environmental factors. However, the regulation of ventricular myocardial development remains incompletely understood. Zinc is an essential trace metal with structural, enzymatic, and signaling function. Perturbation of zinc homeostasis has resulted in developmental and physiological defects including cardiomyopathy. In this review, we summarize several mechanisms by which zinc and zinc transporters can impact the regulation of ventricular myocardial development. Based on our review, we propose that zinc deficiency and mutations of zinc transporters may underlie some cardiomyopathy cases especially those involving ventricular myocardial development defects.

  20. Measurement and correction of transverse chromatic offsets for multi-wavelength retinal microscopy in the living eye

    PubMed Central

    Harmening, Wolf M.; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Roorda, Austin; Sincich, Lawrence C.

    2012-01-01

    A special challenge arises when pursuing multi-wavelength imaging of retinal tissue in vivo, because the eye’s optics must be used as the main focusing elements, and they introduce significant chromatic dispersion. Here we present an image-based method to measure and correct for the eye’s transverse chromatic aberrations rapidly, non-invasively, and with high precision. We validate the technique against hyperacute psychophysical performance and the standard chromatic human eye model. In vivo correction of chromatic dispersion will enable confocal multi-wavelength images of the living retina to be aligned, and allow targeted chromatic stimulation of the photoreceptor mosaic to be performed accurately with sub-cellular resolution. PMID:23024901

  1. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Jura, M.

    1982-01-01

    IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

  2. Separation of Chloroplast Pigments Using Reverse Phase Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, R. Neil

    1997-01-01

    Presents a protocol that uses reverse phase chromatography for the separation of chloroplast pigments. Provides a simple and relatively safe procedure for use in teaching laboratories. Discusses pigment extraction, chromatography, results, and advantages of the process. (JRH)

  3. Zinc Signal in Brain Diseases.

    PubMed

    Portbury, Stuart D; Adlard, Paul A

    2017-11-23

    The divalent cation zinc is an integral requirement for optimal cellular processes, whereby it contributes to the function of over 300 enzymes, regulates intracellular signal transduction, and contributes to efficient synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Given the critical role of zinc in a breadth of cellular processes, its cellular distribution and local tissue level concentrations remain tightly regulated via a series of proteins, primarily including zinc transporter and zinc import proteins. A loss of function of these regulatory pathways, or dietary alterations that result in a change in zinc homeostasis in the brain, can all lead to a myriad of pathological conditions with both acute and chronic effects on function. This review aims to highlight the role of zinc signaling in the central nervous system, where it may precipitate or potentiate diverse issues such as age-related cognitive decline, depression, Alzheimer's disease or negative outcomes following brain injury.

  4. Hyperspectral remote sensing of plant pigments.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, George Alan

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of pigment concentrations are diagnostic of a range of plant physiological properties and processes. This paper appraises the developing technologies and analytical methods for quantifying pigments non-destructively and repeatedly across a range of spatial scales using hyperspectral remote sensing. Progress in deriving predictive relationships between various characteristics and transforms of hyperspectral reflectance data are evaluated and the roles of leaf and canopy radiative transfer models are reviewed. Requirements are identified for more extensive intercomparisons of different approaches and for further work on the strategies for interpreting canopy scale data. The paper examines the prospects for extending research to the wider range of pigments in addition to chlorophyll, testing emerging methods of hyperspectral analysis and exploring the fusion of hyperspectral and LIDAR remote sensing. In spite of these opportunities for further development and the refinement of techniques, current evidence of an expanding range of applications in the ecophysiological, environmental, agricultural, and forestry sciences highlights the growing value of hyperspectral remote sensing of plant pigments.

  5. Human pigmentation genes under environmental selection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies and comparative genomics have established major loci and specific polymorphisms affecting human skin, hair and eye color. Environmental changes have had an impact on selected pigmentation genes as populations have expanded into different regions of the globe. PMID:23110848

  6. Pigment dispersion syndrome: a clinical study.

    PubMed Central

    Scheie, H G; Cameron, J D

    1981-01-01

    This study involved a group of 407 patients (799 eyes) with pigment dispersion syndrome gathered from a glaucoma population of 9200 patients. The sex distribution was equal. The majority (65%) of patients were myopic. The incidence of retinal detachment was 6.4%. No patients were black, but 5 were mulatto. Approximately one-quarter of the patients wih pigment dispersion syndrome (31% of the men, 19% of the women) had glaucoma. The average age of onset of glaucoma was 15 years less than in control patients with chronic simple glaucoma. When both eyes were affected by glaucoma, the glaucoma was consistently more severe in the eye with the more heavily pigmented angle. The degree of iris transillumination was found to be of no importance in predicting the presence of glaucoma or the severity of trabecular pigmentation. The pressure in 66% of the eyes with pigmentary glaucoma was controlled medically. A higher percentage of patients with pigmentary glaucoma required surgery than patients in the control group with chronic simple glaucoma. Men with pigmentary glaucoma required surgery at a much earlier age than women with pigmentary glaucoma. PMID:7236571

  7. The peripheral clock regulates human pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Jonathan A; Tobin, Desmond J; Haslam, Iain S; Farjo, Nilofer; Farjo, Bessam; Al-Nuaimi, Yusur; Grimaldi, Benedetto; Paus, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Although the regulation of pigmentation is well characterized, it remains unclear whether cell-autonomous controls regulate the cyclic on-off switching of pigmentation in the hair follicle (HF). As human HFs and epidermal melanocytes express clock genes and proteins, and given that core clock genes (PER1, BMAL1) modulate human HF cycling, we investigated whether peripheral clock activity influences human HF pigmentation. We found that silencing BMAL1 or PER1 in human HFs increased HF melanin content. Furthermore, tyrosinase expression and activity, as well as TYRP1 and TYRP2 mRNA levels, gp100 protein expression, melanocyte dendricity, and the number gp100+ HF melanocytes, were all significantly increased in BMAL1 and/or PER1-silenced HFs. BMAL1 or PER1 silencing also increased epidermal melanin content, gp100 protein expression, and tyrosinase activity in human skin. These effects reflect direct modulation of melanocytes, as BMAL1 and/or PER1 silencing in isolated melanocytes increased tyrosinase activity and TYRP1/2 expression. Mechanistically, BMAL1 knockdown reduces PER1 transcription, and PER1 silencing induces phosphorylation of the master regulator of melanogenesis, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, thus stimulating human melanogenesis and melanocyte activity in situ and in vitro. Therefore, the molecular clock operates as a cell-autonomous modulator of human pigmentation and may be targeted for future therapeutic strategies.

  8. Physiological factors that regulate skin pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yuji; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2009-01-01

    More than 150 genes have been identified that affect skin color either directly or indirectly, and we review current understanding of physiological factors that regulate skin pigmentation. We focus on melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer, melanogenic regulators in melanocytes and factors derived from keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, hormones, inflammatory cells and nerves. Enzymatic components of melanosomes include tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 and dopachrome tautomerase, which depend on the functions of OA1, P, MATP, ATP7A and BLOC-1 to synthesize eumelanins and pheomelanins. The main structural component of melanosomes is Pmel17/gp100/Silv, whose sorting involves adaptor protein 1A (AP1A), AP1B, AP2 and spectrin, as well as a chaperone-like component, MART-1. During their maturation, melanosomes move from the perinuclear area toward the plasma membrane. Microtubules, dynein, kinesin, actin filaments, Rab27a, melanophilin, myosin Va and Slp2-a are involved in melanosome transport. Foxn1 and p53 up-regulate skin pigmentation via bFGF and POMC derivatives including α-MSH and ACTH, respectively. Other critical factors that affect skin pigmentation include MC1R, CREB, ASP, MITF, PAX3, SOX9/10, LEF-1/TCF, PAR-2, DKK1, SCF, HGF, GM-CSF, endothelin-1, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, neurotrophins and neuropeptides. UV radiation up-regulates most factors that increase melanogenesis. Further studies will elucidate the currently unknown functions of many other pigment genes/proteins. PMID:19449448

  9. Retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy in Briard dogs.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, R M; Cabral, L; Gooch, L; Bedford, P G; Boulton, M E

    1996-01-01

    The eyes of normal Briard dogs, Briards affected with inherited retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy (RPED) and a range of normal crossbred and beagle dogs were examined and the histopathology of RPED in the Briard was compared with the histopathological features of ageing in the normal canine retina. RPED was characterised by the accumulation of auto-fluorescent lipofuscin-like inclusions in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which initially involved only non-pigmented RPE cells overlying the tapetum but subsequently spread to all pigmented RPE cells. Secondary neuro-retinal degeneration was characterised by a gradual loss of the outer nuclear layer and the subsequent atrophy and degeneration of the inner retina. The loss of primary photoreceptors in the peripheral retina was accompanied by the migration of photoreceptor nuclei and appeared to resemble severe changes due to ageing. Intra-vitreal radiolabelled leucine was used to examine the rate of turnover of the outer segments of the rods in some Briards, but no significant variations were found. The activity of acid phosphatase in RPE was assayed in vitro and showed comparable regional variations in Briard and crossbred dogs. The results suggest that RPED in the Briard is unlikely to be due either to an increased rate of turnover of rod outer segments (and thus an increased phagocytic load) or to a primary insufficiency of lysosomal enzyme.

  10. "Dry-column" chromatography of plant pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. F.; Oyama, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Separation of plant pigments which can be accomplished on thin-layer silica plates with mixture of petroleum ether, halocarbon, acetone, and polar solvent can be readily translated into dry-column technique that yields reproducible chromatograms after elution in fashion of liquid chromatography with fluorimeter as detector. Best solvent system was found to be mixture of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

  11. Effect of pigment concentration on fastness and color values of thermal and UV curable pigment printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baysal, Gulcin; Kalav, Berdan; Karagüzel Kayaoğlu, Burçak

    2017-10-01

    In the current study, it is aimed to determine the effect of pigment concentration on fastness and colour values of thermal and ultraviolet (UV) curable pigment printing on synthetic leather. For this purpose, thermal curable solvent-based and UV curable water-based formulations were prepared with different pigment concentrations (3, 5 and 7%) separately and applied by screen printing technique using a screen printing machine. Samples printed with solvent-based formulations were thermally cured and samples printed with water-based formulations were cured using a UV curing machine equipped with gallium and mercury (Ga/Hg) lamps at room temperature. The crock fastness values of samples printed with solvent-based formulations showed that increase in pigment concentration was not effective on both dry and wet crock fastness values. On the other hand, in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations, dry crock fastness was improved and evaluated as very good for all pigment concentrations. However, increasing the pigment concentration affected the wet crock fastness values adversely and lower values were observed. As the energy level increased for each irradiation source, the fastness values were improved. In comparison with samples printed with solvent-based formulations, samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations yielded higher K/S values at all pigment concentrations. The results suggested that, higher K/S values can be obtained in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations at a lower pigment concentration compared to samples printed with solvent-based formulations.

  12. The concave iris in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lance; Ong, Ee Lin; Crowston, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    To visualize the changes of the iris contour in patients with pigment dispersion syndrome after blinking, accommodation, and pharmacologic miosis using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Observational case series. A total of 33 eyes of 20 patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Each eye was imaged along the horizontal 0- to 180-degree meridian using the Visante Anterior Segment Imaging System (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Scans were performed at baseline and after focusing on an internal fixation target for 5 minutes, forced blinking, accommodation, and pharmacologic miosis with pilocarpine 2%. Quantitative analysis of the changes in the iris configuration. After 5 minutes of continual fixation, the iris became planar with the mean ± standard deviation curvature decreasing from 214 ± 74 μm to 67 ± 76 μm (P < 0.05). The iris remained planar in all patients with pigment dispersion syndrome after forced blinking, but the iris concavity recovered to 227 ± 113 μm (P = 0.34) and 238 ± 119 μm (P = 0.19) with the -3.0 and -6.0 diopter lenses, respectively. Pilocarpine-induced miosis caused the iris to assume a planar configuration in all subjects. This study shows that the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome assumes a planar configuration when fixating and that the concavity of the iris surface is not restored by blinking. Accommodation restored the iris concavity, suggesting that the posterior curvature of the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome is induced and probably maintained, at least in part, by accommodation. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuronal Mechanism for Compensation of Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration-Derived Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Yuval; Spitzer, Hedva

    2018-01-01

    The human visual system faces many challenges, among them the need to overcome the imperfections of its optics, which degrade the retinal image. One of the most dominant limitations is longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA), which causes short wavelengths (blue light) to be focused in front of the retina with consequent blurring of the retinal chromatic image. The perceived visual appearance, however, does not display such chromatic distortions. The intriguing question, therefore, is how the perceived visual appearance of a sharp and clear chromatic image is achieved despite the imperfections of the ocular optics. To address this issue, we propose a neural mechanism and computational model, based on the unique properties of the S -cone pathway. The model suggests that the visual system overcomes LCA through two known properties of the S channel: (1) omitting the contribution of the S channel from the high-spatial resolution pathway (utilizing only the L and M channels). (b) Having large and coextensive receptive fields that correspond to the small bistratified cells. Here, we use computational simulations of our model on real images to show how integrating these two basic principles can provide a significant compensation for LCA. Further support for the proposed neuronal mechanism is given by the ability of the model to predict an enigmatic visual phenomenon of large color shifts as part of the assimilation effect.

