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Sample records for zinc finger transcription

  1. Differing roles for zinc fingers in DNA recognition: Structure of a six-finger transcription factor IIIA complex

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Robert T.; Conlin, Rachel M.; Harrison, Stephen C.; Brown, Raymond S.

    1998-01-01

    The crystal structure of the six NH2-terminal zinc fingers of Xenopus laevis transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA) bound with 31 bp of the 5S rRNA gene promoter has been determined at 3.1 Å resolution. Individual zinc fingers are positioned differently in the major groove and across the minor groove of DNA to span the entire length of the duplex. These results show how TFIIIA can recognize several separated DNA sequences by using fewer fingers than necessary for continuous winding in the major groove. PMID:9501194

  2. Mechanisms of inhibition of zinc-finger transcription factors by selenium compounds ebselen and selenite.

    PubMed

    Larabee, Jason L; Hocker, James R; Hanas, Jay S

    2009-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory selenium compounds, ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3[2H]-one) and selenite, were found to alter the DNA binding mechanisms and structures of cysteine-rich zinc-finger transcription factors. As assayed by DNase I protection, DNA binding by TFIIIA (transcription factor IIIA, prototypical Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger protein), was inhibited by micromolar amounts of ebselen. In a gel shift assay, ebselen inhibited the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger-containing DNA binding domain (DBD) of the NF-kappaB mediated transcription factor Sp1. Ebselen also inhibited DNA binding by the p50 subunit of the pro-inflammatory Cys-containing NF-kappaB transcription factor. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was utilized to elucidate mechanisms of chemical interaction between ebselen and a zinc-bound Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger polypeptide modeled after the third finger of Sp1 (Sp1-3). Exposing Sp1-3 to micromolar amounts of ebselen resulted in Zn(2+) release from this peptide and the formation of a disulfide bond by oxidation of zinc finger SH groups, the likely mechanism for DNA binding inhibition. Selenite was shown by ESI-MS to also eject zinc from Sp1-3 as well as induce disulfide bond formation through SH oxidation. The selenite-dependent inhibition/oxidation mechanism differed from that of ebselen by inducing the formation of a stable selenotrisulfide bond. Selenite-induced selenotrisulfide formation was dependent upon the structure of the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger as alteration in the finger structure enhanced this reaction as well as selenite-dependent zinc release. Ebselen and selenite-dependent inhibition/oxidation of Cys-rich zinc finger proteins, with concomitant release of zinc and finger structural changes, points to mechanisms at the atomic and protein level for selenium-induced alterations in Cys-rich proteins, and possible amelioration of certain inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and oncogenic responses.

  3. The artificial zinc finger coding gene 'Jazz' binds the utrophin promoter and activates transcription.

    PubMed

    Corbi, N; Libri, V; Fanciulli, M; Tinsley, J M; Davies, K E; Passananti, C

    2000-06-01

    Up-regulation of utrophin gene expression is recognized as a plausible therapeutic approach in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We have designed and engineered new zinc finger-based transcription factors capable of binding and activating transcription from the promoter of the dystrophin-related gene, utrophin. Using the recognition 'code' that proposes specific rules between zinc finger primary structure and potential DNA binding sites, we engineered a new gene named 'Jazz' that encodes for a three-zinc finger peptide. Jazz belongs to the Cys2-His2 zinc finger type and was engineered to target the nine base pair DNA sequence: 5'-GCT-GCT-GCG-3', present in the promoter region of both the human and mouse utrophin gene. The entire zinc finger alpha-helix region, containing the amino acid positions that are crucial for DNA binding, was specifically chosen on the basis of the contacts more frequently represented in the available list of the 'code'. Here we demonstrate that Jazz protein binds specifically to the double-stranded DNA target, with a dissociation constant of about 32 nM. Band shift and super-shift experiments confirmed the high affinity and specificity of Jazz protein for its DNA target. Moreover, we show that chimeric proteins, named Gal4-Jazz and Sp1-Jazz, are able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the human utrophin promoter.

  4. Role of the POZ zinc finger transcription factor FBI-1 in human and murine adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Laudes, Matthias; Christodoulides, Constantinos; Sewter, Ciaran; Rochford, Justin J; Considine, Robert V; Sethi, Jaswinder K; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; O'Rahilly, Stephen

    2004-03-19

    Poxvirus zinc finger (POZ) zinc finger domain transcription factors have been shown to play a role in the control of growth arrest and differentiation in several types of mesenchymal cells but not, as yet, adipocytes. We found that a POZ domain protein, factor that binds to inducer of short transcripts-1 (FBI-1), was induced during both murine and human preadipocyte differentiation with maximal expression levels seen at days 2-4. FBI-1 mRNA was expressed in human adipose tissue with the highest levels found in samples from morbidly obese subjects. Murine cell lines constitutively expressing FBI-1 showed evidence for accelerated adipogenesis with earlier induction of markers of differentiation and enhanced lipid accumulation, suggesting that FBI-1 may be an active participant in the differentiation process. Consistent with the properties of this family of proteins in other cell systems, 3T3L1 cells stably overexpressing FBI-1 showed reduced DNA synthesis and reduced expression of cyclin A, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and p107, proteins known to be involved in the regulation of mitotic clonal expansion. In addition, FBI-1 reduced the transcriptional activity of the cyclin A promoter. Thus, FBI-1, a POZ zinc finger transcription factor, is induced during the early phases of human and murine preadipocyte differentiation where it may contribute to adipogenesis through influencing the switch from cellular proliferation to terminal differentiation.

  5. Role of the POZ Zinc Finger Transcription Factor FBI-1 in Human and Murine Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Laudes, Matthias; Christodoulides, Constantinos; Sewter, Ciaran; Rochford, Justin J.; Considine, Robert V.; Sethi, Jaswinder K.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; O’Rahilly, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Poxvirus zinc finger (POZ) zinc finger domain transcription factors have been shown to play a role in the control of growth arrest and differentiation in several types of mesenchymal cells but not, as yet, adipocytes. We found that a POZ domain protein, factor that binds to inducer of short transcripts-1 (FBI-1), was induced during both murine and human preadipocyte differentiation with maximal expression levels seen at days 2–4. FBI-1 mRNA was expressed in human adipose tissue with the highest levels found in samples from morbidly obese subjects. Murine cell lines constitutively expressing FBI-1 showed evidence for accelerated adipogenesis with earlier induction of markers of differentiation and enhanced lipid accumulation, suggesting that FBI-1 may be an active participant in the differentiation process. Consistent with the properties of this family of proteins in other cell systems, 3T3L1 cells stably overexpressing FBI-1 showed reduced DNA synthesis and reduced expression of cyclin A, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and p107, proteins known to be involved in the regulation of mitotic clonal expansion. In addition, FBI-1 reduced the transcriptional activity of the cyclin A promoter. Thus, FBI-1, a POZ zinc finger transcription factor, is induced during the early phases of human and murine preadipocyte differentiation where it may contribute to adipogenesis through influencing the switch from cellular proliferation to terminal differentiation. PMID:14701838

  6. The N-Terminal CCHC Zinc Finger Motif Mediates Homodimerization of Transcription Factor BCL11B.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Piotr; Winkler, Passorn; Delin, Martin; Sappa, Praveen K; Bekeschus, Sander; Hildebrandt, Petra; Przybylski, Grzegorz K; Völker, Uwe; Hammer, Elke; Schmidt, Christian A

    2018-03-01

    The BCL11B gene encodes a Krüppel-like, sequence-specific zinc finger (ZF) transcription factor that acts as either a repressor or an activator, depending on its posttranslational modifications. The importance of BCL11B in numerous biological processes in multiple organs has been well established in mouse knockout models. The phenotype of the first de novo monoallelic germ line missense mutation in the BCL11B gene (encoding N441K) strongly implies that the mutant protein acts in a dominant-negative manner by neutralizing the unaffected protein through the formation of a nonfunctional dimer. Using a Förster resonance energy transfer-assisted fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS-FRET) assay and affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry (AP-MS), we show that the N-terminal CCHC zinc finger motif is necessary and sufficient for the formation of the BCL11B dimer. Mutation of the CCHC ZF in BCL11B abolishes its transcription-regulatory activity. In addition, unlike wild-type BCL11B, this mutant is incapable of inducing cell cycle arrest and protecting against DNA damage-driven apoptosis. Our results confirm the BCL11B dimerization hypothesis and prove its importance for BCL11B function. By mapping the relevant regions to the CCHC domain, we describe a previously unidentified mechanism of transcription factor homodimerization. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Zinc finger proteins in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Jen, Jayu; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2016-07-13

    Zinc finger proteins are the largest transcription factor family in human genome. The diverse combinations and functions of zinc finger motifs make zinc finger proteins versatile in biological processes, including development, differentiation, metabolism and autophagy. Over the last few decades, increasing evidence reveals the potential roles of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. However, the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression vary in different cancer types and even in the same cancer type under different types of stress. Here, we discuss general mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in transcription regulation and summarize recent studies on zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. In this review, we also emphasize the importance of further investigations in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression.

  8. Activation of transcriptional activity of HSE by a novel mouse zinc finger protein ZNFD specifically expressed in testis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fengqin; Wang, Weiping; Lei, Chen; Liu, Qingmei; Qiu, Hao; Muraleedharan, Vinaydhar; Zhou, Bin; Cheng, Hongxia; Huang, Zhongkai; Xu, Weian; Li, Bichun; Wang, Minghua

    2012-04-01

    Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) that contain multiple cysteine and/or histidine residues perform important roles in various cellular functions, including transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The Cys-Cys-His-His (C(2)H(2)) type of ZFPs are the well-defined members of this super family and are the largest and most complex proteins in eukaryotic genomes. In this study, we identified a novel C(2)H(2) type of zinc finger gene ZNFD from mice which has a 1,002 bp open reading frame and encodes a protein with 333 amino acid residues. The predicted 37.4 kDa protein contains a C(2)H(2) zinc finger domain. ZNFD gene is located on chromosome 18qD1. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the ZNFD gene was specifically expressed in mouse testis but not in other tissues. Subcellular localization analysis demonstrated that ZNFD was localized in the nucleus. Reporter gene assays showed that overexpression of ZNFD in the COS7 cells activates the transcriptional activities of heat shock element (HSE). Overall, these results suggest that ZNFD is a member of the zinc finger transcription factor family and it participates in the transcriptional regulation of HSE. Many heat shock proteins regulated by HSE are involved in testicular development. Therefore, our results suggest that ZNFD may probably participate in the development of mouse testis and function as a transcription activator in HSE-mediated gene expression and signaling pathways.

  9. A zinc finger transcription factor ART1 regulates multiple genes implicated in aluminum tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Naoki; Huang, Chao Feng; Nagao, Sakiko; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Yutaka; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2009-10-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is the major limiting factor of crop production on acid soils, but some plant species have evolved ways of detoxifying Al. Here, we report a C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factor ART1 (for Al resistance transcription factor 1), which specifically regulates the expression of genes related to Al tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa). ART1 is constitutively expressed in the root, and the expression level is not affected by Al treatment. ART1 is localized in the nucleus of all root cells. A yeast one-hybrid assay showed that ART1 has a transcriptional activation potential and interacts with the promoter region of STAR1, an important factor in rice Al tolerance. Microarray analysis revealed 31 downstream transcripts regulated by ART1, including STAR1 and 2 and a couple of homologs of Al tolerance genes in other plants. Some of these genes were implicated in both internal and external detoxification of Al at different cellular levels. Our findings shed light on comprehensively understanding how plants detoxify aluminum to survive in an acidic environment.

  10. Identification of zinc finger transcription factor EGR2 as a novel acetylated protein.

    PubMed

    Noritsugu, Kota; Ito, Akihiro; Nakao, Yoichi; Yoshida, Minoru

    2017-08-05

    EGR2 is a zinc finger transcription factor that regulates myelination in the peripheral nervous system and T cell anergy. The transcriptional activity of EGR2 is known to be regulated by its co-activators and/or co-repressors. Although the activity of transcription factors is generally regulated not only by interactions with co-regulators but also posttranslational modifications including acetylation, little is known about posttranslational modifications of EGR2. Here we show that EGR2 is a novel acetylated protein. Through immunoblotting analyses using an antibody that specifically recognizes the acetylated form of EGR2, CBP and p300 were identified as acetyltransferases, while HDAC6, 10 and SIRT1 were identified as deacetylases of EGR2. Although the NuRD complex containing HDAC1 and HDAC2 is known to associate with EGR2, the present study suggests that acetylation of EGR2 is regulated independently of NuRD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulation of nitrogen metabolism by GATA zinc finger transcription factors in Yarrowia lipolytica

    DOE PAGES

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Baker, Scott E.; ...

    2017-02-15

    Here, fungi accumulate lipids in a manner dependent on the quantity and quality of the nitrogen source on which they are growing. In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, growth on a complex source of nitrogen enables rapid growth and limited accumulation of neutral lipids, while growth on a simple nitrogen source promotes lipid accumulation in large lipid droplets. Here we examined the roles of nitrogen catabolite repression and its regulation by GATA zinc finger transcription factors on lipid metabolism in Y. lipolytica. Deletion of the GATA transcription factor genes gzf3 and gzf2 resulted in nitrogen source-specific growth defects and greatermore » accumulation of lipids when the cells were growing on a simple nitrogen source. Deletion of gzf1, which is most similar to activators of genes repressed by nitrogen catabolite repression in filamentous ascomycetes, did not affect growth on the nitrogen sources tested. We examined gene expression of wild-type and GATA transcription factor mutants on simple and complex nitrogen sources and found that expression of enzymes involved in malate metabolism, beta-oxidation, and ammonia utilization are strongly upregulated on a simple nitrogen source. Deletion of gzf3 results in overexpression of genes with GATAA sites in their promoters, suggesting that it acts as a repressor, while gzf2 is required for expression of ammonia utilization genes but does not grossly affect the transcription level of genes predicted to be controlled by nitrogen catabolite repression. Both GATA transcription factor mutants exhibit decreased expression of genes controlled by carbon catabolite repression via the repressor mig1, including genes for beta-oxidation, highlighting the complex interplay between regulation of carbon, nitrogen, and lipid metabolism.« less

  12. Regulation of nitrogen metabolism by GATA zinc finger transcription factors in Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciT

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Baker, Scott E.

    Here, fungi accumulate lipids in a manner dependent on the quantity and quality of the nitrogen source on which they are growing. In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, growth on a complex source of nitrogen enables rapid growth and limited accumulation of neutral lipids, while growth on a simple nitrogen source promotes lipid accumulation in large lipid droplets. Here we examined the roles of nitrogen catabolite repression and its regulation by GATA zinc finger transcription factors on lipid metabolism in Y. lipolytica. Deletion of the GATA transcription factor genes gzf3 and gzf2 resulted in nitrogen source-specific growth defects and greatermore » accumulation of lipids when the cells were growing on a simple nitrogen source. Deletion of gzf1, which is most similar to activators of genes repressed by nitrogen catabolite repression in filamentous ascomycetes, did not affect growth on the nitrogen sources tested. We examined gene expression of wild-type and GATA transcription factor mutants on simple and complex nitrogen sources and found that expression of enzymes involved in malate metabolism, beta-oxidation, and ammonia utilization are strongly upregulated on a simple nitrogen source. Deletion of gzf3 results in overexpression of genes with GATAA sites in their promoters, suggesting that it acts as a repressor, while gzf2 is required for expression of ammonia utilization genes but does not grossly affect the transcription level of genes predicted to be controlled by nitrogen catabolite repression. Both GATA transcription factor mutants exhibit decreased expression of genes controlled by carbon catabolite repression via the repressor mig1, including genes for beta-oxidation, highlighting the complex interplay between regulation of carbon, nitrogen, and lipid metabolism.« less

  13. Zinc Finger-Containing Cellular Transcription Corepressor ZBTB25 Promotes Influenza Virus RNA Transcription and Is a Target for Zinc Ejector Drugs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Chuan; Jeng, King-Song; Lai, Michael M C

    2017-10-15

    Influenza A virus (IAV) replication relies on an intricate interaction between virus and host cells. How the cellular proteins are usurped for IAV replication remains largely obscure. The aim of this study was to search for novel and potential cellular factors that participate in IAV replication. ZBTB25, a transcription repressor of a variety of cellular genes, was identified by an RNA interference (RNAi) genomic library screen. Depletion of ZBTB25 significantly reduced IAV production. Conversely, overexpression of ZBTB25 enhanced it. ZBTB25 interacted with the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein and modulated its transcription activity. In addition, ZBTB25 also functioned as a viral RNA (vRNA)-binding protein, binding preferentially to the U-rich sequence within the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of vRNA. Both protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions involving ZBTB25 facilitated viral RNA transcription and replication. In addition, ZBTB25 suppressed interferon production, further enhancing viral replication. ZBTB25-associated functions required an intact zinc finger domain and posttranslational SUMO-1 modification of ZBTB25. Furthermore, treatment with disulfiram (a zinc ejector) of ZBTB25-overexpressing cells showed significantly reduced IAV production as a result of reduced RNA synthesis. Our findings indicate that IAV usurps ZBTB25 for IAV RNA synthesis and serves as a novel and potential therapeutic antiviral target. IMPORTANCE IAV-induced seasonal influenza causes severe illness and death in high-risk populations. However, IAV has developed resistance to current antiviral drugs due to its high mutation rate. Therefore, development of drugs targeting cellular factors required for IAV replication is an attractive alternative for IAV therapy. Here, we discovered a cellular protein, ZBTB25, that enhances viral RdRp activity by binding to both viral RdRp and viral RNA to stimulate viral RNA synthesis. A unique feature of ZBTB25 in the regulation of

  14. Zinc Finger-Containing Cellular Transcription Corepressor ZBTB25 Promotes Influenza Virus RNA Transcription and Is a Target for Zinc Ejector Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu-Chuan; Jeng, King-Song

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A virus (IAV) replication relies on an intricate interaction between virus and host cells. How the cellular proteins are usurped for IAV replication remains largely obscure. The aim of this study was to search for novel and potential cellular factors that participate in IAV replication. ZBTB25, a transcription repressor of a variety of cellular genes, was identified by an RNA interference (RNAi) genomic library screen. Depletion of ZBTB25 significantly reduced IAV production. Conversely, overexpression of ZBTB25 enhanced it. ZBTB25 interacted with the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein and modulated its transcription activity. In addition, ZBTB25 also functioned as a viral RNA (vRNA)-binding protein, binding preferentially to the U-rich sequence within the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of vRNA. Both protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions involving ZBTB25 facilitated viral RNA transcription and replication. In addition, ZBTB25 suppressed interferon production, further enhancing viral replication. ZBTB25-associated functions required an intact zinc finger domain and posttranslational SUMO-1 modification of ZBTB25. Furthermore, treatment with disulfiram (a zinc ejector) of ZBTB25-overexpressing cells showed significantly reduced IAV production as a result of reduced RNA synthesis. Our findings indicate that IAV usurps ZBTB25 for IAV RNA synthesis and serves as a novel and potential therapeutic antiviral target. IMPORTANCE IAV-induced seasonal influenza causes severe illness and death in high-risk populations. However, IAV has developed resistance to current antiviral drugs due to its high mutation rate. Therefore, development of drugs targeting cellular factors required for IAV replication is an attractive alternative for IAV therapy. Here, we discovered a cellular protein, ZBTB25, that enhances viral RdRp activity by binding to both viral RdRp and viral RNA to stimulate viral RNA synthesis. A unique feature of ZBTB25 in the

  15. The zinc-finger transcription factor Hindsight regulates ovulation competency of Drosophila follicles

    PubMed Central

    Deady, Lylah D; Li, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Follicle rupture, the final step in ovulation, utilizes conserved molecular mechanisms including matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps), steroid signaling, and adrenergic signaling. It is still unknown how follicles become competent for follicle rupture/ovulation. Here, we identify a zinc-finger transcription factor Hindsight (Hnt) as the first transcription factor regulating follicle’s competency for ovulation in Drosophila. Hnt is not expressed in immature stage-13 follicle cells but is upregulated in mature stage-14 follicle cells, which is essential for follicle rupture/ovulation. Hnt upregulates Mmp2 expression in posterior follicle cells (essential for the breakdown of the follicle wall) and Oamb expression in all follicle cells (the receptor for receiving adrenergic signaling and inducing Mmp2 activation). Hnt’s role in regulating Mmp2 and Oamb can be replaced by its human homolog Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (RREB-1). Our data suggest that Hnt/RREB-1 plays conserved role in regulating follicle maturation and competency for ovulation. PMID:29256860

  16. Epigenetic regulation of puberty via Zinc finger protein-mediated transcriptional repression

    PubMed Central

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Wright, Hollis; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Matagne, Valerie; Toro, Carlos A.; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Plant, Tony M.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2015-01-01

    In primates, puberty is unleashed by increased GnRH release from the hypothalamus following an interval of juvenile quiescence. GWAS implicates Zinc finger (ZNF) genes in timing human puberty. Here we show that hypothalamic expression of several ZNFs decreased in agonadal male monkeys in association with the pubertal reactivation of gonadotropin secretion. Expression of two of these ZNFs, GATAD1 and ZNF573, also decreases in peripubertal female monkeys. However, only GATAD1 abundance increases when gonadotropin secretion is suppressed during late infancy. Targeted delivery of GATAD1 or ZNF573 to the rat hypothalamus delays puberty by impairing the transition of a transcriptional network from an immature repressive epigenetic configuration to one of activation. GATAD1 represses transcription of two key puberty-related genes, KISS1 and TAC3, directly, and reduces the activating histone mark H3K4me2 at each promoter via recruitment of histone demethylase KDM1A. We conclude that GATAD1 epitomizes a subset of ZNFs involved in epigenetic repression of primate puberty. PMID:26671628

  17. Epigenetic regulation of puberty via Zinc finger protein-mediated transcriptional repression.

    PubMed

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Wright, Hollis; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Matagne, Valerie; Toro, Carlos A; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Plant, Tony M; Ojeda, Sergio R

    2015-12-16

    In primates, puberty is unleashed by increased GnRH release from the hypothalamus following an interval of juvenile quiescence. GWAS implicates Zinc finger (ZNF) genes in timing human puberty. Here we show that hypothalamic expression of several ZNFs decreased in agonadal male monkeys in association with the pubertal reactivation of gonadotropin secretion. Expression of two of these ZNFs, GATAD1 and ZNF573, also decreases in peripubertal female monkeys. However, only GATAD1 abundance increases when gonadotropin secretion is suppressed during late infancy. Targeted delivery of GATAD1 or ZNF573 to the rat hypothalamus delays puberty by impairing the transition of a transcriptional network from an immature repressive epigenetic configuration to one of activation. GATAD1 represses transcription of two key puberty-related genes, KISS1 and TAC3, directly, and reduces the activating histone mark H3K4me2 at each promoter via recruitment of histone demethylase KDM1A. We conclude that GATAD1 epitomizes a subset of ZNFs involved in epigenetic repression of primate puberty.

  18. Post-Transcriptional Regulation of the Trypanosome Heat Shock Response by a Zinc Finger Protein

    PubMed Central

    Droll, Dorothea; Minia, Igor; Fadda, Abeer; Singh, Aditi; Stewart, Mhairi; Queiroz, Rafael; Clayton, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In most organisms, the heat-shock response involves increased heat-shock gene transcription. In Kinetoplastid protists, however, virtually all control of gene expression is post-transcriptional. Correspondingly, Trypanosoma brucei heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) synthesis after heat shock depends on regulation of HSP70 mRNA turnover. We here show that the T. brucei CCCH zinc finger protein ZC3H11 is a post-transcriptional regulator of trypanosome chaperone mRNAs. ZC3H11 is essential in bloodstream-form trypanosomes and for recovery of insect-form trypanosomes from heat shock. ZC3H11 binds to mRNAs encoding heat-shock protein homologues, with clear specificity for the subset of trypanosome chaperones that is required for protein refolding. In procyclic forms, ZC3H11 was required for stabilisation of target chaperone-encoding mRNAs after heat shock, and the HSP70 mRNA was also decreased upon ZC3H11 depletion in bloodstream forms. Many mRNAs bound to ZC3H11 have a consensus AUU repeat motif in the 3′-untranslated region. ZC3H11 bound preferentially to AUU repeats in vitro, and ZC3H11 regulation of HSP70 mRNA in bloodstream forms depended on its AUU repeat region. Tethering of ZC3H11 to a reporter mRNA increased reporter expression, showing that it is capable of actively stabilizing an mRNA. These results show that expression of trypanosome heat-shock genes is controlled by a specific RNA-protein interaction. They also show that heat-shock-induced chaperone expression in procyclic trypanosome enhances parasite survival at elevated temperatures. PMID:23592996

  19. Regulation of Nitrogen Metabolism by GATA Zinc Finger Transcription Factors in Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciT

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Baker, Scott E.

    ABSTRACT Fungi accumulate lipids in a manner dependent on the quantity and quality of the nitrogen source on which they are growing. In the oleaginous yeastYarrowia lipolytica, growth on a complex source of nitrogen enables rapid growth and limited accumulation of neutral lipids, while growth on a simple nitrogen source promotes lipid accumulation in large lipid droplets. Here we examined the roles of nitrogen catabolite repression and its regulation by GATA zinc finger transcription factors on lipid metabolism inY. lipolytica. Deletion of the GATA transcription factor genesgzf3andgzf2resulted in nitrogen source-specific growth defects and greater accumulation of lipids when the cells weremore » growing on a simple nitrogen source. Deletion ofgzf1, which is most similar to activators of genes repressed by nitrogen catabolite repression in filamentous ascomycetes, did not affect growth on the nitrogen sources tested. We examined gene expression of wild-type and GATA transcription factor mutants on simple and complex nitrogen sources and found that expression of enzymes involved in malate metabolism, beta-oxidation, and ammonia utilization are strongly upregulated on a simple nitrogen source. Deletion ofgzf3results in overexpression of genes with GATAA sites in their promoters, suggesting that it acts as a repressor, whilegzf2is required for expression of ammonia utilization genes but does not grossly affect the transcription level of genes predicted to be controlled by nitrogen catabolite repression. Both GATA transcription factor mutants exhibit decreased expression of genes controlled by carbon catabolite repression via the repressormig1, including genes for beta-oxidation, highlighting the complex interplay between regulation of carbon, nitrogen, and lipid metabolism. IMPORTANCENitrogen source is commonly used to control lipid production in industrial fungi. Here we identified regulators of nitrogen catabolite repression in the oleaginous yeast

  20. The endogenous zinc finger transcription factor, ZNF24, modulates the angiogenic potential of human microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Di; Huang, Lan; Bischoff, Joyce; Moses, Marsha A.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously identified a zinc finger transcription factor, ZNF24 (zinc finger protein 24), as a novel inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis and have demonstrated that ZNF24 exerts this effect by repressing the transcription of VEGF in breast cancer cells. Here we focused on the role of ZNF24 in modulating the angiogenic potential of the endothelial compartment. Knockdown of ZNF24 by siRNA in human primary microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) led to significantly decreased cell migration and invasion compared with control siRNA. ZNF24 knockdown consistently led to significantly impaired VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling and decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), with no effect on levels of major regulators of MMP-2 activity such as the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and MMP-14. Moreover, silencing ZNF24 in these cells led to significantly decreased EC proliferation. Quantitative PCR array analyses identified multiple cell cycle regulators as potential ZNF24 downstream targets which may be responsible for the decreased proliferation in ECs. In vivo, knockdown of ZNF24 specifically in microvascular ECs led to significantly decreased formation of functional vascular networks. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ZNF24 plays an essential role in modulating the angiogenic potential of microvascular ECs by regulating the proliferation, migration, and invasion of these cells.— Jia, D., Huang, L., Bischoff, J., Moses, M. A. The endogenous zinc finger transcription factor, ZNF24, modulates the angiogenic potential of human microvascular endothelial cells. PMID:25550468

  1. Zinc Finger Transcription Factors Displaced SREBP Proteins as the Major Sterol Regulators during Saccharomycotina Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Sarah L.; Wang, Can; Holland, Linda M.; Brunel, François; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Zavrel, Martin; White, Theodore C.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    In most eukaryotes, including the majority of fungi, expression of sterol biosynthesis genes is regulated by Sterol-Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs), which are basic helix-loop-helix transcription activators. However, in yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans sterol synthesis is instead regulated by Upc2, an unrelated transcription factor with a Gal4-type zinc finger. The SREBPs in S. cerevisiae (Hms1) and C. albicans (Cph2) have lost a domain, are not major regulators of sterol synthesis, and instead regulate filamentous growth. We report here that rewiring of the sterol regulon, with Upc2 taking over from SREBP, likely occurred in the common ancestor of all Saccharomycotina. Yarrowia lipolytica, a deep-branching species, is the only genome known to contain intact and full-length orthologs of both SREBP (Sre1) and Upc2. Deleting YlUPC2, but not YlSRE1, confers susceptibility to azole drugs. Sterol levels are significantly reduced in the YlUPC2 deletion. RNA-seq analysis shows that hypoxic regulation of sterol synthesis genes in Y. lipolytica is predominantly mediated by Upc2. However, YlSre1 still retains a role in hypoxic regulation; growth of Y. lipolytica in hypoxic conditions is reduced in a Ylupc2 deletion and is abolished in a Ylsre1/Ylupc2 double deletion, and YlSre1 regulates sterol gene expression during hypoxia adaptation. We show that YlSRE1, and to a lesser extent YlUPC2, are required for switching from yeast to filamentous growth in hypoxia. Sre1 appears to have an ancestral role in the regulation of filamentation, which became decoupled from its role in sterol gene regulation by the arrival of Upc2 in the Saccharomycotina. PMID:24453983

  2. SUMOylation of the KRAB zinc-finger transcription factor PARIS/ZNF746 regulates its transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Tamotsu; Yamada, Yoshiji

    2016-05-13

    Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS), a member of the family of Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing zinc-finger transcription factors, is a substrate of the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin. PARIS represses the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that PARIS can be SUMOylated, and its SUMOylation plays a role in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT y (PIASy) was identified as an interacting protein of PARIS and shown to enhance its SUMOylation. PIASy repressed PGC-1a promoter activity, and this effect was attenuated by PARIS in a manner dependent on its SUMOylation status. Co-expression of SUMO-1 with PIASy completely repressed PGC-1a promoter activity independently of PARIS expression. PARIS-mediated PGC-1a promoter repression depended on the activity of histone deacetylases (HDAC), whereas PIASy repressed the PGC-1a promoter in an HDAC-independent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that PARIS and PIASy modulate PGC-1a gene transcription through distinct molecular mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Targeting Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer with Designer Zinc Finger Transcription Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Haydee; Wang, Yuhua; Beltran, Adriana S.; Juárez-Moreno, Karla; Yuan, Xinni; Kato, Sumie; Leisewitz, Andrea V.; Cuello Fredes, Mauricio; Licea, Alexei F.; Connolly, Denise C.; Huang, Leaf; Blancafort, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynecological malignancies. It is detected at late stages when the disease is spread through the abdominal cavity in a condition known as peritoneal carcinomatosis. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic interventions to target advanced stages of ovarian cancer. Mammary serine protease inhibitor (Maspin) represents an important metastasis suppressor initially identified in breast cancer. Herein we have generated a sequence-specific zinc finger artificial transcription factor (ATF) to up-regulate the Maspin promoter in aggressive ovarian cancer cell lines and to interrogate the therapeutic potential of Maspin in ovarian cancer. We found that although Maspin was expressed in some primary ovarian tumors, the promoter was epigenetically silenced in cell lines derived from ascites. Transduction of the ATF in MOVCAR 5009 cells derived from ascitic cultures of a TgMISIIR-TAg mouse model of ovarian cancer resulted in tumor cell growth inhibition, impaired cell invasion, and severe disruption of actin cytoskeleton. Systemic delivery of lipid-protamine-RNA nanoparticles encapsulating a chemically modified ATF mRNA resulted in inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth in nude mice accompanied with Maspin re-expression in the treated tumors. Gene expression microarrays of ATF-transduced cells revealed an exceptional specificity for the Maspin promoter. These analyses identified novel targets co-regulated with Maspin in human short-term cultures derived from ascites, such as TSPAN12, that could mediate the anti-metastatic phenotype of the ATF. Our work outlined the first targeted, non-viral delivery of ATFs into tumors with potential clinical applications for metastatic ovarian cancers. PMID:22782891

  4. C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors in foxtail millet define response to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Khandelwal, Rohit; Khan, Yusuf; Roy, Riti; Prasad, Manoj

    2014-09-01

    C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in plant stress response and hormone signal transduction. Hence considering its importance, genome-wide investigation and characterization of C2H2 zinc finger proteins were performed in Arabidopsis, rice and poplar but no such study was conducted in foxtail millet which is a C4 Panicoid model crop well known for its abiotic stress tolerance. The present study identified 124 C2H2-type zinc finger TFs in foxtail millet (SiC2H2) and physically mapped them onto the genome. The gene duplication analysis revealed that SiC2H2s primarily expanded in the genome through tandem duplication. The phylogenetic tree classified these TFs into five groups (I-V). Further, miRNAs targeting SiC2H2 transcripts in foxtail millet were identified. Heat map demonstrated differential and tissue-specific expression patterns of these SiC2H2 genes. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet SiC2H2 genes and its orthologs of sorghum, maize and rice revealed the evolutionary relationships of C2H2 type of zinc finger TFs. The duplication and divergence data provided novel insight into the evolutionary aspects of these TFs in foxtail millet and related grass species. Expression profiling of candidate SiC2H2 genes in response to salinity, dehydration and cold stress showed differential expression pattern of these genes at different time points of stresses.

  5. Immune-related zinc finger gene ZFAT is an essential transcriptional regulator for hematopoietic differentiation in blood islands

    PubMed Central

    Tsunoda, Toshiyuki; Takashima, Yasuo; Tanaka, Yoko; Fujimoto, Takahiro; Doi, Keiko; Hirose, Yumiko; Koyanagi, Midori; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Okamura, Tadashi; Kuroki, Masahide; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji

    2010-01-01

    TAL1 plays pivotal roles in vascular and hematopoietic developments through the complex with LMO2 and GATA1. Hemangioblasts, which have a differentiation potential for both endothelial and hematopoietic lineages, arise in the primitive streak and migrate into the yolk sac to form blood islands, where primitive hematopoiesis occurs. ZFAT (a zinc-finger gene in autoimmune thyroid disease susceptibility region / an immune-related transcriptional regulator containing 18 C2H2-type zinc-finger domains and one AT-hook) was originally identified as an immune-related transcriptional regulator containing 18 C2H2-type zinc-finger domains and one AT-hook, and is highly conserved among species. ZFAT is thought to be a critical transcription factor involved in immune-regulation and apoptosis; however, developmental roles for ZFAT remain unknown. Here we show that Zfat-deficient (Zfat−/−) mice are embryonic-lethal, with impaired differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in blood islands, where ZFAT is exactly expressed. Expression levels of Tal1, Lmo2, and Gata1 in Zfat−/− yolk sacs are much reduced compared with those of wild-type mice, and ChIP-PCR analysis revealed that ZFAT binds promoter regions for these genes in vivo. Furthermore, profound reduction in TAL1, LMO2, and GATA1 protein expressions are observed in Zfat−/− blood islands. Taken together, these results suggest that ZFAT is indispensable for mouse embryonic development and functions as a critical transcription factor for primitive hematopoiesis through direct-regulation of Tal1, Lmo2, and Gata1. Elucidation of ZFAT functions in hematopoiesis might lead to a better understanding of transcriptional networks in differentiation and cellular programs of hematopoietic lineage and provide useful information for applied medicine in stem cell therapy. PMID:20660741

  6. Yeast two-hybrid cloning of a novel zinc finger protein that interacts with the multifunctional transcription factor YY1.

    PubMed Central

    Kalenik, J L; Chen, D; Bradley, M E; Chen, S J; Lee, T C

    1997-01-01

    Muscle-restricted transcription of sarcomeric actin genes is negatively controlled by the zinc finger protein YY1, which is down-regulated at the protein level during myogenic differentiation. To identify cellular proteins that might mediate the function/stability of YY1 in muscle cells, we screened an adult human muscle cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid cloning system. We report the isolation and characterization of a novel protein termed YAF2 (YY1- associated factor 2) that interacts with YY1. The YAF2 cDNA encodes a 180 amino acid basic protein (pI 10.5) containing a single N-terminal C2-X10-C2 zinc finger. Lysine clusters are present that may function as a nuclear localization signal. Domain mapping analysis shows that the first and second zinc fingers of YY1 are targeted for YAF2 protein interaction. In contrast to the down-regulation of YY1, YAF2 message levels increase during in vitro differentiation of both rat skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. YAF2 appears to have a promyogenic regulatory role, since overexpression of YAF2 in C2 myoblasts stimulates myogenic promoter activity normally restricted by YY1. Co-transfection of YY1 reverses the stimulatory effect of YAF2. YAF2 also greatly potentiates proteolytic cleavage of YY1 by the calcium- activated protease m-calpain. The isolation of YAF2 may help in understanding the mechanisms through which inhibitors of myogenic transcription may be antagonized or eliminated by proteolysis during muscle development. PMID:9016636

  7. POZ domain transcription factor, FBI-1, represses transcription of ADH5/FDH by interacting with the zinc finger and interfering with DNA binding activity of Sp1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Kee; Suh, Dongchul; Edenberg, Howard J; Hur, Man-Wook

    2002-07-26

    The POZ domain is a protein-protein interaction motif that is found in many transcription factors, which are important for development, oncogenesis, apoptosis, and transcription repression. We cloned the POZ domain transcription factor, FBI-1, that recognizes the cis-element (bp -38 to -22) located just upstream of the core Sp1 binding sites (bp -22 to +22) of the ADH5/FDH minimal promoter (bp -38 to +61) in vitro and in vivo, as revealed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The ADH5/FDH minimal promoter is potently repressed by the FBI-1. Glutathione S-transferase fusion protein pull-down showed that the POZ domains of FBI-1, Plzf, and Bcl-6 directly interact with the zinc finger DNA binding domain of Sp1. DNase I footprinting assays showed that the interaction prevents binding of Sp1 to the GC boxes of the ADH5/FDH promoter. Gal4-POZ domain fusions targeted proximal to the GC boxes repress transcription of the Gal4 upstream activator sequence-Sp1-adenovirus major late promoter. Our data suggest that POZ domain represses transcription by interacting with Sp1 zinc fingers and by interfering with the DNA binding activity of Sp1.

  8. The pro1(+) gene from Sordaria macrospora encodes a C6 zinc finger transcription factor required for fruiting body development.

    PubMed Central

    Masloff, S; Pöggeler, S; Kück, U

    1999-01-01

    During sexual morphogenesis, the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora differentiates into multicellular fruiting bodies called perithecia. Previously it has been shown that this developmental process is under polygenic control. To further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in fruiting body formation, we generated the protoperithecia forming mutant pro1, in which the normal development of protoperithecia into perithecia has been disrupted. We succeeded in isolating a cosmid clone from an indexed cosmid library, which was able to complement the pro1(-) mutation. Deletion analysis, followed by DNA sequencing, subsequently demonstrated that fertility was restored to the pro1 mutant by an open reading frame encoding a 689-amino-acid polypeptide, which we named PRO1. A region from this polypeptide shares significant homology with the DNA-binding domains found in fungal C6 zinc finger transcription factors, such as the GAL4 protein from yeast. However, other typical regions of C6 zinc finger proteins, such as dimerization elements, are absent in PRO1. The involvement of the pro1(+) gene in fruiting body development was further confirmed by trying to complement the mutant phenotype with in vitro mutagenized and truncated versions of the pro1 open reading frame. Southern hybridization experiments also indicated that pro1(+) homologues are present in other sexually propagating filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:10224253

  9. The pro1(+) gene from Sordaria macrospora encodes a C6 zinc finger transcription factor required for fruiting body development.

    PubMed

    Masloff, S; Pöggeler, S; Kück, U

    1999-05-01

    During sexual morphogenesis, the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora differentiates into multicellular fruiting bodies called perithecia. Previously it has been shown that this developmental process is under polygenic control. To further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in fruiting body formation, we generated the protoperithecia forming mutant pro1, in which the normal development of protoperithecia into perithecia has been disrupted. We succeeded in isolating a cosmid clone from an indexed cosmid library, which was able to complement the pro1(-) mutation. Deletion analysis, followed by DNA sequencing, subsequently demonstrated that fertility was restored to the pro1 mutant by an open reading frame encoding a 689-amino-acid polypeptide, which we named PRO1. A region from this polypeptide shares significant homology with the DNA-binding domains found in fungal C6 zinc finger transcription factors, such as the GAL4 protein from yeast. However, other typical regions of C6 zinc finger proteins, such as dimerization elements, are absent in PRO1. The involvement of the pro1(+) gene in fruiting body development was further confirmed by trying to complement the mutant phenotype with in vitro mutagenized and truncated versions of the pro1 open reading frame. Southern hybridization experiments also indicated that pro1(+) homologues are present in other sexually propagating filamentous ascomycetes.

  10. Zinc finger protein 274 regulates imprinted expression of transcripts in Prader-Willi syndrome neurons.

    PubMed

    Langouët, Maéva; Glatt-Deeley, Heather R; Chung, Michael S; Dupont-Thibert, Clémence M; Mathieux, Elodie; Banda, Erin C; Stoddard, Christopher E; Crandall, Leann; Lalande, Marc

    2018-02-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, developmental delay and hyperphagia/obesity and is caused by the absence of paternal contribution to chromosome 15q11-q13. Using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models of PWS, we previously discovered an epigenetic complex that is comprised of the zinc-finger protein ZNF274 and the SET domain bifurcated 1 (SETDB1) histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase and that silences the maternal alleles at the PWS locus. Here, we have knocked out ZNF274 and rescued the expression of silent maternal alleles in neurons derived from PWS iPSC lines, without affecting DNA methylation at the PWS-Imprinting Center (PWS-IC). This suggests that the ZNF274 complex is a separate imprinting mark that represses maternal PWS gene expression in neurons and is a potential target for future therapeutic applications to rescue the PWS phenotype. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The C. elegans che-1 gene encodes a zinc finger transcription factor required for specification of the ASE chemosensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Okiko; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Koga, Makoto; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2003-04-01

    Chemotaxis to water-soluble chemicals such as NaCl is an important behavior of C. elegans when seeking food. ASE chemosensory neurons have a major role in this behavior. We show that che-1, defined by chemotaxis defects, encodes a zinc-finger protein similar to the GLASS transcription factor required for photoreceptor cell differentiation in Drosophila, and that che-1 is essential for specification and function of ASE neurons. Expression of a che-1::gfp fusion construct was predominant in ASE. In che-1 mutants, expression of genes characterizing ASE such as seven-transmembrane receptors, guanylate cyclases and a cyclic-nucleotide gated channel is lost. Ectopic expression of che-1 cDNA induced expression of ASE-specific marker genes, a dye-filling defect in neurons other than ASE and dauer formation.

  12. Molecular Characterization of the Schistosoma mansoni Zinc Finger Protein SmZF1 as a Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    D'Astolfo, Diego S.; Cardoso, Fernanda C.; Rajão, Matheus A.; Mourão, Marina M.; Gava, Elisandra; Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Macedo, Andréa M.; Machado, Carlos R.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Kitten, Gregory T.; Franco, Glória R.

    2009-01-01

    Background During its development, the parasite Schistosoma mansoni is exposed to different environments and undergoes many morphological and physiological transformations as a result of profound changes in gene expression. Characterization of proteins involved in the regulation of these processes is of importance for the understanding of schistosome biology. Proteins containing zinc finger motifs usually participate in regulatory processes and are considered the major class of transcription factors in eukaryotes. It has already been shown, by EMSA (Eletrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay), that SmZF1, a S. mansoni zinc finger (ZF) protein, specifically binds both DNA and RNA oligonucleotides. This suggests that this protein might act as a transcription factor in the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we extended the characterization of SmZF1 by determining its subcellular localization and by verifying its ability to regulate gene transcription. We performed immunohistochemistry assays using adult male and female worms, cercariae and schistosomula to analyze the distribution pattern of SmZF1 and verified that the protein is mainly detected in the cells nuclei of all tested life cycle stages except for adult female worms. Also, SmZF1 was heterologously expressed in mammalian COS-7 cells to produce the recombinant protein YFP-SmZF1, which was mainly detected in the nucleus of the cells by confocal microscopy and Western blot assays. To evaluate the ability of this protein to regulate gene transcription, cells expressing YFP-SmZF1 were tested in a luciferase reporter system. In this system, the luciferase gene is downstream of a minimal promoter, upstream of which a DNA region containing four copies of the SmZF1 putative best binding site (D1-3DNA) was inserted. SmZF1 increased the reporter gene transcription by two fold (p≤0.003) only when its specific binding site was present. Conclusion Taken together, these results strongly support the hypothesis

  13. Evolutionary expansion and divergence in a large family of primate-specific zinc finger transcription factor genes

    SciT

    Hamilton, A T; Huntley, S; Tran-Gyamfi, M

    Although most genes are conserved as one-to-one orthologs in different mammalian orders, certain gene families have evolved to comprise different numbers and types of protein-coding genes through independent series of gene duplications, divergence and gene loss in each evolutionary lineage. One such family encodes KRAB-zinc finger (KRAB-ZNF) genes, which are likely to function as transcriptional repressors. One KRAB-ZNF subfamily, the ZNF91 clade, has expanded specifically in primates to comprise more than 110 loci in the human genome, yielding large gene clusters in human chromosomes 19 and 7 and smaller clusters or isolated copies at other chromosomal locations. Although phylogenetic analysismore » indicates that many of these genes arose before the split between old world monkeys and new world monkeys, the ZNF91 subfamily has continued to expand and diversify throughout the evolution of apes and humans. The paralogous loci are distinguished by sequence divergence within their zinc finger arrays indicating a selection for proteins with different DNA binding specificities. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization data show that some of these ZNF genes can have tissue-specific expression patterns, however many KRAB-ZNFs that are near-ubiquitous could also be playing very specific roles in halting target pathways in all tissues except for a few, where the target is released by the absence of its repressor. The number of variant KRAB-ZNF proteins is increased not only because of the large number of loci, but also because many loci can produce multiple splice variants, which because of the modular structure of these genes may have separate and perhaps even conflicting regulatory roles. The lineage-specific duplication and rapid divergence of this family of transcription factor genes suggests a role in determining species-specific biological differences and the evolution of novel primate traits.« less

  14. Zinc finger transcription factor CASZ1 interacts with histones, DNA repair proteins and recruits NuRD complex to regulate gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihui; Lam, Norris; Thiele, Carol J

    2015-09-29

    The zinc finger transcription factor CASZ1 has been found to control neural fate-determination in flies, regulate murine and frog cardiac development, control murine retinal cell progenitor expansion and function as a tumor suppressor gene in humans. However, the molecular mechanism by which CASZ1 regulates gene transcription to exert these diverse biological functions has not been described. Here we identify co-factors that are recruited by CASZ1b to regulate gene transcription using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and mass spectrometry assays. We find that CASZ1b binds to the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex, histones and DNA repair proteins. Mutagenesis of the CASZ1b protein assay demonstrates that the N-terminus of CASZ1b is required for NuRD binding, and a poly(ADP-ribose) binding motif in the CASZ1b protein is required for histone H3 and DNA repair proteins binding. The N-terminus of CASZ1b fused to an artificial DNA-binding domain (GAL4DBD) causes a significant repression of transcription (5xUAS-luciferase assay), which could be blocked by treatment with an HDAC inhibitor. Realtime PCR results show that the transcriptional activity of CASZ1b mutants that abrogate NuRD or histone H3/DNA binding is significantly decreased. This indicates a model in which CASZ1b binds to chromatin and recruits NuRD complexes to orchestrate epigenetic-mediated transcriptional programs.

  15. Expression and function of the zinc finger transcription factor Sp6-9 in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum.

    PubMed

    Königsmann, Tatiana; Turetzek, Natascha; Pechmann, Matthias; Prpic, Nikola-Michael

    2017-11-01

    Zinc finger transcription factors of the Sp6-9 group are evolutionarily conserved in all metazoans and have important functions in, e.g., limb formation and heart development. The function of Sp6-9-related genes has been studied in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, but data from chelicerates (spiders and allies) was lacking so far. We have isolated the ortholog of Sp6-9 from the common house spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum and the cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides. We show that the Sp6-9 gene in these spider species is expressed in the developing appendages thus suggesting a conserved role in limb formation. Indeed, RNAi with Sp6-9 in P. tepidariorum leads not only to strong limb defects, but also to the loss of body segments and head defects in more strongly affected animals. Together with a new expression domain in the early embryo, these data suggest that Sp6-9 has a dual role P. tepidariorum. The early role in head and body segment formation is not known from other arthropods, but the role in limb formation is evolutionarily highly conserved.

  16. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor SlZFP2 Negatively Regulates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Fruit Ripening in Tomato1

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening. PMID:25637453

  17. The Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 Cysteine-2/Histidine-2 Repressor-Like Transcription Factor Regulates Development and Tolerance to Salinity in Tomato and Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Hichri, Imène; Muhovski, Yordan; Žižková, Eva; Dobrev, Petre I.; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose Manuel; Solano, Roberto; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Motyka, Vaclav; Lutts, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    The zinc finger superfamily includes transcription factors that regulate multiple aspects of plant development and were recently shown to regulate abiotic stress tolerance. Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 [SIZF2]) is a cysteine-2/histidine-2-type zinc finger transcription factor bearing an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression domain and binding to the ACGTCAGTG sequence containing two AGT core motifs. SlZF2 is ubiquitously expressed during plant development, and is rapidly induced by sodium chloride, drought, and potassium chloride treatments. Its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato impaired development and influenced leaf and flower shape, while causing a general stress visible by anthocyanin and malonyldialdehyde accumulation. SlZF2 enhanced salt sensitivity in Arabidopsis, whereas SlZF2 delayed senescence and improved tomato salt tolerance, particularly by maintaining photosynthesis and increasing polyamine biosynthesis, in salt-treated hydroponic cultures (125 mm sodium chloride, 20 d). SlZF2 may be involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis/signaling, because SlZF2 is rapidly induced by ABA treatment and 35S::SlZF2 tomatoes accumulate more ABA than wild-type plants. Transcriptome analysis of 35S::SlZF2 revealed that SlZF2 both increased and reduced expression of a comparable number of genes involved in various physiological processes such as photosynthesis, polyamine biosynthesis, and hormone (notably ABA) biosynthesis/signaling. Involvement of these different metabolic pathways in salt stress tolerance is discussed. PMID:24567191

  18. Restraint of angiogenesis by zinc finger transcription factor CTCF-dependent chromatin insulation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ming; Chen, Bo; Pardo, Carolina; Pampo, Christine; Chen, Jing; Lien, Ching-Ling; Wu, Lizi; Wang, Heiman; Yao, Kai; Oh, S. Paul; Seto, Edward; Smith, Lois E. H.; Siemann, Dietmar W.; Kladde, Michael P.; Cepko, Constance L.; Lu, Jianrong

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis is meticulously controlled by a fine balance between positive and negative regulatory activities. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a predominant angiogenic factor and its dosage is precisely regulated during normal vascular formation. In cancer, VEGF is commonly overproduced, resulting in abnormal neovascularization. VEGF is induced in response to various stimuli including hypoxia; however, very little is known about the mechanisms that confine its induction to ensure proper angiogenesis. Chromatin insulation is a key transcription mechanism that prevents promiscuous gene activation by interfering with the action of enhancers. Here we show that the chromatin insulator-binding factor CTCF binds to the proximal promoter of VEGF. Consistent with the enhancer-blocking mode of chromatin insulators, CTCF has little effect on basal expression of VEGF but specifically affects its activation by enhancers. CTCF knockdown cells are sensitized for induction of VEGF and exhibit elevated proangiogenic potential. Cancer-derived CTCF missense mutants are mostly defective in blocking enhancers at the VEGF locus. Moreover, during mouse retinal development, depletion of CTCF causes excess angiogenesis. Therefore, CTCF-mediated chromatin insulation acts as a crucial safeguard against hyperactivation of angiogenesis. PMID:21896759

  19. Transcriptional repression mediated by the KRAB domain of the human C2H2 zinc finger protein Kox1/ZNF10 does not require histone deacetylation.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, P; Koczan, D; Thiesen, H J

    2001-04-01

    The KRAB domain of human Kox1, a member of the KRAB C2H2 zinc finger family, confers strong transcriptional repressor activities even to remote promoter positions. Here, HDAC inhibitors were used to demonstrate that histone deacetylation is not required for mediating transcriptional repression of KRAB zinc finger proteins. Two reporter systems with either stably integrated or transiently transfected templates, both under control of strong viral promoters, were analyzed. Under all circumstances, HDAC inhibition did not alter the repression potential of the KRAB domain. In case of the stably integrated luciferase reporter gene system, neither expression levels of the KRAB fusion protein nor complex formation with its putative co-repressor TIF1beta were significantly changed. Furthermore, the TIF1beta/KRAB complex was devoid of mSin3A and HDAC1. In the transient transfection system, the transcriptional repression induced by TIF1beta and HP1alpha was not diminished by HDAC inhibitors, whereas the repressory activity of TIF1alpha was significantly affected. Thus, KRAB, TIF1beta and HP1alpha are likely to be functionally linked. In conclusion, HDAC activity is not essential for the strong transcriptional repressor activity mediated by the KRAB domain of Kox1 in particular and, presumably, by KRAB domains in general. This feature might be helpful in identifying and characterizing target genes under the control of

  20. Gene targeting technologies in rats: zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

    PubMed

    Mashimo, Tomoji

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory rat has been widely used as an animal model in biomedical science for more than 150 years. Applying zinc-finger nucleases or transcription activator-like effector nucleases to rat embryos via microinjection is an efficient genome editing tool for generating targeted knockout rats. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated endonucleases have been used as an effective tool for precise and multiplex genome editing in mice and rats. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of these site-specific nuclease technologies for genetic analysis and manipulation in rats are discussed. © 2013 The Author Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  1. Activating human genes with zinc finger proteins, transcription activator-like effectors and CRISPR/Cas9 for gene therapy and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Gersbach, Charles A; Perez-Pinera, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    New technologies have recently been developed to control the expression of human genes in their native genomic context by engineering synthetic transcription factors that can be targeted to any DNA sequence. The ability to precisely regulate any gene as it occurs naturally in the genome provides a means to address a variety of diseases and disorders. This approach also circumvents some of the traditional challenges of gene therapy. In this editorial, we review the technologies that have enabled targeted human gene activation, including the engineering of transcription factors based on zinc finger proteins, transcription activator-like effectors and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Additionally, we highlight examples in which these methods have been developed for therapeutic applications and discuss challenges and opportunities.

  2. The multi-zinc finger protein ZNF217 contacts DNA through a two-finger domain.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Noelia; Clifton, Molly M K; Funnell, Alister P W; Artuz, Crisbel; Hallal, Samantha; Quinlan, Kate G R; Font, Josep; Vandevenne, Marylène; Setiyaputra, Surya; Pearson, Richard C M; Mackay, Joel P; Crossley, Merlin

    2011-11-04

    Classical C2H2 zinc finger proteins are among the most abundant transcription factors found in eukaryotes, and the mechanisms through which they recognize their target genes have been extensively investigated. In general, a tandem array of three fingers separated by characteristic TGERP links is required for sequence-specific DNA recognition. Nevertheless, a significant number of zinc finger proteins do not contain a hallmark three-finger array of this type, raising the question of whether and how they contact DNA. We have examined the multi-finger protein ZNF217, which contains eight classical zinc fingers. ZNF217 is implicated as an oncogene and in repressing the E-cadherin gene. We show that two of its zinc fingers, 6 and 7, can mediate contacts with DNA. We examine its putative recognition site in the E-cadherin promoter and demonstrate that this is a suboptimal site. NMR analysis and mutagenesis is used to define the DNA binding surface of ZNF217, and we examine the specificity of the DNA binding activity using fluorescence anisotropy titrations. Finally, sequence analysis reveals that a variety of multi-finger proteins also contain two-finger units, and our data support the idea that these may constitute a distinct subclass of DNA recognition motif.

  3. The Multi-zinc Finger Protein ZNF217 Contacts DNA through a Two-finger Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Noelia; Clifton, Molly M. K.; Funnell, Alister P. W.; Artuz, Crisbel; Hallal, Samantha; Quinlan, Kate G. R.; Font, Josep; Vandevenne, Marylène; Setiyaputra, Surya; Pearson, Richard C. M.; Mackay, Joel P.; Crossley, Merlin

    2011-01-01

    Classical C2H2 zinc finger proteins are among the most abundant transcription factors found in eukaryotes, and the mechanisms through which they recognize their target genes have been extensively investigated. In general, a tandem array of three fingers separated by characteristic TGERP links is required for sequence-specific DNA recognition. Nevertheless, a significant number of zinc finger proteins do not contain a hallmark three-finger array of this type, raising the question of whether and how they contact DNA. We have examined the multi-finger protein ZNF217, which contains eight classical zinc fingers. ZNF217 is implicated as an oncogene and in repressing the E-cadherin gene. We show that two of its zinc fingers, 6 and 7, can mediate contacts with DNA. We examine its putative recognition site in the E-cadherin promoter and demonstrate that this is a suboptimal site. NMR analysis and mutagenesis is used to define the DNA binding surface of ZNF217, and we examine the specificity of the DNA binding activity using fluorescence anisotropy titrations. Finally, sequence analysis reveals that a variety of multi-finger proteins also contain two-finger units, and our data support the idea that these may constitute a distinct subclass of DNA recognition motif. PMID:21908891

  4. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae zinc finger proteins Msn2p and Msn4p are required for transcriptional induction through the stress response element (STRE).

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pastor, M T; Marchler, G; Schüller, C; Marchler-Bauer, A; Ruis, H; Estruch, F

    1996-01-01

    The MSN2 and MSN4 genes encode homologous and functionally redundant Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins. A disruption of both MSN2 and MSN4 genes results in a higher sensitivity to different stresses, including carbon source starvation, heat shock and severe osmotic and oxidative stresses. We show that MSN2 and MSN4 are required for activation of several yeast genes such as CTT1, DDR2 and HSP12, whose induction is mediated through stress-response elements (STREs). Msn2p and Msn4p are important factors for the stress-induced activation of STRE dependent promoters and bind specifically to STRE-containing oligonucleotides. Our results suggest that MSN2 and MSN4 encode a DNA-binding component of the stress responsive system and it is likely that they act as positive transcription factors. Images PMID:8641288

  5. A comprehensive catalog of human KRAB-associated zinc finger genes: Insights into the evolutionary history of a large family of transcriptional repressors

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, Stuart; Baggott, Daniel M.; Hamilton, Aaron T.; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; Yang, Shan; Kim, Joomyeong; Gordon, Laurie; Branscomb, Elbert; Stubbs, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Krüppel-type zinc finger (ZNF) motifs are prevalent components of transcription factor proteins in all eukaryotes. KRAB-ZNF proteins, in which a potent repressor domain is attached to a tandem array of DNA-binding zinc-finger motifs, are specific to tetrapod vertebrates and represent the largest class of ZNF proteins in mammals. To define the full repertoire of human KRAB-ZNF proteins, we searched the genome sequence for key motifs and then constructed and manually curated gene models incorporating those sequences. The resulting gene catalog contains 423 KRAB-ZNF protein-coding loci, yielding alternative transcripts that altogether predict at least 742 structurally distinct proteins. Active rounds of segmental duplication, involving single genes or larger regions and including both tandem and distributed duplication events, have driven the expansion of this mammalian gene family. Comparisons between the human genes and ZNF loci mined from the draft mouse, dog, and chimpanzee genomes not only identified 103 KRAB-ZNF genes that are conserved in mammals but also highlighted a substantial level of lineage-specific change; at least 136 KRAB-ZNF coding genes are primate specific, including many recent duplicates. KRAB-ZNF genes are widely expressed and clustered genes are typically not coregulated, indicating that paralogs have evolved to fill roles in many different biological processes. To facilitate further study, we have developed a Web-based public resource with access to gene models, sequences, and other data, including visualization tools to provide genomic context and interaction with other public data sets. PMID:16606702

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ras/cAMP pathway controls post-diauxic shift element-dependent transcription through the zinc finger protein Gis1

    PubMed Central

    Pedruzzi, Ivo; Bürckert, Niels; Egger, Pascal; De Virgilio, Claudio

    2000-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein kinase Rim15 was identified previously as a component of the Ras/cAMP pathway acting immediately downstream of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) to control a broad range of adaptations in response to nutrient limitation. Here, we show that the zinc finger protein Gis1 acts as a dosage-dependent suppressor of the rim15Δ defect in nutrient limitation-induced transcriptional derepression of SSA3. Loss of Gis1 results in a defect in transcriptional derepression upon nutrient limitation of various genes that are negatively regulated by the Ras/cAMP pathway (e.g. SSA3, HSP12 and HSP26). Tests of epistasis as well as transcriptional analyses of Gis1-dependent expression indicate that Gis1 acts in this pathway downstream of Rim15 to mediate transcription from the previously identified post-diauxic shift (PDS) element. Accordingly, deletion of GIS1 partially suppresses, and overexpression of GIS1 exacerbates the growth defect of mutant cells that are compromised for cAPK activity. Moreover, PDS element-driven expression, which is negatively regulated by the Ras/cAMP pathway and which is induced upon nutrient limitation, is almost entirely dependent on the presence of Gis1. PMID:10835355

  7. Transcriptional activation is a conserved feature of the early embryonic factor Zelda that requires a cluster of four zinc fingers for DNA binding and a low-complexity activation domain.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Danielle C; Bondra, Eliana R; Harrison, Melissa M

    2015-02-06

    Delayed transcriptional activation of the zygotic genome is a nearly universal phenomenon in metazoans. Immediately following fertilization, development is controlled by maternally deposited products, and it is not until later stages that widespread activation of the zygotic genome occurs. Although the mechanisms driving this genome activation are currently unknown, the transcriptional activator Zelda (ZLD) has been shown to be instrumental in driving this process in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we define functional domains of ZLD required for both DNA binding and transcriptional activation. We show that the C-terminal cluster of four zinc fingers mediates binding to TAGteam DNA elements in the promoters of early expressed genes. All four zinc fingers are required for this activity, and splice isoforms lacking three of the four zinc fingers fail to activate transcription. These truncated splice isoforms dominantly suppress activation by the full-length, embryonically expressed isoform. We map the transcriptional activation domain of ZLD to a central region characterized by low complexity. Despite relatively little sequence conservation within this domain, ZLD orthologs from Drosophila virilis, Anopheles gambiae, and Nasonia vitripennis activate transcription in D. melanogaster cells. Transcriptional activation by these ZLD orthologs suggests that ZLD functions through conserved interactions with a protein cofactor(s). We have identified distinct DNA-binding and activation domains within the critical transcription factor ZLD that controls the initial activation of the zygotic genome. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Arabidopsis thaliana VOZ (Vascular plant One-Zinc finger) transcription factors are required for proper regulation of flowering time

    PubMed Central

    Celesnik, Helena; Ali, Gul S.; Robison, Faith M.; Reddy, Anireddy S. N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Transition to flowering in plants is tightly controlled by environmental cues, which regulate the photoperiod and vernalization pathways, and endogenous signals, which mediate the autonomous and gibberellin pathways. In this work, we investigated the role of two Zn2+-finger transcription factors, the paralogues AtVOZ1 and AtVOZ2, in Arabidopsis thaliana flowering. Single atvoz1-1 and atvoz2-1 mutants showed no significant phenotypes as compared to wild type. However, atvoz1-1 atvoz2-1 double mutant plants exhibited several phenotypes characteristic of flowering-time mutants. The double mutant displayed a severe delay in flowering, together with additional pleiotropic phenotypes. Late flowering correlated with elevated expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), which encodes a potent floral repressor, and decreased expression of its target, the floral promoter FD. Vernalization rescued delayed flowering of atvoz1-1 atvoz2-1 and reversed elevated FLC levels. Accumulation of FLC transcripts in atvoz1-1 atvoz2-1 correlated with increased expression of several FLC activators, including components of the PAF1 and SWR1 chromatin-modifying complexes. Additionally, AtVOZs were shown to bind the promoter of MOS3/SAR3 and directly regulate expression of this nuclear pore protein, which is known to participate in the regulation of flowering time, suggesting that AtVOZs exert at least some of their flowering regulation by influencing the nuclear pore function. Complementation of atvoz1-1 atvoz2-1 with AtVOZ2 reversed all double mutant phenotypes, confirming that the observed morphological and molecular changes arise from the absence of functional AtVOZ proteins, and validating the functional redundancy between AtVOZ1 and AtVOZ2. PMID:23616927

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the DNA-binding with one zinc finger (Dof) transcription factor family in bananas.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-12-01

    DNA-binding with one finger (Dof) domain proteins are a multigene family of plant-specific transcription factors involved in numerous aspects of plant growth and development. In this study, we report a genome-wide search for Musa acuminata Dof (MaDof) genes and their expression profiles at different developmental stages and in response to various abiotic stresses. In addition, a complete overview of the Dof gene family in bananas is presented, including the gene structures, chromosomal locations, cis-regulatory elements, conserved protein domains, and phylogenetic inferences. Based on the genome-wide analysis, we identified 74 full-length protein-coding MaDof genes unevenly distributed on 11 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis with Dof members from diverse plant species showed that MaDof genes can be classified into four subgroups (StDof I, II, III, and IV). The detailed genomic information of the MaDof gene homologs in the present study provides opportunities for functional analyses to unravel the exact role of the genes in plant growth and development.

  10. VOZ; isolation and characterization of novel vascular plant transcription factors with a one-zinc finger from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Hisabori, Toru; Takeyasu, Kunio; Sato, Masa H

    2004-07-01

    A 38-bp pollen-specific cis-acting region of the AVP1 gene is involved in the expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana V-PPase during pollen development. Here, we report the isolation and structural characterization of AtVOZ1 and AtVOZ2, novel transcription factors that bind to the 38-bp cis-acting region of A. thaliana V-PPase gene, AVP1. AtVOZ1 and AtVOZ2 show 53% amino acid sequence similarity. Homologs of AtVOZ1 and AtVOZ2 are found in various vascular plants as well as a moss, Physcomitrella patens. Promoter-beta-glucuronidase reporter analysis shows that AtVOZ1 is specifically expressed in the phloem tissue and AtVOZ2 is strongly expressed in the root. In vivo transient effector-reporter analysis in A. thaliana suspension-cultured cells demonstrates that AtVOZ1 and AtVOZ2 function as transcriptional activators in the Arabidopsis cell. Two conserved regions termed Domain-A and Domain-B were identified from an alignment of AtVOZ proteins and their homologs of O. sativa and P. patens. AtVOZ2 binds as a dimer to the specific palindromic sequence, GCGTNx7ACGC, with Domain-B, which is comprised of a functional novel zinc coordinating motif and a conserved basic region. Domain-B is shown to function as both the DNA-binding and the dimerization domains of AtVOZ2. From highly the conservative nature among all identified VOZ proteins, we conclude that Domain-B is responsible for the DNA binding and dimerization of all VOZ-family proteins and designate it as the VOZ-domain.

  11. A Zinc-Finger-Family Transcription Factor, AbVf19, Is Required for the Induction of a Gene Subset Important for Virulence in Alternaria brassicicola

    SciT

    Srivastava, Akhil; Ohm, Robin A.; Oxiles, Lindsay

    2011-10-26

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen with a broad host range within the family Brassicaceae. It produces secondary metabolites that marginally affect virulence. Cell wall degrading enzymes (CDWE) have been considered important for pathogenesis but none of them individually have been identified as significant virulence factors in A. brassicicola. In this study, knockout mutants of a gene, AbVf19, were created and produced considerably smaller lesions than the wild type on inoculated host plants. The presence of tandem zinc-finger domains in the predicted amino acid sequence and nuclear localization of AbVf19- reporter protein suggested that it wasmore » a transcription factor. Gene expression comparisons using RNA-seq identified 74 genes being downregulated in the mutant during a late stage of infection. Among the 74 downregulated genes, 28 were putative CWDE genes. These were hydrolytic enzyme genes that composed a small fraction of genes within each family of cellulases, pectinases, cutinases, and proteinases. The mutants grew slower than the wild type on an axenic medium with pectin as a major carbon source. This study demonstrated the existence and the importance of a transcription factor that regulates a suite of genes that are important for decomposing and utilizing plant material during the late stage of plant infection.« less

  12. Sda1, a Cys2-His2 Zinc Finger Transcription Factor, Is Involved in Polyol Metabolism and Fumonisin B1 Production in Fusarium verticillioides

    PubMed Central

    Malapi-Wight, Martha; Smith, Jonathon; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Bluhm, Burton H.; Shim, Won-Bo

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitous ascomycete Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot and stalk rot of maize, both of which reduce grain quality and yield. Additionally, F. verticillioides produces the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) during infection of maize kernels, and thus potentially compromises human and animal health. The current knowledge is fragmentary regarding the regulation of FB1 biosynthesis, particularly when considering interplay with environmental factors such as nutrient availability. In this study, SDA1 of F. verticillioides, predicted to encode a Cys-2 His-2 zinc finger transcription factor, was shown to play a key role in catabolizing select carbon sources. Growth of the SDA1 knock-out mutant (Δsda1) was completely inhibited when sorbitol was the sole carbon source and was severely impaired when exclusively provided mannitol or glycerol. Deletion of SDA1 unexpectedly increased FB1 biosynthesis, but reduced arabitol and mannitol biosynthesis, as compared to the wild-type progenitor. Trichoderma reesei ACE1, a regulator of cellulase and xylanase expression, complemented the F. verticillioides Δsda1 mutant, which indicates that Ace1 and Sda1 are functional orthologs. Taken together, the data indicate that Sda1 is a transcriptional regulator of carbon metabolism and toxin production in F. verticillioides. PMID:23844049

  13. Palmate-like pentafoliata1 encodes a novel Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factor essential for compound leaf morphogenesis in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As the primary site for photosynthetic carbon fixation and the interface between plants and the environment, plant leaves play a key role in plant growth, biomass production and survival, and global carbon and oxygen cycles. Leaves can be simple with a single blade or compound with multiple units of blades known as leaflets. In a palmate-type compound leaf, leaflets are clustered at the tip of the leaf. In a pinnate-type compound leaf, on the other hand, leaflets are placed on a rachis in distance from each other. Higher orders of complexities such as bipinnate compound leaves of the “sensitive” plant, Mimosa pudica, also occur in nature. However, how different leaf morphologies are determined is still poorly understood. Medicago truncatula is a model legume closely related to alfalfa and soybean with trifoliate compound leaves. Recently, we have shown that Palmate-like Pentafoliata1 (PALM1) encodes a putative Cys(2) His(2) zinc finger transcription factor essential for compound leaf morphogenesis in M. truncatula. Here, we present our phylogenetic relationship analysis of PALM1 homologs from different species and demonstrate that PALM1 has transcriptional activity in the transactivation assay in yeast. PMID:20724826

  14. Improvement of acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a zinc-finger-based artificial transcription factor and identification of novel genes involved in acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui; Wei, Xiaowen; Sun, Cuihuan; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Jianren; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-03-01

    Acetic acid is present in cellulosic hydrolysate as a potent inhibitor, and the superior acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ensures good cell viability and efficient ethanol production when cellulosic raw materials are used as substrates. In this study, a mutant strain of S. cerevisiae ATCC4126 (Sc4126-M01) with improved acetic acid tolerance was obtained through screening strains transformed with an artificial zinc finger protein transcription factor (ZFP-TF) library. Further analysis indicated that improved acetic acid tolerance was associated with improved catalase (CAT) activity. The ZFP coding sequence associated with the improved phenotype was identified, and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that three of the possible genes involved in the enhanced acetic acid tolerance regulated by this ZFP-TF, namely YFL040W, QDR3, and IKS1, showed decreased transcription levels in Sc4126-M01 in the presence of acetic acid, compared to those in the control strain. Sc4126-M01 mutants having QDR3 and IKS1 deletion (ΔQDR3 and ΔIKS1) exhibited higher acetic acid tolerance than the wild-type strain under acetic acid treatment. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity in the presence of 5 g/L acetic acid were improved in the ΔQDR3 mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Our studies demonstrated that the synthetic ZFP-TF library can be used to improve acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae and that the employment of an artificial transcription factor can facilitate the exploration of novel functional genes involved in stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae.

