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Sample records for zinc isotopic compositions

  1. Zinc Isotopic Compositions of Spinel Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Huang, F.

    2015-12-01

    Zn isotope geochemistry has shown great potential in exploring planetary differentiation and volatilization history [1,2,3,4]. However, the zinc isotopic composition of the mantle and its fractionation mechanism in high-temperature processes are still unclear. In order to understand Zn isotope composition of the mantle, here we measured Zn isotope data for mantle rocks and minerals, including coexisting olivine, orthopyroxene (Opx), clinopyroxene (Cpx) and spinel from peridotite xenoliths in the Hannuoba (China), Vitim (Siberia), Tariat (central Mongolia), and Dariganga (SE Mongolia). As an accessary mineral, spinels in our study have high Zn contents (500-1400 ppm), accounting for 18%-40% of the total Zn budget in peridotites. Spinels have higher δ66Zn ranging from 0.17 to 0.30‰ than other mantle minerals. For most samples, the δ66Zn of olivines vary from -0.03‰ to 0.19‰, indistinguishable to the value of the coexisting Opx (0.05‰ to 0.20‰). However, we also observed large fractionation between these two minerals, which may reflect disequilibrium fractionation due to kinetic processes. Finally, δ66Zn for peridotites are 0.12-0.21‰, slightly lighter than that of basalts (~0.25±0.05‰), revealing that Zn isotopes can be slightly fractionated during mantle melting. [1] Luck et al., (2005) Geochimica Cosmo Acta, 69, 5351-5363. [2] Paniello et al., (2012) Nature, 490, 376-379. [3] Chen et al., (2013) Meteoritics Planet Sci, 48, 2441-2450. [4] Day and Moynier, (2014) Phil. Transac. of the Royal Society B, 372, 20130259

  2. Isotopic composition of zinc, copper, and iron in lunar samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynier, F.; Albarède, F.; Herzog, G. F.

    2006-12-01

    We determined by ICP-MS the concentrations and isotopic ratios of Fe, Cu, and Zn in the Ti-rich lunar basalt 74275, in the lunar orange glass 74220, and in up to 10 lunar soils, namely, 14163, 15231, 64501, 66041, 68841, 69941, 70011, 72501, 75081, and 76501. Two analyses of zinc in lunar basalt 74275 give δ 66Zn = 0.17‰ and 0.75‰, values within the range of those measured in terrestrial basalts; copper in lunar basalt 74275 has δ 65Cu ˜ +1.4‰, which is isotopically heavier than values observed in terrestrial basalts. In the orange glass, we measured δ 56Fe = -0.24‰, δ 65Cu = -0.42‰, and δ 66Zn ˜ -3.6‰. These values of δ are more negative than those obtained for 74275 and for typical lunar basalts, but for Cu, comparable to those observed in terrestrial sulfides and meteorites. In lunar soils we found 0.11‰ ⩽ δ 56Fe ⩽ 0.51‰, 2.6‰ ⩽ δ 65Cu ⩽ 4.5‰, and 2.2‰ ⩽ δ 66Zn ⩽ 6.4‰. Insofar as we can generalize from a small sample set, S, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd show similar trends in isotopic fractionation on the Moon. Lunar basalts have nearly terrestrial isotopic ratios. Relative to the lunar basalt 74275, the pyroclastic glass 74220 is enriched in the lighter isotopes of Fe, Cu, and Zn, and the soils are enriched in the heavier isotopes of Fe, Cu, and Zn. The patterns in the basalts are likely inherited from the source material; the light-isotope enrichments seen in the orange glass originated during lava fountaining or, less probably, during partial condensation of vapor; and the heavy-isotope enrichments in the lunar soils were likely created by a combination of processes that included micrometeorite vaporization and sputtering. In the orange glass, the light-isotope enrichments (relative to lunar basalts) of Zn are larger than those of Cu. If these enrichments reflect accurately the isotopic composition of the gas, they suggest that Cu is more volatile than Zn in the liquid from which the gas derived. A simple model built on

  3. Zinc isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation and the isotopic composition of the bulk Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Heng; Savage, Paul S.; Teng, Fang-Zehn; Helz, Rosalind T.; Moynier, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    he zinc stable isotope system has been successfully applied to many and varied fields in geochemistry, but to date it is still not completely clear how this isotope system is affected by igneous processes. In order to evaluate the potential application of Zn isotopes as a proxy for planetary differentiation and volatile history, it is important to constrain the magnitude of Zn isotopic fractionation induced by magmatic differentiation. In this study we present high-precision Zn isotope analyses of two sets of chemically diverse, cogenetic samples from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii, and Hekla volcano, Iceland, which both show clear evidence of having undergone variable and significant degrees of magmatic differentiation. The Kilauea Iki samples display small but resolvable variations in Zn isotope composition (0.26‰66Zn66Zn defined as the per mille deviation of a sample's 66Zn/64Zn compositional ratio from the JMC-Lyon standard), with the most differentiated lithologies exhibiting more positive δ66Zn values. This fractionation is likely a result of the crystallization of olivine and/or Fe–Ti oxides, which can both host Zn in their crystal structures. Samples from Hekla have a similar range of isotopic variation (0.22‰66Zn66Zn=0.28±0.05‰ (2s.d.).

  4. Copper and Zinc isotope composition of CR, CB and CH-like meteorites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, S.; Zhu, X.; Guo, Y.; Mullane, E.; Gounelle, M.; Mason, T.; Coles, B.

    2003-04-01

    Copper and zinc isotopes have recently been shown to be variable in isotopic composi-tion among terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials [1-3]. For this study, we have se-lected samples (bulk meteorite and chondrule separates) from the CR meteorite clan: Bencubbin (CB), Renazzo (CR2), NWA 801 (CR2), and HaH237 (CH-like). These meteorites were selected because meteorites from this clan have experienced very little alteration since their initial formation [4] and for their extremely high refrac-tory/volatile element ratios. The latter characteristic may allow a test of the correlation observed by [2] between element ratios and Cu isotope composition. Measurements were performed on NHM/IC Micromass Isoprobe and Oxford Nu MC-ICP-MS using techniques described elsewhere [1,5]. Each of the meteorites measured so far for Cu and Zn are isotopically light compared to the terrestrial mantle. This suggests that the terrestrial value may have been altered from the pristine solar system value, or else there were multiple early solar system components. Zinc isotopic com-positions lie on a fractionation line and range from δ66ZnNIST = -1.4±0.1ppm (bulk NWA801) to -1.9±0.1ppm (separated chondrule, NWA 801). Copper isotope compositions vary from δ65CuNIST976 = -1.5±0.1ppm (bulk Renazzo) to -3.1±0.1ppm (separated chondrule, NWA 801). Two chondrules from NWA 801 have differing Cu isotope values (-3.1±0.1 and -2.0±0.1ppm) and both are lighter than the bulk meteorite (-1.9±0.1ppm), suggesting a lack of equilibration with respect to Cu in this meteorite. The light values for the two separated chondrules, compared the bulk meteorite, hints that chondrules may be isotopically lighter than co-existing matrix, metal and sulphides with respect to Cu. The copper isotope compositions are not as isotopically light as expected for the high refractory/volatile element ratio observed in these chondrites. Thus a model to account for the Cu isotopes in chondrites may require greater com

  5. Lead and zinc dust depositions from ore trains characterised using lead isotopic compositions.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, L J; Taylor, M P; Morrison, A L

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates an unusual source of environmental lead contamination - the emission and deposition of lead and zinc concentrates along train lines into and out of Australia's oldest silver-lead-zinc mine at Broken Hill, Australia. Transport of lead and zinc ore concentrates from the Broken Hill mines has occurred for more than 125 years, during which time the majority was moved in uncovered rail wagons. A significant amount of ore was lost to the adjoining environments, resulting in soil immediately adjacent to train lines elevated with concentrations of lead (695 mg kg(-1)) and zinc (2230 mg kg(-1)). Concentrations of lead and zinc decreased away from the train line and also with depth shown in soil profiles. Lead isotopic compositions demonstrated the soil lead contained Broken Hill ore in increasing percentages closer to the train line, with up to 97% apportioned to the mined Broken Hill ore body. SEM examination showed ceiling dusts collected from houses along the train line were composed of unweathered galena particles, characteristic of the concentrate transported in the rail wagons. The loss of ore from the uncovered wagons has significantly extended the environmental footprint of contamination from local mining operations over an area extending hundreds of kilometres along each of the three train lines.

  6. Zinc isotope fractionation during mantle melting and constraints on the Zn isotope composition of Earth's upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ze-Zhou; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Liu, Jingao; Huang, Jian; Xiao, Yan; Chu, Zhu-Yin; Zhao, Xin-Miao; Tang, Limei

    2017-02-01

    The zinc (Zn) stable isotope system has great potential for tracing planetary formation and differentiation processes due to its chalcophile, lithophile and moderately volatile character. As an initial approach, the terrestrial mantle, and by inference, the bulk silicate Earth (BSE), have previously been suggested to have an average δ66Zn value of ∼+0.28‰ (relative to JMC 3-0749L) primarily based on oceanic basalts. Nevertheless, data for mantle peridotites are relatively scarce and it remains unclear whether Zn isotopes are fractionated during mantle melting. To address this issue, we report high-precision (±0.04‰; 2SD) Zn isotope data for well-characterized peridotites (n = 47) from cratonic and orogenic settings, as well as their mineral separates. Basalts including mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB) were also measured to avoid inter-laboratory bias. The MORB analyzed have homogeneous δ66Zn values of +0.28 ± 0.03‰ (here and throughout the text, errors are given as 2SD), similar to those of OIB obtained in this study and in the literature (+0.31 ± 0.09‰). Excluding the metasomatized peridotites that exhibit a wide δ66Zn range of -0.44‰ to +0.42‰, the non-metasomatized peridotites have relatively uniform δ66Zn value of +0.18 ± 0.06‰, which is lighter than both MORB and OIB. This difference suggests a small but detectable Zn isotope fractionation (∼0.1‰) during mantle partial melting. The magnitude of inter-mineral fractionation between olivine and pyroxene is, on average, close to zero, but spinels are always isotopically heavier than coexisting olivines (Δ66ZnSpl-Ol = +0.12 ± 0.07‰) due to the stiffer Zn-O bonds in spinel than silicate minerals (Ol, Opx and Cpx). Zinc concentrations in spinels are 11-88 times higher than those in silicate minerals, and our modelling suggests that spinel consumption during mantle melting plays a key role in generating high Zn concentrations and heavy Zn isotopic

  7. Application of zinc isotope tracer technology in tracing soil heavy metal pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Yang, Jianqiang; Liu, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Recent years the soil heavy metal pollution has become increasingly serious, especially the zinc pollution. Due to the complexity of this problem, in order to prevent and treat the soil pollution, it's crucial to accurately and quickly find out the pollution sources and control them. With the development of stable isotope tracer technology, it's able to determine the composition of zinc isotope. Based on the theory of zinc isotope tracer technique, and by means of doing some latest domestic and overseas literature research about the zinc isotope multi-receiving cups of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) testing technology, this paper summarized the latest research results about the pollution tracer of zinc isotope, and according to the deficiencies and existing problems of previous research, made outlooks of zinc isotope fractionation mechanism, repository establishment and tracer multiple solutions.

  8. New Insights from Zinc and Copper Isotopic Compositions into the Sources of Atmospheric Particulate Matter from Two Major European Cities.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, R Ochoa; Strekopytov, S; Amato, F; Querol, X; Reche, C; Weiss, D

    2016-09-20

    This study reports spatial and temporal variability of Zn and Cu isotopes in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) collected in two major European cities with contrasting atmospheric pollution, Barcelona and London. We demonstrate that nontraditional stable isotopes identify source contributions of Zn and Cu and can play a major role in future air quality studies. In Barcelona, samples of fine PM were collected at street level at sites with variable traffic density. The isotopic signatures ranged between -0.13 ± 0.09 and -0.51 ± 0.05‰ for δ(66)ZnIRMM and between +0.04 ± 0.20 and +0.33 ± 0.15‰ for δ(65)CuAE633. Copper isotope signatures similar to those of Cu sulfides and Cu/Sb ratios within the range typically found in brake wear suggest that nonexhaust emissions from vehicles are dominant. Negative Zn isotopic signatures characteristic for gaseous emissions from smelting and combustion and large enrichments of Zn and Cd suggest contribution from metallurgical industries. In London, samples of coarse PM collected on the top of a building over 18 months display isotope signatures ranging between +0.03 ± 0.04 and +0.49 ± 0.02‰ for δ(66)ZnIRMM and between +0.37 ± 0.17 and +0.97 ± 0.21‰ for δ(65)CuAE633. Heavy Cu isotope signatures (up to +0.97 ± 0.21‰) and higher enrichments and Cu/Sb ratios during winter time indicate important contribution from fossil fuel combustion. The positive δ(66)ZnIRMM signatures are in good agreement with signatures characteristic for ore concentrates used for the production of tires and galvanized materials, suggesting nonexhaust emissions from vehicles as the main source of Zn pollution.