  14. Self-referenced axial chromatic dispersion measurement in multiphoton microscopy through 2-color THG imaging.

    PubMed

    Du, Yu; Zhuang, Ziwei; He, Jiexing; Liu, Hongji; Qiu, Ping; Wang, Ke

    2018-05-16

    With tunable excitation light, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is widely used for imaging biological structures at subcellular resolution. Axial chromatic dispersion, present in virtually every transmissive optical system including the multiphoton microscope, leads to focal (and the resultant image) plane separation. Here we demonstrate experimentally a technique to measure the axial chromatic dispersion in a multiphoton microscope, using simultaneous 2-color third-harmonic generation (THG) imaging excited by a 2-color soliton source with tunable wavelength separation. Our technique is self-referenced, eliminating potential measurement error when 1-color tunable excitation light is used which necessitates reciprocating motion of the mechanical translation stage. Using this technique, we demonstrate measured axial chromatic dispersion with 2 different objective lenses in a multiphoton microscope. Further measurement in a biological sample also indicates that this axial chromatic dispersion, in combination with 2-color imaging, may open up opportunity for simultaneous imaging of two different axial planes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuronal Mechanism for Compensation of Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration-Derived Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Barkan, Yuval; Spitzer, Hedva

    2018-01-01

    The human visual system faces many challenges, among them the need to overcome the imperfections of its optics, which degrade the retinal image. One of the most dominant limitations is longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA), which causes short wavelengths (blue light) to be focused in front of the retina with consequent blurring of the retinal chromatic image. The perceived visual appearance, however, does not display such chromatic distortions. The intriguing question, therefore, is how the perceived visual appearance of a sharp and clear chromatic image is achieved despite the imperfections of the ocular optics. To address this issue, we propose a neural mechanism and computational model, based on the unique properties of the S-cone pathway. The model suggests that the visual system overcomes LCA through two known properties of the S channel: (1) omitting the contribution of the S channel from the high-spatial resolution pathway (utilizing only the L and M channels). (b) Having large and coextensive receptive fields that correspond to the small bistratified cells. Here, we use computational simulations of our model on real images to show how integrating these two basic principles can provide a significant compensation for LCA. Further support for the proposed neuronal mechanism is given by the ability of the model to predict an enigmatic visual phenomenon of large color shifts as part of the assimilation effect. PMID:29527525

  16. Chromatic response of polydiacetylene vesicle induced by the permeation of methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min Jae; Kim, Ye Jin; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2015-07-07

    The noble vesicular system of polydiacetylene showed a red shift using two types of detecting systems. One of the systems involves the absorption of target materials from the outer side of the vesicle, and the other system involves the permeation through the vesicular layers from within the vesicle. The chromatic mixed vesicles of N-(2-aminoethyl)pentacosa-10,12-diynamide (AEPCDA) and dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DODAC) were fabricated by sonication, followed by polymerization by UV irradiation. The stability of monomeric vesicles was observed to increase with the polymerization of the vesicles. Methotrexate was used as a target material. The polymerized mixed vesicles having a blue color were exposed to a concentration gradient of methotrexate, and a red shift was observed indicating the adsorption of methotrexate on the polydiacetylene bilayer. In order to check the chromatic change by the permeation of methotrexate, we separated the vesicle portion, which contained methotrexate inside the vesicle, and checked chromatic change during the permeation of methotrexate through the vesicle. The red shift apparently indicates the disturbance in the bilayer induced by the permeation of methotrexate. The maximum contrast of color appeared at the equal molar ratio of AEPCDA and DODAC, indicating that the formation of flexible and deformable vesicular layers is important for red shift. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the system can be applicable for the chromatic detection of the permeation of methotrexate through the polydiacetylene layer.

  17. Chromatic confocal microscopy for multi-depth imaging of epithelial tissue

    PubMed Central

    Olsovsky, Cory; Shelton, Ryan; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Applegate, Brian E.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel chromatic confocal microscope capable of volumetric reflectance imaging of microstructure in non-transparent tissue. Our design takes advantage of the chromatic aberration of aspheric lenses that are otherwise well corrected. Strong chromatic aberration, generated by multiple aspheres, longitudinally disperses supercontinuum light onto the sample. The backscattered light detected with a spectrometer is therefore wavelength encoded and each spectrum corresponds to a line image. This approach obviates the need for traditional axial mechanical scanning techniques that are difficult to implement for endoscopy and susceptible to motion artifact. A wavelength range of 590-775 nm yielded a >150 µm imaging depth with ~3 µm axial resolution. The system was further demonstrated by capturing volumetric images of buccal mucosa. We believe these represent the first microstructural images in non-transparent biological tissue using chromatic confocal microscopy that exhibit long imaging depth while maintaining acceptable resolution for resolving cell morphology. Miniaturization of this optical system could bring enhanced speed and accuracy to endomicroscopic in vivo volumetric imaging of epithelial tissue. PMID:23667789

  18. Chromatic and Achromatic Spatial Resolution of Local Field Potentials in Awake Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Michael; Li, Xiaobing; Lashgari, Reza; Kremkow, Jens; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Swadlow, Harvey A.; Zaidi, Qasim; Alonso, Jose-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Local field potentials (LFPs) have become an important measure of neuronal population activity in the brain and could provide robust signals to guide the implant of visual cortical prosthesis in the future. However, it remains unclear whether LFPs can detect weak cortical responses (e.g., cortical responses to equiluminant color) and whether they have enough visual spatial resolution to distinguish different chromatic and achromatic stimulus patterns. By recording from awake behaving macaques in primary visual cortex, here we demonstrate that LFPs respond robustly to pure chromatic stimuli and exhibit ∼2.5 times lower spatial resolution for chromatic than achromatic stimulus patterns, a value that resembles the ratio of achromatic/chromatic resolution measured with psychophysical experiments in humans. We also show that, although the spatial resolution of LFP decays with visual eccentricity as is also the case for single neurons, LFPs have higher spatial resolution and show weaker response suppression to low spatial frequencies than spiking multiunit activity. These results indicate that LFP recordings are an excellent approach to measure spatial resolution from local populations of neurons in visual cortex including those responsive to color. PMID:25416722

  19. Reversible Chromatic Response of Polydiacetylene Derivative Vesicles in D2O Solvent.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min Jae; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2016-01-26

    The thermal chromatic sensitivity of polydiacetylenes (PDAs) with 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) derivatives, which have a hydroxyl group (HEEPCDA) and an amine group (APPCDA), were investigated using D2O and H2O as solvents. The vesicle solution with polymerized HEEPCDA exhibited a reversible chromatic response during the heating and cooling cycle in D2O, but not in H2O. On the other hand, the vesicle solution with the polymerized APPCDA exhibited a reversible chromatic response in H2O during the heating and cooling cycle, but the color of the solution did not change much in D2O. The critical vesicle concentration of HEEPCDA was lower in D2O than in H2O, and the chromatic sensitivity of the polymerized vesicles to temperature was slower in D2O than in H2O. We think that it is due to D2O being a more highly structured solvent than H2O with the hydrogen bonding in D2O stronger than that in H2O.

  20. Photographic simulation of off-axis blurring due to chromatic aberration in spectacle lenses.

    PubMed

    Doroslovački, Pavle; Guyton, David L

    2015-02-01

    Spectacle lens materials of high refractive index (nd) tend to have high chromatic dispersion (low Abbé number [V]), which may contribute to visual blurring with oblique viewing. A patient who noted off-axis blurring with new high-refractive-index spectacle lenses prompted us to do a photographic simulation of the off-axis aberrations in 3 readily available spectacle lens materials, CR-39 (nd = 1.50), polyurethane (nd = 1.60), and polycarbonate (nd = 1.59). Both chromatic and monochromatic aberrations were found to cause off-axis image degradation. Chromatic aberration was more prominent in the higher-index materials (especially polycarbonate), whereas the lower-index CR-39 had more astigmatism of oblique incidence. It is important to consider off-axis aberrations when a patient complains of otherwise unexplained blurred vision with a new pair of spectacle lenses, especially given the increasing promotion of high-refractive-index materials with high chromatic dispersion. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Human Newborn Color Vision: Measurement with Chromatic Stimuli Varying in Excitation Purity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Russell J.; Courage, Mary L.

    1998-01-01

    Habituated 180 neonates to white lights of varying luminance and tested for recovery of habituation to green, yellow, or red lights varying in excitation purity. Found that newborns discriminated chromatic stimuli from white only when excitation purity exceeded levels much higher than those for adults. Results reinforce view that neonates' vision…

  2. Neurochemical responses to chromatic and achromatic stimuli in the human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Bednařík, Petr; Tkáč, Ivan; Giove, Federico; Eberly, Lynn E; Deelchand, Dinesh K; Barreto, Felipe R; Mangia, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we aimed at determining the metabolic responses of the human visual cortex during the presentation of chromatic and achromatic stimuli, known to preferentially activate two separate clusters of neuronal populations (called "blobs" and "interblobs") with distinct sensitivity to color or luminance features. Since blobs and interblobs have different cytochrome-oxidase (COX) content and micro-vascularization level (i.e., different capacities for glucose oxidation), different functional metabolic responses during chromatic vs. achromatic stimuli may be expected. The stimuli were optimized to evoke a similar load of neuronal activation as measured by the bold oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast. Metabolic responses were assessed using functional 1 H MRS at 7 T in 12 subjects. During both chromatic and achromatic stimuli, we observed the typical increases in glutamate and lactate concentration, and decreases in aspartate and glucose concentration, that are indicative of increased glucose oxidation. However, within the detection sensitivity limits, we did not observe any difference between metabolic responses elicited by chromatic and achromatic stimuli. We conclude that the higher energy demands of activated blobs and interblobs are supported by similar increases in oxidative metabolism despite the different capacities of these neuronal populations.

  3. Spatial and temporal aspects of chromatic adaptation and their functional significance for colour constancy.

    PubMed

    Werner, Annette

    2014-11-01

    Illumination in natural scenes changes at multiple temporal and spatial scales: slow changes in global illumination occur in the course of a day, and we encounter fast and localised illumination changes when visually exploring the non-uniform light field of three-dimensional scenes; in addition, very long-term chromatic variations may come from the environment, like for example seasonal changes. In this context, I consider the temporal and spatial properties of chromatic adaptation and discuss their functional significance for colour constancy in three-dimensional scenes. A process of fast spatial tuning in chromatic adaptation is proposed as a possible sensory mechanism for linking colour constancy to the spatial structure of a scene. The observed middlewavelength selectivity of this process is particularly suitable for adaptation to the mean chromaticity and the compensation of interreflections in natural scenes. Two types of sensory colour constancy are distinguished, based on the functional differences of their temporal and spatial scales: a slow type, operating at a global scale for the compensation of the ambient illumination; and a fast colour constancy, which is locally restricted and well suited to compensate region-specific variations in the light field of three dimensional scenes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chromatic and Achromatic Spatial Resolution of Local Field Potentials in Awake Cortex.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Michael; Li, Xiaobing; Lashgari, Reza; Kremkow, Jens; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Swadlow, Harvey A; Zaidi, Qasim; Alonso, Jose-Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Local field potentials (LFPs) have become an important measure of neuronal population activity in the brain and could provide robust signals to guide the implant of visual cortical prosthesis in the future. However, it remains unclear whether LFPs can detect weak cortical responses (e.g., cortical responses to equiluminant color) and whether they have enough visual spatial resolution to distinguish different chromatic and achromatic stimulus patterns. By recording from awake behaving macaques in primary visual cortex, here we demonstrate that LFPs respond robustly to pure chromatic stimuli and exhibit ∼2.5 times lower spatial resolution for chromatic than achromatic stimulus patterns, a value that resembles the ratio of achromatic/chromatic resolution measured with psychophysical experiments in humans. We also show that, although the spatial resolution of LFP decays with visual eccentricity as is also the case for single neurons, LFPs have higher spatial resolution and show weaker response suppression to low spatial frequencies than spiking multiunit activity. These results indicate that LFP recordings are an excellent approach to measure spatial resolution from local populations of neurons in visual cortex including those responsive to color. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. On the chromatic number of a space with forbidden equilateral triangle

    SciT

    Zvonarev, A E; Raigorodskii, A M; Kharlamova, A A

    2014-09-30

    We improve the Frankl-Rödl estimate for the product of the numbers of edges in uniform hypergraphs with forbidden cardinalities of the intersection of edges. By using this estimate, we obtain explicit bounds for the chromatic number of a space with forbidden monochromatic equilateral triangles. Bibliography: 31 titles.

  6. WASTE REDUCTION PRACTICES AT TWO CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE WOOD-TREATING PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood-treating plants were assessed for their waste reduction practices. The objectives of this study were to estimate the amount of hazardous wastes that a well-designed and well-main- tained CCA treatment facility would generate and to iden- t...

  7. SIMULTANEOUS DTERMINATION OF CHROMATE AND AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method was developed to determine simultaneously, the inorganic anion CrO2-4, and organic aromatic compounds including benzoate, 2-Cl-benzoate, phenol, m-cresol and o-/p-cresol by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Chromate and the aromatics were separated in a relativ...

  8. Informational primacy of visual dimensions: specialized roles for luminance and chromaticity in figure-ground perception.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, N; Melara, R D

    2001-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the distinct contributions of two visual dimensions to figure-ground segregation. In each experiment, pattern identification was assessed by asking observers to judge whether a near-threshold test pattern was the same or different in shape to a high-contrast comparison pattern. A test pattern could differ from its background along one dimension, either luminance (luminance tasks) or chromaticity (chromaticity tasks). In each task, performance in a baseline condition, in which the test pattern was intact, was compared with performance in each of several degradation conditions, in which either the contour or the surface of the figure was degraded, using either partial occlusion (Experiment 1) or ramping (Experiments 2 and 3) of figure-ground differences. In each experiment, performance in luminance tasks was worst when the contour was degraded, whereas performance in chromaticity tasks was worst when the surface was degraded. This interaction was found even when spatial frequencies were fixed across test patterns by low-pass filtering. The results are consistent with a late (postfiltering) dual-mechanism system that processes luminance information to extract boundary representations and chromaticity information to extract surface representations.

  9. The first prototype of chromatic pupillometer for objective perimetry in retinal degeneration patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotenstreich, Ygal; Chibel, Ron; Haj Yahia, Soad; Achiron, Asaf; Mahajna, Mohamad; Belkin, Michael; Sher, Ifat

    2015-03-01

    We recently demonstrated the feasibility of quantifying pupil responses (PR) to multifocal chromatic light stimuli for objectively assessing visual field (VF). Here we assessed a second-generation chromatic multifocal pupillometer device with 76 LEDs of 18 degree visual field and a smaller spot size (2mm diameter), aimed of achieving better perimetric resolution. A computerized infrared pupillometer was used to record PR to short- and long-wavelength stimuli (peak 485 nm and 640 nm, respectively) presented by 76 LEDs, 1.8mm spot size, at light intensities of 10-1000 cd/m2 at different points of the 18 degree VF. PR amplitude was measured in 11 retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients and 20 normal agedmatched controls. RP patients demonstrated statistically significant reduced pupil contraction amplitude in majority of perimetric locations under testing conditions that emphasized rod contribution (short-wavelength stimuli at 200 cd/m2) in peripheral locations (p<0.05). By contrast, the amplitude of pupillary responses under testing conditions that emphasized cone cell contribution (long-wavelength stimuli at 1000 cd/m2) were not significantly different between the groups in majority of perimetric locations, particularly in central locations. Minimal pupil contraction was recorded in areas that were non-detected by chromatic Goldmann. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using pupillometerbased chromatic perimetry for objectively assessing VF defects and retinal function in patients with retinal degeneration. This method may be used to distinguish between the damaged cells underlying the VF defect.