  15. Control of dissected leaf morphology by a Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factor in the model legume Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianbin; Ge, Liangfa; Wang, Hongliang; Berbel, Ana; Liu, Yu; Chen, Yuhui; Li, Guangming; Tadege, Million; Wen, Jiangqi; Cosson, Viviane; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Ratet, Pascal; Madueño, Francisco; Bai, Guihua; Chen, Rujin

    2010-01-01

    Plant leaves are diverse in their morphology, reflecting to a large degree the plant diversity in the natural environment. How different leaf morphology is determined is not yet understood. The leguminous plant Medicago truncatula exhibits dissected leaves with three leaflets at the tip. We show that development of the trifoliate leaves is determined by the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factor PALM1. Loss-of-function mutants of PALM1 develop dissected leaves with five leaflets clustered at the tip. We demonstrate that PALM1 binds a specific promoter sequence and down-regulates the expression of the M. truncatula LEAFY/UNIFOLIATA orthologue SINGLE LEAFLET1 (SGL1), encoding an indeterminacy factor necessary for leaflet initiation. Our data indicate that SGL1 is required for leaflet proliferation in the palm1 mutant. Interestingly, ectopic expression of PALM1 effectively suppresses the lobed leaf phenotype from overexpression of a class 1 KNOTTED1-like homeobox protein in Arabidopsis plants. Taken together, our results show that PALM1 acts as a determinacy factor, regulates the spatial-temporal expression of SGL1 during leaf morphogenesis and together with the LEAFY/UNIFOLIATA orthologue plays an important role in orchestrating the compound leaf morphology in M. truncatula. PMID:20498057

  16. KLF5/BTEB2, a Krüppel-like zinc-finger type transcription factor, mediates both smooth muscle cell activation and cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Ryozo; Shindo, Takayuki; Manabe, Ichiro; Suzuki, Toru; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac and vascular biology need to be approached interactively because they share many common biological features as seen in activation of the local renin-angiotensin system, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix production. We previously reported KLF5/BTEB2, a Krüppel-like zinc-finger type transcription factor, to activate various gene promoters that are activated in phenotypically modulated smooth muscle cells, such as a nonmuscle type myosin heavy chain gene SMemb, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), iNOS, PDGF-A, Egr-1 and VEGF receptors at least in vitro. KLF5/BTEB2 mRNA levels are downregulated with vascular development but upregulated in neointima that is produced in response to vascular injury. Mitogenic stimulation activates KLF5/BTEB2 gene expression through MEK1 and Egr-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed KLF5/BTEB2 to be induced and to bind the promoter of the PDGF-A gene in response to angiotensin II stimulation. In order to define the role of KLF5/BTEB2 in cardiovascular remodeling, we targeted the KLF5/BTEB2 gene in mice. Homozygous mice resulted in early embryonic lethality whereas heterozygous mice were apparently normal. However, in response to external stress, arteries of heterozygotes exhibited diminished levels of smooth muscle and adventitial cell activation. Furthermore, cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy induced by continuous angiotensin II infusion. We also found that RARa binds KLF5/BTEB2, and that Am80, a potent synthetic RAR agonist, inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. These results indicate that KLF5/BTEB2 is an essential transcription factor that causes not only smooth muscle phenotypic modulation but also cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.

  17. Modulation of Caenorhabditis elegans transcription factor activity by HIM-8 and the related Zinc-Finger ZIM proteins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongliu; Nelms, Brian L; Sleiman, Sama F; Chamberlin, Helen M; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2007-10-01

    The previously reported negative regulatory activity of HIM-8 on the Sox protein EGL-13 is shared by the HIM-8-related ZIM proteins. Furthermore, mutation of HIM-8 can modulate the effects of substitution mutations in the DNA-binding domains of at least four other transcription factors, suggesting broad regulatory activity by HIM-8.

  18. Regulation of the human ascorbate transporter SVCT2 exon 1b gene by zinc-finger transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Huan; May, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT) 2 is crucial for ascorbate uptake in metabolically active and specialized tissues. The present study focused on the gene regulation of the SVCT2 exon 1b, which is ubiquitously expressed in human and mouse tissues. Although the human SVCT2 exon 1b promoter doesn’t contain a classical TATA-box, we found that it does contain a functional initiator (Inr) that binds YY1 and interacts with upstream Sp1/Sp3 elements in the proximal promoter region. These elements in turn play a critical role in regulating YY1-mediated transcription of the exon 1b gene. Formation of YY1/Sp complexes on the promoter is required for its optional function. YY1 with Sp1 or Sp3 synergistically enhanced exon 1b promoter activity as well as the endogenous SVCT2 protein expression. Further, in addition to Sp1/Sp3 both EGR-1 and -2 were detected in the protein complexes that bound the three GC boxes bearing overlapping binding sites for EGR/WT1 and Sp1/3. The EGR family factors, WT1 and MAZ were found to differentially regulate exon 1b promoter activity. These results show that differential occupancy of transcription factors on the GC-rich consensus sequences in SVCT2 exon 1b promoter contributes to the regulation of cell and tissue expression of SVCT2. PMID:21335086

  19. The CCCH-type zinc finger transcription factor Zc3h8 represses NF-κB-mediated inflammation in digestive organs in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zou, Qingliang; Gang, Kai; Yang, Qifen; Liu, Xiaolin; Tang, Xuemei; Lu, Huiqiang; He, Jianbo; Luo, Lingfei

    2018-06-05

    Degenerative diseases of organs lead to their impaired function. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying organ degeneration are therefore of great research and clinical interest but are currently incompletely characterized. Here, using a forward-genetic screen for genes regulating liver development and function in zebrafish, we identified a cq5 mutant that exhibited a liver-degeneration phenotype at 5 days post-fertilization, the developmental stage at which a functional liver develops. Positional cloning revealed that the liver degeneration was caused by a single point mutation in the gene zinc finger CCCH-type containing 8 (zc3h8), changing a highly conserved histidine to glutamine at position 353 of the Zc3h8 protein. The zc3h8 mutation-induced liver degeneration in the mutant was accompanied by reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis, and macrophage phagocytosis of hepatocytes. Transcriptional profile analyses revealed up-regulation and activation of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and the NF-κB signaling pathway in the zc3h8 mutant. Suppression of NF-κB signaling activity efficiently rescued the pro-inflammatory cytokine response as well as the inflammation-mediated liver degeneration phenotype of the mutant. Of note, the zc3h8 mutation induced degeneration of several other organs, including the gut and exocrine pancreas, indicating that Zc3h8 is a general repressor of inflammation in zebrafish. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that Zc3h8 maintains organ homeostasis by inhibiting the NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response in zebrafish and that Zc3h8 dysfunction causes degeneration of multiple organs, including the liver, gut, and pancreas. Copyright © 2018, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Structural analysis of the recognition of the negative regulator NmrA and DNA by the zinc finger from the GATA-type transcription factor AreA.

    PubMed

    Kotaka, Masayo; Johnson, Christopher; Lamb, Heather K; Hawkins, Alastair R; Ren, Jingshan; Stammers, David K

    2008-08-29

    Amongst the most common protein motifs in eukaryotes are zinc fingers (ZFs), which, although largely known as DNA binding modules, also can have additional important regulatory roles in forming protein:protein interactions. AreA is a transcriptional activator central to nitrogen metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans. AreA contains a GATA-type ZF that has a competing dual recognition function, binding either DNA or the negative regulator NmrA. We report the crystal structures of three AreA ZF-NmrA complexes including two with bound NAD(+) or NADP(+). The molecular recognition of AreA ZF-NmrA involves binding of the ZF to NmrA via hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions through helices alpha1, alpha6 and alpha11. Comparison with an earlier NMR solution structure of AreA ZF-DNA complex by overlap of the AreA ZFs shows that parts of helices alpha6 and alpha11 of NmrA are positioned close to the GATA motif of the DNA, mimicking the major groove of DNA. The extensive overlap of DNA with NmrA explains their mutually exclusive binding to the AreA ZF. The presence of bound NAD(+)/NADP(+) in the NmrA-AreaA ZF complex, however, causes minimal structural changes. Thus, any regulatory effects on AreA function mediated by the binding of oxidised nicotinamide dinucleotides to NmrA in the NmrA-AreA ZF complex appear not to be modulated via protein conformational rearrangements.

  1. Light-Inducible Gene Regulation with Engineered Zinc Finger Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Polstein, Lauren R.; Gersbach, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The coupling of light-inducible protein-protein interactions with gene regulation systems has enabled the control of gene expression with light. In particular, heterodimer protein pairs from plants can be used to engineer a gene regulation system in mammalian cells that is reversible, repeatable, tunable, controllable in a spatiotemporal manner, and targetable to any DNA sequence. This system, Light-Inducible Transcription using Engineered Zinc finger proteins (LITEZ), is based on the blue light-induced interaction of GIGANTEA and the LOV domain of FKF1 that drives the localization of a transcriptional activator to the DNA-binding site of a highly customizable engineered zinc finger protein. This chapter provides methods for modifying LITEZ to target new DNA sequences, engineering a programmable LED array to illuminate cell cultures, and using the modified LITEZ system to achieve spatiotemporal control of transgene expression in mammalian cells. PMID:24718797

  2. ZFP580, a Novel Zinc-Finger Transcription Factor, Is Involved in Cardioprotection of Intermittent High-Altitude Hypoxia against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-cheng; Wang, Tian-hui; Mai, Xia; Liu, Hong-tao; Xu, Rui-cheng

    2014-01-01

    Background ZFP580 is a novel C2H2 type zinc-finger transcription factor recently identified by our laboratory. We previously showed that ZFP580 may be involved in cell survival and growth. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether ZFP580 is involved in the cardioprotective effects of intermittent high-altitude (IHA) hypoxia against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and Results After rats were subjected to myocardial ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion, ZFP580 expression in the left ventricle was measured. ZFP580 protein expression was found to be up-regulated within 1 h and decreased at 2 h after reperfusion. Comparing normoxic and IHA hypoxia-adapted rats (5000 m, 6 h day−1, 6 weeks) following I/R injury (30 min ischemia and 2 h reperfusion), we found that adaptation to IHA hypoxia attenuated infarct size and plasma leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB. In addition, ZFP580 expression in the myocardium was up-regulated by IHA hypoxia. Consistent with this result, ZFP580 expression was found to be significantly increased in cultured H9c2 myocardial cells in the hypoxic preconditioning group compared with those in the control group following simulated I/R injury (3 h simulated ischemic hypoxia and 2 h reoxygenation). To determine the role of ZFP580 in apoptosis, lentivirus-mediated gene transfection was performed in H9c2 cells 72 h prior to simulated I/R exposure. The results showed that ZFP580 overexpression significantly inhibited I/R-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation. H9c2 cells were pretreated with or without PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and Western blot results showed that PD98059 (10 µM) markedly suppressed I/R-induced up-regulation of ZFP580 expression. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the cardioprotective effect of IHA hypoxia against I/R injury is mediated via ZFP580, a downstream target of ERK1/2 signaling with anti-apoptotic roles in myocardial cells. PMID:24722354

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis of C2H2 Zinc-Finger Family Transcription Factors and Their Responses to Abiotic Stresses in Poplar (Populus trichocarpa)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quangang; Wang, Zhanchao; Xu, Xuemei; Zhang, Haizhen; Li, Chenghao

    2015-01-01

    Background C2H2 zinc-finger (C2H2-ZF) proteins are a large gene family in plants that participate in various aspects of normal plant growth and development, as well as in biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, no overall analysis incorporating evolutionary history and expression profiling of the C2H2-ZF gene family in model tree species poplar (Populus trichocarpa) has been reported. Principal Findings Here, we identified 109 full-length C2H2-ZF genes in P. trichocarpa, and classified them into four groups, based on phylogenetic analysis. The 109 C2H2-ZF genes were distributed unequally on 19 P. trichocarpa linkage groups (LGs), with 39 segmental duplication events, indicating that segmental duplication has been important in the expansion of the C2H2-ZF gene family. Promoter cis-element analysis indicated that most of the C2H2-ZF genes contain phytohormone or abiotic stress-related cis-elements. The expression patterns of C2H2-ZF genes, based on heatmap analysis, suggested that C2H2-ZF genes are involved in tissue and organ development, especially root and floral development. Expression analysis based on quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction indicated that C2H2-ZF genes are significantly involved in drought, heat and salt response, possibly via different mechanisms. Conclusions This study provides a thorough overview of the P. trichocarpa C2H2-ZF gene family and presents a new perspective on the evolution of this gene family. In particular, some C2H2-ZF genes may be involved in environmental stress tolerance regulation. PtrZFP2, 19 and 95 showed high expression levels in leaves and/or roots under environmental stresses. Additionally, this study provided a solid foundation for studying the biological roles of C2H2-ZF genes in Populus growth and development. These results form the basis for further investigation of the roles of these candidate genes and for future genetic engineering and gene functional studies in Populus. PMID

  4. The cysteine2/histidine2-type transcription factor ZINC FINGER OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA 6-activated C-REPEAT-BINDING FACTOR pathway is essential for melatonin-mediated freezing stress resistance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haitao; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-09-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is not only a widely known animal hormone, but also an important regulator in plant development and multiple abiotic stress responses. Recently, it has been revealed that melatonin alleviated cold stress through mediating several cold-related genes, including C-REPEAT-BINDING FACTORs (CBFs)/Drought Response Element Binding factors (DREBs), COR15a, and three transcription factors (CAMTA1, ZINC FINGER OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA 10 (ZAT10), and ZAT12). In this study, we quantified the endogenous melatonin level in Arabidopsis plant leaves and found the endogenous melatonin levels were significantly induced by cold stress (4 °C) treatment. In addition, we found one cysteine2/histidine2-type zinc finger transcription factor, ZAT6, was involved in melatonin-mediated freezing stress response in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, exogenous melatonin enhanced freezing stress resistance was largely alleviated in AtZAT6 knockdown plants, but was enhanced in AtZAT6 overexpressing plants. Moreover, the expression levels of AtZAT6 and AtCBFs were commonly upregulated by cold stress (4 °C) and exogenous melatonin treatments, and modulation of AtZAT6 expression significantly affected the induction AtCBFs transcripts by cold stress (4 °C) and exogenous melatonin treatments. Taken together, AtZAT6-activated CBF pathway might be essential for melatonin-mediated freezing stress response in Arabidopsis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of Novel Design Strategies for Developing Zinc Finger Nucleases Tools for Treating Human Diseases

    SciT

    Bach, Christian; Sherman, William; Pallis, Jani

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are associated with cell death and apoptosis by binding at countless undesired locations. This cytotoxicity is associated with the binding ability of engineered zinc finger domains to bind dissimilar DNA sequences with high affinity. In general, binding preferences of transcription factors are associated with significant degenerated diversity and complexity which convolutes the design and engineering of precise DNA binding domains. Evolutionary success of natural zinc finger proteins, however, evinces that nature created specific evolutionary traits and strategies, such as modularity and rank-specific recognition to cope with binding complexity that are critical for creating clinical viable toolsmore » to precisely modify the human genome. Our findings indicate preservation of general modularity and significant alteration of the rank-specific binding preferences of the three-finger binding domain of transcription factor SP1 when exchanging amino acids in the 2nd finger.« less

  6. Evaluation of Novel Design Strategies for Developing Zinc Finger Nucleases Tools for Treating Human Diseases

    DOE PAGES

    Bach, Christian; Sherman, William; Pallis, Jani; ...

    2014-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are associated with cell death and apoptosis by binding at countless undesired locations. This cytotoxicity is associated with the binding ability of engineered zinc finger domains to bind dissimilar DNA sequences with high affinity. In general, binding preferences of transcription factors are associated with significant degenerated diversity and complexity which convolutes the design and engineering of precise DNA binding domains. Evolutionary success of natural zinc finger proteins, however, evinces that nature created specific evolutionary traits and strategies, such as modularity and rank-specific recognition to cope with binding complexity that are critical for creating clinical viable toolsmore » to precisely modify the human genome. Our findings indicate preservation of general modularity and significant alteration of the rank-specific binding preferences of the three-finger binding domain of transcription factor SP1 when exchanging amino acids in the 2nd finger.« less

  7. Sequence Discrimination by Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of a DNA Binding Zinc Finger Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogos, Joseph A.; Hsu, Tien; Bolton, Jesse; Kafatos, Fotis C.

    1992-09-01

    Two major developmentally regulated isoforms of the Drosophila chorion transcription factor CF2 differ by an extra zinc finger within the DNA binding domain. The preferred DNA binding sites were determined and are distinguished by an internal duplication of TAT in the site recognized by the isoform with the extra finger. The results are consistent with modular interactions between zinc fingers and trinucleotides and also suggest rules for recognition of AT-rich DNA sites by zinc finger proteins. The results show how modular finger interactions with trinucleotides can be used, in conjunction with alternative splicing, to alter the binding specificity and increase the spectrum of sites recognized by a DNA binding domain. Thus, CF2 may potentially regulate distinct sets of target genes during development.

  8. Developmental and Wound-, Cold-, Desiccation-, Ultraviolet-B-Stress-Induced Modulations in the Expression of the Petunia Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Gene ZPT2-21

    PubMed Central

    van der Krol, Alexander R.; van Poecke, Remco M.P.; Vorst, Oscar F.J.; Voogt, Charlotte; van Leeuwen, Wessel; Borst-Vrensen, Tanja W.M.; Takatsuji, Hiroshi; van der Plas, Linus H.W.

    1999-01-01

    The ZPT2-2 gene belongs to the EPF gene family in petunia (Petunia hybrida), which encodes proteins with TFIIIA-type zinc-finger DNA-binding motifs. To elucidate a possible function for ZPT2-2, we analyzed its pattern of expression in relation to different developmental and physiological stress signals. The activity of the ZPT2-2 promoter was analyzed using a firefly luciferase (LUC) reporter gene, allowing for continuous measurements of transgene activity in planta. We show that ZPT2-2::LUC is active in all plant tissues, but is strongly modulated in cotyledons upon germination, in leaves in response to desiccation, cold treatment, wounding, or ultraviolet-B light, and in petal tissue in response to pollination of the stigma. Analysis of mRNA levels indicated that the modulations in ZPT2-2::LUC expression reflect modulations in endogenous ZPT2-2 gene expression. The change in ZPT2-2::LUC activity by cold treatment, wounding, desiccation, and ultraviolet-B light suggest that the phytohormones ethylene and jasmonic acid are involved in regulating the expression of ZPT2-2. Although up-regulation of expression of ZPT2-2 can be blocked by inhibitors of ethylene perception, expression in plants is not induced by exogenously applied ethylene. The application of jasmonic acid does result in an up-regulation of gene activity and, thus, ZPT2-2 may play a role in the realization of the jasmonic acid hormonal responses in petunia. PMID:10594102

  9. The BTB-zinc Finger Transcription Factor Abrupt Acts as an Epithelial Oncogene in Drosophila melanogaster through Maintaining a Progenitor-like Cell State

    PubMed Central

    Turkel, Nezaket; Sahota, Virender K.; Bolden, Jessica E.; Goulding, Karen R.; Doggett, Karen; Willoughby, Lee F.; Blanco, Enrique; Martin-Blanco, Enrique; Corominas, Montserrat; Ellul, Jason; Aigaki, Toshiro; Richardson, Helena E.; Brumby, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of tumour cells to maintain continual overgrowth potential has been linked to the commandeering of normal self-renewal pathways. Using an epithelial cancer model in Drosophila melanogaster, we carried out an overexpression screen for oncogenes capable of cooperating with the loss of the epithelial apico-basal cell polarity regulator, scribbled (scrib), and identified the cell fate regulator, Abrupt, a BTB-zinc finger protein. Abrupt overexpression alone is insufficient to transform cells, but in cooperation with scrib loss of function, Abrupt promotes the formation of massive tumours in the eye/antennal disc. The steroid hormone receptor coactivator, Taiman (a homologue of SRC3/AIB1), is known to associate with Abrupt, and Taiman overexpression also drives tumour formation in cooperation with the loss of Scrib. Expression arrays and ChIP-Seq indicates that Abrupt overexpression represses a large number of genes, including steroid hormone-response genes and multiple cell fate regulators, thereby maintaining cells within an epithelial progenitor-like state. The progenitor-like state is characterised by the failure to express the conserved Eyes absent/Dachshund regulatory complex in the eye disc, and in the antennal disc by the failure to express cell fate regulators that define the temporal elaboration of the appendage along the proximo-distal axis downstream of Distalless. Loss of scrib promotes cooperation with Abrupt through impaired Hippo signalling, which is required and sufficient for cooperative overgrowth with Abrupt, and JNK (Jun kinase) signalling, which is required for tumour cell migration/invasion but not overgrowth. These results thus identify a novel cooperating oncogene, identify mammalian family members of which are also known oncogenes, and demonstrate that epithelial tumours in Drosophila can be characterised by the maintenance of a progenitor-like state. PMID:23874226

  10. Modular synthetic inverters from zinc finger proteins and small RNAs

    DOE PAGES

    Hsia, Justin; Holtz, William J.; Maharbiz, Michel M.; ...

    2016-02-17

    Synthetic zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) can be created to target promoter DNA sequences, repressing transcription. The binding of small RNA (sRNA) to ZFP mRNA creates an ultrasensitive response to generate higher effective Hill coefficients. Here we combined three “off the shelf” ZFPs and three sRNAs to create new modular inverters in E. coli and quantify their behavior using induction fold. We found a general ordering of the effects of the ZFPs and sRNAs on induction fold that mostly held true when combining these parts. We then attempted to construct a ring oscillator using our new inverters. In conclusion, our chosenmore » parts performed insufficiently to create oscillations, but we include future directions for improvement upon our work presented here.« less

  11. Lead inhibition of DNA-binding mechanism of Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Hanas, J S; Rodgers, J S; Bantle, J A; Cheng, Y G

    1999-11-01

    The association of lead with chromatin in cells suggests that deleterious metal effects may in part be mediated through alterations in gene function. To elucidate if and how lead may alter DNA binding of cysteine-rich zinc finger proteins, lead ions were analyzed for their ability to alter the DNA binding mechanism of the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger protein transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA). As assayed by DNase I protection, the interaction of TFIIIA with the 50-bp internal control region of the 5S ribosomal gene was partially inhibited by 5 microM lead ions and completely inhibited by 10 to 20 microM lead ions. Preincubation of free TFIIIA with lead resulted in DNA-binding inhibition, whereas preincubation of a TFIIIA/5S RNA complex with lead did not result in DNA-binding inhibition. Because 5S RNA binds TFIIIA zinc fingers, this result is consistent with an inhibition mechanism via lead binding to zinc fingers. The complete loss of DNase I protection on the 5S gene indicates the mechanism of inhibition minimally involves the N-terminal fingers of TFIIIA. Inhibition was not readily reversible and occurred in the presence of an excess of beta-mercaptoethanol. Inhibition kinetics were fast, progressing to completion in approximately 5 min. Millimolar concentrations of sulfhydryl-specific arsenic ions were not inhibitory for TFIIIA binding. Micromolar concentrations of lead inhibited DNA binding by Sp1, another Cys(2)His(2) finger protein, but not by the nonfinger protein AP2. Inhibition of Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factors by lead ions at concentrations near those known to have deleterious physiological effects points to new molecular mechanisms for lead toxicity in promoting disease.

  12. Cloning and characterization of a novel zinc finger gene in Xp11.2

    SciT

    Derry, J.M.J.; Jess, U.; Francke, U.

    1995-11-20

    During a systematic search for open reading frames in chromosome band Xp11.2, a novel gene (ZNF157) that encodes a putative 506-amino-acid protein with the sequence characteristics of a zinc-finger-containing transcription factor was isolated. ZNF157 is encoded by four exons distributed over >20 kb of genomic DNA. The second and third exons contain sequences similar to those of the previously described KRAB-A and KRAB-B domains, motifs that have been shown to mediate transcriptional repression in other members of the protein family. A fourth exon contains 12 zinc finger DNA binding motifs and finger linking regions characteristic of ZNF proteins of themore » Krueppel family. ZNF157 maps to the telomeric end of a cluster of ZNF genes that includes ZNF21, ZNF41, and ZNF81. 19 refs., 2 figs.« less

  13. Selective Sensitization of Zinc Finger Protein Oxidation by Reactive Oxygen Species through Arsenic Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xixi; Cooper, Karen L.; Sun, Xi; Liu, Ke J.; Hudson, Laurie G.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine oxidation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) on redox-sensitive targets such as zinc finger proteins plays a critical role in redox signaling and subsequent biological outcomes. We found that arsenic exposure led to oxidation of certain zinc finger proteins based on arsenic interaction with zinc finger motifs. Analysis of zinc finger proteins isolated from arsenic-exposed cells and zinc finger peptides by mass spectrometry demonstrated preferential oxidation of C3H1 and C4 zinc finger configurations. C2H2 zinc finger proteins that do not bind arsenic were not oxidized by arsenic-generated ROS in the cellular environment. The findings suggest that selectivity in arsenic binding to zinc fingers with three or more cysteines defines the target proteins for oxidation by ROS. This represents a novel mechanism of selective protein oxidation and demonstrates how an environmental factor may sensitize certain target proteins for oxidation, thus altering the oxidation profile and redox regulation. PMID:26063799

  14. Effect of the linkers between the zinc fingers in zinc finger protein 809 on gene silencing and nuclear localization

    SciT

    Ichida, Yu, E-mail: ichida-y@ncchd.go.jp; Utsunomiya, Yuko; Onodera, Masafumi

    2016-03-18

    Zinc finger protein 809 (ZFP809) belongs to the Kruppel-associated box-containing zinc finger protein (KRAB-ZFP) family and functions in repressing the expression of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV). ZFP809 binds to the primer-binding site (PBS)located downstream of the MoMLV-long terminal repeat (LTR) and induces epigenetic modifications at integration sites, such as repressive histone modifications and de novo DNA methylation. KRAB-ZFPs contain consensus TGEKP linkers between C2H2 zinc fingers. The phosphorylation of threonine residues within linkers leads to the inactivation of zinc finger binding to target sequences. ZFP809 also contains consensus linkers between zinc fingers. However, the function of ZFP809 linkers remainsmore » unknown. In the present study, we constructed ZFP809 proteins containing mutated linkers and examined their ability to silence transgene expression driven by MLV, binding ability to MLV PBS, and cellular localization. The results of the present study revealed that the linkers affected the ability of ZFP809 to silence transgene expression. Furthermore, this effect could be partly attributed to changes in the localization of ZFP809 proteins containing mutated linkers. Further characterization of ZFP809 linkers is required for understanding the functions and features of KRAB-ZFP-containing linkers. - Highlights: • ZFP809 has three consensus linkers between the zinc fingers. • Linkers are required for ZFP809 to silence transgene expression driven by MLV-LTR. • Linkers affect the precise nuclear localization of ZFP809.« less

  15. The Electronic Behavior of Zinc-Finger Protein Binding Sites in the Context of the DNA Extended Ladder Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiwa, Nestor; Cordeiro, Claudette; Heermann, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    Instead of ATCG letter alignments, typically used in bioinformatics, we propose a new alignment method using the probability distribution function of the bottom of the occupied molecular orbital (BOMO), highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied orbital (LUMO). We apply the technique to transcription factors with Cys2His2 zinc fingers. These transcription factors search for binding sites, probing for the electronic patterns at the minor and major DNA groves. The eukaryotic Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins bind to DNA ubiquitously at highly conserved domains. They are responsible for gene regulation and the spatial organization of DNA. To study and understand these zinc finger DNA-protein interactions, we use the extended ladder in the DNA model proposed by Zhu, Rasmussen, Balatsky & Bishop (2007) te{Zhu-2007}. Considering one single spinless electron in each nucleotide π-orbital along a double DNA chain (dDNA), we find a typical pattern for the bottom of BOMO, HOMO and LUMO along the binding sites. We specifically looked at two members of zinc finger protein family: specificity protein 1 (SP1) and early grown response 1 transcription factors (EGR1). When the valence band is filled, we find electrons in the purines along the nucleotide sequence, compatible with the electric charges of the binding amino acids in SP1 and EGR1 zinc finger.

  16. Conformational heterogeneity in the C-terminal zinc fingers of human MTF-1: an NMR and zinc-binding study.

    PubMed

    Giedroc, D P; Chen, X; Pennella, M A; LiWang, A C

    2001-11-09

    The human metalloregulatory transcription factor, metal-response element (MRE)-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), contains six TFIIIA-type Cys(2)-His(2) motifs, each of which was projected to form well-structured betabetaalpha domains upon Zn(II) binding. In this report, the structure and backbone dynamics of a fragment containing the unusual C-terminal fingers F4-F6 has been investigated. (15)N heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectra of uniformly (15)N-labeled hMTF-zf46 show that Zn(II) induces the folding of hMTF-zf46. Analysis of the secondary structure of Zn(3) hMTF-zf46 determined by (13)Calpha chemical shift indexing and the magnitude of (3)J(Halpha-HN) clearly reveal that zinc fingers F4 and F6 adopt typical betabetaalpha structures. An analysis of the heteronuclear backbone (15)N relaxation dynamics behavior is consistent with this picture and further reveals independent tumbling of the finger domains in solution. Titration of apo-MTF-zf46 with Zn(II) reveals that the F4 domain binds Zn(II) significantly more tightly than do the other two finger domains. In contrast to fingers F4 and F6, the betabetaalpha fold of finger F5 is unstable and only partially populated at substoichiometric Zn(II); a slight molar excess of zinc results in severe conformational exchange broadening of all F5 NH cross-peaks. Finally, although Cd(II) binds to apo-hMTF-zf46 as revealed by intense S(-)-->Cd(II) absorption, a non-native structure results; addition of stoichiometric Zn(II) to the Cd(II) complex results in quantitative refolding of the betabetaalpha structure in F4 and F6. The functional implications of these results are discussed.

  17. In vitro selection of zinc fingers with altered DNA-binding specificity.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, A C; Kim, S H; Wells, J A

    1994-05-17

    We have used random mutagenesis and phage display to alter the DNA-binding specificity of Zif268, a transcription factor that contains three zinc finger domains. Four residues in the helix of finger 1 of Zif268 that potentially mediate DNA binding were identified from an X-ray structure of the Zif268-DNA complex. A library was constructed in which these residues were randomly mutated and the Zif268 variants were fused to a truncated version of the gene III coat protein on the surface of M13 filamentous phage particles. The phage displayed the mutant proteins in a monovalent fashion and were sorted by repeated binding and elution from affinity matrices containing different DNA sequences. When the matrix contained the natural nine base pair operator sequence 5'-GCG-TGG-GCG-3', native-like zinc fingers were isolated. New finger 1 variants were found by sorting with two different operators in which the singly modified triplets, GTG and TCG, replaced the native finger 1 triplet, GCG. Overall, the selected finger 1 variants contained a preponderance of polar residues at the four sites. Interestingly, the net charge of the four residues in any selected finger never derived more that one unit from neutrality despite the fact that about half the variants contained three or four charged residues over the four sites. Measurements of the dissociation constants for two of these purified finger 1 variants by gel-shift assay showed their specificities to vary over a 10-fold range, with the greatest affinity being for the DNA binding site for which they were sorted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The structural role of the zinc ion can be dispensable in prokaryotic zinc-finger domains

    PubMed Central

    Baglivo, Ilaria; Russo, Luigi; Esposito, Sabrina; Malgieri, Gaetano; Renda, Mario; Salluzzo, Antonio; Di Blasio, Benedetto; Isernia, Carla; Fattorusso, Roberto; Pedone, Paolo V.

    2009-01-01

    The recent characterization of the prokaryotic Cys2His2 zinc-finger domain, identified in Ros protein from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, has demonstrated that, although possessing a similar zinc coordination sphere, this domain is structurally very different from its eukaryotic counterpart. A search in the databases has identified ≈300 homologues with a high sequence identity to the Ros protein, including the amino acids that form the extensive hydrophobic core in Ros. Surprisingly, the Cys2His2 zinc coordination sphere is generally poorly conserved in the Ros homologues, raising the question of whether the zinc ion is always preserved in these proteins. Here, we present a functional and structural study of a point mutant of Ros protein, Ros56–142C82D, in which the second coordinating cysteine is replaced by an aspartate, 5 previously-uncharacterized representative Ros homologues from Mesorhizobium loti, and 2 mutants of the homologues. Our results indicate that the prokaryotic zinc-finger domain, which in Ros protein tetrahedrally coordinates Zn(II) through the typical Cys2His2 coordination, in Ros homologues can either exploit a CysAspHis2 coordination sphere, previously never described in DNA binding zinc finger domains to our knowledge, or lose the metal, while still preserving the DNA-binding activity. We demonstrate that this class of prokaryotic zinc-finger domains is structurally very adaptable, and surprisingly single mutations can transform a zinc-binding domain into a nonzinc-binding domain and vice versa, without affecting the DNA-binding ability. In light of our findings an evolutionary link between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic zinc-finger domains, based on bacteria-to-eukaryota horizontal gene transfer, is discussed. PMID:19369210

  19. Localized frustration and binding-induced conformational change in recognition of 5S RNA by TFIIIA zinc finger.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheng; Li, Wenfei; Wang, Wei

    2013-12-19

    Protein TFIIIA is composed of nine tandemly arranged Cys2His2 zinc fingers. It can bind either to the 5S RNA gene as a transcription factor or to the 5S RNA transcript as a chaperone. Although structural and biochemical data provided valuable information on the recognition between the TFIIIIA and the 5S DNA/RNA, the involved conformational motions and energetic factors contributing to the binding affinity and specificity remain unclear. In this work, we conducted MD simulations and MM/GBSA calculations to investigate the binding-induced conformational changes in the recognition of the 5S RNA by the central three zinc fingers of TFIIIA and the energetic factors that influence the binding affinity and specificity at an atomistic level. Our results revealed drastic interdomain conformational changes between these three zinc fingers, involving the exposure/burial of several crucial DNA/RNA binding residues, which can be related to the competition between DNA and RNA for the binding of TFIIIA. We also showed that the specific recognition between finger 4/finger 6 and the 5S RNA introduces frustrations to the nonspecific interactions between finger 5 and the 5S RNA, which may be important to achieve optimal binding affinity and specificity.

  20. Early Hematopoietic Zinc Finger Protein Prevents Tumor Cell Recognition by Natural Killer Cells1

    PubMed Central

    La Rocca, Rosanna; Fulciniti, Mariateresa; Lakshmikanth, Tadepally; Mesuraca, Maria; Ali, Talib Hassan; Mazzei, Valerio; Amodio, Nicola; Catalano, Lucio; Rotoli, Bruno; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Grieco, Michele; Gulletta, Elio; Bond, Heather M.; Morrone, Giovanni; Ferrone, Soldano; Carbone, Ennio

    2009-01-01

    Early hematopoietic zinc finger/zinc finger protein 521 (EHZF/ZNF521) is a novel zinc finger protein expressed in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and is down-regulated during their differentiation. Its transcript is also abundant in some hematopoietic malignancies. Analysis of the changes in the antigenic profile of cells transfected with EHZF cDNA revealed up-regulation of HLA class I cell surface expression. This phenotypic change was associated with an increased level of HLA class I H chain, in absence of detectable changes in the expression of other Ag-processing machinery components. Enhanced resistance of target cells to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity was induced by enforced expression of EHZF in the cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa and in the B lymphoblastoid cell line IM9. Preincubation of transfected cells with HLA class I Ag-specific mAb restored target cell susceptibility to NK cell-mediated lysis, indicating a specific role for HLA class I Ag up-regulation in the NK resistance induced by EHZF. A potential clinical significance of these findings is further suggested by the inverse correlation between EHZF and MHC class I expression levels, and autologous NK susceptibility of freshly explanted multiple myeloma cells. PMID:19342626

  1. A rapid, generally applicable method to engineer zinc fingers illustrated by targeting the HIV-1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Isalan, M; Klug, A; Choo, Y

    2001-07-01

    DNA-binding domains with predetermined sequence specificity are engineered by selection of zinc finger modules using phage display, allowing the construction of customized transcription factors. Despite remarkable progress in this field, the available protein-engineering methods are deficient in many respects, thus hampering the applicability of the technique. Here we present a rapid and convenient method that can be used to design zinc finger proteins against a variety of DNA-binding sites. This is based on a pair of pre-made zinc finger phage-display libraries, which are used in parallel to select two DNA-binding domains each of which recognizes given 5 base pair sequences, and whose products are recombined to produce a single protein that recognizes a composite (9 base pair) site of predefined sequence. Engineering using this system can be completed in less than two weeks and yields proteins that bind sequence-specifically to DNA with Kd values in the nanomolar range. To illustrate the technique, we have selected seven different proteins to bind various regions of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) promoter.

  2. Conformational Analysis on structural perturbations of the zinc finger NEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godwin, Ryan; Salsbury, Freddie; Salsbury Group Team

    2014-03-01

    The NEMO (NF-kB Essential Modulator) Zinc Finger protein (2jvx) is a functional Ubiquitin-binding domain, and plays a role in signaling pathways for immune/inflammatory responses, apoptosis, and oncogenesis [Cordier et al., 2008]. Characterized by 3 cysteines and 1 histidine residue at the active site, the biologically occurring, bound zinc configuration is a stable structural motif. Perturbations of the zinc binding residues suggest conformational changes in the 423-atom protein characterized via analysis of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Structural perturbations include simulations with and without a zinc ion and with and without de-protonated cysteines, resulting in four distinct configurations. Simulations of various time scales show consistent results, yet the longest, GPU driven, microsecond runs show more drastic structural and dynamic fluctuations when compared to shorter duration time-scales. The last cysteine residue (26 of 28) and the helix on which it resides exhibit a secondary, locally unfolded conformation in addition to its normal bound conformation. Combined analytics elucidate how the presence of zinc and/or protonated cysteines impact the dynamics and energetic fluctuations of NEMO. Comprehensive Cancer Center of Wake Forest University Computational Biosciences shared resource supported by NCI CCSG P30CA012197.

  3. Synthetic Zinc Finger Proteins: The Advent of Targeted Gene Regulation and Genome Modification Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    this modular assembly method to engineer artificial proteins and enzymes that activate, repress, or create defined changes to user-specified genes in human cells, plants, and other organisms. We have also engineered novel methods for externally controlling protein activity and delivery, as well as developed new strategies for the directed evolution of protein and enzyme function. This Account summarizes our work in these areas and highlights independent studies that have successfully used the modular assembly approach to create proteins with novel function. We also discuss emerging alternative methods for genomic targeting, including transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) and CRISPR/Cas systems, and how they complement the synthetic zinc finger protein technology. PMID:24877793

  4. ZifBASE: a database of zinc finger proteins and associated resources.

    PubMed

    Jayakanthan, Mannu; Muthukumaran, Jayaraman; Chandrasekar, Sanniyasi; Chawla, Konika; Punetha, Ankita; Sundar, Durai

    2009-09-09

    Information on the occurrence of zinc finger protein motifs in genomes is crucial to the developing field of molecular genome engineering. The knowledge of their target DNA-binding sequences is vital to develop chimeric proteins for targeted genome engineering and site-specific gene correction. There is a need to develop a computational resource of zinc finger proteins (ZFP) to identify the potential binding sites and its location, which reduce the time of in vivo task, and overcome the difficulties in selecting the specific type of zinc finger protein and the target site in the DNA sequence. ZifBASE provides an extensive collection of various natural and engineered ZFP. It uses standard names and a genetic and structural classification scheme to present data retrieved from UniProtKB, GenBank, Protein Data Bank, ModBase, Protein Model Portal and the literature. It also incorporates specialized features of ZFP including finger sequences and positions, number of fingers, physiochemical properties, classes, framework, PubMed citations with links to experimental structures (PDB, if available) and modeled structures of natural zinc finger proteins. ZifBASE provides information on zinc finger proteins (both natural and engineered ones), the number of finger units in each of the zinc finger proteins (with multiple fingers), the synergy between the adjacent fingers and their positions. Additionally, it gives the individual finger sequence and their target DNA site to which it binds for better and clear understanding on the interactions of adjacent fingers. The current version of ZifBASE contains 139 entries of which 89 are engineered ZFPs, containing 3-7F totaling to 296 fingers. There are 50 natural zinc finger protein entries ranging from 2-13F, totaling to 307 fingers. It has sequences and structures from literature, Protein Data Bank, ModBase and Protein Model Portal. The interface is cross linked to other public databases like UniprotKB, PDB, ModBase and Protein Model

  5. The conserved N-terminal basic residues and zinc-finger motifs of HIV-1 nucleocapsid restrict the viral cDNA synthesis during virus formation and maturation

    PubMed Central

    Didierlaurent, Ludovic; Houzet, Laurent; Morichaud, Zakia; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Mougel, Marylène

    2008-01-01

    Reverse transcription of the genomic RNA by reverse transcriptase occurs soon after HIV-1 infection of target cells. The viral nucleocapsid (NC) protein chaperones this process via its nucleic acid annealing activities and its interactions with the reverse transcriptase enzyme. To function, NC needs its two conserved zinc fingers and flanking basic residues. We recently reported a new role for NC, whereby it negatively controls reverse transcription in the course of virus formation. Indeed, deleting its zinc fingers causes reverse transcription activation in virus producer cells. To investigate this new NC function, we used viruses with subtle mutations in the conserved zinc fingers and its flanking domains. We monitored by quantitative PCR the HIV-1 DNA content in producer cells and in produced virions. Results showed that the two intact zinc-finger structures are required for the temporal control of reverse transcription by NC throughout the virus replication cycle. The N-terminal basic residues also contributed to this new role of NC, while Pro-31 residue between the zinc fingers and Lys-59 in the C-terminal region did not. These findings further highlight the importance of NC as a major target for anti-HIV-1 drugs. PMID:18641038

  6. Luciferase-Zinc-Finger System for the Rapid Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chu; Xu, Qing; Ge, Yue; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He

    2017-08-09

    Rapid and reliable detection of pathogenic bacteria is crucial for food safety control. Here, we present a novel luciferase-zinc finger system for the detection of pathogens that offers rapid and specific profiling. The system, which uses a zinc-finger protein domain to probe zinc finger recognition sites, was designed to bind the amplified conserved regions of 16S rDNA, and the obtained products were detected using a modified luciferase. The luciferase-zinc finger system not only maintained luciferase activity but also allowed the specific detection of different bacterial species, with a sensitivity as low as 10 copies and a linear range from 10 to 10 4 copies per microliter of the specific PCR product. Moreover, the system is robust and rapid, enabling the simultaneous detection of 6 species of bacteria in artificially contaminated samples with excellent accuracy. Thus, we envision that our luciferase-zinc finger system will have far-reaching applications.

  7. Analysis of an artificial zinc finger epigenetic modulator: widespread binding but limited regulation

    PubMed Central

    Grimmer, Matthew R.; Stolzenburg, Sabine; Ford, Ethan; Lister, Ryan; Blancafort, Pilar; Farnham, Peggy J.

    2014-01-01

    Artificial transcription factors (ATFs) and genomic nucleases based on a DNA binding platform consisting of multiple zinc finger domains are currently being developed for clinical applications. However, no genome-wide investigations into their binding specificity have been performed. We have created six-finger ATFs to target two different 18 nt regions of the human SOX2 promoter; each ATF is constructed such that it contains or lacks a super KRAB domain (SKD) that interacts with a complex containing repressive histone methyltransferases. ChIP-seq analysis of the effector-free ATFs in MCF7 breast cancer cells identified thousands of binding sites, mostly in promoter regions; the addition of an SKD domain increased the number of binding sites ∼5-fold, with a majority of the new sites located outside of promoters. De novo motif analyses suggest that the lack of binding specificity is due to subsets of the finger domains being used for genomic interactions. Although the ATFs display widespread binding, few genes showed expression differences; genes repressed by the ATF-SKD have stronger binding sites and are more enriched for a 12 nt motif. Interestingly, epigenetic analyses indicate that the transcriptional repression caused by the ATF-SKD is not due to changes in active histone modifications. PMID:25122745

  8. The discovery of zinc fingers and their development for practical applications in gene regulation and genome manipulation.

    PubMed

    Klug, Aaron

    2010-02-01

    A long-standing goal of molecular biologists has been to construct DNA-binding proteins for the control of gene expression. The classical Cys2His2 (C2H2) zinc finger design is ideally suited for such purposes. Discriminating between closely related DNA sequences both in vitro and in vivo, this naturally occurring design was adopted for engineering zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) to target genes specifically. Zinc fingers were discovered in 1985, arising from the interpretation of our biochemical studies on the interaction of the Xenopus protein transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA) with 5S RNA. Subsequent structural studies revealed its three-dimensional structure and its interaction with DNA. Each finger constitutes a self-contained domain stabilized by a zinc (Zn) ion ligated to a pair of cysteines and a pair of histidines and also by an inner structural hydrophobic core. This discovery showed not only a new protein fold but also a novel principle of DNA recognition. Whereas other DNA-binding proteins generally make use of the 2-fold symmetry of the double helix, functioning as homo- or heterodimers, zinc fingers can be linked linearly in tandem to recognize nucleic acid sequences of varying lengths. This modular design offers a large number of combinatorial possibilities for the specific recognition of DNA (or RNA). It is therefore not surprising that the zinc finger is found widespread in nature, including 3% of the genes of the human genome. The zinc finger design can be used to construct DNA-binding proteins for specific intervention in gene expression. By fusing selected zinc finger peptides to repression or activation domains, genes can be selectively switched off or on by targeting the peptide to the desired gene target. It was also suggested that by combining an appropriate zinc finger peptide with other effector or functional domains, e.g. from nucleases or integrases to form chimaeric proteins, genomes could be modified or manipulated. The first example of the

  9. White collar-1, a central regulator of blue light responses in Neurospora, is a zinc finger protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ballario, P; Vittorioso, P; Magrelli, A; Talora, C; Cabibbo, A; Macino, G

    1996-01-01

    The Neurospora crassa blind mutant white collar-1 (wc-1) is pleiotropically defective in all blue light-induced phenomena, establishing a role for the wc-1 gene product in the signal transduction pathway. We report the cloning of the wc-1 gene isolated by chromosome walking and mutant complementation. The elucidation of the wc-1 gene product provides a key piece of the blue light signal transduction puzzle. The wc-1 gene encodes a 125 kDa protein whose encoded motifs include a single class four, zinc finger DNA binding domain and a glutamine-rich putative transcription activation domain. We demonstrate that the wc-1 zinc finger domain, expressed in Escherichia coli, is able to bind specifically to the promoter of a blue light-regulated gene of Neurospora using an in vitro gel retardation assay. Furthermore, we show that wc-1 gene expression is autoregulated and is transcriptionally induced by blue light irradiation. Images PMID:8612589

  10. Selectivity of arsenite interaction with zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linhong; Chen, Siming; Jia, Liangyuan; Shu, Shi; Zhu, Pingping; Liu, Yangzhong

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogenic element also used for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. The reactivity of proteins to arsenic must be associated with the various biological functions of As. Here, we investigated the selectivity of arsenite to zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) with different zinc binding motifs (C2H2, C3H, and C4). Single ZFP domain proteins were used for the direct comparison of the reactivity of different ZFPs. The binding constants and the reaction rates have been studied quantitatively. Results show that both the binding affinity and reaction rates of single-domain ZFPs follow the trend of C4 > C3H ≫ C2H2. Compared with the C2H2 motif ZFPs, the binding affinities of C3H and C4 motif ZFPs are nearly two orders of magnitude higher and the reaction rates are approximately two-fold higher. The formation of multi-domain ZFPs significantly enhances the reactivity of C2H2 type ZFPs, but has negligible effects on C3H and C4 ZFPs. Consequently, the reactivities of the three types of multi-domain ZFPs are rather similar. The 2D NMR spectra indicate that the As(III)-bound ZFPs are also unfolded, suggesting that arsenic binding interferes with the function of ZFPs.

  11. Keep your fingers off my DNA: protein-protein interactions mediated by C2H2 zinc finger domains.

    PubMed

    Brayer, Kathryn J; Segal, David J

    2008-01-01

    Cys2-His2 (C2H2) zinc finger domains (ZFs) were originally identified as DNA-binding domains, and uncharacterized domains are typically assumed to function in DNA binding. However, a growing body of evidence suggests an important and widespread role for these domains in protein binding. There are even examples of zinc fingers that support both DNA and protein interactions, which can be found in well-known DNA-binding proteins such as Sp1, Zif268, and Ying Yang 1 (YY1). C2H2 protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are proving to be more abundant than previously appreciated, more plastic than their DNA-binding counterparts, and more variable and complex in their interactions surfaces. Here we review the current knowledge of over 100 C2H2 zinc finger-mediated PPIs, focusing on what is known about the binding surface, contributions of individual fingers to the interaction, and function. An accurate understanding of zinc finger biology will likely require greater insights into the potential protein interaction capabilities of C2H2 ZFs.

  12. Viral RNA annealing activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein require only peptide domains outside the zinc fingers.

    PubMed Central

    De Rocquigny, H; Gabus, C; Vincent, A; Fournié-Zaluski, M C; Roques, B; Darlix, J L

    1992-01-01

    The nucleocapsid (NC) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 consists of a large number of NC protein molecules, probably wrapping the dimeric RNA genome within the virion inner core. NC protein is a gag-encoded product that contains two zinc fingers flanked by basic residues. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions, NCp15 is ultimately processed into NCp7 and p6 proteins. During virion assembly the retroviral NC protein is necessary for core formation and genomic RNA encapsidation, which are essential for virus infectivity. In vitro NCp15 activates viral RNA dimerization, a process most probably linked in vivo to genomic RNA packaging, and replication primer tRNA(Lys,3) annealing to the initiation site of reverse transcription. To characterize the domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 NC protein necessary for its various functions, the 72-amino acid NCp7 and several derived peptides were synthesized in a pure form. We show here that synthetic NCp7 with or without the two zinc fingers has the RNA annealing activities of NCp15. Further deletions of the N-terminal 12 and C-terminal 8 amino acids, leading to a 27-residue peptide lacking the finger domains, have little or no effect on NC protein activity in vitro. However deletion of short sequences containing basic residues flanking the first finger leads to a complete loss of NC protein activity. It is proposed that the basic residues and the zinc fingers cooperate to select and package the genomic RNA in vivo. Inhibition of the viral RNA binding and annealing activities associated with the basic residues flanking the first zinc finger of NC protein could therefore be used as a model for the design of antiviral agents. Images PMID:1631144

  13. Viral RNA annealing activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein require only peptide domains outside the zinc fingers.

    PubMed

    De Rocquigny, H; Gabus, C; Vincent, A; Fournié-Zaluski, M C; Roques, B; Darlix, J L

    1992-07-15

    The nucleocapsid (NC) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 consists of a large number of NC protein molecules, probably wrapping the dimeric RNA genome within the virion inner core. NC protein is a gag-encoded product that contains two zinc fingers flanked by basic residues. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions, NCp15 is ultimately processed into NCp7 and p6 proteins. During virion assembly the retroviral NC protein is necessary for core formation and genomic RNA encapsidation, which are essential for virus infectivity. In vitro NCp15 activates viral RNA dimerization, a process most probably linked in vivo to genomic RNA packaging, and replication primer tRNA(Lys,3) annealing to the initiation site of reverse transcription. To characterize the domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 NC protein necessary for its various functions, the 72-amino acid NCp7 and several derived peptides were synthesized in a pure form. We show here that synthetic NCp7 with or without the two zinc fingers has the RNA annealing activities of NCp15. Further deletions of the N-terminal 12 and C-terminal 8 amino acids, leading to a 27-residue peptide lacking the finger domains, have little or no effect on NC protein activity in vitro. However deletion of short sequences containing basic residues flanking the first finger leads to a complete loss of NC protein activity. It is proposed that the basic residues and the zinc fingers cooperate to select and package the genomic RNA in vivo. Inhibition of the viral RNA binding and annealing activities associated with the basic residues flanking the first zinc finger of NC protein could therefore be used as a model for the design of antiviral agents.

  14. Genetic Dissection of Photoreceptor Subtype Specification by the Drosophila melanogaster Zinc Finger Proteins Elbow and No ocelli

    PubMed Central

    Wernet, Mathias F.; Meier, Kerstin M.; Baumann-Klausener, Franziska; Dorfman, Ruslan; Weihe, Ulrich; Labhart, Thomas; Desplan, Claude

    2014-01-01

    The elbow/no ocelli (elb/noc) complex of Drosophila melanogaster encodes two paralogs of the evolutionarily conserved NET family of zinc finger proteins. These transcriptional repressors share a conserved domain structure, including a single atypical C2H2 zinc finger. In flies, Elb and Noc are important for the development of legs, eyes and tracheae. Vertebrate NET proteins play an important role in the developing nervous system, and mutations in the homolog ZNF703 human promote luminal breast cancer. However, their interaction with transcriptional regulators is incompletely understood. Here we show that loss of both Elb and Noc causes mis-specification of polarization-sensitive photoreceptors in the ‘dorsal rim area’ (DRA) of the fly retina. This phenotype is identical to the loss of the homeodomain transcription factor Homothorax (Hth)/dMeis. Development of DRA ommatidia and expression of Hth are induced by the Wingless/Wnt pathway. Our data suggest that Elb/Noc genetically interact with Hth, and we identify two conserved domains crucial for this function. Furthermore, we show that Elb/Noc specifically interact with the transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd)/Otx, a crucial regulator of rhodopsin gene transcription. Interestingly, different Elb/Noc domains are required to antagonize Otd functions in transcriptional activation, versus transcriptional repression. We propose that similar interactions between vertebrate NET proteins and Meis and Otx factors might play a role in development and disease. PMID:24625735

  15. Toward rules relating zinc finger protein sequences and DNA binding site preferences.

    PubMed

    Desjarlais, J R; Berg, J M

    1992-08-15

    Zinc finger proteins of the Cys2-His2 type consist of tandem arrays of domains, where each domain appears to contact three adjacent base pairs of DNA through three key residues. We have designed and prepared a series of variants of the central zinc finger within the DNA binding domain of Sp1 by using information from an analysis of a large data base of zinc finger protein sequences. Through systematic variations at two of the three contact positions (underlined), relatively specific recognition of sequences of the form 5'-GGGGN(G or T)GGG-3' has been achieved. These results provide the basis for rules that may develop into a code that will allow the design of zinc finger proteins with preselected DNA site specificity.

  16. Engineering and Application of Zinc Finger Proteins and TALEs for Biomedical Research.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon-Soo; Kini, Anu Ganesh

    2017-08-01

    Engineered DNA-binding domains provide a powerful technology for numerous biomedical studies due to their ability to recognize specific DNA sequences. Zinc fingers (ZF) are one of the most common DNA-binding domains and have been extensively studied for a variety of applications, such as gene regulation, genome engineering and diagnostics. Another novel DNA-binding domain known as a transcriptional activator-like effector (TALE) has been more recently discovered, which has a previously undescribed DNA-binding mode. Due to their modular architecture and flexibility, TALEs have been rapidly developed into artificial gene targeting reagents. Here, we describe the methods used to design these DNA-binding proteins and their key applications in biomedical research.

  17. The zinc finger gene Xblimp1 controls anterior endomesodermal cell fate in Spemann's organizer.

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, F S; Gawantka, V; Gómez, A P; Delius, H; Ang, S L; Niehrs, C

    1999-01-01

    The anterior endomesoderm of the early Xenopus gastrula is a part of Spemann's organizer and is important for head induction. Here we describe Xblimp1, which encodes a zinc finger transcriptional repressor expressed in the anterior endomesoderm. Xblimp1 represses trunk mesoderm and induces anterior endomesoderm in a cooperative manner with the pan-endodermal gene Mix.1. Furthermore, Xblimp1 can cooperate with the BMP inhibitor chordin to induce ectopic heads, while a dominant-negative Xblimp1 inhibits head formation. The head inducer cerberus is positively regulated by Xblimp1 and is able to rescue microcephalic embryos caused by dominant-negative Xblimp1. Our results indicate that Xblimp1 is required for anterior endomesodermal cell fate and head induction. PMID:10545117

  18. The prokaryotic zinc-finger: structure, function and comparison with the eukaryotic counterpart.

    PubMed

    Malgieri, Gaetano; Palmieri, Maddalena; Russo, Luigi; Fattorusso, Roberto; Pedone, Paolo V; Isernia, Carla

    2015-12-01

    Classical zinc finger (ZF) domains were thought to be confined to the eukaryotic kingdom until the transcriptional regulator Ros protein was identified in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The Ros Cys2 His2 ZF binds DNA in a peculiar mode and folds in a domain significantly larger than its eukaryotic counterpart consisting of 58 amino acids (the 9-66 region) arranged in a βββαα topology, and stabilized by a conserved, extensive, 15-residue hydrophobic core. The prokaryotic ZF domain, then, shows some intriguing new features that make it interestingly different from its eukaryotic counterpart. This review will focus on the prokaryotic ZFs, summarizing and discussing differences and analogies with the eukaryotic domains and providing important insights into their structure/function relationships. © 2015 FEBS.

  19. A multiscale approach to simulating the conformational properties of unbound multi-C₂H₂ zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Wade, Rebecca C; Heermann, Dieter W

    2015-09-01

    The conformational properties of unbound multi-Cys2 His2 (mC2H2) zinc finger proteins, in which zinc finger domains are connected by flexible linkers, are studied by a multiscale approach. Three methods on different length scales are utilized. First, atomic detail molecular dynamics simulations of one zinc finger and its adjacent flexible linker confirmed that the zinc finger is more rigid than the flexible linker. Second, the end-to-end distance distributions of mC2H2 zinc finger proteins are computed using an efficient atomistic pivoting algorithm, which only takes excluded volume interactions into consideration. The end-to-end distance distribution gradually changes its profile, from left-tailed to right-tailed, as the number of zinc fingers increases. This is explained by using a worm-like chain model. For proteins of a few zinc fingers, an effective bending constraint favors an extended conformation. Only for proteins containing more than nine zinc fingers, is a somewhat compacted conformation preferred. Third, a mesoscale model is modified to study both the local and the global conformational properties of multi-C2H2 zinc finger proteins. Simulations of the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), an important mC2H2 zinc finger protein for genome spatial organization, are presented. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Finger millet (Eleucine coracana) flour as a vehicle for fortification with zinc.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Bhumika; Platel, Kalpana

    2010-01-01

    Millets, being less expensive compared to cereals and the staple for the poorer sections of population, could be the choice for fortification with micronutrients such as zinc. In view of this, finger millet, widely grown and commonly consumed in southern India, was explored as a vehicle for fortification with zinc in this investigation. Finger millet flour fortified with either zinc oxide or zinc stearate so as to provide 50mg zinc per kg flour, was specifically examined for the bioaccessibility of the fortified mineral, as measured by in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion procedure and storage stability. Addition of the zinc salts increased the bioaccessible zinc content by 1.5-3 times that of the unfortified flour. Inclusion of EDTA along with the fortified salt significantly enhanced the bioaccessibility of zinc from the fortified flours, the increase being three-fold. Inclusion of citric acid along with the zinc salt and EDTA during fortification did not have any additional beneficial effect on zinc bioaccessiblity. Moisture and free fatty acid contents of the stored fortified flours indicated the keeping quality of the same, up to 60 days. Both zinc oxide and zinc stearate were equally effective as fortificants, when used in combination with EDTA as a co-fortificant. The preparation of either roti or dumpling from the fortified flours stored up to 60 days did not result in any significant compromise in the bioaccessible zinc content. Thus, the present study has revealed that finger millet flour can effectively be used as a vehicle for zinc fortification to derive additional amounts of bioaccessible zinc, with reasonably good storage stability, to combat zinc deficiency. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Two short basic sequences surrounding the zinc finger of nucleocapsid protein NCp10 of Moloney murine leukemia virus are critical for RNA annealing activity.

    PubMed

    De Rocquigny, H; Ficheux, D; Gabus, C; Allain, B; Fournie-Zaluski, M C; Darlix, J L; Roques, B P

    1993-02-25

    The 56 amino acid nucleocapsid protein (NCp10) of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, contains a CysX2CysX4HisX4Cys zinc finger flanked by basic residues. In vitro NCp10 promotes genomic RNA dimerization, a process most probably linked to genomic RNA packaging, and replication primer tRNA(Pro) annealing to the initiation site of reverse transcription. To characterize the amino-acid sequences involved in the various functions of NCp10, we have synthesized by solid phase method the native protein and a series of derived peptides shortened at the N- or C-terminus with or without the zinc finger domain. In the latter case, the two parts of the protein were linked by a Glycine - Glycine spacer. The in vitro studies of these peptides show that nucleic acid annealing activities of NCp10 do not require a zinc finger but are critically dependent on the presence of specific sequences located on each side of the CCHC domain and containing proline and basic residues. Thus, deletion of 11R or 49PRPQT, of the fully active 29 residue peptide 11RQGGERRRSQLDRDGGKKPRGPRGPRPQT53 leads to a complete loss of NCp10 activity. Therefore it is proposed that in NCp10, the zinc finger directs the spatial recognition of the target RNAs by the basic domains surrounding the zinc finger.

  2. Two short basic sequences surrounding the zinc finger of nucleocapsid protein NCp10 of Moloney murine leukemia virus are critical for RNA annealing activity.

    PubMed Central

    De Rocquigny, H; Ficheux, D; Gabus, C; Allain, B; Fournie-Zaluski, M C; Darlix, J L; Roques, B P

    1993-01-01

    The 56 amino acid nucleocapsid protein (NCp10) of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, contains a CysX2CysX4HisX4Cys zinc finger flanked by basic residues. In vitro NCp10 promotes genomic RNA dimerization, a process most probably linked to genomic RNA packaging, and replication primer tRNA(Pro) annealing to the initiation site of reverse transcription. To characterize the amino-acid sequences involved in the various functions of NCp10, we have synthesized by solid phase method the native protein and a series of derived peptides shortened at the N- or C-terminus with or without the zinc finger domain. In the latter case, the two parts of the protein were linked by a Glycine - Glycine spacer. The in vitro studies of these peptides show that nucleic acid annealing activities of NCp10 do not require a zinc finger but are critically dependent on the presence of specific sequences located on each side of the CCHC domain and containing proline and basic residues. Thus, deletion of 11R or 49PRPQT, of the fully active 29 residue peptide 11RQGGERRRSQLDRDGGKKPRGPRGPRPQT53 leads to a complete loss of NCp10 activity. Therefore it is proposed that in NCp10, the zinc finger directs the spatial recognition of the target RNAs by the basic domains surrounding the zinc finger. Images PMID:8451185

  3. Dynamics of linker residues modulate the nucleic acid binding properties of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers.

    PubMed

    Zargarian, Loussiné; Tisné, Carine; Barraud, Pierre; Xu, Xiaoqian; Morellet, Nelly; René, Brigitte; Mély, Yves; Fossé, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a small basic protein containing two zinc fingers (ZF) separated by a short linker. It is involved in several steps of the replication cycle and acts as a nucleic acid chaperone protein in facilitating nucleic acid strand transfers occurring during reverse transcription. Recent analysis of three-dimensional structures of NC-nucleic acids complexes established a new property: the unpaired guanines targeted by NC are more often inserted in the C-terminal zinc finger (ZF2) than in the N-terminal zinc finger (ZF1). Although previous NMR dynamic studies were performed with NC, the dynamic behavior of the linker residues connecting the two ZF domains remains unclear. This prompted us to investigate the dynamic behavior of the linker residues. Here, we collected 15N NMR relaxation data and used for the first time data at several fields to probe the protein dynamics. The analysis at two fields allows us to detect a slow motion occurring between the two domains around a hinge located in the linker at the G35 position. However, the amplitude of motion appears limited in our conditions. In addition, we showed that the neighboring linker residues R29, A30, P31, R32, K33 displayed restricted motion and numerous contacts with residues of ZF1. Our results are fully consistent with a model in which the ZF1-linker contacts prevent the ZF1 domain to interact with unpaired guanines, whereas the ZF2 domain is more accessible and competent to interact with unpaired guanines. In contrast, ZF1 with its large hydrophobic plateau is able to destabilize the double-stranded regions adjacent to the guanines bound by ZF2. The linker residues and the internal dynamics of NC regulate therefore the different functions of the two zinc fingers that are required for an optimal chaperone activity.

  4. Dynamics of Linker Residues Modulate the Nucleic Acid Binding Properties of the HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein Zinc Fingers

    PubMed Central

    Zargarian, Loussiné; Tisné, Carine; Barraud, Pierre; Xu, Xiaoqian; Morellet, Nelly; René, Brigitte; Mély, Yves; Fossé, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a small basic protein containing two zinc fingers (ZF) separated by a short linker. It is involved in several steps of the replication cycle and acts as a nucleic acid chaperone protein in facilitating nucleic acid strand transfers occurring during reverse transcription. Recent analysis of three-dimensional structures of NC-nucleic acids complexes established a new property: the unpaired guanines targeted by NC are more often inserted in the C-terminal zinc finger (ZF2) than in the N-terminal zinc finger (ZF1). Although previous NMR dynamic studies were performed with NC, the dynamic behavior of the linker residues connecting the two ZF domains remains unclear. This prompted us to investigate the dynamic behavior of the linker residues. Here, we collected 15N NMR relaxation data and used for the first time data at several fields to probe the protein dynamics. The analysis at two fields allows us to detect a slow motion occurring between the two domains around a hinge located in the linker at the G35 position. However, the amplitude of motion appears limited in our conditions. In addition, we showed that the neighboring linker residues R29, A30, P31, R32, K33 displayed restricted motion and numerous contacts with residues of ZF1. Our results are fully consistent with a model in which the ZF1-linker contacts prevent the ZF1 domain to interact with unpaired guanines, whereas the ZF2 domain is more accessible and competent to interact with unpaired guanines. In contrast, ZF1 with its large hydrophobic plateau is able to destabilize the double-stranded regions adjacent to the guanines bound by ZF2. The linker residues and the internal dynamics of NC regulate therefore the different functions of the two zinc fingers that are required for an optimal chaperone activity. PMID:25029439

  5. A zinc finger protein Zfp521 directs neural differentiation and beyond

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Neural induction is largely considered a default process, whereas little is known about intrinsic factors that drive neural differentiation. Kamiya and colleagues now demonstrate that a transcription factor, Zfp521, is capable of directing embryonic stem (ES) cells into neural progenitors. They discovered that Zfp521 transcripts were enriched in early neural lineage of ES cell differentiation. Forced expression of Zfp521 turned ES cells into neural progenitors in culture conditions that would normally inhibit neural differentiation. Zfp521 was expressed in mouse embryos during gastrulation. The protein was shown to associate with a co-activator p300 and directly induce expression of early neural genes. Knockdown of the Zfp521 by shRNA halted cells at the epiblast stage and suppressed neural differentiation. Zfp521 is a nuclear protein with 30 Krüppel-like zinc fingers mediating multiple protein-protein interactions, and regulates transcription in diverse tissues and organs. The protein promotes proliferation, delays differentiation and reduces apoptosis. The findings by Kamiya and colleagues that Zfp521 directs and sustains early neural differentiation now opens up a series of studies to investigate roles of Zfp521 in stem cells and brain development of mice and men. PMID:21539723

  6. Molecular Characterization of abLIM, a Novel Actin-binding and Double Zinc Finger Protein

    PubMed Central

    Roof, Dorothy J.; Hayes, Annmarie; Adamian, Michael; Chishti, Athar H.; Li, Tiansen

    1997-01-01

    Molecules that couple the actin-based cytoskeleton to intracellular signaling pathways are central to the processes of cellular morphogenesis and differentiation. We have characterized a novel protein, the actin-binding LIM (abLIM) protein, which could mediate such interactions between actin filaments and cytoplasmic targets. abLIM protein consists of a COOH-terminal cytoskeletal domain that is fused to an NH2-terminal domain consisting of four double zinc finger motifs. The cytoskeletal domain is ∼50% identical to erythrocyte dematin, an actin-bundling protein of the red cell membrane skeleton, while the zinc finger domains conform to the LIM motif consensus sequence. In vitro expression studies demonstrate that abLIM protein can bind to F-actin through the dematin-like domain. Transcripts corresponding to three distinct isoforms have a widespread tissue distribution. However, a polypeptide corresponding to the full-length isoform is found exclusively in the retina and is enriched in biochemical extracts of retinal rod inner segments. abLIM protein also undergoes extensive phosphorylation in light-adapted retinas in vivo, and its developmental expression in the retina coincides with the elaboration of photoreceptor inner and outer segments. Based on the composite primary structure of abLIM protein, actin-binding capacity, potential regulation via phosphorylation, and isoform expression pattern, we speculate that abLIM may play a general role in bridging the actin-based cytoskeleton with an array of potential LIM protein-binding partners. The developmental time course of abLIM expression in the retina suggests that the retina-specific isoform may have a specialized role in the development or elaboration of photoreceptor inner and outer segments. PMID:9245787

  7. Zinc finger point mutations within the WT1 gene in Wilms tumor patients.

    PubMed Central

    Little, M H; Prosser, J; Condie, A; Smith, P J; Van Heyningen, V; Hastie, N D

    1992-01-01

    A proposed Wilms tumor gene, WT1, which encodes a zinc finger protein, has previously been isolated from human chromosome 11p13. Chemical mismatch cleavage analysis was used to identify point mutations in the zinc finger region of this gene in a series of 32 Wilms tumors. Two exonic single base changes were detected. In zinc finger 3 of a bilateral Wilms tumor patient, a constitutional de novo C----T base change was found changing an arginine to a stop codon. One tumor from this patient showed allele loss leading to 11p hemizygosity of the abnormal allele. In zinc finger 2 of a sporadic Wilms tumor patient, a C----T base change resulted in an arginine to cysteine amino acid change. To our knowledge, a WT1 gene missense mutation has not been detected previously in a Wilms tumor. By comparison with a recent NMR and x-ray crystallographic analysis of an analogous zinc finger gene, early growth response gene 1 (EGR1), this amino acid change in WT1 occurs at a residue predicted to be critical for DNA binding capacity and site specificity. The detection of one nonsense point mutation and one missense WT1 gene point mutation adds to the accumulating evidence implicating this gene in a proportion of Wilms tumor patients. Images PMID:1317572

  8. Physical and Functional Interactions of Human Endogenous Retrovirus Proteins Np9 and Rec with the Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Denne, Miriam; Sauter, Marlies; Armbruester, Vivienne; Licht, Jonathan D.; Roemer, Klaus; Mueller-Lantzsch, Nikolaus

    2007-01-01

    Only few of the human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) sequences in the human genome can produce proteins. We have previously reported that (i) patients with germ cell tumors often make antibodies against proteins encoded by HERV-K elements, (ii) expression of the HERV-K rec gene in transgenic mice can interfere with germ cell development and induce carcinoma in situ, and (iii) HERV-K np9 transcript is overproduced in many tumors including breast cancers. Here we document that both Np9 and Rec physically and functionally interact with the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) tumor suppressor, a transcriptional repressor and chromatin remodeler implicated in cancer and the self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells. Interaction is mediated via two different central and C-terminal domains of Np9 and Rec and the C-terminal zinc fingers of PLZF. One major target of PLZF is the c-myc proto-oncogene. Coexpression of Np9 and Rec with PLZF abrogates the transcriptional repression of the c-myc gene promoter by PLZF and results in c-Myc overproduction, altered expression of c-Myc-regulated genes, and corresponding effects on cell proliferation and survival. Thus, the human endogenous retrovirus proteins Np9 and Rec may act oncogenically by derepressing c-myc through the inhibition of PLZF. PMID:17360752

  9. The alpha subunit of Go interacts with promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein and modulates its functions.

    PubMed

    Won, Jung Hee; Park, Jung Sik; Ju, Hyun Hee; Kim, Soyeon; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Ghil, Sung Ho

    2008-05-01

    Heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) mediate signal transduction generated by neurotransmitters and hormones. Go, a member of the Go/Gi family, is the most abundant heterotrimeric G protein in the brain. Most mechanistic analyses on Go activation demonstrate that its action is mediated by the Gbetagamma dimer; downstream effectors for its alpha subunit (Goalpha) have not been clearly defined. Here, we employ the yeast two-hybrid system to screen for Goalpha-interacting partners in a cDNA library from human fetal brain. The transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF) specifically bound to Goalpha. Interactions between PLZF and Goalpha were confirmed using in vitro and in vivo affinity binding assays. Activated Goalpha interacted directly with PLZF, and enhanced its function as a transcriptional and cell growth suppressor. Notably, PLZF activity was additionally promoted by the Go/ialpha-coupled cannabinoid receptor (CB) in HL60 cells endogenously expressing CB and PLZF. These results collectively suggest that Goalpha modulates the function of PLZF via direct interactions. Our novel findings provide insights into the diverse cellular roles of Goalpha and its coupled receptor.