  9. Zinc isotopic composition of particulate matter generated during the combustion of coal and coal + tire-derived fuels.

    PubMed

    Borrok, David M; Gieré, Reto; Ren, Minghua; Landa, Edward R

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric Zn emissions from the burning of coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) for power generation can be considerable. In an effort to lay the foundation for tracking these contributions, we evaluated the Zn isotopes of coal, a mixture of 95 wt % coal + 5 wt % TDF, and the particulate matter (PM) derived from their combustion in a power-generating plant. The average Zn concentrations and δ(66)Zn were 36 mg/kg and 183 mg/kg and +0.24‰ and +0.13‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. The δ(66)Zn of the PM sequestered in the cyclone-type mechanical separator was the lightest measured, -0.48‰ for coal and -0.81‰ for coal+TDF. The δ(66)Zn of the PM from the electrostatic precipitator showed a slight enrichment in the heavier Zn isotopes relative to the starting material. PM collected from the stack had the heaviest δ(66)Zn in the system, +0.63‰ and +0.50‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. Initial fractionation during the generation of a Zn-rich vapor is followed by temperature-dependent fractionation as Zn condenses onto the PM. The isotopic changes of the two fuel types are similar, suggesting that their inherent chemical differences have only a secondary impact on the isotopic fractionation process.

  10. Zinc isotopic composition of particulate matter generated during the combustion of coal and coal + tire-derived fuels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borrok, D.M.; Gieré, R.; Ren, M.; Landa, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric Zn emissions from the burning of coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) for power generation can be considerable. In an effort to lay the foundation for tracking these contributions, we evaluated the Zn isotopes of coal, a mixture of 95 wt % coal + 5 wt % TDF, and the particulate matter (PM) derived from their combustion in a power-generating plant. The average Zn concentrations and δ(66)Zn were 36 mg/kg and 183 mg/kg and +0.24‰ and +0.13‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. The δ(66)Zn of the PM sequestered in the cyclone-type mechanical separator was the lightest measured, -0.48‰ for coal and -0.81‰ for coal+TDF. The δ(66)Zn of the PM from the electrostatic precipitator showed a slight enrichment in the heavier Zn isotopes relative to the starting material. PM collected from the stack had the heaviest δ(66)Zn in the system, +0.63‰ and +0.50‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. Initial fractionation during the generation of a Zn-rich vapor is followed by temperature-dependent fractionation as Zn condenses onto the PM. The isotopic changes of the two fuel types are similar, suggesting that their inherent chemical differences have only a secondary impact on the isotopic fractionation process.

  11. Zinc Isotopic Signatures of the Upper Continental Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, H.; Huang, F.

    2016-12-01

    To examine the Zn isotope systematics within the Upper Continental Crust (UCC), and isotope fractionation during chemical weathering in large spatial and temporal scales, we analyzed Zn isotopic compositions of loess, glacial diamictites, river sediments, and igneous rocks (samples in total 77). The Zn isotopic compositions (δ66Zn relative to JMC-Lyon) of loess display a limited variation (0.17‰ to 0.29‰), which is negatively correlated with Zn content and proxies for chemical weathering (e.g. CIA values), reflect the impact of chemical weathering. Glacial diamictites have more variable δ66Zn (0.09‰ to 0.48‰), but the average δ66Zn (0.29±0.03‰, 2SD) is similar to loess. δ66Zn of glacial diamictites correlate roughly negatively with CIA values, but have no correlation with Zn content, implying source heterogeneity and effect from chemical weathering. δ66Zn of A-type (0.39‰ to 0.45‰) and S-type (0.28‰ to 0.35‰) granites are both homogeneous, but the latter have systematically lighter δ66Zn. This may reflect no Zn isotopic fractionation during magmatic processes and involvement of isotopically light meta-sedimentary into the sources of S-type granites. Furthermore, δ66Zn in riverine sediments display a small variation from 0.23‰ to 0.37‰, while δ66Zn of the the shales vary from 0.14‰ to 0.53‰, which could result from a combination of processes, such as biological cycling and chemical weathering. Overall, our data suggest that incipient chemical weathering can fractionate Zn isotopes significantly, meanwhile, during this process, heavy Zn are released preferentially. The UCC is estimated to have an average δ66Zn of 0.30 ±0.03‰ (2SD) with data collected in this study, which is similar to the estimated value of Bulk Silicate Earth (0.28±0.05‰)[1] and mean dissolved riverine flux (0.33‰)[2], but distinctly lighter than the bulk composition of dissolved Zn in the ocean (0.51‰)[2]. [1] Chen et al., Zinc isotope fractionation

  12. Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 144 Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (Web, free access)   The atomic weights are available for elements 1 through 111, and isotopic compositions or abundances are given when appropriate.

  13. Zinc isotope anomalies in Allende meteorite inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loss, R. D.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    The isotopic compositions of Zn, Cr, Ti, and Ca have been measured in a number of CAIs from the Allende meteorite. The aim was to test astrophysical models which predict large excesses of Zn-66 to accompany excesses in the neutron-rich isotopes of Ca, Ti, Cr, and Ni. Some of the CAIs show clearly resolved but small excesses for Zn-66 which are at least an order of magnitude smaller than predicted. This result may simply reflect the volatility and chemical behavior of Zn as compared to the other (more refractory) anomalous elements found in these samples. Alternatively, revision of parameters and assumptions used for the model calculations may be required.

  14. Zinc isotope anomalies. [in Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkening, J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Zn isotope composition in refractory-element-rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite are determined. Typical inclusions contain normal Zn. A unique inclusion of the Allende meteorite shows an excess for Zn-66 of 16.7 + or - 3.7 eu (1 eu = 0.01 percent) and a deficit for Zn-70 of 21 + or - 13 eu. These results indicate the preservation of exotic components even for volatile elements in this inclusion. The observed excess Zn-66 correlates with excesses for the neutron-rich isotopes of Ca-48, Ti-50, Cr-54, and Fe-58 in the same inclusion.

  15. Nickel and zinc isotope fractionation in hyperaccumulating and nonaccumulating plants.

    PubMed

    Deng, Teng-Hao-Bo; Cloquet, Christophe; Tang, Ye-Tao; Sterckeman, Thibault; Echevarria, Guillaume; Estrade, Nicolas; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2014-10-21

    Until now, there has been little data on the isotope fractionation of nickel (Ni) in higher plants and how this can be affected by plant Ni and zinc (Zn) homeostasis. A hydroponic cultivation was conducted to investigate the isotope fractionation of Ni and Zn during plant uptake and translocation processes. The nonaccumulator Thlaspi arvense, the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale and the Ni and Zn hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens were grown in low (2 μM) and high (50 μM) Ni and Zn solutions. Results showed that plants were inclined to absorb light Ni isotopes, presumably due to the functioning of low-affinity transport systems across root cell membrane. The Ni isotope fractionation between plant and solution was greater in the hyperaccumulators grown in low Zn treatments (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.90 to -0.63‰) than that in the nonaccumulator T. arvense (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.21‰), thus indicating a greater permeability of the low-affinity transport system in hyperaccumulators. Light isotope enrichment of Zn was observed in most of the plants (Δ(66)Zn(plant-solution) = -0.23 to -0.10‰), but to a lesser extent than for Ni. The rapid uptake of Zn on the root surfaces caused concentration gradients, which induced ion diffusion in the rhizosphere and could result in light Zn isotope enrichment in the hyperaccumulator N. caerulescens. In high Zn treatment, Zn could compete with Ni during the uptake process, which reduced Ni concentration in plants and decreased the extent of Ni isotope fractionation (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.11 to -0.07‰), indicating that plants might take up Ni through a low-affinity transport system of Zn. We propose that isotope composition analysis for transition elements could become an empirical tool to study plant physiological processes.

  16. Silicon and Zinc Isotopes in Ocean Island Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, E. A.; Savage, P. S.; Jackson, M. G.; Moreira, M. A.; Day, J. M.; Moynier, F.

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of Ocean Island Basalts (OIB) have shown that the Earth's mantle contains isotopically distinct components, but current debate about the degree and scale of compositional variability persists. Isotopic heterogeneities in OIB for both radiogenic (e.g. Sr, Nd, Pb) and stable (e.g. Li, O, Ca) isotope systems have been attributed to the presence of recycled materials in different mantle reservoirs [1]. The study of both silicon and zinc isotopes in OIB form a complimentary approach to investigate potential heterogeneities in the mantle. Both isotope systems show limited fractionation during igneous process [2,3]. However, both Si and Zn exhibit larger (>1‰) variability in low-temperature environments (e.g. as a result of chemical weathering and biological utilization). Therefore, Si and Zn isotopes may be useful as tracers for the presence of crustal material (derived from low-T surface processes) in OIB source regions. Furthermore, characterizing the isotopic composition of the mantle is of central importance to the use of these isotopic systems as a basis for interplanetary comparisons. Here we present high-precision Si and Zn isotopic data obtained by MC-ICPMS for a diverse suite of OIB representing the EM-1, EM-2, and HIMU mantle components. Samples represent locations in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. Data are reported as the permil deviation (×2 sd) from NBS28 for Si (δ30Si) and JMC-Lyon for Zn (δ66Zn). Average δ30Si values for OIB from EM-1 (-0.32×0.09‰), EM-2 (-0.30×0.03‰), and HIMU (-0.34×0.12‰) are all in general agreement with previous estimates for the δ30Si value of Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) [4]. Similarly, the δ66Zn average values for OIB from the EM-1, EM-2, and HIMU components (0.31×0.06‰, 0.31×0.04‰, 0.31×0.05‰, respectively) agree well with previously published data for the δ66Zn value of BSE [3]. At the current levels of precision, both Si and Zn isotopes exhibit little variation in OIB, confirming the

  17. Zinc isotope systematics of subduction-zone magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Zhang, X. C.; Huang, F.; Yu, H.

    2016-12-01

    Subduction-zone magmas are generated by partial melting of mantle wedge triggered by addition of fluids derived from subducted hydrothermally altered oceanic lithosphere. Source of the fluids may be sediment, altered oceanic crust and serpentinized peridotite/serpentinite. Knowledge of the exact fluid source can facilitate our better understanding of the mechanism of fluid flux, element cycling and crust-mantle interaction in subduction zones. Zinc isotopes have the potential to place a constraint on this issue, because (1) Zn has an intermediate mobility during fluid-rock interaction and is enriched in subduction-zone fluids (e.g., Li et al., 2013); (2) sediment, altered oceanic crust and serpentinite have distinct Zn isotopic compositions (Pons et al., 2011); and (3) the mantle has a homogeneous Zn isotope composition (δ66Zn = 0.28 ± 0.05‰, Chen et al., 2013). Thus, the Zn isotopic composition of subduction-zone magmas reflects the characteristics of slab-derived fluids of different sources. Here, high-precision Zn isotope analyses were conducted on igneous rocks from arcs of Central America, Kamchatka, South Lesser Antilles, and Aleutian. One rhyolite with 75.1 wt.% SiO2 and 0.2 wt.% FeOT displays the heaviest δ66Zn value of 0.394‰ (relative to JMC Lyon) that probably results from the crystallization of Fe-Ti oxides during the late-stage differentiation. The rest of rocks have Zn isotopic compositions (0.161 to 0.339‰) similar to or lighter than those of the mantle. In an individual arc, the δ66Zn values of rocks show broad negative correlations with Ba/Th and 87Sr/86Sr ratios, suggesting that the slab-derived fluids should have lighter δ66Zn as well as higher Ba/Th and 87Sr/86Sr ratios relative to the mantle. These features are in accordance with those of serpentinites. Thus, addition of serpentinite-derived 66Zn-depleted fluids into the mantle wedge can explain the declined δ66Zn of subduction-zone magmas. ReferenceChen et al. (2013) EPSL 369

  18. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  19. A critical examination of the possible application of zinc stable isotope ratios in bivalve mollusks and suspended particulate matter to trace zinc pollution in a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Daniel; Machado, Wilson; Weiss, Dominik; Mulholland, Daniel S; Boaventura, Geraldo R; Viers, Jerome; Garnier, Jeremie; Dantas, Elton L; Babinski, Marly

    2017-07-01

    The application of zinc (Zn) isotopes in bivalve tissues to identify zinc sources in estuaries was critically assessed. We determined the zinc isotope composition of mollusks (Crassostrea brasiliana and Perna perna) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in a tropical estuary (Sepetiba Bay, Brazil) historically impacted by metallurgical activities. The zinc isotope systematics of the SPM was in line with mixing of zinc derived from fluvial material and from metallurgical activities. In contrast, source mixing alone cannot account for the isotope ratios observed in the bivalves, which are significantly lighter in the contaminated metallurgical zone (δ 66 Zn JMC  = +0.49 ± 0.06‰, 2σ, n = 3) compared to sampling locations outside (δ 66 Zn JMC  = +0.83 ± 0.10‰, 2σ, n = 22). This observation suggests that additional factors such as speciation, bioavailability and bioaccumulation pathways (via solution or particulate matter) influence the zinc isotope composition of bivalves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Zinc and Its Isotopes in the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Bourrain, X.