  10. Chromatic-aberration diagnostic based on a spectrally resolved lateral-shearing interferometer

    DOE PAGES

    Bahk, Seung -Whan; Dorrer, Christopher; Roides, Rick G.; ...

    2016-03-18

    Here, a simple diagnostic characterizing one-dimensional chromatic aberrations in a broadband beam is introduced. A Ronchi grating placed in front of a spectrometer entrance slit provides spectrally coupled spatial phase information. The radial-group delay of a refractive system and the pulse-front delay of a wedged glass plate have been characterized accurately in a demonstration experiment.

  11. Experimental verification of the minimum number of diffractive zones for effective chromatic correction in the LWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, J. L.; Walsh, K. F.; Smith, M.; Deegan, J.

    2016-05-01

    With the move to smaller pixel sizes in the longwave IR region there has been a push for shorter focal length lenses that are smaller, cheaper and lighter and that resolve lower spatial frequencies. As a result lenses must have better correction for both chromatic and monochromatic aberrations. This leads to the increased use of aspheres and diffractive optical elements (kinoforms). With recent developments in the molding of chalcogenide materials these aspheres and kinoforms are more cost effective to manufacture. Without kinoforms the axial color can be on the order of 15 μm which degrades the performance of the lens at the Nyquist frequency. The kinoforms are now on smaller elements and are correcting chromatic aberration which is on the order of the design wavelength. This leads to kinoform structures that do not require large phase changes and therefore have 1.5 to just over 2 zones. The question becomes how many zones are required to correct small amounts of chromatic aberration in the system and are they functioning as predicted by the lens design software? We investigate both the design performance and the as-built performance of two designs that incorporate kinoforms for the correction of axial chromatic aberration.

  12. New Approach to Remove Metals from Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-Treated Wood

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Hui Pan

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood particles was investigated using binary acid solutions consisting of acetic, oxalic, and phosphoric acids in a microwave reactor. Formation of an insoluble copper oxalate complex in the binary solution containing oxalic acid was the major factor for low copper removal. Furthermore, the...

  13. Photon Sieve Bandwidth Broadening by Reduction of Chromatic Aberration Effects Using Second-Stage Diffractive Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    A photon sieve is a lightweight diffractive optic which can be useful for space - based imaging applications. It is limited by chromatic...would also like to thank my sponsor, Dr. Matthew G. McHarg from the Space Physics and Atmospheric Research Center, United States Air Force Academy, as...Page 21. Radial Hole Spacing

  14. Microwave-assisted organic acids extraction of chromate copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine

    Bin Yu; Chung Y. Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2010-01-01

    The extraction effects of acid concentration, reaction time and temperature in a microwave reactor on recovery of CCA-treated wood were evaluated. Extraction of copper, chromium, and arsenic metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood samples with two different organic acids (i.e., acetic acid and oxalic acid) was investigated using a...

  15. Zinc supplementation for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Person, Osmar C; Puga, Maria Es; da Silva, Edina Mk; Torloni, Maria R

    2016-11-23

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound without external acoustic stimuli. Patients with severe tinnitus may have physical and psychological complaints and their tinnitus can cause deterioration in their quality of life. At present no specific therapy for tinnitus has been found to be satisfactory in all patients. In recent decades, a number of reports have suggested that oral zinc supplementation may be effective in the management of tinnitus. Since zinc has a role in cochlear physiology and in the synapses of the auditory system, there is a plausible mechanism of action for this treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral zinc supplementation in the management of patients with tinnitus. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 6); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 14 July 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing zinc supplementation versus placebo in adults (18 years and over) with tinnitus. We used the standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Our primary outcome measures were improvement in tinnitus severity and disability, measured by a validated tinnitus-specific questionnaire, and adverse effects. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, change in socioeconomic impact associated with work, change in anxiety and depression disorders, change in psychoacoustic parameters, change in tinnitus loudness, change in overall severity of tinnitus and change in thresholds on pure tone audiometry. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included three trials involving a total of 209 participants. The studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. All included studies had differences in participant selection criteria, length of follow-up and outcome measurement

  16. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mezaine, Hani S

    2010-01-01

    We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger's from the posterior chamber. PMID:20534930

  17. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Al-Mezaine, Hani S

    2010-01-01

    We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger's from the posterior chamber.

  18. [Chromaticity and optical spectrum colorimetry of the tongue color in different syndromes of primary hepatic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Zeng, Chang-chun; Cai, Xiu-yu; Guo, Rong-ping; Nie, Guang; Jin, Ying

    2012-11-01

    In this study, the optical data of tongue color of different syndromes in primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC) were detected by optical spectrum colorimetry, and the chromaticity of tongue color was compared and analyzed. The tongue color characteristics of different syndromes in PHC and the relationship between different syndromes and tongue color were also investigated. Tongue color data from 133 eligible PHC patients were collected by optical spectrum colorimetry and the patients were divided into 4 syndrome groups according to their clinical features. The syndrome groups were liver depression and spleen deficiency (LDSD), accumulation of damp-heat (ADH), deficiency of liver and kidney yin (DLKY), and qi stagnation and blood stasis (QSBS). The variation characteristics of chromaticity coordinates, dominant wavelength, excitation purity and the distribution in the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) LAB uniform color space were measured. At the same time, the differences of overall chromatism, clarity, chroma, saturation and hue were also calculated and analyzed. PHC patients in different syndrome groups exhibited differences in chromaticity coordinates. The dominant wavelength of QSBS was distinctly different from that of the other 3 syndromes. Excitation purity in the syndromes of LDSD, ADH and DLKY showed gradual increases (P<0.01). Different syndromes in the CIE LAB color three-dimensional space showed differences in tongue color distribution areas. The CIE hue-angle value of QSBS was negative, and different from that of the other 3 syndromes (P<0.01). CIE chroma in the syndromes of LDSD, ADH and DLKY showed gradual increases (P<0.01), the same as excitation purity. In the comparison of chromatism, tongue color variations in different syndromes were quantified by human observation. This study shows that tongue color diagnosis according to the syndrome classifications of traditional Chinese medicine can be quantified with optical spectrum colorimetry

  19. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  20. Chromatic detection from cone photoreceptors to V1 neurons to behavior in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Charles A.; Angueyra, Juan M.; Lindbloom-Brown, Zachary; Rieke, Fred; Horwitz, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatic sensitivity cannot exceed limits set by noise in the cone photoreceptors. To determine how close neurophysiological and psychophysical chromatic sensitivity come to these limits, we developed a parameter-free model of stimulus encoding in the cone outer segments, and we compared the sensitivity of the model to the psychophysical sensitivity of monkeys performing a detection task and to the sensitivity of individual V1 neurons. Modeled cones had a temporal impulse response and a noise power spectrum that were derived from in vitro recordings of macaque cones, and V1 recordings were made during performance of the detection task. The sensitivity of the simulated cone mosaic, the V1 neurons, and the monkeys were tightly yoked for low-spatiotemporal-frequency isoluminant modulations, indicating high-fidelity signal transmission for this class of stimuli. Under the conditions of our experiments and the assumptions for our model, the signal-to-noise ratio for these stimuli dropped by a factor of ∼3 between the cones and perception. Populations of weakly correlated V1 neurons narrowly exceeded the monkeys' chromatic sensitivity but fell well short of the cones' chromatic sensitivity, suggesting that most of the behavior-limiting noise lies between the cone outer segments and the output of V1. The sensitivity gap between the cones and behavior for achromatic stimuli was larger than for chromatic stimuli, indicating greater postreceptoral noise. The cone mosaic model provides a means to compare visual sensitivity across disparate stimuli and to identify sources of noise that limit visual sensitivity. PMID:26523737

  1. Chromatic detection from cone photoreceptors to V1 neurons to behavior in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hass, Charles A; Angueyra, Juan M; Lindbloom-Brown, Zachary; Rieke, Fred; Horwitz, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    Chromatic sensitivity cannot exceed limits set by noise in the cone photoreceptors. To determine how close neurophysiological and psychophysical chromatic sensitivity come to these limits, we developed a parameter-free model of stimulus encoding in the cone outer segments, and we compared the sensitivity of the model to the psychophysical sensitivity of monkeys performing a detection task and to the sensitivity of individual V1 neurons. Modeled cones had a temporal impulse response and a noise power spectrum that were derived from in vitro recordings of macaque cones, and V1 recordings were made during performance of the detection task. The sensitivity of the simulated cone mosaic, the V1 neurons, and the monkeys were tightly yoked for low-spatiotemporal-frequency isoluminant modulations, indicating high-fidelity signal transmission for this class of stimuli. Under the conditions of our experiments and the assumptions for our model, the signal-to-noise ratio for these stimuli dropped by a factor of ∼3 between the cones and perception. Populations of weakly correlated V1 neurons narrowly exceeded the monkeys' chromatic sensitivity but fell well short of the cones' chromatic sensitivity, suggesting that most of the behavior-limiting noise lies between the cone outer segments and the output of V1. The sensitivity gap between the cones and behavior for achromatic stimuli was larger than for chromatic stimuli, indicating greater postreceptoral noise. The cone mosaic model provides a means to compare visual sensitivity across disparate stimuli and to identify sources of noise that limit visual sensitivity.

  2. Callitriche cophocarpa (water starwort) proteome under chromate stress: evidence for induction of a quinone reductase.

    PubMed

    Kaszycki, Paweł; Dubicka-Lisowska, Aleksandra; Augustynowicz, Joanna; Piwowarczyk, Barbara; Wesołowski, Wojciech

    2018-03-01

    Chromate-induced physiological stress in a water-submerged macrophyte Callitriche cophocarpa Sendtn. (water starwort) was tested at the proteomic level. The oxidative stress status of the plant treated with 1 mM Cr(VI) for 3 days revealed stimulation of peroxidases whereas catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were similar to the control levels. Employing two-dimensional electrophoresis, comparative proteomics enabled to detect five differentiating proteins subjected to identification with mass spectrometry followed by an NCBI database search. Cr(VI) incubation led to induction of light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein with a concomitant decrease of accumulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO). The main finding was, however, the identification of an NAD(P)H-dependent dehydrogenase FQR1, detectable only in Cr(VI)-treated plants. The FQR1 flavoenzyme is known to be responsive to oxidative stress and to act as a detoxification protein by protecting the cells against oxidative damage. It exhibits the in vitro quinone reductase activity and is capable of catalyzing two-electron transfer from NAD(P)H to several substrates, presumably including Cr(VI). The enhanced accumulation of FQR1 was chromate-specific since other stressful conditions, such as salt, temperature, and oxidative stresses, all failed to induce the protein. Zymographic analysis of chromate-treated Callitriche shoots showed a novel enzymatic protein band whose activity was attributed to the newly identified enzyme. We suggest that Cr(VI) phytoremediation with C. cophocarpa can be promoted by chromate reductase activity produced by the induced quinone oxidoreductase which might take part in Cr(VI) → Cr(III) bioreduction process and thus enable the plant to cope with the chromate-generated oxidative stress.

  3. Effects of intraocular lenses with different diopters on chromatic aberrations in human eye models.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Yuan, Xiaoyong; Tang, Xin

    2016-01-11

    In this study, the effects of intraocular lenses (IOLs) with different diopters (D) on chromatic aberration were investigated in human eye models, and the influences of the central thickness of IOLs on chromatic aberration were compared. A Liou-Brennan-based IOL eye model was constructed using ZEMAX optical design software. Spherical IOLs with different diopters (AR40e, AMO Company, USA) were implanted; modulation transfer function (MTF) values at 3 mm of pupil diameter and from 0 to out-of-focus blur were collected and graphed. MTF values, measured at 555 nm of monochromatic light under each spatial frequency, were significantly higher than the values measured at 470 to 650 nm of polychromatic light. The influences of chromatic aberration on MTF values decreased with the increase in IOL diopter when the spatial frequency was ≤12 c/d, while increased effects were observed when the spatial frequency was ≥15 c/d. The MTF values of each IOL eye model were significantly lower than the MTF values of the Liou-Brennan eye models when measured at 555 nm of monochromatic light and at 470 to 650 nm of polychromatic light. The MTF values were also found to be increased with the increase in IOL diopter. With higher diopters of IOLs, the central thickness increased accordingly, which could have created increased chromatic aberration and decreased the retinal image quality. To improve the postoperative visual quality, IOLs with lower chromatic aberration should be selected for patients with short axial lengths.

  4. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    PubMed

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  5. Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under zinc starvation. Zinc depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for zinc-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by zinc starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed zinc starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant zinc proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to zinc-binding proteins. When cellular zinc is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing zinc from the degraded proteins and recycling zinc for other essential purposes. PMID:28264932

  6. Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-05-19

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under zinc starvation. Zinc depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for zinc-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by zinc starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed zinc starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant zinc proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to zinc-binding proteins. When cellular zinc is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing zinc from the degraded proteins and recycling zinc for other essential purposes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Visual sensitivity for luminance and chromatic stimuli during the execution of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements.