  10. Efficient targeted mutagenesis in the monarch butterfly using zinc-finger nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Merlin, Christine; Beaver, Lauren E.; Taylor, Orley R.; Wolfe, Scot A.; Reppert, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of reverse-genetic tools in “nonmodel” insect species with distinct biology is critical to establish them as viable model systems. The eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), whose genome is sequenced, has emerged as a model to study animal clocks, navigational mechanisms, and the genetic basis of long-distance migration. Here, we developed a highly efficient gene-targeting approach in the monarch using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), engineered nucleases that generate mutations at targeted genomic sequences. We focused our ZFN approach on targeting the type 2 vertebrate-like cryptochrome gene of the monarch (designated cry2), which encodes a putative transcriptional repressor of the monarch circadian clockwork. Co-injections of mRNAs encoding ZFNs targeting the second exon of monarch cry2 into “one nucleus” stage embryos led to high-frequency nonhomologous end-joining-mediated, mutagenic lesions in the germline (up to 50%). Heritable ZFN-induced lesions in two independent lines produced truncated, nonfunctional CRY2 proteins, resulting in the in vivo disruption of circadian behavior and the molecular clock mechanism. Our work genetically defines CRY2 as an essential transcriptional repressor of the monarch circadian clock and provides a proof of concept for the use of ZFNs for manipulating genes in the monarch butterfly genome. Importantly, this approach could be used in other lepidopterans and “nonmodel” insects, thus opening new avenues to decipher the molecular underpinnings of a variety of biological processes. PMID:23009861

  11. Zinc Fingers, TALEs, and CRISPR Systems: A Comparison of Tools for Epigenome Editing.

    PubMed

    Waryah, Charlene Babra; Moses, Colette; Arooj, Mahira; Blancafort, Pilar

    2018-01-01

    The completion of genome, epigenome, and transcriptome mapping in multiple cell types has created a demand for precision biomolecular tools that allow researchers to functionally manipulate DNA, reconfigure chromatin structure, and ultimately reshape gene expression patterns. Epigenetic editing tools provide the ability to interrogate the relationship between epigenetic modifications and gene expression. Importantly, this information can be exploited to reprogram cell fate for both basic research and therapeutic applications. Three different molecular platforms for epigenetic editing have been developed: zinc finger proteins (ZFs), transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs), and the system of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. These platforms serve as custom DNA-binding domains (DBDs), which are fused to epigenetic modifying domains to manipulate epigenetic marks at specific sites in the genome. The addition and/or removal of epigenetic modifications reconfigures local chromatin structure, with the potential to provoke long-lasting changes in gene transcription. Here we summarize the molecular structure and mechanism of action of ZF, TALE, and CRISPR platforms and describe their applications for the locus-specific manipulation of the epigenome. The advantages and disadvantages of each platform will be discussed with regard to genomic specificity, potency in regulating gene expression, and reprogramming cell phenotypes, as well as ease of design, construction, and delivery. Finally, we outline potential applications for these tools in molecular biology and biomedicine and identify possible barriers to their future clinical implementation.

  12. Zinc finger nuclease technology: advances and obstacles in modelling and treating genetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Jabalameli, Hamid Reza; Zahednasab, Hamid; Karimi-Moghaddam, Amin; Jabalameli, Mohammad Reza

    2015-03-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are engineered restriction enzymes designed to target specific DNA sequences within the genome. Assembly of zinc finger DNA-binding domain to a DNA-cleavage domain enables the enzyme machinery to target unique locus in the genome and invoke endogenous DNA repair mechanisms. This machinery offers a versatile approach in allele editing and gene therapy. Here we discuss the architecture of ZFNs and strategies for generating targeted modifications within the genome. We review advances in gene therapy and modelling of the disease using these enzymes and finally, discuss the practical obstacles in using this technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The unique N-terminal zinc finger of synaptotagmin-like protein 4 reveals FYVE structure.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide; Nakatani, Arisa; Saito, Kazuki

    2017-12-01

    Synaptotagmin-like protein 4 (Slp4), expressed in human platelets, is associated with dense granule release. Slp4 is comprised of the N-terminal zinc finger, Slp homology domain, and C2 domains. We synthesized a compact construct (the Slp4N peptide) corresponding to the Slp4 N-terminal zinc finger. Herein, we have determined the solution structure of the Slp4N peptide by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Furthermore, experimental, chemical modification of Cys residues revealed that the Slp4N peptide binds two zinc atoms to mediate proper folding. NMR data showed that eight Cys residues coordinate zinc atoms in a cross-brace fashion. The Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool database predicted the structure of Slp4N as a RING finger. However, the actual structure of the Slp4N peptide adopts a unique C 4 C 4 -type FYVE fold and is distinct from a RING fold. To create an artificial RING finger (ARF) with specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2)-binding capability, cross-brace structures with eight zinc-ligating residues are needed as the scaffold. The cross-brace structure of the Slp4N peptide could be utilized as the scaffold for the design of ARFs. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  14. C terminal retroviral-type zinc finger domain from the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein is structurally similar to the N-terminal zinc finger domain

    SciT

    South, T.L.; Blake, P.R.; Hare, D.R.

    Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic and computational methods were employed for the structure determination of an 18-residue peptide with the amino acid sequence of the C-terminal retriviral-type (r.t.) zinc finger domain from the nucleocapsid protein (NCP) of HIV-1 (Zn(HIV1-F2)). Unlike results obtained for the first retroviral-type zinc finger peptide, Zn (HIV1-F1) broad signals indicative of confomational lability were observed in the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of An(HIV1-F2) at 25 C. The NMR signals narrowed upon cooling to {minus}2 C, enabling complete {sup 1}H NMR signal assignment via standard two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Distance restraints obtained from qualitative analysis of 2D nuclear Overhausermore » effect (NOESY) data were sued to generate 30 distance geometry (DG) structures with penalties in the range 0.02-0.03 {angstrom}{sup 2}. All structures were qualitatively consistent with the experimental NOESY spectrum based on comparisons with 2D NOESY back-calculated spectra. These results indicate that the r.t. zinc finger sequences observed in retroviral NCPs, simple plant virus coat proteins, and in a human single-stranded nucleic acid binding protein share a common structural motif.« less

  15. Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger turns on the effector T cell program without requirement for agonist TCR signaling.

    PubMed

    Savage, Adam K; Constantinides, Michael G; Bendelac, Albert

    2011-05-15

    Thymocytes expressing the NKT cell semi-invariant αβ TCR are thought to undergo agonist interactions with CD1d ligands prior to expressing promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF), a broad complex, tramtrack, bric-a-brac, poxvirus, and zinc finger transcription factor that directs acquisition of the effector program of these innate-like T cells. Whether PLZF can mediate this effector conversion independently of agonist signaling has not been investigated. We demonstrated that transgenic (Tg) expression of PLZF under the CD4 promoter induced the innate effector program in two different MHC class II-restricted TCR-Tg Rag1(-/-) models examined. In CD4 thymocytes expressing a fixed Tg TCR β-chain, the associated TCRα sequences in wild-type and PLZF-Tg mice overlapped extensively, further demonstrating that PLZF could induce the effector program in most CD4 T cells that would normally be selected as naive cells. In contrast, PLZF altered the negative selection of thymocytes expressing TCR β-chains reactive against several retroviral superantigens. Thus, PLZF is remarkable in that it is a transcription factor capable of inducing an effector program in the absence of T cell agonist interactions or cell division. Its expression may also enhance the survival of agonist-signaled thymocytes.

  16. The zinc fingers of YY1 bind single-stranded RNA with low sequence specificity.

    PubMed

    Wai, Dorothy C C; Shihab, Manar; Low, Jason K K; Mackay, Joel P

    2016-11-02

    Classical zinc fingers (ZFs) are traditionally considered to act as sequence-specific DNA-binding domains. More recently, classical ZFs have been recognised as potential RNA-binding modules, raising the intriguing possibility that classical-ZF transcription factors are involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation via direct RNA binding. To date, however, only one classical ZF-RNA complex, that involving TFIIIA, has been structurally characterised. Yin Yang-1 (YY1) is a multi-functional transcription factor involved in many regulatory processes, and binds DNA via four classical ZFs. Recent evidence suggests that YY1 also interacts with RNA, but the molecular nature of the interaction remains unknown. In the present work, we directly assess the ability of YY1 to bind RNA using in vitro assays. Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX) was used to identify preferred RNA sequences bound by the YY1 ZFs from a randomised library over multiple rounds of selection. However, a strong motif was not consistently recovered, suggesting that the RNA sequence selectivity of these domains is modest. YY1 ZF residues involved in binding to single-stranded RNA were identified by NMR spectroscopy and found to be largely distinct from the set of residues involved in DNA binding, suggesting that interactions between YY1 and ssRNA constitute a separate mode of nucleic acid binding. Our data are consistent with recent reports that YY1 can bind to RNA in a low-specificity, yet physiologically relevant manner. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Recruitment of mRNA-destabilizing protein TIS11 to stress granules is mediated by its zinc finger domain

    SciT

    Murata, Tomiyasu; Morita, Noriyoshi; Hikita, Kiyomi

    2005-02-15

    TIS11, a member of the CCCH zinc finger protein family, was found to be distributed throughout cells with a preferential cytoplasmic localization when transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. Upon treatment with heat shock, TIS11 became localized in discrete particles in the cytoplasm of the transfectants. We showed the TIS11-positive particles to be stress granules (SGs), which are known to be formed in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells in response to environmental stresses. By deletion studies using the green fluorescent protein fusion system, we mapped a functional stress granule (SG) localization signal to a region containing two tandem repeats of themore » zinc finger motif of TIS11. Site-directed mutations of Tyr105/Tyr113, Gly109/Gly 114, and Phe119 in the first zinc finger motif diminished the ability of this TIS11 domain to direct SG localization. Importantly, when the zinc-chelating Cys residues in either the first or second zinc finger were mutated to Ala residues, the recruitment of the TIS11 zinc finger region to SG was significantly inhibited by the mutation and was completely abolished by the mutation in both zinc fingers. These results suggest that recruitment of TIS11 to heat shock-induced SG is governed by the tandem zinc finger domains of this protein.« less

  18. Targeting Ligandable Pockets on Plant Homeodomain (PHD) Zinc Finger Domains by a Fragment-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Plant homeodomain (PHD) zinc fingers are histone reader domains that are often associated with human diseases. Despite this, they constitute a poorly targeted class of readers, suggesting low ligandability. Here, we describe a successful fragment-based campaign targeting PHD fingers from the proteins BAZ2A and BAZ2B as model systems. We validated a pool of in silico fragments both biophysically and structurally and solved the first crystal structures of PHD zinc fingers in complex with fragments bound to an anchoring pocket at the histone binding site. The best-validated hits were found to displace a histone H3 tail peptide in competition assays. This work identifies new chemical scaffolds that provide suitable starting points for future ligand optimization using structure-guided approaches. The demonstrated ligandability of the PHD reader domains could pave the way for the development of chemical probes to drug this family of epigenetic readers. PMID:29529862

  19. Targeting Ligandable Pockets on Plant Homeodomain (PHD) Zinc Finger Domains by a Fragment-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Amato, Anastasia; Lucas, Xavier; Bortoluzzi, Alessio; Wright, David; Ciulli, Alessio

    2018-04-20

    Plant homeodomain (PHD) zinc fingers are histone reader domains that are often associated with human diseases. Despite this, they constitute a poorly targeted class of readers, suggesting low ligandability. Here, we describe a successful fragment-based campaign targeting PHD fingers from the proteins BAZ2A and BAZ2B as model systems. We validated a pool of in silico fragments both biophysically and structurally and solved the first crystal structures of PHD zinc fingers in complex with fragments bound to an anchoring pocket at the histone binding site. The best-validated hits were found to displace a histone H3 tail peptide in competition assays. This work identifies new chemical scaffolds that provide suitable starting points for future ligand optimization using structure-guided approaches. The demonstrated ligandability of the PHD reader domains could pave the way for the development of chemical probes to drug this family of epigenetic readers.

  20. Zinc-finger protein-targeted gene regulation: Genomewide single-gene specificity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Siyuan; Guschin, Dmitry; Davalos, Albert; Lee, Ya-Li; Snowden, Andrew W.; Jouvenot, Yann; Zhang, H. Steven; Howes, Katherine; McNamara, Andrew R.; Lai, Albert; Ullman, Chris; Reynolds, Lindsey; Moore, Michael; Isalan, Mark; Berg, Lutz-Peter; Campos, Bradley; Qi, Hong; Spratt, S. Kaye; Case, Casey C.; Pabo, Carl O.; Campisi, Judith; Gregory, Philip D.

    2003-01-01

    Zinc-finger protein transcription factors (ZFP TFs) can be designed to control the expression of any desired target gene, and thus provide potential therapeutic tools for the study and treatment of disease. Here we report that a ZFP TF can repress target gene expression with single-gene specificity within the human genome. A ZFP TF repressor that binds an 18-bp recognition sequence within the promoter of the endogenous CHK2 gene gives a >10-fold reduction in CHK2 mRNA and protein. This level of repression was sufficient to generate a functional phenotype, as demonstrated by the loss of DNA damage-induced CHK2-dependent p53 phosphorylation. We determined the specificity of repression by using DNA microarrays and found that the ZFP TF repressed a single gene (CHK2) within the monitored genome in two different cell types. These data demonstrate the utility of ZFP TFs as precise tools for target validation, and highlight their potential as clinical therapeutics. PMID:14514889

  1. Specific labeling of zinc finger proteins using noncanonical amino acids and copper-free click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sung Hoon; Ferracane, Dean; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Schroeder, Charles M

    2012-09-19

    Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) play a key role in transcriptional regulation and serve as invaluable tools for gene modification and genetic engineering. Development of efficient strategies for labeling metalloproteins such as ZFPs is essential for understanding and controlling biological processes. In this work, we engineered ZFPs containing cysteine-histidine (Cys2-His2) motifs by metabolic incorporation of the unnatural amino acid azidohomoalanine (AHA), followed by specific protein labeling via click chemistry. We show that cyclooctyne promoted [3 + 2] dipolar cycloaddition with azides, known as copper-free click chemistry, provides rapid and specific labeling of ZFPs at high yields as determined by mass spectrometry analysis. We observe that the DNA-binding activity of ZFPs labeled by conventional copper-mediated click chemistry was completely abolished, whereas ZFPs labeled by copper-free click chemistry retain their sequence-specific DNA-binding activity under native conditions, as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, protein microarrays, and kinetic binding assays based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Our work provides a general framework to label metalloproteins such as ZFPs by metabolic incorporation of unnatural amino acids followed by copper-free click chemistry.

  2. Zinc finger protein 598 inhibits cell survival by promoting UV-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiaohong; Gupta, Romi

    2018-01-19

    UV is one of the major causes of DNA damage induced apoptosis. However, cancer cells adopt alternative mechanisms to evade UV-induced apoptosis. To identify factors that protect cancer cells from UV-induced apoptosis, we performed a genome wide short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen, which identified Zinc finger protein 598 (ZNF598) as a key regulator of UV-induced apoptosis. Here, we show that UV irradiation transcriptionally upregulates ZNF598 expression. Additionally, ZNF598 knockdown in cancer cells inhibited UV-induced apoptosis. In our study, we observe that ELK1 mRNA level as well as phosphorylated ELK1 levels was up regulated upon UV irradiation, which was necessary for UV irradiation induced upregulation of ZNF598. Cells expressing ELK1 shRNA were also resistant to UV-induced apoptosis, and phenocopy ZNF598 knockdown. Upon further investigation, we found that ZNF598 knockdown inhibits UV-induced apoptotic gene expression, which matches with decrease in percentage of annexin V positive cell. Similarly, ectopic expression of ZNF598 promoted apoptotic gene expression and also increased annexin V positive cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ZNF598 is a UV irradiation regulated gene and its loss results in resistance to UV-induced apoptosis.

  3. Zinc finger protein rotund deficiency affects development of the thoracic leg in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chun-Yan; Zha, Xing-Fu; Liu, Hua-Wei; Xia, Qing-You

    2017-06-01

    The insect limb develops from the imaginal disc or larval leg during metamorphosis. The molecular mechanisms involved in the development from the larval to the adult leg are poorly understood. Herein, we cloned the full length of a zinc finger gene rotund from Bombyx mori (Bmrn), which contained a 1419 bp open reading frame, and encoded a 473 amino acid protein. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses demonstrated that Bmrn was expressed at higher levels in the epidermis than in other tissues tested, and it showed a very high expression level during metamorphosis. Knock-down of Bmrn produced defects in the tarsus and pretarsus, including the fusion and reduction of tarsomeres, and the developmental arrest of pretarsus. Our data showed that Bmrn is involved in the formation of the tarsus and pretarsus, whereas its homologous gene in Drosophila has been shown to affect three tarsal segments (t2-t4), suggesting that the remodeling of the leg has involved changes in the patterning of gene regulation during evolution. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Increased expression of zinc finger protein 267 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, Bernd; Czech, Barbara; Valletta, Daniela; Weiss, Thomas S; Kirovski, Georgi; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular lipid accumulation is a hallmark of non-alcoholicfatty liver disease (NAFLD), which encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and ultimately cirrhosis. Zinc finger protein 267 (ZNF267) belongs to the family of Kruppel-like transcription factors, which regulate diverse biological processes that include development, proliferation, and differentiation. We have previously demonstrated that ZNF267 expression is up-regulated in liver cirrhosis and is further increased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we analyzed the expression of ZNF267 in tissue specimens of NAFLD patients and found a significant up-regulation compared to normal liver tissue. Noteworthy, ZNF267 mRNA was already significantly increased in steatotic liver tissue without inflammation. In line with this, incubation of primary human hepatocytes with palmitic acid induced a dose-dependent lipid accumulation and corresponding dose-dependent ZNF267 induction in vitro. Furthermore, hepatocellular lipid accumulation induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and also chemically induced ROS formation increased ZNF267 mRNA expression. In summary with previous findings, which revealed ZNF267 as pro-fibrogenic and pro-cancerogenic factor in chronic liver disease, the present study further suggests ZNF267 as promising therapeutic target particularly for NAFLD patients. In addition, it further indicates that hepatic steatosis per se has pathophysiological relevance and should not be considered as benign.

  5. Increased expression of Zinc finger protein 267 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Schnabl, Bernd; Czech, Barbara; Valletta, Daniela; Weiss, Thomas S; Kirovski, Georgi; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular lipid accumulation is a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and ultimately cirrhosis. Zinc finger protein 267 (ZNF267) belongs to the family of Kruppel-like transcription factors, which regulate diverse biological processes that include development, proliferation, and differentiation. We have previously demonstrated that ZNF267 expression is up-regulated in liver cirrhosis and is further increased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we analyzed the expression of ZNF267 in tissue specimens of NAFLD patients and found a significant up-regulation compared to normal liver tissue. Noteworthy, ZNF267 mRNA was already significantly increased in steatotic liver tissue without inflammation. In line with this, incubation of primary human hepatocytes with palmitic acid induced a dose-dependent lipid accumulation and corresponding dose-dependent ZNF267 induction in vitro. Furthermore, hepatocellular lipid accumulation induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and also chemically induced ROS formation increased ZNF267 mRNA expression. In summary with previous findings, which revealed ZNF267 as pro-fibrogenic and pro-cancerogenic factor in chronic liver disease, the present study further suggests ZNF267 as promising therapeutic target particularly for NAFLD patients. In addition, it further indicates that hepatic steatosis per se has pathophysiological relevance and should not be considered as benign. PMID:22076166

  6. Zebrafish foxP2 Zinc Finger Nuclease Mutant Has Normal Axon Pathfinding

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lingyan; Hoshijima, Kazuyuki; Grunwald, David J.; Fujimoto, Esther; Quist, Tyler S.; Sneddon, Jacob; Chien, Chi-Bin; Stevenson, Tamara J.; Bonkowsky, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    foxP2, a forkhead-domain transcription factor, is critical for speech and language development in humans, but its role in the establishment of CNS connectivity is unclear. While in vitro studies have identified axon guidance molecules as targets of foxP2 regulation, and cell culture assays suggest a role for foxP2 in neurite outgrowth, in vivo studies have been lacking regarding a role for foxP2 in axon pathfinding. We used a modified zinc finger nuclease methodology to generate mutations in the zebrafish foxP2 gene. Using PCR-based high resolution melt curve analysis (HRMA) of G0 founder animals, we screened and identified three mutants carrying nonsense mutations in the 2nd coding exon: a 17 base-pair (bp) deletion, an 8bp deletion, and a 4bp insertion. Sequence analysis of cDNA confirmed that these were frameshift mutations with predicted early protein truncations. Homozygous mutant fish were viable and fertile, with unchanged body morphology, and no apparent differences in CNS apoptosis, proliferation, or patterning at embryonic stages. There was a reduction in expression of the known foxP2 target gene cntnap2 that was rescued by injection of wild-type foxP2 transcript. When we examined axon pathfinding using a pan-axonal marker or transgenic lines, including a foxP2-neuron-specific enhancer, we did not observe any axon guidance errors. Our findings suggest that foxP2 is not necessary for axon pathfinding during development. PMID:22937139

  7. Zebrafish foxP2 zinc finger nuclease mutant has normal axon pathfinding.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lingyan; Hoshijima, Kazuyuki; Grunwald, David J; Fujimoto, Esther; Quist, Tyler S; Sneddon, Jacob; Chien, Chi-Bin; Stevenson, Tamara J; Bonkowsky, Joshua L

    2012-01-01

    foxP2, a forkhead-domain transcription factor, is critical for speech and language development in humans, but its role in the establishment of CNS connectivity is unclear. While in vitro studies have identified axon guidance molecules as targets of foxP2 regulation, and cell culture assays suggest a role for foxP2 in neurite outgrowth, in vivo studies have been lacking regarding a role for foxP2 in axon pathfinding. We used a modified zinc finger nuclease methodology to generate mutations in the zebrafish foxP2 gene. Using PCR-based high resolution melt curve analysis (HRMA) of G0 founder animals, we screened and identified three mutants carrying nonsense mutations in the 2(nd) coding exon: a 17 base-pair (bp) deletion, an 8bp deletion, and a 4bp insertion. Sequence analysis of cDNA confirmed that these were frameshift mutations with predicted early protein truncations. Homozygous mutant fish were viable and fertile, with unchanged body morphology, and no apparent differences in CNS apoptosis, proliferation, or patterning at embryonic stages. There was a reduction in expression of the known foxP2 target gene cntnap2 that was rescued by injection of wild-type foxP2 transcript. When we examined axon pathfinding using a pan-axonal marker or transgenic lines, including a foxP2-neuron-specific enhancer, we did not observe any axon guidance errors. Our findings suggest that foxP2 is not necessary for axon pathfinding during development.

  8. Generation and genetic engineering of human induced pluripotent stem cells using designed zinc finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Sivaprakash; London, Viktoriya; Kandavelou, Karthikeyan; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Guggino, William; Civin, Curt; Chandrasegaran, Srinivasan

    2013-02-15

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) have become powerful tools to deliver a targeted double-strand break at a pre-determined chromosomal locus in order to insert an exogenous transgene by homology-directed repair. ZFN-mediated gene targeting was used to generate both single-allele chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5)-modified human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and biallele CCR5-modified hiPSCs from human lung fibroblasts (IMR90 cells) and human primary cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMNCs) by site-specific insertion of stem cell transcription factor genes flanked by LoxP sites into the endogenous CCR5 locus. The Oct4 and Sox2 reprogramming factors, in combination with valproic acid, induced reprogramming of human lung fibroblasts to form CCR5-modified hiPSCs, while 5 factors, Oct4/Sox2/Klf4/Lin28/Nanog, induced reprogramming of CBMNCs. Subsequent Cre recombinase treatment of the CCR5-modified IMR90 hiPSCs resulted in the removal of the Oct4 and Sox2 transgenes. Further genetic engineering of the single-allele CCR5-modified IMR90 hiPSCs was achieved by site-specific addition of the large CFTR transcription unit to the remaining CCR5 wild-type allele, using CCR5-specific ZFNs and a donor construct containing tdTomato and CFTR transgenes flanked by CCR5 homology arms. CFTR was expressed efficiently from the endogenous CCR5 locus of the CCR5-modified tdTomato/CFTR hiPSCs. These results suggest that it might be feasible to use ZFN-evoked strategies to (1) generate precisely targeted genetically well-defined patient-specific hiPSCs, and (2) then to reshape their function by targeted addition and expression of therapeutic genes from the CCR5 chromosomal locus for autologous cell-based transgene-correction therapy to treat various recessive monogenic human diseases in the future.

  9. The mouse genome displays highly dynamic populations of KRAB-zinc finger protein genes and related genetic units.

    PubMed

    Kauzlaric, Annamaria; Ecco, Gabriela; Cassano, Marco; Duc, Julien; Imbeault, Michael; Trono, Didier

    2017-01-01

    KRAB-containing poly-zinc finger proteins (KZFPs) constitute the largest family of transcription factors encoded by mammalian genomes, and growing evidence indicates that they fulfill functions critical to both embryonic development and maintenance of adult homeostasis. KZFP genes underwent broad and independent waves of expansion in many higher vertebrates lineages, yet comprehensive studies of members harbored by a given species are scarce. Here we present a thorough analysis of KZFP genes and related units in the murine genome. We first identified about twice as many elements than previously annotated as either KZFP genes or pseudogenes, notably by assigning to this family an entity formerly considered as a large group of Satellite repeats. We then could delineate an organization in clusters distributed throughout the genome, with signs of recombination, translocation, duplication and seeding of new sites by retrotransposition of KZFP genes and related genetic units (KZFP/rGUs). Moreover, we harvested evidence indicating that closely related paralogs had evolved through both drifting and shifting of sequences encoding for zinc finger arrays. Finally, we could demonstrate that the KAP1-SETDB1 repressor complex tames the expression of KZFP/rGUs within clusters, yet that the primary targets of this regulation are not the KZFP/rGUs themselves but enhancers contained in neighboring endogenous retroelements and that, underneath, KZFPs conserve highly individualized patterns of expression.

  10. The mouse genome displays highly dynamic populations of KRAB-zinc finger protein genes and related genetic units

    PubMed Central

    Kauzlaric, Annamaria; Ecco, Gabriela; Cassano, Marco; Duc, Julien; Imbeault, Michael; Trono, Didier

    2017-01-01

    KRAB-containing poly-zinc finger proteins (KZFPs) constitute the largest family of transcription factors encoded by mammalian genomes, and growing evidence indicates that they fulfill functions critical to both embryonic development and maintenance of adult homeostasis. KZFP genes underwent broad and independent waves of expansion in many higher vertebrates lineages, yet comprehensive studies of members harbored by a given species are scarce. Here we present a thorough analysis of KZFP genes and related units in the murine genome. We first identified about twice as many elements than previously annotated as either KZFP genes or pseudogenes, notably by assigning to this family an entity formerly considered as a large group of Satellite repeats. We then could delineate an organization in clusters distributed throughout the genome, with signs of recombination, translocation, duplication and seeding of new sites by retrotransposition of KZFP genes and related genetic units (KZFP/rGUs). Moreover, we harvested evidence indicating that closely related paralogs had evolved through both drifting and shifting of sequences encoding for zinc finger arrays. Finally, we could demonstrate that the KAP1-SETDB1 repressor complex tames the expression of KZFP/rGUs within clusters, yet that the primary targets of this regulation are not the KZFP/rGUs themselves but enhancers contained in neighboring endogenous retroelements and that, underneath, KZFPs conserve highly individualized patterns of expression. PMID:28334004

  11. ExpandplusCrystal Structures of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) Zinc Fingers Bound to DNA

    SciT

    M Langelier; J Planck; S Roy

    2011-12-31

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) has two homologous zinc finger domains, Zn1 and Zn2, that bind to a variety of DNA structures to stimulate poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis activity and to mediate PARP-1 interaction with chromatin. The structural basis for interaction with DNA is unknown, which limits our understanding of PARP-1 regulation and involvement in DNA repair and transcription. Here, we have determined crystal structures for the individual Zn1 and Zn2 domains in complex with a DNA double strand break, providing the first views of PARP-1 zinc fingers bound to DNA. The Zn1-DNA and Zn2-DNA structures establish a novel, bipartite mode of sequence-independent DNAmore » interaction that engages a continuous region of the phosphodiester backbone and the hydrophobic faces of exposed nucleotide bases. Biochemical and cell biological analysis indicate that the Zn1 and Zn2 domains perform distinct functions. The Zn2 domain exhibits high binding affinity to DNA compared with the Zn1 domain. However, the Zn1 domain is essential for DNA-dependent PARP-1 activity in vitro and in vivo, whereas the Zn2 domain is not strictly required. Structural differences between the Zn1-DNA and Zn2-DNA complexes, combined with mutational and structural analysis, indicate that a specialized region of the Zn1 domain is re-configured through the hydrophobic interaction with exposed nucleotide bases to initiate PARP-1 activation.« less

  12. The zinc-finger transcription factor SALL4 is frequently expressed in human cancers: association with clinical outcome in squamous cell carcinoma but not in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Ergin; Tennstedt, Pierre; Högner, Anica; Lebok, Patrick; Sauter, Guido; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Izbicki, Jakob R; Wilczak, Waldemar

    2016-04-01

    SALL4 is a transcription factor originally identified as a homeotic gene essential for organ development. Early studies suggested that SALL4 is a useful marker to identify testicular and ovarian germ cell tumors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of SALL4 immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on a tissue microarray (TMA) with 3966 samples from 94 different tumor types and on a further TMA with 492 esophagus carcinomas. SALL4 immunostaining was by far most prevalent and most intensive in testicular tumors with a positivity rate of 93.1% in seminomas, 80% in mixed germ cell tumors (embryonic carcinomas/yolk sac tumors), and 18.5% in teratomas, respectively. However, SALL4 expression is not specific to germ cell tumors. We observed SALL4 positivity in non-germ cell tumors as carcinomas of the kidney (28.9% of chromophobe, 34.4% of clear cell carcinoma), in intestinal type adenocarcinoma of the stomach (10.9%), in adenocarcinoma (10.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma (7.2%) of the esophagus, and in malignant melanoma (8.1%) and invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma (20%). SALL4 expression was not found in lymphomas, in soft tissue tumors or breast tumors. At analysis of esophagus carcinoma TMA, no significant association was seen between SALL4 expression and overall survival in adenocarcinoma. However, SALL4 expression was strongly associated with worse overall survival in squamous cell carcinoma. SALL4 expression can be found at relevant frequencies in various tumors of different primary sites. SALL4 expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus may constitute a sign of dedifferentiation leading to poor patient prognosis.

  13. Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger maintains self-renewal of male germline stem cells (mGSCs) and its expression pattern in dairy goat testis.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Zhu, H; Li, M; Li, N; Wu, J; Mu, H; Yao, X; Han, W; Liu, W; Hua, J

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger (PLZF) is a spermatogonia-specific transcription factor in the testis, required to regulate self-renewal and maintenance of the spermatogonia stem cell. Up to now, expression and function of PLZF in the goat testis has not been known. The objectives of this study were to investigate PLZF expression pattern in the dairy goat and its effect on male goat germline stem cell (mGSC) self-renewal and differentiation. Testis development and expression patterns of PLZF in the dairy goat were analysed by haematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, effects of PLZF overexpression on mGSC self-renewal and differentiation were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR (QRT-PCR), immunofluorescence and BrdU incorporation assay. Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger was essential for dairy goat testis development and expression of several proliferation and pluripotency-associated proteins including OCT4, C-MYC were upregulated by PLZF overexpression. The study demonstrated that PLZF played a key role in maintaining self-renewal of mGSCs and its overexpression enhanced expression of proliferation-associated genes. Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger could function in the dairy goat as well as in other species in maintaining self-renewal of germline stem cells and this study provides a model to study the mechanism on self-renewal and differentiation of mGSCs in livestock. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Identification and preliminary characterization of a protein motif related to the zinc finger.

    PubMed Central

    Lovering, R; Hanson, I M; Borden, K L; Martin, S; O'Reilly, N J; Evan, G I; Rahman, D; Pappin, D J; Trowsdale, J; Freemont, P S

    1993-01-01

    We have identified a protein motif, related to the zinc finger, which defines a newly discovered family of proteins. The motif was found in the sequence of the human RING1 gene, which is proximal to the major histocompatibility complex region on chromosome six. We propose naming this motif the "RING finger" and it is found in 27 proteins, all of which have putative DNA binding functions. We have synthesized a peptide corresponding to the RING1 motif and examined a number of properties, including metal and DNA binding. We provide evidence to support the suggestion that the RING finger motif is the DNA binding domain of this newly defined family of proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:7681583

  15. New Protein Mimetics: The Zinc Finger Motif as a Locked-In Tertiary Fold.

    PubMed

    Tuchscherer, Gabriele; Lehmann, Christian; Mathieu, Marc

    1998-11-16

    The principle of a molecular kit is used for the covalent assembly of secondary structure forming peptide blocks to predetermined packing topologies. The resulting locked-in folds (LIFs; depicted schematically) are readily accessible and bypass the intriguing folding problem of linear peptide chains. This strategy allows, for example, mimicking of the essential structural and functional features of zinc finger proteins. © 1998 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  16. The zinc fingers of the Small Optic Lobes (SOL) calpain bind polyubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Margaret H; Qiu, Alvin; Zha, Congyao; Farah, Carole A; Mahdid, Yacine; Ferguson, Larissa; Sossin, Wayne S

    2018-05-28

    The Small Optic Lobes (SOL) calpain is a highly conserved member of the calpain family expressed in the nervous system. A dominant negative form of the SOL calpain inhibited consolidation of one form of synaptic plasticity, non-associative facilitation, in sensory-motor neuronal cultures in Aplysia, presumably by inhibiting cleavage of protein kinase Cs (PKCs) into constitutively active protein kinase Ms (PKMs) (Hu et al, 2017a). SOL calpains have a conserved set of 5-6 N-terminal zinc fingers. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that these zinc fingers could bind to ubiquitin. In this study, we show that both the Aplysia and mouse SOL calpain (also known as Calpain 15) zinc fingers bind ubiquitinated proteins, and we confirm that Aplysia SOL binds poly- but not mono or di-ubiquitin. No specific zinc finger is required for polyubiquitin binding. Neither polyubiquitin nor calcium was sufficient to induce purified Aplysia SOL calpain to autolyse or to cleave the atypical PKC to PKM in vitro. In Aplysia, overexpression of the atypical PKC in sensory neurons leads to an activity-dependent cleavage event and an increase in nuclear ubiquitin staining. Activity-dependent cleavage is partially blocked by a dominant negative SOL calpain, but not by a dominant negative classical calpain. The cleaved PKM was stabilized by the dominant negative classical calpain and destabilized by a dominant negative form of the PKM stabilizing proteinKIdney/BRAin protein(KIBRA). These studies provide new insight into SOL calpain's function and regulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of protein structure and the role of individual fingers in zinc finger protein-DNA recognition: a molecular dynamics simulation study and free energy calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Mazen Y.

    2018-05-01

    Molecular dynamics and MM_GBSA energy calculations on various zinc finger proteins containing three and four fingers bound to their target DNA gave insights into the role of each finger in the DNA binding process as part of the protein structure. The wild type Zif 268 (PDB code: 1AAY) gave a ΔG value of - 76.1 (14) kcal/mol. Zinc fingers ZF1, ZF2 and ZF3 were mutated in one experiment and in another experiment one finger was cut and the rest of the protein was studied for binding. The ΔΔG values for the Zinc Finger protein with both ZF1 and ZF2 mutated was + 80 kcal/mol, while mutating only ZF1 the ΔΔG value was + 52 kcal/mol (relative to the wild type). Cutting ZF3 and studying the protein consisting only of ZF1 linked to ZF2 gave a ΔΔG value of + 68 kcal/mol. Upon cutting ZF1, the resulting ZF2 linked to ZF3 protein gave a ΔΔG value of + 41 kcal/mol. The above results shed light on the importance of each finger in the binding process, especially the role of ZF1 as the anchoring finger followed in importance by ZF2 and ZF3. The energy difference between the binding of the wild type protein Zif268 (1AAY) and that for individual finger binding to DNA according to the formula: ΔΔGlinkers, otherstructuralfactors = ΔGzif268 - (ΔGF1+F2+F3) gave a value = - 44.5 kcal/mol. This stabilization can be attributed to the contribution of linkers and other structural factors in the intact protein in the DNA binding process. DNA binding energies of variant proteins of the wild type Zif268 which differ in their ZF1 amino acid sequence gave evidence of a good relationship between binding energy and recognition and specificity, this finding confirms the reported vital role of ZF1 in the ZF protein scanning and anchoring to the target DNA sequence. The role of hydrogen bonds in both specific and nonspecific amino acid-DNA contacts is discussed in relation to mutations. The binding energies of variant Zinc Finger proteins confirmed the role of ZF1 in the recognition

  18. Role of protein structure and the role of individual fingers in zinc finger protein-DNA recognition: a molecular dynamics simulation study and free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Mazen Y

    2018-05-03

    Molecular dynamics and MM_GBSA energy calculations on various zinc finger proteins containing three and four fingers bound to their target DNA gave insights into the role of each finger in the DNA binding process as part of the protein structure. The wild type Zif 268 (PDB code: 1AAY) gave a ΔG value of - 76.1 (14) kcal/mol. Zinc fingers ZF1, ZF2 and ZF3 were mutated in one experiment and in another experiment one finger was cut and the rest of the protein was studied for binding. The ΔΔG values for the Zinc Finger protein with both ZF1 and ZF2 mutated was + 80 kcal/mol, while mutating only ZF1 the ΔΔG value was + 52 kcal/mol (relative to the wild type). Cutting ZF3 and studying the protein consisting only of ZF1 linked to ZF2 gave a ΔΔG value of + 68 kcal/mol. Upon cutting ZF1, the resulting ZF2 linked to ZF3 protein gave a ΔΔG value of + 41 kcal/mol. The above results shed light on the importance of each finger in the binding process, especially the role of ZF1 as the anchoring finger followed in importance by ZF2 and ZF3. The energy difference between the binding of the wild type protein Zif268 (1AAY) and that for individual finger binding to DNA according to the formula: ΔΔG linkers, otherstructuralfactors  = ΔG zif268  - (ΔG F1+F2+F3 ) gave a value = - 44.5 kcal/mol. This stabilization can be attributed to the contribution of linkers and other structural factors in the intact protein in the DNA binding process. DNA binding energies of variant proteins of the wild type Zif268 which differ in their ZF1 amino acid sequence gave evidence of a good relationship between binding energy and recognition and specificity, this finding confirms the reported vital role of ZF1 in the ZF protein scanning and anchoring to the target DNA sequence. The role of hydrogen bonds in both specific and nonspecific amino acid-DNA contacts is discussed in relation to mutations. The binding energies of variant Zinc Finger proteins confirmed the

  19. Genome-Wide Survey and Expression Profiling of CCCH-Zinc Finger Family Reveals a Functional Module in Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jian; Song, Wenjun; Tromp, Gail; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E.; Fu, Mingui

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we have identified a novel CCCH zinc finger protein family as negative regulators of macrophage activation. To gain an overall insight into the entire CCCH zinc finger gene family and to evaluate their potential role in macrophage activation, here we performed a genome-wide survey of CCCH zinc finger genes in mouse and human. Totally 58 CCCH zinc finger genes in mouse and 55 in human were identified and most of them have not been reported previously. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the mouse CCCH family was divided into 6 groups. Meanwhile, we employed quantitative real-time PCR to profile their tissue expression patterns in adult mice. Clustering analysis showed that most of CCCH genes were broadly expressed in all of tissues examined with various levels. Interestingly, several CCCH genes Mbnl3, Zfp36l2, Zfp36, Zc3h12a, Zc3h12d, Zc3h7a and Leng9 were enriched in macrophage-related organs such as thymus, spleen, lung, intestine and adipose. Consistently, a comprehensive assessment of changes in expression of the 58 members of the mouse CCCH family during macrophage activation also revealed that these CCCH zinc finger genes were associated with the activation of bone marrow-derived macrophages by lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, this study not only identified a functional module of CCCH zinc finger genes in the regulation of macrophage activation but also provided the framework for future studies to dissect the function of this emerging gene family. PMID:18682727

  20. Cancer translocations in human cells induced by zinc finger and TALE nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Piganeau, Marion; Ghezraoui, Hind; De Cian, Anne; Guittat, Lionel; Tomishima, Mark; Perrouault, Loic; René, Oliver; Katibah, George E.; Zhang, Lei; Holmes, Michael C.; Doyon, Yannick; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Giovannangeli, Carine; Jasin, Maria; Brunet, Erika

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are signatures of numerous cancers and lead to expression of fusion genes that act as oncogenes. The wealth of genomic aberrations found in cancer, however, makes it challenging to assign a specific phenotypic change to a specific aberration. In this study, we set out to use genome editing with zinc finger (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector (TALEN) nucleases to engineer, de novo, translocation-associated oncogenes at cognate endogenous loci in human cells. Using ZFNs and TALENs designed to cut precisely at relevant translocation breakpoints, we induced cancer-relevant t(11;22)(q24;q12) and t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocations found in Ewing sarcoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), respectively. We recovered both translocations with high efficiency, resulting in the expression of the EWSR1–FLI1 and NPM1–ALK fusions. Breakpoint junctions recovered after ZFN cleavage in human embryonic stem (ES) cell–derived mesenchymal precursor cells fully recapitulated the genomic characteristics found in tumor cells from Ewing sarcoma patients. This approach with tailored nucleases demonstrates that expression of fusion genes found in cancer cells can be induced from the native promoter, allowing interrogation of both the underlying mechanisms and oncogenic consequences of tumor-related translocations in human cells. With an analogous strategy, the ALCL translocation was reverted in a patient cell line to restore the integrity of the two participating chromosomes, further expanding the repertoire of genomic rearrangements that can be engineered by tailored nucleases. PMID:23568838

  1. Generation of Esr1-Knockout Rats Using Zinc Finger Nuclease-Mediated Genome Editing

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Pramod; Kubota, Kaiyu; Chakraborty, Damayanti; Lei, Tianhua; Larson, Melissa A.; Wolfe, Michael W.; Roby, Katherine F.; Vivian, Jay L.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens play pivotal roles in development and function of many organ systems, including the reproductive system. We have generated estrogen receptor 1 (Esr1)-knockout rats using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) genome targeting. mRNAs encoding ZFNs targeted to exon 3 of Esr1 were microinjected into single-cell rat embryos and transferred to pseudopregnant recipients. Of 17 live births, 5 had biallelic and 1 had monoallelic Esr1 mutations. A founder with monoallelic mutations was backcrossed to a wild-type rat. Offspring possessed only wild-type Esr1 alleles or wild-type alleles and Esr1 alleles containing either 482 bp (Δ482) or 223 bp (Δ223) deletions, indicating mosaicism in the founder. These heterozygous mutants were bred for colony expansion, generation of homozygous mutants, and phenotypic characterization. The Δ482 Esr1 allele yielded altered transcript processing, including the absence of exon 3, aberrant splicing of exon 2 and 4, and a frameshift that generated premature stop codons located immediately after the codon for Thr157. ESR1 protein was not detected in homozygous Δ482 mutant uteri. ESR1 disruption affected sexually dimorphic postnatal growth patterns and serum levels of gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones. Both male and female Esr1-null rats were infertile. Esr1-null males had small testes with distended and dysplastic seminiferous tubules, whereas Esr1-null females possessed large polycystic ovaries, thread-like uteri, and poorly developed mammary glands. In addition, uteri of Esr1-null rats did not effectively respond to 17β-estradiol treatment, further demonstrating that the Δ482 Esr1 mutation created a null allele. This rat model provides a new experimental tool for investigating the pathophysiology of estrogen action. PMID:24506075

  2. Generation of Esr1-knockout rats using zinc finger nuclease-mediated genome editing.

    PubMed

    Rumi, M A Karim; Dhakal, Pramod; Kubota, Kaiyu; Chakraborty, Damayanti; Lei, Tianhua; Larson, Melissa A; Wolfe, Michael W; Roby, Katherine F; Vivian, Jay L; Soares, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Estrogens play pivotal roles in development and function of many organ systems, including the reproductive system. We have generated estrogen receptor 1 (Esr1)-knockout rats using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) genome targeting. mRNAs encoding ZFNs targeted to exon 3 of Esr1 were microinjected into single-cell rat embryos and transferred to pseudopregnant recipients. Of 17 live births, 5 had biallelic and 1 had monoallelic Esr1 mutations. A founder with monoallelic mutations was backcrossed to a wild-type rat. Offspring possessed only wild-type Esr1 alleles or wild-type alleles and Esr1 alleles containing either 482 bp (Δ482) or 223 bp (Δ223) deletions, indicating mosaicism in the founder. These heterozygous mutants were bred for colony expansion, generation of homozygous mutants, and phenotypic characterization. The Δ482 Esr1 allele yielded altered transcript processing, including the absence of exon 3, aberrant splicing of exon 2 and 4, and a frameshift that generated premature stop codons located immediately after the codon for Thr157. ESR1 protein was not detected in homozygous Δ482 mutant uteri. ESR1 disruption affected sexually dimorphic postnatal growth patterns and serum levels of gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones. Both male and female Esr1-null rats were infertile. Esr1-null males had small testes with distended and dysplastic seminiferous tubules, whereas Esr1-null females possessed large polycystic ovaries, thread-like uteri, and poorly developed mammary glands. In addition, uteri of Esr1-null rats did not effectively respond to 17β-estradiol treatment, further demonstrating that the Δ482 Esr1 mutation created a null allele. This rat model provides a new experimental tool for investigating the pathophysiology of estrogen action.

  3. Myostatin knockout using zinc-finger nucleases promotes proliferation of ovine primary satellite cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Salabi, Fatemeh; Nazari, Mahmood; Chen, Qing; Nimal, Jonathan; Tong, Jianming; Cao, Wen G

    2014-12-20

    Myostatin (MSTN) has previously been shown to negatively regulate the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells. Satellite cells are quiescent muscle stem cells that promote muscle growth and repair. Because the mechanism of MSTN in the biology of satellite cells is not well understood, this study was conducted to generate MSTN mono-allelic knockout satellite cells using the zinc-finger nuclease mRNA (MSTN-KO ZFN mRNA) and also to investigate the effect of this disruption on the proliferation and differentiation of sheep primary satellite cells (PSCs). Nineteen biallelic and four mono-allelic knockout cell clones were obtained after sequence analysis. The homologous mono-allelic knockout cells with 5-bp deletion were used to further evaluations. The results demonstrated that mono-allelic knockout of MSTN gene leads to translation inhibition. Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that knockout of MSTN contributed to an increase in CDK2 and follistatin and a decrease in p21 at the transcript level in proliferation conditions. Moreover, MSTN knockout significantly increased the proliferation of mutant clones (P < 0.01). Consistent with the observed increase in CDK2 and decrease in p21 in cells lacking MSTN, cell cycle analysis showed that MSTN negatively regulated the G1 to S progression. In addition, knockout of myostatin resulted in a remarkable increase in MyoD and MyoG expression under differentiating conditions but had no effect on Myf5 expression. These results expanded our understanding of the regulation mechanism of MSTN. Furthermore, the MSTN-KO ZFN mRNA system in PSCs could be used to generate transgenic sheep in the future.

  4. The PR/SET Domain Zinc Finger Protein Prdm4 Regulates Gene Expression in Embryonic Stem Cells but Plays a Nonessential Role in the Developing Mouse Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bogani, Debora; Morgan, Marc A. J.; Nelson, Andrew C.; Costello, Ita; McGouran, Joanna F.; Kessler, Benedikt M.

    2013-01-01

    Prdm4 is a highly conserved member of the Prdm family of PR/SET domain zinc finger proteins. Many well-studied Prdm family members play critical roles in development and display striking loss-of-function phenotypes. Prdm4 functional contributions have yet to be characterized. Here, we describe its widespread expression in the early embryo and adult tissues. We demonstrate that DNA binding is exclusively mediated by the Prdm4 zinc finger domain, and we characterize its tripartite consensus sequence via SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) and ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing) experiments. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Prdm4 regulates key pluripotency and differentiation pathways. Two independent strategies, namely, targeted deletion of the zinc finger domain and generation of a EUCOMM LacZ reporter allele, resulted in functional null alleles. However, homozygous mutant embryos develop normally and adults are healthy and fertile. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that Prdm4 functions redundantly with other transcriptional partners to cooperatively regulate gene expression in the embryo and adult animal. PMID:23918801

  5. Molecular and functional characterization of two drought-induced zinc finger proteins, ZmZnF1 and ZmZnF2 from maize kernels

    We have isolated two cDNA clones encoding Zinc Finger proteins, designated as ZmZnF1 and ZmZnF2, from water-stressed maize kernels. Sequence analyses indicates that ZmZnF1 is homologous to the A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein and contains the zinc finger motif of Cx2–Cx10–CxCx4Cx2Hx5HxC. Whereas ZmZ...

  6. Binding Site Configurations Probe the Structure and Dynamics of the Zinc Finger of NEMO (NF-κB Essential Modulator).

    PubMed

    Godwin, Ryan C; Melvin, Ryan L; Gmeiner, William H; Salsbury, Freddie R

    2017-01-31

    Zinc-finger proteins are regulators of critical signaling pathways for various cellular functions, including apoptosis and oncogenesis. Here, we investigate how binding site protonation states and zinc coordination influence protein structure, dynamics, and ultimately function, as these pivotal regulatory proteins are increasingly important for protein engineering and therapeutic discovery. To better understand the thermodynamics and dynamics of the zinc finger of NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator), as well as the role of zinc, we present results of 20 μs molecular dynamics trajectories, 5 μs for each of four active site configurations. Consistent with experimental evidence, the zinc ion is essential for mechanical stabilization of the functional, folded conformation. Hydrogen bond motifs are unique for deprotonated configurations yet overlap in protonated cases. Correlated motions and principal component analysis corroborate the similarity of the protonated configurations and highlight unique relationships of the zinc-bound configuration. We hypothesize a potential mechanism for zinc binding from results of the thiol configurations. The deprotonated, zinc-bound configuration alone predominantly maintains its tertiary structure throughout all 5 μs and alludes rare conformations potentially important for (im)proper zinc-finger-related protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions.

  7. Directing an artificial zinc finger protein to new targets by fusion to a non-DNA-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wooi F; Burdach, Jon; Funnell, Alister P W; Pearson, Richard C M; Quinlan, Kate G R; Crossley, Merlin

    2016-04-20

    Transcription factors are often regarded as having two separable components: a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a functional domain (FD), with the DBD thought to determine target gene recognition. While this holds true for DNA bindingin vitro, it appears thatin vivoFDs can also influence genomic targeting. We fused the FD from the well-characterized transcription factor Krüppel-like Factor 3 (KLF3) to an artificial zinc finger (AZF) protein originally designed to target the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) gene promoter. We compared genome-wide occupancy of the KLF3FD-AZF fusion to that observed with AZF. AZF bound to theVEGF-Apromoter as predicted, but was also found to occupy approximately 25,000 other sites, a large number of which contained the expected AZF recognition sequence, GCTGGGGGC. Interestingly, addition of the KLF3 FD re-distributes the fusion protein to new sites, with total DNA occupancy detected at around 50,000 sites. A portion of these sites correspond to known KLF3-bound regions, while others contained sequences similar but not identical to the expected AZF recognition sequence. These results show that FDs can influence and may be useful in directing AZF DNA-binding proteins to specific targets and provide insights into how natural transcription factors operate. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Enhanced cellulase production from Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 by engineering with an artificial zinc finger protein library.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2016-10-01

    Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 is a well-known cellulase producer, and improvement of its cellulase production is of great interest. An artificial zinc finger protein (AZFP) library is constructed for expression in T. reesei Rut-C30, and a mutant strain T. reesei U3 is selected based on its enhanced cellulase production. The U3 mutant shows a 55% rise in filter paper activity and 8.1-fold increased β-glucosidase activity, when compared to the native strain T. reesei Rut-C30. It is demonstrated that enhanced β-glucosidase activity was due to elevated transcription level of β-glucosidase gene in the U3 mutant. Moreover, significant elevation in transcription levels of several putative Azfp-U3 target genes is detected in the U3 mutant, including genes encoding hypothetical transcription factors and a putative glycoside hydrolase. Furthermore, U3 cellulase shows 115% higher glucose yield from pretreated corn stover, when compared to the cellulase of T. reesei Rut-C30. These results demonstrate that AZFP can be used to improve cellulase production in T. reesei Rut-C30. Our current work offers the establishment of an alternative strategy to develop fungal cell factories for improved production of high value industrial products. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A novel cold-inducible zinc finger protein from soybean, SCOF-1, enhances cold tolerance in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, J C; Lee, S H; Cheong, Y H; Yoo, C M; Lee, S I; Chun, H J; Yun, D J; Hong, J C; Lee, S Y; Lim, C O; Cho, M J

    2001-02-01

    Cold stress on plants induces changes in the transcription of cold response genes. A cDNA clone encoding C2H2-type zinc finger protein, SCOF-1, was isolated from soybean. The transcription of SCOF-1 is specifically induced by low temperature and abscisic acid (ABA) but not by dehydration or high salinity. Constitutive overexpression of SCOF-1 induced cold-regulated (COR) gene expression and enhanced cold tolerance of non-acclimated transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. SCOF-1 localized to the nucleus but did not bind directly to either C-repeat/dehydration (CRT/DRE) or ABA responsive element (ABRE), cis-acting DNA regulatory elements present in COR gene promoters. However, SCOF-1 greatly enhanced the DNA binding activity of SGBF-1, a soybean G-box binding bZIP transcription factor, to ABRE in vitro. SCOF-1 also interacted with SGBF-1 in a yeast two-hybrid system. The SGBF-1 transactivated the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene driven by the ABRE element in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts. Furthermore, the SCOF-1 enhanced ABRE-dependent gene expression mediated by SGBF-1. These results suggest that SCOF-1 may function as a positive regulator of COR gene expression mediated by ABRE via protein-protein interaction, which in turn enhances cold tolerance of plants.

  10. Co(II) Coordination in Prokaryotic Zinc Finger Domains as Revealed by UV-Vis Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sivo, Valeria; D'Abrosca, Gianluca; Russo, Luigi; Iacovino, Rosa; Pedone, Paolo Vincenzo; Fattorusso, Roberto; Isernia, Carla; Malgieri, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Co(II) electronic configuration allows its use as a spectroscopic probe in UV-Vis experiments to characterize the metal coordination sphere that is an essential component of the functional structure of zinc-binding proteins and to evaluate the metal ion affinities of these proteins. Here, exploiting the capability of the prokaryotic zinc finger to use different combinations of residues to properly coordinate the structural metal ion, we provide the UV-Vis characterization of Co(II) addition to Ros87 and its mutant Ros87_C27D which bears an unusual CysAspHis 2 coordination sphere. Zinc finger sites containing only one cysteine have been infrequently characterized. We show for the CysAspHis 2 coordination an intense d - d transition band, blue-shifted with respect to the Cys 2 His 2 sphere. These data complemented by NMR and CD data demonstrate that the tetrahedral geometry of the metal site is retained also in the case of a single-cysteine coordination sphere.

  11. Co(II) Coordination in Prokaryotic Zinc Finger Domains as Revealed by UV-Vis Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sivo, Valeria; D'Abrosca, Gianluca; Russo, Luigi; Iacovino, Rosa; Pedone, Paolo Vincenzo; Fattorusso, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Co(II) electronic configuration allows its use as a spectroscopic probe in UV-Vis experiments to characterize the metal coordination sphere that is an essential component of the functional structure of zinc-binding proteins and to evaluate the metal ion affinities of these proteins. Here, exploiting the capability of the prokaryotic zinc finger to use different combinations of residues to properly coordinate the structural metal ion, we provide the UV-Vis characterization of Co(II) addition to Ros87 and its mutant Ros87_C27D which bears an unusual CysAspHis2 coordination sphere. Zinc finger sites containing only one cysteine have been infrequently characterized. We show for the CysAspHis2 coordination an intense d-d transition band, blue-shifted with respect to the Cys2His2 sphere. These data complemented by NMR and CD data demonstrate that the tetrahedral geometry of the metal site is retained also in the case of a single-cysteine coordination sphere. PMID:29386985

  12. A plant EPF-type zinc-finger protein, CaPIF1, involved in defence against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Park, Jeong Mee; Joung, Young Hee; Lee, Sanghyeob; Chung, Eunsook; Kim, Soo-Yong; Yu, Seung Hun; Choi, Doil

    2005-05-01

    SUMMARY To understand better the defence responses of plants to pathogen attack, we challenged hot pepper plants with bacterial pathogens and identified transcription factor-encoding genes whose expression patterns were altered during the subsequent hypersensitive response. One of these genes, CaPIF1 (Capsicum annuum Pathogen-Induced Factor 1), was characterized further. This gene encodes a plant-specific EPF-type protein that contains two Cys(2)/His(2) zinc fingers. CaPIF1 expression was rapidly and specifically induced when pepper plants were challenged with bacterial pathogens to which they are resistant. In contrast, challenge with a pathogen to which the plants are susceptible only generated weak CaPIF1 expression. CaPIF1 expression was also strongly induced in pepper leaves by the exogenous application of ethephon, an ethylene-releasing compound, and salicylic acid, whereas methyl jasmonate had only moderate effects. CaPIF1 localized to the nuclei of onion epidermis when expressed as a CaPIF1-smGFP fusion protein. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing CaPIF1 driven by the CaMV 35S promoter showed increased resistance to challenge with a tobacco-specific pathogen or non-host bacterial pathogens. These plants also showed constitutive up-regulation of multiple defence-related genes. Moreover, virus-induced silencing of the CaPIF1 orthologue in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced susceptibility to the same host or non-host bacterial pathogens. These observations provide evidence that an EPF-type Cys(2)/His(2) zinc-finger protein plays a crucial role in the activation of the pathogen defence response in plants.

  13. Control of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by the Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Siyu; Qian, Jinchun; Shi, Xiaoli; Gao, Tingting; Liang, Tingming

    2014-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein is involved in major biological processes including energy metabolism, although its role remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that hepatic PLZF expression was induced in fasted or diabetic mice. PLZF promoted gluconeogenic gene expression and hepatic glucose output, leading to hyperglycemia. In contrast, hepatic PLZF knockdown improved glucose homeostasis in db/db mice. Mechanistically, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α and the glucocorticoid receptor synergistically activated PLZF expression. We conclude that PLZF is a critical regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis. PLZF manipulation may benefit the treatment of metabolic diseases associated with gluconeogenesis. PMID:25333514

  14. The Cytoplasmic Zinc Finger Protein ZPR1 Accumulates in the Nucleolus of Proliferating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Galcheva-Gargova, Zoya; Gangwani, Laxman; Konstantinov, Konstantin N.; Mikrut, Monique; Theroux, Steven J.; Enoch, Tamar; Davis, Roger J.

    1998-01-01

    The zinc finger protein ZPR1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus after treatment of cells with mitogens. The function of nuclear ZPR1 has not been defined. Here we demonstrate that ZPR1 accumulates in the nucleolus of proliferating cells. The role of ZPR1 was examined using a gene disruption strategy. Cells lacking ZPR1 are not viable. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the loss of ZPR1 caused disruption of nucleolar function, including preribosomal RNA expression. These data establish ZPR1 as an essential protein that is required for normal nucleolar function in proliferating cells. PMID:9763455

  15. Discovery of a novel oocyte-specific Krüppel-associated box domain-containing zinc finger protein required for early embryogenesis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hand, Jacqelyn M; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Lei; Koganti, Prasanthi P; Mastrantoni, Kristen; Rajput, Sandeep K; Ashry, Mohamed; Smith, George W; Yao, Jianbo

    2017-04-01

    Zinc finger (ZNF) transcription factors interact with DNA through zinc finger motifs and play important roles in a variety of cellular functions including cell growth, proliferation, development, apoptosis, and intracellular signal transduction. One-third of ZNF proteins in metazoans contain a highly conserved N-terminal motif known as the Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) domain, which acts as a potent, DNA-binding dependent transcriptional repression module. Analysis of RNA-Seq data generated from a bovine oocyte cDNA library identified a novel transcript, which encodes a KRAB-containing ZNF transcription factor (named ZNFO). Characterization of ZNFO mRNA expression revealed that it is exclusively expressed in bovine oocytes and early embryos. A GFP reporter assay demonstrated that ZNFO protein localizes specifically to the nucleus, supporting its role in transcriptional regulation. To test the role of ZNFO in early embryonic development, zygotes were generated by in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes, and injected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) designed to knockdown ZNFO. Cleavage rates were not affected by ZNFO siRNA injection. However, embryonic development to 8- to 16-cell stage and blastocyst stage was significantly reduced relative to the uninjected and negative control siRNA-injected embryos. Further, interaction of ZNFO with the highly conserved co-factor, KRAB-associated protein-1 (KAP1), was demonstrated, and evidence supporting transcriptional repression by ZNFO was demonstrated using a GAL4-luciferase reporter system. Results of described studies demonstrate that ZNFO is a maternally-derived oocyte-specific nuclear factor required for early embryonic development in cattle, presumably functioning by repressing transcription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The zinc finger gene Krox20 regulates HoxB2 (Hox2.8) during hindbrain segmentation.

    PubMed

    Sham, M H; Vesque, C; Nonchev, S; Marshall, H; Frain, M; Gupta, R D; Whiting, J; Wilkinson, D; Charnay, P; Krumlauf, R

    1993-01-29

    The zinc finger gene Krox20 and many Hox homeobox genes are expressed in segment-restricted domains in the hindbrain. The restricted expression patterns appear before morphological segmentation, suggesting that these transcription factors may play an early role in the establishment and identity of rhombomeric segments. In this paper, we show that the HoxB2 (Hox2.8) gene is normally upregulated in rhombomeres (r) 3, 4, and 5, and we identify an enhancer region upstream of the gene that imposes r3/r5 expression in transgenic mice. This enhancer contains three Krox20-binding sites required in vitro for complex formation with Krox20 protein and in vivo for rhombomere-restricted expression. In transgenic mice, Krox20 expressed in ectopic domains can transactivate a reporter construct containing the HoxB2 r3/r5 enhancer. These data demonstrate that Krox20 is a part of the upstream transcriptional cascade that directly regulates HoxB2 expression during hindbrain segmentation.

  17. Zinc finger X-chromosomal protein (ZFX) promotes solid agar colony growth of osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rui; Wang, Jin-cheng; Sun, Mei; Zhang, Xing-yi; Wu, Han

    2012-01-01

    Zinc finger X-chromosomal protein (ZFX) is a member of the zinc finger family of proteins. The importance of ZFX in several cancer types, including prostate cancer, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and glioma, has been addressed. However, the role of ZFX in human osteosarcoma remains unknown. Here we investigated the phenotype of ZFX knockdown on cell proliferation and in vitro tumorigenesis using lentivirus-mediated loss-of-function strategy. The results demonstrated that the proliferation and colony formation ability of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 and MG63 cells was impaired by ZFX small interfering RNA (siRNA)-expressing lentivirus. Moreover, loss of ZFX led to G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and a significant increase of cells in the sub-G1 fraction, indicating that ZFX functions as an oncogene in the malignant proliferation process in osteosarcoma. Furthermore, ZFX siRNA may have an antitumorigenic effect on osteosarcoma cells. Our findings hold important significance for RNA interference-mediated cancer gene therapy for human osteosarcoma.

  18. Targeted Mutagenesis of Duplicated Genes in Soybean with Zinc-Finger Nucleases1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, Shaun J.; Zhang, Feng; Sander, Jeffry D.; Haun, William J.; Starker, Colby; Baltes, Nicholas J.; Reyon, Deepak; Dahlborg, Elizabeth J.; Goodwin, Mathew J.; Coffman, Andrew P.; Dobbs, Drena; Joung, J. Keith; Voytas, Daniel F.; Stupar, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    We performed targeted mutagenesis of a transgene and nine endogenous soybean (Glycine max) genes using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). A suite of ZFNs were engineered by the recently described context-dependent assembly platform—a rapid, open-source method for generating zinc-finger arrays. Specific ZFNs targeting DICER-LIKE (DCL) genes and other genes involved in RNA silencing were cloned into a vector under an estrogen-inducible promoter. A hairy-root transformation system was employed to investigate the efficiency of ZFN mutagenesis at each target locus. Transgenic roots exhibited somatic mutations localized at the ZFN target sites for seven out of nine targeted genes. We next introduced a ZFN into soybean via whole-plant transformation and generated independent mutations in the paralogous genes DCL4a and DCL4b. The dcl4b mutation showed efficient heritable transmission of the ZFN-induced mutation in the subsequent generation. These findings indicate that ZFN-based mutagenesis provides an efficient method for making mutations in duplicate genes that are otherwise difficult to study due to redundancy. We also developed a publicly accessible Web-based tool to identify sites suitable for engineering context-dependent assembly ZFNs in the soybean genome. PMID:21464476

  19. The zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (Zeb1) promotes the conversion of mouse fibroblasts into functional neurons.

    PubMed

    Yan, Long; Li, Yue; Shi, Zixiao; Lu, Xiaoyin; Ma, Jiao; Hu, Baoyang; Jiao, Jianwei; Wang, Hongmei

    2017-08-04

    The zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor Zeb1 plays a pivotal role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Numerous studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms by which Zeb1 contributes to this process. However, the functions of Zeb1 beyond the epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain largely elusive. Using a transdifferentiation system to convert mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into functional neurons via the neuronal transcription factors achaete-scute family bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor1 ( Ascl1 ), POU class 3 homeobox 2 (POU3F2/ Brn2 ), and neurogenin 2 (Neurog2, Ngn2 ) (ABN), we found that Zeb1 was up-regulated during the early stages of transdifferentiation. Knocking down Zeb1 dramatically attenuated the transdifferentiation efficiency, whereas Zeb1 overexpression obviously increased the efficiency of transdifferentiation from MEFs to neurons. Interestingly, Zeb1 improved the transdifferentiation efficiency induced by even a single transcription factor ( e.g. Asc1 or Ngn2 ). Zeb1 also rapidly promoted the maturation of induced neuron cells to functional neurons and improved the formation of neuronal patterns and electrophysiological characteristics. Induced neuron cells could form functional synapse in vivo after transplantation. Genome-wide RNA arrays showed that Zeb1 overexpression up-regulated the expression of neuron-specific genes and down-regulated the expression of epithelial-specific genes during conversion. Taken together, our results reveal a new role for Zeb1 in the transdifferentiation of MEFs into neurons. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. BrRZFP1 a Brassica rapa C3HC4-type RING zinc finger protein involved in cold, salt and dehydration stress.

    PubMed

    Jung, Y J; Lee, I H; Nou, I S; Lee, K D; Rashotte, A M; Kang, K K

    2013-03-01

    C3HC4-type RING zinc finger proteins are known to be essential in the regulation of plant processes, including responses to abiotic stress. Here, we identify, clone and examine the first C3HC4-type RING zinc finger protein (BrRZFP1) from Brassica rapa under stress conditions. Phylogenetic analysis of BrRZFP1 revealed strong sequence similarity to C3HC4-type zinc finger proteins from Arabidopsis that are induced by abiotic stresses. Diverse environmental stresses, including salt and cold, were found to induce BrRZFP1 transcripts greater than eightfold in B. rapa. Additional strong induction was shown of the stress hormone abscisic acid, together suggesting that BrRZFP1 could play a role as a general stress modulator. Similar profiles of induction for each of these stresses was found in both root and shoot tissues, although at much higher levels in roots. Constitutive expression of BrRZFP1 in Nicotiana tabacum was conducted to further analyse how changes in gene expression levels would affect plant stress responses. BrRZFP1 overexpression conferred increased tolerance to cold, salt and dehydration stresses. This was observed in several assays examining growth status throughout development, including increased germination, fresh weight and length of shoots and roots, as well as enhanced chlorophyll retention. These results suggest that the transcription factor BrRZFP1 is an important determinant of stress response in plants and that changes in its expression level in plants could increase stress tolerance. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Purifying Properly Folded Cysteine-rich, Zinc Finger Containing Recombinant Proteins for Structural Drug Targeting Studies: the CH1 Domain of p300 as a Case Example

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Joon; Kaluz, Stefan; Mehta, Anil; Weinert, Emily; Rivera, Shannon; Van Meir, Erwin G.

    2017-01-01

    The transcription factor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) complexes with the coactivator p300, activating the hypoxia response pathway and allowing tumors to grow. The CH1 and CAD domains of each respective protein form the interface between p300 and HIF. Small molecule compounds are in development that target and inhibit HIF/p300 complex formation, with the goal of reducing tumor growth. High resolution NMR spectroscopy is necessary to study ligand interaction with p300-CH1, and purifying high quantities of properly folded p300-CH1 is needed for pursuing structural and biophysical studies. p300-CH1 has 3 zinc fingers and 9 cysteine residues, posing challenges associated with reagent compatibility and protein oxidation. A protocol has been developed to overcome such issues by incorporating zinc during expression and streamlining the purification time, resulting in a high yield of optimally folded protein (120 mg per 4 L expression media) that is suitable for structural NMR studies. The structural integrity of the final recombinant p300-CH1 has been verified to be optimal using onedimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy and circular dichroism. This protocol is applicable for the purification of other zinc finger containing proteins. PMID:28966947

  2. Classification of the treble clef zinc finger: noteworthy lessons for structure and function evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-08-01

    Treble clef (TC) zinc fingers constitute a large fold-group of structural zinc-binding protein domains that mediate numerous cellular functions. We have analysed the sequence, structure, and function relationships among all TCs in the Protein Data Bank. This led to the identification of novel TCs, such as lsr2, YggX and TFIIIC τ 60 kDa subunit, and prediction of a nuclease-like function for the DUF1364 family. The structural malleability of TCs is evident from the many examples with variations to the core structural elements of the fold. We observe domains wherein the structural core of the TC fold is circularly permuted, and also some examples where the overall fold resembles both the TC motif and another unrelated fold. All extant TC families do not share a monophyletic origin, as several TC proteins are known to have been present in the last universal common ancestor and the last eukaryotic common ancestor. We identify several TCs where the zinc-chelating site and residues are not merely responsible for structure stabilization but also perform other functions, such as being redox active in C1B domain of protein kinase C, a nucleophilic acceptor in Ada and catalytic in organomercurial lyase, MerB.

  3. Classification of the treble clef zinc finger: noteworthy lessons for structure and function evolution.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-08-26

    Treble clef (TC) zinc fingers constitute a large fold-group of structural zinc-binding protein domains that mediate numerous cellular functions. We have analysed the sequence, structure, and function relationships among all TCs in the Protein Data Bank. This led to the identification of novel TCs, such as lsr2, YggX and TFIIIC τ 60 kDa subunit, and prediction of a nuclease-like function for the DUF1364 family. The structural malleability of TCs is evident from the many examples with variations to the core structural elements of the fold. We observe domains wherein the structural core of the TC fold is circularly permuted, and also some examples where the overall fold resembles both the TC motif and another unrelated fold. All extant TC families do not share a monophyletic origin, as several TC proteins are known to have been present in the last universal common ancestor and the last eukaryotic common ancestor. We identify several TCs where the zinc-chelating site and residues are not merely responsible for structure stabilization but also perform other functions, such as being redox active in C1B domain of protein kinase C, a nucleophilic acceptor in Ada and catalytic in organomercurial lyase, MerB.