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for Zn in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of metal pollutants. Zinc isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ66Zn values ranging from 0.21 to 0.39‰. This range of variation is very different from anthropogenic signature (industrial and/or agriculture release) that displays δ66Zn values between 0.02 to 0.14‰. This result is in agreement with a geogenic origin and the low Zn concentrations in the Loire River Basin (from 0.8 to 6 µg/L).

  1. Zinc and sulfur isotope variation in sphalerite from carbonate-hosted zinc deposits, Cantabria, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pašava, Jan; Tornos, Fernando; Chrastný, Vladislav

    2014-10-01

    We studied zinc and sulfur isotopes and the chemical composition of sphalerite samples from Picos de Europa (Aliva mine) and sphalerite and hydrozincite samples from La Florida mine, two carbonate-hosted Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits located in northern Spain; despite being close, they are hosted in carbonatic rocks of different ages, Lower Carboniferous and Lower Cretaceous, respectively. The two generations of sphalerite at Picos de Europa show different δ66Zn values (stage 1 sphalerite +0.24 per mil and stage 2 sphalerite from -0.75 to +0.08 per mil). Both generations also differ in the sulfur isotope composition (stage 1 has δ34S = +6.6 and stage 2 has δ34S = -0.9 to +2.9 per mil) and the chemical composition (stage 1 sphalerite, compared to stage 2 sphalerite, is significantly enriched in Pb, As, Mn, Sb, slightly enriched in Ag, Ni, and Cu and depleted in Co, Ga, Tl, Te, Ge, and Sn). We suggest that Zn isotope fractionation was controlled predominantly by pH and T changes. High Zn isotope values reflect rapid precipitation of sphalerite from higher-temperature acidic fluids that carried Zn mostly as chloride species after interaction with carbonate rocks while lower Zn isotope values most likely resulted from a longer precipitation process from fluid at higher pH and decreasing T that carried dominantly Zn sulfide species. At La Florida, sphalerite samples show light 66Zn-depleted signatures with δ66Zn values from -0.80 to -0.01 per mil (mostly between -0.80 and -0.24 per mil) and δ34S values from +10.7 to +15.7 per mil without any relationship between the δ66Zn and δ34S values. Here, the variation in Zn isotope values is interpreted as related to mixing of fluids from two reservoirs. The Zn was carried by a single deep-seated and higher T (~250-320 °C) fluid, and precipitation took place after mixing with a connate S-rich fluid in a system with mH2S > mZn2+ as a result of change in pH, T, and Zn predominant species. The light δ66Zn

  2. In-Vivo Zinc Metabolism by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this chapter is to highlight some of the methodological and technical issues surrounding the in vivo use of stable isotopes and to provide examples of how such studies have advanced our knowledge of human zinc metabolism. The advantages and disadvantages of the currently available in...

  3. The Marine Biogeochemistry of Zinc Isotopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    hydrothermal fluids and minerals, cultured marine phytoplankton, natural plankton, and seawater. By measuring Zn isotopes in a diverse array of...variations were discovered in hydrothermal fluids and minerals, with hydrothermal fluids ranging in 6 66Zn from 0.02 %o to +0.93 %o, and chimney minerals...drives much of the Zn isotope fractionation in hydrothermal systems. In cultured diatoms, a relationship was discovered between Zn transport by

  4. Zinc halogen battery electrolyte composition with lead additive

    DOEpatents

    Henriksen, Gary L.

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a zinc halogen battery electrolyte composition containing an additive providing improved zinc-on-zinc recyclability. The improved electrolyte composition involves the use of a lead additive to inhibit undesirable irregular plating and reduce nodular or dendritic growth on the electrode surface. The lead-containing electrolyte composition of the present invention appears to influence not only the morphology of the base plate zinc, but also the morphology of the zinc-on-zinc replate. In addition, such lead-containing electrolyte compositions appear to reduce hydrogen formation.

  5. Cadmium and zinc isotopes of organic-rich marine sediments during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweere, T.; Dickson, A. J.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Porcelli, D.; Henderson, G. M.; van den Boorn, S.

    2017-12-01

    Mesozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) are characterized by widespread deposition of organic-rich sediments and the spread of low-oxygen marine environments. To drive and sustain unusually efficient carbon-burial during these events requires high export productivity rates, which has to be supported by an abundance of nutrients in the surface ocean. The presence of redox-sensitive bio-essential micronutrients may be particularly important, and potentially bio-limiting, during such events as they may be drawn down into sediment under low-oxygen conditions. Cadmium and zinc isotopes have potential as tracers for past (micro)nutrient dynamics considering their nutrient-like distribution in the modern ocean and isotope fractionation with uptake by primary producers. The modern deep ocean is generally well mixed for Cd and Zn while short-term cycling of these elements in the surface ocean imposes regional variation. Additional regional variation may be caused by sulfide formation and associated isotope fractionation in euxinic environments. The impact of such regional environmental conditions on the Cd- and Zn-isotope composition of the sediment therefore needs to be addressed in order to explore the use of these elements as a proxy for past nutrient conditions. Here we present an extensive dataset of cadmium- and zinc-isotope compositions of organic-rich marine sediments from different basins deposited during OAE 2 (Late Cretaceous). This comparison highlights regional differences in Cd- and Zn-isotope compositions. However, despite regional environmental controls, a correlation between δ114Cd and δ66Zn across the different sites is observed, which implies a largely similar control on the two isotope systems. When regional environmental controls are accounted for, the data may provide insight in the δ66Zn and δ114Cd evolution of global seawater during OAE 2 as well as information on the global cycling of redox-sensitive micronutrients during the event

  6. Trace determination of zinc by substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhya, D.; Priya, S.; Subramanian, M.O.S.

    1996-09-01

    A radiometric method based on substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis using 1,10-phenanthroline and a substoichiometric amount of eosin was developed for determining trace amounts of zinc. Evaluation of various metal ion interferences shows that as little as 0.2 {mu}g Zn could be determined in an aqueous-phase volume of 60 mL. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of Zn in city waste incineration ash, cadmium metal, Fourts-B tablets, Boro-plus ointment, and magnesium alloy samples. 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Grosnaja ABCs: Magnesium isotope compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goswami, J. N.; Srinivasan, G.; Ulyanov, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Three CAI's from the Grosnaja CV3 chondrite were analyzed for their magnesium isotopic compositions by the ion microprobe. The selected CAI's represent three distinct types: GR4(compact Type A), GR7(Type B) and GR2(Type C). Petrographic studies indicate that all three Grosnaja inclusions were subjected to secondary alterations. The Type A CAI GR4 is primarily composed of melilite with spinel and pyroxene occurring as minor phases. The rim of the inclusion does not exhibit distinct layered structure and secondary alteration products (garnet, Fe-rich olivine and Na-rich plagioclase) are present in some localized areas near the rim region. The average major element compositions of different mineral phases in GR4 are given. Preliminary REE data suggest a depletion of HREE relative to LREE by about a factor of 3 without any clear indication of interelement fractionation. The CAI GR7 has textural and minerological characteristics similar to Type B inclusions. The REE data show a pattern that is similar to Group 6 with enrichment in Eu and Yb. In addition, a depletion of HREE compared to LREE is also evident in this object. Melilite composition shows a broad range of akermanite content (Ak(sub 15-55)). Detailed petrographic study is in progress. GR2 is a anorthite-rich Type C inclusion with large plagioclase laths intergrown with Ti-rich pyroxene. The average plagioclase composition is close to pure anorthite (An99).

  8. Zinc isotopic fractionation in Phragmites australis in response to toxic levels of zinc

    PubMed Central

    Caldelas, Cristina; Dong, Shuofei; Araus, José Luis; Jakob Weiss, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope signatures of Zn have shown great promise in elucidating changes in uptake and translocation mechanisms of this metal in plants during environmental changes. Here this potential was tested by investigating the effect of high Zn concentrations on the isotopic fractionation patterns of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. Plants were grown for 40 d in a nutritive solution containing 3.2 μM (sufficient) or 2 mM (toxic) Zn. The Zn isotopic composition of roots, rhizomes, shoots, and leaves was analysed. Stems and leaves were sampled at different heights to evaluate the effect of long-distance transport on Zn fractionation. During Zn sufficiency, roots, rhizomes, and shoots were isotopically heavy (δ66ZnJMC Lyon=0.2‰) while the youngest leaves were isotopically light (–0.5‰). During Zn excess, roots were still isotopically heavier (δ66Zn=0.5‰) and the rest of the plant was isotopically light (up to –0.5‰). The enrichment of heavy isotopes at the roots was attributed to Zn uptake mediated by transporter proteins under Zn-sufficient conditions and to chelation and compartmentation in Zn excess. The isotopically lighter Zn in shoots and leaves is consistent with long-distance root to shoot transport. The tolerance response of P. australis increased the range of Zn fractionation within the plant and with respect to the environment. PMID:21193582

  9. Isotopic compositions of the elements, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.; De Laeter, J. R.; De Bievre, P.; Hidaka, H.; Peiser, H.S.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Taylor, P.D.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry completed its last review of the isotopic compositions of the elements as determined by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry in 2001. That review involved a critical evaluation of the published literature, element by element, and forms the basis of the table of the isotopic compositions of the elements (TICE) presented here. For each element, TICE includes evaluated data from the “best measurement” of the isotope abundances in a single sample, along with a set of representative isotope abundances and uncertainties that accommodate known variations in normal terrestrial materials. The representative isotope abundances and uncertainties generally are consistent with the standard atomic weight of the element Ar(E)">Ar(E)Ar(E) and its uncertainty U[Ar(E)]">U[Ar(E)]U[Ar(E)] recommended by CAWIA in 2001.

  10. Isotopic Compositions of the Elements, 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhlke, J. K.; de Laeter, J. R.; De Bièvre, P.; Hidaka, H.; Peiser, H. S.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Taylor, P. D. P.

    2005-03-01

    The Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry completed its last review of the isotopic compositions of the elements as determined by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry in 2001. That review involved a critical evaluation of the published literature, element by element, and forms the basis of the table of the isotopic compositions of the elements (TICE) presented here. For each element, TICE includes evaluated data from the "best measurement" of the isotope abundances in a single sample, along with a set of representative isotope abundances and uncertainties that accommodate known variations in normal terrestrial materials. The representative isotope abundances and uncertainties generally are consistent with the standard atomic weight of the element Ar(E) and its uncertainty U[Ar(E)] recommended by CAWIA in 2001.

  11. Interaction between zinc and freshwater and marine diatom species: Surface complexation and Zn isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gélabert, A.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Viers, J.; Schott, J.; Boudou, A.; Feurtet-Mazel, A.