    PubMed

    Braun, Doris I; Schütz, Alexander C; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2017-07-01

    Visual sensitivity is dynamically modulated by eye movements. During saccadic eye movements, sensitivity is reduced selectively for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli and largely unaffected for high-spatial frequency luminance and chromatic stimuli (Nature 371 (1994), 511-513). During smooth pursuit eye movements, sensitivity for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli is moderately reduced while sensitivity for chromatic and high-spatial frequency luminance stimuli is even increased (Nature Neuroscience, 11 (2008), 1211-1216). Since these effects are at least partly of different polarity, we investigated the combined effects of saccades and smooth pursuit on visual sensitivity. For the time course of chromatic sensitivity, we found that detection rates increased slightly around pursuit onset. During saccades to static and moving targets, detection rates dropped briefly before the saccade and reached a minimum at saccade onset. This reduction of chromatic sensitivity was present whenever a saccade was executed and it was not modified by subsequent pursuit. We also measured contrast sensitivity for flashed high- and low-spatial frequency luminance and chromatic stimuli during saccades and pursuit. During saccades, the reduction of contrast sensitivity was strongest for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli (about 90%). However, a significant reduction was also present for chromatic stimuli (about 58%). Chromatic sensitivity was increased during smooth pursuit (about 12%). These results suggest that the modulation of visual sensitivity during saccades and smooth pursuit is more complex than previously assumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Accurate and fiducial-marker-free correction for three-dimensional chromatic shift in biological fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Schermelleh, Lothar; Hirano, Yasuhiro; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2018-05-15

    Correction of chromatic shift is necessary for precise registration of multicolor fluorescence images of biological specimens. New emerging technologies in fluorescence microscopy with increasing spatial resolution and penetration depth have prompted the need for more accurate methods to correct chromatic aberration. However, the amount of chromatic shift of the region of interest in biological samples often deviates from the theoretical prediction because of unknown dispersion in the biological samples. To measure and correct chromatic shift in biological samples, we developed a quadrisection phase correlation approach to computationally calculate translation, rotation, and magnification from reference images. Furthermore, to account for local chromatic shifts, images are split into smaller elements, for which the phase correlation between channels is measured individually and corrected accordingly. We implemented this method in an easy-to-use open-source software package, called Chromagnon, that is able to correct shifts with a 3D accuracy of approximately 15 nm. Applying this software, we quantified the level of uncertainty in chromatic shift correction, depending on the imaging modality used, and for different existing calibration methods, along with the proposed one. Finally, we provide guidelines to choose the optimal chromatic shift registration method for any given situation.

  9. Study of the degradation and recovery of the optical properties of H+-implanted ZnO pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chundong; Lv, Jinpeng; Yao, Shulong; Hu, Jiangang; Liang, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    We studied the influences of proton implantation and oxygen post-annealing on the optical properties of ZnO pigments using a combination of Raman scattering, positron annihilation and photoluminescence techniques. Raman scattering results indicated that oxygen vacancies and interstitial zinc defects were produced after proton implantation. Positron annihilation spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements demonstrated that the zinc vacancies do not contribute to the optical absorption, but give rise to the visible band emission. Interestingly, the proton implantation induced optical degradation can be annealed out at 800 °C in an O2 atmosphere. We conclude that the defect centers responsible for the optical absorption are primarily composed of VO+, ionized Zni and ionized Oi.

  10. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli. PMID:28629136

  11. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-06-17

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  12. Color me bad: microbial pigments as virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, George Y.; Nizet, Victor

    2009-01-01

    A hallmark feature of several pathogenic microbes is the distinctive color of their colonies when propagated in the clinical laboratory. Such pigmentation comes in a variety of hues, and has often proven useful in presumptive clinical diagnosis. Recent advances in microbial pigment biochemistry and the genetic basis of pigment production has sometimes revealed a more sinister aspect to these curious materials that change the color of reflected light by selective light absorbance. In many cases, the microbial pigment contributes to disease pathogenesis by interfering with host immune clearance mechanisms or by exhibiting pro-inflammatory or cytotoxic properties. Here, we review several examples of pigments that promote microbial virulence, including the golden staphyloxanthin of Staphylococcus aureus, the blue-green pyocyanin of Pseudomonas spp., and the dark brown or black melanin pigments of Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus spp. Targeted pigment neutralization may represent a viable concept to enhance treatment of certain difficult infectious disease conditions. PMID:19726196

  13. Generic Algorithms for Estimating Foliar Pigment Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, Anatoly; Solovchenko, Alexei

    2017-09-01

    Foliar pigment contents and composition are main factors governing absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, photosynthetic activity, and physiological status of vegetation. In this study the performance of nondestructive techniques based on leaf reflectance were tested for estimating chlorophyll (Chl) and anthocyanin (AnC) contents in species with widely variable leaf structure, pigment content, and composition. Only three spectral bands (green, red edge, and near-infrared) are required for nondestructive Chl and AnC estimation with normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) below 4.5% and 6.1%, respectively. The algorithms developed are generic, not requiring reparameterization for each species allowing for accurate nondestructive Chl and AnC estimation using simple handheld field/lab instrumentation. They also have potential in interpretation of airborne and satellite data.

  14. Animal pigment bilirubin discovered in plants.

    PubMed

    Pirone, Cary; Quirke, J Martin E; Priestap, Horacio A; Lee, David W

    2009-03-04

    The bile pigment bilirubin-IXalpha is the degradative product of heme, distributed among mammals and some other vertebrates. It can be recognized as the pigment responsible for the yellow color of jaundice and healing bruises. In this paper we present the first example of the isolation of bilirubin in plants. The compound was isolated from the brilliant orange-colored arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the white bird of paradise tree, and characterized by HPLC-ESMS, UV-visible, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as comparison with an authentic standard. This discovery indicates that plant cyclic tetrapyrroles may undergo degradation by a previously unknown pathway. Preliminary analyses of related plants, including S. reginae, the bird of paradise, also revealed bilirubin in the arils and flowers, indicating that the occurrence of bilirubin is not limited to a single species or tissue type.

  15. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Sylvain; Rougemont, Anne-Laure; Peter, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare disease that can affect any joint, bursa or tendon sheath.The hip is less frequently affected than the knee, and hence is less discussed in scientific journals.PVNS of the hip mainly occurs in young adults, requiring early diagnosis and adequate treatment to obtain good results.There is no consensus on the management of PVNS of the hip in current literature.We will discuss the options for surgical intervention in hip PVNS using a literature review of clinical, biological, etiological, histological and radiographic aspects of the disease. Cite this article: Steinmetz S, Rougemont A-L, Peter R. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:260-266. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000021.

  16. Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Inga; Maywald, Martina; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14), zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10), and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function. PMID:29186856

  17. The Byzantine Church of ``40 Holy Martyrs'' in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria: Pigments and Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellariou, E.; Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Angelova, S.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    The "St. 40 Martyrs" church is the most famous medieval building in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria. It is located in Assenova mahala, just next to Tsarevets. It was built and its walls were painted during the reign of Bulgarian king Ivan Assen II after the victory against Epyrus despot Theodoros Comninos (1230 AD). It consists of two buildings - a six-column basilica and another, smaller building on its western wall, which was built later. During the presence of the Ottoman Turks, maybe until the first half of the 18th century, the church remained christian. When it was converted to a mosque, all the christian symbols in it were destroyed. The archeological researches on site were initiated in 1969. As it is clear, the 40 Martyrs church is a historical monument of culture with great significance. The church had murals, from the earlier period, but in the following years and especially during the Ottoman period, the church has suffered many and different destructions. Nevertheless, the very few pieces of murals that are rescued till nowadays provide important information for the technique and the pigments that were used on its wall paintings. In the present work, twelve series of samples from the wall paintings were studied in order to characterize the materials and the technique used for church iconography. The study was based on the micro-analytical techniques of the Fourier Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy (μs-FTIR), the Optical Microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS). In the FTIR spectra of all pigments the characteristic peaks of calcite were detected, confirming the use of fresco technique for the creation of murals. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis, reveal the existence of lapis-lazuli for the blue color, green earth for the green color, cinnabar for the red color, calcite for the white color and carbon black for the black color. Moreover, in other chromatic layers

  18. Relationship between leaf optical properties, chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment changes in senescing Acer saccharum leaves.

    PubMed

    Junker, Laura Verena; Ensminger, Ingo

    2016-06-01

    The ability of plants to sequester carbon is highly variable over the course of the year and reflects seasonal variation in photosynthetic efficiency. This seasonal variation is most prominent during autumn, when leaves of deciduous tree species such as sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) undergo senescence, which is associated with downregulation of photosynthesis and a change of leaf color. The remote sensing of leaf color by spectral reflectance measurements and digital repeat images is increasingly used to improve models of growing season length and seasonal variation in carbon sequestration. Vegetation indices derived from spectral reflectance measurements and digital repeat images might not adequately reflect photosynthetic efficiency of red-senescing tree species during autumn due to the changes in foliar pigment content associated with autumn phenology. In this study, we aimed to assess how effectively several widely used vegetation indices capture autumn phenology and reflect the changes in physiology and photosynthetic pigments during autumn. Chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment content of green, yellow, orange and red leaves were measured to represent leaf senescence during autumn and used as a reference to validate and compare vegetation indices derived from leaf-level spectral reflectance measurements and color analysis of digital images. Vegetation indices varied in their suitability to track the decrease of photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll content despite increasing anthocyanin content. Commonly used spectral reflectance indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index and photochemical reflectance index showed major constraints arising from a limited representation of gradual decreases in chlorophyll content and an influence of high foliar anthocyanin levels. The excess green index and green-red vegetation index were more suitable to assess the process of senescence. Similarly, digital image analysis revealed that vegetation

  19. Physiological factors that regulate skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yuji; Hearing, Vincent J

    2009-01-01

    More than 150 genes have been identified that affect skin color either directly or indirectly, and we review current understanding of physiological factors that regulate skin pigmentation. We focus on melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer, melanogenic regulators in melanocytes, and factors derived from keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, hormones, inflammatory cells, and nerves. Enzymatic components of melanosomes include tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1, and dopachrome tautomerase, which depend on the functions of OA1, P, MATP, ATP7A, and BLOC-1 to synthesize eumelanins and pheomelanins. The main structural component of melanosomes is Pmel17/gp100/Silv, whose sorting involves adaptor protein 1A (AP1A), AP1B, AP2, and spectrin, as well as a chaperone-like component, MART-1. During their maturation, melanosomes move from the perinuclear area toward the plasma membrane. Microtubules, dynein, kinesin, actin filaments, Rab27a, melanophilin, myosin Va, and Slp2-a are involved in melanosome transport. Foxn1 and p53 up-regulate skin pigmentation via bFGF and POMC derivatives including alpha-MSH and ACTH, respectively. Other critical factors that affect skin pigmentation include MC1R, CREB, ASP, MITF, PAX3, SOX9/10, LEF-1/TCF, PAR-2, DKK1, SCF, HGF, GM-CSF, endothelin-1, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, neurotrophins, and neuropeptides. UV radiation up-regulates most factors that increase melanogenesis. Further studies will elucidate the currently unknown functions of many other pigment genes/proteins. (c) 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Laypersons' perceptual discrimination of pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Bränström, Richard; Hedblad, Mari-Anne; Krakau, Ingvar; Ullén, Henrik

    2002-05-01

    Most cutaneous malignant melanomas of the skin are visible and should, at least in theory, be possible to detect with the naked eye. This study was conducted to learn more about laypersons' ability to discriminate between benign pigmented lesions and malignant ones. Four groups of laypersons (n = 120) were asked to evaluate pictures of different types of pigmented skin lesions, before and after they received information about the ABCD (asymmetry, border irregularity, color variegation, and diameter greater than 6 mm) criteria, with respect to the necessity of action. The respondents made adequate assessments of melanomas but overestimated the danger of benign pigmented skin lesions. Information about the ABCD criteria enhanced their ability to make adequate assessments. People seem to make adequate decisions concerning how to act if they have a melanoma. On the other hand, common moles and dysplastic nevi were harder to discriminate. Providing information to the public about the features of melanomas, in accordance with the ABCD criteria, might help laypersons in their perceptual discrimination of skin lesions.

  1. Accuracy in clinically evaluating pigmented lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Curley, R. K.; Cook, M. G.; Fallowfield, M. E.; Marsden, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the ability of three doctors experienced in managing melanocytic lesions to diagnose correctly melanoma, dysplastic naevi, and various benign pigmented lesions. DESIGN--Independent clinical evaluation and histopathological assessment. SETTING--Pigmented lesion clinic, which patients attend without an appointment for early diagnosis of melanoma. PATIENTS--86 Patients with lesions that were judged to be benign by at least one of the three doctors. INTERVENTIONS--The lesions were excised under local anaesthesia and sent for histopathological examination in coded bottles without clinical details. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Comparison of clinical with histopathological diagnosis for each lesion. RESULTS--A total of 120 lesions were evaluated by at least two of the three doctors. The histopathological diagnoses were made by the same pathologist. The overall sensitivity (diagnostic accuracy) for the three doctors for all types of lesion was 50%. Of the 39 dysplastic naevi, only 19 were identified correctly by all observers, and a further 24 banal lesions were wrongly diagnosed as dysplastic by at least one doctor. Particular difficulty was experienced with small (less than 5 mm), flat lesions, which can be banal or potentially malignant. CONCLUSIONS--Critical diagnosis and management decisions concerning pigmented lesions should always be based on a combination of clinical and histopathological assessments and the history of the patient. PMID:2503192

  2. Hairless pigmented guinea pigs: a new model for the study of mammalian pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bolognia, J L; Murray, M S; Pawelek, J M

    1990-09-01

    A stock of hairless pigmented guinea pigs was developed to facilitate studies of mammalian pigmentation. This stock combines the convenience of a hairless animal with a pigmentary system that is similar to human skin. In both human and guinea pig skin, active melanocytes are located in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis. Hairless albino guinea pigs on an outbred Hartley background (CrI:IAF/HA(hr/hr)BR; designated hr/hr) were mated with red-haired guinea pigs (designated Hr/Hr). Red-haired heterozygotes from the F1 generation (Hr/hr) were then mated with each other or with hairless albino guinea pigs. The F2 generation included hairless pigmented guinea pigs that retained their interfollicular epidermal melanocytes and whose skin was red-brown in color. Following UV irradiation, there was an increase in cutaneous pigmentation as well as an increase in the number of active epidermal melanocytes. An additional strain of black hairless guinea pigs was developed using black Hr/Hr animals and a similar breeding scheme. These two strains should serve as useful models for studies of the mammalian pigment system.