  4. Proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla regulated by Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2: An in vitro study

    SciT

    Wan, Fang; VIP Center, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Shandong University, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012; Gao, Lifen

    In the process of tooth root development, stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) can differentiate into odontoblasts and form root dentin, however, molecules regulating SCAPs differentiation have not been elucidated. Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) is a novel transcriptional inhibitor. It is reported to modulate the development of nerve cells, liver cells, B cells, red blood cells, and so on. However, the role of ZHX2 in tooth root development remains unclear. In this study, we explored the potential role of ZHX2 in the process of SCAPs differentiation. The results showed that overexpression of ZHX2 upregulated the expression ofmore » osteo/odontogenic related genes and ALP activity, inhibited the proliferation of SCAPs. Consistently, ZHX2 knockdown reduced SCAPs mineralization and promoted SCAPs proliferation. These results indicated that ZHX2 plays a critical role in the proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs. - Highlights: • Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) is a novel transcriptional inhibitor. • we found another new biological function of ZHX2 for the first time. • ZHX2 inhibit SCAPs proliferation. • ZHX2 promote the osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs.« less

  5. At-MINI ZINC FINGER2 and Sl-INHIBITOR OF MERISTEM ACTIVITY, a Conserved Missing Link in the Regulation of Floral Meristem Termination in Arabidopsis and Tomato.

    PubMed

    Bollier, Norbert; Sicard, Adrien; Leblond, Julie; Latrasse, David; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Gévaudant, Frédéric; Benhamed, Moussa; Raynaud, Cécile; Lenhard, Michael; Chevalier, Christian; Hernould, Michel; Delmas, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    In angiosperms, the gynoecium is the last structure to develop within the flower due to the determinate fate of floral meristem (FM) stem cells. The maintenance of stem cell activity before its arrest at the stage called FM termination affects the number of carpels that develop. The necessary inhibition at this stage of WUSCHEL ( WUS ), which is responsible for stem cell maintenance, involves a two-step mechanism. Direct repression mediated by the MADS domain transcription factor AGAMOUS (AG), followed by indirect repression requiring the C2H2 zinc-finger protein KNUCKLES (KNU), allow for the complete termination of floral stem cell activity. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana MINI ZINC FINGER2 (AtMIF2) and its homolog in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ), INHIBITOR OF MERISTEM ACTIVITY (SlIMA), participate in the FM termination process by functioning as adaptor proteins. AtMIF2 and SlIMA recruit AtKNU and SlKNU, respectively, to form a transcriptional repressor complex together with TOPLESS and HISTONE DEACETYLASE19. AtMIF2 and SlIMA bind to the WUS and SlWUS loci in the respective plants, leading to their repression. These results provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms governing (FM) termination and highlight the essential role of AtMIF2/SlIMA during this developmental step, which determines carpel number and therefore fruit size. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. Zinc-finger nucleases-based genome engineering to generate isogenic human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Anne-Kathrin; Cathomen, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Customized zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) have developed into a promising technology to precisely alter mammalian genomes for biomedical research, biotechnology, or human gene therapy. In the context of synthetic biology, the targeted integration of a transgene or reporter cassette into a "neutral site" of the human genome, such as the AAVS1 locus, permits the generation of isogenic human cell lines with two major advantages over standard genetic manipulation techniques: minimal integration site-dependent effects on the transgene and, vice versa, no functional perturbation of the host-cell transcriptome. Here we describe in detail how ZFNs can be employed to target integration of a transgene cassette into the AAVS1 locus and how to characterize the targeted cells by PCR-based genotyping.

  7. Site-Specific Editing of the Plasmodium falciparum Genome Using Engineered Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Straimer, Judith; Lee, Marcus CS; Lee, Andrew H; Zeitler, Bryan; Williams, April E; Pearl, Jocelynn R; Zhang, Lei; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Llinás, Manuel; Urnov, Fyodor D; Fidock, David A

    2013-01-01

    Malaria afflicts over 200 million people worldwide and its most lethal etiologic agent, Plasmodium falciparum, is evolving to resist even the latest-generation therapeutics. Efficient tools for genome-directed investigations of P. falciparum pathogenesis, including drug resistance mechanisms, are clearly required. Here we report rapid and targeted genetic engineering of this parasite, using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) that produce a double-strand break in a user-defined locus and trigger homology-directed repair. Targeting an integrated egfp locus, we obtained gene deletion parasites with unprecedented speed (two weeks), both with and without direct selection. ZFNs engineered against the endogenous parasite gene pfcrt, responsible for chloroquine treatment escape, rapidly produced parasites that carried either an allelic replacement or a panel of specified point mutations. The efficiency, versatility and precision of this method will enable a diverse array of genome editing approaches to interrogate this human pathogen. PMID:22922501

  8. Design of a colicin E7 based chimeric zinc-finger nuclease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Eszter; Schilli, Gabriella K.; Nagy, Gábor; Hasenhindl, Christoph; Gyurcsik, Béla; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2014-08-01

    Colicin E7 is a natural bacterial toxin. Its nuclease domain (NColE7) enters the target cell and kills it by digesting the nucleic acids. The HNH-motif as the catalytic centre of NColE7 at the C-terminus requires the positively charged N-terminal loop for the nuclease activity—offering opportunities for allosteric control in a NColE7-based artificial nuclease. Accordingly, four novel zinc finger nucleases were designed by computational methods exploiting the special structural features of NColE7. The constructed models were subjected to MD simulations. The comparison of structural stability and functional aspects showed that these models may function as safely controlled artificial nucleases. This study was complemented by random mutagenesis experiments identifying potentially important residues for NColE7 function outside the catalytic region.

  9. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution and Expression Analysis of the Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Zinc Finger-Homeodomain Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Yin, Xiangjing; Li, Xiaoqin; Wang, Li; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Xiaozhao; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping

    2014-01-01

    Plant zinc finger-homeodomain (ZHD) genes encode a family of transcription factors that have been demonstrated to play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. In this study, we identified a total of 13 ZHD genes (VvZHD) in the grape genome that were further classified into at least seven groups. Genome synteny analysis revealed that a number of VvZHD genes were present in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, indicating that they arose before the divergence of these two species. Gene expression analysis showed that the identified VvZHD genes displayed distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns, and were differentially regulated under various stress conditions and hormone treatments, suggesting that the grape VvZHDs might be also involved in plant response to a variety of biotic and abiotic insults. Our work provides insightful information and knowledge about the ZHD genes in grape, which provides a framework for further characterization of their roles in regulation of stress tolerance as well as other aspects of grape productivity. PMID:24705465

  10. Specific insertions of zinc finger domains into Gag-Pol yield engineered retroviral vectors with selective integration properties

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kwang-il; Klimczak, Ryan; Yu, Julie H.; Schaffer, David V.

    2010-01-01

    Retroviral vectors offer benefits of efficient delivery and stable gene expression; however, their clinical use raises the concerns of insertional mutagenesis and potential oncogenesis due to genomic integration preferences in transcriptional start sites (TSS). We have shifted the integration preferences of retroviral vectors by generating a library of viral variants with a DNA-binding domain inserted at random positions throughout murine leukemia virus Gag-Pol, then selecting for variants that are viable and exhibit altered integration properties. We found seven permissive zinc finger domain (ZFD) insertion sites throughout Gag-Pol, including within p12, reverse transcriptase, and integrase. Comprehensive genome integration analysis showed that several ZFD insertions yielded retroviral vector variants with shifted integration patterns that did not favor TSS. Furthermore, integration site analysis revealed selective integration for numerous mutants. For example, two retroviral variants with a given ZFD at appropriate positions in Gag-Pol strikingly integrated primarily into four common sites out of 3.1 × 109 possible human genome locations (P = 4.6 × 10-29). Our findings demonstrate that insertion of DNA-binding motifs into multiple locations in Gag-Pol can make considerable progress toward engineering safer retroviral vectors that integrate into a significantly narrowed pool of sites on human genome and overcome the preference for TSS. PMID:20616052

  11. Specific Labeling of Zinc Finger Proteins using Non-canonical Amino Acids and Copper-free Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sung Hoon; Ferracane, Dean; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) play a key role in transcriptional regulation and serve as invaluable tools for gene modification and genetic engineering. Development of efficient strategies for labeling metalloproteins such as ZFPs is essential for understanding and controlling biological processes. In this work, we engineered ZFPs containing cysteine-histidine (Cys2-His2) motifs by metabolic incorporation of the unnatural amino acid azidohomoalanine (AHA), followed by specific protein labeling via click chemistry. We show that cyclooctyne promoted [3 + 2] dipolar cycloaddition with azides, known as copper-free click chemistry, provides rapid and specific labeling of ZFPs at high yields as determined by mass spectrometry analysis. We observe that the DNA-binding activity of ZFPs labeled by conventional copper-mediated click chemistry was completely abolished, whereas ZFPs labeled by copper-free click chemistry retain their sequence-specific DNA-binding activity under native conditions, as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, protein microarrays and kinetic binding assays based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Our work provides a general framework to label metalloproteins such as ZFPs by metabolic incorporation of unnatural amino acids followed by copper-free click chemistry. PMID:22871171

  12. MHY1 Encodes a C2H2-Type Zinc Finger Protein That Promotes Dimorphic Transition in the Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Cleofe A. R.; Rachubinski, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    The yeast-to-hypha morphological transition (dimorphism) is typical of many pathogenic fungi. Dimorphism has been attributed to changes in temperature and nutritional status and is believed to constitute a mechanism of response to adverse conditions. We have isolated and characterized a gene, MHY1, whose transcription is dramatically increased during the yeast-to-hypha transition in Yarrowia lipolytica. Deletion of MHY1 is viable and has no effect on mating, but it does result in a complete inability of cells to undergo mycelial growth. MHY1 encodes a C2H2-type zinc finger protein, Mhy1p, which can bind putative cis-acting DNA stress response elements, suggesting that Mhy1p may act as a transcription factor. Interestingly, Mhy1p tagged with a hemagglutinin epitope was concentrated in the nuclei of actively growing cells found at the hyphal tip. PMID:10322005

  13. Zinc Finger Independent Genome-Wide Binding of Sp2 Potentiates Recruitment of Histone-Fold Protein Nf-y Distinguishing It from Sp1 and Sp3

    PubMed Central

    Finkernagel, Florian; Stiewe, Thorsten; Nist, Andrea; Suske, Guntram

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors are grouped into families based on sequence similarity within functional domains, particularly DNA-binding domains. The Specificity proteins Sp1, Sp2 and Sp3 are paradigmatic of closely related transcription factors. They share amino-terminal glutamine-rich regions and a conserved carboxy-terminal zinc finger domain that can bind to GC rich motifs in vitro. All three Sp proteins are ubiquitously expressed; yet they carry out unique functions in vivo raising the question of how specificity is achieved. Crucially, it is unknown whether they bind to distinct genomic sites and, if so, how binding site selection is accomplished. In this study, we have examined the genomic binding patterns of Sp1, Sp2 and Sp3 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts by ChIP-seq. Sp1 and Sp3 essentially occupy the same promoters and localize to GC boxes. The genomic binding pattern of Sp2 is different; Sp2 primarily localizes at CCAAT motifs. Consistently, re-expression of Sp2 and Sp3 mutants in corresponding knockout MEFs revealed strikingly different modes of genomic binding site selection. Most significantly, while the zinc fingers dictate genomic binding of Sp3, they are completely dispensable for binding of Sp2. Instead, the glutamine-rich amino-terminal region is sufficient for recruitment of Sp2 to its target promoters in vivo. We have identified the trimeric histone-fold CCAAT box binding transcription factor Nf-y as the major partner for Sp2-chromatin interaction. Nf-y is critical for recruitment of Sp2 to co-occupied regulatory elements. Equally, Sp2 potentiates binding of Nf-y to shared sites indicating the existence of an extensive Sp2-Nf-y interaction network. Our results unveil strikingly different recruitment mechanisms of Sp1/Sp2/Sp3 transcription factor members uncovering an unexpected layer of complexity in their binding to chromatin in vivo. PMID:25793500

  14. The Effect of Salts in Promoting Specific and Competitive Interactions between Zinc Finger Proteins and Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gongyu; Yuan, Siming; Zheng, Shihui; Chen, Yuting; Zheng, Zhen; Liu, Yangzhong; Huang, Guangming

    2017-12-01

    Specific protein-metal interactions (PMIs) fulfill essential functions in cells and organic bodies, and activation of these functions in vivo are mostly modulated by the complex environmental factors, including pH value, small biomolecules, and salts. Specifically, the role of salts in promoting specific PMIs and their competition among various metals has remained untapped mainly due to the difficulty to distinguish nonspecific PMIs from specific PMIs by classic spectroscopic techniques. Herein, we report Hofmeister salts differentially promote the specific PMIs by combining nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry and spectroscopic techniques (fluorescence measurement and circular dichroism). Furthermore, to explore the influence of salts in competitive binding between metalloproteins and various metals, we designed a series of competitive experiments and applied to a well-defined model system, the competitive binding of zinc (II) and arsenic (III) to holo-promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML). These experiments not only provided new insights at the molecular scale as complementary to previous NMR and spectroscopic results, but also deduced the relative binding ability between zinc finger proteins and metals at the molecular scale, which avoids the mass spectrometric titration-based determination of binding constants that is frequently affected and often degraded by variable solution conditions including salt contents. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. The KRAS Promoter Responds to Myc-associated Zinc Finger and Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 Proteins, Which Recognize a Critical Quadruplex-forming GA-element*

    PubMed Central

    Cogoi, Susanna; Paramasivam, Manikandan; Membrino, Alexandro; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.; Xodo, Luigi E.

    2010-01-01

    The murine KRAS promoter contains a G-rich nuclease hypersensitive element (GA-element) upstream of the transcription start site that is essential for transcription. Pulldown and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that this GA-element is bound by the Myc-associated zinc finger (MAZ) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) proteins. These proteins are crucial for transcription, because when they are knocked down by short hairpin RNA, transcription is down-regulated. This is also the case when the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity of PARP-1 is inhibited by 3,4-dihydro-5-[4-(1-piperidinyl) butoxyl]-1(2H) isoquinolinone. We found that MAZ specifically binds to the duplex and quadruplex conformations of the GA-element, whereas PARP-1 shows specificity only for the G-quadruplex. On the basis of fluorescence resonance energy transfer melting and polymerase stop assays we saw that MAZ stabilizes the KRAS quadruplex. When the capacity of folding in the GA-element is abrogated by specific G → T or G → A point mutations, KRAS transcription is down-regulated. Conversely, guanidine-modified phthalocyanines, which specifically interact with and stabilize the KRAS G-quadruplex, push the promoter activity up to more than double. Collectively, our data support a transcription mechanism for murine KRAS that involves MAZ, PARP-1 and duplex-quadruplex conformational changes in the promoter GA-element. PMID:20457603

  16. Revisiting and re-engineering the classical zinc finger peptide: consensus peptide-1 (CP-1).

    PubMed

    Besold, Angelique N; Widger, Leland R; Namuswe, Frances; Michalek, Jamie L; Michel, Sarah L J; Goldberg, David P

    2016-04-01

    Zinc plays key structural and catalytic roles in biology. Structural zinc sites are often referred to as zinc finger (ZF) sites, and the classical ZF contains a Cys2His2 motif that is involved in coordinating Zn(II). An optimized Cys2His2 ZF, named consensus peptide 1 (CP-1), was identified more than 20 years ago using a limited set of sequenced proteins. We have reexamined the CP-1 sequence, using our current, much larger database of sequenced proteins that have been identified from high-throughput sequencing methods, and found the sequence to be largely unchanged. The CCHH ligand set of CP-1 was then altered to a CAHH motif to impart hydrolytic activity. This ligand set mimics the His2Cys ligand set of peptide deformylase (PDF), a hydrolytically active M(II)-centered (M = Zn or Fe) protein. The resultant peptide [CP-1(CAHH)] was evaluated for its ability to coordinate Zn(II) and Co(II) ions, adopt secondary structure, and promote hydrolysis. CP-1(CAHH) was found to coordinate Co(II) and Zn(II) and a pentacoordinate geometry for Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) was implicated from UV-vis data. This suggests a His2Cys(H2O)2 environment at the metal center. The Zn(II)-bound CP-1(CAHH) was shown to adopt partial secondary structure by 1-D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Both Zn(II)-CP-1(CAHH) and Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) show good hydrolytic activity toward the test substrate 4-nitrophenyl acetate, exhibiting faster rates than most active synthetic Zn(II) complexes.

  17. Role of Bmznf-2, a Bombyx mori CCCH zinc finger gene, in masculinisation and differential splicing of Bmtra-2.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Gajula; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Mita, Kazuei; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2016-08-01

    Deciphering the regulatory factors involved in Bombyx mori sex determination has been a puzzle, challenging researchers for nearly a century now. The pre-mRNA of B. mori doublesex (Bmdsx), a master regulator gene of sexual differentiation, is differentially spliced, producing Bmdsxm and Bmdsxf transcripts in males and females respectively. The putative proteins encoded by these differential transcripts orchestrate antagonistic functions, which lead to sexual differentiation. A recent study in B. mori illustrated the role of a W-derived fem piRNA in conferring femaleness. In females, the fem piRNA was shown to suppress the activity of a Z-linked CCCH type zinc finger (znf) gene, Masculiniser (masc), which indirectly promotes the Bmdsxm type of splicing. In this study, we report a novel autosomal (Chr 25) CCCH type znf motif encoding gene Bmznf-2 as one of the potential factors in the Bmdsx sex specific differential splicing, and we also provide insights into its role in the alternative splicing of Bmtra2 by using ovary derived BmN cells. Over-expression of Bmznf-2 induced Bmdsxm type of splicing (masculinisation) with a correspondingly reduced expression of Bmdsxf type isoform in BmN cells. Further, the site-directed mutational studies targeting the tandem CCCH znf motifs revealed their indispensability in the observed phenotype of masculinisation. Additionally, the dual luciferase assays in BmN cells using 5' UTR region of the Bmznf-2 strongly implied the existence of a translational repression over this gene. From these findings, we propose Bmznf-2 to be one of the potential factors of masculinisation similar to Masc. From the growing number of Bmdsx splicing regulators, we assume that the sex determination cascade of B. mori is quite intricate in nature; hence, it has to be further investigated for its comprehensive understanding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Zinc finger protein 267 is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes tumor cell proliferation and migration

    PubMed Central

    Schnabl, Bernd; Valletta, Daniela; Kirovski, Georgi; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Zinc finger protein 267 (ZNF267) belongs to the family of Kruppel-like transcription factors, which regulates diverse biological processes that include development, proliferation, and differentiation. We have previously demonstrated that ZNF267 mRNA is up-regulated in liver cirrhosis, which is the main risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we analyzed the expression of ZNF267 in human HCC cells and tissue specimens and found a significant up-regulation compared to primary human hepatocytes and corresponding non-tumorous liver tissue. Over-expression of the transcription factor Ets-1 further enhanced ZNF267 expression, and reporter gene assays revealed that mutation of the Ets-1 binding site to the ZNF267 promotor markedly inhibited ZNF267 promotor activity. Hypoxic conditions induced Ets-1 in HCC cells via HIF1alpha activation, and hypoxia induced ZNF267 expression while HIF1alpha inhibition significantly reduced both hypoxia-induced as well as basal ZNF267 expression in HCC cells. It is known that hypoxic conditions in tumorous tissues induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and ROS have been identified as important factor in the regulation of Ets-1 expression in tumor cells. Here, we found that ROS induction induced and ROS scavenging reduced ZNF267 expression in HCC cells, respectively. Loss and gain of function analysis applying siRNA directed against ZNF267 or transient transfection revealed that ZNF267 promotes proliferation and migration of HCC cells in vitro. These findings indicate Ets-1 and HIF1alpha as critical regulators of basal and hypoxia- or ROS-induced ZNF267 expression in HCC, and further suggest that the pro-tumorigenic effect of these factors is at least in part mediated via increased ZNF267 expression in HCC. Since ZNF267 is already elevated in cirrhosis, ZNF267 appears as promising target for both prevention as well as treatment of HCC in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:21840307

  19. Zinc finger protein 521 antagonizes early B-cell factor 1 and modulates the B-lymphoid differentiation of primary hematopoietic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Mega, Tiziana; Lupia, Michela; Amodio, Nicola; Horton, Sarah J; Mesuraca, Maria; Pelaggi, Daniela; Agosti, Valter; Grieco, Michele; Chiarella, Emanuela; Spina, Raffaella; Moore, Malcolm A S; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Bond, Heather M; Morrone, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    Zinc finger protein 521 (EHZF/ZNF521) is a multi-functional transcription co-factor containing 30 zinc fingers and an amino-terminal motif that binds to the nucleosome remodelling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex. ZNF521 is believed to be a relevant player in the regulation of the homeostasis of the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell compartment, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here, we show that this protein plays an important role in the control of B-cell development by inhibiting the activity of early B-cell factor-1 (EBF1), a master factor in B-lineage specification. In particular, our data demonstrate that: (1) ZNF521 binds to EBF1 via its carboxyl-terminal portion and this interaction is required for EBF1 inhibition; (2) NuRD complex recruitment by ZNF521 is not essential for the inhibition of transactivation of EBF1-dependent promoters; (3) ZNF521 represses EBF1 target genes in a human B-lymphoid molecular context; and (4) RNAi-mediated silencing of ZNF521/Zfp521 in primary human and murine hematopoietic progenitors strongly enhances the generation of B-lymphocytes in vitro. Taken together, our data indicate that ZNF521 can antagonize B-cell development and lend support to the notion that it may contribute to conserve the multipotency of primitive lympho-myeloid progenitors by preventing or delaying their EBF1-driven commitment toward the B-cell lineage.

  20. A zinc finger domain gene in the lizard, Calotes versicolor, shows extensive homology with the mammalian ZFX and is expressed embryonically.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, S; Choudhary, B; Raman, R

    1998-01-01

    A 590-bp long zinc finger domain DNA fragment has been isolated by polymerase chain reaction from the lizard, Calotes versicolor, employing the primers used for amplifying the zinc finger domain of the human Y-chromosomal gene, ZFY. Cloned in pUC18, the fragment, called CvZfa, was sequenced and its expression during development was studied. At the nucleotide and amino acid level CvZfa shows respectively 83% and 90% identity with the human ZFY, but its extent of homology is greater with the ZFX of human (86% at nucleotide and 92% at amino acid level) and the ZFY-like genes of turtle and chick. Similarly its homology with the mouse Zfx and Zfa is much greater than that with Zfy-1 and Zfy-2. It appears that the mammalian ZFX (Zfx) evolved from reptilian ancestors with a considerable degree of conservation, but the ZFX to ZFY divergence within the class mammalia was more rapid. The CvZfa transcripts were seen in all the embryonic stages from which RNA was analysed. The whole mount in situ hybridization with the posteriorly placed mesonephros and the gonadal primordia of 10 to 25 day old embryos showed signal selectively in mesonephros of the 20 and 25 day embryos. There was no signal in the genital ridge. Thus CvZfa may not have a direct role in gonadogenesis of C. versicolor, but the possibility of its inductive role in the formation of adreno-gonadal axis through mesonephros cannot be discounted.

  1. Regulation of trichome development in tobacco by JcZFP8, a C2H2 zinc finger protein gene from Jatropha curcas L.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaodong; Gu, Yuxi; Dai, Tingwei; Wu, Yang; Wu, Peng; Xu, Ying; Chen, Fang

    2018-06-05

    Trichomes are epidermal outgrowths of plant tissues that can secrete or store large quantities of secondary metabolites, which contribute to plant defense responses against stress. The use of bioengineering methods for regulating the development of trichomes and metabolism is a widely researched topic. In the present study, we demonstrate that JcZFP8, a C2H2 zinc finger protein gene from Jatropha curcas L., can regulate trichome development in transgenic tobacco. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we performed transcriptome profiling of overexpression JcZFP8 transgenic plants and wild-type tobacco. Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes, we determined that genes of the plant hormone signal transduction pathway was significantly enriched, suggesting that these pathways were modulated in the transgenic plants. In addition, the transcript levels of the known trichome-related genes in Arabidopsis were not significantly changed, whereas CycB2 and MYB genes were differentially expressed in the transgenic plants. Despite tobacco and Arabidopsis have different types of trichomes, all the pathways were associated with C2H2 zinc finger protein genes. Our findings help us to understand the regulation of multicellular trichome formation and suggest a new metabolic engineering method for the improvement of plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein modulates gibberellins and abscisic acid contents and increases sensitivity to abiotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Lan, Hongxia; Shao, Qiaolin; Wang, Ruqin; Chen, Hui; Tang, Haijuan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Huang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormones gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) play important roles in plant development and stress responses. Here we report a novel A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein ZFP185 involved in GA and ABA signaling in the regulation of growth and stress response. ZFP185 was constitutively expressed in various rice tissues. Overexpression of ZFP185 in rice results in a semi-dwarfism phenotype, reduced cell size, and the decrease of endogenous GA3 content. By contrast, higher GA3 content was observed in RNAi plants. The application of exogenous GA3 can fully rescue the semi-dwarfism phenotype of ZFP185 overexpressing plants, suggesting the negative role of ZFP185 in GA biosynthesis. Besides GA, overexpression of ZFP185 decreased ABA content and expression of several ABA biosynthesis-related genes. Moreover, it was found that ZFP185, unlike previously known A20/AN1-type zinc finger genes, increases sensitivity to drought, cold, and salt stresses, implying the negative role of ZFP185 in stress tolerance. ZFP185 was localized in the cytoplasm and lacked transcriptional activation potential. Our study suggests that ZFP185 regulates plant growth and stress responses by affecting GA and ABA biosynthesis in rice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Combined with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Elucidates Differential Substitution Pathways of Au(I) and Au(III) with Zinc Fingers.

    PubMed

    Abbehausen, Camilla; de Paiva, Raphael Enoque Ferraz; Bjornsson, Ragnar; Gomes, Saulo Quintana; Du, Zhifeng; Corbi, Pedro Paulo; Lima, Frederico Alves; Farrell, Nicholas

    2018-01-02

    A combination of two elements' (Au, Zn) X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) allowed the elucidation of differential substitution pathways of Au(I) and Au(III) compounds reacting with biologically relevant zinc fingers (ZnFs). Gold L 3 -edge XAS probed the interaction of gold and the C-terminal Cys 2 HisCys finger of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7, and the Cys 2 His 2 human transcription factor Sp1. The use of model compounds helped assign oxidation states and the identity of the gold-bound ligands. The computational studies accurately reproduced the experimental XAS spectra and allowed the proposition of structural models for the interaction products at early time points. The direct electrophilic attack on the ZnF by the highly thiophilic Au(I) resulted in a linear P-Au-Cys coordination sphere after zinc ejection whereas for the Sp1, loss of PEt 3 results in linear Cys-Au-Cys or Cys-Au-His arrangements. Reactions with Au(III) compounds, on the other hand, showed multiple binding modes. Prompt reaction between [AuCl(dien)] 2+ and [Au(dien)(DMAP)] 3+ with Sp1 showed a partially reduced Au center and a final linear His-Au-His coordination. Differently, in the presence of NCp7, [AuCl(dien)] 2+ readily reduces to Au(I) and changes from square-planar to linear geometry with Cys-Au-His coordination, while [Au(dien)(DMAP)] 3+ initially maintains its Au(III) oxidation state and square-planar geometry and the same first coordination sphere. The latter is the first observation of a "noncovalent" interaction of a Au(III) complex with a zinc finger and confirms early hypotheses that stabilization of Au(III) occurs with N-donor ligands. Modification of the zinc coordination sphere, suggesting full or partial zinc ejection, is observed in all cases, and for [Au(dien)(DMAP)] 3+ this represents a novel mechanism for nucleocapsid inactivation. The combination of XAS and TD-DFT presents the first direct experimental

  4. Zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) and verbal deficits in individuals with autism

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, Ayyappan; Thanseem, Ismail; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Vasu, Mahesh M.; Yamada, Kazuo; Ueki, Takatoshi; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Mori, Norio

    2014-01-01

    Background In a genome-wide association study of autism, zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be nominally associated in verbally deficient individuals with autism. Zinc finger protein 804A copy number variations (CNVs) have also been observed in individuals with autism. In addition, ZNF804A is known to be involved in theory of mind (ToM) tasks, and ToM deficits are deemed responsible for the communication and social challenges faced by individuals with autism. We hypothesized that ZNF804A could be a risk gene for autism. Methods We examined the genetic association and CNVs of ZNF804A in 841 families in which 1 or more members had autism. We compared the expression of ZNF804A in the postmortem brains of individuals with autism (n = 8) and controls (n = 13). We also assessed in vitro the effect of ZNF804A silencing on the expression of several genes known to be involved in verbal efficiency and social cognition. Results We found that rs7603001 was nominally associated with autism (p = 0.018). The association was stronger (p = 0.008) in the families of individuals with autism who were verbally deficient (n = 761 families). We observed ZNF804A CNVs in 7 verbally deficient boys with autism. In ZNF804A knockdown cells, the expression of synaptosomal-associated protein, 25kDa (SNAP25) was reduced compared with controls (p = 0.009). The expression of ZNF804A (p = 0.009) and SNAP25 (p = 0.009) were reduced in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) of individuals with autism. There was a strong positive correlation between the expression of ZNF804A and SNAP25 in the ACG (p < 0.001). Limitations Study limitations include our small sample size of postmortem brains. Conclusion Our results suggest that ZNF804A could be a potential candidate gene mediating the intermediate phenotypes associated with verbal traits in individuals with autism. PMID:24866414

  5. Zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) and verbal deficits in individuals with autism.

    PubMed

    Anitha, Ayyappan; Thanseem, Ismail; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Vasu, Mahesh M; Yamada, Kazuo; Ueki, Takatoshi; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Mori, Norio

    2014-09-01

    In a genome-wide association study of autism, zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be nominally associated in verbally deficient individuals with autism. Zinc finger protein 804A copy number variations (CNVs) have also been observed in individuals with autism. In addition, ZNF804A is known to be involved in theory of mind (ToM) tasks, and ToM deficits are deemed responsible for the communication and social challenges faced by individuals with autism. We hypothesized that ZNF804A could be a risk gene for autism. We examined the genetic association and CNVs of ZNF804A in 841 families in which 1 or more members had autism. We compared the expression of ZNF804A in the postmortem brains of individuals with autism (n = 8) and controls (n = 13). We also assessed in vitro the effect of ZNF804A silencing on the expression of several genes known to be involved in verbal efficiency and social cognition. We found that rs7603001 was nominally associated with autism (p = 0.018). The association was stronger (p = 0.008) in the families of individuals with autism who were verbally deficient (n = 761 families). We observed ZNF804A CNVs in 7 verbally deficient boys with autism. In ZNF804A knockdown cells, the expression of synaptosomal-associated protein, 25kDa (SNAP25) was reduced compared with controls (p = 0.009). The expression of ZNF804A (p = 0.009) and SNAP25 (p = 0.009) were reduced in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) of individuals with autism. There was a strong positive correlation between the expression of ZNF804A and SNAP25 in the ACG (p < 0.001). Study limitations include our small sample size of postmortem brains. Our results suggest that ZNF804A could be a potential candidate gene mediating the intermediate phenotypes associated with verbal traits in individuals with autism.

  6. A novel zinc-finger protein with a proline-rich domain mediates ABA-regulated seed dormancy in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    He, Yuehui; Gan, Susheng

    2004-01-01

    Seed dormancy is an important developmental process that prevents pre-harvest sprouting in many grains and other seeds. Abscisic acid (ABA), a plant hormone, plays a crucial role in regulating dormancy but the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. An Arabidopsis zinc-finger gene, MEDIATOR OF ABA-REGULATED DORMANCY 1 ( MARD1 ) was identified and functionally analyzed. MARD1 expression is up-regulated by ABA. A T-DNA insertion in the promoter region downstream of two ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) renders MARD1 unable to respond to ABA. The mard1 seeds are less dormant and germinate in total darkness; their germination is resistant to external ABA at the stage of radicle protrusion. These results suggest that this novel zinc-finger protein with a proline-rich N-terminus is an important downstream component of the ABA signaling pathway that mediates ABA-regulated seed dormancy in Arabidopsis.

  7. Rmt1 catalyzes zinc-finger independent arginine methylation of ribosomal protein Rps2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciT

    Lipson, Rebecca S.; Webb, Kristofor J.; Clarke, Steven G., E-mail: clarke@mbi.ucla.edu

    2010-01-22

    Rps2/rpS2 is a well conserved protein of the eukaryotic ribosomal small subunit. Rps2 has previously been shown to contain asymmetric dimethylarginine residues, the addition of which is catalyzed by zinc-finger-containing arginine methyltransferase 3 (Rmt3) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate that despite the lack of a zinc-finger-containing homolog of Rmt3/PRMT3 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rps2 is partially modified to generate asymmetric dimethylarginine and monomethylarginine residues. We find that this modification of Rps2 is dependent upon the major arginine methyltransferase 1 (Rmt1) in S. cerevisiae. These resultsmore » are suggestive of a role for Rmt1 in modifying the function of Rps2 in a manner distinct from that occurring in S. pombe and mammalian cells.« less

  8. Role of zinc-finger anti-viral protein in host defense against Sindbis virus

    PubMed Central

    Kozaki, Tatsuya; Takahama, Michihiro; Misawa, Takuma; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Saitoh, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that type I interferon (IFN) mediates the host protective response to RNA viruses. However, the anti-viral effector molecules involved in this response have not been fully identified. Here, we show that zinc-finger anti-viral protein (ZAP), an IFN-inducible gene, plays a critical role in the elimination of Sindbis virus (SINV) in vitro and in vivo. The loss of ZAP greatly enhances the replication of SINV but does not inhibit type I IFN production in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). ZAP binds and destabilizes SINV RNA, thereby suppressing the replication of SINV. Type I IFN fails to suppress SINV replication in ZAP-deficient MEFs, whereas the ectopic expression of ZAP is sufficient to suppress the replication of SINV in MEFs lacking the expression of type I IFN and the IFN-inducible genes. ZAP-deficient mice are highly susceptible to SINV infection, although they produce sufficient amounts of type I IFN. Therefore, ZAP is an RNA-sensing anti-viral effector molecule that mediates the type-I-IFN-dependent host defense against SINV. PMID:25758257

  9. A FYVE zinc finger domain protein specifically links mRNA transport to endosome trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Pohlmann, Thomas; Baumann, Sebastian; Haag, Carl; Albrecht, Mario; Feldbrügge, Michael

    2015-01-01

    An emerging theme in cellular logistics is the close connection between mRNA and membrane trafficking. A prominent example is the microtubule-dependent transport of mRNAs and associated ribosomes on endosomes. This coordinated process is crucial for correct septin filamentation and efficient growth of polarised cells, such as fungal hyphae. Despite detailed knowledge on the key RNA-binding protein and the molecular motors involved, it is unclear how mRNAs are connected to membranes during transport. Here, we identify a novel factor containing a FYVE zinc finger domain for interaction with endosomal lipids and a new PAM2-like domain required for interaction with the MLLE domain of the key RNA-binding protein. Consistently, loss of this FYVE domain protein leads to specific defects in mRNA, ribosome, and septin transport without affecting general functions of endosomes or their movement. Hence, this is the first endosomal component specific for mRNP trafficking uncovering a new mechanism to couple mRNPs to endosomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06041.001 PMID:25985087

  10. TRIM25 Enhances the Antiviral Action of Zinc-Finger Antiviral Protein (ZAP)

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Zerlina; Cheung, Pamela; Schneider, William M.; Bozzacco, Leonia; Buehler, Eugen; Takaoka, Akinori; Rice, Charles M.; Felsenfeld, Dan P.; MacDonald, Margaret R.

    2017-01-01

    The host factor and interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene (ISG) product, zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP), inhibits a number of diverse viruses by usurping and intersecting with multiple cellular pathways. To elucidate its antiviral mechanism, we perform a loss-of-function genome-wide RNAi screen to identify cellular cofactors required for ZAP antiviral activity against the prototype alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SINV). In order to exclude off-target effects, we carry out stringent confirmatory assays to verify the top hits. Important ZAP-liaising partners identified include proteins involved in membrane ion permeability, type I IFN signaling, and post-translational protein modification. The factor contributing most to the antiviral function of ZAP is TRIM25, an E3 ubiquitin and ISG15 ligase. We demonstrate here that TRIM25 interacts with ZAP through the SPRY domain, and TRIM25 mutants lacking the RING or coiled coil domain fail to stimulate ZAP’s antiviral activity, suggesting that both TRIM25 ligase activity and its ability to form oligomers are critical for its cofactor function. TRIM25 increases the modification of both the short and long ZAP isoforms by K48- and K63-linked polyubiquitin, although ubiquitination of ZAP does not directly affect its antiviral activity. However, TRIM25 is critical for ZAP’s ability to inhibit translation of the incoming SINV genome. Taken together, these data uncover TRIM25 as a bona fide ZAP cofactor that leads to increased ZAP modification enhancing its translational inhibition activity. PMID:28060952

  11. TRIM25 Enhances the Antiviral Action of Zinc-Finger Antiviral Protein (ZAP).

    PubMed

    Li, Melody M H; Lau, Zerlina; Cheung, Pamela; Aguilar, Eduardo G; Schneider, William M; Bozzacco, Leonia; Molina, Henrik; Buehler, Eugen; Takaoka, Akinori; Rice, Charles M; Felsenfeld, Dan P; MacDonald, Margaret R

    2017-01-01

    The host factor and interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene (ISG) product, zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP), inhibits a number of diverse viruses by usurping and intersecting with multiple cellular pathways. To elucidate its antiviral mechanism, we perform a loss-of-function genome-wide RNAi screen to identify cellular cofactors required for ZAP antiviral activity against the prototype alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SINV). In order to exclude off-target effects, we carry out stringent confirmatory assays to verify the top hits. Important ZAP-liaising partners identified include proteins involved in membrane ion permeability, type I IFN signaling, and post-translational protein modification. The factor contributing most to the antiviral function of ZAP is TRIM25, an E3 ubiquitin and ISG15 ligase. We demonstrate here that TRIM25 interacts with ZAP through the SPRY domain, and TRIM25 mutants lacking the RING or coiled coil domain fail to stimulate ZAP's antiviral activity, suggesting that both TRIM25 ligase activity and its ability to form oligomers are critical for its cofactor function. TRIM25 increases the modification of both the short and long ZAP isoforms by K48- and K63-linked polyubiquitin, although ubiquitination of ZAP does not directly affect its antiviral activity. However, TRIM25 is critical for ZAP's ability to inhibit translation of the incoming SINV genome. Taken together, these data uncover TRIM25 as a bona fide ZAP cofactor that leads to increased ZAP modification enhancing its translational inhibition activity.

  12. Zinc-finger Nuclease-induced Gene Repair With Oligodeoxynucleotides: Wanted and Unwanted Target Locus Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Radecke, Sarah; Radecke, Frank; Cathomen, Toni; Schwarz, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Correcting a mutated gene directly at its endogenous locus represents an alternative to gene therapy protocols based on viral vectors with their risk of insertional mutagenesis. When solely a single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN) is used as a repair matrix, the efficiency of the targeted gene correction is low. However, as shown with the homing endonuclease I-SceI, ssODN-mediated gene correction can be enhanced by concomitantly inducing a DNA double-strand break (DSB) close to the mutation. Because I-SceI is hardly adjustable to cut at any desired position in the human genome, here, customizable zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) were used to stimulate ssODN-mediated repair of a mutated single-copy reporter locus stably integrated into human embryonic kidney-293 cells. The ZFNs induced faithful gene repair at a frequency of 0.16%. Six times more often, ZFN-induced DSBs were found to be modified by unfaithful addition of ssODN between the termini and about 60 times more often by nonhomologous end joining-related deletions and insertions. Additionally, ZFN off-target activity based on binding mismatch sites at the locus of interest was detected in in vitro cleavage assays and also in chromosomal DNA isolated from treated cells. Therefore, the specificity of ZFN-induced ssODN-mediated gene repair needs to be improved, especially regarding clinical applications. PMID:20068556

  13. The Zinc-Finger Antiviral Protein ZAP Inhibits LINE and Alu Retrotransposition

    PubMed Central

    Moldovan, John B.; Moran, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is the only active autonomous retrotransposon in the human genome. To investigate the interplay between the L1 retrotransposition machinery and the host cell, we used co-immunoprecipitation in conjunction with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to identify cellular proteins that interact with the L1 first open reading frame-encoded protein, ORF1p. We identified 39 ORF1p-interacting candidate proteins including the zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP or ZC3HAV1). Here we show that the interaction between ZAP and ORF1p requires RNA and that ZAP overexpression in HeLa cells inhibits the retrotransposition of engineered human L1 and Alu elements, an engineered mouse L1, and an engineered zebrafish LINE-2 element. Consistently, siRNA-mediated depletion of endogenous ZAP in HeLa cells led to a ~2-fold increase in human L1 retrotransposition. Fluorescence microscopy in cultured human cells demonstrated that ZAP co-localizes with L1 RNA, ORF1p, and stress granule associated proteins in cytoplasmic foci. Finally, molecular genetic and biochemical analyses indicate that ZAP reduces the accumulation of full-length L1 RNA and the L1-encoded proteins, yielding mechanistic insight about how ZAP may inhibit L1 retrotransposition. Together, these data suggest that ZAP inhibits the retrotransposition of LINE and Alu elements. PMID:25951186

  14. Inhibition of avian tumor virus replication by CCCH-type zinc finger antiviral protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingjun; Ma, Xiaoqian; Cui, Xiyao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Chengui; Huang, Libo; Shang, Yingli; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2017-01-01

    CCCH type zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host restriction factor that inhibits the replication of a variety of viruses in mammals. However, little is known about its antiviral activity on avian tumor virus. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), an oncogenic retrovirus, induces myelocytomas and various other tumors in meat and egg type chickens. Here, we identified a chicken ZAP (chZAP) that increased at early stage, and subsequently decreased after infection of ALV-J in DF-1 cells, indicating the inducible feature of the endogenous chZAP. To demonstrate the inhibitory effect on ALV-J replication by chZAP, we expressed exogenous chZAP by lentivirus based vectors in DF-1 cells that infected by ALV-J. The result showed that overexpression of chZAP significantly inhibited ALV-J replication at both mRNA level and protein level. Consequently, knockdown of endogenous chZAP by RNAi facilitated ALV-J replication in DF-1 cells. Further, we demonstrated that chZAP interacts with SU protein (encode by gp85 gene) of ALV-J in cytoplasm. Taken together, our results demonstrated that chZAP inhibits ALV-J by both mRNA and protein pathway and it may shed light on a novel antiviral approach in poultry. PMID:28938603

  15. A FYVE zinc finger domain protein specifically links mRNA transport to endosome trafficking.

    PubMed

    Pohlmann, Thomas; Baumann, Sebastian; Haag, Carl; Albrecht, Mario; Feldbrügge, Michael

    2015-05-18

    An emerging theme in cellular logistics is the close connection between mRNA and membrane trafficking. A prominent example is the microtubule-dependent transport of mRNAs and associated ribosomes on endosomes. This coordinated process is crucial for correct septin filamentation and efficient growth of polarised cells, such as fungal hyphae. Despite detailed knowledge on the key RNA-binding protein and the molecular motors involved, it is unclear how mRNAs are connected to membranes during transport. Here, we identify a novel factor containing a FYVE zinc finger domain for interaction with endosomal lipids and a new PAM2-like domain required for interaction with the MLLE domain of the key RNA-binding protein. Consistently, loss of this FYVE domain protein leads to specific defects in mRNA, ribosome, and septin transport without affecting general functions of endosomes or their movement. Hence, this is the first endosomal component specific for mRNP trafficking uncovering a new mechanism to couple mRNPs to endosomes.

  16. Identification and Structure-Activity Relationship of HDAC6 Zinc-Finger Ubiquitin Binding Domain Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ferreira de Freitas, Renato; Harding, Rachel J; Franzoni, Ivan; Ravichandran, Mani; Mann, Mandeep K; Ouyang, Hui; Lautens, Mark; Santhakumar, Vijayaratnam; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Schapira, Matthieu

    2018-05-24

    HDAC6 plays a central role in the recruitment of protein aggregates for lysosomal degradation and is a promising target for combination therapy with proteasome inhibitors in multiple myeloma. Pharmacologically displacing ubiquitin from the zinc-finger ubiquitin-binding domain (ZnF-UBD) of HDAC6 is an underexplored alternative to catalytic inhibition. Here, we present the discovery of an HDAC6 ZnF-UBD-focused chemical series and its progression from virtual screening hits to low micromolar inhibitors. A carboxylate mimicking the C-terminal extremity of ubiquitin, and an extended aromatic system stacking with W1182 and R1155, are necessary for activity. One of the compounds induced a conformational remodeling of the binding site where the primary binding pocket opens up onto a ligand-able secondary pocket that may be exploited to increase potency. The preliminary structure-activity relationship accompanied by nine crystal structures should enable further optimization into a chemical probe to investigate the merit of targeting the ZnF-UBD of HDAC6 in multiple myeloma and other diseases.

  17. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Bian, Xiao-Hua; Shen, Ming; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Lam, Sin-Man; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-04-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean ( Glycine max ) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351 , encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1 , BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2 , 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III , DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1 , and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean ( Glycine soja ) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Requirement for the Murine Zinc Finger Protein ZFR in Perigastrulation Growth and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Madeleine J.; Braun, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    The transition from preimplantation to postimplantation development leads to the initiation of complex cellular differentiation and morphogenetic movements, a dramatic decrease in cell cycle length, and a commensurate increase in the size of the embryo. Accompanying these changes is the need for the transfer of nutrients from the mother to the embryo and the elaboration of sophisticated genetic networks that monitor genomic integrity and the homeostatic control of cellular growth, differentiation, and programmed cell death. To determine the function of the murine zinc finger protein ZFR in these events, we generated mice carrying a null mutation in the gene encoding it. Homozygous mutant embryos form normal-appearing blastocysts that implant and initiate the process of gastrulation. Mutant embryos form mesoderm but they are delayed in their development and fail to form normal anterior embryonic structures. Loss of ZFR function leads to both an increase in programmed cell death and a decrease in mitotic index, especially in the region of the distal tip of the embryonic ectoderm. Mutant embryos also have an apparent reduction in apical vacuoles in the columnar visceral endoderm cells in the extraembryonic region. Together, these cellular phenotypes lead to a dramatic development delay and embryonic death by 8 to 9 days of gestation, which are independent of p53 function. PMID:11283266

  19. Proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla regulated by Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fang; Gao, Lifen; Lu, Yating; Ma, Hongxin; Wang, Hongxing; Liang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yan; Ma, Chunhong

    2016-01-15

    In the process of tooth root development, stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) can differentiate into odontoblasts and form root dentin, however, molecules regulating SCAPs differentiation have not been elucidated. Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) is a novel transcriptional inhibitor. It is reported to modulate the development of nerve cells, liver cells, B cells, red blood cells, and so on. However, the role of ZHX2 in tooth root development remains unclear. In this study, we explored the potential role of ZHX2 in the process of SCAPs differentiation. The results showed that overexpression of ZHX2 upregulated the expression of osteo/odontogenic related genes and ALP activity, inhibited the proliferation of SCAPs. Consistently, ZHX2 knockdown reduced SCAPs mineralization and promoted SCAPs proliferation. These results indicated that ZHX2 plays a critical role in the proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural insight into arginine methylation by the mouse protein arginine methyltransferase 7: a zinc finger freezes the mimic of the dimeric state into a single active site.

    PubMed

    Cura, Vincent; Troffer-Charlier, Nathalie; Wurtz, Jean Marie; Bonnefond, Luc; Cavarelli, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) is a type III arginine methyltransferase which has been implicated in several biological processes such as transcriptional regulation, DNA damage repair, RNA splicing, cell differentiation and metastasis. PRMT7 is a unique but less characterized member of the family of PRMTs. The crystal structure of full-length PRMT7 from Mus musculus refined at 1.7 Å resolution is described. The PRMT7 structure is composed of two catalytic modules in tandem forming a pseudo-dimer and contains only one AdoHcy molecule bound to the N-terminal module. The high-resolution crystal structure presented here revealed several structural features showing that the second active site is frozen in an inactive state by a conserved zinc finger located at the junction between the two PRMT modules and by the collapse of two degenerated AdoMet-binding loops.

  1. The Zinc-finger protein ASCIZ regulates B cell development via DYNLL1 and Bim

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Sabine; Gleeson, Kimberly; O’Donnell, Kristy; Izon, David J.; Walkley, Carl R.; Strasser, Andreas; Tarlinton, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Developing B lymphocytes expressing defective or autoreactive pre-B or B cell receptors (BCRs) are eliminated by programmed cell death, but how the balance between death and survival signals is regulated to prevent immunodeficiency and autoimmunity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we show that absence of the essential ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) substrate Chk2-interacting Zn2+-finger protein (ASCIZ; also known as ATMIN/ZNF822), a protein with dual functions in the DNA damage response and as a transcription factor, leads to progressive cell loss from the pre-B stage onwards and severely diminished splenic B cell numbers in mice. This lymphopenia cannot be suppressed by deletion of p53 or complementation with a prearranged BCR, indicating that it is not caused by impaired DNA damage responses or defective V(D)J recombination. Instead, ASCIZ-deficient B cell precursors contain highly reduced levels of DYNLL1 (dynein light chain 1; LC8), a recently identified transcriptional target of ASCIZ, and normal B cell development can be restored by ectopic Dynll1 expression. Remarkably, the B cell lymphopenia in the absence of ASCIZ can also be fully suppressed by deletion of the proapoptotic DYNLL1 target Bim. Our findings demonstrate a key role for ASCIZ in regulating the survival of developing B cells by activating DYNLL1 expression, which may then modulate Bim-dependent apoptosis. PMID:22891272

  2. A Novel Prokaryotic Green Fluorescent Protein Expression System for Testing Gene Editing Tools Activity Like Zinc Finger Nuclease

    PubMed Central

    Sabzehei, Faezeh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Dastjerdeh, Mansoureh Shahbazi; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Rasoul; Naderi, Shamsi; Taghizadeh, Razieh; Rabiei, Parisa; Hejazi, Zahra; Shariati, Laleh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gene editing technology has created a revolution in the field of genome editing. The three of the most famous tools in gene editing technology are zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and CRISPR-associated systems. As their predictable nature, it is necessary to assess their efficiency. There are some methods for this purpose, but most of them are time labor and complicated. Here, we introduce a new prokaryotic reporter system, which makes it possible to evaluate the efficiency of gene editing tools faster, cheaper, and simpler than previous methods. Materials and Methods: At first, the target sites of a custom ZFN, which is designed against a segment of ampicillin resistance gene, were cloned on both sides of green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to construct pPRO-GFP. Then pPRO-GFP was transformed into Escherichia coli TOP10F’ that contains pZFN (contains expression cassette of a ZFN against ampicillin resistant gene), or p15A-KanaR as a negative control. The transformed bacteria were cultured on three separate media that contained ampicillin, kanamycin, and ampicillin + kanamycin; then the resulted colonies were assessed by flow cytometry. Results: The results of flow cytometry showed a significant difference between the case (bacteria contain pZFN) and control (bacteria contain p15A, KanaR) in MFI (Mean Fluorescence Intensity) (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: According to ZFN efficiency, it can bind and cut the target sites, the bilateral cutting can affect the intensity of GFP fluorescence. Our flow cytometry results showed that this ZFN could reduce the intensity of GFP color and colony count of bacteria in media containing amp + kana versus control sample. PMID:29285485

  3. Expression of Arabidopsis FCS-Like Zinc finger genes is differentially regulated by sugars, cellular energy level, and abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Jamsheer K, Muhammed; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Cellular energy status is an important regulator of plant growth, development, and stress mitigation. Environmental stresses ultimately lead to energy deficit in the cell which activates the SNF1-RELATED KINASE 1 (SnRK1) signaling cascade which eventually triggering a massive reprogramming of transcription to enable the plant to survive under low-energy conditions. The role of Arabidopsis thaliana FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) gene family in energy and stress signaling is recently come to highlight after their interaction with kinase subunits of SnRK1 were identified. In a detailed expression analysis in different sugars, energy starvation, and replenishment series, we identified that the expression of most of the FLZ genes is differentially modulated by cellular energy level. It was found that FLZ gene family contains genes which are both positively and negatively regulated by energy deficit as well as energy-rich conditions. Genetic and pharmacological studies identified the role of HEXOKINASE 1- dependent and energy signaling pathways in the sugar-induced expression of FLZ genes. Further, these genes were also found to be highly responsive to different stresses as well as abscisic acid. In over-expression of kinase subunit of SnRK1, FLZ genes were found to be differentially regulated in accordance with their response toward energy fluctuation suggesting that these genes may work downstream to the established SnRK1 signaling under low-energy stress. Taken together, the present study provides a conceptual framework for further studies related to SnRK1-FLZ interaction in relation to sugar and energy signaling and stress response. PMID:26442059

  4. A Novel Prokaryotic Green Fluorescent Protein Expression System for Testing Gene Editing Tools Activity Like Zinc Finger Nuclease.

    PubMed

    Sabzehei, Faezeh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Dastjerdeh, Mansoureh Shahbazi; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Rasoul; Naderi, Shamsi; Taghizadeh, Razieh; Rabiei, Parisa; Hejazi, Zahra; Shariati, Laleh

    2017-01-01

    Gene editing technology has created a revolution in the field of genome editing. The three of the most famous tools in gene editing technology are zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and CRISPR-associated systems. As their predictable nature, it is necessary to assess their efficiency. There are some methods for this purpose, but most of them are time labor and complicated. Here, we introduce a new prokaryotic reporter system, which makes it possible to evaluate the efficiency of gene editing tools faster, cheaper, and simpler than previous methods. At first, the target sites of a custom ZFN, which is designed against a segment of ampicillin resistance gene, were cloned on both sides of green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to construct pPRO-GFP. Then pPRO-GFP was transformed into Escherichia coli TOP10F' that contains pZFN (contains expression cassette of a ZFN against ampicillin resistant gene), or p15A-KanaR as a negative control. The transformed bacteria were cultured on three separate media that contained ampicillin, kanamycin, and ampicillin + kanamycin; then the resulted colonies were assessed by flow cytometry. The results of flow cytometry showed a significant difference between the case (bacteria contain pZFN) and control (bacteria contain p15A, KanaR) in MFI (Mean Fluorescence Intensity) ( P < 0.0001). According to ZFN efficiency, it can bind and cut the target sites, the bilateral cutting can affect the intensity of GFP fluorescence. Our flow cytometry results showed that this ZFN could reduce the intensity of GFP color and colony count of bacteria in media containing amp + kana versus control sample.

  5. Expression of Arabidopsis FCS-Like Zinc finger genes is differentially regulated by sugars, cellular energy level, and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Jamsheer K, Muhammed; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Cellular energy status is an important regulator of plant growth, development, and stress mitigation. Environmental stresses ultimately lead to energy deficit in the cell which activates the SNF1-RELATED KINASE 1 (SnRK1) signaling cascade which eventually triggering a massive reprogramming of transcription to enable the plant to survive under low-energy conditions. The role of Arabidopsis thaliana FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) gene family in energy and stress signaling is recently come to highlight after their interaction with kinase subunits of SnRK1 were identified. In a detailed expression analysis in different sugars, energy starvation, and replenishment series, we identified that the expression of most of the FLZ genes is differentially modulated by cellular energy level. It was found that FLZ gene family contains genes which are both positively and negatively regulated by energy deficit as well as energy-rich conditions. Genetic and pharmacological studies identified the role of HEXOKINASE 1- dependent and energy signaling pathways in the sugar-induced expression of FLZ genes. Further, these genes were also found to be highly responsive to different stresses as well as abscisic acid. In over-expression of kinase subunit of SnRK1, FLZ genes were found to be differentially regulated in accordance with their response toward energy fluctuation suggesting that these genes may work downstream to the established SnRK1 signaling under low-energy stress. Taken together, the present study provides a conceptual framework for further studies related to SnRK1-FLZ interaction in relation to sugar and energy signaling and stress response.

  6. Generation of SNCA Cell Models Using Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) Technology for Efficient High-Throughput Drug Screening.

    PubMed

    Dansithong, Warunee; Paul, Sharan; Scoles, Daniel R; Pulst, Stefan M; Huynh, Duong P

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. The hallmark of PD is the appearance of neuronal protein aggregations known as Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, of which α-synuclein forms a major component. Familial PD is rare and is associated with missense mutations of the SNCA gene or increases in gene copy number resulting in SNCA overexpression. This suggests that lowering SNCA expression could be therapeutic for PD. Supporting this hypothesis, SNCA reduction was neuroprotective in cell line and rodent PD models. We developed novel cell lines expressing SNCA fused to the reporter genes luciferase (luc) or GFP with the objective to enable high-throughput compound screening (HTS) for small molecules that can lower SNCA expression. Because SNCA expression is likely regulated by far-upstream elements (including the NACP-REP1 located at 8852 bp upstream of the transcription site), we employed zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) genome editing to insert reporter genes in-frame downstream of the SNCA gene in order to retain native SNCA expression control. This ensured full retention of known and unknown up- and downstream genetic elements controlling SNCA expression. Treatment of cells with the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) resulted in significantly increased SNCA-luc and SNCA-GFP expression supporting the use of our cell lines for identifying small molecules altering complex modes of expression control. Cells expressing SNCA-luc treated with a luciferase inhibitor or SNCA siRNA resulted in Z'-scores ≥ 0.75, suggesting the suitability of these cell lines for use in HTS. This study presents a novel use of genome editing for the creation of cell lines expressing α-synuclein fusion constructs entirely under native expression control. These cell lines are well suited for HTS for compounds that lower SNCA expression directly or by acting at long-range sites to the SNCA

  7. S-nitrosation on zinc finger motif of PARP-1 as a mechanism of DNA repair inhibition by arsenite

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xixi; Cooper, Karen L.; Huestis, Juliana; Xu, Huan; Burchiel, Scott W.; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic, a widely distributed carcinogen, is known to significantly amplify the impact of other carcinogens through inhibition of DNA repair. Our recent work suggests that reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) induced by arsenite (AsIII) play an important role in the inhibition of the DNA repair protein Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1). AsIII-induced ROS lead to oxidation of cysteine residues within the PARP-1 zinc finger DNA binding domain. However, the mechanism underlying RNS-mediated PARP inhibition by arsenic remains unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that AsIII treatment of normal human keratinocyte (HEKn) cells induced S-nitrosation on cysteine residues of PARP-1 protein, in a similar manner to a nitric oxide donor. S-nitrosation of PARP-1 could be reduced by 1400W (inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) or c-PTIO (a nitric oxide scavenger). Furthermore, AsIII treatment of HEKn cells leads to zinc loss and inhibition of PARP-1 enzymatic activity. AsIII and 1400W/c-PTIO co-treatment demonstrate that these effects occur in an iNOS- and NO-dependent manner. Importantly, we confirmed S-nitrosation on the zinc finger DNA binding domain of PARP-1 protein. Taken together, AsIII induces S-nitrosation on PARP-1 zinc finger DNA binding domain by generating NO through iNOS activation, leading to zinc loss and inhibition of PARP-1 activity, thereby increasing retention of damaged DNA. These findings identify S-nitrosation as an important component of the molecular mechanism underlying AsIII inhibition of DNA repair, which may benefit the development of preventive and intervention strategies against AsIII co-carcinogenesis. PMID:27741521

  8. S-nitrosation on zinc finger motif of PARP-1 as a mechanism of DNA repair inhibition by arsenite.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xixi; Cooper, Karen L; Huestis, Juliana; Xu, Huan; Burchiel, Scott W; Hudson, Laurie G; Liu, Ke Jian

    2016-12-06

    Arsenic, a widely distributed carcinogen, is known to significantly amplify the impact of other carcinogens through inhibition of DNA repair. Our recent work suggests that reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) induced by arsenite (AsIII) play an important role in the inhibition of the DNA repair protein Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1). AsIII-induced ROS lead to oxidation of cysteine residues within the PARP-1 zinc finger DNA binding domain. However, the mechanism underlying RNS-mediated PARP inhibition by arsenic remains unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that AsIII treatment of normal human keratinocyte (HEKn) cells induced S-nitrosation on cysteine residues of PARP-1 protein, in a similar manner to a nitric oxide donor. S-nitrosation of PARP-1 could be reduced by 1400W (inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) or c-PTIO (a nitric oxide scavenger). Furthermore, AsIII treatment of HEKn cells leads to zinc loss and inhibition of PARP-1 enzymatic activity. AsIII and 1400W/c-PTIO co-treatment demonstrate that these effects occur in an iNOS- and NO-dependent manner. Importantly, we confirmed S-nitrosation on the zinc finger DNA binding domain of PARP-1 protein. Taken together, AsIII induces S-nitrosation on PARP-1 zinc finger DNA binding domain by generating NO through iNOS activation, leading to zinc loss and inhibition of PARP-1 activity, thereby increasing retention of damaged DNA. These findings identify S-nitrosation as an important component of the molecular mechanism underlying AsIII inhibition of DNA repair, which may benefit the development of preventive and intervention strategies against AsIII co-carcinogenesis.

  9. The Zinc Finger Proteins Mxr1p and Repressor of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (ROP) Have the Same DNA Binding Specificity but Regulate Methanol Metabolism Antagonistically in Pichia pastoris*

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nallani Vijay; Rangarajan, Pundi N.

    2012-01-01

    The methanol-inducible alcohol oxidase I (AOXI) promoter of the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, is used widely for the production of recombinant proteins. AOXI transcription is regulated by the zinc finger protein Mxr1p (methanol expression regulator 1). ROP (repressor of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, PEPCK) is a methanol- and biotin starvation-inducible zinc finger protein that acts as a negative regulator of PEPCK in P. pastoris cultured in biotin-deficient, glucose-ammonium medium. The function of ROP during methanol metabolism is not known. In this study, we demonstrate that ROP represses methanol-inducible expression of AOXI when P. pastoris is cultured in a nutrient-rich medium containing yeast extract, peptone, and methanol (YPM). Deletion of the gene encoding ROP results in enhanced expression of AOXI and growth promotion whereas overexpression of ROP results in repression of AOXI and growth retardation of P. pastoris cultured in YPM medium. Surprisingly, deletion or overexpression of ROP has no effect on AOXI gene expression and growth of P. pastoris cultured in a minimal medium containing yeast nitrogen base and methanol (YNBM). Subcellular localization studies indicate that ROP translocates from cytosol to nucleus of cells cultured in YPM but not YNBM. In vitro DNA binding studies indicate that AOXI promoter sequences containing 5′ CYCCNY 3′ motifs serve as binding sites for Mxr1p as well as ROP. Thus, Mxr1p and ROP exhibit the same DNA binding specificity but regulate methanol metabolism antagonistically in P. pastoris. This is the first report on the identification of a transcriptional repressor of methanol metabolism in any yeast species. PMID:22888024

  10. Arabidopsis JACKDAW and MAGPIE zinc finger proteins delimit asymmetric cell division and stabilize tissue boundaries by restricting SHORT-ROOT action

    PubMed Central

    Welch, David; Hassan, Hala; Blilou, Ikram; Immink, Richard; Heidstra, Renze; Scheres, Ben

    2007-01-01

    In the Arabidopsis root, the SHORT-ROOT transcription factor moves outward to the ground tissue from its site of transcription in the stele and is required for the specification of the endodermis and the stem cell organizing quiescent center cells. In addition, SHORT-ROOT and the downstream transcription factor SCARECROW control an oriented cell division in ground tissue stem cell daughters. Here, we show that the JACKDAW and MAGPIE genes, which encode members of a plant-specific family of zinc finger proteins, act in a SHR-dependent feed-forward loop to regulate the range of action of SHORT-ROOT and SCARECROW. JACKDAW expression is initiated independent of SHORT-ROOT and regulates the SCARECROW expression domain outside the stele, while MAGPIE expression depends on SHORT-ROOT and SCARECROW. We provide evidence that JACKDAW and MAGPIE regulate tissue boundaries and asymmetric cell division and can control SHORT-ROOT and SCARECROW activity in a transcriptional and protein interaction network. PMID:17785527

  11. Redox-Active Sensing by Bacterial DksA Transcription Factors Is Determined by Cysteine and Zinc Content

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Matthew A.; Tapscott, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Liam F.; Liu, Lin; Reyes, Aníbal M.; Libby, Stephen J.; Trujillo, Madia; Fang, Ferric C.; Radi, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The four-cysteine zinc finger motif of the bacterial RNA polymerase regulator DksA is essential for protein structure, canonical control of the stringent response to nutritional limitation, and thiol-based sensing of oxidative and nitrosative stress. This interdependent relationship has limited our understanding of DksA-mediated functions in bacterial pathogenesis. Here, we have addressed this challenge by complementing ΔdksA Salmonella with Pseudomonas aeruginosa dksA paralogues that encode proteins differing in cysteine and zinc content. We find that four-cysteine, zinc-bound (C4) and two-cysteine, zinc-free (C2) DksA proteins are able to mediate appropriate stringent control in Salmonella and that thiol-based sensing of reactive species is conserved among C2 and C4 orthologues. However, variations in cysteine and zinc content determine the threshold at which individual DksA proteins sense and respond to reactive species. In particular, zinc acts as an antioxidant, dampening cysteine reactivity and raising the threshold of posttranslational thiol modification with reactive species. Consequently, C2 DksA triggers transcriptional responses in Salmonella at levels of oxidative or nitrosative stress normally tolerated by Salmonella expressing C4 orthologues. Inappropriate transcriptional regulation by C2 DksA increases the susceptibility of Salmonella to the antimicrobial effects of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, and attenuates virulence in macrophages and mice. Our findings suggest that the redox-active sensory function of DksA proteins is finely tuned to optimize bacterial fitness according to the levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress encountered by bacterial species in their natural and host environments. PMID:27094335

  12. Polyacrylamide Gel-Contained Zinc Finger Peptide as the "Lock" and Zinc Ions as the "Key" for Construction of Ultrasensitive Prostate-Specific Antigen SERS Immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Xie, Linglin; Yang, Xia; He, Yi; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2018-05-02

    In this work, we adopted polyacrylamide gel-contained zinc finger peptide (PZF) as a "lock" of Raman signal and zinc ions (Zn 2+ ) as a sensitive "key", which was converted from target-captured ZnO NPs, to achieve the measurement of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Owing to the lock effect from PZF, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) tag toluidine blue (TB) connected on Ag NP-coating silica wafer was sheltered leading to low Raman response. Meanwhile, target PSA can specifically connect with antibody 2-coupled ZnO nanocomplexes (ZnO@Au@Ab 2 ) and antibody 1-coupled magnetic (CoFe 2 O 4 @Au@Ab 1 ) nanocomposite through sandwich immunoassay. In the presence of HCl, the ZnO NPs would convert into Zn 2+ to open the PZF because Zn 2+ can specifically react with zinc finger peptide to destroy the PZF structure forming abundant pores. In this way, Zn 2+ could act as the key of Raman signal to open the PZF structure obtaining a strong Raman signal of TB. The proposed SERS sensor can have a quantitative detection of PSA within the range of 1 pg mL -1 to 10 ng mL -1 with a detection limit of 0.65 pg mL -1 . The interaction between zinc finger peptide and Zn 2+ was firstly applied in SERS sensor for the sensitive detection of PSA. These results demonstrated that the new designed SERS biosensor could be a promising tool in biomarker diagnosis.