    2006-02-01

    This work is devoted to characterization of zinc interaction in aqueous solution with two marine planktonic ( Thalassiosira weissflogii = TW, Skeletonema costatum = SC) and two freshwater periphytic species ( Achnanthidium minutissimum = AMIN, Navicula minima = NMIN) by combining adsorption and electrophoretic measurements with surface complexation modeling and by assessing Zn isotopes fractionation during both long term uptake and short term adsorption on diatom cells and their frustules. Reversible adsorption experiments were performed at 25 and 5 °C as a function of exposure time (5 min to 140 h), pH (2 to 10), zinc concentration in solution (10 nM to 1 mM), ionic strength ( I = 0.001 to 1.0 M) and the presence of light. While the shape of pH-dependent adsorption edge is almost the same for all four species, the constant-pH adsorption isotherm and maximal Zn binding capacities differ by an order of magnitude. The extent of adsorption increases with temperature from 5 to 25 °C and does not depend on light intensity. Zinc adsorption decreases with increase of ionic strength suggesting competition with sodium for surface sites. Cell number-normalized concentrations of sorbed zinc on whole cells and their silica frustules demonstrated only weak contribution of the latter (10-20%) to overall zinc binding by diatom cell wall. Measurements of electrophoretic mobilities ( μ) revealed negative diatoms surface potential in the full range of zinc concentrations investigated (0.15-760 μmol/L), however, the absolute value of μ decreases at [Zn] > 15 μmol/L suggesting a change in surface speciation. These observations allowed us to construct a surface complexation model for Zn binding by diatom surfaces that postulates the constant capacitance of the electric double layer and considers Zn complexation with carboxylate and silanol groups. Thermodynamic and structural parameters of this model are based on previous acid-base titration and spectroscopic results and allow

  12. Zinc isotopes in sphalerite from base metal deposits in the Red Dog district, northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, K.D.; Wilkinson, J.J.; Chapman, J.B.; Crowther, H.L.; Weiss, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of sphalerite samples from shale-hosted massive sulfide and stratigraphically underlying vein breccia deposits in the Red Dog district in northern Alaska show a range ??66Zn values from zero to 0.60 per mil. The lowest values are observed in the vein breccia deposits, and the stratigraphically overlying (but structurally displaced) shale-hosted massive sulfide deposits show a systematic trend of increasing ??66Zn values from south to north (Main-Aqqaluk-Paalaaq-Anarraaq). The ??66Zn values are inversely correlated with sphalerite Fe/Mn ratio and also tend to be higher in low Cu sphalerite, consistent with precipitation of lower ??66Zn sphalerite closer to the principal hydrothermal fluid conduits. The most likely control on isotopic variation is Rayleigh fractionation during sulfide precipitation, with lighter zinc isotopes preferentially incorporated in the earliest sphalerite to precipitate from ore fluids at deeper levels (vein breccias) and close to the principal fluid conduits in the orebodies, followed by precipitation of sulfides with higher ??66Zn values in shallower and/or more distal parts of the flow path. There is no systematic variation among the paragenetic stages of sphalerite from a single deposit, suggesting an isotopically homogeneous zinc source and consistent transport-deposition conditions and/or dissolution-reprecipitation of earlier sphalerite without significant fractionation. Decoupled Zn and S isotope compositions are best explained by mixing of separate metal- and sulfur-bearing fluids at the depositional site. The results confirm that Zn isotopes may be a useful tracer for distinguishing between the central and distal parts of large hydrothermal systems as previously suggested and could therefore be of use in exploration. ?? 2009 by Economic Geology.

  13. Zinc composite anode for batteries with solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedjar, F.; Melki, T.; Zerroual, L.

    A new negative composite anode for batteries with a solid electrolyte is studied. Using a complex of zinc ammonium chloride mixed with zinc metal powder, the advantage of the Zn/Zn 2+ electrode ( e = -760 mV) is kept while the energy density and the shelf-life of the battery are increased.

  14. Magnesium isotopic composition of the mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, F.; Li, W.; Ke, S.; Marty, B.; Huang, S.; Dauphas, N.; Wu, F.; Helz, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    Studies of Mg isotopic composition of the Earth not only are important for understanding its geochemistry but also can shed light on the accretion history of the Earth as well as the evolution of the Earth-Moon system. However, to date, the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth is still poorly constrained and highly debated. There is uncertainty in the magnitude of Mg isotope fractionation at mantle temperatures and whether the Earth has a chondritic Mg isotopic composition or not. To constrain further the Mg isotopic composition of the mantle and investigate the behavior of Mg isotopes during igneous differentiation, we report >200 high-precision (δ26Mg < 0.1‰, 2SD) analyses of Mg isotopes on 1) global mid-ocean ridge basalts covering major ridge segments of the world and spanning a broad range in latitudes, chemical and radiogenic isotopic compositions; 2) ocean island basalts from Hawaiian (Koolau, Kilauea and Loihi) and French Polynesian volcanoes (Society island and Cook Austral chain); 3) olivine grains from Hawaiian volcanoes (Kilauea, Koolau and Loihi) and 4) peridotite xenoliths from Australia, China, France, Tanzania and USA. Global oceanic basalts and peridotite xenoliths have a limited (<0.2 ‰) variation in Mg isotopic composition, with an average δ26Mg = -0.25 relative to DSM3. Olivines from Hawaiian lavas have δ26Mg ranging from -0.43 to +0.03, with most having compositions identical to basalts and peridotites. Therefore, the mantle’s δ26Mg value is estimated to be ~ -0.25 ± 0.1 (2SD), different from that reported by Wiechert and Halliday (2007; δ26Mg = ~ 0) but similar to more recent studies (δ26Mg = -0.27 to -0.33) (Teng et al. 2007; Handler et al. 2009; Yang et al., 2009). Moreover, we suggest the Earth, as represented by the mantle, has a Mg isotopic composition similar to chondrites (δ26Mg = ~-0.33). The need for a model such as that of Wiechert and Halliday (2007) that involves sorting of chondrules and calcium

  15. Zinc isotope ratio imaging of rat brain thin sections from stable isotope tracer studies by LA-MC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Urgast, Dagmar S; Hill, Sarah; Kwun, In-Sook; Beattie, John H; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi; Feldmann, Jörg

    2012-10-01

    Zinc stable isotope tracers (⁶⁷Zn and ⁷⁰Zn) were injected into rats at two different time points to investigate the feasibility of using tracers to study zinc kinetics at the microscale within distinct tissue features. Laser ablation coupled to multi-collector ICP-MS was used to analyse average isotope ratios in liver thin sections and to generate bio-images showing zinc isotope ratio distribution in brain thin sections. Average isotope ratios of all samples from treated animals were found to be statistically different (P < 0.05) from samples from untreated control animals. Furthermore, differing isotope ratios in physiological features of the brain, namely hippocampus, amygdala, cortex and hypothalamus, were identified. This indicates that these regions differ in their zinc metabolism kinetics. While cortex and hypothalamus contain more tracer two days after injection than 14 days after injection, the opposite is true for hippocampus and amygdala. This study showed that stable isotope tracer experiments can be combined with laser ablation MC-ICP-MS to measure trace element kinetics in tissues at a microscale level.

  16. Zinc Isotopes as Tracers of Crust-Mantle Interactions and Mineralization Processes in Layered Intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. M.; Moynier, F.

    2016-12-01

    Zinc isotopes are a powerful tool for studying igneous processes and may be useful for distinguishing between mantle or crustal origins for mineralization and for examining crystallization processes. Restricted ranges in δ66Zn for mantle-derived rocks (δ66Zn = 0.28±0.05‰; [{66Zn/64Znsample/66Zn/64ZnJMC-Lyon-1} × 1000] all uncertainties reported are 2SD) contrast the large δ66Zn variations in sedimentary rocks ( 0 to 1‰), or in volcanic and sedimentary hosted ore deposits (e.g., SEDEX; VHMS; MVT = -0.6 to 1.3‰). Here, we use Zn isotopes to investigate magmatic processes in the 1.27 Ga Muskox Intrusion (Canada) and 2.7 Ga Stillwater Intrusion (Montana). The Muskox main chromitite horizon has between 270-330 ppm Zn with δ66Zn ranging from 0.16 to 0.31‰. Zinc isotope compositions negatively correlate with Os isotopes. Chromitite (40a) with the lowest 187Os/188Os (0.132) has δ66Zn of 0.31±0.03‰; indistinguishable from the mantle value. CM19 glass from the co-eval Coppermine Volcanics, which has crust-like O and Nd isotopes but low 187Os/188Os (0.131), has been interpreted as the extrusive manifestation of chromitite genesis. The value of δ66Zn (0.27±0.07‰) for CM19 is within uncertainty of 40A, and permissive of formation during silicic-mafic melt mixing and large-scale chromitite crystallization. Stillwater chromitite seams exhibit a larger range in Zn (166-448 ppm), but generally lower δ66Zn (0.13±0.04‰) than Muskox chromitites, or to a JM Reef bulk sample (69 ppm Zn, δ66Zn = 0.22±0.03‰). These results suggest different sources of Zn for Ultramafic series chromitites versus the JM Reef (Banded series). Correspondingly, variations occur in Os isotopes for PGE poor chromitites (γOs = -2 to +4) versus the PGE-rich JM Reef (γOs = +12 to +34). Zinc isotope variations may be explained by either a mantle source with low δ66Zn that was subsequently contaminated by high δ66Zn crust, or from contamination of the ultramafic series by low δ66Zn

  17. The carbon isotopic composition of ecosystem breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehleringer, J.

    2008-05-01

    At the global scale, there are repeatable annual fluctuations in the concentration and isotopic composition of atmospheric carbon dioxide, sometimes referred to as the "breathing of the planet". Vegetation components within ecosystems fix carbon dioxide through photosynthesis into stable organic compounds; simultaneously both vegetation and heterotrophic components of the ecosystem release previously fixed carbon as respiration. These two-way fluxes influencing carbon dioxide exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere impact both the concentration and isotopic composition of carbon dioxide within the convective boundary layer. Over space, the compounding effects of gas exchange activities from ecosystems become reflected in both regional and global changes in the concentration and isotopic composition of atmospheric carbon dioxide. When these two parameters are plotted against each other, there are significant linear relationships between the carbon isotopic composition and inverse concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. At the ecosystem scale, these "Keeling plots" intercepts of C3-dominated ecosystems describe the carbon isotope ratio of biospheric gas exchange. Using Farquhar's model, these carbon isotope values can be translated into quantitative measures of the drought-dependent control of photosynthesis by stomata as water availability changes through time. This approach is useful in aggregating the influences of drought across regional landscapes as it provides a quantitative measure of stomatal influence on photosynthetic gas exchange at the ecosystem-to-region scales. Multi-year analyses of the drought-dependent trends across terrestrial ecosystems show a repeated pattern with water stress in all but one C3-ecosystem type. Ecosystems that are dominated by ring-porous trees appear not to exhibit a dynamic stomatal response to water stress and therefore, there is little dependence of the carbon isotope ratio of gas exchange on site water balance

  18. Nickel isotopic composition of the mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Louise; Williams, Helen M.; Halliday, Alex N.; Kerr, Andrew C.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a detailed high-precision study of Ni isotope variations in mantle peridotites and their minerals, komatiites as well as chondritic and iron meteorites. Ultramafic rocks display a relatively large range in δ60 Ni (permil deviation in 60 Ni /58 Ni relative to the NIST SRM 986 Ni isotope standard) for this environment, from 0.15 ± 0.07‰ to 0.36 ± 0.08‰, with olivine-rich rocks such as dunite and olivine cumulates showing lighter isotope compositions than komatiite, lherzolite and pyroxenite samples. The data for the mineral separates shed light on the origin of these variations. Olivine and orthopyroxene display light δ60 Ni whereas clinopyroxene and garnet are isotopically heavy. This indicates that peridotite whole-rock δ60 Ni may be controlled by variations in modal mineralogy, with the prediction that mantle melts will display variable δ60 Ni values due to variations in residual mantle and cumulate mineralogy. Based on fertile peridotite xenoliths and Phanerozoic komatiite samples it is concluded that the upper mantle has a relatively homogeneous Ni isotope composition, with the best estimate of δ60Nimantle being 0.23 ± 0.06‰ (2 s.d.). Given that >99% of the Ni in the silicate Earth is located in the mantle, this also defines the Ni isotope composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE). This value is nearly identical to the results obtained for a suite of chondrites and iron meteorites (mean δ60 Ni 0.26 ± 0.12‰ and 0.29 ± 0.10‰, respectively) showing that the BSE is chondritic with respect to its Ni isotope composition, with little to no Ni mass-dependent isotope fractionation resulting from core formation.