  3. Tb3+ and Eu3+ doped zinc phosphate glasses for solid state lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Kaushal; Vishwakarma, Amit K.; Jayasimhadri, M.; Haranath, D.; Jang, Kiwan

    2018-04-01

    Tb3+ and Eu3+ doped zinc phosphate (ZP) glasses were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique and their photoluminescence properties were investigated in detail. For, Tb3+ doped glasses the intense emission was at 545 nm corresponding to 5D4→7F5 transition under 377 nm n-UV excitation. The optimized concentration for Tb3+ doped zinc phosphate glass was 3 mol% and above this concentration quenching takes place. The Eu3+ doped zinc phosphate glass revealed intense emission at 613 nm attributed to the 5D0→7F2 transition under intense 392 nm n-UV excitation. The concentration quenching phenomenon was not observed in the Eu3+ doped ZP glasses. The CIE chromaticity coordinates for 3 mol% Tb3+ and 5 mol% Eu3+ doped ZP glasses were found to (0.283, 0.615) and (0.652, 0.331) lying in the green and red regions, respectively. The above mentioned results indicate that the prepared glass are suitable for application in the field of lighting and display devices.

  4. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciT

    Sugama, T.; Pyatina, T.

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na 2O-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-H 2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS wasmore » crystalline analcime.« less

  5. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciT

    Sugama, T.; Pyatina, T.

    2014-11-14

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na 2O-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-H 2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS wasmore » crystalline analcime.« less

  6. Extracellular synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticle using seaweeds of gulf of Mannar, India.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Sangeetha; Arumugam Kuppusamy, Kumaraguru

    2013-12-03

    The biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles by marine resources is thought to be clean, nontoxic, and environmentally acceptable "green procedures". Marine ecosystems are very important for the overall health of both marine and terrestrial environments. The use of natural sources like Marine biological resources essential for nanotechnology. Seaweeds constitute one of the commercially important marine living renewable resources. Seaweeds such as green Caulerpa peltata, red Hypnea Valencia and brown Sargassum myriocystum were used for synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles. The preliminary screening of physico-chemical parameters such as concentration of metals, concentration of seaweed extract, temperature, pH and reaction time revealed that one seaweed S. myriocystum were able to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles. It was confirmed through the, initial colour change of the reaction mixture and UV visible spectrophotometer. The extracellular biosynthesized clear zinc oxide nanoparticles size 36 nm through characterization technique such as DLS, AFM, SEM -EDX, TEM, XRD and FTIR. The biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles are effective antibacterial agents against Gram-positive than the Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the FTIR results, fucoidan water soluble pigments present in S. myriocystum leaf extract is responsible for reduction and stabilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles. by this approach are quite stable and no visible changes were observed even after 6 months. These soluble elements could have acted as both reduction and stabilizing agents preventing the aggregation of nanoparticles in solution, extracellular biological synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles of size 36 nm.

  7. The zinc paradigm for metalloneurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Barr, Chelsea A; Burdette, Shawn C

    2017-05-09

    Neurotransmission and sensory perception are shaped through metal ion-protein interactions in various brain regions. The term "metalloneurochemistry" defines the unique field of bioinorganic chemistry focusing on these processes, and zinc has been the leading target of metalloneurochemists in the almost 15 years since the definition was introduced. Zinc in the hippocampus interacts with receptors that dictate ion flow and neurotransmitter release. Understanding the intricacies of these interactions is crucial to uncovering the role that zinc plays in learning and memory. Based on receptor similarities and zinc-enriched neurons (ZENs) in areas of the brain responsible for sensory perception, such as the olfactory bulb (OB), and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), zinc participates in odor and sound perception. Development and improvement of methods which allow for precise detection and immediate manipulation of zinc ions in neuronal cells and in brain slices will be critical in uncovering the synaptic action of zinc and, more broadly, the bioinorganic chemistry of cognition. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Interaction between Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment and rice proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Xu, Yuan; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang; Fan, Meihua

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf (VBTL) pigment and rice proteins. In the presence of rice protein, VBTL pigment antioxidant activity and free polyphenol content decreased by 67.19% and 68.11%, respectively, and L(∗) of the protein-pigment complex decreased significantly over time. L(∗) values of albumin, globulin and glutelin during 60-min pigment exposure decreased by 55.00, 57.14, and 54.30%, respectively, indicating that these proteins had bound to the pigment. A significant difference in protein surface hydrophobicity was observed between rice proteins and pigment-protein complexes, indicating that hydrophobic interaction is a major binding mechanism between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. A significant difference in secondary structures between proteins and protein-pigment complexes was also uncovered, indicating that hydrogen bonding may be another mode of interaction between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. Our results indicate that VBTL pigment can stain rice proteins with hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of the Environmental Effects Associated With Wooden Bridges Preserved With Creosote, Pentachlorophenol, or Chromated Copper Arsenate

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-09-01

    Timber bridge components are treated with chromated copper arsenate type C (CCA), pentachlorophenol or creosote to preserve the life of the structure from a few years to many decades, resulting in reduced transportation infrastructure costs and incre...

  10. Determination of the chromatic dispersion of liquids based on the liquid-prism SPR configuration in angular and spectral interrogations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Guoqiang; Liu, Shugang; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xueru; Song, Yinglin

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we use the liquid-prism SPR sensing configuration to determine the chromatic dispersion of different liquids, since the condition of SPR is sensitive to the refractive index of the liquid prism. We use the glass slide coated with 50 nm Au film as the sensing chip, and use AvaLight - HAL (360 nm - 2500 nm) light source as the broaden band light source in our experiments. We adopt the deionized water as the standard sample to determine the chromatic dispersion of different liquid samples (ethanol and n-hexane), and we implement the experiment through the SPR sensing configuration in angular and spectral interrogations. According to the experimental data, the chromatic dispersions of ethanol and n-hexane are obtained. The proposed technique provides a new high sensitive method for the determination of chromatic dispersion of liquids.

  11. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  12. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate...

  13. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate...

  14. Pigment analyses of a portrait and paint box of Turkish artist Feyhaman Duran (1886-1970): The EDXRF, FT-IR and micro Raman spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, Sevim; Akyuz, Tanil; Emre, Gulder; Gulec, Ahmet; Basaran, Sait

    2012-04-01

    The samples obtained from nine different places of Ataturk portrait (oil on canvas, 86 cm × 136 cm) by Feyhaman Duran (1886-1970), one of the famous Turkish painters of the 20th century, together with five pigment samples (two different white, two different yellow and blue), obtained as powders from artist's paint box, were analysed by EDXRF, FT-IR and micro-Raman spectroscopic methods, in order to characterise the pigments used by the artist. Informative Raman signals were not obtained from most of the samples of the portrait, due to huge fluorescence caused by the presence of impurities and organic materials in the samples, however the Raman spectrum of the sample from skin coloured part of the portrait and the pigment samples obtained from the paint box of the artist were found to be very informative to shed light on the determination of the pigments used. Analysis revealed the presences of chrome yellow (PbCrO4), strontium yellow (SrCrO4) and Cadmium yellow (CdS) as yellow, chromium oxides (Cr2O3 and Cr2O3·2H2O) as green, natural red ochre as red, brown ochre as brown and ivory black or bone black (C + Ca3(PO4)2) and manganese oxides (Mn2O3 and MnO2) as black pigments, in the composition of the Ataturk portrait. Lead white (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2), calcite (CaCO3), barite (BaSO4), zinc white (ZnO) and titanium white (TiO2) were used as extenders to lighten the colours and/or as for ground level painting. Powder pigment samples, obtained from the paint box of artist, were found to be mixed pigments rather than pure ones.

  15. Study on the autofluorescence profiles of iris pigment epithelium and retinal pigment epithetlium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gaixia; Qu, Junle; Chen, Danni; Sun, Yiwen; Zhao, Lingling; Lin, Ziyang; Ding, Zhihua; Niu, Hanben

    2007-05-01

    Transplantation technique of retinal pigment epithelium has been noticeable in recent years and gradually put into clinical practice in treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. Generally, immunological, histochemical, and physical methods are used to study the iris pigment epithelium (IPE) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, which need complex sample preparation. In this paper, we provided a simple autofluorescence microscopy to investigate the fresh porcine IPE and RPE cells without any pretreatment. The results showed that the morphology and size of both were similar, round and about 15 μm. The main flourophore in both cells was similar, i.e. lipofuscin. In additional, the autofluorescence spectrum of RPE shifted blue after light-induced damage by laser illuminating. Because it was easier for IPE to be damaged by laser than for RPE, and the power of one scanning operation to get a full image was strong enough to damage IPE sample, we hadn't get any satisfied autofluorescence spectrum of IPE.

  16. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution

    PubMed Central

    Spiewak, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review recent studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns. PMID:25421288

  17. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Adam S; García, Dana M

    2007-12-19

    Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog) is one example. Previous research indicates that the carbachol-receptor interaction activates a Gq-mediated pathway which is commonly linked to Ca2+ mobilization. The purpose of the present study was to test for involvement of calcium and to probe calcium-dependent mediators to reveal their role in carbachol-mediated dispersion. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion was blocked by the calcium chelator BAPTA. In contrast, the calcium channel antagonist verapamil, and incubation in Ca2+-free medium failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion. The calcineurin inhibitor cypermethrin blocked carbachol-induced dispersion; whereas, two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide II) failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to elicit dispersion. A rise in intracellular calcium is necessary for carbachol-induced dispersion; however, the Ca2+ requirement is not dependent on extracellular sources, implying that intracellular stores are sufficient to enable pigment granule dispersion to occur. Calcineurin is a likely Ca2+-dependent mediator involved in the signal cascade. Although the pathway leads to the generation of diacylglycerol and calcium (both required for the activation of certain PKC isoforms), our evidence does not support a significant role for PKC.

  18. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Adam S; García, Dana M

    2007-01-01

    Background Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog) is one example. Previous research indicates that the carbachol-receptor interaction activates a Gq-mediated pathway which is commonly linked to Ca2+ mobilization. The purpose of the present study was to test for involvement of calcium and to probe calcium-dependent mediators to reveal their role in carbachol-mediated dispersion. Results Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion was blocked by the calcium chelator BAPTA. In contrast, the calcium channel antagonist verapamil, and incubation in Ca2+-free medium failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion. The calcineurin inhibitor cypermethrin blocked carbachol-induced dispersion; whereas, two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide II) failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusion A rise in intracellular calcium is necessary for carbachol-induced dispersion; however, the Ca2+ requirement is not dependent on extracellular sources, implying that intracellular stores are sufficient to enable pigment granule dispersion to occur. Calcineurin is a likely Ca2+-dependent mediator involved in the signal cascade. Although the pathway leads to the generation of diacylglycerol and calcium (both required for the activation of certain PKC isoforms), our evidence does not support a significant role for PKC. PMID:18093324

  19. Ozone Sensitivity and Catalase Activity in Pigmented and Non-Pigmented Strains of Serratia Marcescens

    PubMed Central

    de Ondarza, José

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ozone exposure rapidly leads to bacterial death, making ozone an effective disinfectant in food industry and health care arena. However, microbial defenses may moderate this effect and play a role in the effective use of oxidizing agents for disinfection. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, expressing genes differentially during infection of a human host. A better understanding of regulatory systems that control expression of Serratia’s virulence genes and defenses is therefore valuable. Objective: Here, we investigated the role of pigmentation and catalase in Serratia marcescens on survival to ozone exposure. Method: Pigmented and non-pigmented strains of Serratia marcescens were cultured to exponential or stationary phase and exposed to 5 ppm of gaseous ozone for 2.5 – 10 minutes. Survival was calculated via plate counts. Catalase activity was measured photometrically and tolerance to hydrogen peroxide was assayed by disk-diffusion. Results: Exposure of S. marcescens to 5 ppm gaseous ozone kills > 90% of cells within 10 minutes in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Although pigmented Serratia (grown at 28°C) survived ozonation better than unpigmented Serratia (grown at 35°C), non-pigmented mutant strains of Serratia had similar ozone survival rates, catalase activity and H2O2 tolerance as wild type strains. Rather, ozone survival and catalase activity were elevated in 6 hour cultures compared to 48 hour cultures. Conclusion: Our studies did not bear out a role for prodigiosin in ozone survival. Rather, induction of oxidative stress responses during exponential growth increased both catalase activity and ozone survival in both pigmented and unpigmented S. marcescens. PMID:28567147

  20. Luminescence properties of Dy3+ doped lithium zinc borosilicate glasses for photonic applications.

    PubMed

    Jaidass, N; Krishna Moorthi, C; Mohan Babu, A; Reddi Babu, M

    2018-03-01

    Different concentrations of Dy 3+ ions doped lithium zinc borosilicate glasses of chemical composition (30-x) B 2 O 3 - 25 SiO 2 -10 Al 2 O 3 -30 LiF - 5 ZnO - x Dy 2 O 3 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol%) were prepared by the melt quenching technique. The prepared glasses were investigated through X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay measurements. Intensities of absorption bands expressed in terms of oscillator strengths (f) were used to determine the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters Ω λ (λ = 2, 4 and 6). The evaluated J-O parameters were used to determine the radiative parameters such as transition probabilities (A R ), total transition probability rate (A T ), radiative lifetime (τ R ) and branching ratios (β R ) for the excited 4 F 9/2 level of Dy 3+ ions. The chromaticity coordinates determined from the emission spectra were found to be located in the white light region of CIE chromaticity diagram.

  1. Chromatic stability of acrylic resins of artificial eyes submitted to accelerated aging and polishing.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Santos, Daniela Micheline dos; Souza, Josiene Firmino; Moreno, Amália; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves

    2010-12-01

    Esthetics and durability of materials used to fabricate artificial eyes has been an important issue since artificial eyes are essential to restore esthetics and function, protect the remaining tissues and help with patients' psychological therapy. However, these materials are submitted to degrading effects of environmental agents on the physical properties of the acrylic resin. This study assessed the color stability of acrylic resins used to fabricate sclera in three basic shades (N1, N2 and N3) when subjected to accelerated aging, mechanical and chemical polishing. Specimens of each resin were fabricated and submitted to mechanical and chemical polishing. Chromatic analysis was performed before and after accelerated aging through ultraviolet reflection spectrophotometry. All specimens revealed color alteration following polishing and accelerated aging. The resins presented statistically significant chromatic alteration (p<0.01) between the periods of 252 and 1008 h. Both polishing methods presented no significant difference between the values of color derivatives of resins.