  13. Zinc finger protein 267 is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes tumor cell proliferation and migration.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, Bernd; Valletta, Daniela; Kirovski, Georgi; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2011-12-01

    Zinc finger protein 267 (ZNF267) belongs to the family of Kruppel-like transcription factors, which regulates diverse biological processes that include development, proliferation, and differentiation. We have previously demonstrated that ZNF267 mRNA is up-regulated in liver cirrhosis, which is the main risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we analyzed the expression of ZNF267 in human HCC cells and tissue specimens and found a significant up-regulation compared to primary human hepatocytes and corresponding non-tumorous liver tissue. Over-expression of the transcription factor Ets-1 further enhanced ZNF267 expression, and reporter gene assays revealed that mutation of the Ets-1 binding site to the ZNF267 promotor markedly inhibited ZNF267 promotor activity. Hypoxic conditions induced Ets-1 in HCC cells via HIF1alpha activation, and hypoxia induced ZNF267 expression while HIF1alpha inhibition significantly reduced both hypoxia-induced as well as basal ZNF267 expression in HCC cells. It is known that hypoxic conditions in tumorous tissues induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and ROS have been identified as important factor in the regulation of Ets-1 expression in tumor cells. Here, we found that ROS induction induced and ROS scavenging reduced ZNF267 expression in HCC cells, respectively. Loss and gain of function analysis applying siRNA directed against ZNF267 or transient transfection revealed that ZNF267 promotes proliferation and migration of HCC cells in vitro. These findings indicate Ets-1 and HIF1alpha as critical regulators of basal and hypoxia- or ROS-induced ZNF267 expression in HCC, and further suggest that the pro-tumorigenic effect of these factors is at least in part mediated via increased ZNF267 expression in HCC. Since ZNF267 is already elevated in cirrhosis, ZNF267 appears as promising target for both prevention as well as treatment of HCC in patients with chronic liver disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All

  14. TRIM25 Is Required for the Antiviral Activity of Zinc Finger Antiviral Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaojiao; Wang, Xinlu; Tu, Fan; Wang, Qin; Fan, Zusen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host factor that specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses by binding to viral mRNAs and repressing the translation and/or promoting the degradation of target mRNA. In addition, ZAP regulates the expression of certain cellular genes. Here, we report that tripartite motif-containing protein 25 (TRIM25), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is required for the antiviral activity of ZAP. Downregulation of endogenous TRIM25 abolished ZAP's antiviral activity. The E3 ligase activity of TRIM25 is required for this regulation. TRIM25 mediated ZAP ubiquitination, but the ubiquitination of ZAP itself did not seem to be required for its antiviral activity. Downregulation of endogenous ubiquitin or overexpression of the deubiquitinase OTUB1 impaired ZAP's activity. We provide evidence indicating that TRIM25 modulates the target RNA binding activity of ZAP. These results uncover a mechanism by which the antiviral activity of ZAP is regulated. IMPORTANCE ZAP is a host antiviral factor that specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses, including HIV-1, Sindbis virus, and Ebola virus. ZAP binds directly to target mRNA, and it represses the translation and promotes the degradation of target mRNA. While the mechanisms by which ZAP posttranscriptionally inhibits target RNA expression have been extensively studied, how its antiviral activity is regulated is not very clear. Here, we report that TRIM25, a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is required for the antiviral activity of ZAP. Downregulation of endogenous TRIM25 remarkably abolished ZAP's activity. TRIM25 is required for ZAP optimal binding to target mRNA. These results help us to better understand how the antiviral activity of ZAP is regulated. PMID:28202764

  15. TRIM25 Is Required for the Antiviral Activity of Zinc Finger Antiviral Protein.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaojiao; Wang, Xinlu; Tu, Fan; Wang, Qin; Fan, Zusen; Gao, Guangxia

    2017-05-01

    Zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host factor that specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses by binding to viral mRNAs and repressing the translation and/or promoting the degradation of target mRNA. In addition, ZAP regulates the expression of certain cellular genes. Here, we report that tripartite motif-containing protein 25 (TRIM25), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is required for the antiviral activity of ZAP. Downregulation of endogenous TRIM25 abolished ZAP's antiviral activity. The E3 ligase activity of TRIM25 is required for this regulation. TRIM25 mediated ZAP ubiquitination, but the ubiquitination of ZAP itself did not seem to be required for its antiviral activity. Downregulation of endogenous ubiquitin or overexpression of the deubiquitinase OTUB1 impaired ZAP's activity. We provide evidence indicating that TRIM25 modulates the target RNA binding activity of ZAP. These results uncover a mechanism by which the antiviral activity of ZAP is regulated. IMPORTANCE ZAP is a host antiviral factor that specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses, including HIV-1, Sindbis virus, and Ebola virus. ZAP binds directly to target mRNA, and it represses the translation and promotes the degradation of target mRNA. While the mechanisms by which ZAP posttranscriptionally inhibits target RNA expression have been extensively studied, how its antiviral activity is regulated is not very clear. Here, we report that TRIM25, a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is required for the antiviral activity of ZAP. Downregulation of endogenous TRIM25 remarkably abolished ZAP's activity. TRIM25 is required for ZAP optimal binding to target mRNA. These results help us to better understand how the antiviral activity of ZAP is regulated. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Abnormal Behaviors and Developmental Disorder of Hippocampus in Zinc Finger Protein 521 (ZFP521) Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohkubo, Nobutaka; Matsubara, Etsuko; Yamanouchi, Jun; Akazawa, Rie; Aoto, Mamoru; Suzuki, Yoji; Sakai, Ikuya; Abe, Takaya; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Seiji; Yasukawa, Masaki; Mitsuda, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    Zinc finger protein 521 (ZFP521) regulates a number of cellular processes in a wide range of tissues, such as osteoblast formation and adipose commitment and differentiation. In the field of neurobiology, it is reported to be an essential factor for transition of epiblast stem cells into neural progenitors in vitro. However, the role of ZFP521 in the brain in vivo still remains elusive. To elucidate the role of ZFP521 in the mouse brain, we generated mice lacking exon 4 of the ZFP521 gene. The birth ratio of our ZFP521 Δ/Δ mice was consistent with Mendel's laws. Although ZFP521 Δ/Δ pups had no apparent defect in the body and were indistinguishable from ZFP521+/+ and ZFP521 +/Δ littermates at the time of birth, ZFP521 Δ/Δ mice displayed significant weight reduction as they grew, and most of them died before 10 weeks of age. They displayed abnormal behavior, such as hyper-locomotion, lower anxiety and impaired learning, which correspond to the symptoms of schizophrenia. The border of the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus of the mice was indistinct and granular neurons were reduced in number. Furthermore, Sox1-positive neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus and cerebellum were significantly reduced in number. Taken together, these findings indicate that ZFP521 directly or indirectly affects the formation of the neuronal cell layers of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, and thus ZFP521 Δ/Δ mice displayed schizophrenia-relevant symptoms. ZFP521 Δ/Δ mice may be a useful research tool as an animal model of schizophrenia. PMID:24676388

  17. Zinc-finger protein 418 overexpression protects against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zirui; Zhu, Zhilin; Xu, Chunli; Teng, Lin; He, Ling; Gu, Chen; Yi, Cai

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigated the effect and mechanism of zinc-finger protein 418 (ZNF418) on cardiac hypertrophy caused by aortic banding (AB), phenylephrine (PE) or angiotensin II (Ang II) in vivo and in vitro. Methods The expression of ZNF418 in hearts of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and AB-induced cardiac hypertrophy mice, as well as in Ang II- or PE-induced hypertrophic primary cardiomyocytes was detected by western blotting. Then, the expression of ZNF418 was up-regulated or down-regulated in AB-induced cardiac hypertrophy mice and Ang II -induced hypertrophic primary cardiomyocytes. The hypertrophic responses and fibrosis were evaluated by echocardiography and histological analysis. The mRNA levels of hypertrophy markers and fibrotic markers were detected by RT-qPCR. Furthermore, the phosphorylation and total levels of c-Jun were measured by western blotting. Results ZNF418 was markedly down-regulated in hearts of cardiac hypertrophy and hypertrophic primary cardiomyocytes. Down-regulated ZNF418 exacerbated the myocyte size and fibrosis, moreover increased the mRNA levels of ANP, BNP, β-MHC, MCIP1.4, collagen 1a, collagen III, MMP-2 and fibronection in hearts of AB-treated ZNF418 knockout mice or Ang II-treated cardiomyocytes with AdshZNF418. Conversely, these hypertrophic responses were reduced in the ZNF418 transgenic (TG) mice treated by AB and the AdZNF418-transfected primary cardiomyocytes treated by Ang II. Additionally, the deficiency of ZNF418 enhanced the phosphorylation level of c-jun, and overexpression of ZNF418 suppressed the phosphorylation level of c-jun in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion ZNF418 maybe attenuate hypertrophic responses by inhibiting the activity of c-jun/AP-1. PMID:29065170

  18. Expression of Zinc Finger and BTB Domain-containing 7A in Colorectal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Do, Sung-Im; Sung, Ji-Youn

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have revealed that zinc finger and BTB domain-containing 7A (ZBTB7A), an important proto-oncogene, plays multiple roles in carcinogenesis and is up-regulated in several human malignancies. However, the expression of ZBTB7A in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) has seldom been documented. In this study, we investigated the differential expression of ZBTB7A in CRC cell lines and tissues. Expression levels of ZBTB7A mRNA and protein were examined in CRC cell lines. ZBTB7A protein expression was also evaluated in tissue samples of normal colonic mucosa, high-grade dysplasia, and CRC using immunohistochemical staining. All CRC cell lines exhibited significantly higher ZBTB7A mRNA expression levels than did normal colonic epithelial cells. The ZBTB7A protein expression levels were clearly higher in the CRC cell lines than in the normal colonic epithelial cells. Consistent with the cell line data, immunostaining revealed that there were significant differences in ZBTB7A protein expression between tissue samples of CRC and normal colonic mucosa (p=0.048) and high-grade dysplasia (p=0.015). In addition, metastatic CRC exhibited significantly higher ZBTB7A protein expression levels than primary CRC (p=0.027). We demonstrated that ZBTB7A expression is up-regulated in CRC cell lines and tissues. Our data suggest that ZBTB7A is involved in the development and progression of CRC. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Knockout of exogenous EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells using zinc-finger nucleases

    SciT

    Watanabe, Masahito; Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571; Umeyama, Kazuhiro

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} EGFP gene integrated in porcine somatic cells could be knocked out using the ZFN-KO system. {yields} ZFNs induced targeted mutations in porcine primary cultured cells. {yields} Complete absence of EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in ZFN-treated cells. -- Abstract: Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are expected as a powerful tool for generating gene knockouts in laboratory and domestic animals. Currently, it is unclear whether this technology can be utilized for knocking-out genes in pigs. Here, we investigated whether knockout (KO) events in which ZFNs recognize and cleave a target sequence occur in porcine primary cultured somatic cells that harbor themore » exogenous enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. ZFN-encoding mRNA designed to target the EGFP gene was introduced by electroporation into the cell. Using the Surveyor nuclease assay and flow cytometric analysis, we confirmed ZFN-induced cleavage of the target sequence and the disappearance of EGFP fluorescence expression in ZFN-treated cells. In addition, sequence analysis revealed that ZFN-induced mutations such as base substitution, deletion, or insertion were generated in the ZFN cleavage site of EGFP-expression negative cells that were cloned from ZFN-treated cells, thereby showing it was possible to disrupt (i.e., knock out) the function of the EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that the ZFN-KO system can be applied to pigs. These findings may open a new avenue to the creation of gene KO pigs using ZFN-treated cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer.« less

  20. Gene repair of an Usher syndrome causing mutation by zinc-finger nuclease mediated homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Overlack, Nora; Goldmann, Tobias; Wolfrum, Uwe; Nagel-Wolfrum, Kerstin

    2012-06-26

    Human Usher syndrome (USH) is the most frequent cause of inherited deaf-blindness. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, assigned to three clinical types of which the most severe type is USH1. No effective treatment for the ophthalmic component of USH exists. Gene augmentation is an attractive strategy for hereditary retinal diseases. However, several USH genes, like USH1C, are expressed in various isoforms, hampering gene augmentation. As an alternative treatment strategy, we applied the zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology for targeted gene repair of an USH1C, causing mutation by homologous recombination. We designed ZFNs customized for the p.R31X nonsense mutation in Ush1c. We evaluated ZFNs for DNA cleavage capability and analyzed ZFNs biocompatibilities by XTT assays. We demonstrated ZFNs mediated gene repair on genomic level by digestion assays and DNA sequencing, and on protein level by indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. The specifically designed ZFNs did not show cytotoxic effects in a p.R31X cell line. We demonstrated that ZFN induced cleavage of their target sequence. We showed that simultaneous application of ZFN and rescue DNA induced gene repair of the disease-causing mutation on the genomic level, resulting in recovery of protein expression. In our present study, we analyzed for the first time ZFN-activated gene repair of an USH gene. The data highlight the ability of ZFNs to induce targeted homologous recombination and mediate gene repair in USH. We provide further evidence that the ZFN technology holds great potential to recover disease-causing mutations in inherited retinal disorders.

  1. Targeted mutagenesis using zinc-finger nucleases in perennial fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Peer, Reut; Rivlin, Gil; Golobovitch, Sara; Lapidot, Moshe; Gal-On, Amit; Vainstein, Alexander; Tzfira, Tzvi; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2015-04-01

    Targeting a gene in apple or fig with ZFN, introduced by transient or stable transformation, should allow genome editing with high precision to advance basic science and breeding programs. Genome editing is a powerful tool for precise gene manipulation in any organism; it has recently been shown to be of great value for annual plants. Classical breeding strategies using conventional cross-breeding and induced mutations have played an important role in the development of new cultivars in fruit trees. However, fruit-tree breeding is a lengthy process with many limitations. Efficient and widely applied methods for targeted modification of fruit-tree genomes are not yet available. In this study, transgenic apple and fig lines carrying a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFNs) under the control of a heat-shock promoter were developed. Editing of a mutated uidA gene, following expression of the ZFN genes by heat shock, was confirmed by GUS staining and PCR product sequencing. Finally, whole plants with a repaired uidA gene due to deletion of a stop codon were regenerated. The ZFN-mediated gene modifications were stable and passed onto regenerants from ZFN-treated tissue cultures. This is the first demonstration of efficient and precise genome editing, using ZFN at a specific genomic locus, in two different perennial fruit trees-apple and fig. We conclude that targeting a gene in apple or fig with a ZFN introduced by transient or stable transformation should allow knockout of a gene of interest. Using this technology for genome editing allows for marker gene-independent and antibiotic selection-free genome engineering with high precision in fruit trees to advance basic science as well as nontransgenic breeding programs.

  2. ATRX binds to atypical chromatin domains at the 3′ exons of zinc finger genes to preserve H3K9me3 enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Asif H.; Hasson, Dan; Dyer, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ATRX is a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler proposed to govern genomic stability through the regulation of repetitive sequences, such as rDNA, retrotransposons, and pericentromeric and telomeric repeats. However, few direct ATRX target genes have been identified and high-throughput genomic approaches are currently lacking for ATRX. Here we present a comprehensive ChIP-sequencing study of ATRX in multiple human cell lines, in which we identify the 3′ exons of zinc finger genes (ZNFs) as a new class of ATRX targets. These 3′ exonic regions encode the zinc finger motifs, which can range from 1–40 copies per ZNF gene and share large stretches of sequence similarity. These regions often contain an atypical chromatin signature: they are transcriptionally active, contain high levels of H3K36me3, and are paradoxically enriched in H3K9me3. We find that these ZNF 3′ exons are co-occupied by SETDB1, TRIM28, and ZNF274, which form a complex with ATRX. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-function studies demonstrate (i) a reduction of H3K9me3 at the ZNF 3′ exons in the absence of ATRX and ZNF274 and, (ii) H3K9me3 levels at atypical chromatin regions are particularly sensitive to ATRX loss compared to other H3K9me3-occupied regions. As a consequence of ATRX or ZNF274 depletion, cells with reduced levels of H3K9me3 show increased levels of DNA damage, suggesting that ATRX binds to the 3′ exons of ZNFs to maintain their genomic stability through preservation of H3K9me3. PMID:27029610

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel RING zinc-finger protein gene up-regulated under in vitro salt stress in cassava.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Sávio Pinho; Tavares, Liliane de Souza Conceição; Costa, Carinne de Nazaré Monteiro; Brígida, Aílton Borges Santa; de Souza, Cláudia Regina Batista

    2012-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the world's most important food crops. It is cultivated mainly in developing countries of tropics, since its root is a major source of calories for low-income people due to its high productivity and resistance to many abiotic and biotic factors. A previous study has identified a partial cDNA sequence coding for a putative RING zinc finger in cassava storage root. The RING zinc finger protein is a specialized type of zinc finger protein found in many organisms. Here, we isolated the full-length cDNA sequence coding for M. esculenta RZF (MeRZF) protein by a combination of 5' and 3' RACE assays. BLAST analysis showed that its deduced amino acid sequence has a high level of similarity to plant proteins of RZF family. MeRZF protein contains a signature sequence motif for a RING zinc finger at its C-terminal region. In addition, this protein showed a histidine residue at the fifth coordination site, likely belonging to the RING-H2 subgroup, as confirmed by our phylogenetic analysis. There is also a transmembrane domain in its N-terminal region. Finally, semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that MeRZF expression is increased in detached leaves treated with sodium chloride. Here, we report the first evidence of a RING zinc finger gene of cassava showing potential role in response to salt stress.

  4. Human ribosomal protein L37 has motifs predicting serine/threonine phosphorylation and a zinc-finger domain.

    PubMed

    Barnard, G F; Staniunas, R J; Puder, M; Steele, G D; Chen, L B

    1994-08-02

    Ribosomal protein L37 mRNA is overexpressed in colon cancer. The nucleotide sequences of human L37 from several tumor and normal, colon and liver cDNA sources were determined to be identical. L37 mRNA was approximately 375 nucleotides long encoding 97 amino acids with M(r) = 11,070, pI = 12.6, multiple potential serine/threonine phosphorylation sites and a zinc-finger domain. The human sequence is compared to other species.

  5. Zinc Finger Nuclease: A New Approach to Overcome Beta-Lactam Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi Dastjerdeh, Mansoureh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Sabzehei, Faezeh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Mansour; Mohammadi, Zahra; Shariati, Laleh; Hejazi, Zahra; Rabiei, Parisa; Manian, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: The evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) has been accelerated recently by the indiscriminate application of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance has challenged the success of medical interventions and therefore is considered a hazardous threat to human health. Objectives: The present study aimed to describe the use of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology to target and disrupt a plasmid-encoded β-lactamase, which prevents horizontal gene transfer-mediated evolution of ARBs. Materials and Methods: An engineered ZFN was designed to target a specific sequence in the ampicillin resistance gene (ampR) of the pTZ57R plasmid. The Escherichia coli bacteria already contained the pZFN kanamycin-resistant (kanaR) plasmid as the case or the pP15A, kanaR empty vector as the control, were transformed with the pTZ57R; the ability of the designed ZFN to disrupt the β-lactamase gene was evaluated with the subsequent disturbed ability of the bacteria to grow on ampicillin (amp) and ampicillin-kanamycin (amp-kana)-containing media. The effect of mild hypothermia on the ZFN gene targeting efficiency was also evaluated. Results: The growth of bacteria in the case group on the amp and amp-kana-containing media was significantly lower compared with the control group at 37°C (P < 0.001). Despite being more efficient in hypothermic conditions at 30°C (P < 0.001), there were no significant associations between the incubation temperature and the ZFN gene targeting efficiency. Conclusions: Our findings revealed that the ZFN technology could be employed to overcome ampicillin resistance by the targeted disruption of the ampicillin resistance gene, which leads to inactivation of β-lactam synthesis. Therefore, ZFN technology could be engaged to decrease the antibiotic resistance issue with the construction of a ZFN archive against different ARGs. To tackle the resistance issue at the environmental level, recombinant phages

  6. Genome editing with CompoZr custom zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Keith; Coussens, Matthew J; Sago, Jack; Subramanian, Shilpi; Gjoka, Monika; Briner, Dave

    2012-06-14

    Genome editing is a powerful technique that can be used to elucidate gene function and the genetic basis of disease. Traditional gene editing methods such as chemical-based mutagenesis or random integration of DNA sequences confer indiscriminate genetic changes in an overall inefficient manner and require incorporation of undesirable synthetic sequences or use of aberrant culture conditions, potentially confusing biological study. By contrast, transient ZFN expression in a cell can facilitate precise, heritable gene editing in a highly efficient manner without the need for administration of chemicals or integration of synthetic transgenes. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are enzymes which bind and cut distinct sequences of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). A functional CompoZr ZFN unit consists of two individual monomeric proteins that bind a DNA "half-site" of approximately 15-18 nucleotides (see Figure 1). When two ZFN monomers "home" to their adjacent target sites the DNA-cleavage domains dimerize and create a double-strand break (DSB) in the DNA. Introduction of ZFN-mediated DSBs in the genome lays a foundation for highly efficient genome editing. Imperfect repair of DSBs in a cell via the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway can result in small insertions and deletions (indels). Creation of indels within the gene coding sequence of a cell can result in frameshift and subsequent functional knockout of a gene locus at high efficiency. While this protocol describes the use of ZFNs to create a gene knockout, integration of transgenes may also be conducted via homology-directed repair at the ZFN cut site. The CompoZr Custom ZFN Service represents a systematic, comprehensive, and well-characterized approach to targeted gene editing for the scientific community with ZFN technology. Sigma scientists work closely with investigators to 1) perform due diligence analysis including analysis of relevant gene structure, biology, and model system pursuant to the

  7. Zinc finger protein 139 expression in gastric cancer and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Zhao, Qun; Fan, Li-Qiao; Wang, Li-Li; Tan, Bi-Bo; Leng, Yan-Li; Liu, Yu; Wang, Dong

    2014-12-28

    To investigate the expression of zinc finger protein 139 (ZNF139) in gastric cancer (GC), and to analyze its clinical significance. A total of 108 patients who were diagnosed with GC and underwent surgery between January 2005 and March 2007 were enrolled in this study. Gastric tumor specimens and paired tumor-adjacent tissues were collected and paraffin-embedded, and the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis were recorded. The expression of ZNF139, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 were determined by immunohistochemistry, and apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling. SPSS 13.0 software was used for data processing and analyses, and significance was determined at P < 0.05. The expression of ZNF139 was stronger in tumors than in tumor-adjacent tissues (66.67% vs 44.44%; P < 0.01). Overexpression of ZNF139 correlated with tumor differentiation, invasion depth, clinical stage, lymphatic metastasis, and blood vessel invasion (all Ps < 0.05). Patients with overexpression of ZNF139 had a poorer prognosis (P < 0.01), and overexpression of ZNF139 was an independent factor for the prognosis of GC patients by a Cox survival analysis (P = 0.02). A negative relationship between ZNF139 and the apoptosis index was observed (r = -0.686; P < 0.01). The expression of Bcl-2 in GC was stronger than in tumor-adjacent tissues (66.67% vs 41.67%), whereas the expression levels of Bax and caspase-3 were lower in primary tumors (54.63% and 47.22%, respectively) than in tumor-adjacent tissues (73.15% and 73.15%, respectively) (all Ps < 0.05). The expression of ZNF139 negatively correlated with caspase-3 (r = -0.370; P < 0.01). The expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were also negatively correlated (r = -0.231; P = 0.02). The expressions of caspase-3 and Bax protein were positively correlated (r = 0.217; P = 0.024). ZNF139 is related to clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of GC. Furthermore, it is overexpressed and involved

  8. A C2H2-type zinc finger protein, SGR5, is involved in early events of gravitropism in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems.

    PubMed

    Morita, Miyo T; Sakaguchi, Keitaro; Kiyose, Shin-Ichiro; Taira, Kensuke; Kato, Takehide; Nakamura, Moritaka; Tasaka, Masao

    2006-08-01

    Plants can sense the direction of gravity and change the growth orientation of their organs. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of gravity perception and the signal transduction of gravitropism, we have characterized a number of shoot gravitropism (sgr) mutants of Arabidopsis. The sgr5-1 mutant shows reduced gravitropism in the inflorescence stem but its root and hypocotyl have normal gravitropism. SGR5 encodes a zinc finger protein with a coiled-coil motif. The SGR5-GFP fusion protein is localized in the nucleus of Arabidopsis protoplasts, suggesting that SGR5 may act as a transcription factor. Analysis of GUS expression under the control of the SGR5 promoter revealed that SGR5 is mainly expressed in the endodermis, the gravity-sensing tissue in inflorescence stems. Furthermore, the observation that endodermis-specific expression of SGR5 using the SCR promoter in the sgr5-1 mutant restores shoot gravitropism indicates that it could function in the gravity-sensing endodermal cell layer. In contrast to other sgr mutants reported previously, almost all amyloplasts in the endodermal cells of the sgr5-1 mutant sedimented in the direction of gravity. Taken together, our results suggest that SGR5 may be involved in an early event in shoot gravitropism such as gravity perception and/or a signaling process subsequent to amyloplast sedimentation as a putative transcription factor in gravity-perceptive cells.

  9. Correction of Dystrophin Expression in Cells From Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients Through Genomic Excision of Exon 51 by Zinc Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Ousterout, David G; Kabadi, Ami M; Thakore, Pratiksha I; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Brown, Matthew T; Majoros, William H; Reddy, Timothy E; Gersbach, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by genetic mutations that result in the absence of dystrophin protein expression. Oligonucleotide-induced exon skipping can restore the dystrophin reading frame and protein production. However, this requires continuous drug administration and may not generate complete skipping of the targeted exon. In this study, we apply genome editing with zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) to permanently remove essential splicing sequences in exon 51 of the dystrophin gene and thereby exclude exon 51 from the resulting dystrophin transcript. This approach can restore the dystrophin reading frame in ~13% of DMD patient mutations. Transfection of two ZFNs targeted to sites flanking the exon 51 splice acceptor into DMD patient myoblasts led to deletion of this genomic sequence. A clonal population was isolated with this deletion and following differentiation we confirmed loss of exon 51 from the dystrophin mRNA transcript and restoration of dystrophin protein expression. Furthermore, transplantation of corrected cells into immunodeficient mice resulted in human dystrophin expression localized to the sarcolemmal membrane. Finally, we quantified ZFN toxicity in human cells and mutagenesis at predicted off-target sites. This study demonstrates a powerful method to restore the dystrophin reading frame and protein expression by permanently deleting exons. PMID:25492562

  10. Identification and Analysis of Mot3, a Zinc Finger Protein That Binds to the Retrotransposon Ty Long Terminal Repeat (δ) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Jon M.; Dudley, Aimée M.; Winston, Fred

    1998-01-01

    Spt3 and Mot1 are two transcription factors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are thought to act in a related fashion to control the function of TATA-binding protein (TBP). Current models suggest that while Spt3 and Mot1 do not directly interact, they do function in a related fashion to stabilize the TBP-TATA interaction at particular promoters. Consistent with this model, certain combinations of spt3 and mot1 mutations are inviable. To identify additional proteins related to Spt3 and Mot1 functions, we screened for high-copy-number suppressors of the mot1 spt3 inviability. This screen identified a previously unstudied gene, MOT3, that encodes a zinc finger protein. We show that Mot3 binds in vitro to three sites within the retrotransposon Ty long terminal repeat (δ) sequence. One of these sites is immediately 5′ of the δ TATA region. Although a mot3 null mutation causes no strong phenotypes, it does cause some mild phenotypes, including a very modest increase in Ty mRNA levels, partial suppression of transcriptional defects caused by a mot1 mutation, and partial suppression of an spt3 mutation. These results, in conjunction with those of an independent study of Mot3 (A. Grishin, M. Rothenberg, M. A. Downs, and K. J. Blumer, Genetics, in press), suggest that this protein plays a varied role in gene expression that may be largely redundant with other factors. PMID:9528759

  11. Nuclear localization of the C2H2 zinc finger protein Msn2p is regulated by stress and protein kinase A activity

    PubMed Central

    Görner, Wolfram; Durchschlag, Erich; Martinez-Pastor, Maria Teresa; Estruch, Francisco; Ammerer, Gustav; Hamilton, Barbara; Ruis, Helmut; Schüller, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Msn2p and the partially redundant factor Msn4p are key regulators of stress-responsive gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They are required for the transcription of a number of genes coding for proteins with stress-protective functions. Both Msn2p and Msn4p are Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins and bind to the stress response element (STRE). In vivo footprinting studies show that the occupation of STREs is enhanced in stressed cells and dependent on the presence of Msn2p and Msn4p. Both factors accumulate in the nucleus under stress conditions, such as heat shock, osmotic stress, carbon-source starvation, and in the presence of ethanol or sorbate. Stress-induced nuclear localization was found to be rapid, reversible, and independent of protein synthesis. Nuclear localization of Msn2p and Msn4p was shown to be correlated inversely to cAMP levels and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. A region with significant homologies shared between Msn2p and Msn4p is sufficient to confer stress-regulated localization to a SV40–NLS–GFP fusion protein. Serine to alanine or aspartate substitutions in a conserved PKA consensus site abolished cAMP-driven nuclear export and cytoplasmic localization in unstressed cells. We propose stress and cAMP-regulated intracellular localization of Msn2p to be a key step in STRE-dependent transcription and in the general stress response. PMID:9472026

  12. Automatic polymerase chain reaction product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger protein fused to luciferase.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Wataru; Kezuka, Aki; Murakami, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Jinhee; Abe, Koichi; Motoki, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Takafumi; Shimura, Nobuaki; Noda, Mamoru; Igimi, Shizunobu; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2013-11-01

    An automatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger (ZF) protein fused to luciferase was developed. ZF protein fused to luciferase specifically binds to target double stranded DNA sequence and has luciferase enzymatic activity. Therefore, PCR products that comprise ZF protein recognition sequence can be detected by measuring the luciferase activity of the fusion protein. We previously reported that PCR products from Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 genomic DNA were detected by Zif268, a natural ZF protein, fused to luciferase. In this study, Zif268-luciferase was applied to detect the presence of Salmonella and coliforms. Moreover, an artificial zinc finger protein (B2) fused to luciferase was constructed for a Norovirus detection system. In the luciferase activity detection assay, several bound/free separation process is required. Therefore, an analyzer that automatically performed the bound/free separation process was developed to detect PCR products using the ZF-luciferase fusion protein. By means of the automatic analyzer with ZF-luciferase fusion protein, target pathogenic genomes were specifically detected in the presence of other pathogenic genomes. Moreover, we succeeded in the detection of 10 copies of E. coli BL21 without extraction of genomic DNA by the automatic analyzer and E. coli was detected with a logarithmic dependency in the range of 1.0×10 to 1.0×10(6) copies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Zinc finger protein binding to DNA: an energy perspective using molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculations on mutants of both zinc finger domains and their specific DNA bases.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Mazen Y; Arya, Gaurav

    2016-05-01

    Energy calculations based on MM-GBSA were employed to study various zinc finger protein (ZF) motifs binding to DNA. Mutants of both the DNA bound to their specific amino acids were studied. Calculated energies gave evidence for a relationship between binding energy and affinity of ZF motifs to their sites on DNA. ΔG values were -15.82(12), -3.66(12), and -12.14(11.6) kcal/mol for finger one, finger two, and finger three, respectively. The mutations in the DNA bases reduced the value of the negative energies of binding (maximum value for ΔΔG = 42Kcal/mol for F1 when GCG mutated to GGG, and ΔΔG = 22 kcal/mol for F2, the loss in total energy of binding originated in the loss in electrostatic energies upon mutation (r = .98). The mutations in key amino acids in the ZF motif in positions-1, 2, 3, and 6 showed reduced binding energies to DNA with correlation coefficients between total free energy and electrostatic was .99 and with Van der Waal was .93. Results agree with experimentally found selectivity which showed that Arginine in position-1 is specific to G, while Aspartic acid (D) in position 2 plays a complicated role in binding. There is a correlation between the MD calculated free energies of binding and those obtained experimentally for prepared ZF motifs bound to triplet bases in other reports (), our results may help in the design of ZF motifs based on the established recognition codes based on energies and contributing energies to the total energy.

  14. Comparison of the Structure and Expression of Odd-Skipped and Two Related Genes That Encode a New Family of Zinc Finger Proteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hart, M. C.; Wang, L.; Coulter, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    The odd-skipped (odd) gene, which was identified on the basis of a pair-rule segmentation phenotype in mutant embryos, is initially expressed in the Drosophila embryo in seven pair-rule stripes, but later exhibits a segment polarity-like pattern for which no phenotypic correlate is apparent. We have molecularly characterized two embryonically expressed odd-cognate genes, sob and bowel (bowl), that encode proteins with highly conserved C(2)H(2) zinc fingers. While the Sob and Bowl proteins each contain five tandem fingers, the Odd protein lacks a fifth (C-terminal) finger and is also less conserved among the four common fingers. Reminiscent of many segmentation gene paralogues, the closely linked odd and sob genes are expressed during embryogenesis in similar striped patterns; in contrast, the less-tightly linked bowl gene is expressed in a distinctly different pattern at the termini of the early embryo. Although our results indicate that odd and sob are more likely than bowl to share overlapping developmental roles, some functional divergence between the Odd and Sob proteins is suggested by the absence of homology outside the zinc fingers, and also by amino acid substitutions in the Odd zinc fingers at positions that appear to be constrained in Sob and Bowl. PMID:8878683

  15. Characterisation of zinc-binding domains of peroxisomal RING finger proteins using size exclusion chromatography/inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Koellensperger, Gunda; Daubert, Simon; Erdmann, Ralf; Hann, Stephan; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter

    2007-11-01

    We determined the zinc binding stoichiometry of peroxisomal RING finger proteins by measuring sulfur/metal ratios using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry coupled to size exclusion chromatography, a strategy that provides a fast and quantitative overview on the binding of metals in proteins. As a quality control, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry was used to measure the molar masses of the intact proteins. The RING fingers of Pex2p, Pex10p, and Pex12p showed a stoichiometry of 2.0, 2.1, and 1.2 mol zinc/mol protein, respectively. Thus, Pex2p and Pex10p possess a typical RING domain with two coordinated zinc atoms, whereas that of Pex12p coordinates only a single zinc atom.

  16. The role of ZFP580, a novel zinc finger protein, in TGF-mediated cytoprotection against chemical hypoxia-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shi-Yun; Meng, Xiang-Yan; Xu, Zhong-Wei; Zhang, Wen-Cheng; Jin, Xiao-Han; Chen, Xi; Zhou, Xin; Li, Yu-Ming; Xu, Rui-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Zing finger protein 580 (ZFP580) is a novel Cys2-His2 zinc-finger transcription factor that has an anti-apoptotic role in myocardial cells. It is involved in the endothelial transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signal transduction pathway as a mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)2 binding partner. The aim of the present study was to determine the involvement of ZFP580 in TGF-β1-mediated cytoprotection against chemical hypoxia-induced apoptosis, using H9c2 cardiac myocytes. Hypoxia was chemically induced in H9c2 myocardial cells by exposure to cobalt chloride (CoCl2). In response to hypoxia, cell viability was decreased, whereas the expression levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and ZFP580 were increased. Pretreatment with TGF-β1 attenuated CoCl2-induced cell apoptosis and upregulated ZFP580 protein expression; however, these effects could be suppressed by SB431542, an inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor and Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, suppression of ZFP580 expression by RNA interference reduced the anti-apoptotic effects of TGF-β1 and thus increased CoCl2-induced apoptosis. B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-associated X protein/Bcl-2 ratio, reactive oxygen species generation and caspase-3 activation were also increased following ZFP580 inactivation. In conclusion, these results indicate that ZFP580 is a component of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, and is involved in the protective effects of TGF-β1 against chemical hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis, through inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:28259939

  17. The primary structure of L37--a rat ribosomal protein with a zinc finger-like motif.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y L; Paz, V; Olvera, J; Wool, I G

    1993-04-30

    The amino acid sequence of the rat 60S ribosomal subunit protein L37 was deduced from the sequence of nucleotides in a recombinant cDNA. Ribosomal protein L37 has 96 amino acids, the NH2-terminal methionine is removed after translation of the mRNA, and has a molecular weight of 10,939. Ribosomal protein L37 has a single zinc finger-like motif of the C2-C2 type. Hybridization of the cDNA to digests of nuclear DNA suggests that there are 13 or 14 copies of the L37 gene. The mRNA for the protein is about 500 nucleotides in length. Rat L37 is related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein YL35 and to Caenorhabditis elegans L37. We have identified in the data base a DNA sequence that encodes the chicken homolog of rat L37.

  18. Production of Mutated Porcine Embryos Using Zinc Finger Nucleases and a Reporter-based Cell Enrichment System.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ok Jae; Park, Sol Ji; Lee, Choongil; Kang, Jung Taek; Kim, Sujin; Moon, Joon Ho; Choi, Ji Yei; Kim, Hyojin; Jang, Goo; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Seokjoong; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2014-03-01

    To facilitate the construction of genetically-modified pigs, we produced cloned embryos derived from porcine fibroblasts transfected with a pair of engineered zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) plasmids to create targeted mutations and enriched using a reporter plasmid system. The reporter expresses RFP and eGFP simultaneously when ZFN-mediated site-specific mutations occur. Thus, double positive cells (RFP(+)/eGFP(+)) were selected and used for somatic cell nuclear transfer. Two types of reporter based enrichment systems were used in this study; the cloned embryos derived from cells enriched using a magnetic sorting-based system showed better developmental competence than did those derived from cells enriched by flow cytometry. Mutated sequences, such as insertions, deletions, or substitutions, together with the wild-type sequence, were found in the cloned porcine blastocysts. Therefore, genetic mutations can be achieved in cloned porcine embryos reconstructed with ZFN-treated cells that were enriched by a reporter-based system.

  19. Improved ethanol production at high temperature by consolidated bioprocessing using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain engineered with artificial zinc finger protein.

    PubMed

    Khatun, M Mahfuza; Yu, Xinshui; Kondo, Akihiko; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MNII/cocδBEC3 was transformed by an artificial zinc finger protein (AZFP) library to improve its thermal tolerance, and the strain MNII-AZFP with superior growth at 42°C was selected. Improved degradation of acid swollen cellulose by 45.9% led to an increase in ethanol production, when compared to the control strain. Moreover, the fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke stalk (JAS) by MNII-AZFP was shortened by 12h at 42°C with a concomitant improvement in ethanol production. Comparative transcriptomics analysis suggested that the AZFP in the mutant exerted beneficial effect by modulating the expression of multiple functional genes. These results provide a feasible strategy for efficient ethanol production from JAS and other cellulosic biomass through CBP based-fermentation at elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Arabidopsis VARIEGATED 3 encodes a chloroplast-targeted, zinc-finger protein required for chloroplast and palisade cell development.

    PubMed

    Naested, Henrik; Holm, Agnethe; Jenkins, Tom; Nielsen, H Bjørn; Harris, Cassandra A; Beale, Michael H; Andersen, Mathias; Mant, Alexandra; Scheller, Henrik; Camara, Bilal; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2004-09-15

    The stable, recessive Arabidopsis variegated 3 (var3) mutant exhibits a variegated phenotype due to somatic areas lacking or containing developmentally retarded chloroplasts and greatly reduced numbers of palisade cells. The VAR3 gene, isolated by transposon tagging, encodes the 85.9 kDa VAR3 protein containing novel repeats and zinc fingers described as protein interaction domains. VAR3 interacts specifically in yeast and in vitro with NCED4, a putative polyene chain or carotenoid dioxygenase, and both VAR3 and NCED4 accumulate in the chloroplast stroma. Metabolic profiling demonstrates that pigment profiles are qualitatively similar in wild type and var3, although var3 accumulates lower levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids. These results indicate that VAR3 is a part of a protein complex required for normal chloroplast and palisade cell development.

  1. The Zinc-Finger Thylakoid-Membrane Protein FIP Is Involved With Abiotic Stress Response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Karina L; Rodrigues, Ricardo A O; Silva, Marcos C; Braga, Wiliane G S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2018-01-01

    Many plant genes have their expression modulated by stress conditions. Here, we used Arabidopsis FtsH5 protease, which expression is regulated by light stress, as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen to search for new proteins involved in the stress response. As a result, we found FIP (FtsH5 Interacting Protein), which possesses an amino proximal cleavable transit peptide, a hydrophobic membrane-anchoring region, and a carboxyl proximal C 4 -type zinc-finger domain. In vivo experiments using FIP fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) showed a plastid localization. This finding was corroborated by chloroplast import assays that showed FIP inserted in the thylakoid membrane. FIP expression was down-regulated in plants exposed to high light intensity, oxidative, salt, and osmotic stresses, whereas mutant plants expressing low levels of FIP were more tolerant to these abiotic stresses. Our data shows a new thylakoid-membrane protein involved with abiotic stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana .

  2. The novel 19q13 KRAB zinc-finger tumour suppressor ZNF382 is frequently methylated in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and antagonises Wnt/β-catenin signalling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong; Xiang, Tingxiu; Li, Shuman; Ye, Lin; Feng, Yixiao; Pei, Lijiao; Li, Lili; Wang, Xiangyu; Sun, Ran; Tao, Qian; Ren, Guosheng

    2018-05-14

    Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are the largest transcription factor family in mammals. About one-third of ZFPs are Krüppel-associated box domain (KRAB)-ZFPs and involved in the regulation of cell differentiation/proliferation/apoptosis and neoplastic transformation. We recently identified ZNF382 as a novel KRAB-ZFP epigenetically inactivated in multiple cancers due to frequent promoter CpG methylation. However, its epigenetic alterations, biological functions/mechanism and clinical significance in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are still unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ZNF382 expression was suppressed in ESCC due to aberrant promoter methylation, but highly expressed in normal oesophagus tissues. ZNF382 promoter methylation is correlated with ESCC differentiation levels. Restoration of ZNF382 expression in silenced ESCC cells suppressed tumour cell proliferation and metastasis through inducing cell apoptosis. Importantly, ZNF382 suppressed Wnt/β-catenin signalling and downstream target gene expression, likely through binding directly to FZD1 and DVL2 promoters. In summary, our findings demonstrate that ZNF382 functions as a bona fide tumour suppressor inhibiting ESCC pathogenesis through inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway.

  3. Role for a Zinc Finger Protein (Zfp111) in Transformation of 208F Rat Fibroblasts by Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Tom; Phung, An; Choe, Kevin; Kim, Jung Woo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The native envelope gene (env) of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) also acts as an oncogene. To investigate the mechanism of transformation, we performed yeast 2-hybrid screening for cellular proteins that interact with Env. Among several candidates, we identified mouse or rat zinc finger protein 111 (zfp111). The interaction between Env and Zfp111 was confirmed through in vivo coimmunoprecipitation assays. Knockdown of endogenous Zfp111 caused a decrease in cell transformation by JSRV Env, while overexpression of Zfp111 increased overall Env transformation, supporting a role for Zfp111 in Env transformation. Knockdown of Zfp111 had no effect on the growth rate of parental rat 208F cells, while it decreased the proliferation rate of JSRV-transformed 208F cells, suggesting that JSRV-transformed cells became dependent on Zfp111. In addition, Zfp111 preferentially bound to a higher-mobility form of JSRV Env that has not been described previously. The higher-mobility form of Env (P70env) was found exclusively in the nuclear fraction, and size of its polypeptide backbone was the same as that of the cytoplasmic Env polyprotein (Pr80env). The differences in glycosylation between the two versions of Env were characterized. These results identify a novel cellular protein, Zfp111, that binds to the JSRV Env protein, and this binding plays a role in Env transformation. These results indicate that JSRV transformation also involves proteins and interactions in the nucleus. IMPORTANCE The envelope protein (Env) of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is an oncogene, but its mechanism of cell transformation is still unclear. Here we identified seven candidate cellular proteins that can interact with JSRV Env by yeast two-hybrid screening. This study focused on one of the seven candidates, zinc finger protein 111 (Zfp111). Zfp111 was shown to interact with JSRV Env in cells and to be involved in JSRV transformation. Moreover, coexpression of JSRV Env and Zfp111 led to the

  4. Tuberculate fruit gene Tu encodes a C2 H2 zinc finger protein that is required for the warty fruit phenotype in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuqin; Zhang, Weiwei; He, Huanle; Nie, Jingtao; Bie, Beibei; Zhao, Junlong; Ren, Guoliang; Li, Yue; Zhang, Dabing; Pan, Junsong; Cai, Run

    2014-06-01

    Cucumber fruits that have tubercules and spines (trichomes) are known to possess a warty (Wty) phenotype. In this study, the tuberculate fruit gene Tu was identified by map-based cloning, and was found to encode a transcription factor (TF) with a single C2 H2 zinc finger domain. Tu was identified in all 38 Wty lines examined, and was completely absent from all 56 non-warty (nWty) lines. Cucumber plants transgenic for Tu (TCP) revealed that Tu was required for the Wty fruit phenotype. Subcellular localization showed that the fusion protein GFP-Tu was localized mainly to the nucleus. Based on analyses of semi-quantitative and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and mRNA in situ hybridization, we found that Tu was expressed specifically in fruit spine cells during development of fruit tubercules. Moreover, cytokinin (CTK) content measurements and cytological observations in Wty and nWty fruits revealed that the Wty fruit phenotype correlated with high endogenous CTK concentrations. As a result of further analyses on the transcriptomic profile of the nWty fruit epidermis and TCP fruit warts, expression of CTK-associated genes, and hormone content in nWty fruit epidermis, Wty fruit warts and epidermis, and TCP fruit warts and epidermis, we found that Tu probably promoted CTK biosynthesis in fruit warts. Here we show that Tu could not be expressed in the glabrous and tubercule-free mutant line gl that contained Tu, this result that futher confirmed the epistatic effect of the trichome (spine) gene Gl over Tu. Taken together, these data led us to propose a genetic pathway for the Wty fruit trait that could guide future mechanistic studies. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. 20-hydroxyecdysone enhances the expression of the chitinase 5 via Broad-Complex Zinc-Finger 4 during metamorphosis in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Zheng, S

    2017-04-01

    Insect chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes required for the degradation of chitin. They are essential for insect moulting and metamorphosis. In this study, the regulation mechanism of a chitinase gene, Bombyx mori chitinase 5 (BmCHT5), was studied. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that BmCHT5 was up-regulated during the larval-larval and larval-pupa transitions and notably induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Analysis of the BmCHT5 promoter revealed the presence of one Bombyx mori Broad-Complex Zinc-Finger Isoform 4 (BR-C Z4), two BR-C Z2 and two ecdysone-induced protein 74A (E74A) cis-regulatory elements (CREs) that are related to 20E. qRT-PCR showed that the expression of both BmBR-C Z4 and BmBR-C Z2 during metamorphosis, and when induced by 20E, was anastomotic with the variations in BmCHT5 mRNA level. In contrast, BmE74A did not follow this trend. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay did not retrieve a binding partner for the two BR-C Z2 CREs in the BmN cell line nuclear extract, whereas BR-C Z4 CRE specifically bound to BmBR-C Z4. Besides, luciferase activity analysis confirmed that BmBR-C Z4 could enhance the activity of the BmCHT5 promoter with BR-C Z4 CRE and could not enhance the promoter activity by mutating BR-C Z4 CRE. Taken together, these data suggest that the transcription factor BmBR-C Z4 enhances the expression of BmCHT5 during metamorphosis. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  6. TaCHP: a wheat zinc finger protein gene down-regulated by abscisic acid and salinity stress plays a positive role in stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiling; Lv, Jian; Zhao, Xin; Ai, Xinghui; Zhu, Xinlei; Wang, Mengcheng; Zhao, Shuangyi; Xia, Guangmin

    2010-09-01

    The plant response to abiotic stresses involves both abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA-independent signaling pathways. Here we describe TaCHP, a CHP-rich (for cysteine, histidine, and proline rich) zinc finger protein family gene extracted from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), is differentially expressed during abiotic stress between the salinity-sensitive cultivar Jinan 177 and its tolerant somatic hybrid introgression cultivar Shanrong No.3. TaCHP expressed in the roots of seedlings at the three-leaf stage, and the transcript localized within the cells of the root tip cortex and meristem. TaCHP transcript abundance was higher in Shanrong No.3 than in Jinan 177, but was reduced by the imposition of salinity or drought stress, as well as by the exogenous supply of ABA. When JN17, a salinity hypersensitive wheat cultivar, was engineered to overexpress TaCHP, its performance in the face of salinity stress was improved, and the ectopic expression of TaCHP in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) also improved the ability of salt tolerance. The expression level of a number of stress reporter genes (AtCBF3, AtDREB2A, AtABI2, and AtABI1) was raised in the transgenic lines in the presence of salinity stress, while that of AtMYB15, AtABA2, and AtAAO3 was reduced in its absence. The presence in the upstream region of the TaCHP open reading frame of the cis-elements ABRE, MYBRS, and MYCRS suggests that it is a component of the ABA-dependent and -independent signaling pathways involved in the plant response to abiotic stress. We suggest that TaCHP enhances stress tolerance via the promotion of CBF3 and DREB2A expression.

  7. The Novel Zinc Finger Protein dASCIZ Regulates Mitosis in Drosophila via an Essential Role in Dynein Light-Chain Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zaytseva, Olga; Tenis, Nora; Mitchell, Naomi; Kanno, Shin-ichiro; Yasui, Akira; Heierhorst, Jörg; Quinn, Leonie M

    2014-01-01

    The essential zinc finger protein ASCIZ (also known as ATMIN, ZNF822) plays critical roles during lung organogenesis and B cell development in mice, where it regulates the expression of dynein light chain (DYNLL1/LC8), but its functions in other species including invertebrates are largely unknown. Here we report the identification of the Drosophila ortholog of ASCIZ (dASCIZ) and show that loss of dASCIZ function leads to pronounced mitotic delays with centrosome and spindle positioning defects during development, reminiscent of impaired dynein motor functions. Interestingly, similar mitotic and developmental defects were observed upon knockdown of the DYNLL/LC8-type dynein light chain Cutup (Ctp), and dASCIZ loss-of-function phenotypes could be suppressed by ectopic Ctp expression. Consistent with a genetic function of dASCIZ upstream of Ctp, we show that loss of dASCIZ led to reduced endogenous Ctp mRNA and protein levels and dramatically reduced Ctp–LacZ reporter gene activity in vivo, indicating that dASCIZ regulates development and mitosis as a Ctp transcription factor. We speculate that the more severe mitotic defects in the absence of ASCIZ in flies compared to mice may be due to redundancy with a second, ASCIZ-independent, Dynll2 gene in mammals in contrast to a single Ctp gene in Drosophila. Altogether, our data demonstrate that ASCIZ is an evolutionary highly conserved transcriptional regulator of dynein light-chain levels and a novel regulator of mitosis in flies. PMID:24336747

  8. DPL-1 DP, LIN-35 Rb and EFL-1 E2F act with the MCD-1 zinc-finger protein to promote programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Reddien, Peter W; Andersen, Erik C; Huang, Michael C; Horvitz, H Robert

    2007-04-01

    The genes egl-1, ced-9, ced-4, and ced-3 play major roles in programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans. To identify genes that have more subtle activities, we sought mutations that confer strong cell-death defects in a genetically sensitized mutant background. Specifically, we screened for mutations that enhance the cell-death defects caused by a partial loss-of-function allele of the ced-3 caspase gene. We identified mutations in two genes not previously known to affect cell death, dpl-1 and mcd-1 (modifier of cell death). dpl-1 encodes the C. elegans homolog of DP, the human E2F-heterodimerization partner. By testing genes known to interact with dpl-1, we identified roles in cell death for four additional genes: efl-1 E2F, lin-35 Rb, lin-37 Mip40, and lin-52 dLin52. mcd-1 encodes a novel protein that contains one zinc finger and that is synthetically required with lin-35 Rb for animal viability. dpl-1 and mcd-1 act with efl-1 E2F and lin-35 Rb to promote programmed cell death and do so by regulating the killing process rather than by affecting the decision between survival and death. We propose that the DPL-1 DP, MCD-1 zinc finger, EFL-1 E2F, LIN-35 Rb, LIN-37 Mip40, and LIN-52 dLin52 proteins act together in transcriptional regulation to promote programmed cell death.

  9. Twenty-seven nonoverlapping zinc finger cDNAs from human T cells map to nine different chromosomes with apparent clustering.

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, K; Druck, T; Croce, C M; Thiesen, H J

    1991-01-01

    cDNA clones encoding zinc finger structures were isolated by screening Molt4 and Jurkat cDNA libraries with zinc finger consensus sequences. Candidate clones were partially sequenced to verify the presence of zinc finger-encoding regions; nonoverlapping cDNA clones were chosen on the basis of sequences and genomic hybridization pattern. Zinc finger structure-encoding clones, which were designated by the term "Kox" and a number from 1 to 32 and which were apparently unique (i.e., distinct from each other and distinct from those isolated by other laboratories), were chosen for mapping in the human genome. DNAs from rodent-human somatic cell hybrids retaining defined complements of human chromosomes were analyzed for the presence of each of the Kox genes. Correlation between the presence of specific human chromosome regions and specific Kox genes established the chromosomal locations. Multiple Kox loci were mapped to 7q (Kox 18 and 25 and a locus detected by both Kox 8 cDNA and Kox 27 cDNA), 8q24 5' to the myc locus (Kox 9 and 32), 10cen----q24 (Kox 2, 15, 19, 21, 30, and 31), 12q13-qter (Kox 1 and 20), 17p13 (Kox 11 and 26), and 19q (Kox 5, 6, 10, 22, 24, and 28). Single Kox loci were mapped to 7p22 (Kox 3), 18q12 (Kox 17), 19p (Kox 13), 22q11 between IG lambda and BCR-1 (locus detected by both Kox 8 cDNA and Kox 27 cDNA), and Xp (Kox 14). Several of the Kox loci map to regions in which other zinc finger structure-encoding loci have already been localized, indicating possible zinc finger gene clusters. In addition, Kox genes at 8q24, 17p13, and 22q11--and perhaps other Kox genes--are located near recurrent chromosomal translocation breakpoints. Others, such as those on 7p and 7q, may be near regions specifically active in T cells. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2014798

  10. Zinc Finger Protein 451 Is a Novel Smad Corepressor in Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yili; Wu, Hongxing; Xu, Yongxian; Zhang, Zhengmao; Liu, Ting; Lin, Xia; Feng, Xin-Hua

    2014-01-01

    ZNF451 is a transcriptional cofactor localized to promyelocytic leukemia bodies. Here, we present evidence demonstrating that ZNF451 physically interacts with Smad3/4 and functionally inhibits TGF-β signaling. Increased expression of ZNF451 attenuates TGF-β-induced growth inhibitory and gene transcriptional responses, whereas depletion of ZNF451 enhances TGF-β responses. Mechanistically, ZNF451 blocks the ability of Smad3/4 to recruit p300 in response to TGF-β, which causes reduction of histone H3K9 acetylation on the promoters of TGF-β target genes. Taken together, ZNF451 acts as a transcriptional corepressor for Smad3/4 and negatively regulates TGF-β signaling. PMID:24324267

  11. Plant architecture and grain yield are regulated by the novel DHHC-type zinc finger protein genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Lin, Jian Zhong; Peng, Dan; Yang, Yuan Zhu; Guo, Ming; Tang, Dong Ying; Tan, Xiaofeng; Liu, Xuan Ming

    2017-01-01

    In many plants, architecture and grain yield are affected by both the environment and genetics. In rice, the tiller is a vital factor impacting plant architecture and regulated by many genes. In this study, we cloned a novel DHHC-type zinc finger protein gene Os02g0819100 and its alternative splice variant OsDHHC1 from the cDNA of rice (Oryza sativa L.), which regulate plant architecture by altering the tiller in rice. The tillers increased by about 40% when this type of DHHC-type zinc finger protein gene was over-expressed in Zhong Hua 11 (ZH11) rice plants. Moreover, the grain yield of transgenic rice increased approximately by 10% compared with wild-type ZH11. These findings provide an important genetic engineering approach for increasing rice yields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sequences homologous to the human x- and y-borne zinc finger protein genes (ZFX/Y) are autosomal in monotreme mannals

    SciT

    Watson, J.M.; Frost, C.; Graves, M.J.A.

    1993-02-01

    The human zinc finger protein genes (ZFX/Y) were identified as a result of a systematic search for the testis-determining factor gene on the human Y chromosome. Although they play no direct role in sex determination, they are of particular interest because they are highly conserved among mammals, birds, and amphibians and because, in eutherian mammals at least, they have active alleles on both the X and the Y chromosomes outside the pseudoautosomal region. We used in situ hybridization to localize the homologues of the zinc finger protein gene to chromosome 1 of the Australian echidna and to an equivalent positionmore » on chromosomes 1 and 2 of the playtpus. The localization to platypus chromosome 1 was confirmed by Southern analysis of a Chinese hamster [times] platypus cell hybrid retaining most of platypus chromosome 1. This localization is consistent with the cytological homology of chromosome 1 between the two species. The zinc finger protein gene homologues were localized to regions of platypus chromosomes 1 and 2 that included a number of other genes situated near ZFX on the short arm of the human X chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that many of the genes located on the short arm of the human X were originally autosomal and have been translocated to the X chromosome since the eutherian-metatherian divergence. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  13. Occupancy of a C2-C2 type 'zinc-finger' protein domain by copper. Direct observation by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hutchens, T W; Allen, M H; Li, C M; Yip, T T

    1992-09-07

    The metal ion specificity of most 'zinc-finger' metal binding domains is unknown. The human estrogen receptor protein contains two different C2-C2 type 'zinc-finger' sequences within its DNA-binding domain (ERDBD). Copper inhibits the function of this protein by mechanisms which remain unclear. We have used electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to evaluate directly the 71-residue ERDBD (K180-M250) in the absence and presence of Cu(II) ions. The ERDBD showed a high affinity for Cu and was completely occupied with 4 Cu bound; each Cu ion was evidently bound to only two ligand residues (net loss of only 2 Da per bound Cu). The Cu binding stoichiometry was confirmed by atomic absorption. These results (i) provide the first direct physical evidence for the ability of the estrogen receptor DNA-binding domain to bind Cu and (ii) document a twofold difference in the Zn- and Cu-binding capacity. Differences in the ERDBD domain structure with bound Zn and Cu are predicted. Given the relative intracellular contents of Zn and Cu, our findings demonstrate the need to investigate further the Cu occupancy of this and other zinc-finger domains both in vitro and in vivo.

  14. The zinc-finger protein ZFR is critical for Staufen 2 isoform specific nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in neurons.

    PubMed

    Elvira, George; Massie, Bernard; DesGroseillers, Luc

    2006-01-01

    In mammalian neurons, transport and translation of mRNA to individual potentiated synapses is believed to occur via a heterogeneous population of RNA granules. To identify components of Staufen2-containing granules, we used the yeast two-hybrid system. A mouse fetal cDNA library was screened with the N-terminal fragment of Staufen2 as bait. ZFR, a three zinc finger protein, was identified as an interacting protein. Confocal microscopy showed that ZFR, although mainly nuclear, was also found in the somatodendritic compartment of primary hippocampal neurons where it localized as granule-like structures. Co-localization with Staufen2 was observed in several granules. Biochemical analyses (immunoprecipitation, cell fractionation) further confirmed the ZFR/Staufen2 association. ZFR was shown to interact with at least the Staufen2(62) isoform, but not with Staufen1. ZFR also co-fractionated with ribosomes and Staufen2(59) and Staufen2(52) in a sucrose gradient. Interestingly, knockdown expression of ZFR through RNA interference in neurons relocated specifically the Staufen2(62), but not the Staufen2(59), isoform to the nucleus. Our results demonstrate that ZFR is a native component of Staufen2-containing granules and likely plays its role during early steps of RNA transport and localization. They also suggest that one of these roles may be linked to Staufen2(62)-containing RNA granule formation in the nucleus and/or to their nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling.

  15. Zhx2 (zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2) regulates major urinary protein gene expression in the mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jieyun; Creasy, Kate Townsend; Purnell, Justin; Peterson, Martha L.; Spear, Brett T.

    2017-01-01

    The mouse major urinary proteins (Mups) are encoded by a large family of highly related genes clustered on chromosome 4. Mups, synthesized primarily and abundantly in the liver and secreted through the kidneys, exhibit male-biased expression. Mups bind a variety of volatile ligands; these ligands, and Mup proteins themselves, influence numerous behavioral traits. Although urinary Mup protein levels vary between inbred mouse strains, this difference is most pronounced in BALB/cJ mice, which have dramatically low urinary Mup levels; this BALB/cJ trait had been mapped to a locus on chromosome 15. We previously identified Zhx2 (zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2) as a regulator of numerous liver-enriched genes. Zhx2 is located on chromosome 15, and a natural hypomorphic mutation in the BALB/cJ Zhx2 allele dramatically reduces Zhx2 expression. Based on these data, we hypothesized that reduced Zhx2 levels are responsible for lower Mup expression in BALB/cJ mice. Using both transgenic and knock-out mice along with in vitro assays, our data show that Zhx2 binds Mup promoters and is required for high levels of Mup expression in the adult liver. In contrast to previously identified Zhx2 targets that appear to be repressed by Zhx2, Mup genes are positively regulated by Zhx2. These data identify Zhx2 as a novel regulator of Mup expression and indicate that Zhx2 activates as well as represses expression of target genes. PMID:28258223

  16. Structural basis for lack of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-13/zinc finger antiviral protein.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Tobias; Klepsch, Mirjam; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Andersson, C David; Linusson, Anna; Schüler, Herwig

    2015-03-20

    The mammalian poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family includes ADP-ribosyltransferases with diphtheria toxin homology (ARTD). Most members have mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PARP13/ARTD13, also called zinc finger antiviral protein, has roles in viral immunity and microRNA-mediated stress responses. PARP13 features a divergent PARP homology domain missing a PARP consensus sequence motif; the domain has enigmatic functions and apparently lacks catalytic activity. We used x-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations, and biochemical analyses to investigate the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in human PARP13 and two of its functional partners in stress granules: PARP12/ARTD12, and PARP15/BAL3/ARTD7. The crystal structure of the PARP homology domain of PARP13 shows obstruction of the canonical active site, precluding NAD(+) binding. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this closed cleft conformation is maintained in solution. Introducing consensus side chains in PARP13 did not result in 3-aminobenzamide binding, but in further closure of the site. Three-dimensional alignment of the PARP homology domains of PARP13, PARP12, and PARP15 illustrates placement of PARP13 residues that deviate from the PARP family consensus. Introducing either one of two of these side chains into the corresponding positions in PARP15 abolished PARP15 ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Taken together, our results show that PARP13 lacks the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. A Homozygous Mutation in a Novel Zinc-Finger Protein, ERIS, Is Responsible for Wolfram Syndrome 2

    PubMed Central

    Amr, Sami ; Heisey, Cindy ; Zhang, Min ; Xia, Xia-Juan ; Shows, Kathryn H. ; Ajlouni, Kamel ; Pandya, Arti ; Satin, Leslie S. ; El-Shanti, Hatem ; Shiang, Rita 

    2007-01-01

    A single missense mutation was identified in a novel, highly conserved zinc-finger gene, ZCD2, in three consanguineous families of Jordanian descent with Wolfram syndrome (WFS). It had been shown that these families did not have mutations in the WFS1 gene (WFS1) but were mapped to the WFS2 locus at 4q22-25. A G→C transversion at nucleotide 109 predicts an amino acid change from glutamic acid to glutamine (E37Q). Although the amino acid is conserved and the mutation is nonsynonymous, the pathogenesis for the disorder is because the mutation also causes aberrant splicing. The mutation was found to disrupt messenger RNA splicing by eliminating exon 2, and it results in the introduction of a premature stop codon. Mutations in WFS1 have also been found to cause low-frequency nonsyndromic hearing loss, progressive hearing loss, and isolated optic atrophy associated with hearing loss. Screening of 377 probands with hearing loss did not identify mutations in the WFS2 gene. The WFS1-encoded protein, Wolframin, is known to localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and plays a role in calcium homeostasis. The ZCD2-encoded protein, ERIS (endoplasmic reticulum intermembrane small protein), is also shown to localize to the endoplasmic reticulum but does not interact directly with Wolframin. Lymphoblastoid cells from affected individuals show a significantly greater rise in intracellular calcium when stimulated with thapsigargin, compared with controls, although no difference was observed in resting concentrations of intracellular calcium. PMID:17846994

  18. The sigma-1 receptor-Zinc finger protein 179 pathway protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Shu-Hui; Lee, Pin-Tse; Yeh, Shiu-Hwa; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Chou, Szu-Yi; Su, Tsung-Ping; Hung, Jan-Jong; Chang, Wen-Chang; Lee, Yi-Chao; Chuang, Jian-Ying

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have implicated the pathogenesis of several human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury, hence protecting neurons against ROS is very important. In this study, we focused on sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), a chaperone at endoplasmic reticulum, and investigated its protective functions. Using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced ROS accumulation model, we verified that apoptosis-signaling pathways were elicited by H2O2 treatment. However, the Sig-1R agonists, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), reduced the activation of apoptotic pathways significantly. By performing protein-protein interaction assays and shRNA knockdown of Sig-1R, we identified the brain Zinc finger protein 179 (Znf179) as a downstream target of Sig-1R regulation. The neuroprotective effect of Znf179 overexpression was similar to that of DHEAS treatment, and likely mediated by affecting the levels of antioxidant enzymes. We also quantified the levels of peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) in the hippocampi of wild-type and Znf179 knockout mice, and found both enzymes to be reduced in the knockout versus the wild-type mice. In summary, these results reveal that Znf179 plays a novel role in neuroprotection, and Sig-1R agonists may be therapeutic candidates to prevent ROS-induced damage in neurodegenerative and neurotraumatic diseases. PMID:26792191

  19. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Ma, Biao; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean (Glycine max) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351, encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1, BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2, 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III, DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1, and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean (Glycine soja) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. PMID:28184009

  20. Zinc finger nuclease: a new approach for excising HIV-1 proviral DNA from infected human T cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiying; Wang, Pengfei; Ding, Donglin; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Gongmin; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Lin; Zhu, Xiaoli; Zeng, Hanxian; Zhu, Huanzhang

    2014-09-01

    A major reason that Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cannot be completely cured is the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) provirus integrated into the human genome. Though existing therapies can inhibit replication of HIV-1, they cannot eradicate it. A molecular therapy gains popularity due to its specifically targeting to HIV-1 infected cells and effectively removing the HIV-1, regardless of viral genes being active or dormant. Now, we propose a new method which can excellently delete the HIV provirus from the infected human T cell genome. First, we designed zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) that target a sequence within the long terminal repeat (LTR) U3 region that is highly conserved in whole clade. Then, we screened out one pair of ZFN and named it as ZFN-U3. We discovered that ZFN-U3 can exactly target and eliminate the full-length HIV-1 proviral DNA after the infected human cell lines treated with it, and the frequency of its excision was about 30 % without cytotoxicity. These results prove that ZFN-U3 can efficiently excise integrated HIV-1 from the human genome in infected cells. This method to delete full length HIV-1 in human genome can therefore provide a novel approach to cure HIV-infected individuals in the future.

  1. Regulation of hippocampus-dependent memory by the zinc finger protein Zbtb20 in mature CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Ren, Anjing; Zhang, Huan; Xie, Zhifang; Ma, Xianhua; Ji, Wenli; He, David Z Z; Yuan, Wenjun; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Weiping J

    2012-10-01

    The mammalian hippocampus harbours neural circuitry that is crucial for associative learning and memory. The mechanisms that underlie the development and regulation of this complex circuitry are not fully understood. Our previous study established an essential role for the zinc finger protein Zbtb20 in the specification of CA1 field identity in the developing hippocampus. Here, we show that conditionally deleting Zbtb20 specifically in mature CA1 pyramidal neurons impaired hippocampus-dependent memory formation, without affecting hippocampal architecture or the survival, identity and basal excitatory synaptic activity of CA1 pyramidal neurons. We demonstrate that mature CA1-specific Zbtb20 knockout mice exhibited reductions in long-term potentiation (LTP) and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents. Furthermore, we show that activity-induced phosphorylation of ERK and CREB is impaired in the hippocampal CA1 of Zbtb20 mutant mice. Collectively, these results indicate that Zbtb20 in mature CA1 plays an important role in LTP and memory by regulating NMDAR activity, and activation of ERK and CREB.

  2. The multi zinc-finger protein Trps1 acts as a regulator of histone deacetylation during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Wuelling, Manuela; Pasdziernik, Markus; Moll, Carina N; Thiesen, Andrea M; Schneider, Sabine; Johannes, Christian; Vortkamp, Andrea

    2013-07-15

    TRPS1, the gene mutated in human "Tricho-Rhino-Phalangeal syndrome," encodes a multi zinc-finger nuclear regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Here, we have identified a new function of Trps1 in controlling mitotic progression in chondrocytes. Loss of Trps1 in mice leads to an increased proportion of cells arrested in mitosis and, subsequently, to chromosome segregation defects. Searching for the molecular basis of the defect, we found that Trps1 acts as regulator of histone deacetylation. Trps1 interacts with two histone deacetylases, Hdac1 and Hdac4, thereby increasing their activity. Loss of Trps1 results in histone H3 hyperacetylation, which is maintained during mitosis. Consequently, chromatin condensation and binding of HP1 is impaired, and Trps1-deficient chondrocytes accumulate in prometaphase. Overexpression of Hdac4 rescues the mitotic defect of Trps1-deficient chondrocytes, identifying Trps1 as an important regulator of chromatin deacetylation during mitosis in chondrocytes. Our data provide the first evidence that the control of mitosis can be linked to the regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by epigenetic consequences of altered Hdac activity.

  3. Sequence-specific DNA binding activity of the cross-brace zinc finger motif of the piggyBac transposase

    PubMed Central

    Morellet, Nelly; Li, Xianghong; Wieninger, Silke A; Taylor, Jennifer L; Bischerour, Julien; Moriau, Séverine; Lescop, Ewen; Bardiaux, Benjamin; Mathy, Nathalie; Assrir, Nadine; Bétermier, Mireille; Nilges, Michael; Hickman, Alison B; Dyda, Fred; Craig, Nancy L; Guittet, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The piggyBac transposase (PB) is distinguished by its activity and utility in genome engineering, especially in humans where it has highly promising therapeutic potential. Little is known, however, about the structure–function relationships of the different domains of PB. Here, we demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that its C-terminal Cysteine-Rich Domain (CRD) is essential for DNA breakage, joining and transposition and that it binds to specific DNA sequences in the left and right transposon ends, and to an additional unexpectedly internal site at the left end. Using NMR, we show that the CRD adopts the specific fold of the cross-brace zinc finger protein family. We determine the interaction interfaces between the CRD and its target, the 5′-TGCGT-3′/3′-ACGCA-5′ motifs found in the left, left internal and right transposon ends, and use NMR results to propose docking models for the complex, which are consistent with our site-directed mutagenesis data. Our results provide support for a model of the PB/DNA interactions in the context of the transpososome, which will be useful for the rational design of PB mutants with increased activity. PMID:29385532

  4. Intrinsic functional defects of type 2 innate lymphoid cells impair innate allergic inflammation in promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF)-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Philip A; Constantinides, Michael G; McDonald, Benjamin D; Urban, Joseph F; Sperling, Anne I; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-02-01

    The transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) is transiently expressed during development of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) but is not present at the mature stage. We hypothesized that PLZF-deficient ILC2s have functional defects in the innate allergic response and represent a tool for studying innate immunity in a mouse with a functional adaptive immune response. We determined the consequences of PLZF deficiency on ILC2 function in response to innate and adaptive immune stimuli by using PLZF(-/-) mice and mixed wild-type:PLZF(-/-) bone marrow chimeras. PLZF(-/-) mice, wild-type littermates, or mixed bone marrow chimeras were treated with the protease allergen papain or the cytokines IL-25 and IL-33 or infected with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis to induce innate type 2 allergic responses. Mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin-alum, followed by intranasal challenge with ovalbumin alone, to induce adaptive TH2 responses. Lungs were analyzed for immune cell subsets, and alveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for ILC2-derived cytokines. In addition, ILC2s were stimulated ex vivo for their capacity to release type 2 cytokines. PLZF-deficient lung ILC2s exhibit a cell-intrinsic defect in the secretion of IL-5 and IL-13 in response to innate stimuli, resulting in defective recruitment of eosinophils and goblet cell hyperplasia. In contrast, the adaptive allergic inflammatory response to ovalbumin and alum was unimpaired. PLZF expression at the innate lymphoid cell precursor stage has a long-range effect on the functional properties of mature ILC2s and highlights the importance of these cells for innate allergic responses in otherwise immunocompetent mice. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  5. Zinc Finger Transcription Factors as Novel Genetic Switches to Modulate Metastatic Progression of Breast Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    critical level of significance set up at P < 0.05, and significant differences between groups of treatments were analyzed with post hoc Turkish test ...2008 differences between groups of treatments were analyzed with post hoc Turkish test . As shown in Fig. 2A, particular ATFs synergized with chromatin...using ANOVA test and the post hoc Turkish test ; critical level of significance was set up at P < 0.05. B, real- time expression analysis of maspin mRNA

  6. Zinc Finger Transcription Factors as Novel Switches to Modulate Metastatic Progression of Breast Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Supervised College student Leanna Lagpacan, The Scripps Research Institute 2004 -Supervised Ph.D student Sharon Bergquist, The... students in the University of Montreal 1999-2004 - Research supported by Novartis Pharma fellowship (Oncology) 2005 -University Research Council...DATE: May 2007 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command

  7. The ZNF75 zinc finger gene subfamily: Isolation and mapping of the four members in humans and great apes

    SciT

    Villa, A.; Strina, D.; Frattini, A.

    We have previously reported the characterization of the human ZNF75 gene located on Xq26, which has only limited homology (less than 65%) to other ZF genes in the databases. Here, we describe three human zinc finger genes with 86 to 95% homology to ZNF75 at the nucleotide level, which represent all the members of the human ZNF75 subfamily. One of these, ZNF75B, is a pseudogene mapped to chromosome 12q13. The other two, ZNF75A and ZNF75C, maintain on ORF in the sequenced region, and at least the latter is expressed in the U937 cell line. They were mapped to chromosomes 16more » and 11, respectively. All these genes are conserved in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. The ZNF75B homologue is a pseudogene in all three great apes, and in chimpanzee it is located on chromosome 10 (phylogenetic XII), at p13 (corresponding to the human 12q13). The chimpanzee homologue of ZNF75 is also located on the Xq26 chromosome, in the same region, as detected by in situ hybridization. As expected, nucleotide changes were clearly more abundant between human and organutan than between human and chimpanzee or gorilla homologues. Members of the same class were more similar to each other than to the other homologues within the same species. This suggests that the duplication and/or retrotranscription events occurred in a common ancestor long before great ape speciation. This, together with the existance of at least two genes in cows and horses, suggests a relatively high conservation of this gene family. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  8. Zinc finger protein designed to target 2-long terminal repeat junctions interferes with human immunodeficiency virus integration.

    PubMed

    Sakkhachornphop, Supachai; Barbas, Carlos F; Keawvichit, Rassamee; Wongworapat, Kanlaya; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai

    2012-09-01

    Integration of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome into the host chromosome is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. The highly conserved cytosine-adenine (CA) dinucleotide sequence immediately upstream of the cleavage site is crucial for integrase (IN) activity. As this viral enzyme has an important role early in the HIV-1 replication cycle, interference with the IN substrate has become an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention. We demonstrated that a designed zinc finger protein (ZFP) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) targets the 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circle junctions of HIV-1 DNA with nanomolar affinity. We report now that 2LTRZFP-GFP stably transduced into 293T cells interfered with the expression of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped lentiviral red fluorescent protein (RFP), as shown by the suppression of RFP expression. We also used a third-generation lentiviral vector and pCEP4 expression vector to deliver the 2LTRZFP-GFP transgene into human T-lymphocytic cells, and a stable cell line for long-term expression studies was selected for HIV-1 challenge. HIV-1 integration and replication were inhibited as measured by Alu-gag real-time PCR and p24 antigen assay. In addition, the molecular activity of 2LTRZFP-GFP was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results were confirmed by Alu-gag real-time PCR for integration interference. We suggest that the expression of 2LTRZFP-GFP limited viral integration on intracellular immunization, and that it has potential for use in HIV gene therapy in the future.

  9. Zinc Finger Protein Designed to Target 2-Long Terminal Repeat Junctions Interferes with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Integration

    PubMed Central

    Sakkhachornphop, Supachai; Barbas, Carlos F.; Keawvichit, Rassamee; Wongworapat, Kanlaya

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Integration of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome into the host chromosome is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. The highly conserved cytosine–adenine (CA) dinucleotide sequence immediately upstream of the cleavage site is crucial for integrase (IN) activity. As this viral enzyme has an important role early in the HIV-1 replication cycle, interference with the IN substrate has become an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention. We demonstrated that a designed zinc finger protein (ZFP) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) targets the 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circle junctions of HIV-1 DNA with nanomolar affinity. We report now that 2LTRZFP-GFP stably transduced into 293T cells interfered with the expression of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped lentiviral red fluorescent protein (RFP), as shown by the suppression of RFP expression. We also used a third-generation lentiviral vector and pCEP4 expression vector to deliver the 2LTRZFP-GFP transgene into human T-lymphocytic cells, and a stable cell line for long-term expression studies was selected for HIV-1 challenge. HIV-1 integration and replication were inhibited as measured by Alu-gag real-time PCR and p24 antigen assay. In addition, the molecular activity of 2LTRZFP-GFP was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results were confirmed by Alu-gag real-time PCR for integration interference. We suggest that the expression of 2LTRZFP-GFP limited viral integration on intracellular immunization, and that it has potential for use in HIV gene therapy in the future. PMID:22429108

  10. Salivary zinc finger protein 510 peptide as a novel biomarker for detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma in early stages.