  19. Triple oxygen isotope composition of photosynthetic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Anne; Kaiser, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The measurement of biological production rates is essential for our understanding how marine ecosystems are sustained and how much CO2 is taken up through aquatic photosynthesis. Traditional techniques to measure marine production are laborious and subject to systematic errors. A biogeochemical approach based on triple oxygen isotope measurements in dissolved oxygen (O2) has been developed over the last few years, which allows the derivation of gross productivity integrated over the depth of the mixed layer and the time-scale of O2 gas exchange (Luz and Barkan, 2000). This approach exploits the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences of dissolved O2 compared to atmospheric O2 to work out the rate of biological production. Two parameters are key for this calculation: the isotopic composition of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with air and the isotopic composition of photosynthetic oxygen. Recently, a controversy has emerged in the literature over these parameters (Kaiser, 2011) and one of the goals of this research is to provide additional data to resolve this controversy. In order to obtain more information on the isotopic signature of biological oxygen, laboratory experiments have been conducted to determine the isotopic composition of oxygen produced by different phytoplankton cultures.

  20. Zinc isotope evidence for sulfate-rich fluid transfer across subduction zones.

    PubMed

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Debret, Baptiste; Bouilhol, Pierre; Delacour, Adélie; Williams, Helen

    2016-12-16

    Subduction zones modulate the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle. Water and volatile elements in the slab are released as fluids into the mantle wedge and this process is widely considered to result in the oxidation of the sub-arc mantle. However, the chemical composition and speciation of these fluids, which is critical for the mobility of economically important elements, remain poorly constrained. Sulfur has the potential to act both as oxidizing agent and transport medium. Here we use zinc stable isotopes (δ 66 Zn) in subducted Alpine serpentinites to decipher the chemical properties of slab-derived fluids. We show that the progressive decrease in δ 66 Zn with metamorphic grade is correlated with a decrease in sulfur content. As existing theoretical work predicts that Zn-SO 4 2- complexes preferentially incorporate heavy δ 66 Zn, our results provide strong evidence for the release of oxidized, sulfate-rich, slab serpentinite-derived fluids to the mantle wedge.

  1. Zinc isotope evidence for sulfate-rich fluid transfer across subduction zones

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Debret, Baptiste; Bouilhol, Pierre; Delacour, Adélie; Williams, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Subduction zones modulate the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle. Water and volatile elements in the slab are released as fluids into the mantle wedge and this process is widely considered to result in the oxidation of the sub-arc mantle. However, the chemical composition and speciation of these fluids, which is critical for the mobility of economically important elements, remain poorly constrained. Sulfur has the potential to act both as oxidizing agent and transport medium. Here we use zinc stable isotopes (δ66Zn) in subducted Alpine serpentinites to decipher the chemical properties of slab-derived fluids. We show that the progressive decrease in δ66Zn with metamorphic grade is correlated with a decrease in sulfur content. As existing theoretical work predicts that Zn-SO42− complexes preferentially incorporate heavy δ66Zn, our results provide strong evidence for the release of oxidized, sulfate-rich, slab serpentinite-derived fluids to the mantle wedge. PMID:27982033

  2. Zinc stable isotope fractionation upon accelerated oxidative weathering of sulfidic mine waste.

    PubMed

    Matthies, R; Krahé, L; Blowes, D W

    2014-07-15

    Accelerated oxidative weathering in a reaction cell (ASTM D 5744 standard protocol) was performed over a 33 week period on well characterized, sulfidic mine waste from the Kidd Creek Cu-Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Canada. The cell leachate was monitored for physicochemical parameters, ion concentrations and stable isotope ratios of zinc. Filtered zinc concentrations (<0.45 μm) in the leachate ranged between 4.5 mg L(-1) and 1.9 g L(-1)-potentially controlled by pH, mineral solubility kinetics and (de)sorption processes. The zinc stable isotope ratios varied mass-dependently within +0.1 and +0.52‰ relative to IRMM 3702, and were strongly dependent on the pH (rpH-d66Zn=0.65, p<0.005, n=31). At a pH below 5, zinc mobilization was governed by sphalerite oxidation and hydroxide dissolution-pointing to the isotope signature of sphalerite (+0.1 to +0.16‰). Desorption processes resulted in enrichment of (66)Zn in the leachate reaching a maximum offset of +0.32‰ compared to the proposed sphalerite isotope signature. Over a period characterized by pH=6.1 ± 0.6, isotope ratios were significantly more enriched in (66)Zn with an offset of ≈ 0.23‰ compared to sphalerite, suggesting that zinc release may have been derived from a second zinc source, such as carbonate minerals, which compose 8 wt.% of the tailings. This preliminary study confirms the benefit of applying zinc isotopes alongside standard monitoring parameters to track principal zinc sources and weathering processes in complex multi-phase matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Conformational effect of dicyclo-hexano-18-crown-6 on isotopic fractionation of zinc: DFT approach

    SciTech Connect

    Boda, A.; Singha Deb, A. K.; Ali, Sk. M.

    2014-04-24

    Generalized gradient approximated BP86 density functional employing triple zeta valence plus polarization (TZVP) basis set has been used to compute the reduced partition function ratio and isotopic separation factor for zinc isotopes. The isotopic separation factor was found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The isotopic separation factor was found to depend on the conformation of the crown ether ligand. The trans-trans conformation shows the highest fractionation compared to cis-cis conformer. The present theoretical results can thus be used to plan the isotope separation experiments.

  4. Multisample conversion of water to hydrogen by zinc for stable isotope determination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, C.; Coplen, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques for the conversion of water to hydrogen for stable isotope ratio determination have been developed that are especially suited for automated multisample analysis. Both procedures involve reaction of zinc shot with a water sample at 450 ??C. in one method designed for water samples in bottles, the water is put in capillaries and is reduced by zinc in reaction vessels; overall savings in sample preparation labor of 75% have been realized over the standard uranium reduction technique. The second technique is for waters evolved under vacuum and is a sealed-tube method employing 9 mm o.d. quartz tubing. Problems inherent with zinc reduction include surface inhomogeneity of the zinc and exchange of hydrogen both with the zinc and with the glass walls of the vessels. For best results, water/zinc and water/glass surface area ratios of vessels should be kept as large as possible.

  5. Calcium Isotopic Composition of Bulk Silicate Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.; Ionov, D. A.; Liu, F.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, F.

    2016-12-01

    Ca isotopes are used to study the accretion history of the Earth and terrestrial planets, but, Ca isotopic composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) remains poorly constrained [1]. To better understand the Ca isotopic composition of BSE, we analyzed 22 well studied peridotite xenoliths from Tariat (Mongolia), Vitim (southern Siberia) and Udachnaya (Siberian Craton). These samples include both fertile and highly depleted garnet and spinel peridotites that show no or only minor post-melting metasomatism or alteration. Ca isotope measurements were done on a Triton-TIMS using double spike method at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, CAS. The data are reported as δ44/40Ca (relative to NIST SRM 915a). Results for geostandards are consistent with those from other laboratories. 2 standard deviations of SRM 915a analyses are 0.13‰ (n=48). δ44/40Ca of both and fertile and refractory peridotites range from 0.79 to 1.07‰ producing an average of 0.93±0.12‰ (2SD). This value defines the Ca isotopic composition of the BSE, which is consistent with the average δ44/40Ca of oceanic basalts ( 0.90‰)[2,3]. [1] Huang et al (2010) EPSL 292; [2] Valdes et al (2014) EPSL 394; [3]DePaolo (2004) RMG 55.

  6. The oxygen isotope composition of Almahata Sitta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, Douglas; Zolensky, Michael E.; Friedrich, Jon M.; Jenniskens, Peter; Shaddad, Muawia H.

    2010-10-01

    Eleven fragments of the meteorite Almahata Sitta (AHS) have been analyzed for oxygen isotopes. The fragments were separately collected as individual stones from the meteorite's linear strewn field in the Nubian Desert. Each of the fragments represents a sample of a different and distinct portion of asteroid 2008 TC3. Ten of the fragments span the same range of values of δ18O, δ17O, and Δ17O, and follow the same trend along the carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous minerals (CCAM) line as monomict and polymict members of the ureilite family of meteorites. The oxygen isotope composition of fragment #25 is consistent with its resemblance petrographically to an H5 ordinary chondrite. Our results demonstrate that a single small asteroidal parent body, asteroid 2008 TC3, only 4 m in length, encompassed the entire range of variation in oxygen isotope compositions measured for monomict and polymict ureilites.

  7. The Chlorine Isotope Composition of Martian Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Z. D.; Shearer, C. K.; Agee, C.; Burger, P. V.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2014-11-01

    The Cl isotope composition of martian meteorites range from -3.8 to +8.6 per mil. Ol-phyric shergottites are lightest; crustally contaminated samples are heaviest, basaltic shergottites are in-between. The system is explained as two component mixing.

  8. Molybdenum and zinc stable isotope variation in mining waste rock drainage and waste rock at the Antamina mine, Peru.

    PubMed

    Skierszkan, E K; Mayer, K U; Weis, D; Beckie, R D

    2016-04-15

    The stable isotope composition of molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn) in mine wastes at the Antamina Copper-Zn-Mo mine, Peru, was characterized to investigate whether isotopic variation of these elements indicated metal attenuation processes in mine drainage. Waste rock and ore minerals were analyzed to identify the isotopic composition of Mo and Zn sources, namely molybdenites (MoS2) and sphalerites (ZnS). Molybdenum and Zn stable isotope ratios are reported relative to the NIST-SRM-3134 and PCIGR-1 Zn standards, respectively. δ(98)Mo among molybdenites ranged from -0.6 to +0.6‰ (n=9) while sphalerites showed no δ(66)Zn variations (0.11±0.01‰, 2 SD, n=5). Mine drainage samples from field waste rock weathering experiments were also analyzed to examine the extent of isotopic variability in the dissolved phase. Variations spanned 2.2‰ in δ(98)Mo (-0.1 to +2.1‰) and 0.7‰ in δ(66)Zn (-0.4 to +0.3‰) in mine drainage over a wide pH range (pH2.2-8.6). Lighter δ(66)Zn signatures were observed in alkaline pH conditions, which was consistent with Zn adsorption and/or hydrozincite (Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2) formation. However, in acidic mine drainage Zn isotopic compositions reflected the value of sphalerites. In addition, molybdenum isotope compositions in mine drainage were shifted towards heavier values (0.89±1.25‰, 2 SD, n=16), with some overlap, in comparison to molybdenites and waste rock (0.13±0.82‰, 2 SD, n=9). The cause of heavy Mo isotopic signatures in mine drainage was more difficult to resolve due to isotopic heterogeneity among ore minerals and a variety of possible overlapping processes including dissolution, adsorption and secondary mineral precipitation. This study shows that variation in metal isotope ratios are promising indicators of metal attenuation. Future characterization of isotopic fractionation associated to key environmental reactions will improve the power of Mo and Zn isotope ratios to track the fate of these elements in mine drainage

  9. Zinc isotope and transition-element dynamics accompanying hydrozincite biomineralization in the Rio Naracauli, Sardinia, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, Richard B.; Podda, F.; De Giudici, Giovanni; Cidu, R.; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2013-01-01

    The Rio Naracauli in SW Sardinia drains part of the Ingurtosu Zn–Pb mining district, and contains extreme concentrations of dissolved Zn at near-neutral pH. In the upper reaches of the stream, pH, alkalinity and Zn concentrations are such that hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6] precipitates in a biologically mediated process facilitated by a microalga (Chlorella sp.) and a cyanobacterium (Scytonema sp.). Values of δ66Zn in water and solid samples ranged from − 0.35‰ to + 0.5‰ relative to the JMC 3-0749-Lyon standard, and closely follow a mass-dependent fractionation line. Two composite samples of sphalerite, the primary ore mineral in the Ingurtosu deposits, had an average δ66Zn of + 0.15‰, similar to sphalerite measured elsewhere in hydrothermal mineral deposits. Zinc isotope measurements of the stream water and the hydrozincite forming in the stream show a consistent preference for the heavy isotope, 66Zn, in the hydrozincite relative to 64Zn. Synthetic hydrozincites produced without added bacteria have δ66Zn identical to the dissolved Zn, thus suggesting a biologically mediated mineralization process in Rio Naracauli. The average fractionation, Δhdz-water, is 0.35‰, the magnitude of which is consistent with other studies, and suggests an extracellular mechanism of the biomineralization process. Zinc concentration and dissolved δ66Zn steadily decrease in the reach of the stream where the biomineralization occurs. The biomineralization process also leads to the sequestration of Pb, Cu and Ni in the hydrozincite lattice, and the coeval precipitation of an amorphous CdCO3 solid, prompting the suggestion that if optimized, the biomineralization process might represent a feasible passive remediation strategy for streams with high Zn and other metals, and with near-neutral pH.