  2. Psychophysical Evaluation of Achromatic and Chromatic Vision of Workers Chronically Exposed to Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Eliza Maria da Costa Brito; Lima, Monica Gomes; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Teixeira, Cláudio Eduardo Correa; de Lima, Lauro José Barata; Ventura, Dora Fix; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate achromatic and chromatic vision of workers chronically exposed to organic solvents through psychophysical methods. Thirty-one gas station workers (31.5 ± 8.4 years old) were evaluated. Psychophysical tests were achromatic tests (Snellen chart, spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity, and visual perimetry) and chromatic tests (Ishihara's test, color discrimination ellipses, and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test—FM100). Spatial contrast sensitivities of exposed workers were lower than the control at spatial frequencies of 20 and 30 cpd whilst the temporal contrast sensitivity was preserved. Visual field losses were found in 10–30 degrees of eccentricity in the solvent exposed workers. The exposed workers group had higher error values of FM100 and wider color discrimination ellipses area compared to the controls. Workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents had abnormal visual functions, mainly color vision losses and visual field constriction. PMID:22220188

  3. Theory of chromatic noise masking applied to testing linearity of S-cone detection mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Giulianini, Franco; Eskew, Rhea T

    2007-09-01

    A method for testing the linearity of cone combination of chromatic detection mechanisms is applied to S-cone detection. This approach uses the concept of mechanism noise, the noise as seen by a postreceptoral neural mechanism, to represent the effects of superposing chromatic noise components in elevating thresholds and leads to a parameter-free prediction for a linear mechanism. The method also provides a test for the presence of multiple linear detectors and off-axis looking. No evidence for multiple linear mechanisms was found when using either S-cone increment or decrement tests. The results for both S-cone test polarities demonstrate that these mechanisms combine their cone inputs nonlinearly.

  4. Analytical approach to chromatic correction in the final focus system of circular colliders

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Yunhai

    2016-11-28

    Here, a conventional final focus system in particle accelerators is systematically analyzed. We find simple relations between the parameters of two focus modules in the final telescope. Using the relations, we derive the chromatic Courant-Snyder parameters for the telescope. The parameters are scaled approximately according to (L*/βmore » $$*\\atop{y}$$)δ, where L* is the distance from the interaction point to the first quadrupole, β$$*\\atop{y}$$ the vertical beta function at the interaction point, and δ the relative momentum deviation. Most importantly, we show how to compensate its chromaticity order by order in δ by a traditional correction module flanked by an asymmetric pair of harmonic multipoles. The method enables a circular Higgs collider with 2% momentum aperture and illuminates a path forward to 4% in the future.« less

  5. Complete genome sequence of the chromate-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus strain BSB-33

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattacharya, Pamela; Barnebey, Adam; Zemla, Marcin; ...

    2015-10-05

    Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus BSB-33 is a thermophilic gram positive obligate anaerobe isolated from a hot spring in West Bengal, India. Unlike other T. thermohydrosulfuricus strains, BSB-33 is able to anaerobically reduce Fe(III) and Cr(VI) optimally at 60 °C. BSB-33 is the first Cr(VI) reducing T. thermohydrosulfuricus genome sequenced and of particular interest for bioremediation of environmental chromium contaminations. Here we discuss features of T. thermohydrosulfuricus BSB-33 and the unique genetic elements that may account for the peculiar metal reducing properties of this organism. The T. thermohydrosulfuricus BSB-33 genome comprises 2597606 bp encoding 2581 protein genes, 12 rRNA, 193 pseudogenes and hasmore » a G + C content of 34.20 %. Lastly, putative chromate reductases were identified by comparative analyses with other Thermoanaerobacter and chromate-reducing bacteria.« less

  6. Simplified projection technique to correct geometric and chromatic lens aberrations using plenoptic imaging.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Xavier; Thibault, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Plenoptic imaging has been used in the past decade mainly for 3D reconstruction or digital refocusing. It was also shown that this technology has potential for correcting monochromatic aberrations in a standard optical system. In this paper, we present an algorithm for reconstructing images using a projection technique while correcting defects present in it that can apply to chromatic aberrations and wide-angle optical systems. We show that the impact of noise on the reconstruction procedure is minimal. Trade-offs between the sampling of the optical system needed for characterization and image quality are presented. Examples are shown for aberrations in a classic optical system and for chromatic aberrations. The technique is also applied to a wide-angle full field of view of 140° (FFOV 140°) optical system. This technique could be used in order to further simplify or minimize optical systems.

  7. Competitive adsorption of boric acid and chromate onto alumina in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Demetriou, A; Pashalidis, I

    2014-01-01

    The competitive adsorption of boric acid and chromate from aqueous solutions by alumina has been investigated by spectrophotometry at pH 8, ionic strength = 0.0, 0.1 and 1.0 M NaClO4, T = 22 ± 3 °C and under normal atmospheric conditions. The experimental data show that addition of excess boric acid in the system leads to the increase of Cr(VI) concentration in solution, indicating the replacement of adsorbed chromate by boron on the alumina surface. Data evaluation results in the determination of the competition reaction constant and the formation constant of the Cr(VI) surface complexes, which are logKCr(VI)-B(III) = -3.5 ± 0.2 and logβ*Cr = 7.6 ± 0.3, respectively.

  8. A Normative Data Set for the Clinical Assessment of Achromatic and Chromatic Contrast Sensitivity Using a qCSF Approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Jin; Reynaud, Alexandre; Hess, Robert F; Mullen, Kathy T

    2017-07-01

    The measurement of achromatic sensitivity has been an important tool for monitoring subtle changes in vision as the result of disease or response to therapy. In this study, we aimed to provide a normative data set for achromatic and chromatic contrast sensitivity functions within a common cone contrast space using an abbreviated measurement approach suitable for clinical practice. In addition, we aimed to provide comparisons of achromatic and chromatic binocular summation across spatial frequency. We estimated monocular cone contrast sensitivity functions (CCSFs) using a quick Contrast Sensitivity Function (qCSF) approach for achromatic as well as isoluminant, L/M cone opponent, and S cone opponent stimuli in a healthy population of 51 subjects. We determined the binocular CCSFs for achromatic and chromatic vision to evaluate the degree of binocular summation across spatial frequency for these three different mechanisms in a subset of 20 subjects. Each data set shows consistent contrast sensitivity across the population. They highlight the extremely high cone contrast sensitivity of L/M cone opponency compared with the S-cone and achromatic responses. We also find that the two chromatic sensitivities are correlated across the healthy population. In addition, binocular summation for all mechanisms depends strongly on stimulus spatial frequency. This study, using an approach well suited to the clinic, is the first to provide a comparative normative data set for the chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivity functions, yielding quantitative comparisons of achromatic, L/M cone opponent, and S cone opponent chromatic sensitivities as a function of spatial frequency.

  9. Comparative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and dissolved zinc on zebrafish embryos and eleuthero-embryos: importance of zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca; Lenz, Markus; Wehrli, Bernhard; Fent, Karl

    2014-04-01

    The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) and their associated environmental occurrence make it necessary to assess their potential effects on aquatic organisms. Upon water contact, nZnO dissolve partially to zinc (Zn(II)). To date it is not yet completely understood, whether effects of nZnO are solely or partly due to dissolved Zn(II). Here we compare potential effects of 0.2, 1 and 5mg/L nZnO and corresponding concentrations of released Zn(II) by water soluble ZnCl2 to two development stages of zebrafish, embryos and eleuthero-embryos, by analysing expressional changes by RT-qPCR. Another objective was to assess uptake and tissue distribution of Zn(II). Laser ablation-ICP-MS analysis demonstrated that uptake and tissue distribution of Zn(II) were identical for nZnO and ZnCl2 in eleuthero-embryos. Zn(II) was found particularly in the retina/pigment layer of eyes and brain. Both nZnO and dissolved Zn(II) derived from ZnCl2 had similar inhibiting effects on hatching, and they induced similar expressional changes of target genes. At 72hours post fertilization (hpf), both nZnO and Zn(II) delayed hatching at all doses, and inhibited hatching at 1 and 5 mg/L at 96 hpf. Both nZnO and Zn(II) lead to induction of metallothionein (mt2) in both embryos and eleuthero-embryos at all concentrations. Transcripts of oxidative stress related genes cat and Cu/Zn sod were also altered. Moreover, we show for the first time that nZnO exposure results in transcriptional changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα. Overall, transcriptional alterations were higher in embryos than eleuthero-embryos. The similarities of the effects lead to the conclusion that effects of nZnO are mainly related to the release of Zn(II). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mineral resource of the month: zinc

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2009-01-01

    The article provides information on zinc, the fourth most-widely consumed metal. It traces the first use of zinc with the Romans' production of brass. It describes the presence of zinc in Earth's crust and the importance of sphalerite as a source of zinc and other some minor metal production. The production and consumption of zinc as well as the commercial and industrial uses of this metal are also discussed.

  11. Zinc: an essential but elusive nutrient123

    PubMed Central

    King, Janet C

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is essential for multiple aspects of metabolism. Physiologic signs of zinc depletion are linked with diverse biochemical functions rather than with a specific function, which makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of zinc nutrition. Nutrients, such as zinc, that are required for general metabolism are called type 2 nutrients. Protein and magnesium are examples of other type 2 nutrients. Type 1 nutrients are required for one or more specific functions: examples include iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate, and copper. When dietary zinc is insufficient, a marked reduction in endogenous zinc loss occurs immediately to conserve the nutrient. If zinc balance is not reestablished, other metabolic adjustments occur to mobilize zinc from small body pools. The location of those pools is not known, but all cells probably have a small zinc reserve that includes zinc bound to metallothionein or zinc stored in the Golgi or in other organelles. Plasma zinc is also part of this small zinc pool that is vulnerable to insufficient intakes. Plasma zinc concentrations decline rapidly with severe deficiencies and more moderately with marginal depletion. Unfortunately, plasma zinc concentrations also decrease with a number of conditions (eg, infection, trauma, stress, steroid use, after a meal) due to a metabolic redistribution of zinc from the plasma to the tissues. This redistribution confounds the interpretation of low plasma zinc concentrations. Biomarkers of metabolic zinc redistribution are needed to determine whether this redistribution is the cause of a low plasma zinc rather than poor nutrition. Measures of metallothionein or cellular zinc transporters may fulfill that role. PMID:21715515

  12. Multi-Chromatic Ultrashort Pulse Filamentation and Bulk Modification in Dielectrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-05

    multi -pulse fields 7 6 Filamentation and bulk modification by spatio-temporally chirped pulses 8 7 Quantum modeling of photoionization and nonlinear...pulses. (b) two co-propagating pulses of di↵erent frequencies. 4) Develop non-time-averaged multi -chromatic quantum -mechanical models of photoion- ization...very well with those of the extended multi -rate equation using the relaxation approximation, which is much faster. A continued collaboration to also

  13. Chromaticity calculations and code comparisons for x-ray lithography source XLS and SXLS rings

    SciT

    Parsa, Z.

    1988-06-16

    This note presents the chromaticity calculations and code comparison results for the (x-ray lithography source) XLS (Chasman Green, XUV Cosy lattice) and (2 magnet 4T) SXLS lattices, with the standard beam optic codes, including programs SYNCH88.5, MAD6, PATRICIA88.4, PATPET88.2, DIMAD, BETA, and MARYLIE. This analysis is a part of our ongoing accelerator physics code studies. 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Non-Chromate/No-VOC Coating System for DoD Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-31

    chromium species, at which point the corrosion protection capabilities suffer. Cr6+ is used everywhere that self - healing corrosion protection is...surface region in which the Cr6+ remains, forming a self - healing chemistry that re-protects if scratched. Thin (Class 3) chromate conversion layers are...olation polymer control color, thickness, and the self - healing property of the film [7]. TCP does not contain any free trivalent chromium and is free of

  15. Seeing red: affect modulation and chromatic color responses on the Rorschach.

    PubMed

    Malone, Johanna C; Stein, Michelle B; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle; Bello, Iruma; Sinclair, S Justin; Blais, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Psychoanalytic theories suggest that color perception on the Rorschach relates to affective modulation. However, this idea has minimal empirical support. Using a clinical sample, the authors explored the cognitive and clinical correlates of Rorschach color determinants and differences among four affective modulation subtypes: Controlled, Balanced, Under-Controlled, and Flooded. Subtypes were differentiated by measures of affective regulation, reality testing/confusion, and personality traits. Initial support for the relationship of chromatic color response styles and affective modulation was found.

  16. Accurate chromatic control and color rendering optimization in LED lighting systems using junction temperature feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisto, Marco Michele; Gauvin, Jonny

    2014-09-01

    Accurate color control of LED lighting systems is a challenging task: noticeable chromaticity shifts are commonly observed in mixed-color and phosphor converted LEDs due to intensity dimming. Furthermore, the emitted color varies with the LED temperature. We present a novel color control method for tri-chromatic and tetra-chromatic LEDs, which enable to set and maintain the LED emission at a target color, or combination of correlated color temperature (CCT) and intensity. The LED color point is maintained over variations in the LED junctions' temperatures and intensity dimming levels. The method does not require color feedback sensors, so to minimize system complexity and cost, but relies on estimation of the LED junctions' temperatures from the junction voltages. If operated with tetra-chromatic LEDs, the method allows meeting an additional optimization criterion: for example, the maximization of a color rendering metric like the Color Rendering Index (CRI) or the Color Quality Scale (CQS), thus providing a high quality and clarity of colors on the surface illuminated by the LED. We demonstrate the control of a RGBW LED at target D65 white point with CIELAB color difference metric triangle;a,bE < 1 for simultaneous variations of flux from approximately 30 lm to 100 lm and LED heat sink temperature from 25°C to 58°C. In the same conditions, we demonstrate a CCT error <1%. Furthermore, the method allows varying the LED CCT from 5500K to 8000K while maintaining luminance within 1% of target. Further work is ongoing to evaluate the stability of the method over LED aging.