    PubMed

    Jou, Yu-Jen; Lin, Chia-Der; Lai, Chih-Ho; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Su-Hua; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chen, Shih-Yin; Kao, Jung-Yie; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2011-07-15

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most frequent malignancies worldwide. Early diagnosis can mean adequate treatment and increase survival. This study uses ClinProt technique to identify salivary biomarkers for early diagnosis of OSCC. A total of 77 salivary samples from both OSCC patients (n=47) and healthy donors (n=30) were analyzed with MALDI-TOF MS technology. Salivary peptides from OSCC patients were separated, using C8-functionalized magnetic beads. Three signals (2918.57 Da, 5592.64 Da, and 4372.66 Da) distinguished OSCC patients from controls. Among them, unique peptide 2918.57 Da, identified as a 24-mer peptide of zinc finger protein 510 (ZNF510), was found in 0% of saliva from healthy individuals, versus 25.0% and 60% from OSCC patients with T1+T2 and T3+T4 stages, respectively (P<0.001). ELISA analysis with rabbit anti-ZNF510 peptide sera shows a starkly higher 24-mer ZNF510 peptide level in saliva from OSCC patients than that in controls (P<0.001). Also, in immunohistochemical analysis of oral tissues, a significantly higher level of ZNF510 was observed in OSCC tissues than in the OSCC free control tissues. Analysis of areas under receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves in OSCC early (T1+T2) and late stages (T3+T4) shows greater than 0.95. Identifying 24-mer ZNF510 peptide as OSCC-related salivary biomarkers via proteomic approach proved useful in adjunct diagnosis for early detection rather than specific diagnosis marker for progression of OSCC patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Rice B-Box Zinc Finger Gene Family: Genomic Identification, Characterization, Expression Profiling and Diurnal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianyan; Zhao, Xiaobo; Weng, Xiaoyu; Wang, Lei; Xie, Weibo

    2012-01-01

    Background The B-box (BBX) -containing proteins are a class of zinc finger proteins that contain one or two B-box domains and play important roles in plant growth and development. The Arabidopsis BBX gene family has recently been re-identified and renamed. However, there has not been a genome-wide survey of the rice BBX (OsBBX) gene family until now. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we identified 30 rice BBX genes through a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. Each gene was assigned a uniform nomenclature. We described the chromosome localizations, gene structures, protein domains, phylogenetic relationship, whole life-cycle expression profile and diurnal expression patterns of the OsBBX family members. Based on the phylogeny and domain constitution, the OsBBX gene family was classified into five subfamilies. The gene duplication analysis revealed that only chromosomal segmental duplication contributed to the expansion of the OsBBX gene family. The expression profile of the OsBBX genes was analyzed by Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays throughout the entire life-cycle of rice cultivar Zhenshan 97 (ZS97). In addition, microarray analysis was performed to obtain the expression patterns of these genes under light/dark conditions and after three phytohormone treatments. This analysis revealed that the expression patterns of the OsBBX genes could be classified into eight groups. Eight genes were regulated under the light/dark treatments, and eleven genes showed differential expression under at least one phytohormone treatment. Moreover, we verified the diurnal expression of the OsBBX genes using the data obtained from the Diurnal Project and qPCR analysis, and the results indicated that many of these genes had a diurnal expression pattern. Conclusions/Significance The combination of the genome-wide identification and the expression and diurnal analysis of the OsBBX gene family should facilitate additional functional studies of the OsBBX genes. PMID:23118960

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibition rescues gene knockout levels achieved with integrase-defective lentiviral vectors encoding zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Pelascini, Laetitia P L; Maggio, Ignazio; Liu, Jin; Holkers, Maarten; Cathomen, Toni; Gonçalves, Manuel A F V

    2013-12-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) work as dimers to induce double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at predefined chromosomal positions. In doing so, they constitute powerful triggers to edit and to interrogate the function of genomic sequences in higher eukaryotes. A preferred route to introduce ZFNs into somatic cells relies on their cotransduction with two integrase-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) each encoding a monomer of a functional heterodimeric pair. The episomal nature of IDLVs diminishes the risk of genotoxicity and ensures the strict transient expression profile necessary to minimize deleterious effects associated with long-term ZFN activity. However, by deploying IDLVs and conventional lentiviral vectors encoding HPRT1- or eGFP-specific ZFNs, we report that DSB formation at target alleles is limited after IDLV-mediated ZFN transfer. This IDLV-specific underperformance stems, to a great extent, from the activity of chromatin-remodeling histone deacetylases (HDACs). Importantly, the prototypic and U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved inhibitors of metal-dependent HDACs, trichostatin A and vorinostat, respectively, did not hinder illegitimate recombination-mediated repair of targeted chromosomal DSBs. This allowed rescuing IDLV-mediated site-directed mutagenesis to levels approaching those achieved by using their isogenic chromosomally integrating counterparts. Hence, HDAC inhibition constitutes an efficacious expedient to incorporate in genome-editing strategies based on transient IDLV-mediated ZFN expression. Finally, we compared two of the most commonly used readout systems to measure targeted gene knockout activities based on restriction and mismatch-sensitive endonucleases. These experiments indicate that these enzymatic assays display a similar performance.

  13. Senseless, a Zn finger transcription factor, is necessary and sufficient for sensory organ development in Drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolo, R.; Abbott, L. A.; Bellen, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    The senseless (sens) gene is required for proper development of most cell types of the embryonic and adult peripheral nervous system (PNS) of Drosophila. Sens is a nuclear protein with four Zn fingers that is expressed and required in the sensory organ precursors (SOP) for proper proneural gene expression. Ectopic expression of Sens in many ectodermal cells causes induction of PNS external sensory organ formation and is able to recreate an ectopic proneural field. Hence, sens is both necessary and sufficient for PNS development. Our data indicate that proneural genes activate sens expression. Sens is then in turn required to further activate and maintain proneural gene expression. This feedback mechanism is essential for selective enhancement and maintenance of proneural gene expression in the SOPs.

  14. The hematopoietic tumor suppressor interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) is upregulated by the antimetabolite cytarabine in leukemic cells involving the zinc finger protein ZNF224, acting as a cofactor of the Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) protein.

    PubMed

    Montano, Giorgia; Ullmark, Tove; Jernmark-Nilsson, Helena; Sodaro, Gaetano; Drott, Kristina; Costanzo, Paola; Vidovic, Karina; Gullberg, Urban

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF8) is highly expressed in myeloid progenitors, while most myeloid leukemias show low or absent expression. Loss of IRF8 in mice leads to a myeloproliferative disorder, indicating a tumor-suppressive role of IRF8. The Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1) protein represses the IRF8-promoter. The zinc finger protein ZNF224 can act as a transcriptional co-factor of WT1 and potentiate the cytotoxic response to the cytostatic drug cytarabine. We hypothesized that cytarabine upregulates IRF8 and that transcriptional control of IRF8 involves WT1 and ZNF224. Treatment of leukemic K562 cells with cytarabine upregulated IRF8 protein and mRNA, which was correlated to increased expression of ZNF224. Knock down of ZNF224 with shRNA suppressed both basal and cytarabine-induced IRF8 expression. While ZNF224 alone did not affect IRF8 promoter activity, ZNF224 partially reversed the suppressive effect of WT1 on the IRF8 promoter, as judged by luciferase reporter experiments. Coprecipitation revealed nuclear binding of WT1 and ZNF224, and by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments it was demonstrated that WT1 recruits ZNF224 to the IRF8 promoter. We conclude that cytarabine-induced upregulation of the IRF8 in leukemic cells involves increased levels of ZNF224, which can counteract the repressive activity of WT1 on the IRF8-promoter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stress-Responsive Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Interact with the EAR Motif of a Poplar Zinc Finger Protein and Mediate Its Degradation through the 26S Proteasome1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Louis-Philippe; Benchabane, Meriem; Nicole, Marie-Claude; Major, Ian T.; Morency, Marie-Josée; Pelletier, Gervais; Beaudoin, Nathalie; Sheen, Jen; Séguin, Armand

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) contribute to the establishment of plant disease resistance by regulating downstream signaling components, including transcription factors. In this study, we identified MAPK-interacting proteins, and among the newly discovered candidates was a Cys-2/His-2-type zinc finger protein named PtiZFP1. This putative transcription factor belongs to a family of transcriptional repressors that rely on an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif for their repression activity. Amino acids located within this repression motif were also found to be essential for MAPK binding. Close examination of the primary protein sequence revealed a functional bipartite MAPK docking site that partially overlaps with the EAR motif. Transient expression assays in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protoplasts suggest that MAPKs promote PtiZFP1 degradation through the 26S proteasome. Since features of the MAPK docking site are conserved among other EAR repressors, our study suggests a novel mode of defense mechanism regulation involving stress-responsive MAPKs and EAR repressors. PMID:21873571

  16. NbCZF1, a Novel C2H2-Type Zinc Finger Protein, as a New Regulator of SsCut-Induced Plant Immunity in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huajian; Zhao, Tongyao; Zhuang, Peitong; Song, Zhiqiang; Du, Hui; Tang, Zhaozhao; Gao, Zhimou

    2016-12-01

    SsCut, which functions as an elicitor, can induce plant immunity. In this study, we utilized Nicotiana benthamiana and virus-induced gene silencing to decrease the expression of > 2,500 genes individually. Using this forward genetics approach, several genes were identified that, when silenced, compromised SsCut-triggered cell death based on a cell death assay. A C 2 H 2 -type zinc finger gene was isolated from N. benthamiana Sequence analysis indicated that the gene encodes a 27 kDa protein with 253 amino acids containing two typical C 2 H 2 -type zinc finger domains; this gene was named NbCZF1 We found that SsCut-induced cell death could be inhibited by virus-induced gene silencing of NbCZF1 in N. benthamiana In addition, SsCut induces stomatal closure, accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by NADPH oxidases and nitric oxide (NO) production. NbCZF1-silenced plants showed impaired SsCut-induced stomatal closure, decreased SsCut-induced production of ROS and NO in guard cells and reduced SsCut-induced resistance against Phytophthora nicotianae Taken together, these results demonstrate that the NbCZF1-ROS-NO pathway mediates multiple SsCut-triggered responses, including stomatal closure, hypersensitive responses and defense-related gene expression. This is the first report describing the function of a C 2 H 2 -type zinc finger protein in N. benthamiana. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Multifunctional Involvement of a C2H2 Zinc Finger Protein (PbZfp) in Malaria Transmission, Histone Modification, and Susceptibility to DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Anusha M.; Aly, Ahmed S. I.; Aravind, L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In sexually reproducing organisms, meiosis is an essential step responsible for generation of haploid gametes from diploid somatic cells. The quest for understanding regulatory mechanisms of meiotic recombination in Plasmodium led to identification of a gene encoding a protein that contains 11 copies of C2H2 zinc fingers (ZnF). Reverse genetic approaches were used to create Plasmodium berghei parasites either lacking expression of full-length Plasmodium berghei zinc finger protein (PbZfp) (knockout [KO]) or expressing PbZfp lacking C-terminal zinc finger region (truncated [Trunc]). Mice infected with KO parasites survived two times longer (P < 0.0001) than mice infected with wild-type (WT) parasites. In mosquito transmission experiments, the infectivity of KO and Trunc parasites was severely compromised (>95% oocyst reduction). KO parasites revealed a total lack of trimethylation of histone 3 at several lysine residues (K4, K27, and K36) without any effect on acetylation patterns (H3K9, H3K14, and H4K16). Reduced DNA damage and reduced expression of topoisomerase-like Spo11 in the KO parasites with normal Rad51 expression further suggest a functional role for PbZfp during genetic recombination that involves DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation followed by DNA repair. These finding raise the possibility of some convergent similarities of PbZfp functions to functions of mammalian PRDM9, also a C2H2 ZnF protein with histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase activity. These functions include the major role played by the latter in binding recombination hotspots in the genome during meiosis and trimethylation of the associated histones and subsequent chromatin recruitment of topoisomerase-like Spo11 to catalyze DNA DSB formation and DMC1/Rad51-mediated DNA repair and homologous recombination. PMID:28851851

  18. Analysis of illegitimate genomic integration mediated by zinc-finger nucleases: implications for specificity of targeted gene correction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Formation of site specific genomic double strand breaks (DSBs), induced by the expression of a pair of engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), dramatically increases the rates of homologous recombination (HR) between a specific genomic target and a donor plasmid. However, for the safe use of ZFN induced HR in practical applications, possible adverse effects of the technology such as cytotoxicity and genotoxicity need to be well understood. In this work, off-target activity of a pair of ZFNs has been examined by measuring the ratio between HR and illegitimate genomic integration in cells that are growing exponentially, and in cells that have been arrested in the G2/M phase. Results A reporter cell line that contained consensus ZFN binding sites in an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene was used to measure ratios between HR and non-homologous integration of a plasmid template. Both in human cells (HEK 293) containing the consensus ZFN binding sites and in cells lacking the ZFN binding sites, a 3.5 fold increase in the level of illegitimate integration was observed upon ZFN expression. Since the reporter gene containing the consensus ZFN target sites was found to be intact in cells where illegitimate integration had occurred, increased rates of illegitimate integration most likely resulted from the formation of off-target genomic DSBs. Additionally, in a fraction of the ZFN treated cells the co-occurrence of both specific HR and illegitimate integration was observed. As a mean to minimize unspecific effects, cell cycle manipulation of the target cells by induction of a transient G2/M cell cycle arrest was shown to stimulate the activity of HR while having little effect on the levels of illegitimate integration, thus resulting in a nearly eight fold increase in the ratio between the two processes. Conclusions The demonstration that ZFN expression, in addition to stimulating specific gene targeting by HR, leads to increased rates of

  19. Knockout of the CCCH zinc finger protein TcZC3H31 blocks Trypanosoma cruzi differentiation into the infective metacyclic form.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Monica Visnieski; Kessler, Rafael Luis; Gonçalves, Rosana Elisa Gonçalves; Marliére, Newmar Pinto; Guarneri, Alessandra Aparecida; Picchi, Gisele Fernanda Assine; Fragoso, Stenio Perdigão

    2018-04-01

    In the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi - the causative agent of Chagas disease - gene expression control is mainly post-transcriptional, where RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a central role, by controlling mRNA stability, distribution and translation. A large variety of RBPs are encoded in the T. cruzi genome, including the CCCH-type zinc finger (CCCH ZnF) protein family, which is characterized by the presence of the C-X 7/8 -C-X 5 -C-X 3 -H (CCCH) motif. In the related parasite T. brucei, CCCH ZnF proteins have been shown to control key differentiation steps in the parasite's life cycle. However, little is known about the CCCH ZnF proteins in T. cruzi. We have worked on the generation of T. cruzi mutants for CCCH ZnF proteins in an effort to shed light on the functions of these proteins in this parasite. Here, we characterize the expression and function of the CCCH ZnF protein TcZC3H31 of T. cruzi. TcZC3H31 is almost exclusively expressed in epimastigotes and metacyclic trypomastigotes, the parasite forms found in the invertebrate host. Importantly, we show that the epimastigote form of the T. cruzi knockout for the TcZC3H31 gene (TcZC3H31 KO) is incapable, both in vitro and in vivo (in infected triatomine insects), to differentiate into the metacyclic trypomastigote form, which is responsible for infection transmission from vectors to humans. The epimastigote forms recovered from the excreta of insects infected with TcZC3H31 KO parasites do not have the typical epimastigote morphology, suggesting that parasites are arrested in a mid-differentiation step. Also, epimastigotes overexpressing TcZC3H31 differentiate into metacyclics more efficiently than wild-type epimastigotes, in vitro. These data suggest that TcZC3H31 is an essential positive regulator of T. cruzi differentiation into the human-infective metacyclic form. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  1. Physiological and Transcriptional Responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Zinc Limitation in Chemostat Cultures †

    PubMed Central

    De Nicola, Raffaele; Hazelwood, Lucie A.; De Hulster, Erik A. F.; Walsh, Michael C.; Knijnenburg, Theo A.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; Walker, Graeme M.; Pronk, Jack T.; Daran, Jean-Marc; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    Transcriptional responses of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Zn availability were investigated at a fixed specific growth rate under limiting and abundant Zn concentrations in chemostat culture. To investigate the context dependency of this transcriptional response and eliminate growth rate-dependent variations in transcription, yeast was grown under several chemostat regimens, resulting in various carbon (glucose), nitrogen (ammonium), zinc, and oxygen supplies. A robust set of genes that responded consistently to Zn limitation was identified, and the set enabled the definition of the Zn-specific Zap1p regulon, comprised of 26 genes and characterized by a broader zinc-responsive element consensus (MHHAACCBYNMRGGT) than so far described. Most surprising was the Zn-dependent regulation of genes involved in storage carbohydrate metabolism. Their concerted down-regulation was physiologically relevant as revealed by a substantial decrease in glycogen and trehalose cellular content under Zn limitation. An unexpectedly large number of genes were synergistically or antagonistically regulated by oxygen and Zn availability. This combinatorial regulation suggested a more prominent involvement of Zn in mitochondrial biogenesis and function than hitherto identified. PMID:17933919

  2. WRNIP1 accumulates at laser light irradiated sites rapidly via its ubiquitin-binding zinc finger domain and independently from its ATPase domain

    SciT

    Nomura, Hironoshin; Yoshimura, Akari, E-mail: akari_yo@musashino-u.ac.jp; Edo, Takato

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WRNIP1 accumulates in laser light irradiated sites very rapidly via UBZ domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ATPase domain of WRNIP1 is dispensable for its accumulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The accumulation of WRNIP1 seems not to be dependent on the interaction with WRN. -- Abstract: WRNIP1 (Werner helicase-interacting protein 1) was originally identified as a protein that interacts with the Werner syndrome responsible gene product. WRNIP1 contains a ubiquitin-binding zinc-finger (UBZ) domain in the N-terminal region and two leucine zipper motifs in the C-terminal region. In addition, it possesses an ATPase domain in the middle of the molecule and the lysine residues servingmore » as ubiquitin acceptors in the entire of the molecule. Here, we report that WRNIP1 accumulates in laser light irradiated sites very rapidly via its ubiquitin-binding zinc finger domain, which is known to bind polyubiquitin and to be involved in ubiquitination of WRNIP1 itself. The accumulation of WRNIP1 in laser light irradiated sites also required the C-terminal region containing two leucine zippers, which is reportedly involved in the oligomerization of WRNIP1. Mutated WRNIP1 with a deleted ATPase domain or with mutations in lysine residues, which serve as ubiquitin acceptors, accumulated in laser light irradiated sites, suggesting that the ATPase domain of WRNIP1 and ubiquitination of WRNIP1 are dispensable for the accumulation.« less

  3. Development of an electrochemical detection system for measuring DNA methylation levels using methyl CpG-binding protein and glucose dehydrogenase-fused zinc finger protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinhee; Yoshida, Wataru; Abe, Koichi; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Wakeda, Hironobu; Hata, Kenichiro; Marquette, Christophe A; Blum, Loïc J; Sode, Koji; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2017-07-15

    DNA methylation level at a certain gene region is considered as a new type of biomarker for diagnosis and its miniaturized and rapid detection system is required for diagnosis. Here we have developed a simple electrochemical detection system for DNA methylation using methyl CpG-binding domain (MBD) and a glucose dehydrogenase (GDH)-fused zinc finger protein. This analytical system consists of three steps: (1) methylated DNA collection by MBD, (2) PCR amplification of a target genomic region among collected methylated DNA, and (3) electrochemical detection of the PCR products using a GDH-fused zinc finger protein. With this system, we have successfully measured the methylation levels at the promoter region of the androgen receptor gene in 10 6 copies of genomic DNA extracted from PC3 and TSU-PR1 cancer cell lines. Since no sequence analysis or enzymatic digestion is required for this detection system, DNA methylation levels can be measured within 3h with a simple procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and molecular characterization of 48 kDa calcium binding protein as calreticulin from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) using peptide mass fingerprinting and transcript profiling.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manoj; Metwal, Mamta; Kumar, Vandana A; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-30

    Attempts were made to identify and characterize the calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in grain filling stages of finger millet using proteomics, bioinformatics and molecular approaches. A distinctly observed blue color band of 48 kDa stained by Stains-all was eluted and analyzed as calreticulin (CRT) using nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS). Based on the top hits of peptide mass fingerprinting results, conserved primers were designed for isolation of the CRT gene from finger millet using calreticulin sequences of different cereals. The deduced nucleotide sequence analysis of 600 bp amplicon showed up to 91% similarity with CRT gene(s) of rice and other plant species and designated as EcCRT1. Transcript profiling of EcCRT1 showed different levels of relative expression at different stages of developing spikes. The higher expression of EcCRT1 transcripts and protein were observed in later stages of developing spikes which might be due to greater translational synthesis of EcCRT1 protein during seed maturation in finger millet. Preferentially higher synthesis of this CaBP during later stages of grain filling may be responsible for the sequestration of calcium in endoplasmic reticulum of finger millet grains. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Zinc finger-inspired nanohydrogels with glutathione/pH triggered degradation based on coordination substitution for highly efficient delivery of anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zihao; Wan, Jiaxun; Sun, Luyan; Li, Yongjing; Guo, Jia; Wang, Changchun

    2016-03-10

    Biodegradable materials used for drug delivery are of great demand due to their ability to degrade into low molecular weight species and further excrete from the body by metabolism. Herein, we report a new kind of zinc(II) crosslinked poly(methacrylic acid) nanohydrogels (ZCLNs) inspired by zinc finger proteins with dual stimuli-triggered degradation (glutathione and pH) for the first time. Compared with the disulfide bond crosslinked nanohydrogels, this new kind of ZCLNs is beneficial to the degradation of a wide range of cells, including normal cells. Ex vivo fluorescence images showed that the DOX-loaded folate-PEG conjugated zinc(II)-crosslinked polymeric nanohydrogels (FPZCLNs-15) preferentially accumulated in tumor tissue and the accumulation in normal tissues was much less compared with DOX-loaded PZCLNs-15 (non-targeted nanohydrogels) and free DOX, the FPZCLNs-15 (targeting system) delivered DOX to the tumor site with approximately 3.6- and 1.6-fold higher than free DOX and PZCLNs-15, respectively. Meanwhile, the PZCLNs-15 and FPZCLNs-15 reduced the concentration of DOX in the heart by 3.2- and 5.0-fold respectively, as compared to the free DOX. Moreover, a superior tumor growth inhibition and negligible damage to normal organs like the heart and kidney, which is reported to be vulnerable to DOX-associated side effects, are further demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sequoia, a tramtrack-related zinc finger protein, functions as a pan-neural regulator for dendrite and axon morphogenesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Brenman, J E; Gao, F B; Jan, L Y; Jan, Y N

    2001-11-01

    Morphological complexity of neurons contributes to their functional complexity. How neurons generate different dendritic patterns is not known. We identified the sequoia mutant from a previous screen for dendrite mutants. Here we report that Sequoia is a pan-neural nuclear protein containing two putative zinc fingers homologous to the DNA binding domain of Tramtrack. sequoia mutants affect the cell fate decision of a small subset of neurons but have global effects on axon and dendrite morphologies of most and possibly all neurons. In support of sequoia as a specific regulator of neuronal morphogenesis, microarray experiments indicate that sequoia may regulate downstream genes that are important for executing neurite development rather than altering a variety of molecules that specify cell fates.

  7. Molecular Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Stably Expressing Human PET Reporter Genes After Zinc Finger Nuclease-Mediated Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Wolfs, Esther; Holvoet, Bryan; Ordovas, Laura; Breuls, Natacha; Helsen, Nicky; Schönberger, Matthias; Raitano, Susanna; Struys, Tom; Vanbilloen, Bert; Casteels, Cindy; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Van Laere, Koen; Lambrichts, Ivo; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Deroose, Christophe M

    2017-10-01

    Molecular imaging is indispensable for determining the fate and persistence of engrafted stem cells. Standard strategies for transgene induction involve the use of viral vectors prone to silencing and insertional mutagenesis or the use of nonhuman genes. Methods: We used zinc finger nucleases to induce stable expression of human imaging reporter genes into the safe-harbor locus adeno-associated virus integration site 1 in human embryonic stem cells. Plasmids were generated carrying reporter genes for fluorescence, bioluminescence imaging, and human PET reporter genes. Results: In vitro assays confirmed their functionality, and embryonic stem cells retained differentiation capacity. Teratoma formation assays were performed, and tumors were imaged over time with PET and bioluminescence imaging. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the application of genome editing for targeted integration of human imaging reporter genes in human embryonic stem cells for long-term molecular imaging. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  8. Zinc finger protein 219-like (ZNF219L) and Sox9a regulate synuclein-γ2 (sncgb) expression in the developing notochord of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lien, Huang-Wei; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Liao, Yung-Feng; Han, Yu-San; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2013-12-13

    Zebrafish synuclein-γ2 (sncgb) has been reported to be expressed specifically in the notochord. However, the mechanism by which the sncgb gene promoter is regulated has not been described. In this paper, we demonstrate that Zinc finger protein 219-like (ZNF219L) and sox9a are involved in the regulation of sncgb gene expression. Furthermore, we observed that over-expression of both ZNF219L and Sox9a resulted in increased sncgb expression. In addition, ZNF219L is physically associated with Sox9a, and simultaneous morpholino knockdown of znf219L and sox9a caused a synergistic decrease of sncgb expression in the notochord. Taken together, our results reveal that coordination of ZNF219L with Sox9a is involved in the regulation of notochord-specific expression of sncgb. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Family of Zinc Finger Proteins Is Required forChromosome-specific Pairing and Synapsis during Meiosis in C.elegans

    SciT

    Phillips, Carolyn M.; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2006-06-07

    Homologous chromosome pairing and synapsis are prerequisitefor accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis. Here, we show that afamily of four related C2H2 zinc-finger proteins plays a central role inthese events in C. elegans. These proteins are encoded within a tandemgene cluster. In addition to the X-specific HIM-8 protein, threeadditional paralogs collectively mediate the behavior of the fiveautosomes. Each chromosome relies on a specific member of the family topair and synapse with its homolog. These "ZIM" proteins concentrate atspecial regions called meiotic pairing centers on the correspondingchromosomes. These sites are dispersed along the nuclear envelope duringearly meiotic prophase, suggesting a role analogousmore » to thetelomere-mediated meiotic bouquet in other organisms. To gain insightinto the evolution of these components, wecharacterized homologs in C.briggsae and C. remanei, which revealed changes in copy number of thisgene family within the nematode lineage.« less

  10. Separating the Role of Protein Restraints and Local Metal-Site Interaction Chemistry in the Thermodynamics of a Zinc Finger Protein

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Purushottam D.; Asthagiri, D.

    2011-01-01

    We express the effective Hamiltonian of an ion-binding site in a protein as a combination of the Hamiltonian of the ion-bound site in vacuum and the restraints of the protein on the site. The protein restraints are described by the quadratic elastic network model. The Hamiltonian of the ion-bound site in vacuum is approximated as a generalized Hessian around the minimum energy configuration. The resultant of the two quadratic Hamiltonians is cast into a pure quadratic form. In the canonical ensemble, the quadratic nature of the resultant Hamiltonian allows us to express analytically the excess free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of ion binding to the protein. The analytical expressions allow us to separate the roles of the dynamic restraints imposed by the protein on the binding site and the temperature-independent chemical effects in metal-ligand coordination. For the consensus zinc-finger peptide, relative to the aqueous phase, the calculated free energy of exchanging Zn2+ with Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ are in agreement with experiments. The predicted excess enthalpy of ion exchange between Zn2+ and Co2+ also agrees with the available experimental estimate. The free energy of applying the protein restraints reveals that relative to Zn2+, the Co2+, and Cd2+-site clusters are more destabilized by the protein restraints. This leads to an experimentally testable hypothesis that a tetrahedral metal binding site with minimal protein restraints will be less selective for Zn2+ over Co2+ and Cd2+ compared to a zinc finger peptide. No appreciable change is expected for Fe2+ and Ni2+. The framework presented here may prove useful in protein engineering to tune metal selectivity. PMID:21943427

  11. Zinc-finger nuclease-mediated targeted insertion of reporter genes for quantitative imaging of gene expression in sea urchin embryos

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Fujita, Kazumasa; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Ken-ichi; Matsuura, Shinya; Miyamoto, Tatsuo; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Shibata, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    To understand complex biological systems, such as the development of multicellular organisms, it is important to characterize the gene expression dynamics. However, there is currently no universal technique for targeted insertion of reporter genes and quantitative imaging in multicellular model systems. Recently, genome editing using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) has been reported in several models. ZFNs consist of a zinc-finger DNA-binding array with the nuclease domain of the restriction enzyme FokI and facilitate targeted transgene insertion. In this study, we successfully inserted a GFP reporter cassette into the HpEts1 gene locus of the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. We achieved this insertion by injecting eggs with a pair of ZFNs for HpEts1 with a targeting donor construct that contained ∼1-kb homology arms and a 2A-histone H2B–GFP cassette. We increased the efficiency of the ZFN-mediated targeted transgene insertion by in situ linearization of the targeting donor construct and cointroduction of an mRNA for a dominant-negative form of HpLig4, which encodes the H. pulcherrimus homolog of DNA ligase IV required for error-prone nonhomologous end joining. We measured the fluorescence intensity of GFP at the single-cell level in living embryos during development and found that there was variation in HpEts1 expression among the primary mesenchyme cells. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of ZFN-mediated targeted transgene insertion to enable quantification of the expression levels of endogenous genes during development in living sea urchin embryos. PMID:22711830

  12. Identification of the Zinc Finger Protein ZRANB2 as a Novel Maternal Lipopolysaccharide-binding Protein That Protects Embryos of Zebrafish against Gram-negative Bacterial Infections*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xia; Du, Xiaoyuan; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Shicui

    2016-01-01

    Zinc finger ZRANB2 proteins are widespread in animals, but their functions and mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we clearly demonstrate that ZRANB2 is a newly identified LPS-binding protein present abundantly in the eggs/embryos of zebrafish. We also show that recombinant ZRANB2 (rZRANB2) acts as a pattern recognition receptor capable of identifying the bacterial signature molecule LPS as well as binding the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguilarum, and Aeromonas hydrophila and functions as an antibacterial effector molecule capable of directly killing the bacteria. Furthermore, we reveal that N-terminal residues 11–37 consisting of the first ZnF_RBZ domain are indispensable for ZRANB2 antimicrobial activity. Importantly, microinjection of rZRANB2 into early embryos significantly enhanced the resistance of the embryos against pathogenic A. hydrophila challenge, and this enhanced bacterial resistance was markedly reduced by co-injection of anti-ZRANB2 antibody. Moreover, precipitation of ZRANB2 in the embryo extracts by preincubation with anti-ZRANB2 antibody caused a marked decrease in the antibacterial activity of the extracts against the bacteria tested. In addition, the N-terminal peptide Z1/37 or Z11/37 with in vitro antibacterial activity also promoted the resistance of embryos against A. hydrophila, but the peptide Z38/198 without in vitro antibacterial activity did not. Collectively, these results indicate that ZRANB2 is a maternal LPS-binding protein that can protect the early embryos of zebrafish against pathogenic attacks, a novel role ever assigned to ZRANB2 proteins. This work also provides new insights into the immunological function of the zinc finger proteins that are widely distributed in various animals. PMID:26740623

  13. The Arabidopsis tandem CCCH zinc finger proteins AtTZF4, 5 and 6 are involved in light-, abscisic acid- and gibberellic acid-mediated regulation of seed germination.

    PubMed

    Bogamuwa, Srimathi; Jang, Jyan-Chyun

    2013-08-01

    Tandem CCCH zinc finger proteins (TZFs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in animals and yeast. Genetic studies indicate that plant TZFs are involved in hormone-mediated developmental and environmental responses. We have demonstrated previously that Arabidopsis AtTZF1 can localize to processing bodies (PBs) and stress granules (SGs), and affects abscisic acid (ABA)- and gibberellic acid (GA)-mediated growth, stress and gene expression responses. Here we show that AtTZF4, 5 and 6 are specifically expressed in seeds. Consistent with the observation that their expression levels decline during seed imbibition, AtTZF4, 5 and 6 are up-regulated by ABA and down-regulated by GA. Mutant analyses indicate that AtTZF4, 5 and 6 act as positive regulators for ABA- and negative regulators for light- and GA-mediated seed germination responses. Results of gene expression analysis indicate that AtTZF4, 5 and 6 affect seed germination by controlling genes critical for ABA and GA response. Furthermore, AtTZF4, 5 and 6 can co-localize with both PB and SG markers in Arabidopsis cells. Specifically, AtTZF6 can be assembled into PBs and SGs in embryos with the induction of stress hormone methyl jasmonate under the control of native AtTZF6 promoter. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The binding of histone deacetylases and the integrity of zinc finger-like motifs of the E7 protein are essential for the life cycle of human papillomavirus type 31.

    PubMed

    Longworth, Michelle S; Laimins, Laimonis A

    2004-04-01

    The E7 oncoprotein of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) binds to and alters the action of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as members of the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of proteins as well as the histone deacetylases (HDACs). To examine the significance of the binding of E7 to HDACs in the viral life cycle, a mutational analysis of the E7 open reading frame was performed in the context of the complete HPV type 31 (HPV-31) genome. Human foreskin keratinocytes were transfected with wild-type HPV-31 genomes or HPV-31 genomes containing mutations in HDAC binding sequences as well as in the C-terminal zinc finger-like domain, and stable cell lines were isolated. All mutant genomes, except those with E7 mutations in the HDAC binding site, were found to be stably maintained extrachromosomally at an early passage following transfection. Upon further passage in culture, genomes containing mutations to the Rb binding domain as well as the zinc finger-like region quickly lost the ability to maintain episomal genomes. Genomes containing mutations abolishing E7 binding to HDACs or to Rb or mutations to the zinc finger-like motifs failed to extend the life span of transfected keratinocytes and caused cells to arrest at the same time as the untransfected keratinocytes. When induced to differentiate by suspension in methylcellulose, cells maintaining genomes with mutations in the Rb binding domain or the zinc finger-like motifs were impaired in their abilities to activate late viral functions. This study demonstrates that the interaction of E7 with HDACs and the integrity of the zinc finger-like motifs are essential for extending the life span of keratinocytes and for stable maintenance of viral genomes.

  15. Transcriptional analysis of micronutrient zinc-associated response for enhanced carbohydrate utilization and earlier solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Wan, Hui-Hui; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2015-11-20

    The micronutrient zinc plays vital roles in ABE fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. In order to elucidate the zinc-associated response for enhanced glucose utilization and earlier solventogenesis, transcriptional analysis was performed on cells grown in glucose medium at the exponential growth phase of 16 h without/with supplementary zinc. Correspondingly, the gene glcG (CAC0570) encoding a glucose-specific PTS was significantly upregulated accompanied with the other two genes CAC1353 and CAC1354 for glucose transport in the presence of zinc. Additionally, genes involved in the metabolisms of six other carbohydrates (maltose, cellobiose, fructose, mannose, xylose and arabinose) were differentially expressed, indicating that the regulatory effect of micronutrient zinc is carbohydrate-specific with respects to the improved/inhibited carbohydrate utilization. More importantly, multiple genes responsible for glycolysis (glcK and pykA), acidogenesis (thlA, crt, etfA, etfB and bcd) and solventogenesis (ctfB and bdhA) of C. acetobutylicum prominently responded to the supplementary zinc at differential expression levels. Comparative analysis of intracellular metabolites revealed that the branch node intermediates such as acetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA, butyl-CoA, and reducing power NADH remained relatively lower whereas more ATP was generated due to enhanced glycolysis pathway and earlier initiation of solventogenesis, suggesting that the micronutrient zinc-associated response for the selected intracellular metabolisms is significantly pleiotropic.

  16. The Polyadenosine RNA-binding Protein, Zinc Finger Cys3His Protein 14 (ZC3H14), Regulates the Pre-mRNA Processing of a Key ATP Synthase Subunit mRNA*

    PubMed Central

    Wigington, Callie P.; Morris, Kevin J.; Newman, Laura E.; Corbett, Anita H.

    2016-01-01

    Polyadenosine RNA-binding proteins (Pabs) regulate multiple steps in gene expression. This protein family includes the well studied Pabs, PABPN1 and PABPC1, as well as the newly characterized Pab, zinc finger CCCH-type containing protein 14 (ZC3H14). Mutations in ZC3H14 are linked to a form of intellectual disability. To probe the function of ZC3H14, we performed a transcriptome-wide analysis of cells depleted of either ZC3H14 or the control Pab, PABPN1. Depletion of PABPN1 affected ∼17% of expressed transcripts, whereas ZC3H14 affected only ∼1% of expressed transcripts. To assess the function of ZC3H14 in modulating target mRNAs, we selected the gene encoding the ATP synthase F0 subunit C (ATP5G1) transcript. Knockdown of ZC3H14 significantly reduced ATP5G1 steady-state mRNA levels. Consistent with results suggesting that ATP5G1 turnover increases upon depletion of ZC3H14, double knockdown of ZC3H14 and the nonsense-mediated decay factor, UPF1, rescues ATP5G1 transcript levels. Furthermore, fractionation reveals an increase in the amount of ATP5G1 pre-mRNA that reaches the cytoplasm when ZC3H14 is depleted and that ZC3H14 binds to ATP5G1 pre-mRNA in the nucleus. These data support a role for ZC3H14 in ensuring proper nuclear processing and retention of ATP5G1 pre-mRNA. Consistent with the observation that ATP5G1 is a rate-limiting component for ATP synthase activity, knockdown of ZC3H14 decreases cellular ATP levels and causes mitochondrial fragmentation. These data suggest that ZC3H14 modulates pre-mRNA processing of select mRNA transcripts and plays a critical role in regulating cellular energy levels, observations that have broad implications for proper neuronal function. PMID:27563065

  17. An MSC2 Promoter-lacZ Fusion Gene Reveals Zinc-Responsive Changes in Sites of Transcription Initiation That Occur across the Yeast Genome

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Taggart, Janet; Song, Pamela Xiyao; MacDiarmid, Colin; Eide, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The Msc2 and Zrg17 proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form a complex to transport zinc into the endoplasmic reticulum. ZRG17 is transcriptionally induced in zinc-limited cells by the Zap1 transcription factor. In this report, we show that MSC2 mRNA also increases (~1.5 fold) in zinc-limited cells. The MSC2 gene has two in-frame ATG codons at its 5’ end, ATG1 and ATG2; ATG2 is the predicted initiation codon. When the MSC2 promoter was fused at ATG2 to the lacZ gene, we found that unlike the chromosomal gene this reporter showed a 4-fold decrease in lacZ mRNA in zinc-limited cells. Surprisingly, β-galactosidase activity generated by this fusion gene increased ~7 fold during zinc deficiency suggesting the influence of post-transcriptional factors. Transcription of MSC2ATG2-lacZ was found to start upstream of ATG1 in zinc-replete cells. In zinc-limited cells, transcription initiation shifted to sites just upstream of ATG2. From the results of mutational and polysome profile analyses, we propose the following explanation for these effects. In zinc-replete cells, MSC2ATG2-lacZ mRNA with long 5’ UTRs fold into secondary structures that inhibit translation. In zinc-limited cells, transcripts with shorter unstructured 5’ UTRs are generated that are more efficiently translated. Surprisingly, chromosomal MSC2 did not show start site shifts in response to zinc status and only shorter 5’ UTRs were observed. However, the shifts that occur in the MSC2ATG2-lacZ construct led us to identify significant transcription start site changes affecting the expression of ~3% of all genes. Therefore, zinc status can profoundly alter transcription initiation across the yeast genome. PMID:27657924

  18. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  19. Zinc

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  20. A Small Zinc Finger Thylakoid Protein Plays a Role in Maintenance of Photosystem II in Arabidopsis thaliana[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Hall, David A.; Last, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This work identifies LOW QUANTUM YIELD OF PHOTOSYSTEM II1 (LQY1), a Zn finger protein that shows disulfide isomerase activity, interacts with the photosystem II (PSII) core complex, and may act in repair of photodamaged PSII complexes. Two mutants of an unannotated small Zn finger containing a thylakoid membrane protein of Arabidopsis thaliana (At1g75690; LQY1) were found to have a lower quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and reduced PSII electron transport rate following high-light treatment. The mutants dissipate more excess excitation energy via nonphotochemical pathways than wild type, and they also display elevated accumulation of reactive oxygen species under high light. After high-light treatment, the mutants have less PSII–light-harvesting complex II supercomplex than wild-type plants. Analysis of thylakoid membrane protein complexes showed that wild-type LQY1 protein comigrates with the PSII core monomer and the CP43-less PSII monomer (a marker for ongoing PSII repair and reassembly). PSII repair and reassembly involve the breakage and formation of disulfide bonds among PSII proteins. Interestingly, the recombinant LQY1 protein demonstrates a protein disulfide isomerase activity. LQY1 is more abundant in stroma-exposed thylakoids, where key steps of PSII repair and reassembly take place. The absence of the LQY1 protein accelerates turnover and synthesis of PSII reaction center protein D1. These results suggest that the LQY1 protein may be involved in maintaining PSII activity under high light by regulating repair and reassembly of PSII complexes. PMID:21586683

  1. A novel zinc finger protein 219-like (ZNF219L) is involved in the regulation of collagen type 2 alpha 1a (col2a1a) gene expression in zebrafish notochord.

    PubMed

    Lien, Huang-Wei; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Hung, Chin-Chun; Liao, Wei-Hao; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Han, Yu-San; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2013-01-01

    The notochord is required for body plan patterning in vertebrates, and defects in notochord development during embryogenesis can lead to diseases affecting the adult. It is therefore important to elucidate the gene regulatory mechanism underlying notochord formation. In this study, we cloned the zebrafish zinc finger 219-like (ZNF219L) based on mammalian ZNF219, which contains nine C2H2-type zinc finger domains. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we found that znf219L mRNA is mainly expressed in the zebrafish midbrain-hindbrain boundary, hindbrain, and notochord during development. The znf219L morpholino knockdown caused partial abnormal notochord phenotype and reduced expression of endogenous col2a1a in the notochord specifically. In addition, ZNF219L could recognize binding sites with GGGGG motifs and trigger augmented activity of the col2a1a promoter in a luciferase assay. Furthermore, in vitro binding experiments revealed that ZNF219L recognizes the GGGGG motifs in the promoter region of the zebrafish col2a1a gene through its sixth and ninth zinc finger domains. Taken together, our results reveal that ZNF219L is involved in regulating the expression of col2a1a in zebrafish notochord specifically.

  2. A Novel Zinc Finger Protein 219-like (ZNF219L) is Involved in the Regulation of Collagen Type 2 Alpha 1a (col2a1a) Gene Expression in Zebrafish Notochord

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Huang-Wei; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Hung, Chin-Chun; Liao, Wei-Hao; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Han, Yu-San; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2013-01-01

    The notochord is required for body plan patterning in vertebrates, and defects in notochord development during embryogenesis can lead to diseases affecting the adult. It is therefore important to elucidate the gene regulatory mechanism underlying notochord formation. In this study, we cloned the zebrafish zinc finger 219-like (ZNF219L) based on mammalian ZNF219, which contains nine C2H2-type zinc finger domains. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we found that znf219L mRNA is mainly expressed in the zebrafish midbrain-hindbrain boundary, hindbrain, and notochord during development. The znf219L morpholino knockdown caused partial abnormal notochord phenotype and reduced expression of endogenous col2a1a in the notochord specifically. In addition, ZNF219L could recognize binding sites with GGGGG motifs and trigger augmented activity of the col2a1a promoter in a luciferase assay. Furthermore, in vitro binding experiments revealed that ZNF219L recognizes the GGGGG motifs in the promoter region of the zebrafish col2a1a gene through its sixth and ninth zinc finger domains. Taken together, our results reveal that ZNF219L is involved in regulating the expression of col2a1a in zebrafish notochord specifically. PMID:24155663

  3. MiRNA-101 inhibits oral squamous-cell carcinoma growth and metastasis by targeting zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Baolei; Lei, Delin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xinjie; Jia, Sen; Yang, Zihui; Shan, Chun; Yang, Xi; Zhang, Chenping; Lu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC). miR-101 is involved in the development and progression of OSCC, but the biological functions and underlying molecular mechanisms of this miRNA remain largely unknown. In this study, we showed that miR-101 was underexpressed in OSCC tissues and cell lines. miR-101 downregulation was inversely correlated with zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) expression, lymph-node metastasis, and poor prognosis in OSCC patients. Enhanced expression of miR-101 significantly inhibited OSCC cell proliferation, apoptosis resistance, migration and invasion in vitro, and suppressed tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Bioinformatics analyses showed that miR-101 directly targeted ZEB1, as confirmed by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. The inhibitory effects of miR-101 on OSCC growth and metastasis were attenuated and phenocopied by ZEB1 overexpression and knockdown, respectively. Overall, our findings indicated that miRNA-101 reduced OSCC growth and metastasis by targeting ZEB1 and provided new evidence of miR-101 as a potential therapeutic target for OSCC patients. PMID:27429852

  4. Speckle-type POZ (pox virus and zinc finger protein) protein gene deletion in ovarian cancer: Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of a tissue microarray.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Zhu; Zeng, Manman; Liu, Y I; Yang, Xiaotao; Li, Yanan; Li, X U; Yu, Qiubo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the status of speckle-type POZ (pox virus and zinc finger protein) protein (SPOP) gene located on chromosome 17q21 in ovarian cancer (OC). The present study evaluated a tissue microarray, which contained 90 samples of ovarian cancer and 10 samples of normal ovarian tissue, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH is a method where a SPOP-specific DNA red fluorescence probe was used for the experimental group and a centromere-specific DNA green fluorescence probe for chromosome 17 was used for the control group. The present study demonstrated that a deletion of the SPOP gene was observed in 52.27% (46/88) of the ovarian cancer tissues, but was not identified in normal ovarian tissues. Simultaneously, monosomy 17 was frequently identified in the ovarian cancer tissues, but not in the normal ovarian tissues. Furthermore, the present data revealed that the ovarian cancer histological subtype and grade were significantly associated with a deletion of the SPOP gene, which was assessed by the appearance of monosomy 17 in the ovarian cancer samples; the deletion of the SPOP gene was observed in a large proportion of serous epithelial ovarian cancer (41/61; 67.21%), particularly in grade 3 (31/37; 83.78%). In conclusion, deletion of the SPOP gene on chromosome 17 in ovarian cancer samples, which results from monosomy 17, indicates that the SPOP gene may serve as a tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer.

  5. A genetic method for sex determination in Ovis spp. by interruption of the zinc finger protein, Y-linked (ZFY) gene on the Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong Sheng; Du, Ying Chun; Sun, Li Rong; Wang, Xu Hai; Liu, Shuai Bing; Xi, Ji Feng; Li, Chao Cheng; Ying, Rui Wen; Jiang, Song; Wang, Xiang Zu; Shen, Hong; Jia, Bin

    2018-03-06

    The mammalian Y chromosome plays a critical role in spermatogenesis. However, the exact functions of each gene on the Y chromosome have not been completely elucidated, due, in part, to difficulties in gene targeting analysis of the Y chromosome. The zinc finger protein, Y-linked (ZFY) gene was first proposed to be a sex determination factor, although its function in spermatogenesis has recently been elucidated. Nevertheless, ZFY gene targeting analysis has not been performed to date. In the present study, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to generate ZFY-interrupted Hu sheep by injecting short hairpin RNA (shRNA) into round spermatids. The resulting spermatozoa exhibited abnormal sperm morphology, including spermatozoa without tails and others with head and tail abnormalities. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that ZFY mRNA expression was decreased significantly in Hu sheep with interrupted ZFY compared with wild-type Hu sheep. The sex ratio of lambs also exhibited a bias towards females. Together, the experimental strategy and findings of the present study reveal that ZFY also functions in spermatogenesis in Hu sheep and facilitate the use of RNAi in the control of sex in Hu sheep.

  6. In Vivo Zinc Finger Nuclease-mediated Targeted Integration of a Glucose-6-phosphatase Transgene Promotes Survival in Mice With Glycogen Storage Disease Type IA

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Dustin J; Brooks, Elizabeth Drake; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Amarasekara, Hiruni; Mefferd, Adam; Li, Songtao; Bird, Andrew; Gersbach, Charles A; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) is caused by glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency in association with severe, life-threatening hypoglycemia that necessitates lifelong dietary therapy. Here we show that use of a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) targeted to the ROSA26 safe harbor locus and a ROSA26-targeting vector containing a G6PC donor transgene, both delivered with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, markedly improved survival of G6Pase knockout (G6Pase-KO) mice compared with mice receiving the donor vector alone (P < 0.04). Furthermore, transgene integration has been confirmed by sequencing in the majority of the mice treated with both vectors. Targeted alleles were 4.6-fold more common in livers of mice with GSD Ia, as compared with normal littermates, at 8 months following vector administration (P < 0.02). This suggests a selective advantage for vector-transduced hepatocytes following ZFN-mediated integration of the G6Pase vector. A short-term experiment also showed that 3-month-old mice receiving the ZFN had significantly-improved biochemical correction, in comparison with mice that received the donor vector alone. These data suggest that the use of ZFNs to drive integration of G6Pase at a safe harbor locus might improve vector persistence and efficacy, and lower mortality in GSD Ia. PMID:26865405

  7. The Phytochrome-Interacting VASCULAR PLANT ONE–ZINC FINGER1 and VOZ2 Redundantly Regulate Flowering in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Yukiko; Mukougawa, Keiko; Uemoto, Mitsuhiro; Yokofuji, Akira; Suzuri, Ryota; Nishitani, Aiko; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    The timing of the transition to flowering in plants is regulated by various environmental factors, including daylength and light quality. Although the red/far-red photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB) represses flowering by indirectly regulating the expression of a key flowering regulator, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), the mechanism of phyB signaling for flowering is largely unknown. Here, we identified two Arabidopsis thaliana genes, VASCULAR PLANT ONE–ZINC FINGER1 (VOZ1) and VOZ2, which are highly conserved throughout land plant evolution, as phyB-interacting factors. voz1 voz2 double mutants, but neither single mutant, showed a late-flowering phenotype under long-day conditions, which indicated that VOZ1 and VOZ2 redundantly promote flowering. voz1 voz2 mutations suppressed the early-flowering phenotype of the phyB mutant, and FT expression was repressed in the voz1 voz2 mutant. Green fluorescent protein–VOZ2 signal was observed in the cytoplasm, and interaction of VOZ proteins with phyB was indicated to occur in the cytoplasm under far-red light. However, VOZ2 protein modified to localize constitutively in the nucleus promoted flowering. In addition, the stability of VOZ2 proteins in the nucleus was modulated by light quality in a phytochrome-dependent manner. We propose that partial translocation of VOZ proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus mediates the initial step of the phyB signal transduction pathway that regulates flowering. PMID:22904146

  8. Clinical Scale Zinc Finger Nuclease-mediated Gene Editing of PD-1 in Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes for the Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Beane, Joal D; Lee, Gary; Zheng, Zhili; Mendel, Matthew; Abate-Daga, Daniel; Bharathan, Mini; Black, Mary; Gandhi, Nimisha; Yu, Zhiya; Chandran, Smita; Giedlin, Martin; Ando, Dale; Miller, Jeff; Paschon, David; Guschin, Dmitry; Rebar, Edward J; Reik, Andreas; Holmes, Michael C; Gregory, Philip D; Restifo, Nicholas P; Rosenberg, Steven A; Morgan, Richard A; Feldman, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is expressed on activated T cells and represents an attractive target for gene-editing of tumor targeted T cells prior to adoptive cell transfer (ACT). We used zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) directed against the gene encoding human PD-1 (PDCD-1) to gene-edit melanoma tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). We show that our clinical scale TIL production process yielded efficient modification of the PD-1 gene locus, with an average modification frequency of 74.8% (n = 3, range 69.9–84.1%) of the alleles in a bulk TIL population, which resulted in a 76% reduction in PD-1 surface-expression. Forty to 48% of PD-1 gene-edited cells had biallelic PD-1 modification. Importantly, the PD-1 gene-edited TIL product showed improved in vitro effector function and a significantly increased polyfunctional cytokine profile (TNFα, GM-CSF, and IFNγ) compared to unmodified TIL in two of the three donors tested. In addition, all donor cells displayed an effector memory phenotype and expanded approximately 500–2,000-fold in vitro. Thus, further study to determine the efficiency and safety of adoptive cell transfer using PD-1 gene-edited TIL for the treatment of metastatic melanoma is warranted. PMID:25939491

  9. A map of human PRDM9 binding provides evidence for novel behaviors of PRDM9 and other zinc-finger proteins in meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Nudrat; Bitoun, Emmanuelle; Tumian, Afidalina; Imbeault, Michael; Chapman, J Ross; Aricescu, A Radu

    2017-01-01

    PRDM9 binding localizes almost all meiotic recombination sites in humans and mice. However, most PRDM9-bound loci do not become recombination hotspots. To explore factors that affect binding and subsequent recombination outcomes, we mapped human PRDM9 binding sites in a transfected human cell line and measured PRDM9-induced histone modifications. These data reveal varied DNA-binding modalities of PRDM9. We also find that human PRDM9 frequently binds promoters, despite their low recombination rates, and it can activate expression of a small number of genes including CTCFL and VCX. Furthermore, we identify specific sequence motifs that predict consistent, localized meiotic recombination suppression around a subset of PRDM9 binding sites. These motifs strongly associate with KRAB-ZNF protein binding, TRIM28 recruitment, and specific histone modifications. Finally, we demonstrate that, in addition to binding DNA, PRDM9's zinc fingers also mediate its multimerization, and we show that a pair of highly diverged alleles preferentially form homo-multimers. PMID:29072575

  10. Dissecting the mechanism of histone deacetylase inhibitors to enhance the activity of zinc finger nucleases delivered by integrase-defective lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Joglekar, Alok V; Stein, Libby; Ho, Michelle; Hoban, Megan D; Hollis, Roger P; Kohn, Donald B

    2014-07-01

    Integrase-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) have been of limited success in the delivery of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) to human cells, due to low expression. A reason for reduced gene expression has been proposed to involve the epigenetic silencing of vector genomes, carried out primarily by histone deacetylases (HDACs). In this study, we tested valproic acid (VPA), a known HDAC inhibitor (HDACi), for its ability to increase transgene expression from IDLVs, especially in the context of ZFN delivery. Using ZFNs targeting the human adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene in K562 cells, we demonstrated that treatment with VPA enhanced ZFN expression by up to 3-fold, resulting in improved allelic disruption at the ADA locus. Furthermore, three other U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved HDACis (vorinostat, givinostat, and trichostatin-A) exhibited a similar effect on the activity of ZFN-IDLVs in K562 cells. In primary human CD34(+) cells, VPA- and vorinostat-treated cells showed higher levels of expression of both green fluorescent protein (GFP) as well as ZFNs from IDLVs. A major mechanism for the effects of HDAC inhibitors on improving expression was from their modulation of the cell cycle, and the influence of heterochromatinization was determined to be a lesser contributing factor.

  11. Zinc finger nuclease-mediated precision genome editing of an endogenous gene in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) using a DNA repair template.

    PubMed

    Ran, Yidong; Patron, Nicola; Kay, Pippa; Wong, Debbie; Buchanan, Margaret; Cao, Ying-Ying; Sawbridge, Tim; Davies, John P; Mason, John; Webb, Steven R; Spangenberg, German; Ainley, William M; Walsh, Terence A; Hayden, Matthew J

    2018-05-07

    Sequence-specific nucleases have been used to engineer targeted genome modifications in various plants. While targeted gene knockouts resulting in loss of function have been reported with relatively high rates of success, targeted gene editing using an exogenously supplied DNA repair template and site-specific transgene integration has been more challenging. Here, we report the first application of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)-directed editing of a native gene in allohexaploid bread wheat to introduce, via a supplied DNA repair template, a specific single amino acid change into the coding sequence of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) to confer resistance to imidazolinone herbicides. We recovered edited wheat plants having the targeted amino acid modification in one or more AHAS homoalleles via direct selection for resistance to imazamox, an AHAS-inhibiting imidazolinone herbicide. Using a cotransformation strategy based on chemical selection for an exogenous marker, we achieved a 1.2% recovery rate of edited plants having the desired amino acid change and a 2.9% recovery of plants with targeted mutations at the AHAS locus resulting in a loss-of-function gene knockout. The latter results demonstrate a broadly applicable approach to introduce targeted modifications into native genes for nonselectable traits. All ZFN-mediated changes were faithfully transmitted to the next generation. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. OsDOG, a gibberellin-induced A20/AN1 zinc-finger protein, negatively regulates gibberellin-mediated cell elongation in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaju; Xu, Yunyuan; Xiao, Jun; Ma, Qibin; Li, Dan; Xue, Zhen; Chong, Kang

    2011-07-01

    The A20/AN1 zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) play pivotal roles in animal immune responses and plant stress responses. From previous gibberellin (GA) microarray data and A20/AN1 ZFP family member association, we chose Oryza sativa dwarf rice with overexpression of gibberellin-induced gene (OsDOG) to examine its function in the GA pathway. OsDOG was induced by gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and repressed by the GA-synthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. Different transgenic lines with constitutive expression of OsDOG showed dwarf phenotypes due to deficiency of cell elongation. Additional GA(1) and real-time PCR quantitative assay analyses confirmed that the decrease of GA(1) in the overexpression lines resulted from reduced expression of GA3ox2 and enhanced expression of GA2ox1 and GA2ox3. Adding exogenous GA rescued the constitutive expression phenotypes of the transgenic lines. OsDOG has a novel function in regulating GA homeostasis and in negative maintenance of plant cell elongation in rice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Strategy for Controlling the Metastatic Phenotype: Targeting the SNAG Repression Domain in the SNAIL Zinc-Finger Protein

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    interacts with nuclear receptors and can inhibit betaFTZ-F1-dependent transcription. Mol. Cell, 7, 753–765. 29. Dupont , S., Zacchigna, L., Cordenonsi, M...Washington University/ Pfizer Biomedical Research Program to GDL. GDL was an Established Investigator of the American Heart Association. 26...Cell 11, 1043-1054. Hecker, C. M., Rabiller, M., Haglund, K., Bayer , P., and Dikic, I. (2006). Specification of SUMO1- and SUMO2-interacting motifs. J

  14. The C3H-type zinc finger protein GDS1/C3H42 is a nuclear-speckle-localized protein that is essential for normal growth and development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Won; Jeon, Su Jeong; Hwang, Sung Min; Hong, Jong Chan; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2016-09-01

    Eukaryotic C3H-type zinc finger proteins (Znfs) comprise a large family of regulatory proteins involved in many aspects of plant stress response, growth and development. However, compared to mammalian, only a few plant Znfs have been functionally characterized. Here, T-DNA inserted gds1 (growth, development and splicing 1) mutant, displayed abnormal growth throughout the lifecycle owing to the reduction of cell size and number. Inverse PCR analysis revealed that the abnormal growth was caused by the disruption of At3g47120, which encodes a C3H42 protein belonging to the C-X7-C-X5-C-X3-H class of the Znf family. GDS1 was ubiquitously transcribed, but shows high levels of expression in young seedling and unexpanded new leaves. In gds1, the transcripts of many growth- and development-related genes were down-regulated, and the auxin response was dramatically reduced. A fluorescence-based assay revealed that the GDS1 protein was localized to the nucleus, prominently in the speckle compartments. Its arginine/serine dipeptide-rich-like (RS-like) domain was essential for nuclear localization. In addition, the SR1, SRm102 and U1-70K components of the U1 spliceosome interacted with GDS1 in the nuclear speckle compartments. Taken together, these suggest that GDS1, a nuclear-speckle-associated Znf, might play a significant role in splicing during plant growth and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Over-expression of a NAC 67 transcription factor from finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) confers tolerance against salinity and drought stress in rice.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Hifzur; Ramanathan, Valarmathi; Nallathambi, Jagedeeshselvam; Duraialagaraja, Sudhakar; Muthurajan, Raveendran

    2016-05-11

    NAC proteins (NAM (No apical meristem), ATAF (Arabidopsis transcription activation factor) and CUC (cup-shaped cotyledon)) are plant-specific transcription factors reported to be involved in regulating growth, development and stress responses. Salinity responsive transcriptome profiling in a set of contrasting finger millet genotypes through RNA-sequencing resulted in the identification of a NAC homolog (EcNAC 67) exhibiting differential salinity responsive expression pattern. Full length cDNA of EcNAC67 was isolated, characterized and validated for its role in abiotic stress tolerance through agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation in a rice cultivar ASD16. Bioinformatics analysis of putative NAC transcription factor (TF) isolated from a salinity tolerant finger millet showed its genetic relatedness to NAC67 family TFs in related cereals. Putative transgenic lines of rice over-expressing EcNAC67 were generated through Agrobacterium mediated transformation and presence/integration of transgene was confirmed through PCR and southern hybridization analysis. Transgenic rice plants harboring EcNAC67 showed enhanced tolerance against drought and salinity under greenhouse conditions. Transgenic rice plants were found to possess higher root and shoot biomass during stress and showed better revival ability upon relief from salinity stress. Upon drought stress, transgenic lines were found to maintain higher relative water content and lesser reduction in grain yield when compared to non-transgenic ASD16 plants. Drought induced spikelet sterility was found to be much lower in the transgenic lines than the non-transgenic ASD16. Results revealed the significant role of EcNAC67 in modulating responses against dehydration stress in rice. No detectable abnormalities in the phenotypic traits were observed in the transgenic plants under normal growth conditions. Results indicate that EcNAC67 can be used as a novel source for engineering tolerance against drought and salinity

  16. Transcriptional expression analysis of genes involved in regulation of calcium translocation and storage in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gartn.).

    PubMed

    Mirza, Neelofar; Taj, Gohar; Arora, Sandeep; Kumar, Anil

    2014-10-25

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) variably accumulates calcium in different tissues, due to differential expression of genes involved in uptake, translocation and accumulation of calcium. Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter (CAX1), two pore channel (TPC1), CaM-stimulated type IIB Ca(2+) ATPase and two CaM dependent protein kinase (CaMK1 and 2) homologs were studied in finger millet. Two genotypes GP-45 and GP-1 (high and low calcium accumulating, respectively) were used to understand the role of these genes in differential calcium accumulation. For most of the genes higher expression was found in the high calcium accumulating genotype. CAX1 was strongly expressed in the late stages of spike development and could be responsible for accumulating high concentrations of calcium in seeds. TPC1 and Ca(2+) ATPase homologs recorded strong expression in the root, stem and developing spike and signify their role in calcium uptake and translocation, respectively. Calmodulin showed strong expression and a similar expression pattern to the type IIB ATPase in the developing spike only and indicating developing spike or even seed specific isoform of CaM affecting the activity of downstream target of calcium transportation. Interestingly, CaMK1 and CaMK2 had expression patterns similar to ATPase and TPC1 in various tissues raising a possibility of their respective regulation via CaM kinase. Expression pattern of 14-3-3 gene was observed to be similar to CAX1 gene in leaf and developing spike inferring a surprising possibility of CAX1 regulation through 14-3-3 protein. Our results provide a molecular insight for explaining the mechanism of calcium accumulation in finger millet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cloning and function analysis of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) zinc finger protein promoter MsZPP.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Sun, Yan; Yang, Qingchuan; Kang, Junmei; Zhang, Tiejun; Gruber, Margaret Yvonne; Fang, Feng

    2012-08-01

    A 1272 bp upstream sequence of MsZFN gene was cloned from alfalfa, which was designed as MsZPP (Genbank accession number: FJ 161979.2) using an adaptor-mediated genome walking method. A sole transcription start site was located 69 bp upstream of the translation start site. Its pattern of expression included roots, stem vascular tissues, floral reproductive organs, and leaves, but the promoter did not express in seeds, petals or sepals. Transcription levels can be stimulated by dark, MeJA, and IAA. However, GUS fusion activities had no change by treatments of GA, ABA, drought and high salt for 3 days. Deletion analysis revealed that all sections of the promoter can drive gus gene expression in the root, stem, leaves and floral reproductive organs; however, only fragments longer than the -460 bp promoter can stimulate strong gus gene expression in these organs. In addition, the -460 bp promoter fragment can drive gus expression not only in the vascular tissue, but also in leaf guard cells. The results suggest that the promoter MsZPP plays roles in the regulation of transgene expression, particularly due to its darkness, MeJA, and IAA responsiveness.

  18. The DnaJ-Like Zinc-Finger Protein HCF222 Is Required for Thylakoid Membrane Biogenesis in Plants.

    PubMed

    Hartings, Stephanie; Paradies, Susanne; Karnuth, Bianca; Eisfeld, Sabrina; Mehsing, Jasmin; Wolff, Christian; Levey, Tatjana; Westhoff, Peter; Meierhoff, Karin

    2017-07-01

    To understand the biogenesis of the thylakoid membrane in higher plants and to identify auxiliary proteins required to build up this highly complex membrane system, we have characterized the allelic nuclear mutants high chlorophyll fluorescence222-1 ( hcf222-1 ) and hcf222-2 and isolated the causal gene by map-based cloning. In the ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant hcf222-1 , the accumulation of the cytochrome b 6 f (Cytb6f) complex was reduced to 30% compared with the wild type. Other thylakoid membrane complexes accumulated to normal levels. The T-DNA knockout mutant hcf222-2 showed a more severe defect with respect to thylakoid membrane proteins and accumulated only 10% of the Cytb6f complex, accompanied by a reduction in photosystem II, the photosystem II light-harvesting complex, and photosystem I. HCF222 encodes a protein of 99 amino acids in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) that has similarities to the cysteine-rich zinc-binding domain of DnaJ chaperones. The insulin precipitation assay demonstrated that HCF222 has disulfide reductase activity in vitro. The protein is conserved in higher plants and bryophytes but absent in algae and cyanobacteria. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that a fraction of HCF222-green fluorescent protein was detectable in the endoplasmic reticulum but that it also could be recognized in chloroplasts. A fusion construct of HCF222 containing a plastid transit peptide targets the protein into chloroplasts and was able to complement the mutational defect. These findings indicate that the chloroplast-targeted HCF222 is indispensable for the maturation and/or assembly of the Cytb6f complex and is very likely involved in thiol-disulfide biochemistry at the thylakoid membrane. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. The membrane tethered transcription factor EcbZIP17 from finger millet promotes plant growth and enhances tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Chopperla; Singh, Sonam; Raghavendrarao, Sangala; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Mohanty, Sasmita; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Solanke, Amolkumar U

    2018-02-01

    The occurrence of various stresses, as the outcome of global climate change, results in the yield losses of crop plants. Prospecting of genes in stress tolerant plant species may help to protect and improve their agronomic performance. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is a valuable source of superior genes and alleles for stress tolerance. In this study, we isolated a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane tethered bZIP transcription factor from finger millet, EcbZIP17. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing this gene showed better vegetative growth and seed yield compared with wild type (WT) plants under optimal growth conditions and confirmed upregulation of brassinosteroid signalling genes. Under various abiotic stresses, such as 250 mM NaCl, 10% PEG6000, 400 mM mannitol, water withdrawal, and heat stress, the transgenic plants showed higher germination rate, biomass, primary and secondary root formation, and recovery rate, compared with WT plants. The transgenic plants exposed to an ER stress inducer resulted in greater leaf diameter and plant height as well as higher expression of the ER stress-responsive genes BiP, PDIL, and CRT1. Overall, our results indicated that EcbZIP17 improves plant growth at optimal conditions through brassinosteroid signalling and provide tolerance to various environmental stresses via ER signalling pathways.

  20. The zinc finger transcription factor Gfi1, implicated in lymphomagenesis, is required for inner ear hair cell differentiation and survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, Deeann; Hamblen, Melanie; Zhou, Yi; Venken, Koen J T.; Schumacher, Armin; Grimes, H. Leighton; Zoghbi, Huda Y.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2003-01-01

    Gfi1 was first identified as causing interleukin 2-independent growth in T cells and lymphomagenesis in mice. Much work has shown that Gfi1 and Gfi1b, a second mouse homolog, play pivotal roles in blood cell lineage differentiation. However, neither Gfi1 nor Gfi1b has been implicated in nervous system development, even though their invertebrate homologues, senseless in Drosophila and pag-3 in C. elegans are expressed and required in the nervous system. We show that Gfi1 mRNA is expressed in many areas that give rise to neuronal cells during embryonic development in mouse, and that Gfi1 protein has a more restricted expression pattern. By E12.5 Gfi1 mRNA is expressed in both the CNS and PNS as well as in many sensory epithelia including the developing inner ear epithelia. At later developmental stages, Gfi1 expression in the ear is refined to the hair cells and neurons throughout the inner ear. Gfi1 protein is expressed in a more restricted pattern in specialized sensory cells of the PNS, including the eye, presumptive Merkel cells, the lung and hair cells of the inner ear. Gfi1 mutant mice display behavioral defects that are consistent with inner ear anomalies, as they are ataxic, circle, display head tilting behavior and do not respond to noise. They have a unique inner ear phenotype in that the vestibular and cochlear hair cells are differentially affected. Although Gfi1-deficient mice initially specify inner ear hair cells, these hair cells are disorganized in both the vestibule and cochlea. The outer hair cells of the cochlea are improperly innervated and express neuronal markers that are not normally expressed in these cells. Furthermore, Gfi1 mutant mice lose all cochlear hair cells just prior to and soon after birth through apoptosis. Finally, by five months of age there is also a dramatic reduction in the number of cochlear neurons. Hence, Gfi1 is expressed in the developing nervous system, is required for inner ear hair cell differentiation, and its loss causes programmed cell death.

  1. Zinc finger AN1-type containing 4 is a novel marker for predicting metastasis and poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kurihara-Shimomura, Miyako; Sasahira, Tomonori; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Chie; Kuniyasu, Hiroki; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2018-05-01

    Head and neck cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and has a high potential for locoregional invasion and nodal metastasis. Therefore, discovery of a useful molecular biomarker capable of predicting tumour progression and metastasis of OSCC is crucial. We have previously reported zinc finger AN1-type containing 4 (ZFAND4) as one of the most upregulated genes in recurrent OSCC using a cDNA microarray analysis. Although ZFAND4 has been shown to promote cell proliferation of gastric cancer, its expression and clinicopathological roles in OSCC remain unclear. In this study, we examined ZFAND4 expression by immunohistochemistry in 214 cases of OSCC. High cytoplasmic expression of ZFAND4 was observed in 45 out of 214 (21%) patients with OSCC. Expression levels of ZFAND4 were strongly associated with metastasis to the lymph nodes (p=0.0429) and distant organs (p=0.0068). Cases with high expression of ZFAND4 had a significantly unfavourable prognosis compared with patients with low expression of ZFAND4 (p<0.0001). Furthermore, ZFAND4 overexpression was an independent poor prognostic factor for OSCC as determined by multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model (p<0.0001). These results suggest that ZFAND4 is a useful marker for predicting metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with OSCC. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Comparative functional analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum) zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins in response to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Gu, Lili; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Ryeo Jin; Suh, Mi Chung; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-01-01

    Although the functional roles of zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (RZs) have been characterized in several plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), the physiological functions of RZs in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain largely unknown. Here, the functional roles of the three wheat RZ family members, named TaRZ1, TaRZ2, and TaRZ3, were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants under various abiotic stress conditions. Expression of TaRZs was markedly regulated by salt, dehydration, or cold stress. The TaRZ1 and TaRZ3 proteins were localized to the nucleus, whereas the TaRZ2 protein was localized to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and cytoplasm. Germination of all three TaRZ-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded compared with that of wild-type seeds under salt stress conditions, whereas germination of TaRZ2- or TaRZ3-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded under dehydration stress conditions. Seedling growth of TaRZ1-expressing transgenic plants was severely inhibited under cold or salt stress conditions, and seedling growth of TaRZ2-expressing plants was inhibited under salt stress conditions. By contrast, expression of TaRZ3 did not affect seedling growth of transgenic plants under any of the stress conditions. In addition, expression of TaRZ2 conferred freeze tolerance in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results suggest that different TaRZ family members play various roles in seed germination, seedling growth, and freeze tolerance in plants under abiotic stress.