  10. Isotopic variations of dissolved copper and zinc in stream waters affected by historical mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borrok, D.M.; Nimick, D.A.; Wanty, R.B.; Ridley, W.I.

    2008-01-01

    Zinc and Cu play important roles in the biogeochemistry of natural systems, and it is likely that these interactions result in mass-dependent fractionations of their stable isotopes. In this study, we examine the relative abundances of dissolved Zn and Cu isotopes in a variety of stream waters draining six historical mining districts located in the United States and Europe. Our goals were to (1) determine whether streams from different geologic settings have unique or similar Zn and Cu isotopic signatures and (2) to determine whether Zn and Cu isotopic signatures change in response to changes in dissolved metal concentrations over well-defined diel (24-h) cycles. Average ??66Zn and ??65Cu values for streams varied from +0.02??? to +0.46??? and -0.7??? to +1.4???, respectively, demonstrating that Zn and Cu isotopes are heterogeneous among the measured streams. Zinc or Cu isotopic changes were not detected within the resolution of our measurements over diel cycles for most streams. However, diel changes in Zn isotopes were recorded in one stream where the fluctuations of dissolved Zn were the largest. We calculate an apparent separation factor of ???0.3??? (66/64Zn) between the dissolved and solid Zn reservoirs in this stream with the solid taking up the lighter Zn isotope. The preference of the lighter isotope in the solid reservoir may reflect metabolic uptake of Zn by microorganisms. Additional field investigations must evaluate the contributions of soils, rocks, minerals, and anthropogenic components to Cu and Zn isotopic fluxes in natural waters. Moreover, rigorous experimental work is necessary to quantify fractionation factors for the biogeochemical reactions that are likely to impact Cu and Zn isotopes in hydrologic systems. This initial investigation of Cu and Zn isotopes in stream waters suggests that these isotopes may be powerful tools for probing biogeochemical processes in surface waters on a variety of temporal and spatial scales.

  11. Isotopic Composition of Oxygen in Lunar Zircons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Meyer, C.

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of heavy oxygen in zircons from the Jack Hills conglomerates Wilde et al. and Mojzsis et al. was interpreted as an indication of presence of liquid water on the surface of Early Earth. The distribution of ages of Jack Hills zircons and lunar zircons appears to be very similar and therefore analysis of oxygen in the lunar grains may provide a reference frame for further study of the early history of the Earth as well as give additional information regarding processes that operated on the Moon. In the present study we have analysed the oxygen isotopic composition of zircon grains from three lunar samples using the Swedish Museum of Natural History CAMECA 1270 ion microprobe. The samples were selected as likely tests for variations in lunar oxygen isotopic composition. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  12. The isotopic composition of cosmic ray calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krombel, K. E.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the high energy cosmic ray experiment on the international sun earth explorer 3 (ISEE-3) spacecraft have been used to study the isotopic composition of cosmic ray calcium at an energy of approx. 260 MeV/amu. The arriving calcium is found to consist of (32 + or - 6)%. A propagation model consistent with both the light and the subiron secondary element abundances was used for the interpretation of the observed calcium composition. The measured 42Ca+43Ca+44Ca abundance is consistent with the calculated secondary production, while the 40Ca abundance implies a source ratio of 40Ca/Fe = (7.0 + or - 1.7)%.

  13. Isotopic insights into biological regulation of zinc in contaminated systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, Richard B.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Wesner, Jeff S.; Walters, David; Schmidt, Travis S.; Podda, Francesca; De Giudici, G.; Stricker, Craig A.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Wolf, Ruth E.; Cidu, R.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic organisms use a variety of biogeochemical reactions to regulate essential and non-essential trace metals. Many of these mechanisms can lead to isotopic fractionation, thus measurement of metal isotopes may yield insights into the processes by which organisms respond to metal exposure. We illustrate these concepts with two case studies, one involving an intra- and the other an extra-cellular mechanism of Zn sequestration. In the first study, the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer was grown in the laboratory, and fed a diet of Zn-doped diatoms at Zn levels exceeding the requirements for normal mayfly life functions. The N. triangulifer larvae consumed the diatoms and retained their Zn isotopic signature. Upon metamorphosis, the subimago life stage lost Zn mass either in the exuvia or by excretion, and the Zn retained was isotopically enriched. Thus, Zn uptake is nonfractionating, but Zn regulation favors the lighter isotope. Thus the Zn remaining in the subimago was isotopically heavier. In the second study, Zn was adsorbed on the cell walls and exopolysaccharide secretions of cyanobacteria, which favored the heavier Zn isotope. Continued adsorption eventually resulted in nucleation and biomineralization of hydrozincite {Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6}. These case studies demonstrate the utility of Zn isotopes to provide insights into how aquatic insects respond to metal exposure.

  14. Sulfur Isotope Composition of Putative Primary Troilite in Chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tachibana, Shogo; Huss, Gary R.

    2002-01-01

    Sulfur isotope compositions of putative primary troilites in chondrules from Bishunpur were measured by ion probe. These primary troilites have the same S isotope compositions as matrix troilites and thus appear to be isotopically unfractionated. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeegan, K. D.; Kallio, A.; Heber, V. S.; Jarzebinski, G.; Mao, P.; Coath, C.; Kunihiro, T.; Wiens, R. C.; Judith, A.; Burnett, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    An accurate and precise determination of the oxygen isotopic composition of the Sun is the highest priority scientific goal of the Genesis Mission [1] as such data would provide a baseline from which one could interpret the oxygen isotopic anomalies found at all spatial scales in inner solar system materials. We have measured oxygen isotope compositions of implanted solar wind in 40 spots along a radial traverse of the Genesis SiC target sample 60001 by depth profiling with the UCLA MegaSIMS [2]. Mass-dependent fractionation induced by the solar wind concentrator [3] ion optics was corrected by comparison of the concentrator 22Ne/20Ne with that measured in a bulk solar wind target (diamond-like carbon on Si, [4]). The solar wind captured at L1 has an isotopic composition of (δ18O, δ17O) ≈ (-99, -79)‰, a value which is far removed from the terrestrial mass fractionation line. Profiles from the central portion of the target, where solar concentrations are highest and background corrections minimal, yield a mean Δ17O = -28.3 ± 1.8 ‰ indicating that the Earth and other planetary materials from the inner solar system are highly depleted in 16O relative to the solar wind. A mass-dependent fractionation of ~ -20%/amu in the acceleration of solar wind is required if we hypothesize that the photospheric oxygen isotope value, which represents the bulk starting composition of the solar system, is on the 16O-mixing line characteristic of refractory phase in primitive meteorites [5]. With this assumption, our preferred value for the bulk solar oxygen isotope composition is δ18O ≈ δ17O ≈ -57‰. A mechanism is required to fractionate oxygen isotopes in a non-mass-dependent manner to deplete 16O by ~6 to 7% in the rocky materials of the solar nebula. As oxygen is the third most abundant element in the solar system, and the most abundant in the terrestrial planets, this mechanism must operate on a large scale. Isotope-selective photochemistry, for example as in

  16. THE NITROGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF METEORITIC HCN

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzarello, Sandra, E-mail: pizzar@asu.edu

    2014-12-01

    HCN is ubiquitous in extraterrestrial environments and is central to current theories on the origin of early solar system organic compounds such as amino acids. These compounds, observed in carbonaceous meteorites, were likely important in the origin and/or evolution of early life. As part of our attempts to understand the origin(s) of meteoritic CN{sup –}, we have analyzed the {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N isotopic composition of HCN gas released from water extracts of the Murchison meteorite and found its value to be near those of the terrestrial atmosphere. The findings, when evaluated viz-a-viz molecular abundances and isotopic data of meteoritic organicmore » compounds, suggest that HCN formation could have occurred during the protracted water alteration processes known to have affected the mineralogy of many asteroidal bodies during their solar residence. This was an active synthetic stage, which likely involved simple gasses, organic molecules, their presolar precursors, as well as mineral catalysts and would have lead to the formation of molecules of differing isotopic composition, including some with solar values.« less

  17. Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Solar Corundum Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makide, Kentaro; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.

    2009-11-01

    Oxygen is one of the major rock-forming elements in the solar system and the third most abundant element of the Sun. Oxygen isotopic composition of the Sun, however, is not known due to a poor resolution of astronomical spectroscopic measurements. Several Δ17O values have been proposed for the composition of the Sun based on (1) the oxygen isotopic measurements of the solar wind implanted into metallic particles in lunar soil (< -20‰ by Hashizume & Chaussidon and ~ +26‰ by Ireland et al.), (2) the solar wind returned by the Genesis spacecraft (-27‰ ± 6‰ by McKeegan et al.), and (3) the mineralogically pristine calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) (-23.3‰ ± 1.9‰ by Makide et al. and -35‰ by Gounelle et al.). CAIs are the oldest solar system solids, and are believed to have formed by evaporation, condensation, and melting processes in hot nebular region(s) when the Sun was infalling (Class 0) or evolved (Class 1) protostar. Corundum (Al2O3) is thermodynamically the first condensate from a cooling gas of solar composition. Corundum-bearing CAIs, however, are exceptionally rare, suggesting either continuous reaction of the corundum condensates with a cooling nebular gas and their replacement by hibonite (CaAl12O19) or their destruction by melting together with less refractory condensates during formation of igneous CAIs. In contrast to the corundum-bearing CAIs, isolated micrometer-sized corundum grains are common in the acid-resistant residues from unmetamorphosed chondrites. These grains could have avoided multistage reprocessing during CAI formation and, therefore, can potentially provide constraints on the initial oxygen isotopic composition of the solar nebula, and, hence, of the Sun. Here we report oxygen isotopic compositions of ~60 micrometer-sized corundum grains in the acid-resistant residues from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (Semarkona (LL3.0), Bishunpur (LL3.1), Roosevelt County 075 (H3.2)) and unmetamorphosed carbonaceous

  18. Elemental and iron isotopic composition of aerosols collected in a parking structure.

    PubMed

    Majestic, Brian J; Anbar, Ariel D; Herckes, Pierre

    2009-09-01

    The trace metal contents and iron isotope composition of size-resolved aerosols were determined in a parking structure in Tempe, AZ, USA. Particulate matter (PM)<2.5 microm in diameter (the fine fraction) and PM>2.5 microm were collected. Several air toxics (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, and antimony) were enriched above the crustal average, implicating automobiles as an important source. Extremely high levels of fine copper (up to 1000 ng m(-3)) were also observed in the parking garage, likely from brake wear. The iron isotope composition of the aerosols were found to be +0.15+/-0.03 per thousand and +0.18+/-0.03 per thousand for the PM<2.5 microm and PM>2.5 microm fractions, respectively. The similarity of isotope composition indicates a common source for each size fraction. To better understand the source of iron in the parking garage, the elemental composition in four brake pads (two semi-metallic and two ceramic), two tire tread samples, and two waste oil samples were determined. Striking differences in the metallic and ceramic brake pads were observed. The ceramic brake pads contained 10-20% copper by mass, while the metallic brake pads contained about 70% iron, with very little copper. Both waste oil samples contained significant amounts of calcium, phosphorous, and zinc, consistent with the composition of some engine oil additives. Differences in iron isotope composition were observed between the source materials; most notably between the tire tread (average=+0.02 per thousand) and the ceramic brake linings (average=+0.65 per thousand). Differences in isotopic composition were also observed between the metallic (average=+0.18 per thousand) and ceramic brake pads, implying that iron isotope composition may be used to resolve these sources. The iron isotope composition of the metallic brake pads was found to be identical to the aerosols, implying that brake dust is the dominant source of iron in a parking garage.