  17. [A Method for Selecting Self-Adoptive Chromaticity of the Projected Markers].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shou-bo; Zhang, Fu-min; Qu, Xing-hua; Zheng, Shi-wei; Chen, Zhe

    2015-04-01

    The authors designed a self-adaptive projection system which is composed of color camera, projector and PC. In detail, digital micro-mirror device (DMD) as a spatial light modulator for the projector was introduced in the optical path to modulate the illuminant spectrum based on red, green and blue light emitting diodes (LED). However, the color visibility of active markers is affected by the screen which has unknown reflective spectrum as well. Here active markers are projected spot array. And chromaticity feature of markers is sometimes submerged in similar spectral screen. In order to enhance the color visibility of active markers relative to screen, a method for selecting self-adaptive chromaticity of the projected markers in 3D scanning metrology is described. Color camera with 3 channels limits the accuracy of device characterization. For achieving interconversion of device-independent color space and device-dependent color space, high-dimensional linear model of reflective spectrum was built. Prior training samples provide additional constraints to yield high-dimensional linear model with more than three degrees of freedom. Meanwhile, spectral power distribution of ambient light was estimated. Subsequently, markers' chromaticity in CIE color spaces was selected via maximization principle of Euclidean distance. The setting values of RGB were easily estimated via inverse transform. Finally, we implemented a typical experiment to show the performance of the proposed approach. An 24 Munsell Color Checker was used as projective screen. Color difference in the chromaticity coordinates between the active marker and the color patch was utilized to evaluate the color visibility of active markers relative to the screen. The result comparison between self-adaptive projection system and traditional diode-laser light projector was listed and discussed to highlight advantage of our proposed method.

  18. Chromatic dispersion estimation based on heterodyne detection for coherent optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Yang, Aiying; Guo, Peng; Qiao, Yaojun; Lu, Yueming

    2018-01-01

    We propose an accurate and nondata-aided chromatic dispersion (CD) estimation method involving the use of the cross-correlation function of two heterodyne detection signals for coherent optical communication systems. Simulations are implemented to verify the feasibility of the proposed method for 28-GBaud coherent systems with different modulation formats. The results show that the proposed method has high accuracy for measuring CD and has good robustness against laser phase noise, amplified spontaneous emission noise, and nonlinear impairments.

  19. Electrocoat Process for Non-Chromate Primers in DoD Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    requirements are uniquely  suited for aerospace  aluminum. ↑ O2 ↑ H2 Anode (+) Cathode (-) Deposited Film Alkaline  clean Rinse ElectrocoatSurface...Objectives ● Demonstration and validation of a novel, non‐chromated,  environmentally friendly,  electrodeposited  primer. ● The primers will be

  20. A dynamic model for predicting growth in zinc-deficient stunted infants given supplemental zinc.

    PubMed

    Wastney, Meryl E; McDonald, Christine M; King, Janet C

    2018-05-01

    Zinc deficiency limits infant growth and increases susceptibility to infections, which further compromises growth. Zinc supplementation improves the growth of zinc-deficient stunted infants, but the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc supplementation required to restore growth in an individual child is unknown. A dynamic model of zinc metabolism that predicts changes in weight and length of zinc-deficient, stunted infants with dietary zinc would be useful to define effective zinc supplementation regimens. The aims of this study were to develop a dynamic model for zinc metabolism in stunted, zinc-deficient infants and to use that model to predict the growth response when those infants are given zinc supplements. A model of zinc metabolism was developed using data on zinc kinetics, tissue zinc, and growth requirements for healthy 9-mo-old infants. The kinetic model was converted to a dynamic model by replacing the rate constants for zinc absorption and excretion with functions for these processes that change with zinc intake. Predictions of the dynamic model, parameterized for zinc-deficient, stunted infants, were compared with the results of 5 published zinc intervention trials. The model was then used to predict the results for zinc supplementation regimes that varied in the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc dosing. Model predictions agreed with published changes in plasma zinc after zinc supplementation. Predictions of weight and length agreed with 2 studies, but overpredicted values from a third study in which other nutrient deficiencies may have been growth limiting; the model predicted that zinc absorption was impaired in that study. The model suggests that frequent, smaller doses (5-10 mg Zn/d) are more effective for increasing growth in stunted, zinc-deficient 9-mo-old infants than are larger, less-frequent doses. The dose amount affects the duration of dosing necessary to restore and maintain plasma zinc concentration and growth.

  1. Pigment dispersion syndrome masquerading as acute anterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis Alonso; Rodríguez-García, Alejandro; Foster, C Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Signs and symptoms of pigment dispersion may be confused with those of acute anterior uveitis. This case series is intended to aid the ophthalmologist in the clinical differentiation between these two disorders. The authors present a series of 6 patients with pigment dispersion who were initially diagnosed as having acute anterior uveitis and treated with anti-inflammatory medication, including corticosteroids. The patients were referred for a second opinion due to poor or no response to therapy and were found to have pigment dispersion instead of uveitis. Symptoms of pigment dispersion may consist of blurred vision, redness, ocular pain, and photophobia, all of which are also symptoms of acute anterior uveitis. These symptoms, plus the fact that pigment floating in the aqueous humor can be mistaken for inflammation, make diagnosis challenging. Moreover, the possible co-existence of true anterior uveitis and pigment dispersion makes the diagnosis and treatment more difficult.

  2. Lead chromate detected as a source of atmospheric Pb and Cr (VI) pollution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Yu, Soonyoung; Chang, Hye Jung; Cho, Hye Young; Kang, Min-Ju; Chae, Byung-Gon

    2016-10-25

    Spherical black carbon aggregates were frequently observed in dust dry deposition in Daejeon, Korea. They were tens of micrometers in diameter and presented a mixture of black carbon and several mineral phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) analyses confirmed that the aggregates were compact and included significant amounts of lead chromate (PbCrO 4 ). The compositions and morphologies of the nanosized lead chromate particles suggest that they probably originated from traffic paint used in roads and were combined as discrete minerals with black carbon. Based on Pb isotope analysis and air-mass backward trajectories, the dust in Daejeon received a considerable input of anthropogenic pollutants from heavily industrialized Chinese cities, which implies that long-range transported aerosols containing PbCrO 4 were a possible source of the lead and hexavalent chromium levels in East Asia. Lead chromate should be considered to be a source of global atmospheric Pb and Cr(VI) pollution, especially given its toxicity.

  3. Chromatic Aberration Correction for Atomic Resolution TEM Imaging from 20 to 80 kV.

    PubMed

    Linck, Martin; Hartel, Peter; Uhlemann, Stephan; Kahl, Frank; Müller, Heiko; Zach, Joachim; Haider, Max; Niestadt, Marcel; Bischoff, Maarten; Biskupek, Johannes; Lee, Zhongbo; Lehnert, Tibor; Börrnert, Felix; Rose, Harald; Kaiser, Ute

    2016-08-12

    Atomic resolution in transmission electron microscopy of thin and light-atom materials requires a rigorous reduction of the beam energy to reduce knockon damage. However, at the same time, the chromatic aberration deteriorates the resolution of the TEM image dramatically. Within the framework of the SALVE project, we introduce a newly developed C_{c}/C_{s} corrector that is capable of correcting both the chromatic and the spherical aberration in the range of accelerating voltages from 20 to 80 kV. The corrector allows correcting axial aberrations up to fifth order as well as the dominating off-axial aberrations. Over the entire voltage range, optimum phase-contrast imaging conditions for weak signals from light atoms can be adjusted for an optical aperture of at least 55 mrad. The information transfer within this aperture is no longer limited by chromatic aberrations. We demonstrate the performance of the microscope using the examples of 30 kV phase-contrast TEM images of graphene and molybdenum disulfide, showing unprecedented contrast and resolution that matches image calculations.

  4. Chromatic and achromatic monocular deprivation produce separable changes of eye dominance in adults.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiawei; Reynaud, Alexandre; Kim, Yeon Jin; Mullen, Kathy T; Hess, Robert F

    2017-11-29

    Temporarily depriving one eye of its input, in whole or in part, results in a transient shift in eye dominance in human adults, with the patched eye becoming stronger and the unpatched eye weaker. However, little is known about the role of colour contrast in these behavioural changes. Here, we first show that the changes in eye dominance and contrast sensitivity induced by monocular eye patching affect colour and achromatic contrast sensitivity equally. We next use dichoptic movies, customized and filtered to stimulate the two eyes differentially. We show that a strong imbalance in achromatic contrast between the eyes, with no colour content, also produces similar, unselective shifts in eye dominance for both colour and achromatic contrast sensitivity. Interestingly, if this achromatic imbalance is paired with similar colour contrast in both eyes, the shift in eye dominance is selective, affecting achromatic but not chromatic contrast sensitivity and revealing a dissociation in eye dominance for colour and achromatic image content. On the other hand, a strong imbalance in chromatic contrast between the eyes, with no achromatic content, produces small, unselective changes in eye dominance, but if paired with similar achromatic contrast in both eyes, no changes occur. We conclude that perceptual changes in eye dominance are strongly driven by interocular imbalances in achromatic contrast, with colour contrast having a significant counter balancing effect. In the short term, eyes can have different dominances for achromatic and chromatic contrast, suggesting separate pathways at the site of these neuroplastic changes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Chromatic Titanium Photoanode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells under Rear Illumination.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Yu-Wen; Chen, Chih-Ming

    2018-01-24

    Titanium (Ti) has high potential in many practical applications such as biomedicine, architecture, aviation, and energy. In this study, we demonstrate an innovative application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on Ti photoanodes that can be integrated into the roof engineering of large-scale architectures. A chromatic Ti foil produced by anodizing oxidation (coloring) technology is an attractive roof material for large-scale architecture, showing a colorful appearance due to the formation of a reflective TiO 2 thin layer on both surfaces of Ti. The DSSC is fabricated on the backside of the chromatic Ti foil using the Ti foil as the working electrode, and this roof-DSSC hybrid configuration can be designed as an energy harvesting device for indoor artificial lighting. Our results show that the facet-textured TiO 2 layer on the chromatic Ti foil not only improves the optical reflectance for better light utilization but also effectively suppresses the charge recombination for better electron collection. The power conversion efficiency of the roof-DSSC hybrid system is improved by 30-40% with a main contribution from an improvement of short-circuit current density under standard 1 sun and dim-light (600-1000 lx) illumination.

  6. Luminance and chromatic signals interact differently with melanopsin activation to control the pupil light response.

    PubMed

    Barrionuevo, Pablo A; Cao, Dingcai

    2016-09-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin. These cells receive afferent inputs from rods and cones, which provide inputs to the postreceptoral visual pathways. It is unknown, however, how melanopsin activation is integrated with postreceptoral signals to control the pupillary light reflex. This study reports human flicker pupillary responses measured using stimuli generated with a five-primary photostimulator that selectively modulated melanopsin, rod, S-, M-, and L-cone excitations in isolation, or in combination to produce postreceptoral signals. We first analyzed the light adaptation behavior of melanopsin activation and rod and cones signals. Second, we determined how melanopsin is integrated with postreceptoral signals by testing with cone luminance, chromatic blue-yellow, and chromatic red-green stimuli that were processed by magnocellular (MC), koniocellular (KC), and parvocellular (PC) pathways, respectively. A combined rod and melanopsin response was also measured. The relative phase of the postreceptoral signals was varied with respect to the melanopsin phase. The results showed that light adaptation behavior for all conditions was weaker than typical Weber adaptation. Melanopsin activation combined linearly with luminance, S-cone, and rod inputs, suggesting the locus of integration with MC and KC signals was retinal. The melanopsin contribution to phasic pupil responses was lower than luminance contributions, but much higher than S-cone contributions. Chromatic red-green modulation interacted with melanopsin activation nonlinearly as described by a "winner-takes-all" process, suggesting the integration with PC signals might be mediated by a postretinal site.

  7. Determination of nanomolar chromate in drinking water with solid phase extraction and a portable spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Yang, Bo; Byrne, Robert H

    2012-06-15

    Determination of chromate at low concentration levels in drinking water is an important analytical objective for both human health and environmental science. Here we report the use of solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with a custom-made portable light-emitting diode (LED) spectrophotometer to achieve detection of chromate in the field at nanomolar levels. The measurement chemistry is based on a highly selective reaction between 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) and chromate under acidic conditions. The Cr-DPC complex formed in the reaction can be extracted on a commercial C18 SPE cartridge. Concentrated Cr-DPC is subsequently eluted with methanol and detected by spectrophotometry. Optimization of analytical conditions involved investigation of reagent compositions and concentrations, eluent type, flow rate (sample loading), sample volume, and stability of the SPE cartridge. Under optimized conditions, detection limits are on the order of 3 nM. Only 50 mL of sample is required for an analysis, and total analysis time is around 10 min. The targeted analytical range of 0-500 nM can be easily extended by changing the sample volume. Compared to previous SPE-based spectrophotometric methods, this analytical procedure offers the benefits of improved sensitivity, reduced sample consumption, shorter analysis time, greater operational convenience, and lower cost. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lead chromate detected as a source of atmospheric Pb and Cr (VI) pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Yu, Soonyoung; Chang, Hye Jung; Cho, Hye Young; Kang, Min-Ju; Chae, Byung-Gon

    2016-10-01

    Spherical black carbon aggregates were frequently observed in dust dry deposition in Daejeon, Korea. They were tens of micrometers in diameter and presented a mixture of black carbon and several mineral phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) analyses confirmed that the aggregates were compact and included significant amounts of lead chromate (PbCrO4). The compositions and morphologies of the nanosized lead chromate particles suggest that they probably originated from traffic paint used in roads and were combined as discrete minerals with black carbon. Based on Pb isotope analysis and air-mass backward trajectories, the dust in Daejeon received a considerable input of anthropogenic pollutants from heavily industrialized Chinese cities, which implies that long-range transported aerosols containing PbCrO4 were a possible source of the lead and hexavalent chromium levels in East Asia. Lead chromate should be considered to be a source of global atmospheric Pb and Cr(VI) pollution, especially given its toxicity.