  3. In situ genetic correction of the sickle cell anemia mutation in human induced pluripotent stem cells using engineered zinc finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Sebastiano, Vittorio; Maeder, Morgan L; Angstman, James F; Haddad, Bahareh; Khayter, Cyd; Yeo, Dana T; Goodwin, Mathew J; Hawkins, John S; Ramirez, Cherie L; Batista, Luis F Z; Artandi, Steven E; Wernig, Marius; Joung, J Keith

    2011-11-01

    The combination of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology and targeted gene modification by homologous recombination (HR) represents a promising new approach to generate genetically corrected, patient-derived cells that could be used for autologous transplantation therapies. This strategy has several potential advantages over conventional gene therapy including eliminating the need for immunosuppression, avoiding the risk of insertional mutagenesis by therapeutic vectors, and maintaining expression of the corrected gene by endogenous control elements rather than a constitutive promoter. However, gene targeting in human pluripotent cells has remained challenging and inefficient. Recently, engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) have been shown to substantially increase HR frequencies in human iPSCs, raising the prospect of using this technology to correct disease causing mutations. Here, we describe the generation of iPSC lines from sickle cell anemia patients and in situ correction of the disease causing mutation using three ZFN pairs made by the publicly available oligomerized pool engineering method (OPEN). Gene-corrected cells retained full pluripotency and a normal karyotype following removal of reprogramming factor and drug-resistance genes. By testing various conditions, we also demonstrated that HR events in human iPSCs can occur as far as 82 bps from a ZFN-induced break. Our approach delineates a roadmap for using ZFNs made by an open-source method to achieve efficient, transgene-free correction of monogenic disease mutations in patient-derived iPSCs. Our results provide an important proof of principle that ZFNs can be used to produce gene-corrected human iPSCs that could be used for therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Genomic Knockout of Endogenous Canine P-Glycoprotein in Wild-Type, Human P-Glycoprotein and Human BCRP Transfected MDCKII Cell Lines by Zinc Finger Nucleases.

    PubMed

    Gartzke, Dominik; Delzer, Jürgen; Laplanche, Loic; Uchida, Yasuo; Hoshi, Yutaro; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Sydor, Jens; Fricker, Gert

    2015-06-01

    To investigate whether it is possible to specifically suppress the expression and function of endogenous canine P-glycoprotein (cPgp) in Madin-Darby canine kidney type II cells (MDCKII) transfected with hPGP and breast cancer resistance protein (hBCRP) by zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) producing sequence specific DNA double strand breaks. Wild-type, hPGP-transfected, and hBCRP-transfected MDCKII cells were transfected with ZFN targeting for cPgp. Net efflux ratios (NER) of Pgp and Bcrp substrates were determined by dividing efflux ratios (basal-to-apical / apical-to-basal) in over-expressing cell monolayers by those in wild-type ones. From ZFN-transfected cells, cell populations (ko-cells) showing knockout of cPgp were selected based on genotyping by PCR. qRT-PCR analysis showed the significant knock-downs of cPgp and interestingly also cMrp2 expressions. Specific knock-downs of protein expression for cPgp were shown by western blotting and quantitative targeted absolute proteomics. Endogenous canine Bcrp proteins were not detected. For PGP-transfected cells, NERs of 5 Pgp substrates in ko-cells were significantly greater than those in parental cells not transfected with ZFN. Similar result was obtained for BCRP-transfected cells with a dual Pgp and Bcrp substrate. Specific efflux mediated by hPGP or hBCRP can be determined with MDCKII cells where cPgp has been knocked out by ZFN.

  5. The C2H2 zinc-finger protein SlZF3 regulates AsA synthesis and salt tolerance by interacting with CSN5B.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Chu, Zhuannan; Luo, Jinying; Zhou, Yuhong; Cai, Yujing; Lu, Yongen; Xia, Junhui; Kuang, Hanhui; Ye, Zhibiao; Ouyang, Bo

    2018-06-01

    Abiotic stresses are a major cause of crop loss. Ascorbic acid (AsA) promotes stress tolerance by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), which accumulate when plants experience abiotic stress. Although the biosynthesis and metabolism of AsA are well established, the genes that regulate these pathways remain largely unexplored. Here, we report on a novel regulatory gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) named SlZF3 that encodes a Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger protein with an EAR repression domain. The expression of SlZF3 was rapidly induced by NaCl treatments. The overexpression of SlZF3 significantly increased the levels of AsA in tomato and Arabidopsis. Consequently, the AsA-mediated ROS-scavenging capacity of the SlZF3-overexpressing plants was increased, which enhanced the salt tolerance of these plants. Protein-protein interaction assays demonstrated that SlZF3 directly binds CSN5B, a key component of the COP9 signalosome. This interaction inhibited the binding of CSN5B to VTC1, a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase that contributes to AsA biosynthesis. We found that the EAR domain promoted the stability of SlZF3 but was not required for the interaction between SlZF3 and CSN5B. Our findings indicate that SlZF3 simultaneously promotes the accumulation of AsA and enhances plant salt-stress tolerance. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Diversity of Prdm9 Zinc Finger Array in Wild Mice Unravels New Facets of the Evolutionary Turnover of this Coding Minisatellite

    PubMed Central

    Buard, Jérôme; Rivals, Eric; Dunoyer de Segonzac, Denis; Garres, Charlotte; Caminade, Pierre; de Massy, Bernard; Boursot, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In humans and mice, meiotic recombination events cluster into narrow hotspots whose genomic positions are defined by the PRDM9 protein via its DNA binding domain constituted of an array of zinc fingers (ZnFs). High polymorphism and rapid divergence of the Prdm9 gene ZnF domain appear to involve positive selection at DNA-recognition amino-acid positions, but the nature of the underlying evolutionary pressures remains a puzzle. Here we explore the variability of the Prdm9 ZnF array in wild mice, and uncovered a high allelic diversity of both ZnF copy number and identity with the caracterization of 113 alleles. We analyze features of the diversity of ZnF identity which is mostly due to non-synonymous changes at codons −1, 3 and 6 of each ZnF, corresponding to amino-acids involved in DNA binding. Using methods adapted to the minisatellite structure of the ZnF array, we infer a phylogenetic tree of these alleles. We find the sister species Mus spicilegus and M. macedonicus as well as the three house mouse (Mus musculus) subspecies to be polyphyletic. However some sublineages have expanded independently in Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, the latter further showing phylogeographic substructure. Compared to random genomic regions and non-coding minisatellites, none of these patterns appears exceptional. In silico prediction of DNA binding sites for each allele, overlap of their alignments to the genome and relative coverage of the different families of interspersed repeated elements suggest a large diversity between PRDM9 variants with a potential for highly divergent distributions of recombination events in the genome with little correlation to evolutionary distance. By compiling PRDM9 ZnF protein sequences in Primates, Muridae and Equids, we find different diversity patterns among the three amino-acids most critical for the DNA-recognition function, suggesting different diversification timescales. PMID:24454780

  7. Zinc-finger nuclease-mediated gene correction using single AAV vector transduction and enhancement by Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, BL; Hirsch, ML; Porter, SN; Samulski, RJ; Porteus, MH

    2016-01-01

    An emerging strategy for the treatment of monogenic diseases uses genetic engineering to precisely correct the mutation(s) at the genome level. Recent advancements in this technology have demonstrated therapeutic levels of gene correction using a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN)-induced DNA double-strand break in conjunction with an exogenous DNA donor substrate. This strategy requires efficient nucleic acid delivery and among viral vectors, recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has demonstrated clinical success without pathology. However, a major limitation of rAAV is the small DNA packaging capacity and to date, the use of rAAV for ZFN gene delivery has yet to be reported. Theoretically, an ideal situation is to deliver both ZFNs and the repair substrate in a single vector to avoid inefficient gene targeting and unwanted mutagenesis, both complications of a rAAV co-transduction strategy. Therefore, a rAAV format was generated in which a single polypeptide encodes the ZFN monomers connected by a ribosome skipping 2A peptide and furin cleavage sequence. On the basis of this arrangement, a DNA repair substrate of 750 nucleotides was also included in this vector. Efficient polypeptide processing to discrete ZFNs is demonstrated, as well as the ability of this single vector format to stimulate efficient gene targeting in a human cell line and mouse model derived fibroblasts. Additionally, we increased rAAV-mediated gene correction up to sixfold using a combination of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, which act at the level of AAV vector transduction. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate the ability to deliver ZFNs and a repair substrate by a single AAV vector and offer insights for the optimization of rAAV-mediated gene correction using drug therapy. PMID:22257934

  8. Two-sided Ubiquitin Binding of NF-κB Essential Modulator (NEMO) Zinc Finger Unveiled by a Mutation Associated with Anhidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia with Immunodeficiency Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Ngadjeua, Flora; Chiaravalli, Jeanne; Traincard, François; Raynal, Bertrand; Fontan, Elisabeth; Agou, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Hypomorphic mutations in the X-linked human NEMO gene result in various forms of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency. NEMO function is mediated by two distal ubiquitin binding domains located in the regulatory C-terminal domain of the protein: the coiled-coil 2-leucine zipper (CC2-LZ) domain and the zinc finger (ZF) domain. Here, we investigated the effect of the D406V mutation found in the NEMO ZF of an ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency patients. This point mutation does not impair the folding of NEMO ZF or mono-ubiquitin binding but is sufficient to alter NEMO function, as NEMO-deficient fibroblasts and Jurkat T lymphocytes reconstituted with full-length D406V NEMO lead to partial and strong defects in NF-κB activation, respectively. To further characterize the ubiquitin binding properties of NEMO ZF, we employed di-ubiquitin (di-Ub) chains composed of several different linkages (Lys-48, Lys-63, and linear (Met-1-linked)). We showed that the pathogenic mutation preferentially impairs the interaction with Lys-63 and Met-1-linked di-Ub, which correlates with its ubiquitin binding defect in vivo. Furthermore, sedimentation velocity and gel filtration showed that NEMO ZF, like other NEMO related-ZFs, binds mono-Ub and di-Ub with distinct stoichiometries, indicating the presence of a new Ub site within the NEMO ZF. Extensive mutagenesis was then performed on NEMO ZF and characterization of mutants allowed the proposal of a structural model of NEMO ZF in interaction with a Lys-63 di-Ub chain. PMID:24100029

  9. Molecular dynamics of zinc-finger ubiquitin binding domains: a comparative study of histone deacetylase 6 and ubiquitin-specific protease 5.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Passos, Carolina; Simões-Pires, Claudia A; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Nurisso, Alessandra

    2016-12-01

    HDAC6 is a unique cytoplasmic histone deacetylase characterized by two deacetylase domains, and by a zinc-finger ubiquitin binding domain (ZnF-UBP) able to recognize ubiquitin (Ub). The latter has recently been demonstrated to be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and in mediating infection by the influenza A virus. Nowadays, understanding the dynamic and energetic features of HDAC6 ZnF-UBP-Ub recognition is considered as a crucial step for the conception of HDAC6 potential modulators. In this study, the atomic, solvent-related, and thermodynamic features behind HDAC6 ZnF-UBP-Ub recognition have been analyzed through molecular dynamics simulations. The behavior was then compared to the prototypical ZnF-UBP from ubiquitin-specific protease 5 (USP5) in order to spot relevant differences useful for selective drug design. Principal component analysis highlighted flapping motions of the L2A loop which were lowered down upon Ub binding in both systems. While polar and nonpolar interactions involving Ub G75 and G76 residues were also common features stabilizing both complexes, salt bridges showed a different pattern, more significant in HDAC6 ZnF-UBP-Ub, whose energetic contribution in USP5 ZnF-UBP-Ub was compensated by the presence of a more stable bridging water molecule. Whereas molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) free energies of binding were comparable for both systems, in agreement with experiments, computational alanine scanning and free energy decomposition data revealed that HDAC6 E1141 and D1178 are potential hotspots for the design of selective HDAC6 modulators.

  10. Effects of HAb18G/CD147 knockout on hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro using a novel zinc-finger nuclease-targeted gene knockout approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yang, Xiang-Min; Tang, Juan; Wang, Shi-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2015-03-01

    HAb18G/CD147 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and predominantly functions as an inducer of matrix metalloproteinase secretion for tumor invasion and metastasis. This study was designed to investigate the effects of HAb18G/CD147 knockout on hepatocellular carcinoma cells using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFNs)-targeted gene knockout approach. The HCC cell line SMMC-7721 was used for ZFNs-targeted cleavage of the HAb18G/CD147 gene. RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to detect HAb18G/CD147 expression. HAb18G phenotypic changes following HAb18G/CD147 knockout in SMMC-K7721 cells were assessed using tumor cell adhesion, invasion, migration and colony formation and flow cytometric assays. These data demonstrated that tumor cell adhesion, invasion, migration, and colony formation capabilities of SMMC-K7721 were significantly reduced compared to parental cells or SMMC-7721 with re-expression of HAb18G/CD147 protein transfected with HAb18G/CD147 cDNA. Moreover, knockout of HAb18G/CD147 expression also induced SMMC-K7721 cells to undergo apoptosis compared to SMMC-7721 and SMMC-R7721 (P < 0.01). Molecularly, protein expression of p53 was induced in these cells, but re-expression of HAb18G/CD147 reduced p53 levels in SMMC-R7721 cells, possibly through inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-MDM2 signaling pathway. The findings provide a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying HAb18G/CD147-induced progression of HCC cells.

  11. Critical role of zinc finger protein 521 in the control of growth, clonogenicity and tumorigenic potential of medulloblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Iaccino, Enrico; Scicchitano, Stefania; Lupia, Michela; Chiarella, Emanuela; Mega, Tiziana; Bernaudo, Francesca; Pelaggi, Daniela; Mesuraca, Maria; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Semenkow, Samantha; Bar, Eli E.; Kool, Marcel; Pfister, Stefan; Bond, Heather M.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Steinkühler, Christian; Morrone, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The stem cell-associated transcription co-factor ZNF521 has been implicated in the control of hematopoietic, osteo-adipogenic and neural progenitor cells. ZNF521 is highly expressed in cerebellum and in particular in the neonatal external granule layer that contains candidate medulloblastoma cells-of-origin, and in the majority of human medulloblastomas. Here we have explored its involvement in the control of human and murine medulloblastoma cells. The effect of ZNF521 on growth and tumorigenic potential of human medulloblastoma cell lines as well as primary Ptc1−/+ mouse medulloblastoma cells was investigated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo assays, by modulating its expression using lentiviral vectors carrying the ZNF521 cDNA, or shRNAs that silence its expression. Enforced overexpression of ZNF521 in DAOY medulloblastoma cells significantly increased their proliferation, growth as spheroids and ability to generate clones in single-cell cultures and semisolid media, and enhanced their migratory ability in wound-healing assays. Importantly, ZNF521-expressing cells displayed a greatly enhanced tumorigenic potential in nude mice. All these activities required the ZNF521 N-terminal motif that recruits the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase complex, which might therefore represent an appealing therapeutic target. Conversely, silencing of ZNF521 in human UW228 medulloblastoma cells that display high baseline expression decreased their proliferation, clonogenicity, sphere formation and wound-healing ability. Similarly, Zfp521 silencing in mouse Ptc1−/+ medulloblastoma cells drastically reduced their growth and tumorigenic potential. Our data strongly support the notion that ZNF521, through the recruitment of the NuRD complex, contributes to the clonogenic growth, migration and tumorigenicity of medulloblastoma cells. PMID:23907569

  12. Critical role of zinc finger protein 521 in the control of growth, clonogenicity and tumorigenic potential of medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Spina, Raffaella; Filocamo, Gessica; Iaccino, Enrico; Scicchitano, Stefania; Lupia, Michela; Chiarella, Emanuela; Mega, Tiziana; Bernaudo, Francesca; Pelaggi, Daniela; Mesuraca, Maria; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Semenkow, Samantha; Bar, Eli E; Kool, Marcel; Pfister, Stefan; Bond, Heather M; Eberhart, Charles G; Steinkühler, Christian; Morrone, Giovanni

    2013-08-01

    The stem cell-associated transcription co-factor ZNF521 has been implicated in the control of hematopoietic, osteo-adipogenic and neural progenitor cells. ZNF521 is highly expressed in cerebellum and in particular in the neonatal external granule layer that contains candidate medulloblastoma cells-of-origin, and in the majority of human medulloblastomas. Here we have explored its involvement in the control of human and murine medulloblastoma cells. The effect of ZNF521 on growth and tumorigenic potential of human medulloblastoma cell lines as well as primary Ptc1-/+ mouse medulloblastoma cells was investigated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo assays, by modulating its expression using lentiviral vectors carrying the ZNF521 cDNA, or shRNAs that silence its expression. Enforced overexpression of ZNF521 in DAOY medulloblastoma cells significantly increased their proliferation, growth as spheroids and ability to generate clones in single-cell cultures and semisolid media, and enhanced their migratory ability in wound-healing assays. Importantly, ZNF521-expressing cells displayed a greatly enhanced tumorigenic potential in nude mice. All these activities required the ZNF521 N-terminal motif that recruits the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase complex, which might therefore represent an appealing therapeutic target. Conversely, silencing of ZNF521 in human UW228 medulloblastoma cells that display high baseline expression decreased their proliferation, clonogenicity, sphere formation and wound-healing ability. Similarly, Zfp521 silencing in mouse Ptc1-/+ medulloblastoma cells drastically reduced their growth and tumorigenic potential. Our data strongly support the notion that ZNF521, through the recruitment of the NuRD complex, contributes to the clonogenic growth, migration and tumorigenicity of medulloblastoma cells.

  13. Identification and characterization of finger millet OPAQUE2 transcription factor gene under different nitrogen inputs for understanding their role during accumulation of prolamin seed storage protein.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Vikram Singh; Kumar, Lallan; Gupta, Supriya; Jaiswal, J P; Pandey, Dinesh; Kumar, Anil

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of the mRNA encoding OPAQUE2 (O2) like TF of finger millet (FM) ( Eleusine coracana) ( EcO2 ). Full-length EcO2 mRNA was isolated using conserved primers designed by aligning O2 mRNAs of different cereals followed by 3' and 5' RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). The assembled full-length EcO2 mRNA was found to contain an ORF of 1248-nt coding the 416 amino acids O2 protein. Domain analysis revealed the presence of the BLZ and bZIP-C domains which is a characteristic feature of O2 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of EcO2 protein with other bZIP proteins identified using finger millet transcriptome data and O2 proteins of other cereals showed that EcO2 shared high sequence similarity with barley BLZ1 protein. Transcripts of EcO2 were detected in root, stem, leaves, and seed development stages. Furthermore, to investigate nitrogen responsiveness and the role of EcO2 in regulating seed storage protein gene expression, the expression profiles of EcO2 along with an α-prolamin gene were studied during the seed development stages of two FM genotypes (GE-3885 and GE-1437) differing in grain protein content (13.8 and 6.2%, respectively) grown under increasing nitrogen inputs. Compared to GE-1437, the EcO2 was relatively highly expressed during the S2 stage of seed development which further increased as nitrogen input was increased. The Ecα - prolamin gene was strongly induced in the high protein genotype (GE-3885) at all nitrogen inputs. These results indicate the presence of nitrogen responsiveness regulatory elements which might play an important role in accumulating protein in FM genotypes through modulating EcO2 expression by sensing plant nitrogen status.

  14. MCP-1 causes cardiomyoblast death via autophagy resulting from ER stress caused by oxidative stress generated by inducing a novel zinc-finger protein, MCPIP.

    PubMed

    Younce, Craig W; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E

    2010-01-27

    MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1) plays a critical role in the development of heart failure that is known to involve apoptosis. How MCP-1 contributes to cell death involved in the development of heart disease is not understood. In the present study we show that MCP-1 causes death in cardiac myoblasts, H9c2 cells, by inducing oxidative stress which causes ER stress leading to autophagy via a novel zinc-finger protein, MCPIP (MCP-1-induced protein). MCPIP expression caused cell death, and knockdown of MCPIP attenuated MCP-1-induced cell death. It caused induction of iNOS (inducible NO synthase), translocation of the NADPH oxidase subunit phox47 from the cytoplasm to the membrane, production of ROS (reactive oxygen species), and induction of ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress markers HSP40 (heat-shock protein 40), PDI (protein disulfide-isomerase), GRP78 (guanine-nucleotide-releasing protein 78) and IRE1alpha (inositol-requiring enzyme 1alpha). It also caused autophagy, as indicated by beclin-1 induction, cleavage of LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) and autophagolysosome formation, and apoptosis, as indicated by caspase 3 activation and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) assay. Inhibitors of oxidative stress, including CeO2 nanoparticles, inhibited ROS formation, ER stress, autophagy and cell death. Specific inhibitors of ER stress inhibited autophagy and cell death as did knockdown of the ER stress signalling protein IRE1. Knockdown of beclin-1 and autophagy inhibitors prevented cell death. This cell death involved caspase 2 and caspase 12, as specific inhibitors of these caspases prevented MCPIP-induced cell death. Microarray analysis showed that MCPIP expression caused induction of a variety of genes known to be involved in cell death. MCPIP caused activation of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and p38 and induction of p53 and PUMA (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis). Taken together, these

  15. The Short Form of the Zinc Finger Antiviral Protein Inhibits Influenza A Virus Protein Expression and Is Antagonized by the Virus-Encoded NS1.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiannan; Wang, Xinlu; Gao, Guangxia

    2017-01-15

    Zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host factor that specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses. There are two ZAP isoforms arising from alternative splicing, which differ only at the C termini. It was recently reported that the long isoform (ZAPL) promotes proteasomal degradation of influenza A virus (IAV) proteins PA and PB2 through the C-terminal poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) domain, which is missing in the short form (ZAPS), and that this antiviral activity is antagonized by the viral protein PB1. Here, we report that ZAP inhibits IAV protein expression in a PARP domain-independent manner. Overexpression of ZAPS inhibited the expression of PA, PB2, and neuraminidase (NA), and downregulation of the endogenous ZAPS enhanced their expression. We show that ZAPS inhibited PB2 protein expression by reducing the encoding viral mRNA levels and repressing its translation. However, downregulation of ZAPS only modestly enhanced the early stage of viral replication. We provide evidence showing that the antiviral activity of ZAPS is antagonized by the viral protein NS1. A recombinant IAV carrying an NS1 mutant that lost the ZAPS-antagonizing activity replicated better in ZAPS-deficient cells. We further provide evidence suggesting that NS1 antagonizes ZAPS by inhibiting its binding to target mRNA. These results uncover a distinct mechanism underlying the interactions between ZAP and IAV. ZAP is a host antiviral factor that has been extensively reported to inhibit the replication of certain viruses by repressing the translation and promoting the degradation of the viral mRNAs. There are two ZAP isoforms, ZAPL and ZAPS. ZAPL was recently reported to promote IAV protein degradation through the PARP domain. Whether ZAPS, which lacks the PARP domain, inhibits IAV and the underlying mechanisms remained to be determined. Here, we show that ZAPS posttranscriptionally inhibits IAV protein expression. This antiviral activity of ZAP is antagonized by the viral

  16. Zinc Finger Nuclease Mediated Knockout of ADP-Dependent Glucokinase in Cancer Cell Lines: Effects on Cell Survival and Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Susan; Morrison, Shona; Connor, Tim; Su, Jiechuang; Print, Cristin G.; Ronimus, Ron S.; McGee, Sean L.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) are powerful tools for editing genes in cells. Here we use ZFNs to interrogate the biological function of ADPGK, which encodes an ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADPGK), in human tumour cell lines. The hypothesis we tested is that ADPGK utilises ADP to phosphorylate glucose under conditions where ATP becomes limiting, such as hypoxia. We characterised two ZFN knockout clones in each of two lines (H460 and HCT116). All four clones had frameshift mutations in all alleles at the target site in exon 1 of ADPGK, and were ADPGK-null by immunoblotting. ADPGK knockout had little or no effect on cell proliferation, but compromised the ability of H460 cells to survive siRNA silencing of hexokinase-2 under oxic conditions, with clonogenic survival falling from 21±3% for the parental line to 6.4±0.8% (p = 0.002) and 4.3±0.8% (p = 0.001) for the two knockouts. A similar increased sensitivity to clonogenic cell killing was observed under anoxia. No such changes were found when ADPGK was knocked out in HCT116 cells, for which the parental line was less sensitive than H460 to anoxia and to hexokinase-2 silencing. While knockout of ADPGK in HCT116 cells caused few changes in global gene expression, knockout of ADPGK in H460 cells caused notable up-regulation of mRNAs encoding cell adhesion proteins. Surprisingly, we could discern no consistent effect on glycolysis as measured by glucose consumption or lactate formation under anoxia, or extracellular acidification rate (Seahorse XF analyser) under oxic conditions in a variety of media. However, oxygen consumption rates were generally lower in the ADPGK knockouts, in some cases markedly so. Collectively, the results demonstrate that ADPGK can contribute to tumour cell survival under conditions of high glycolytic dependence, but the phenotype resulting from knockout of ADPGK is cell line dependent and appears to be unrelated to priming of glycolysis in these lines. PMID:23799003

  17. Temperature effect on the structure and conformational fluctuations in two zinc knuckles from the mouse mammary tumor virus.

    PubMed

    Nedjoua, Drici; Krallafa, Abdelghani Mohamed

    2018-06-01

    Zinc fingers are small protein domains in which zinc plays a structural role, contributing to the stability of the zinc-peptide complex. Zinc fingers are structurally diverse and are present in proteins that perform a broad range of functions in various cellular processes, such as replication and repair, transcription and translation, metabolism and signaling, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Zinc fingers typically function as interaction modules and bind to a wide variety of compounds, such as nucleic acids, proteins, and small molecules. In this study, we investigated the structural properties, in solution, of the proximal and distal zinc knuckles of the nucleocapsid (NC) protein from the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) (MMTV NC). For this purpose, we performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations in aqueous solution at 300 K, 333 K, and 348 K. The temperature effect was evaluated in terms of root mean square deviation of the backbone atoms and root mean square fluctuation of the coordinating residue atoms. The stability of the zinc coordination sphere was analyzed based upon the time profile of the interatomic distances between the zinc ions and the chelator atoms. The results indicate that the hydrophobic character of the proximal zinc finger is dominant at 333 K. The low mobility of the coordinating residues suggests that the strong electrostatic effect exerted by the zinc ion on its coordinating residues is not influenced by the increase in temperature. The evolution of the structural parameters of the coordination sphere of the distal zinc finger at 300 K gives us a reasonable picture of the unfolding pathway, as proposed by Bombarda and coworkers (Bombarda et al., 2005), which can predict the binding order of the four conserved ligand-binding residues. Our results support the conclusion that the structural features can vary significantly between the two zinc knuckles of MMTV NC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Activation of the Yeast UBI4 Polyubiquitin Gene by Zap1 Transcription Factor via an Intragenic Promoter Is Critical for Zinc-deficient Growth*

    PubMed Central

    MacDiarmid, Colin W.; Taggart, Janet; Jeong, Jeeyon; Kerdsomboon, Kittikhun; Eide, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Stability of many proteins requires zinc. Zinc deficiency disrupts their folding, and the ubiquitin-proteasome system may help manage this stress. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, UBI4 encodes five tandem ubiquitin monomers and is essential for growth in zinc-deficient conditions. Although UBI4 is only one of four ubiquitin-encoding genes in the genome, a dramatic decrease in ubiquitin was observed in zinc-deficient ubi4Δ cells. The three other ubiquitin genes were strongly repressed under these conditions, contributing to the decline in ubiquitin. In a screen for ubi4Δ suppressors, a hypomorphic allele of the RPT2 proteasome regulatory subunit gene (rpt2E301K) suppressed the ubi4Δ growth defect. The rpt2E301K mutation also increased ubiquitin accumulation in zinc-deficient cells, and by using a ubiquitin-independent proteasome substrate we found that proteasome activity was reduced. These results suggested that increased ubiquitin supply in suppressed ubi4Δ cells was a consequence of more efficient ubiquitin release and recycling during proteasome degradation. Degradation of a ubiquitin-dependent substrate was restored by the rpt2E301K mutation, indicating that ubiquitination is rate-limiting in this process. The UBI4 gene was induced ∼5-fold in low zinc and is regulated by the zinc-responsive Zap1 transcription factor. Surprisingly, Zap1 controls UBI4 by inducing transcription from an intragenic promoter, and the resulting truncated mRNA encodes only two of the five ubiquitin repeats. Expression of a short transcript alone complemented the ubi4Δ mutation, indicating that it is efficiently translated. Loss of Zap1-dependent UBI4 expression caused a growth defect in zinc-deficient conditions. Thus, the intragenic UBI4 promoter is critical to preventing ubiquitin deficiency in zinc-deficient cells. PMID:27432887

  19. Rv2358 and FurB: Two Transcriptional Regulators from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Which Respond to Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Canneva, Fabio; Branzoni, Manuela; Riccardi, Giovanna; Provvedi, Roberta; Milano, Anna

    2005-01-01

    In a previous work, we demonstrated that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2358-furB operon is induced by zinc. In this study, the orthologous genes from Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 were inactivated and mutants analyzed. Rv2358 protein was purified and found to bind upstream of the Rv2358 gene. Binding was inhibited by Zn2+ ions. PMID:16077132

  20. Mallet finger - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Baseball finger - aftercare; Drop finger - aftercare; Avulsion fracture - mallet finger - aftercare ... away from the rest of the bone (avulsion fracture) Mallet finger most often occurs when something hits ...

  1. Role of Su(Hw) zinc finger 10 and interaction with CP190 and Mod(mdg4) proteins in recruiting the Su(Hw) complex to chromatin sites in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Melnikova, Larisa; Kostyuchenko, Margarita; Parshikov, Alexander; Georgiev, Pavel; Golovnin, Anton

    2018-01-01

    Su(Hw) belongs to the class of proteins that organize chromosome architecture and boundaries/insulators between regulatory domains. This protein contains a cluster of 12 zinc finger domains most of which are responsible for binding to three different modules in the consensus site. Su(Hw) forms a complex with CP190 and Mod(mdg4)-67.2 proteins that binds to well-known Drosophila insulators. To understand how Su(Hw) performs its activities and binds to specific sites in chromatin, we have examined the previously described su(Hw)f mutation that disrupts the 10th zinc finger (ZF10) responsible for Su(Hw) binding to the upstream module. The results have shown that Su(Hw)f loses the ability to interact with CP190 in the absence of DNA. In contrast, complete deletion of ZF10 does not prevent the interaction between Su(Hw)Δ10 and CP190. Having studied insulator complex formation in different mutant backgrounds, we conclude that both association with CP190 and Mod(mdg4)-67.2 partners and proper organization of DNA binding site are essential for the efficient recruitment of the Su(Hw) complex to chromatin insulators.

  2. Zinc-dependent global transcriptional control, transcriptional deregulation, and higher gene copy number for genes in metal homeostasis of the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri.

    PubMed

    Talke, Ina N; Hanikenne, Marc; Krämer, Ute

    2006-09-01

    The metal hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri exhibits naturally selected zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hypertolerance and accumulates extraordinarily high Zn concentrations in its leaves. With these extreme physiological traits, A. halleri phylogenetically belongs to the sister clade of Arabidopsis thaliana. Using a combination of genome-wide cross species microarray analysis and real-time reverse transcription-PCR, a set of candidate genes is identified for Zn hyperaccumulation, Zn and Cd hypertolerance, and the adjustment of micronutrient homeostasis in A. halleri. Eighteen putative metal homeostasis genes are newly identified to be more highly expressed in A. halleri than in A. thaliana, and 11 previously identified candidate genes are confirmed. The encoded proteins include HMA4, known to contribute to root-shoot transport of Zn in A. thaliana. Expression of either AtHMA4 or AhHMA4 confers cellular Zn and Cd tolerance to yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Among further newly implicated proteins are IRT3 and ZIP10, which have been proposed to contribute to cytoplasmic Zn influx, and FRD3 required for iron partitioning in A. thaliana. In A. halleri, the presence of more than a single genomic copy is a hallmark of several highly expressed candidate genes with possible roles in metal hyperaccumulation and metal hypertolerance. Both A. halleri and A. thaliana exert tight regulatory control over Zn homeostasis at the transcript level. Zn hyperaccumulation in A. halleri involves enhanced partitioning of Zn from roots into shoots. The transcriptional regulation of marker genes suggests that in the steady state, A. halleri roots, but not the shoots, act as physiologically Zn deficient under conditions of moderate Zn supply.

  3. Kid-1, a putative renal transcription factor: regulation during ontogeny and in response to ischemia and toxic injury.

    PubMed Central

    Witzgall, R; O'Leary, E; Gessner, R; Ouellette, A J; Bonventre, J V

    1993-01-01

    We have identified a new putative transcription factor from the rat kidney, termed Kid-1 (for kidney, ischemia and developmentally regulated gene 1). Kid-1 belongs to the C2H2 class of zinc finger genes. Its mRNA accumulates with age in postnatal renal development and is detected predominantly in the kidney. Kid-1 mRNA levels decline after renal injury secondary to ischemia or folic acid administration, two insults which result in epithelial cell dedifferentiation, followed by regenerative hyperplasia and differentiation. The low expression of Kid-1 early in postnatal development, and when renal tissue is recovering after injury, suggests that the gene product is involved in establishment of a differentiated phenotype and/or regulation of the proliferative response. The deduced protein contains 13 C2H2 zinc fingers at the COOH end in groups of 4 and 9 separated by a 32-amino-acid spacer. There are consensus sites for phosphorylation in the NH2 terminus non-zinc finger region as well as in the spacer region between zinc fingers 4 and 5. A region of the deduced protein shares extensive homology with a catalytic region of Raf kinases, a feature shared only with TFIIE among transcription factors. To determine whether Kid-1 can modulate transcription, a chimeric construct encoding the Kid-1 non-zinc finger region (sense or antisense) and the DNA-binding region of GAL4 was transfected into COS and LLC-PK1 cells together with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter plasmid containing GAL4 binding sites, driven by either a minimal promoter or a simian virus 40 enhancer. CAT activity was markedly inhibited in cells transfected with the sense construct compared with the activity in cells transfected with the antisense construct. To our knowledge, this pattern of developmental regulation, kidney expression, and regulation of transcription is unique among the C2H2 class of zinc finger-containing DNA-binding proteins. Images PMID:8382778

  4. Smashed fingers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crushed digits Images Smashed fingers References Brunton LM, Graham TJ, Atkinson RE. Hand injuries. In: Miller MD, ... Review Date 4/18/2017 Updated by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder ...

  5. Trigger Finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a bent position. People whose work or hobbies require repetitive gripping actions are at higher risk ... developing trigger finger include: Repeated gripping. Occupations and hobbies that involve repetitive hand use and prolonged gripping ...

  6. ATM Substrate Chk2-interacting Zn2+ Finger (ASCIZ) Is a Bi-functional Transcriptional Activator and Feedback Sensor in the Regulation of Dynein Light Chain (DYNLL1) Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Sabine; Conlan, Lindus A.; Baker, Emma K.; Ng, Jane-Lee; Tenis, Nora; Hoch, Nicolas C.; Gleeson, Kimberly; Smeets, Monique; Izon, David; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The highly conserved DYNLL1 (LC8) protein was originally discovered as a light chain of the dynein motor complex, but is increasingly emerging as a sequence-specific regulator of protein dimerization with hundreds of targets and wide-ranging cellular functions. Despite its important roles, DYNLL1's own regulation remains poorly understood. Here we identify ASCIZ (ATMIN/ZNF822), an essential Zn2+ finger protein with dual roles in the DNA base damage response and as a developmental transcription factor, as a conserved regulator of Dynll1 gene expression. DYNLL1 levels are reduced by ∼10-fold in the absence of ASCIZ in human, mouse and chicken cells. ASCIZ binds directly to the Dynll1 promoter and regulates its activity in a Zn2+ finger-dependent manner. DYNLL1 protein in turn interacts with ten binding sites in the ASCIZ transcription activation domain, and high DYNLL1 levels inhibit the transcriptional activity of ASCIZ. In addition, DYNLL1 was also required for DNA damage-induced ASCIZ focus formation. The dual ability of ASCIZ to activate Dynll1 gene expression and to sense free DYNLL1 protein levels enables a simple dynamic feedback loop to adjust DYNLL1 levels to cellular needs. The ASCIZ-DYNLL1 feedback loop represents a novel mechanism for auto-regulation of gene expression, where the gene product directly inhibits the transcriptional activator while bound at its own promoter. PMID:22167198

  7. Update on zinc biology.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has become a prominent nutrient of clinical and public health interest in the new millennium. Functions and actions for zinc emerge as increasingly ubiquitous in mammalian anatomy, physiology and metabolism. There is undoubtedly an underpinning in fundamental biology for all of the aspects of zinc in human health (clinical and epidemiological) in pediatric and public health practice. Unfortunately, basic science research may not have achieved a full understanding as yet. As a complement to the applied themes in the companion articles, a selection of recent advances in the domains homeostatic regulation and transport of zinc is presented; they are integrated, in turn, with findings on genetic expression, intracellular signaling, immunity and host defense, and bone growth. The elements include ionic zinc, zinc transporters, metallothioneins, zinc metalloenzymes and zinc finger proteins. In emerging basic research, we find some plausible mechanistic explanations for delayed linear growth with zinc deficiency and increased infectious disease resistance with zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Transcription factor ZBED6 mediates IGF2 gene expression by regulating promoter activity and DNA methylation in myoblasts

    Zinc finger, BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6) is an important transcription factor in placental mammals, affecting development, cell proliferation and growth. In this study, we found that the expression of the ZBED6 and IGF2 were up regulated during C2C12 differentiation. The IGF2 expression levels wer...

  9. Motif discovery with data mining in 3D protein structure databases: discovery, validation and prediction of the U-shape zinc binding ("Huf-Zinc") motif.

    PubMed

    Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Gao, He; Han, Hao; Baeten, Lies; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic; Zhang, Louxin; Eisenhaber, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Data mining in protein databases, derivatives from more fundamental protein 3D structure and sequence databases, has considerable unearthed potential for the discovery of sequence motif--structural motif--function relationships as the finding of the U-shape (Huf-Zinc) motif, originally a small student's project, exemplifies. The metal ion zinc is critically involved in universal biological processes, ranging from protein-DNA complexes and transcription regulation to enzymatic catalysis and metabolic pathways. Proteins have evolved a series of motifs to specifically recognize and bind zinc ions. Many of these, so called zinc fingers, are structurally independent globular domains with discontinuous binding motifs made up of residues mostly far apart in sequence. Through a systematic approach starting from the BRIX structure fragment database, we discovered that there exists another predictable subset of zinc-binding motifs that not only have a conserved continuous sequence pattern but also share a characteristic local conformation, despite being included in totally different overall folds. While this does not allow general prediction of all Zn binding motifs, a HMM-based web server, Huf-Zinc, is available for prediction of these novel, as well as conventional, zinc finger motifs in protein sequences. The Huf-Zinc webserver can be freely accessed through this URL (http://mendel.bii.a-star.edu.sg/METHODS/hufzinc/).

  10. Trigger finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Finger Injuries and Disorders ...

  11. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The author has been prompted to write this article about finger multiplication for a number of reasons. Firstly there are a number of related articles in past issues of "Mathematics Teaching" ("MT") which have connections to this algorithm. Secondly, very few of his primary teaching students and professional colleagues appear to be aware of the…

  12. VpRFP1, a novel C4C4-type RING finger protein gene from Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata, functions as a transcriptional activator in defence response of grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yihe; Xu, Weirong; Wang, Shengyi; Xu, Yan; Li, Hui'e; Wang, Yuejin; Li, Shuxiu

    2011-01-01

    RING finger proteins comprise a large family and play important roles in regulation of growth and development, hormone signalling, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In this study, the identification and functional characterization of a C4C4-type RING finger protein gene from the Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (designated VpRFP1) are reported. VpRFP1 was initially identified as an expressed sequence tag (EST) from a cDNA library constructed from leaves of V. pseudoreticulata inoculated with the grapevine powdery mildew Uncinula necator. Sequence analysis of the deduced VpRFP1 protein based on the full-length cDNA revealed an N-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a C-terminal C4C4-type RING finger motif with the consensus sequence Cys-X2-Cys-X13-Cys-X1-Cys-X4-Cys-X2-Cys-X10-Cys-X2-Cys. Upon inoculation with U. necator, expression of VpRFP1 was rapidly induced to higher levels in mildew-resistant V. pseudoreticulata plants. In contrast, expression of VpRFP1 was down-regulated in mildew-susceptible V. vinifera plants. Western blotting using an antibody raised against VpRFP1 showed that VpRFP1 was also induced to higher levels in V. pseudoreticulata plants at 12–48 hours post-inoculation (hpi). However, there was only slight increase in VpRFP in V. vinifera plants in the same time frame, even though a more significant increase was observed at 96–144 hpi in these plants. Results from transactivation assays in yeast showed that the RING finger motif of VpRFP1 exhibited some activity of transcriptional activation; however, no activity was seen with the full-length VpRFP1. Overexpression of VpRFP1 in Arabidopsis plants was found to enhance resistance to Arabidopsis powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, which seemed to be correlated with increased transcript levels of AtPR1 and AtPR2 in the pathogen-infected tissues. In addition, the Arabidopsis transgenic lines showed enhanced resistance to a virulent bacterial

  13. Krüppel-like factors: three fingers in control.

    PubMed

    Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K

    2010-04-01

    Krüppel-like factors (KLFs), members of the zinc-finger family of transcription factors capable of binding GC-rich sequences, have emerged as critical regulators of important functions all over the body. They are characterised by a highly conserved C-terminal DNA-binding motif containing three C2H2 zinc-finger domains, with variable N-terminal regulatory domains. Currently, there are 17 KLFs annotated in the human genome. In spite of their structural similarity to one another, the genes encoding different KLFs are scattered all over the genome. By virtue of their ability to activate and/or repress the expression of a large number of genes, KLFs regulate a diverse array of developmental events and cellular processes, such as erythropoiesis, cardiac remodelling, adipogenesis, maintenance of stem cells, epithelial barrier formation, control of cell proliferation and neoplasia, flow-mediated endothelial gene expression, skeletal and smooth muscle development, gluconeogenesis, monocyte activation, intestinal and conjunctival goblet cell development, retinal neuronal regeneration and neonatal lung development. Characteristic features, nomenclature, evolution and functional diversities of the human KLFs are reviewed here.

  14. A C2HC zinc finger is essential for the RING-E2 interaction of the ubiquitin ligase RNF125

    PubMed Central

    Bijlmakers, Marie-José; Teixeira, João M. C.; Boer, Roeland; Mayzel, Maxim; Puig-Sàrries, Pilar; Karlsson, Göran; Coll, Miquel; Pons, Miquel; Crosas, Bernat

    2016-01-01

    The activity of RING ubiquitin ligases (E3s) depends on an interaction between the RING domain and ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2), but posttranslational events or additional structural elements, yet largely undefined, are frequently required to enhance or regulate activity. Here, we show for the ubiquitin ligase RNF125 that, in addition to the RING domain, a C2HC Zn finger (ZnF) is crucial for activity, and a short linker sequence (Li2120-128) enhances activity. The contribution of these regions was first shown with truncated proteins, and the essential role of the ZnF was confirmed with mutations at the Zn chelating Cys residues. Using NMR, we established that the C2HC ZnF/Li2120-128 region is crucial for binding of the RING domain to the E2 UbcH5a. The partial X-ray structure of RNF125 revealed the presence of extensive intramolecular interactions between the RING and C2HC ZnF. A mutation at one of the contact residues in the C2HC ZnF, a highly conserved M112, resulted in the loss of ubiquitin ligase activity. Thus, we identified the structural basis for an essential role of the C2HC ZnF and conclude that this domain stabilizes the RING domain, and is therefore required for binding of RNF125 to an E2. PMID:27411375

  15. Robotic hand and fingers

    SciT

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Dullea, Kevin J.

    Technologies pertaining to a robotic hand are described herein. The robotic hand includes one or more fingers releasably attached to a robotic hand frame. The fingers can abduct and adduct as well as flex and tense. The fingers are releasably attached to the frame by magnets that allow for the fingers to detach from the frame when excess force is applied to the fingers.

  16. Utrophin Up-Regulation by an Artificial Transcription Factor in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Elisabetta; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Strimpakos, Georgios; Severini, Cinzia; Onori, Annalisa; Desantis, Agata; Libri, Valentina; Buontempo, Serena; Floridi, Aristide; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Baban, Dilair; Davies, Kay E.; Passananti, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle degenerative disease, due to absence of dystrophin. There is currently no effective treatment for DMD. Our aim is to up-regulate the expression level of the dystrophin related gene utrophin in DMD, complementing in this way the lack of dystrophin functions. To this end we designed and engineered several synthetic zinc finger based transcription factors. In particular, we have previously shown that the artificial three zinc finger protein named Jazz, fused with the appropriate effector domain, is able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the utrophin promoter “A”. Here we report on the characterization of Vp16-Jazz-transgenic mice that specifically over-express the utrophin gene at the muscular level. A Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) demonstrated the effective access/binding of the Jazz protein to active chromatin in mouse muscle and Vp16-Jazz was shown to be able to up-regulate endogenous utrophin gene expression by immunohistochemistry, western blot analyses and real-time PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a transgenic mouse expressing an artificial gene coding for a zinc finger based transcription factor. The achievement of Vp16-Jazz transgenic mice validates the strategy of transcriptional targeting of endogenous genes and could represent an exclusive animal model for use in drug discovery and therapeutics. PMID:17712422

  17. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trigger Finger Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Trigger Finger Animation Trigger Finger Close Popup Close ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...

  18. Functional and Structural Insights of the Zinc-Finger HIT protein family members Involved in Box C/D snoRNP Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bragantini, Benoit; Tiotiu, Decebal; Rothé, Benjamin; Saliou, Jean-Michel; Marty, Hélène; Cianférani, Sarah; Charpentier, Bruno; Quinternet, Marc; Manival, Xavier

    2016-06-05

    Zf–HIT family members share the zf–HIT domain (ZHD), which is characterized by a fold in “treble-clef” through interleaved CCCC and CCHC ZnF motifs that both bind a zinc atom. Six proteins containing ZHD are present in human and three in yeast proteome, all belonging to multimodular RNA/protein complexes involved in gene regulation, chromatin remodeling, and snoRNP assembly. An interesting characteristic of the cellular complexes that ensure these functions is the presence of the RuvBL1/2/Rvb1/2 ATPases closely linked with zf–HIT proteins. Human ZNHIT6/BCD1 and its counterpart in yeast Bcd1p were previously characterized as assembly factors of the box C/D snoRNPs. Our data reveal that the ZHD of Bcd1p is necessary but not sufficient for yeast growth and that the motif has no direct RNA-binding capacity but helps Bcd1p maintain the box C/D snoRNAs level in steady state. However, we demonstrated that Bcd1p interacts nonspecifically with RNAs depending on their length. Interestingly, the ZHD of Bcd1p is functionally interchangeable with that of Hit1p, another box C/D snoRNP assembly factor belonging to the zf–HIT family. This prompted us to use NMR to solve the 3D structures of ZHD from yeast Bcd1p and Hit1p to highlight the structural similarity in the zf–HIT family. We identified structural features associated with the requirement of Hit1p and Bcd1p ZHD for cell growth and box C/D snoRNA stability under heat stress. Altogether, our data suggest an important role of ZHD could be to maintain functional folding to the rest of the protein, especially under heat stress conditions.

  19. The DnaJ-Like Zinc-Finger Protein HCF222 Is Required for Thylakoid Membrane Biogenesis in Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hartings, Stephanie; Paradies, Susanne; Karnuth, Bianca; Eisfeld, Sabrina; Mehsing, Jasmin; Wolff, Christian; Levey, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    To understand the biogenesis of the thylakoid membrane in higher plants and to identify auxiliary proteins required to build up this highly complex membrane system, we have characterized the allelic nuclear mutants high chlorophyll fluorescence222-1 (hcf222-1) and hcf222-2 and isolated the causal gene by map-based cloning. In the ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant hcf222-1, the accumulation of the cytochrome b6f (Cytb6f) complex was reduced to 30% compared with the wild type. Other thylakoid membrane complexes accumulated to normal levels. The T-DNA knockout mutant hcf222-2 showed a more severe defect with respect to thylakoid membrane proteins and accumulated only 10% of the Cytb6f complex, accompanied by a reduction in photosystem II, the photosystem II light-harvesting complex, and photosystem I. HCF222 encodes a protein of 99 amino acids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that has similarities to the cysteine-rich zinc-binding domain of DnaJ chaperones. The insulin precipitation assay demonstrated that HCF222 has disulfide reductase activity in vitro. The protein is conserved in higher plants and bryophytes but absent in algae and cyanobacteria. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that a fraction of HCF222-green fluorescent protein was detectable in the endoplasmic reticulum but that it also could be recognized in chloroplasts. A fusion construct of HCF222 containing a plastid transit peptide targets the protein into chloroplasts and was able to complement the mutational defect. These findings indicate that the chloroplast-targeted HCF222 is indispensable for the maturation and/or assembly of the Cytb6f complex and is very likely involved in thiol-disulfide biochemistry at the thylakoid membrane. PMID:28572458

  20. Control of Dissected Leaf Morphology by a Cys(2)His(2) Zinc Finger Transcription Factor in the Model Legume Medicago Truncatula

    Different plants may have different leaf types. Diversity in leaf types contributes to a large degree of plant diversity in the natural environment. How different leaf morphology is determined is not yet understood. The leguminous plant Medicago truncatula exhibits dissected leaves with three leafl...

  1. BnLATE, a Cys2/His2-Type Zinc-Finger Protein, Enhances Silique Shattering Resistance by Negatively Regulating Lignin Accumulation in the Silique Walls of Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Zhangsheng; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Lida; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2017-01-01

    Silique shattering resistance is one of the most important agricultural traits in oil crop breeding. Seed shedding from siliques prior to and during harvest causes devastating losses in oilseed yield. Lignin biosynthesis in the silique walls is thought to affect silique-shattering resistance in oil crops. Here, we identified and characterized B. napus LATE FLOWERING (BnLATE), which encodes a Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger protein. Heterologous expression of BnLATE under the double enhanced CaMV 35S promoter (D35S) in wild-type Arabidopsis plants resulted in a marked decrease in lignification in the replum, valve layer (carpel) and dehiscence zone. pBnLATE::GUS activity was strong in the yellowing silique walls of transgenic lines. Furthermore, the expression pattern of BnLATE and the lignin content gradient in the silique walls at 48 days after pollination (DAP) of 73290, a B. napus silique shattering-resistant line, are similar to those in transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing BnLATE. Transcriptome sequencing of the silique walls revealed that genes encoding peroxidases, which polymerize monolignols and lignin in the phenylpropanoid pathway, were down-regulated at least two-fold change in the D35S::BnLATE transgenic lines. pBnLATE::BnLATE transgenic lines were further used to identify the function of BnLATE, and the results showed that lignification in the carpel and dehiscence zone of yellowing silique also remarkably decreased compared with the wild-type control, the silique shattering-resistance and expression pattern of peroxidase genes are very similar to results with D35S::BnLATE. These results suggest that BnLATE is a negative regulator of lignin biosynthesis in the yellowing silique walls, and promotes silique-shattering resistance in B. napus through restraining the polymerization of monolignols and lignin. PMID:28081140

  2. Specific Inhibition of the transcription factor Ci by a Cobalt(III)-Schiff base-DNA conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Ryan R.; Harney, Allison S.; Heffern, Marie C.; Holbrook, Robert J.; Holmgren, Robert A.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of Co(III) Schiff base-DNA conjugates, a versatile class of research tools that target C2H2 transcription factors, to inhibit the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway. In developing mammalian embryos, Hh signaling is critical for the formation and development of many tissues and organs. Inappropriate activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has been implicated in a variety of cancers including medulloblastomas and basal cell carcinomas. It is well known that Hh regulates the activity of the Gli family of C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors in mammals. In Drosophila the function of the Gli proteins is performed by a single transcription factor with an identical DNA binding consensus sequence, Cubitus Interruptus (Ci). We have demonstrated previously that conjugation of a specific 17 base-pair oligonucleotide to a Co(III) Schiff base complex results in a targeted inhibitor of the Snail family C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors. Modification of the oligonucleotide sequence in the Co(III) Schiff base-DNA conjugate to that of Ci’s consensus sequence (Co(III)-Ci) generates an equally selective inhibitor of Ci. Co(III)-Ci irreversibly binds the Ci zinc finger domain and prevents it from binding DNA in vitro. In a Ci responsive tissue culture reporter gene assay, Co(III)-Ci reduces the transcriptional activity of Ci in a concentration dependent manner. In addition, injection of wild-type Drosophila embryos with Co(III)-Ci phenocopies a Ci loss of function phenotype, demonstrating effectiveness in vivo. This study provides evidence that Co(III) Schiff base-DNA conjugates are a versatile class of specific and potent tools for studying zinc finger domain proteins and have potential applications as customizable anti-cancer therapeutics. PMID:22214326

  3. FBI-1, a factor that binds to the HIV-1 inducer of short transcripts (IST), is a POZ domain protein.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, D J; Pendergrast, P S; Stavropoulos, P; Colmenares, S U; Kobayashi, R; Hernandez, N

    1999-01-01

    The HIV-1 promoter directs the synthesis of two classes of transcripts, short, non-polyadenylated transcripts and full-length, polyadenylated transcripts. The synthesis of short transcripts is activated by a bipartite DNA element, the inducer of short transcripts or IST, located downstream of the HIV-1 transcriptional start site, while the synthesis of full-length transcripts is activated by the viral activator Tat. Tat binds to the RNA element TAR, which is encoded largely between the two IST half-elements. Upon activation by Tat, the synthesis of short RNAs is repressed. We have previously purified a factor called FBI-1 (for factor that binds to IST) whose binding to wild-type and mutated ISTs correlated well with the abilities of these ISTs to direct the synthesis of short transcripts. Here, we report the cloning of cDNAs encoding FBI-1. FBI-1 contains a POZ domain at its N-terminus and four Krüppel-type zinc fingers at its C-terminus. The C-terminus is sufficient for specific binding, and FBI-1 can form homomers through its POZ domain and, in vivo, through its zinc finger domain as well. In addition, FBI-1 associates with Tat, suggesting that repression of the short transcripts by Tat may be mediated through interactions between the two factors. PMID:9973611

  4. FBI-1, a factor that binds to the HIV-1 inducer of short transcripts (IST), is a POZ domain protein.

    PubMed

    Morrison, D J; Pendergrast, P S; Stavropoulos, P; Colmenares, S U; Kobayashi, R; Hernandez, N

    1999-03-01

    The HIV-1 promoter directs the synthesis of two classes of transcripts, short, non-polyadenylated transcripts and full-length, polyadenylated transcripts. The synthesis of short transcripts is activated by a bipartite DNA element, the inducer of short transcripts or IST, located downstream of the HIV-1 transcriptional start site, while the synthesis of full-length transcripts is activated by the viral activator Tat. Tat binds to the RNA element TAR, which is encoded largely between the two IST half-elements. Upon activation by Tat, the synthesis of short RNAs is repressed. We have previously purified a factor called FBI-1 (for factor that binds to IST) whose binding to wild-type and mutated ISTs correlated well with the abilities of these ISTs to direct the synthesis of short transcripts. Here, we report the cloning of cDNAs encoding FBI-1. FBI-1 contains a POZ domain at its N-terminus and four Krüppel-type zinc fingers at its C-terminus. The C-terminus is sufficient for specific binding, and FBI-1 can form homomers through its POZ domain and, in vivo, through its zinc finger domain as well. In addition, FBI-1 associates with Tat, suggesting that repression of the short transcripts by Tat may be mediated through interactions between the two factors.

  5. Transcriptional up-regulation of genes involved in photosynthesis of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii in response to zinc and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lu; Yao, Aijun; Ming Yuan; Tang, Yetao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Xi; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) are two closely related chemical elements with very different biological roles in photosynthesis. Zinc plays unique biochemical functions in photosynthesis. Previous studies suggested that in some Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators, many steps in photosynthesis may be Cd tolerant or even Cd stimulated. Using RNA-seq data, we found not only that Cd and Zn both up-regulated the CA1 gene, which encodes a β class carbonic anhydrase (CA) in chloroplasts, but that a large number of other Zn up-regulated genes in the photosynthetic pathway were also significantly up-regulated by Cd in leaves of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. These genes also include chloroplast genes involved in transcription and translation (rps18 and rps14), electron transport and ATP synthesis (atpF and ccsA), Photosystem II (PSBI, PSBM, PSBK, PSBZ/YCF9, PSBO-1, PSBQ, LHCB1.1, LHCB1.4, LHCB2.1, LHCB4.3 and LHCB6) and Photosystem I (PSAE-1, PSAF, PSAH2, LHCA1 and LHCA4). Cadmium and Zn also up-regulated the VAR1 gene, which encodes the ATP-dependent zinc metalloprotease FTSH 5 (a member of the FtsH family), and the DAG gene, which influences chloroplast differentiation and plastid development, and the CP29 gene, which supports RNA processing in chloroplasts and has a potential role in signal-dependent co-regulation of chloroplast genes. Further morphological parameters (dry biomass, cross-sectional thickness, chloroplast size, chlorophyll content) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters confirmed that leaf photosynthesis of S. alfredii responded to Cd much as it did to Zn, which will contribute to our understanding of the positive effects of Zn and Cd on growth of this plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Construction of a multicontrol sterility system for a maize male-sterile line and hybrid seed production based on the ZmMs7 gene encoding a PHD-finger transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Danfeng; Wu, Suowei; An, Xueli; Xie, Ke; Dong, Zhenying; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Liwen; Fang, Wen; Liu, Shensi; Liu, Shuangshuang; Zhu, Taotao; Li, Jinping; Rao, Liqun; Zhao, Jiuran; Wan, Xiangyuan

    2018-02-01

    Although hundreds of genetic male sterility (GMS) mutants have been identified in maize, few are commercially used due to a lack of effective methods to produce large quantities of pure male-sterile seeds. Here, we develop a multicontrol sterility (MCS) system based on the maize male sterility 7 (ms7) mutant and its wild-type Zea mays Male sterility 7 (ZmMs7) gene via a transgenic strategy, leading to the utilization of GMS in hybrid seed production. ZmMs7 is isolated by a map-based cloning approach and encodes a PHD-finger transcription factor orthologous to rice PTC1 and Arabidopsis MS1. The MCS transgenic maintainer lines are developed based on the ms7-6007 mutant transformed with MCS constructs containing the (i) ZmMs7 gene to restore fertility, (ii) α-amylase gene ZmAA and/or (iii) DNA adenine methylase gene Dam to devitalize transgenic pollen, (iv) red fluorescence protein gene DsRed2 or mCherry to mark transgenic seeds and (v) herbicide-resistant gene Bar for transgenic seed selection. Self-pollination of the MCS transgenic maintainer line produces transgenic red fluorescent seeds and nontransgenic normal colour seeds at a 1:1 ratio. Among them, all the fluorescent seeds are male fertile, but the seeds with a normal colour are male sterile. Cross-pollination of the transgenic plants to male-sterile plants propagates male-sterile seeds with high purity. Moreover, the transgene transmission rate through pollen of transgenic plants harbouring two pollen-disrupted genes is lower than that containing one pollen-disrupted gene. The MCS system has great potential to enhance the efficiency of maize male-sterile line propagation and commercial hybrid seed production. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Multiple layers of transcriptional regulation by PLZF in NKT-cell development.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ai-Ping; Constantinides, Michael G; Mathew, Rebecca; Zuo, Zhixiang; Chen, Xiaoting; Weirauch, Matthew T; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-07-05

    The transcription factor PLZF [promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger, encoded by zinc finger BTB domain containing 16 (Zbtb16)] is induced during the development of innate and innate-like lymphocytes to direct their acquisition of a T-helper effector program, but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Using biotinylation-based ChIP-seq and microarray analysis of both natural killer T (NKT) cells and PLZF-transgenic thymocytes, we identified several layers of regulation of the innate-like NKT effector program. First, PLZF bound and regulated genes encoding cytokine receptors as well as homing and adhesion receptors; second, PLZF bound and activated T-helper-specific transcription factor genes that in turn control T-helper-specific programs; finally, PLZF bound and suppressed the transcription of Bach2, a potent general repressor of effector differentiation in naive T cells. These findings reveal the multilayered architecture of the transcriptional program recruited by PLZF and elucidate how a single transcription factor can drive the developmental acquisition of a broad effector program.

  8. The transcription factor MTF-1 is essential for basal and heavy metal-induced metallothionein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Heuchel, R; Radtke, F; Georgiev, O; Stark, G; Aguet, M; Schaffner, W

    1994-06-15

    We have described and cloned previously a factor (MTF-1) that binds specifically to heavy metal-responsive DNA sequence elements in the enhancer/promoter region of metallothionein genes. MTF-1 is a protein of 72.5 kDa that contains six zinc fingers and multiple domains for transcriptional activation. Here we report the disruption of both alleles of the MTF-1 gene in mouse embryonic stem cells by homologous recombination. The resulting null mutant cell line fails to produce detectable amounts of MTF-1. Moreover, due to the loss of MTF-1, the endogenous metallothionein I and II genes are silent, indicating that MTF-1 is required for both their basal and zinc-induced transcription. In addition to zinc, other heavy metals, including cadmium, copper, nickel and lead, also fail to activate metal-responsive promoters in null mutant cells. However, cotransfection of an MTF-1 expression vector and metal-responsive reporter genes yields strong basal transcription that can be further boosted by zinc treatment of cells. These results demonstrate that MTF-1 is essential for metallothionein gene regulation. Finally, we present evidence that MTF-1 itself is a zinc sensor, which exhibits increased DNA binding activity upon zinc treatment.

  9. Genetic variation in metallothionein and metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in relation to urinary cadmium, copper, and zinc

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Scott V.; Barrick, Brian; Freney, Emily P.; Shafer, Martin M.; Makar, Karen; Song, Xiaoling; Lampe, Johanna; Vilchis, Hugo; Ulery, April; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Metallothionein (MT) proteins play critical roles in the physiological handling of both essential (Cu and Zn) and toxic (Cd) metals. MT expression is regulated by metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF1). Hence, genetic variation in the MT gene family and MTF1 might therefore influence excretion of these metals. Methods 321 women were recruited in Seattle, WA and Las Cruces, NM and provided demographic information, urine samples for measurement of metal concentrations by mass spectrometry and creatinine, and blood or saliva for extraction of DNA. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MTF1 gene region and the region of chromosome 16 encoding the MT gene family were selected for genotyping in addition to an ancestry informative marker panel. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of SNPs with urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn, adjusted for age, urinary creatinine, smoking history, study site, and ancestry. Results Minor alleles of rs28366003 and rs10636 near the MT2A gene were associated with lower urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn. Minor alleles of rs8044719 and rs1599823, near MT1A and MT1B, were associated with lower urinary Cd and Zn, respectively. Minor alleles of rs4653329 in MTF1 was associated with lower urinary Cd. Conclusions These results suggest that genetic variation in the MT gene region and MTF1 influences urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn excretion. PMID:26529669

  10. Trps1 activates a network of secreted Wnt inhibitors and transcription factors crucial to vibrissa follicle morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fantauzzo, Katherine A.; Christiano, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in TRPS1 cause trichorhinophalangeal syndrome types I and III, which are characterized by sparse scalp hair in addition to craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities. Trps1 is a vertebrate transcription factor that contains nine zinc-finger domains, including a GATA-type zinc finger through which it binds DNA. Mice in which the GATA domain of Trps1 has been deleted (Trps1Δgt/Δgt) have a reduced number of pelage follicles and lack vibrissae follicles postnatally. To identify the transcriptional targets of Trps1 in the developing vibrissa follicle, we performed microarray hybridization analysis, comparing expression patterns in the whisker pads of wild-type versus Trps1Δgt/Δgt embryos. We identified a number of transcription factors and Wnt inhibitors among transcripts downregulated in the mutant embryos and several extracellular matrix proteins that were upregulated in the mutant samples, and demonstrated that target gene expression levels were altered in vivo in Trps1Δgt/Δgt vibrissae. Unexpectedly, we discovered that Trps1 can directly bind the promoters of its target genes to activate transcription, expanding upon its established role as a transcriptional repressor. Our findings identify Trps1 as a novel regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway and of early hair follicle progenitors in the developing vibrissa follicle. PMID:22115758

  11. Structural and Thermodynamic Consequences of the Replacement of Zinc with Environmental Metals on ERα-DNA Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Deegan, Brian J.; Bona, Anna M.; Bhat, Vikas; Mikles, David C.; McDonald, Caleb B.; Seldeen, Kenneth L.; Farooq, Amjad

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) acts as a transcription factor by virtue of the ability of its DNA-binding (DB) domain, comprised of a tandem pair of zinc fingers, to recognize the estrogen response element (ERE) within the promoters of target genes. Herein, using an array of biophysical methods, we probe structural consequences of the replacement of zinc within the DB domain of ERα with various environmental metals and their effects on the thermodynamics of binding to DNA. Our data reveal that while the DB domain reconstituted with divalent ions of zinc, cadmium, mercury and cobalt binds to DNA with affinities in the nanomolar range, divalent ions of barium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and tin are unable to regenerate DB domain with DNA-binding potential though they can compete with zinc for coordinating the cysteine ligands within the zinc fingers. We also show that the metal-free DB domain is a homodimer in solution and that the binding of various metals only results in subtle secondary and tertiary structural changes, implying that metal-coordination may only be essential for DNA-binding. Collectively, our findings provide mechanistic insights into how environmental metals may modulate the physiological function of a key nuclear receptor involved in mediating a plethora of cellular functions central to human health and disease. PMID:22038807

  12. Transcriptome sequencing and analysis of zinc-uptake-related genes in Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinke; Dai, Pengxiu; Gao, Yongping; Gong, Xiaowen; Cui, Hao; Jin, Yipeng; Zhang, Yihua

    2017-11-21

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes is an important zoonotic dermatophytic (ringworm) pathogen; causing severe skin infection in humans and other animals worldwide. Fortunately, commonly used fungal skin disease prevention and treatment measures are relatively simple. However, T. mentagrophytes is primarily studied at the epidemiology and drug efficacy research levels, yet current study has been unable to meet the needs of clinical medicine. Zinc is a crucial trace element for the growth and reproduction of fungi and other microorganisms. The metal ions coordinate within a variety of proteins to form zinc finger proteins, which perform many vital biological functions. Zinc transport regulatory networks have not been resolved in T. mentagrophytes. The T. mentagrophytes transcriptome will allow us to discover new genes, particularly those genes involved in zinc uptake. We found T. mentagrophytes growth to be restricted by zinc deficiency; natural T. mentagrophytes growth requires zinc ions. T. Mentagrophytes must acquire zinc ions for growth and development. The transcriptome of T. mentagrophytes was sequenced by using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 technology and the de novo assembly of the transcriptome was performed by using the Trinity method, and functional annotation was analyzed. We got 10,751 unigenes. The growth of T. mentagrophytes is severely inhibited and there were many genes showing significant up regulation and down regulation respectively in T. mentagrophytes when zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency can affect the expression of multiple genes of T. mentagrophytes. The effect of the zinc deficiency could be recovered in the normal medium. And we finally found the zinc-responsive activating factor (ZafA) and speculated that 4 unigenes are zinc transporters. We knocked ZafA gene by ATMT transformation in T. mentagrophytes, the result showed that ZafA gene is very important for the growth and the generation of conidia in T. mentagrophytes. The expression of 4 zinc

  13. Genetic variation in metallothionein and metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in relation to urinary cadmium, copper, and zinc

    SciT

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org; Barrick, Brian; Christopher, Emily P.

    Background: Metallothionein (MT) proteins play critical roles in the physiological handling of both essential (Cu and Zn) and toxic (Cd) metals. MT expression is regulated by metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF1). Hence, genetic variation in the MT gene family and MTF1 might influence excretion of these metals. Methods: 321 women were recruited in Seattle, WA and Las Cruces, NM and provided demographic information, urine samples for measurement of metal concentrations by mass spectrometry and creatinine, and blood or saliva for extraction of DNA. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MTF1 gene region and the region of chromosome 16 encodingmore » the MT gene family were selected for genotyping in addition to an ancestry informative marker panel. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of SNPs with urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn, adjusted for age, urinary creatinine, smoking history, study site, and ancestry. Results: Minor alleles of rs28366003 and rs10636 near the MT2A gene were associated with lower urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn. Minor alleles of rs8044719 and rs1599823, near MT1A and MT1B, were associated with lower urinary Cd and Zn, respectively. Minor alleles of rs4653329 in MTF1 were associated with lower urinary Cd. Conclusions: These results suggest that genetic variation in the MT gene region and MTF1 influences urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn excretion. - Highlights: • Genetic variation in metallothionein (MT) genes was assessed in two diverse populations. • Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MT genes were associated with mean urinary Cd, Cu and Zn. • Genetic variation may influence biomarkers of exposure, and associations of exposure with health.« less

  14. A Synthetic Biology Framework for Programming Eukaryotic Transcription Functions

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Ahmad S.; Lu, Timothy K.; Bashor, Caleb J.; Ramirez, Cherie L.; Pyenson, Nora C.; Joung, J. Keith; Collins, James J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) perform complex and combinatorial functions within transcriptional networks. Here, we present a synthetic framework for systematically constructing eukaryotic transcription functions using artificial zinc fingers, modular DNA-binding domains found within many eukaryotic TFs. Utilizing this platform, we construct a library of orthogonal synthetic transcription factors (sTFs) and use these to wire synthetic transcriptional circuits in yeast. We engineer complex functions, such as tunable output strength and transcriptional cooperativity, by rationally adjusting a decomposed set of key component properties, e.g., DNA specificity, affinity, promoter design, protein-protein interactions. We show that subtle perturbations to these properties can transform an individual sTF between distinct roles (activator, cooperative factor, inhibitory factor) within a transcriptional complex, thus drastically altering the signal processing behavior of multi-input systems. This platform provides new genetic components for synthetic biology and enables bottom-up approaches to understanding the design principles of eukaryotic transcriptional complexes and networks. PMID:22863014

  15. Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under zinc starvation. Zinc depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for zinc-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by zinc starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed zinc starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant zinc proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to zinc-binding proteins. When cellular zinc is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing zinc from the degraded proteins and recycling zinc for other essential purposes. PMID:28264932

  16. Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-05-19

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under zinc starvation. Zinc depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for zinc-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by zinc starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed zinc starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant zinc proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to zinc-binding proteins. When cellular zinc is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing zinc from the degraded proteins and recycling zinc for other essential purposes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Multiple Fingers - One Gestalt.

    PubMed

    Lezkan, Alexandra; Manuel, Steven G; Colgate, J Edward; Klatzky, Roberta L; Peshkin, Michael A; Drewing, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The Gestalt theory of perception offered principles by which distributed visual sensations are combined into a structured experience ("Gestalt"). We demonstrate conditions whereby haptic sensations at two fingertips are integrated in the perception of a single object. When virtual bumps were presented simultaneously to the right hand's thumb and index finger during lateral arm movements, participants reported perceiving a single bump. A discrimination task measured the bump's perceived location and perceptual reliability (assessed by differential thresholds) for four finger configurations, which varied in their adherence to the Gestalt principles of proximity (small versus large finger separation) and synchrony (virtual spring to link movements of the two fingers versus no spring). According to models of integration, reliability should increase with the degree to which multi-finger cues integrate into a unified percept. Differential thresholds were smaller in the virtual-spring condition (synchrony) than when fingers were unlinked. Additionally, in the condition with reduced synchrony, greater proximity led to lower differential thresholds. Thus, with greater adherence to Gestalt principles, thresholds approached values predicted for optimal integration. We conclude that the Gestalt principles of synchrony and proximity apply to haptic perception of surface properties and that these principles can interact to promote multi-finger integration.