  19. Biogeochemical cycling of zinc and its isotopes in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Vance, D.; Abouchami, W.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    2014-01-01

    We report Zn concentration and isotope data for seawater samples from the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, collected during the IPY/GEOTRACES ANT-XXIV/III cruise along the Greenwich Zero Meridian. Data are reported for the full depth range of the water column at three stations, as well as a transect of surface samples, using a new analytical approach that is presented in detail here. Zn concentrations increase with depth, though due to proximity to upwelling sites, surface concentrations are not as low as in some parts of the ocean such as further northward into the Sub-Antarctic Zone. For two depth profiles south of the Polar Front Zone, the physical stratification of the upper water column is reflected in sudden near-surface changes in Zn concentration with depth. In contrast, beneath 100-300 m Zn concentrations barely change with depth. Zn isotopic data beneath 1000 m, for the Southern Ocean data presented here as well as published data from the North Atlantic and North Pacific, are strikingly homogeneous, with an average δ66Zn = +0.53 ± 0.14‰ (2SD, 2SE = 0.03, n = 21). The surface Southern Ocean is more variable, with δ66Zn ranging from 0.07‰ to 0.80‰. Between the two is a thin horizon at 40-80 m which, in the Southern Ocean as well as the North Atlantic and North Pacific, is characterised by distinctly light isotopic signatures, with δ66Zn about 0.3‰ lower than surface waters. Strong correlations between Si and Zn concentrations seen here and elsewhere, coupled to the lack of any systematic relationship between Si and Zn isotopes in the Southern Ocean, suggest that the removal of Zn associated with diatom opal involves little or no isotopic fractionation. Regeneration of this Zn also explains the homogeneous Zn isotopic composition of the global deep ocean so far sampled. However, the low Zn content of opal requires that deep ocean Zn does not directly come from the opal phase itself, but rather from associated organic material external to

  20. Zinc Absorption from Representative Diet in a Chinese Elderly Population Using Stable Isotope Technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya Jie; Li, Min; Liu, Xiao Bing; Ren, Tong Xiang; Li, Wei Dong; Yang, Chun; Wu, Meng; Yang, Lin Li; Ma, Yu Xia; Wang, Jun; Piao, Jian Hua; Yang, Li Chen; Yang, Xiao Guang

    2017-06-01

    To determine the dietary zinc absorption in a Chinese elderly population and provide the basic data for the setting of zinc (Zn) recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) for Chinese elderly people. A total of 24 elderly people were recruited for this study and were administered oral doses of 3 mg 67Zn and 1.2 mg dysprosium on the fourth day. The primary macronutrients, energy, and phytic acid in the representative diet were examined based on the Chinese National Standard Methods. Fecal samples were collected during the experimental period and analyzed for zinc content, 67Zn isotope ratio, and dysprosium content. The mean (± SD) zinc intake from the representative Chinese diet was 10.6 ± 1.5 mg/d. The phytic acid-to-zinc molar ratio in the diet was 6.4. The absorption rate of 67Zn was 27.9% ± 9.2%. The RNI of zinc, which were calculated by the absorption rate in elderly men and women, were 10.4 and 9.2 mg/d, respectively. This study got the dietary Zn absorption in a Chinese elderly population. We found that Zn absorption was higher in elderly men than in elderly women. The current RNI in elderly female is lower than our finding, which indicates that more attention is needed regarding elderly females' zinc status and health. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  1. Molybdenum Isotopic Composition of Iron Meteorites, Chondrites and Refractory Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, H.; Walker, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Recent Mo isotopic studies of meteorites reported evidence for differences in isotopic compositions for whole rocks of some primitive and differentiated meteorites relative to terrestrial materials. Enrichments of r- and p-process isotopes of up to 3-4 units (e unit = parts in 10(exp 4) over s-process dominated isotopes are the most prominent features. Certain types of presolar grains show large enrichments in s-process isotopes, however, it was concluded on grounds of mass balance that incomplete digestion of such grains cannot explain the enrichments of r- and p-process isotopes in whole rocks of primitive chondrites. If the reported variability in r- and p-process isotope enrichments reflects the true isotopic characteristics of the whole rocks, the implications are quite profound. It would suggest the presence of large scale Mo isotopic heterogeneity within the solar accretion disk with likely collateral effects for other elements. However, such effects were not found for Ru isotopes, nor for Zr isotopes. Another recent Mo isotopic study by multi collector ICP-MS could not confirm the reported deviations in Allende, Murchison or iron meteorites. Here, we present new results for the Mo isotopic composition of iron meteorites, chondrites and CAIs obtained by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS). We discuss analytical aspects and the homogeneity of Mo isotopic compositions in solar system materials.

  2. Zinc-based electrolyte compositions, and related electrochemical processes and articles

    SciTech Connect

    Kniajanski, Sergei; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    An aqueous electrolyte composition is described, including a zinc salt based on zinc acetate or zinc glocolate. The saturation concentration of zinc in the electrolyte composition is in the range of about 2.5M to about 3.5M. The composition also contains at least one salt of a monovalent cation. The molar ratio of zinc to the monovalent cation is about 1:2. An aqueous zinc electroplating bath, containing the aqueous electrolyte composition, is also disclosed, along with a method for the electrochemical deposition of zinc onto a substrate surface, using the electroplating bath. Related flow batteries are also described, including a catholyte,more » as well as an anolyte based on the aqueous electrolyte composition, with a membrane between the catholyte and the anolyte.« less

  3. Low-energy Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich zinc isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Walle, J. van de; ISOLDE, CERN, Geneva; Aksouh, F.

    2009-01-15

    At the radioactive ion beam facility REX-ISOLDE, neutron-rich zinc isotopes were investigated using low-energy Coulomb excitation. These experiments have resulted in B(E2,2{sub 1}{sup +}{yields}0{sub 1}{sup +}) values in {sup 74-80}Zn, B(E2,4{sub 1}{sup +}{yields}2{sub 1}{sup +}) values in {sup 74,76}Zn and the determination of the energy of the first excited 2{sub 1}{sup +} states in {sup 78,80}Zn. The zinc isotopes were produced by high-energy proton- (A=74,76,80) and neutron- (A=78) induced fission of {sup 238}U, combined with selective laser ionization and mass separation. The isobaric beam was postaccelerated by the REX linear accelerator and Coulomb excitation was induced on a thin secondarymore » target, which was surrounded by the MINIBALL germanium detector array. In this work, it is shown how the selective laser ionization can be used to deal with the considerable isobaric beam contamination and how a reliable normalization of the experiment can be achieved. The results for zinc isotopes and the N=50 isotones are compared to collective model predictions and state-of-the-art large-scale shell-model calculations, including a recent empirical residual interaction constructed to describe the present experimental data up to 2004 in this region of the nuclear chart.« less

  4. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  5. Tracing fluid transfer across subduction zones using iron and zinc stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H. M.; Debret, B.; Pons, M. L.; Bouilhol, P.

    2016-12-01

    In subduction zones, serpentinite devolatilization within the downgoing slab and the fluids released play a fundamental role in volatile transfer as well as the redox evolution of the sub-arc mantle. Constraining subduction-related serpentinite devolatilisation is essential in order to better understand of the nature and composition of slab-derived fluids and fluid/rock interactions. Fe and Zn stable isotopes can trace fluid composition and speciation as isotope partitioning is driven by changes in oxidation state, coordination, and bonding environment. In the case of serpentinite devolatilisation, Fe isotope fractionation should reflect changes in Fe redox state and the formation of Fe-Cl- and SO42- complexes (Hill et al., GCA 2010); Zn isotope fractionation should be sensitive to complexation with CO32-, HS- and SO42- anions (Fujii et al., GCA 2011). We targeted samples from Western Alps ophiolite complexes, interpreted as remnants of serpentinized oceanic lithosphere metamorphosed and devolatilized during subduction (Hattori and Guillot, G3 2007; Debret et al., Chem. Geol. 2013). A striking negative correlation is present between bulk serpentinite Fe isotope composition and Fe3+/Fetot, with the highest grade samples displaying the heaviest Fe isotope compositions and lowest Fe3+/Fetot (Debret et al., Geology, 2016). The same samples also display a corresponding variation in Zn isotopes, with the highest grade samples displaying isotopically light compositions (Pons et al., in revision). The negative correlation between Fe and Zn isotopes and decrease in Fe3+/Fetot can explained by serpentinite sulfide breakdown and the release of fluids enriched in isotopically light Fe and heavy Zn sulphate complexes. The migration of these SOX-bearing fluids from the slab to the slab-mantle interface or mantle wedge has important implications for the redox evolution of the sub-arc mantle and the transport of metals from the subducting slab.

  6. The behavior of iron and zinc stable isotopes accompanying the subduction of mafic oceanic crust: A case study from Western Alpine ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, Edward C.; Debret, Baptiste; Burton, Kevin W.; Millet, Marc-Alban; Pons, Marie-Laure; Dale, Christopher W.; Bouilhol, Pierre; Cooper, Matthew; Nowell, Geoff M.; McCoy-West, Alex J.; Williams, Helen M.

    2017-07-01

    Arc lavas display elevated Fe3+/ΣFe ratios relative to MORB. One mechanism to explain this is the mobilization and transfer of oxidized or oxidizing components from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge. Here we use iron and zinc isotopes, which are fractionated upon complexation by sulfide, chloride, and carbonate ligands, to remark on the chemistry and oxidation state of fluids released during prograde metamorphism of subducted oceanic crust. We present data for metagabbros and metabasalts from the Chenaillet massif, Queyras complex, and the Zermatt-Saas ophiolite (Western European Alps), which have been metamorphosed at typical subduction zone P-T conditions and preserve their prograde metamorphic history. There is no systematic, detectable fractionation of either Fe or Zn isotopes across metamorphic facies, rather the isotope composition of the eclogites overlaps with published data for MORB. The lack of resolvable Fe isotope fractionation with increasing prograde metamorphism likely reflects the mass balance of the system, and in this scenario Fe mobility is not traceable with Fe isotopes. Given that Zn isotopes are fractionated by S-bearing and C-bearing fluids, this suggests that relatively small amounts of Zn are mobilized from the mafic lithologies in within these types of dehydration fluids. Conversely, metagabbros from the Queyras that are in proximity to metasediments display a significant Fe isotope fractionation. The covariation of δ56Fe of these samples with selected fluid mobile elements suggests the infiltration of sediment derived fluids with an isotopically light signature during subduction.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Dental Composites Containing Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sevinç, Berdan Aydin; Hanley, Luke

    2010-01-01

    The resin-based dental composites commonly used in restorations result in more plaque accumulation than other materials. Bacterial biofilm growth contributes to secondary caries and failure of resin-based dental composites. Methods to inhibit biofilm growth on dental composites have been sought for several decades. It is demonstrated here that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) blended at 10% (w/w) fraction into dental composites display antimicrobial activity and reduce growth of bacterial biofilms by roughly 80% for a single-species model dental biofilm. Antibacterial effectiveness of ZnO-NPs was assessed against Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 27352 grown both planktonically and as biofilms on composites. Direct contact inhibition was observed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy while biofilm formation was quantified by viable counts. An 80% reduction in bacterial counts was observed with 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites compared with their unmodified counterpart, indicating a statistically significant suppression of biofilm growth. Although, 20% of the bacterial population survived and could form a biofilm layer again, 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites maintained at least some inhibitory activity even after the third generation of biofilm growth. Microscopy demonstrated continuous biofilm formation for unmodified composites after one day growth, but only sparsely distributed biofilms formed on 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ZnO-NPs suspended in S. sobrinus planktonic culture was 50 μg/ml. 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites qualitatively showed less biofilm after one day anaerobic growth of a three-species initial colonizer biofilm after when compared to unmodified composites, but did not significantly reduce growth after three days. PMID:20225252

  8. Magnesium isotopic composition of the Earth and chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Fang-Zhen; Li, Wang-Ye; Ke, Shan; Marty, Bernard; Dauphas, Nicolas; Huang, Shichun; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Pourmand, Ali