  9. Lead chromate detected as a source of atmospheric Pb and Cr (VI) pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Yu, Soonyoung; Chang, Hye Jung; Cho, Hye Young; Kang, Min-Ju; Chae, Byung-Gon

    2016-01-01

    Spherical black carbon aggregates were frequently observed in dust dry deposition in Daejeon, Korea. They were tens of micrometers in diameter and presented a mixture of black carbon and several mineral phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) analyses confirmed that the aggregates were compact and included significant amounts of lead chromate (PbCrO4). The compositions and morphologies of the nanosized lead chromate particles suggest that they probably originated from traffic paint used in roads and were combined as discrete minerals with black carbon. Based on Pb isotope analysis and air-mass backward trajectories, the dust in Daejeon received a considerable input of anthropogenic pollutants from heavily industrialized Chinese cities, which implies that long-range transported aerosols containing PbCrO4 were a possible source of the lead and hexavalent chromium levels in East Asia. Lead chromate should be considered to be a source of global atmospheric Pb and Cr(VI) pollution, especially given its toxicity. PMID:27779222

  10. Study of chromatic adaptation using memory color matches, Part I: neutral illuminants.

    PubMed

    Smet, Kevin A G; Zhai, Qiyan; Luo, Ming R; Hanselaer, Peter

    2017-04-03

    Twelve corresponding color data sets have been obtained using the long-term memory colors of familiar objects as target stimuli. Data were collected for familiar objects with neutral, red, yellow, green and blue hues under 4 approximately neutral illumination conditions on or near the blackbody locus. The advantages of the memory color matching method are discussed in light of other more traditional asymmetric matching techniques. Results were compared to eight corresponding color data sets available in literature. The corresponding color data was used to test several linear (von Kries, RLAB, etc.) and nonlinear (Hunt & Nayatani) chromatic adaptation transforms (CAT). It was found that a simple two-step von Kries, whereby the degree of adaptation D is optimized to minimize the DEu'v' prediction errors, outperformed all other tested models for both memory color and literature corresponding color sets, whereby prediction errors were lower for the memory color sets. The predictive errors were substantially smaller than the standard uncertainty on the average observer and were comparable to what are considered just-noticeable-differences in the CIE u'v' chromaticity diagram, supporting the use of memory color based internal references to study chromatic adaptation mechanisms.

  11. Homologous Recombination Repair Protects Against Particulate Chromate-induced Chromosome Instability in Chinese Hamster Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stackpole, Megan M.; Wise, Sandra S.; Duzevik, Eliza Grlickova; Munroe, Ray C.; Thompson, W. Douglas; Thacker, John; Thompson, Larry H.; Hinz, John M.; Wise, John Pierce

    2008-01-01

    Particulate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are well-established human carcinogens. Cr(VI)-induced tumors are characterized by chromosomal instability (CIN); however, the mechanisms of this effect are unknown. We investigated the hypothesis that homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double strand breaks protect cells from Cr(VI)-induced CIN by focusing on the XRCC3 and RAD51C genes, which play an important role in cellular resistance to DNA double strand breaks. We used Chinese hamster cells defective in each HR gene (irs3 for RAD51C and irs1SF for XRCC3) and compared with their wildtype parental and cDNA-complemented controls. We found that the intracellular Cr ion levels varied among the cell lines after particulate chromate treatment. Importantly, accounting for differences in Cr ion levels, we discovered that XRCC3 and RAD51C cells treated with lead chromate had increased cytotoxicity and chromosomal aberrations, relative to wild-type and cDNA-complimented cells. We also observed the emergence of high levels of chromatid exchanges in the two mutant cell lines. For example, 1 ug/cm2 lead chromate induced 20 and 32 exchanges in XRCC3- and RAD51C-deficient cells, respectively, whereas no exchanges were detected in the wildtype and cDNA-complemented cells. These observations suggest that HR protects cells from Cr(VI)-induced CIN, consistent with the ability of particulate Cr(VI) to induce double strand breaks. PMID:17662313

  12. Chromatic energy filter and characterization of laser-accelerated proton beams for particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Ingo; Meyer-ter-Vehn, Jürgen; Yan, Xueqing; Al-Omari, Husam

    2012-07-01

    The application of laser accelerated protons or ions for particle therapy has to cope with relatively large energy and angular spreads as well as possibly significant random fluctuations. We suggest a method for combined focusing and energy selection, which is an effective alternative to the commonly considered dispersive energy selection by magnetic dipoles. Our method is based on the chromatic effect of a magnetic solenoid (or any other energy dependent focusing device) in combination with an aperture to select a certain energy width defined by the aperture radius. It is applied to an initial 6D phase space distribution of protons following the simulation output from a Radiation Pressure Acceleration model. Analytical formula for the selection aperture and chromatic emittance are confirmed by simulation results using the TRACEWIN code. The energy selection is supported by properly placed scattering targets to remove the imprint of the chromatic effect on the beam and to enable well-controlled and shot-to-shot reproducible energy and transverse density profiles.

  13. Chromaticity and color saturation of ultraviolet irradiated poly(vinyl alcohol)-anthocyanin coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat Nor, N. A.; Aziz, N.; Mohd-Adnan, A. F.; Taha, R. M.; Arof, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the chromaticity and color saturation of anthocyanin extraction from fruit pericarps of Ixora siamensis in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix. The colored PVA matrix was exposed to UV-B irradiation for 93 days at UV intensity of 17.55 lux. Anthocyanin colorant has been extracted using methanol acidified with 0.5% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Different concentrations of ferulic acid (FA) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt.%) have been added to the anthocyanin extractions before mixing with PVA to form a coating system. The PVA-anthocyanin-FA mixtures have been coated on glass slides and kept overnight in the dark for curing before exposure to UV-B irradiation. The FA-free sample undergoes more color degradation compared to samples containing FA. The coating with 2% FA has the most stable color with chromaticity of 41% and color saturation of 0.88 compared to other FA containing coats. The FA-free coat exhibits 29% chromaticity and color saturation of 0.38 at the end of the experiment.

  14. Chromatic multifocal pupillometer for objective perimetry in patients with macular degeneration (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotenstreich, Ygal; Ben-Ner, Daniel; Mahajna, Mohamad; Chibel, Ron; Sher, Ifat

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To objectively assess visual field (VF) defects and retinal cell function in healthy subjects and patients with macular degeneration using a chromatic multifocal pupillometer. Methods: A multifocal chromatic pupillometer (MCP) was used to record pupillary responses (PR) of 17 healthy subjects and 5 Best Vitelliform macular dystrophy patients. Blue and red light stimuli (peak 485nm and 620nm, respectively) were presented at light intensities of 400 and 1000 cd/m2, respectively at 76 different points in a 16.2 degree VF. The PR of patients were compared with their findings on Humphrey's 24-2 perimetry, optical coherence tomography and the PR obtained from healthy subjects. Results: Patients demonstrated reduced percentage of pupillary contraction and slower maximal contraction velocity, more than two standard errors (SE) away from the mean of healthy subjects in response to red light in majority of VF locations. In response to blue light, the percentage of pupillary contraction was lower (by over two SE) compared with normal controls only in central locations. The latency of maximal contraction velocity was shorter in patients compared with healthy subjects in response to both colors. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the advantage of using MCP-based objective VF to assess central scotoma in macular degeneration. Our finding also suggests that chromatic perimetry may differentiate between PR mediated by cones and rods, and can specifically detect defects in macular cones. Different parameters of PR such as latency of maximal contraction velocity may shed light on the pathophysiology of different blinding diseases.

  15. Integration of polarization and chromatic cues in the insect sky compass.

    PubMed

    el Jundi, Basil; Pfeiffer, Keram; Heinze, Stanley; Homberg, Uwe

    2014-06-01

    Animals relying on a celestial compass for spatial orientation may use the position of the sun, the chromatic or intensity gradient of the sky, the polarization pattern of the sky, or a combination of these cues as compass signals. Behavioral experiments in bees and ants, indeed, showed that direct sunlight and sky polarization play a role in sky compass orientation, but the relative importance of these cues are species-specific. Intracellular recordings from polarization-sensitive interneurons in the desert locust and monarch butterfly suggest that inputs from different eye regions, including polarized-light input through the dorsal rim area of the eye and chromatic/intensity gradient input from the main eye, are combined at the level of the medulla to create a robust compass signal. Conflicting input from the polarization and chromatic/intensity channel, resulting from eccentric receptive fields, is eliminated at the level of the anterior optic tubercle and central complex through internal compensation for changing solar elevations, which requires input from a circadian clock. Across several species, the central complex likely serves as an internal sky compass, combining E-vector information with other celestial cues. Descending neurons, likewise, respond both to zenithal polarization and to unpolarized cues in an azimuth-dependent way.

  16. Measurement of luminance noise and chromaticity noise of LCDs with a colorimeter and a color camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehrig, H.; Dallas, W. J.; Krupinski, E. A.; Redford, Gary R.

    2007-09-01

    This communication focuses on physical evaluation of image quality of displays for applications in medical imaging. In particular we were interested in luminance noise as well as chromaticity noise of LCDs. Luminance noise has been encountered in the study of monochrome LCDs for some time, but chromaticity noise is a new type of noise which has been encountered first when monochrome and color LCDs were compared in an ROC study. In this present study one color and one monochrome 3 M-pixel LCDs were studied. Both were DICOM calibrated with equal dynamic range. We used a Konica Minolta Chroma Meter CS-200 as well as a Foveon color camera to estimate luminance and chrominance variations of the displays. We also used a simulation experiment to estimate luminance noise. The measurements with the colorimeter were consistent. The measurements with the Foveon color camera were very preliminary as color cameras had never been used for image quality measurements. However they were extremely promising. The measurements with the colorimeter and the simulation results showed that the luminance and chromaticity noise of the color LCD were larger than that of the monochrome LCD. Under the condition that an adequate calibration method and image QA/QC program for color displays are available, we expect color LCDs may be ready for radiology in very near future.

  17. Application of chromatic confocal displacement sensor in measurement of tip clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Chao; Li, Di; Fang, Jianguo; Zhang, Bin

    2016-10-01

    In the field of aeronautics, the tip clearance of rotor exerts a crucial influence on the performance of the aero engine. As defined as the radial distance between the top of the blade and the inner wall of the casing, the tip clearance of too large or small size will adversely affect the normal running of the engine. In order to realize accurate measurement of the tip clearance in a simple way, a non-contact measuring method by the chromatic confocal displacement sensor is proposed in the paper. The sensor possesses the advantages such as small volume, good signal-to-noise ratio, high accuracy and response frequency etc., which make it be widely used in engineering and industry. For testing the performance and potential application of the sensor, a simulation testing platform is established. In the platform, a simulation blisk is installed on the air bearing spindle and a chromatic confocal displacement sensor is fixed on the platform to measure the displacement variation of the blade tip, which can be used to characterize the variation of the tip clearance. In the simulation experiments, both of single and continuous measurement of the tip clearance of the 36 blades on the blisk is executed. As the results of experiments show, the chromatic confocal displacement sensor can meet the requirements of measuring task, in which both of high measuring efficiency and accuracy could be achieved. Therefore, the measuring method proposed in the paper can be utilized in the actual assembling sites of the aero engine.

  18. Delayed Luminance and Chromatic Contrast Sensitivity in Infants with Spontaneously Regressed Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Bosworth, Rain; Robbins, Shira L.; Granet, David B.; Dobkins, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background The current study assessed whether contrast sensitivity is affected in preterm infants with a history of spontaneously regressed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, Stages 1–3). Specifically, we employed luminance (light/dark) and chromatic (red/green) stimuli, which are mediated by the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) subcortical pathways, respectively. Methods Contrast sensitivity (CS) was measured using forced choice preferential looking testing in 21 infants with a history of ROP and 41 control preterm infants who were born prematurely but did not develop ROP, tested between 8 and 47 weeks (2–11 months) postterm age. Infants were presented with chromatic and luminance drifting sinusoidal gratings, which appeared randomly on the left or right side of the monitor on each trial. The contrast of the stimuli varied across trials and was defined in terms of root mean squared cone contrast for long- and medium-wavelength cones. Results Between 8 and 25 weeks postterm, ROP infants had significantly worse CS, and there was a trend for greater impairment for Luminance than Chromatic CS. This delay was not seen at older ages between 26 and 47 weeks postterm. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the concept that early maturation of the M pathway is vulnerable to biological insult, as in the case of ROP, to a greater extent than is the P pathway. PMID:23744448

  19. Immobilization of chromate in hyperalkaline waste streams by green rusts and zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Christine M; Burke, Ian T; Ahmed, Imad A M; Shaw, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Zero-valent iron (ZVI) and green rusts can be used as reductants to convert chromium from soluble, highly toxic Cr(VI) to insoluble Cr(III). This study compared the reduction rates of Cr(VI) by ZVI and two carbonate green rust phases in alkaline/hyperalkaline solutions. Batch experiments were carried out with synthetic chromate solutions at pH 7.7-12.3 and a chromite ore processing residue (COPR) leachate (pH approximately 12.2). Green rust removes chromate from high pH solutions (pH 10-12.5) very rapidly (<400 s). Chromate reduction rates for both green rust phases were consistently higher than for ZVI throughout the pH range studied; the surface area normalized rate constants were two orders of magnitude higher in the COPR leachate solution at pH 12.2. The performances of both green rusts were unaffected by changes in pH. In contrast, ZVI exhibited a marked decline in reduction rate with increasing pH to become almost ineffective above pH12.

  20. Estimation of chromatic errors from broadband images for high contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirbu, Dan; Belikov, Ruslan

    2015-09-01

    Usage of an internal coronagraph with an adaptive optical system for wavefront correction for direct imaging of exoplanets is currently being considered for many mission concepts, including as an instrument addition to the WFIRST-AFTA mission to follow the James Web Space Telescope. The main technical challenge associated with direct imaging of exoplanets with an internal coronagraph is to effectively control both the diffraction and scattered light from the star so that the dim planetary companion can be seen. For the deformable mirror (DM) to recover a dark hole region with sufficiently high contrast in the image plane, wavefront errors are usually estimated using probes on the DM. To date, most broadband lab demonstrations use narrowband filters to estimate the chromaticity of the wavefront error, but this reduces the photon flux per filter and requires a filter system. Here, we propose a method to estimate the chromaticity of wavefront errors using only a broadband image. This is achieved by using special DM probes that have sufficient chromatic diversity. As a case example, we simulate the retrieval of the spectrum of the central wavelength from broadband images for a simple shaped- pupil coronagraph with a conjugate DM and compute the resulting estimation error.