  18. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    SciT

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects ofmore » arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of

  19. Human Krüppel-related 3 (HKR3) Is a Novel Transcription Activator of Alternate Reading Frame (ARF) Gene*

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Min-Kyeong; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Jungho; Hur, Sujin Susanne; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Hur, Man-Wook

    2014-01-01

    HKR3 (Human Krüppel-related 3) is a novel POK (POZ-domain Krüppel-like zinc-finger) family transcription factor. Recently, some of the POK (POZ-domain Krüppel-like zinc finger) family proteins have been shown to play roles in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and oncogenesis. We investigated whether HKR3, an inhibitor of cell proliferation and an uncharacterized POK family protein, could regulate the cell cycle by controlling expression of genes within the p53 pathway (ARF-MDM2-TP53-p21WAF/CDKN1A). HKR3 potently activated the transcription of the tumor suppressor gene ARF by acting on the proximal promoter region (bp, −149∼+53), which contains Sp1 and FBI-1 binding elements (FREs). HKR3 interacted with the co-activator p300 to activate ARF transcription, which increased the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 within the proximal promoter. Oligonucleotide pull-down assays and ChIP assays revealed that HKR3 interferes with the binding of the proto-oncogenic transcription repressor FBI-1 to proximal FREs, thus derepressing ARF transcription. PMID:24382891

  20. Tendon Driven Finger Actuation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); hide

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a robotic hand having at least one finger. An actuation system for the robotic finger includes an actuator assembly which is supported by the robot and is spaced apart from the finger. A tendon extends from the actuator assembly to the at least one finger and ends in a tendon terminator. The actuator assembly is operable to actuate the tendon to move the tendon terminator and, thus, the finger.

  1. Zinc in innate and adaptive tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is important. It is the second most abundant trace metal with 2-4 grams in humans. It is an essential trace element, critical for cell growth, development and differentiation, DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation. Zinc deficiency has adverse consequences during embryogenesis and early childhood development, particularly on immune functioning. It is essential in members of all enzyme classes, including over 300 signaling molecules and transcription factors. Free zinc in immune and tumor cells is regulated by 14 distinct zinc importers (ZIP) and transporters (ZNT1-8). Zinc depletion induces cell death via apoptosis (or necrosis if apoptotic pathways are blocked) while sufficient zinc levels allows maintenance of autophagy. Cancer cells have upregulated zinc importers, and frequently increased zinc levels, which allow them to survive. Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate zinc levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor apoptosis are in order. PMID:21087493

  2. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  3. Enhancement of Arabidopsis growth characteristics using genome interrogation with artificial transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Pinas, Johan E.; Henkel, Christiaan V.; Augustijn, Dieuwertje; Hooykaas, Paul J. J.; van der Zaal, Bert J.

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population has a greatly increasing demand for plant biomass, thus creating a great interest in the development of methods to enhance the growth and biomass accumulation of crop species. In this study, we used zinc finger artificial transcription factor (ZF-ATF)-mediated genome interrogation to manipulate the growth characteristics and biomass of Arabidopsis plants. We describe the construction of two collections of Arabidopsis lines expressing fusions of three zinc fingers (3F) to the transcriptional repressor motif EAR (3F-EAR) or the transcriptional activator VP16 (3F-VP16), and the characterization of their growth characteristics. In total, six different 3F-ATF lines with a consistent increase in rosette surface area (RSA) of up to 55% were isolated. For two lines we demonstrated that 3F-ATF constructs function as dominant in trans acting causative agents for an increase in RSA and biomass, and for five larger plant lines we have investigated 3F-ATF induced transcriptomic changes. Our results indicate that genome interrogation can be used as a powerful tool for the manipulation of plant growth and biomass and that it might supply novel cues for the discovery of genes and pathways involved in these properties. PMID:28358915

  4. Enhancement of Arabidopsis growth characteristics using genome interrogation with artificial transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Tol, Niels van; Rolloos, Martijn; Pinas, Johan E; Henkel, Christiaan V; Augustijn, Dieuwertje; Hooykaas, Paul J J; van der Zaal, Bert J

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population has a greatly increasing demand for plant biomass, thus creating a great interest in the development of methods to enhance the growth and biomass accumulation of crop species. In this study, we used zinc finger artificial transcription factor (ZF-ATF)-mediated genome interrogation to manipulate the growth characteristics and biomass of Arabidopsis plants. We describe the construction of two collections of Arabidopsis lines expressing fusions of three zinc fingers (3F) to the transcriptional repressor motif EAR (3F-EAR) or the transcriptional activator VP16 (3F-VP16), and the characterization of their growth characteristics. In total, six different 3F-ATF lines with a consistent increase in rosette surface area (RSA) of up to 55% were isolated. For two lines we demonstrated that 3F-ATF constructs function as dominant in trans acting causative agents for an increase in RSA and biomass, and for five larger plant lines we have investigated 3F-ATF induced transcriptomic changes. Our results indicate that genome interrogation can be used as a powerful tool for the manipulation of plant growth and biomass and that it might supply novel cues for the discovery of genes and pathways involved in these properties.

  5. Post transcriptional control of the epigenetic stem cell regulator PLZF by sirtuin and HDAC deacetylases.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Melanie J; Durand, Laetitia; Langley, Emma; Coste-Sarguet, Lise; Zelent, Arthur; Chomienne, Christine; Kouzarides, Tony; Licht, Jonathan D; Guidez, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptional repressor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF) is critical for the regulation of normal stem cells maintenance by establishing specific epigenetic landscape. We have previously shown that CBP/p300 acetyltransferase induces PLZF acetylation in order to increase its deoxynucleotidic acid (DNA) binding activity and to enhance its epigenetic function (repression of PLZF target genes). However, how PLZF is inactivated is not yet understood. In this study, we demonstrate that PLZF is deacetylated by both histone deacetylase 3 and the NAD+ dependent deacetylase silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1). Unlike other PLZF-interacting deacetylases, these two proteins interact with the zinc finger domain of PLZF, where the activating CBP/p300 acetylation site was previously described, inducing deacetylation of lysines 647/650/653. Overexpression of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) and SIRT1 is associated with loss of PLZF DNA binding activity and decreases PLZF transcriptional repression. As a result, the chromatin status of the promoters of PLZF target genes, involved in oncogenesis, shift from a heterochromatin to an open euchromatin environment leading to gene expression even in the presence of PLZF. Consequently, SIRT1 and HDAC3 mediated-PLZF deacetylation provides for rapid control and fine-tuning of PLZF activity through post-transcriptional modification to regulate gene expression and cellular homeostasis.

  6. FOG-2, a Heart- and Brain-Enriched Cofactor for GATA Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian-rong; McKinsey, Timothy A.; Xu, Hongtao; Wang, Da-zhi; Richardson, James A.; Olson, Eric N.

    1999-01-01

    Members of the GATA family of zinc finger transcription factors have been shown to play important roles in the control of gene expression in a variety of cell types. GATA-1, -2, and -3 are expressed primarily in hematopoietic cell lineages and are required for proliferation and differentiation of multiple hematopoietic cell types, whereas GATA-4, -5, and -6 are expressed in the heart, where they activate cardiac muscle structural genes. Friend of GATA-1 (FOG) is a multitype zinc finger protein that interacts with GATA-1 and serves as a cofactor for GATA-1-mediated transcription. FOG is coexpressed with GATA-1 in developing erythroid and megakaryocyte cell lineages and cooperates with GATA-1 to control erythropoiesis. We describe a novel FOG-related factor, FOG-2, that is expressed predominantly in the developing and adult heart, brain, and testis. FOG-2 interacts with GATA factors, and interaction of GATA-4 and FOG-2 results in either synergistic activation or repression of GATA-dependent cardiac promoters, depending on the specific promoter and the cell type in which they are tested. The properties of FOG-2 suggest its involvement in the control of cardiac and neural gene expression by GATA transcription factors. PMID:10330188

  7. A Conserved PHD Finger Protein and Endogenous RNAi Modulate Insulin Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hoersch, Sebastian; Jensen, Morten B.; Kawli, Trupti; Kennedy, Lisa M.; Chavez, Violeta; Tan, Man-Wah; Lieb, Jason D.; Grishok, Alla

    2011-01-01

    Insulin signaling has a profound effect on longevity and the oxidative stress resistance of animals. Inhibition of insulin signaling results in the activation of DAF-16/FOXO and SKN-1/Nrf transcription factors and increased animal fitness. By studying the biological functions of the endogenous RNA interference factor RDE-4 and conserved PHD zinc finger protein ZFP-1 (AF10), which regulate overlapping sets of genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified an important role for these factors in the negative modulation of transcription of the insulin/PI3 signaling-dependent kinase PDK-1. Consistently, increased expression of pdk-1 in zfp-1 and rde-4 mutants contributed to their reduced lifespan and sensitivity to oxidative stress and pathogens due to the reduction in the expression of DAF-16 and SKN-1 targets. We found that the function of ZFP-1 in modulating pdk-1 transcription was important for the extended lifespan of the age-1(hx546) reduction-of-function PI3 kinase mutant, since the lifespan of the age-1; zfp-1 double mutant strain was significantly shorter compared to age-1(hx546). We further demonstrate that overexpression of ZFP-1 caused an increased resistance to oxidative stress in a DAF-16–dependent manner. Our findings suggest that epigenetic regulation of key upstream signaling components in signal transduction pathways through chromatin and RNAi may have a large impact on the outcome of signaling and expression of numerous downstream genes. PMID:21980302

  8. A conserved PHD finger protein and endogenous RNAi modulate insulin signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Mansisidor, Andres R; Cecere, Germano; Hoersch, Sebastian; Jensen, Morten B; Kawli, Trupti; Kennedy, Lisa M; Chavez, Violeta; Tan, Man-Wah; Lieb, Jason D; Grishok, Alla

    2011-09-01

    Insulin signaling has a profound effect on longevity and the oxidative stress resistance of animals. Inhibition of insulin signaling results in the activation of DAF-16/FOXO and SKN-1/Nrf transcription factors and increased animal fitness. By studying the biological functions of the endogenous RNA interference factor RDE-4 and conserved PHD zinc finger protein ZFP-1 (AF10), which regulate overlapping sets of genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified an important role for these factors in the negative modulation of transcription of the insulin/PI3 signaling-dependent kinase PDK-1. Consistently, increased expression of pdk-1 in zfp-1 and rde-4 mutants contributed to their reduced lifespan and sensitivity to oxidative stress and pathogens due to the reduction in the expression of DAF-16 and SKN-1 targets. We found that the function of ZFP-1 in modulating pdk-1 transcription was important for the extended lifespan of the age-1(hx546) reduction-of-function PI3 kinase mutant, since the lifespan of the age-1; zfp-1 double mutant strain was significantly shorter compared to age-1(hx546). We further demonstrate that overexpression of ZFP-1 caused an increased resistance to oxidative stress in a DAF-16-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that epigenetic regulation of key upstream signaling components in signal transduction pathways through chromatin and RNAi may have a large impact on the outcome of signaling and expression of numerous downstream genes.

  9. Multi-fingered robotic hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, Carl F. (Inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

  10. Naturally occurring mutations in the human 5-lipoxygenase gene promoter that modify transcription factor binding and reporter gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    In, K H; Asano, K; Beier, D; Grobholz, J; Finn, P W; Silverman, E K; Silverman, E S; Collins, T; Fischer, A R; Keith, T P; Serino, K; Kim, S W; De Sanctis, G T; Yandava, C; Pillari, A; Rubin, P; Kemp, J; Israel, E; Busse, W; Ledford, D; Murray, J J; Segal, A; Tinkleman, D; Drazen, J M

    1997-01-01

    Five lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the first committed enzyme in the metabolic pathway leading to the synthesis of the leukotrienes. We examined genomic DNA isolated from 25 normal subjects and 31 patients with asthma (6 of whom had aspirin-sensitive asthma) for mutations in the known transcription factor binding regions and the protein encoding region of the 5-LO gene. A family of mutations in the G + C-rich transcription factor binding region was identified consisting of the deletion of one, deletion of two, or addition of one zinc finger (Sp1/Egr-1) binding sites in the region 176 to 147 bp upstream from the ATG translation start site where there are normally 5 Sp1 binding motifs in tandem. Reporter gene activity directed by any of the mutant forms of the transcription factor binding region was significantly (P < 0.05) less effective than the activity driven by the wild type transcription factor binding region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated the capacity of wild type and mutant transcription factor binding regions to bind nuclear extracts from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These data are consistent with a family of mutations in the 5-LO gene that can modify reporter gene transcription possibly through differences in Sp1 and Egr-1 transactivation. PMID:9062372

  11. Naturally occurring mutations in the human 5-lipoxygenase gene promoter that modify transcription factor binding and reporter gene transcription.

    PubMed

    In, K H; Asano, K; Beier, D; Grobholz, J; Finn, P W; Silverman, E K; Silverman, E S; Collins, T; Fischer, A R; Keith, T P; Serino, K; Kim, S W; De Sanctis, G T; Yandava, C; Pillari, A; Rubin, P; Kemp, J; Israel, E; Busse, W; Ledford, D; Murray, J J; Segal, A; Tinkleman, D; Drazen, J M

    1997-03-01

    Five lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the first committed enzyme in the metabolic pathway leading to the synthesis of the leukotrienes. We examined genomic DNA isolated from 25 normal subjects and 31 patients with asthma (6 of whom had aspirin-sensitive asthma) for mutations in the known transcription factor binding regions and the protein encoding region of the 5-LO gene. A family of mutations in the G + C-rich transcription factor binding region was identified consisting of the deletion of one, deletion of two, or addition of one zinc finger (Sp1/Egr-1) binding sites in the region 176 to 147 bp upstream from the ATG translation start site where there are normally 5 Sp1 binding motifs in tandem. Reporter gene activity directed by any of the mutant forms of the transcription factor binding region was significantly (P < 0.05) less effective than the activity driven by the wild type transcription factor binding region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated the capacity of wild type and mutant transcription factor binding regions to bind nuclear extracts from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These data are consistent with a family of mutations in the 5-LO gene that can modify reporter gene transcription possibly through differences in Sp1 and Egr-1 transactivation.

  12. Repression of chimeric transcripts emanating from endogenous retrotransposons by a sequence-specific transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Retroviral elements are pervasively transcribed and dynamically regulated during development. While multiple histone- and DNA-modifying enzymes have broadly been associated with their global silencing, little is known about how the many diverse retroviral families are each selectively recognized. Results Here we show that the zinc finger protein Krüppel-like Factor 3 (KLF3) specifically silences transcription from the ORR1A0 long terminal repeat in murine fetal and adult erythroid cells. In the absence of KLF3, we detect widespread transcription from ORR1A0 elements driven by the master erythroid regulator KLF1. In several instances these aberrant transcripts are spliced to downstream genic exons. One such chimeric transcript produces a novel, dominant negative isoform of PU.1 that can induce erythroid differentiation. Conclusions We propose that KLF3 ensures the integrity of the murine erythroid transcriptome through the selective repression of a particular retroelement and is likely one of multiple sequence-specific factors that cooperate to achieve global silencing. PMID:24946810

  13. Finger Lakes LPG

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Finger Lakes LPG Storage, LLC; Two Brush Creek Blvd, Suite 200; Kansas City; Missouri 64112 (Applicant) has applied to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f et. seq (the Act), for

  14. Drastic changes in conformational dynamics of the antiterminator M2-1 regulate transcription efficiency in Pneumovirinae

    PubMed Central

    Leyrat, Cedric; Renner, Max; Harlos, Karl; Huiskonen, Juha T; Grimes, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    The M2-1 protein of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a zinc-binding transcription antiterminator which is highly conserved among pneumoviruses. We report the structure of tetrameric HMPV M2-1. Each protomer features a N-terminal zinc finger domain and an α-helical tetramerization motif forming a rigid unit, followed by a flexible linker and an α-helical core domain. The tetramer is asymmetric, three of the protomers exhibiting a closed conformation, and one an open conformation. Molecular dynamics simulations and SAXS demonstrate a dynamic equilibrium between open and closed conformations in solution. Structures of adenosine monophosphate- and DNA- bound M2-1 establish the role of the zinc finger domain in base-specific recognition of RNA. Binding to ‘gene end’ RNA sequences stabilized the closed conformation of M2-1 leading to a drastic shift in the conformational landscape of M2-1. We propose a model for recognition of gene end signals and discuss the implications of these findings for transcriptional regulation in pneumoviruses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02674.001 PMID:24842877

  15. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Finger What's in this article? What ... Have Questions Print What It Is A finger X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  16. Viral Ubiquitin Ligase Stimulates Selective Host MicroRNA Expression by Targeting ZEB Transcriptional Repressors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Youn; Leader, Andrew; Stoller, Michelle L.; Coen, Donald M.; Wilson, Angus C.

    2017-01-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) brings numerous changes in cellular gene expression. Levels of most host mRNAs are reduced, limiting synthesis of host proteins, especially those involved in antiviral defenses. The impact of HSV-1 on host microRNAs (miRNAs), an extensive network of short non-coding RNAs that regulate mRNA stability/translation, remains largely unexplored. Here we show that transcription of the miR-183 cluster (miR-183, miR-96, and miR-182) is selectively induced by HSV-1 during productive infection of primary fibroblasts and neurons. ICP0, a viral E3 ubiquitin ligase expressed as an immediate-early protein, is both necessary and sufficient for this induction. Nuclear exclusion of ICP0 or removal of the RING (really interesting new gene) finger domain that is required for E3 ligase activity prevents induction. ICP0 promotes the degradation of numerous host proteins and for the most part, the downstream consequences are unknown. Induction of the miR-183 cluster can be mimicked by depletion of host transcriptional repressors zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1)/δ-crystallin enhancer binding factor 1 (δEF1) and zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2)/Smad-interacting protein 1 (SIP1), which we establish as new substrates for ICP0-mediated degradation. Thus, HSV-1 selectively stimulates expression of the miR-183 cluster by ICP0-mediated degradation of ZEB transcriptional repressors. PMID:28783105

  17. OsLOL1, a C2C2-type zinc finger protein, interacts with OsbZIP58 to promote seed germination through the modulation of gibberellin biosynthesis in Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiahe; Zhu, Chuanfeng; Pang, Jinhuan; Zhang, Xiangrong; Yang, Chunlin; Xia, Guixian; Tian, Yingchuan; He, Chaozu

    2014-12-01

    Seed germination is a key developmental process in the plant life cycle that is influenced by various environmental cues and phytohormones through gene expression and a series of metabolism pathways. In the present study, we investigated a C2C2-type finger protein, OsLOL1, which promotes gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and affects seed germination in Oryza sativa (rice). We used OsLOL1 antisense and sense transgenic lines to explore OsLOL1 functions. Seed germination timing in antisense plants was restored to wild type when exogenous GA3 was applied. The reduced expression of the GA biosynthesis gene OsKO2 and the accumulation of ent-kaurene were observed during germination in antisense plants. Based on yeast two-hybrid and firefly luciferase complementation analyses, OsLOL1 interacted with the basic leucine zipper protein OsbZIP58. The results from electrophoretic mobility shift and dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that OsbZIP58 binds the G-box cis-element of the OsKO2 promoter and activates LUC reporter gene expression, and that interaction between OsLOL1 and OsbZIP58 activates OsKO2 gene expression. In addition, OsLOL1 decreased SOD1 gene expression and accelerated programmed cell death (PCD) in the aleurone layer of rice grains. These findings demonstrate that the interaction between OsLOL1 and OsbZIP58 influences GA biosynthesis through the activation of OsKO2 via OsbZIP58, thereby stimulating aleurone PCD and seed germination. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A Land Plant-Specific Transcription Factor Directly Enhances Transcription of a Pathogenic Noncoding RNA Template by DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase II[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Jie; Ji, Shaoyi; Wallace, Andrew J.; Wu, Jian; Li, Yi; Gopalan, Venkat; Ding, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Some DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (DdRPs) possess RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity, as was first discovered in the replication of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) RNA genome in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Recent studies revealed that this activity in bacteria and mammals is important for transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms. Here, we used PSTVd as a model to uncover auxiliary factors essential for RNA-templated transcription by DdRP. PSTVd replication in the nucleoplasm generates (−)-PSTVd intermediates and (+)-PSTVd copies. We found that the Nicotiana benthamiana canonical 9-zinc finger (ZF) Transcription Factor IIIA (TFIIIA-9ZF) as well as its variant TFIIIA-7ZF interacted with (+)-PSTVd, but only TFIIIA-7ZF interacted with (−)-PSTVd. Suppression of TFIIIA-7ZF reduced PSTVd replication, and overexpression of TFIIIA-7ZF enhanced PSTVd replication in planta. Consistent with the locale of PSTVd replication, TFIIIA-7ZF was found in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus, in contrast to the strictly nucleolar localization of TFIIIA-9ZF. Footprinting assays revealed that only TFIIIA-7ZF bound to a region of PSTVd critical for initiating transcription. Furthermore, TFIIIA-7ZF strongly enhanced the in vitro transcription of circular (+)-PSTVd by partially purified Pol II. Together, our results identify TFIIIA-7ZF as a dedicated cellular transcription factor that acts in DdRP-catalyzed RNA-templated transcription, highlighting both the extraordinary evolutionary adaptation of viroids and the potential of DdRPs for a broader role in cellular processes. PMID:27113774

  19. Potential role of DNA methylation as a facilitator of target search processes for transcription factors through interplay with methyl-CpG-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kemme, Catherine A.; Marquez, Rolando; Luu, Ross H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Eukaryotic genomes contain numerous non-functional high-affinity sequences for transcription factors. These sequences potentially serve as natural decoys that sequester transcription factors. We have previously shown that the presence of sequences similar to the target sequence could substantially impede association of the transcription factor Egr-1 with its targets. In this study, using a stopped-flow fluorescence method, we examined the kinetic impact of DNA methylation of decoys on the search process of the Egr-1 zinc-finger protein. We analyzed its association with an unmethylated target site on fluorescence-labeled DNA in the presence of competitor DNA duplexes, including Egr-1 decoys. DNA methylation of decoys alone did not affect target search kinetics. In the presence of the MeCP2 methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD), however, DNA methylation of decoys substantially (∼10-30-fold) accelerated the target search process of the Egr-1 zinc-finger protein. This acceleration did not occur when the target was also methylated. These results suggest that when decoys are methylated, MBD proteins can block them and thereby allow Egr-1 to avoid sequestration in non-functional locations. This effect may occur in vivo for DNA methylation outside CpG islands (CGIs) and could facilitate localization of some transcription factors within regulatory CGIs, where DNA methylation is rare. PMID:28486614

  20. Potential role of DNA methylation as a facilitator of target search processes for transcription factors through interplay with methyl-CpG-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kemme, Catherine A; Marquez, Rolando; Luu, Ross H; Iwahara, Junji

    2017-07-27

    Eukaryotic genomes contain numerous non-functional high-affinity sequences for transcription factors. These sequences potentially serve as natural decoys that sequester transcription factors. We have previously shown that the presence of sequences similar to the target sequence could substantially impede association of the transcription factor Egr-1 with its targets. In this study, using a stopped-flow fluorescence method, we examined the kinetic impact of DNA methylation of decoys on the search process of the Egr-1 zinc-finger protein. We analyzed its association with an unmethylated target site on fluorescence-labeled DNA in the presence of competitor DNA duplexes, including Egr-1 decoys. DNA methylation of decoys alone did not affect target search kinetics. In the presence of the MeCP2 methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD), however, DNA methylation of decoys substantially (∼10-30-fold) accelerated the target search process of the Egr-1 zinc-finger protein. This acceleration did not occur when the target was also methylated. These results suggest that when decoys are methylated, MBD proteins can block them and thereby allow Egr-1 to avoid sequestration in non-functional locations. This effect may occur in vivo for DNA methylation outside CpG islands (CGIs) and could facilitate localization of some transcription factors within regulatory CGIs, where DNA methylation is rare. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. The transcription factor Nerfin-1 prevents reversion of neurons into neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Froldi, Francesca; Szuperak, Milan; Weng, Chen-Fang; Shi, Wei; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Cheng, Louise Y

    2015-01-15

    Cellular dedifferentiation is the regression of a cell from a specialized state to a more multipotent state and is implicated in cancer. However, the transcriptional network that prevents differentiated cells from reacquiring stem cell fate is so far unclear. Neuroblasts (NBs), the Drosophila neural stem cells, are a model for the regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Here we show that the Drosophila zinc finger transcription factor Nervous fingers 1 (Nerfin-1) locks neurons into differentiation, preventing their reversion into NBs. Following Prospero-dependent neuronal specification in the ganglion mother cell (GMC), a Nerfin-1-specific transcriptional program maintains differentiation in the post-mitotic neurons. The loss of Nerfin-1 causes reversion to multipotency and results in tumors in several neural lineages. Both the onset and rate of neuronal dedifferentiation in nerfin-1 mutant lineages are dependent on Myc- and target of rapamycin (Tor)-mediated cellular growth. In addition, Nerfin-1 is required for NB differentiation at the end of neurogenesis. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis show that Nerfin-1 administers its function by repression of self-renewing-specific and activation of differentiation-specific genes. Our findings support the model of bidirectional interconvertibility between neural stem cells and their post-mitotic progeny and highlight the importance of the Nerfin-1-regulated transcriptional program in neuronal maintenance. © 2015 Froldi et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Bean Metal-Responsive Element-Binding Transcription Factor Confers Cadmium Resistance in Tobacco1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Na; Liu, Meng; Zhang, Wentao; Yang, Wanning; Bei, Xiujuan; Ma, Hui; Qiao, Fan; Qi, Xiaoting

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is highly toxic to plants. Modulation of Cd-responsive transcription is an important way for Cd detoxification in plants. Metal-responsive element (MRE) is originally described in animal metallothionein genes. Although functional MREs also exist in Cd-regulated plant genes, specific transcription factors that bind MRE to regulate Cd tolerance have not been identified. Previously, we showed that Cd-inducible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) stress-related gene2 (PvSR2) produces a short (S) PvSR2 transcript (S-PvSR2) driven by an intronic promoter. Here, we demonstrate that S-PvSR2 encodes a bean MRE-binding transcription factor1 (PvMTF-1) that confers Cd tolerance in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). PvMTF-1 expression was up-regulated by Cd at the levels of RNA and protein. Importantly, expression of PvMTF-1 in tobacco enhanced Cd tolerance, indicating its role in regulating Cd resistance in planta. This was achieved through direct regulation of a feedback-insensitive Anthranilate Synthase α-2 chain gene (ASA2), which catalyzes the first step for tryptophan biosynthesis. In vitro and in vivo DNA-protein interaction studies further revealed that PvMTF-1 directly binds to the MRE in the ASA2 promoter, and this binding depends on the zinc finger-like motif of PvMTF-1. Through modulating ASA2 up-regulation by Cd, PvMTF-1 increased free tryptophan level and subsequently reduced Cd accumulation, thereby enhancing Cd tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants. Consistent with this observation, tobacco transiently overexpressing ASA2 also exhibited increased tolerance to Cd. We conclude that PvMTF-1 is a zinc finger-like transcription factor that links MRE to Cd resistance in transgenic tobacco through activation of tryptophan biosynthesis. PMID:25624396

  3. The Transcription Factor Rbf1 Is the Master Regulator for b-Mating Type Controlled Pathogenic Development in Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Vranes, Miroslav; Wahl, Ramon; Pothiratana, Chetsada; Schuler, David; Vincon, Volker; Finkernagel, Florian; Flor-Parra, Ignacio; Kämper, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    In the phytopathogenic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis, sexual and pathogenic development are tightly connected and controlled by the heterodimeric bE/bW transcription factor complex encoded by the b-mating type locus. The formation of the active bE/bW heterodimer leads to the formation of filaments, induces a G2 cell cycle arrest, and triggers pathogenicity. Here, we identify a set of 345 bE/bW responsive genes which show altered expression during these developmental changes; several of these genes are associated with cell cycle coordination, morphogenesis and pathogenicity. 90% of the genes that show altered expression upon bE/bW-activation require the zinc finger transcription factor Rbf1, one of the few factors directly regulated by the bE/bW heterodimer. Rbf1 is a novel master regulator in a multilayered network of transcription factors that facilitates the complex regulatory traits of sexual and pathogenic development. PMID:20700446

  4. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  5. Bioaccessible mineral content of malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Platel, Kalpana; Eipeson, Sushma W; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2010-07-14

    Malted grains are extensively used in weaning and geriatric foods. Malting generally improves the nutrient content and digestibility of foods. The present investigation examined the influence of malting of finger millet, wheat, and barley on the bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, calcium, copper, and manganese. Malting increased the bioaccessibility of iron by >3-fold from the two varieties of finger millet and by >2-fold from wheat, whereas such a beneficial influence was not seen in barley. The bioaccessibility of zinc from wheat and barley increased to an extent of 234 and 100%, respectively, as a result of malting. However, malting reduced the bioaccessibility of zinc from finger millet. Malting marginally increased the bioaccessibility of calcium from white finger millet and wheat. Whereas malting did not exert any influence on bioaccessibility of copper from finger millet and wheat, it significantly decreased (75%) the same from barley. Malting did increase the bioaccessibility of manganese from brown finger millet (17%) and wheat (42%). Thus, malting could be an appropriate food-based strategy to derive iron and other minerals maximally from food grains.

  6. Robotic Finger Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic hand includes a finger with first, second, and third phalanges. A first joint rotatably connects the first phalange to a base structure. A second joint rotatably connects the first phalange to the second phalange. A third joint rotatably connects the third phalange to the second phalange. The second joint and the third joint are kinematically linked such that the position of the third phalange with respect to the second phalange is determined by the position of the second phalange with respect to the first phalange.

  7. Robotic Finger Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic hand includes a finger with first, second, and third phalanges. A first joint rotatably connects the first phalange to a base structure. A second joint rotatably connects the first phalange to the second phalange. A third joint rotatably connects the third phalange to the second phalange. The second joint and the third joint are kinematically linked such that the position of the third phalange with respect to the second phalange is determined by the position of the second phalange with respect to the first phalange.

  8. Finger Forces in Clarinet Playing

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Alex; Goebl, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Clarinettists close and open multiple tone holes to alter the pitch of the tones. Their fingering technique must be fast, precise, and coordinated with the tongue articulation. In this empirical study, finger force profiles and tongue techniques of clarinet students (N = 17) and professional clarinettists (N = 6) were investigated under controlled performance conditions. First, in an expressive-performance task, eight selected excerpts from the first Weber Concerto were performed. These excerpts were chosen to fit in a 2 × 2 × 2 design (register: low–high; tempo: slow–fast, dynamics: soft–loud). There was an additional condition controlled by the experimenter, which determined the expression levels (low–high) of the performers. Second, a technical-exercise task, an isochronous 23-tone melody was designed that required different effectors to produce the sequence (finger-only, tongue-only, combined tongue-finger actions). The melody was performed in three tempo conditions (slow, medium, fast) in a synchronization-continuation paradigm. Participants played on a sensor-equipped Viennese clarinet, which tracked finger forces and reed oscillations simultaneously. From the data, average finger force (Fmean) and peak force (Fmax) were calculated. The overall finger forces were low (Fmean = 1.17 N, Fmax = 3.05 N) compared to those on other musical instruments (e.g., guitar). Participants applied the largest finger forces during the high expression level performance conditions (Fmean = 1.21 N). For the technical exercise task, timing and articulation information were extracted from the reed signal. Here, the timing precision of the fingers deteriorated the timing precision of the tongue for combined tongue-finger actions, especially for faster tempi. Although individual finger force profiles were overlapping, the group of professional players applied less finger force overall (Fmean = 0.54 N). Such sensor instruments provide useful insights into player

  9. Changing Faces of Transcriptional Regulation Reflected by Zic3

    PubMed Central

    Winata, Cecilia Lanny; Kondrychyn, Igor; Deddens, J.C.; Korzh, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The advent of genomics in the study of developmental mechanisms has brought a trove of information on gene datasets and regulation during development, where the Zic family of zinc-finger proteins plays an important role. Genomic analysis of the modes of action of Zic3 in pluripotent cells demonstrated its requirement for maintenance of stem cells pluripotency upon binding to the proximal regulatory regions (promoters) of genes associated with cell pluripotency (Nanog, Sox2, Oct4, etc.) as well as cell cycle, proliferation, oncogenesis and early embryogenesis. In contrast, during gastrulation and neurulation Zic3 acts by binding the distal regulatory regions (enhancers, etc) associated with control of gene transcription in the Nodal and Wnt signaling pathways, including genes that act to break body symmetry. This illustrates a general role of Zic3 as a transcriptional regulator that acts not only alone, but in many instances in conjunction with other transcription factors. The latter is done by binding to adjacent sites in the context of multi-transcription factor complexes associated with regulatory elements. PMID:26085810

  10. Oncogenes Activate an Autonomous Transcriptional Regulatory Circuit That Drives Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dinesh K; Kollipara, Rahul K; Vemireddy, Vamsidara; Yang, Xiao-Li; Sun, Yuxiao; Regmi, Nanda; Klingler, Stefan; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Raisanen, Jack; Cho, Steve K; Sirasanagandla, Shyam; Nannepaga, Suraj; Piccirillo, Sara; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Wang, Shan; Humphries, Caroline G; Mickey, Bruce; Maher, Elizabeth A; Zheng, Hongwu; Kim, Ryung S; Kittler, Ralf; Bachoo, Robert M

    2017-01-24

    Efforts to identify and target glioblastoma (GBM) drivers have primarily focused on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Clinical benefits, however, have been elusive. Here, we identify an SRY-related box 2 (SOX2) transcriptional regulatory network that is independent of upstream RTKs and capable of driving glioma-initiating cells. We identified oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) and zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), which are frequently co-expressed irrespective of driver mutations, as potential SOX2 targets. In murine glioma models, we show that different combinations of tumor suppressor and oncogene mutations can activate Sox2, Olig2, and Zeb1 expression. We demonstrate that ectopic co-expression of the three transcription factors can transform tumor-suppressor-deficient astrocytes into glioma-initiating cells in the absence of an upstream RTK oncogene. Finally, we demonstrate that the transcriptional inhibitor mithramycin downregulates SOX2 and its target genes, resulting in markedly reduced proliferation of GBM cells in vivo. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Serine phosphorylation by SYK is critical for nuclear localization and transcription factor function of Ikaros

    PubMed Central

    Uckun, Fatih M.; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Jian; Ozer, Zahide; Dovat, Sinisa; Mao, Cheney; Ishkhanian, Rita; Goodman, Patricia; Qazi, Sanjive

    2012-01-01

    Ikaros is a zinc finger-containing DNA-binding protein that plays a pivotal role in immune homeostasis through transcriptional regulation of the earliest stages of lymphocyte ontogeny and differentiation. Functional deficiency of Ikaros has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common form of childhood cancer. Therefore, a stringent regulation of Ikaros activity is considered of paramount importance, but the operative molecular mechanisms responsible for its regulation remain largely unknown. Here we provide multifaceted genetic and biochemical evidence for a previously unknown function of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) as a partner and posttranslational regulator of Ikaros. We demonstrate that SYK phoshorylates Ikaros at unique C-terminal serine phosphorylation sites S358 and S361, thereby augmenting its nuclear localization and sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Mechanistically, we establish that SYK-induced Ikaros activation is essential for its nuclear localization and optimal transcription factor function. PMID:23071339

  12. Generation of knockout rabbits using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Fan, Nana; Song, Jun; Zhong, Juan; Guo, Xiaogang; Tian, Weihua; Zhang, Quanjun; Cui, Fenggong; Li, Li; Newsome, Philip N; Frampton, Jon; Esteban, Miguel A; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases are novel gene-editing platforms contributing to redefine the boundaries of modern biological research. They are composed of a non-specific cleavage domain and a tailor made DNA-binding module, which enables a broad range of genetic modifications by inducing efficient DNA double-strand breaks at desired loci. Among other remarkable uses, these nucleases have been employed to produce gene knockouts in mid-size and large animals, such as rabbits and pigs, respectively. This approach is cost effective, relatively quick, and can produce invaluable models for human disease studies, biotechnology or agricultural purposes. Here we describe a protocol for the efficient generation of knockout rabbits using transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and a perspective of the field.

  13. Identification of Akt Interaction Protein PHF20/TZP That Transcriptionally Regulates p53*

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungman; Kim, Donghwa; Dan, Han C.; Chen, Huihua; Testa, Joseph R.; Cheng, Jin Q.

    2012-01-01

    Akt regulates a diverse array of cellular functions, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism. Although a number of molecules have been identified as upstream regulators and downstream targets of Akt, the mechanisms by which Akt regulates these cellular processes remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that a novel transcription factor, PHF20/TZP (referring to Tudor and zinc finger domain containing protein), binds to Akt and induces p53 expression at the transcription level. Knockdown of PHF20 significantly reduces p53. PHF20 inhibits cell growth, DNA synthesis, and cell survival. Akt phosphorylates PHF20 at Ser291 in vitro and in vivo, which results in its translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and attenuation of PHF20 function. These data indicate that PHF20 is a substrate of Akt and plays a role in Akt cell survival/growth signaling. PMID:22334668

  14. Hidradenocarcinoma of the finger.

    PubMed

    Nazerali, Rahim S; Tan, Cynthia; Fung, Maxwell A; Chen, Steven L; Wong, Michael S

    2013-04-01

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare adnexal neoplasm representing the malignant counterpart of hidradenoma derived from eccrine sweat glands. Misdiagnosis of this disease is common due to the wide variety of histological patterns and rarity of this malignancy. We report an 87-year-old man presenting with a rare case of biopsy-proven hidradenocarcinoma of the finger. There is no standard care of treatment of hidradenocarcinoma, especially of those tumors in rare locations such as the fingers, given its rarity, variable tumor behavior and histology. Although limited treatment strategies exist, detailed data including TNM, location, histologic type and grade, and patient age should be gathered for optimal treatment strategy. The literature supports a 3-fold approach to these malignancies involving margin-free resection, sentinel lymph node biopsy to evaluate possible metastasis, and long-term follow-up given high risk of recurrence. Our treatment strategy involved a 4-fold, multidisciplinary approach involving reconstruction to optimize tumor-free remission and hand function.

  15. Differences in finger localisation performance of patients with finger agnosia.

    PubMed

    Anema, Helen A; Kessels, Roy P C; de Haan, Edward H F; Kappelle, L Jaap; Leijten, Frans S; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2008-09-17

    Several neuropsychological studies have suggested parallel processing of somatosensory input when localising a tactile stimulus on one's own by pointing towards it (body schema) and when localising this touched location by pointing to it on a map of a hand (body image). Usually these reports describe patients with impaired detection, but intact sensorimotor localisation. This study examined three patients with a lesion of the angular gyrus with intact somatosensory processing, but with selectively disturbed finger identification (finger agnosia). These patients performed normally when pointing towards the touched finger on their own hand but failed to indicate this finger on a drawing of a hand or to name it. Similar defects in the perception of other body parts were not observed. The findings provide converging evidence for the dissociation between body image and body schema and, more importantly, reveal for the first time that this distinction is also present in higher-order cognitive processes selectively for the fingers.

  16. Finger vein recognition based on finger crease location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhiying; Ding, Shumeng; Yin, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Finger vein recognition technology has significant advantages over other methods in terms of accuracy, uniqueness, and stability, and it has wide promising applications in the field of biometric recognition. We propose using finger creases to locate and extract an object region. Then we use linear fitting to overcome the problem of finger rotation in the plane. The method of modular adaptive histogram equalization (MAHE) is presented to enhance image contrast and reduce computational cost. To extract the finger vein features, we use a fusion method, which can obtain clear and distinguishable vein patterns under different conditions. We used the Hausdorff average distance algorithm to examine the recognition performance of the system. The experimental results demonstrate that MAHE can better balance the recognition accuracy and the expenditure of time compared with three other methods. Our resulting equal error rate throughout the total procedure was 3.268% in a database of 153 finger vein images.

  17. Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ananda S

    2008-01-01

    Although the essentiality of zinc for plants and animals has been known for many decades, the essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized only 40 years ago in the Middle East. The zinc-deficient patients had severe immune dysfunctions, inasmuch as they died of intercurrent infections by the time they were 25 years of age. In our studies in an experimental human model of zinc deficiency, we documented decreased serum testosterone level, oligospermia, severe immune dysfunctions mainly affecting T helper cells, hyperammonemia, neurosensory disorders, and decreased lean body mass. It appears that zinc deficiency is prevalent in the developing world and as many as two billion subjects may be growth retarded due to zinc deficiency. Besides growth retardation and immune dysfunctions, cognitive impairment due to zinc deficiency also has been reported recently. Our studies in the cell culture models showed that the activation of many zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors were adversely affected due to zinc deficiency. In HUT-78 (T helper 0 [Th(0)] cell line), we showed that a decrease in gene expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor alpha(IL-2Ralpha) were due to decreased activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in zinc deficient cells. Decreased NF-kappaB activation in HUT-78 due to zinc deficiency was due to decreased binding of NF-kappaB to DNA, decreased level of NF-kappaB p105 (the precursor of NF-kappaB p50) mRNA, decreased kappaB inhibitory protein (IkappaB) phosphorylation, and decreased Ikappa kappa. These effects of zinc were cell specific. Zinc also is an antioxidant and has anti-inflammatory actions. The therapeutic roles of zinc in acute infantile diarrhea, acrodermatitis enteropathica, prevention of blindness in patients with age-related macular degeneration, and treatment of common cold with zinc have been reported. In HL-60 cells (promyelocytic leukemia cell line), zinc enhances the up-regulation of A20 mRNA, which, via TRAF

  18. Competition between anisotropic viscous fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecelerowicz, M.; Budek, A.; Szymczak, P.

    2014-09-01

    We consider viscous fingers created by injection of low viscosity fluid into the network of capillaries initially filled with a more viscous fluid (motor oil). Due to the anisotropy of the system and its geometry, such a setup promotes the formation of long-and-thin fingers which then grow and compete for the available flow, interacting through the pressure field. The interaction between the fingers is analyzed using the branched growth formalism of Halsey and Leibig (Phys. Rev. A 46, 7723, 1992) using a number of simple, analytically tractable models. It is shown that as soon as the fingers are allowed to capture the flow from one another, the fixed point appears in the phase space, corresponding to the asymptotic state in which the growth of one of the fingers in hindered by the other. The properties of phase space flows in such systems are shown to be remarkably insensitive to the details of the dynamics.

  19. Surgery for trigger finger.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Haroldo Junior; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun; Lenza, Mário; Gomes Dos Santos, Joao Baptista; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, Joao Carlos

    2018-02-20

    Trigger finger is a common clinical disorder, characterised by pain and catching as the patient flexes and extends digits because of disproportion between the diameter of flexor tendons and the A1 pulley. The treatment approach may include non-surgical or surgical treatments. Currently there is no consensus about the best surgical treatment approach (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches). To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different methods of surgical treatment for trigger finger (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches) in adults at any stage of the disease. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS up to August 2017. We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that assessed adults with trigger finger and compared any type of surgical treatment with each other or with any other non-surgical intervention. The major outcomes were the resolution of trigger finger, pain, hand function, participant-reported treatment success or satisfaction, recurrence of triggering, adverse events and neurovascular injury. Two review authors independently selected the trial reports, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Measures of treatment effect for dichotomous outcomes calculated risk ratios (RRs), and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). When possible, the data were pooled into meta-analysis using the random-effects model. GRADE was used to assess the quality of evidence for each outcome. Fourteen trials were included, totalling 1260 participants, with 1361 trigger fingers. The age of participants included in the studies ranged from 16 to 88 years; and the majority of participants were women (approximately 70%). The average duration of symptoms ranged from three to 15 months, and the follow-up after the procedure ranged from eight weeks to 23 months.The studies reported nine types of comparisons: open surgery versus steroid injections (two

  20. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli. PMID:28629136

  1. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-06-17

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  2. Finger-Circumference-Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Suy

    1995-01-01

    Easy-to-use device quickly measures circumference of finger (including thumb) on human hand. Includes polytetrafluoroethylene band 1/8 in. wide, bent into loop and attached to tab that slides on scale graduated in millimeters. Sliding tab preloaded with constant-force tension spring, which pulls tab toward closure of loop. Designed to facilitate measurements at various points along fingers to obtain data for studies of volumetric changes of fingers in microgravity. Also used in normal Earth gravity studies of growth and in assessment of diseases like arthritis.

  3. Functions of the Magnaporthe oryzae Flb3p and Flb4p transcription factors in the regulation of conidiation.

    PubMed

    Matheis, S; Yemelin, A; Scheps, D; Andresen, K; Jacob, S; Thines, E; Foster, A J

    2017-03-01

    The Magnaporthe oryzae genes FLB3 and FLB4, orthologues of the Aspergillus nidulans regulators of conidiation FlbC and FlbD, were inactivated. These genes encode C2H2 zinc finger and Myb-like transcription factors, respectively, in A. nidulans. Analysis of the resultant mutants demonstrated that FLB4 is essential for spore formation and that strains lacking this gene are fluffy in their colony morphology due to an inability to complete conidiophore formation. Meanwhile, FLB3 is required for normal levels of aerial mycelium formation. We identified genes dependent on both transcription factors using microarray analysis. This analysis revealed that the transcription of several genes encoding proteins implicated in sporulation in Magnaporthe oryzae and other filamentous fungi are affected by FLB3 or FLB4 inactivation. Furthermore, the microarray analysis indicates that Flb3p may effectively reprogramme the cell metabolically by repressing transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes and inducing transcription of genes encoding catabolic enzymes. Additionally, qRT-PCR was employed and showed that FLB3 and FLB4 transcripts are enriched in synchronously sporulating cultures, as were the transcripts of other genes that are necessary for normal conidiation, consistent with a role for their gene products in this process. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of Critical Domains within the Tumor Suppressor CASZ1 Required for Transcriptional Regulation and Growth Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Virden, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    CASZ1 is a zinc finger (ZF) transcription factor that is critical for controlling the normal differentiation of subtypes of neural and cardiac muscle cells. In neuroblastoma tumors, loss of CASZ1 is associated with poor prognosis and restoration of CASZ1 function suppresses neuroblastoma tumorigenicity. However, the key domains by which CASZ1 transcription controls developmental processes and neuroblastoma tumorigenicity have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we show that loss of any one of ZF1 to ZF4 resulted in a 58 to 79% loss in transcriptional activity, as measured by induction of tyrosine hydroxylase promoter-luciferase activity, compared to that of wild-type (WT) CASZ1b. Mutation of ZF5 or deletion of the C-terminal sequence of amino acids (aa) 728 to 1166 (a truncation of 38% of the protein) does not significantly alter transcriptional function. A series of N-terminal truncations reveals a critical transcriptional activation domain at aa 31 to 185 and a nuclear localization signal at aa 23 to 29. Soft agar colony formation assays and xenograft studies show that WT CASZ1b is more active in suppressing neuroblastoma growth than CASZ1b with a ZF4 mutation or a deletion of aa 31 to 185. This study identifies key domains needed for CASZ1b to regulate gene transcription. Furthermore, we establish a link between loss of CASZ1b transcriptional activity and attenuation of CASZ1b-mediated inhibition of neuroblastoma growth and tumorigenicity. PMID:22331471

  5. The B-subdomain of the Xenopus laevis XFIN KRAB-AB domain is responsible for its weaker transcriptional repressor activity compared to human ZNF10/Kox1.

    PubMed

    Born, Nadine; Thiesen, Hans-Jürgen; Lorenz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) domain interacts with the nuclear hub protein TRIM28 to initiate or mediate chromatin-dependent processes like transcriptional repression, imprinting or suppression of endogenous retroviruses. The prototype KRAB domain initially identified in ZNF10/KOX1 encompasses two subdomains A and B that are found in hundreds of zinc finger transcription factors studied in human and murine genomes. Here we demonstrate for the first time transcriptional repressor activity of an amphibian KRAB domain. After sequence correction, the updated KRAB-AB domain of zinc finger protein XFIN from the frog Xenopus laevis was found to confer transcriptional repression in reporter assays in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney cells as well as in human HeLa, but not in the minnow Pimephales promelas fish cell line EPC. Binding of the XFIN KRAB-AB domain to human TRIM28 was demonstrated in a classical co-immunoprecipitation approach and visualized in a single-cell compartmentalization assay. XFIN-AB displayed reduced potency in repression as well as lower strength of interaction with TRIM28 compared to ZNF10 KRAB-AB. KRAB-B subdomain swapping between the two KRAB domains indicated that it was mainly the KRAB-B subdomain of XFIN that was responsible for its lower capacity in repression and binding to human TRIM28. In EPC fish cells, ZNF10 and XFIN KRAB repressor activity could be partially restored to low levels by adding exogenous human TRIM28. In contrast to XFIN, we did not find any transcriptional repression activity for the KRAB-like domain of human PRDM9 in HeLa cells. PRDM9 is thought to harbor an evolutionary older domain related to KRAB whose homologs even occur in invertebrates. Our results support the notion that functional bona fide KRAB domains which confer transcriptional repression and interact with TRIM28 most likely co-evolved together with TRIM28 at the beginning of tetrapode evolution.

  6. Neural correlates of finger gnosis.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Elena; Tamè, Luigi; Furlan, Michele; Haggard, Patrick; Demarchi, Gianpaolo; Adriani, Michela; Ferrari, Paolo; Braun, Christoph; Schwarzbach, Jens

    2014-07-02

    Neuropsychological studies have described patients with a selective impairment of finger identification in association with posterior parietal lesions. However, evidence of the role of these areas in finger gnosis from studies of the healthy human brain is still scarce. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the brain network engaged in a novel finger gnosis task, the intermanual in-between task (IIBT), in healthy participants. Several brain regions exhibited a stronger blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response in IIBT than in a control task that did not explicitly rely on finger gnosis but used identical stimuli and motor responses as the IIBT. The IIBT involved stronger signal in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), bilateral precuneus (PCN), bilateral premotor cortex, and left inferior frontal gyrus. In all regions, stimulation of nonhomologous fingers of the two hands elicited higher BOLD signal than stimulation of homologous fingers. Only in the left anteromedial IPL (a-mIPL) and left PCN did signal strength decrease parametrically from nonhomology, through partial homology, to total homology with stimulation delivered synchronously to the two hands. With asynchronous stimulation, the signal was stronger in the left a-mIPL than in any other region, possibly indicating retention of task-relevant information. We suggest that the left PCN may contribute a supporting visuospatial representation via its functional connection to the right PCN. The a-mIPL may instead provide the core substrate of an explicit bilateral body structure representation for the fingers that when disrupted can produce the typical symptoms of finger agnosia. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/339012-12$15.00/0.

  7. Finger-Jointed Wood Products.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    these melamines do not have the same Urea resins are generally marketed adhesives does not always develop resistance to weathering as do in liquid form...OF durable, colorless glueline is required. been developed for use in RF curing. FINGER JOINTS MelamineUrea Resins IN STRUCTURAL Melamine - urea resins ...finger duced either by dry blending urea and moplastic, softening if temperature is joints, strength is expressed as a melamine resins or by blending

  8. Eos Negatively Regulates Human γ-globin Gene Transcription during Erythroid Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai-Chuan; Zhao, Hua-Lu; Wu, Zhi-Kui; Zhang, Jun-Wu

    2011-01-01

    Background Human globin gene expression is precisely regulated by a complicated network of transcription factors and chromatin modifying activities during development and erythropoiesis. Eos (Ikaros family zinc finger 4, IKZF4), a member of the zinc finger transcription factor Ikaros family, plays a pivotal role as a repressor of gene expression. The aim of this study was to examine the role of Eos in globin gene regulation. Methodology/Principal Findings Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR detected a gradual decrease in Eos expression during erythroid differentiation of hemin-induced K562 cells and Epo-induced CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HPCs). DNA transfection and lentivirus-mediated gene transfer demonstrated that the enforced expression of Eos significantly represses the expression of γ-globin, but not other globin genes, in K562 cells and CD34+ HPCs. Consistent with a direct role of Eos in globin gene regulation, chromatin immunoprecipitaion and dual-luciferase reporter assays identified three discrete sites located in the DNase I hypersensitivity site 3 (HS3) of the β-globin locus control region (LCR), the promoter regions of the Gγ- and Aγ- globin genes, as functional binding sites of Eos protein. A chromosome conformation capture (3C) assay indicated that Eos may repress the interaction between the LCR and the γ-globin gene promoter. In addition, erythroid differentiation was inhibited by enforced expression of Eos in K562 cells and CD34+ HPCs. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that Eos plays an important role in the transcriptional regulation of the γ-globin gene during erythroid differentiation. PMID:21829552

  9. The transcription repressor NmrA is subject to proteolysis by three Aspergillus nidulans proteases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao; Hume, Samantha L; Johnson, Christopher; Thompson, Paul; Huang, Junyong; Gray, Joe; Lamb, Heather K; Hawkins, Alastair R

    2010-01-01

    The role of specific cleavage of transcription repressor proteins by proteases and how this may be related to the emerging theme of dinucleotides as cellular signaling molecules is poorly characterized. The transcription repressor NmrA of Aspergillus nidulans discriminates between oxidized and reduced dinucleotides, however, dinucleotide binding has no effect on its interaction with the zinc finger in the transcription activator AreA. Protease activity in A. nidulans was assayed using NmrA as the substrate, and was absent in mycelium grown under nitrogen sufficient conditions but abundant in mycelium starved of nitrogen. One of the proteases was purified and identified as the protein Q5BAR4 encoded by the gene AN2366.2. Fluorescence confocal microscopy showed that the nuclear levels of NmrA were reduced approximately 38% when mycelium was grown on nitrate compared to ammonium and absent when starved of nitrogen. Proteolysis of NmrA occurred in an ordered manner by preferential digestion within a C-terminal surface exposed loop and subsequent digestion at other sites. NmrA digested at the C-terminal site was unable to bind to the AreA zinc finger. These data reveal a potential new layer of control of nitrogen metabolite repression by the ordered proteolytic cleavage of NmrA. NmrA digested at the C-terminal site retained the ability to bind NAD+ and showed a resistance to further digestion that was enhanced by the presence of NAD+. This is the first time that an effect of dinucleotide binding to NmrA has been demonstrated. PMID:20506376

  10. RABBIT EARS regulates the transcription of TCP4 during petal development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Yanzhi; Zhang, Yongxia; Wang, Weiyao; Irish, Vivian F; Huang, Tengbo

    2016-12-01

    Plant organ growth requires the proper transition from cell proliferation to cell expansion and differentiation. The CIN-TCP transcription factor gene TCP4 and its post-transcriptional regulator microRNA319 play a pivotal role in this process. In this study, we identified a pathway in which the product of the C2H2 zinc finger gene RABBIT EARS (RBE) regulates the transcription of TCP4 during Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) petal development. RBE directly represses TCP4 during the early stages of petal development; this contributes to the role of RBE in controlling the growth of petal primordia. We also found that the rbe-1 mutant strongly enhanced the petal phenotypes of tcp4soj6 and mir319a, two mutants with compromised miR319 regulation of TCP4 Our results show that transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation function together to pattern the spatial and temporal expression of TCP4 This in turn controls petal size and shape in Arabidopsis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Surfactant Protein-C Promoter Variants Associated with Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome Reduce Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Wambach, Jennifer A.; Yang, Ping; Wegner, Daniel J.; An, Ping; Hackett, Brian P.; Cole, F. S.; Hamvas, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Dominant mutations in coding regions of the surfactant protein-C gene (SFTPC) cause respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in infants. However, the contribution of variants in noncoding regions of SFTPC to pulmonary phenotypes is unknown. Using a case-control group of infants ≥34 weeks gestation (n=538), we used complete resequencing of SFTPC and its promoter, genotyping, and logistic regression to identify 80 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Three promoter SNPs were statistically associated with neonatal RDS among European descent infants. To assess the transcriptional effects of these three promoter SNPs, we selectively mutated the SFTPC promoter and performed transient transfection using MLE-15 cells and a firefly luciferase reporter vector. Each promoter SNP decreased SFTPC transcription. The combination of two variants in high linkage dysequilibrium also decreased SFTPC transcription. In silico evaluation of transcription factor binding demonstrated that the rare allele at g.-1167 disrupts a SOX (SRY-related high mobility group box) consensus motif and introduces a GATA-1 site, at g.-2385 removes a MZF-1 (myeloid zinc finger) binding site, and at g.-1647 removes a potential methylation site. This combined statistical, in vitro, and in silico approach suggests that reduced SFTPC transcription contributes to the genetic risk for neonatal RDS in developmentally susceptible infants. PMID:20539253

  12. Role of nutritional zinc in the prevention of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi

    2010-05-01

    Zinc is known as an essential nutritional factor in the growth of the human and animals. Bone growth retardation is a common finding in various conditions associated with dietary zinc deficiency. Bone zinc content has been shown to decrease in aging, skeletal unloading, and postmenopausal conditions, suggesting its role in bone disorder. Zinc has been demonstrated to have a stimulatory effect on osteoblastic bone formation and mineralization; the metal directly activates aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, a rate-limiting enzyme at translational process of protein synthesis, in the cells, and it stimulates cellular protein synthesis. Zinc has been shown to stimulate gene expression of the transcription factors runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) that is related to differentiation into osteoblastic cells. Moreover, zinc has been shown to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption due to inhibiting osteoclast-like cell formation from bone marrow cells and stimulating apoptotic cell death of mature osteoclasts. Zinc has a suppressive effect on the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. Zinc transporter has been shown to express in osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells. Zinc protein is involved in transcription. The intake of dietary zinc causes an increase in bone mass. beta-Alanyl-L: -histidinato zinc (AHZ) is a zinc compound, in which zinc is chelated to beta-alanyl-L: -histidine. The stimulatory effect of AHZ on bone formation is more intensive than that of zinc sulfate. Zinc acexamate has also been shown to have a potent-anabolic effect on bone. The oral administration of AHZ or zinc acexamate has the restorative effect on bone loss under various pathophysiologic conditions including aging, skeletal unloading, aluminum bone toxicity, calcium- and vitamin D-deficiency, adjuvant arthritis, estrogen deficiency, diabetes, and fracture healing. Zinc compounds may be designed as new supplementation factor in the prevention and

  13. Prediction and Identification of Krüppel-Like Transcription Factors by Machine Learning Method.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhijun; Wang, Xinrui; Chen, Xingyong; Zou, Quan

    2017-01-01

    The Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are a family of containing Zn finger(ZF) motif transcription factors with 18 members in human genome, among them, KLF18 is predicted by bioinformatics. KLFs possess various physiological function involving in a number of cancers and other diseases. Here we perform a binary-class classification of KLFs and non-KLFs by machine learning methods. The protein sequences of KLFs and non-KLFs were searched from UniProt and randomly separate them into training dataset(containing positive and negative sequences) and test dataset(containing only negative sequences), after extracting the 188-dimensional(188D) feature vectors we carry out category with four classifiers(GBDT, libSVM, RF, and k-NN). On the human KLFs, we further dig into the evolutionary relationship and motif distribution, and finally we analyze the conserved amino acid residue of three zinc fingers. The classifier model from training dataset were well constructed, and the highest specificity(Sp) was 99.83% from a library for support vector machine(libSVM) and all the correctly classified rates were over 70% for 10-fold cross-validation on test dataset. The 18 human KLFs can be further divided into 7 groups and the zinc finger domains were located at the carboxyl terminus, and many conserved amino acid residues including Cysteine and Histidine, and the span and interval between them were consistent in the three ZF domains. Two classification models for KLFs prediction have been built by novel machine learning methods. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. High-resolution three-dimensional NMR structure of the KRAS proto-oncogene promoter reveals key features of a G-quadruplex involved in transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Kerkour, Abdelaziz; Marquevielle, Julien; Ivashchenko, Stefaniia; Yatsunyk, Liliya A; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Salgado, Gilmar F

    2017-05-12

    Non-canonical base pairing within guanine-rich DNA and RNA sequences can produce G-quartets, whose stacking leads to the formation of a G-quadruplex (G4). G4s can coexist with canonical duplex DNA in the human genome and have been suggested to suppress gene transcription, and much attention has therefore focused on studying G4s in promotor regions of disease-related genes. For example, the human KRAS proto-oncogene contains a nuclease-hypersensitive element located upstream of the major transcription start site. The KRAS nuclease-hypersensitive element (NHE) region contains a G-rich element (22RT; 5'-AGGGCGGTGTGGGAATAGGGAA-3') and encompasses a Myc-associated zinc finger-binding site that regulates KRAS transcription. The NEH region therefore has been proposed as a target for new drugs that control KRAS transcription, which requires detailed knowledge of the NHE structure. In this study, we report a high-resolution NMR structure of the G-rich element within the KRAS NHE. We found that the G-rich element forms a parallel structure with three G-quartets connected by a four-nucleotide loop and two short one-nucleotide double-chain reversal loops. In addition, a thymine bulge is found between G8 and G9. The loops of different lengths and the presence of a bulge between the G-quartets are structural elements that potentially can be targeted by small chemical ligands that would further stabilize the structure and interfere or block transcriptional regulators such as Myc-associated zinc finger from accessing their binding sites on the KRAS promoter. In conclusion, our work suggests a possible new route for the development of anticancer agents that could suppress KRAS expression. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Mesofluidic controlled robotic or prosthetic finger

    DOEpatents

    Lind, Randall F; Jansen, John F; Love, Lonnie J

    2013-11-19

    A mesofluidic powered robotic and/or prosthetic finger joint includes a first finger section having at least one mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a first actuator, a second mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a second actuator and a second prosthetic finger section pivotally connected to the first finger section by a joint pivot, wherein the first actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger to provide a first mechanical advantage relative to the joint point and wherein the second actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger section to provide a second mechanical advantage relative to the joint point.

  16. The artificial gene Jazz, a transcriptional regulator of utrophin, corrects the dystrophic pathology in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Corbi, Nicoletta; Strimpakos, Georgios; Onori, Annalisa; Luvisetto, Siro; Severini, Cinzia; Guglielmotti, Angelo; Batassa, Enrico Maria; Pisani, Cinzia; Floridi, Aristide; Benassi, Barbara; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Magrelli, Armando; Mattei, Elisabetta; Passananti, Claudio

    2010-03-01

    The absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin results in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The utrophin protein is the best candidate for dystrophin replacement in DMD patients. To obtain therapeutic levels of utrophin expression in dystrophic muscle, we developed an alternative strategy based on the use of artificial zinc finger transcription factors (ZF ATFs). The ZF ATF 'Jazz' was recently engineered and tested in vivo by generating a transgenic mouse specifically expressing Jazz at the muscular level. To validate the ZF ATF technology for DMD treatment we generated a second mouse model by crossing Jazz-transgenic mice with dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Here, we show that the artificial Jazz protein restores sarcolemmal integrity and prevents the development of the dystrophic disease in mdx mice. This exclusive animal model establishes the notion that utrophin-based therapy for DMD can be efficiently developed using ZF ATF technology and candidates Jazz as a novel therapeutic molecule for DMD therapy.

  17. SP and KLF Transcription Factors in Digestive Physiology and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Kyung; He, Ping; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B; Yang, Vincent W

    2017-06-01

    Specificity proteins (SPs) and Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) belong to the family of transcription factors that contain conserved zinc finger domains involved in binding to target DNA sequences. Many of these proteins are expressed in different tissues and have distinct tissue-specific activities and functions. Studies have shown that SPs and KLFs regulate not only physiological processes such as growth, development, differentiation, proliferation, and embryogenesis, but pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer and inflammatory disorders. Consistently, these proteins have been shown to regulate normal functions and pathobiology in the digestive system. We review recent findings on the tissue- and organ-specific functions of SPs and KLFs in the digestive system including the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, pancreas, and liver. We provide a list of agents under development to target these proteins. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Targeted Disruption of Mouse Yin Yang 1 Transcription Factor Results in Peri-Implantation Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe, Mary E.; Zhang, Xiaolin; McGinnis, Lynda; Biggers, John; Li, En; Shi, Yang

    1999-01-01

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a zinc finger-containing transcription factor and a target of viral oncoproteins. To determine the biological role of YY1 in mammalian development, we generated mice deficient for YY1 by gene targeting. Homozygosity for the mutated YY1 allele results in embryonic lethality in the mouse. YY1 mutants undergo implantation and induce uterine decidualization but rapidly degenerate around the time of implantation. A subset of YY1 heterozygote embryos are developmentally retarded and exhibit neurulation defects, suggesting that YY1 may have additional roles during later stages of mouse embryogenesis. Our studies demonstrate an essential function for YY1 in the development of the mouse embryo. PMID:10490658

  19. Upregulation of Endogenous HMOX1 Expression by a Computer-Designed Artificial Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongfeng; Tian, Yi; Lu, Hai; Wei, Yong; Ying, Dajun

    2010-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is well known as a cytoprotective factor. Research has revealed that it is a promising therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases. In the current study, an HMOX1 (HO-1 gene) enhancer-specific artificial zinc-finger protein (AZP) was designed using bioinformatical methods. Then, an artificial transcription factor (ATF) was constructed based on the AZP. In the ATF, the p65 functional domain was used as the effector domain (ED), and a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was also included. We next analyzed the affinity of the ATF to the HMOX1 enhancer and the effect of the ATF on endogenous HMOX1 expression. The results suggest that the ATF could effectively upregulate endogenous HMOX1 expression in ECV304 cells. With further research, the ATF could be developed as a potential drug for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20706680

  20. Temporal Control of Plant Organ Growth by TCP Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengbo; Irish, Vivian F

    2015-06-29

    The Arabidopsis petal is a simple laminar organ whose development is largely impervious to environmental effects, making it an excellent model for dissecting the regulation of cell-cycle progression and post-mitotic cell expansion that together sculpt organ form. Arabidopsis petals grow via basipetal waves of cell division, followed by a phase of cell expansion. RABBIT EARS (RBE) encodes a C2H2 zinc finger transcriptional repressor and is required for petal development. During the early phase of petal initiation, RBE regulates a microRNA164-dependent pathway that controls cell proliferation at the petal primordium boundaries. The effects of rbe mutations on petal lamina growth suggest that RBE is also required to regulate later developmental events during petal organogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that, early in petal development, RBE represses the transcription of a suite of CIN-TCP genes that in turn act to inhibit the number and duration of cell divisions; the temporal alleviation of that repression results in the transition from cell division to post-mitotic cell expansion and concomitant petal maturation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. EMG finger movement classification based on ANFIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caesarendra, W.; Tjahjowidodo, T.; Nico, Y.; Wahyudati, S.; Nurhasanah, L.

    2018-04-01

    An increase number of people suffering from stroke has impact to the rapid development of finger hand exoskeleton to enable an automatic physical therapy. Prior to the development of finger exoskeleton, a research topic yet important i.e. machine learning of finger gestures classification is conducted. This paper presents a study on EMG signal classification of 5 finger gestures as a preliminary study toward the finger exoskeleton design and development in Indonesia. The EMG signals of 5 finger gestures were acquired using Myo EMG sensor. The EMG signal features were extracted and reduced using PCA. The ANFIS based learning is used to classify reduced features of 5 finger gestures. The result shows that the classification of finger gestures is less than the classification of 7 hand gestures.

  2. SomethiNG 2 talk about-Transcriptional regulation in embryonic and adult oligodendrocyte precursors.

    PubMed

    Küspert, Melanie; Wegner, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Glial cells that express the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 represent an inherently heterogeneous population. These so-called NG2-glia are present during development and in the adult CNS, where they are referred to as embryonic oligodendrocyte precursors and adult NG2-glia, respectively. They give rise to myelinating oligodendrocytes at all times of life. Over the years much has been learnt about the transcriptional network in embryonic oligodendrocyte precursors, and several transcription factors from the HLH, HMG-domain, zinc finger and homeodomain protein families have been identified as main constituents. Much less is known about the corresponding network in adult NG2-glia. Here we summarize and discuss current knowledge on functions of each of these transcription factor families in NG2-glia, and where possible compare transcriptional regulation in embryonic oligodendrocyte precursors and adult NG2-glia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:NG2-glia (Invited only). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genome-wide strategies identify downstream target genes of chick connective tissue-associated transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Orgeur, Mickael; Martens, Marvin; Leonte, Georgeta; Nassari, Sonya; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Börno, Stefan T; Timmermann, Bernd; Hecht, Jochen; Duprez, Delphine; Stricker, Sigmar

    2018-03-29

    Connective tissues support organs and play crucial roles in development, homeostasis and fibrosis, yet our understanding of their formation is still limited. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of connective tissue specification, we selected five zinc-finger transcription factors - OSR1, OSR2, EGR1, KLF2 and KLF4 - based on their expression patterns and/or known involvement in connective tissue subtype differentiation. RNA-seq and ChIP-seq profiling of chick limb micromass cultures revealed a set of common genes regulated by all five transcription factors, which we describe as a connective tissue core expression set. This common core was enriched with genes associated with axon guidance and myofibroblast signature, including fibrosis-related genes. In addition, each transcription factor regulated a specific set of signalling molecules and extracellular matrix components. This suggests a concept whereby local molecular niches can be created by the expression of specific transcription factors impinging on the specification of local microenvironments. The regulatory network established here identifies common and distinct molecular signatures of limb connective tissue subtypes, provides novel insight into the signalling pathways governing connective tissue specification, and serves as a resource for connective tissue development. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Imprinting regulator DNMT3L is a transcriptional repressor associated with histone deacetylase activity.

    PubMed

    Aapola, Ulla; Liiv, Ingrid; Peterson, Pärt

    2002-08-15

    DNMT3L is a regulator of imprint establishment of normally methylated maternal genomic sequences. DNMT3L shows high similarity to the de novo DNA methyltransferases, DNMT3A and DNMT3B, however, the amino acid residues needed for DNA cytosine methyltransferase activity have been lost from the DNMT3L protein sequence. Apart from methyltransferase activity, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b serve as transcriptional repressors associating with histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Here we show that DNMT3L can also repress transcription by binding directly to HDAC1 protein. We have identified the PHD-like zinc finger of the ATRX domain as a main repression motif of DNMT3L, through which DNMT3L recruits the HDAC activity needed for transcriptional silencing. Furthermore, we show that DNMT3L protein contains an active nuclear localisation signal at amino acids 156-159. These results describe DNMT3L as a co-repressor protein and suggest that a transcriptionally repressed chromatin organisation through HDAC activity is needed for establishment of genomic imprints.

  5. The strategy of fusion genes construction determines efficient expression of introduced transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Adamus, Tomasz; Konieczny, Paweł; Sekuła, Małgorzata; Sułkowski, Maciej; Majka, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    The main goal in gene therapy and biomedical research is an efficient transcription factors (TFs) delivery system. SNAIL, a zinc finger transcription factor, is strongly involved in tumor, what makes its signaling pathways an interesting research subject. The necessity of tracking activation of intracellular pathways has prompted fluorescent proteins usage as localization markers. Advanced molecular cloning techniques allow to generate fusion proteins from fluorescent markers and transcription factors. Depending on fusion strategy, the protein expression levels and nuclear transport ability are significantly different. The P2A self-cleavage motif through its cleavage ability allows two single proteins to be simultaneously expressed. The aim of this study was to compare two strategies for introducing a pair of genes using expression vector system. We have examined GFP and SNAI1 gene fusions by comprising common nucleotide polylinker (multiple cloning site) or P2A motif in between them, resulting in one fusion or two independent protein expressions respectively. In each case transgene expression levels and translation efficiency as well as nuclear localization of expressed protein have been analyzed. Our data showed that usage of P2A motif provides more effective nuclear transport of SNAIL transcription factor than conventional genes linker. At the same time the fluorescent marker spreads evenly in subcellular space.

  6. Identification of NAB1, a repressor of NGFI-A- and Krox20-mediated transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, M W; Sevetson, B R; Milbrandt, J

    1995-01-01

    NGFI-A (also called Egr1, Zif268, or Krox24) and the closely related proteins Krox20, NGFI-C, and Egr3 are zinc-finger transcription factors encoded by immediate-early genes which are induced by a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. NGFI-A has been implicated in cell proliferation, macrophage differentiation, synaptic activation, and long-term potentiation, whereas Krox20 is critical for proper hindbrain segmentation and peripheral nerve myelination. In previous work, a structure/function analysis of NGFI-A revealed a 34-aa inhibitory domain that was hypothesized to be the target of a cellular factor that represses NGFI-A transcriptional activity. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have isolated a cDNA clone which encodes a protein that interacts with this inhibitory domain and inhibits the ability of NGFI-A to activate transcription. This NGFI-A-binding protein, NAB1, is a 570-aa nuclear protein that bears no obvious sequence homology to known proteins. NAB1 also represses Krox20 activity, but it does not influence Egr3 or NGFI-G, thus providing a mechanism for the differential regulation of this family of immediate-early transcription factors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7624335

  7. Finger posture modulates structural body representations

    PubMed Central

    Tamè, Luigi; Dransfield, Elanah; Quettier, Thomas; Longo, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with lesions of the left posterior parietal cortex commonly fail in identifying their fingers, a condition known as finger agnosia, yet are relatively unimpaired in sensation and skilled action. Such dissociations have traditionally been interpreted as evidence that structural body representations (BSR), such as the body structural description, are distinct from sens