    2010-07-01

    To constrain further the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth and chondrites, and investigate the behavior of Mg isotopes during planetary formation and magmatic processes, we report high-precision (±0.06‰ on δ 25Mg and ±0.07‰ on δ 26Mg, 2SD) analyses of Mg isotopes for (1) 47 mid-ocean ridge basalts covering global major ridge segments and spanning a broad range in latitudes, geochemical and radiogenic isotopic compositions; (2) 63 ocean island basalts from Hawaii (Kilauea, Koolau and Loihi) and French Polynesia (Society Island and Cook-Austral chain); (3) 29 peridotite xenoliths from Australia, China, France, Tanzania and USA; and (4) 38 carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites including 9 chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CV, L, LL, H, EH and EL). Oceanic basalts and peridotite xenoliths have similar Mg isotopic compositions, with average values of δ 25Mg = -0.13 ± 0.05 (2SD) and δ 26Mg = -0.26 ± 0.07 (2SD) for global oceanic basalts ( n = 110) and δ 25Mg = -0.13 ± 0.03 (2SD) and δ 26Mg = -0.25 ± 0.04 (2SD) for global peridotite xenoliths ( n = 29). The identical Mg isotopic compositions in oceanic basalts and peridotites suggest that equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation during partial melting of peridotite mantle and magmatic differentiation of basaltic magma is negligible. Thirty-eight chondrites have indistinguishable Mg isotopic compositions, with δ 25Mg = -0.15 ± 0.04 (2SD) and δ 26Mg = -0.28 ± 0.06 (2SD). The constancy of Mg isotopic compositions in all major types of chondrites suggest that primary and secondary processes that affected the chemical and oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrites did not significantly fractionate Mg isotopes. Collectively, the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth's mantle, based on oceanic basalts and peridotites, is estimated to be -0.13 ± 0.04 for δ 25Mg and -0.25 ± 0.07 for δ 26Mg (2SD, n = 139). The Mg isotopic composition of the Earth, as represented by the mantle, is similar to chondrites

  9. Micromorphological characterization of zinc/silver particle composite coatings

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Alia; Reyes, Yolanda; Trejo, Gabriel; StĘpień, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the three‐dimensional (3D) surface micromorphology of zinc/silver particles (Zn/AgPs) composite coatings with antibacterial activity prepared using an electrodeposition technique. These 3D nanostructures were investigated over square areas of 5 μm × 5 μm by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fractal, and wavelet analysis. The fractal analysis of 3D surface roughness revealed that (Zn/AgPs) composite coatings have fractal geometry. Triangulation method, based on the linear interpolation type, applied for AFM data was employed in order to characterise the surfaces topographically (in amplitude, spatial distribution and pattern of surface characteristics). The surface fractal dimension D f, as well as height values distribution have been determined for the 3D nanostructure surfaces. Microsc. Res. Tech. 78:1082–1089, 2015. © 2015 The Authors published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26500164

  10. Micromorphological characterization of zinc/silver particle composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Alia; Reyes, Yolanda; Trejo, Gabriel; StĘpień, Krzysztof; Ţălu, Ştefan

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the three-dimensional (3D) surface micromorphology of zinc/silver particles (Zn/AgPs) composite coatings with antibacterial activity prepared using an electrodeposition technique. These 3D nanostructures were investigated over square areas of 5 μm × 5 μm by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fractal, and wavelet analysis. The fractal analysis of 3D surface roughness revealed that (Zn/AgPs) composite coatings have fractal geometry. Triangulation method, based on the linear interpolation type, applied for AFM data was employed in order to characterise the surfaces topographically (in amplitude, spatial distribution and pattern of surface characteristics). The surface fractal dimension Df , as well as height values distribution have been determined for the 3D nanostructure surfaces. © 2015 The Authors published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The zinc stable isotope signature of waste rock drainage in Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthies, Romy; Blowes, David

    2014-05-01

    Leachate emerging from a pilot-scale waste rock pile of the Diavik diamond mine, Northwest Territories, was monitored. The well-characterized waste rock consists of granite, pegmatitic granite and biotite schist with an average total sulfur and carbonate carbon concentration of 0.053 and 0.027 wt. %, respectively. During the field seasons of 2011 and 2012, the Zn stable isotope footprint was characterized alongside standard monitoring parameters. pH ranged between 4.3 and 6.8 and carbonate alkalinity was low or undetectable. Al and Fe concentrations averaged 6.78 mg L-1 and 175 µg L-1, respectively. The pH and metal mobility were governed by sulfide oxidation and sorption and co-precipitation onto iron and aluminium hydroxides. The main processes controlling zinc mobility in the range of 0.4 and 4.7 mg L-1 was the oxidative dissolution of sphalerite (ZnS) in the biotite schist and the attenuation of zinc onto secondary iron and aluminium hydroxides and desorption upon the pH declining below the pHpzc. The isotope ratios between -0.16 and +0.19 ‰ (δ66Zn, avg = +0.05 ‰, n = 43) are consistent with values reported from other sphalerite containing deposits. Zn isotope ratios and concentrations were largely uncorrelated suggesting that the processes affecting Zn mobility had little or no impact on the Zn isotope signature. Data indicate, that the Zn isotope ratios of the waste rock leachate may be used as a fingerprint to track anthropogenic, mine-derived Zn sources under varying environmental conditions.

  12. Isotopic Composition of Barium in Single Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savina, M. R.; Tripa, C. E.; Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2002-01-01

    We have measured Ba isotope distributions in individual presolar SiC grains. We find that the Ba isotopic composition in mainstream SiC grains is consistent with models of nucleosynthesis in low to intermediate mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture from pan water evaporation measurements.

    PubMed

    Devi, Pooja; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Rao, M Someshwer; Kumar, Bhishm

    2015-01-01

    A continuous and reliable time series data of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture is an important requirement for the wider applicability of isotope mass balance methods in atmospheric and water balance studies. This requires routine sampling of atmospheric moisture by an appropriate technique and analysis of moisture for its isotopic composition. We have, therefore, used a much simpler method based on an isotope mass balance approach to derive the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture using a class-A drying evaporation pan. We have carried out the study by collecting water samples from a class-A drying evaporation pan and also by collecting atmospheric moisture using the cryogenic trap method at the National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, India, during a pre-monsoon period. We compared the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture obtained by using the class-A drying evaporation pan method with the cryogenic trap method. The results obtained from the evaporation pan water compare well with the cryogenic based method. Thus, the study establishes a cost-effective means of maintaining time series data of the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture at meteorological observatories. The conclusions drawn in the present study are based on experiments conducted at Roorkee, India, and may be examined at other regions for its general applicability.

  14. The silicon isotope composition of the upper continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Paul S.; Georg, R. Bastian; Williams, Helen M.; Halliday, Alex N.

    2013-05-01

    The upper continental crust (UCC) is the major source of silicon (Si) to the oceans and yet its isotopic composition is not well constrained. In an effort to investigate the degree of heterogeneity and provide a robust estimate for the average Si isotopic composition of the UCC, a representative selection of well-characterised, continentally-derived clastic sediments have been analysed using high-precision MC-ICPMS. Analyses of loess samples define a narrow range of Si isotopic compositions (δ30Si = -0.28‰ to -0.15‰). This is thought to reflect the primary igneous mineralogy and predominance of mechanical weathering in the formation of such samples. The average loess δ30Si is -0.22 ± 0.07‰ (2 s.d.), identical to average granite and felsic igneous compositions. Therefore, minor chemical weathering does not resolvably affect bulk rock δ30Si, and loess is a good proxy for the Si isotopic composition of unweathered, crystalline, continental crust. The Si isotopic compositions of shales display much more variability (δ30Si = -0.82‰ to 0.00‰). Shale Si isotope compositions do not correlate well with canonical proxies for chemical weathering, such as CIA values, but do correlate negatively with insoluble element concentrations and Al/Si ratios. This implies that more intensive or prolonged chemical weathering of a sedimentary source, with attendant desilicification, is required before resolvable negative Si isotopic fractionation occurs. Shale δ30Si values that are more positive than those of felsic igneous rocks most likely indicate the presence of marine-derived silica in such samples. Using the data gathered in this study, combined with already published granite Si isotope analyses, a weighted average composition of δ30Si = -0.25 ± 0.16‰ (2 s.d.) for the UCC has been calculated.

  15. Isotopic compositions of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meija, Juris; Coplen, Tyler B.; Berglund, Michael; Brand, Willi A.; De Bièvre, Paul; Gröning, Manfred; Holden, Norman E.; Irrgeher, Johanna; Loss, Robert D.; Walczyk, Thomas; Prohaska, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (ciaaw.org) of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (iupac.org) has revised the Table of Isotopic Compositions of the Elements (TICE). The update involved a critical evaluation of the recent published literature. The new TICE 2013 includes evaluated data from the “best measurement” of the isotopic abundances in a single sample, along with a set of representative isotopic abundances and uncertainties that accommodate known variations in normal terrestrial materials.

  16. Zn/Cd ratios and cadmium isotope evidence for the classification of lead-zinc deposits

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hanjie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Zhang, Yuxu; Cloquet, Christophe; Fan, Haifeng; Fu, Shaohong

    2016-01-01

    Lead-zinc deposits are often difficult to classify because clear criteria are lacking. In recent years, new tools, such as Cd and Zn isotopes, have been used to better understand the ore-formation processes and to classify Pb-Zn deposits. Herein, we investigate Cd concentrations, Cd isotope systematics and Zn/Cd ratios in sphalerite from nine Pb-Zn deposits divided into high-temperature systems (e.g., porphyry), low-temperature systems (e.g., Mississippi Valley type [MVT]) and exhalative systems (e.g., sedimentary exhalative [SEDEX]). Our results showed little evidence of fractionation in the high-temperature systems. In the low-temperature systems, Cd concentrations were the highest, but were also highly variable, a result consistent with the higher fractionation of Cd at low temperatures. The δ114/110Cd values in low-temperature systems were enriched in heavier isotopes (mean of 0.32 ± 0.31‰). Exhalative systems had the lowest Cd concentrations, with a mean δ114/110Cd value of 0.12 ± 0.50‰. We thus conclude that different ore-formation systems result in different characteristic Cd concentrations and fraction levels and that low-temperature processes lead to the most significant fractionation of Cd. Therefore, Cd distribution and isotopic studies can support better understanding of the geochemistry of ore-formation processes and the classification of Pb-Zn deposits. PMID:27121538

  17. Controls on the barium isotope compositions of marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgestock, Luke; Hsieh, Yu-Te; Porcelli, Donald; Homoky, William B.; Bryan, Allison; Henderson, Gideon M.

    2018-01-01

    The accumulation of barium (Ba) in marine sediments is considered to be a robust proxy for export production, although this application can be limited by uncertainty in BaSO4 preservation and sediment mass accumulation rates. The Ba isotope compositions of marine sediments could potentially record insights into past changes in the marine Ba cycle, which should be insensitive to these limitations, enabling more robust interpretation of sedimentary Ba as a proxy. To investigate the controls on the Ba isotope compositions of marine sediments and their potential for paleo-oceanographic applications, we present the first Ba isotope compositions results for sediments, as well as overlying seawater depth profiles collected in the South Atlantic. Variations in Ba isotope compositions of the sediments predominantly reflect changes in the relative contributions of detrital and authigenic Ba sources, with open-ocean sediments constraining the isotope composition of authigenic Ba to be δ 138/134Ba ≈ + 0.1 ‰. This value is consistent with the average isotope composition inferred for sinking particulate Ba using simple mass balance models of Ba in the overlying water column and is hypothesized to reflect the removal of Ba from the upper water column with an associated isotopic fractionation of Δ diss-part 138/134Ba ≈ + 0.4 to +0.5. Perturbations to upper ocean Ba cycling, due to changes in export production and the supply of Ba via upwelling, should therefore be recorded by the isotope compositions of sedimentary authigenic Ba. Such insights will help to improve the reliable application of Ba accumulation rates in marine sediments as a proxy for past changes in export production.

  18. The ruthenium isotopic composition of the oceanic mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermingham, K. R.; Walker, R. J.

    2017-09-01

    The approximately chondritic relative, and comparatively high absolute mantle abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE), suggest that their concentrations in the bulk silicate Earth were primarily established during a final ∼0.5 to 1% of ;late accretion; to the mantle, following the cessation of core segregation. Consequently, the isotopic composition of the HSE Ru in the mantle reflects an amalgamation of the isotopic compositions of late accretionary contributions to the silicate portion of the Earth. Among cosmochemical materials, Ru is characterized by considerable mass-independent isotopic variability, making it a powerful genetic tracer of Earth's late accretionary building blocks. To define the Ru isotopic composition of the oceanic mantle, the largest portion of the accessible mantle, we report Ru isotopic data for materials from one Archean and seven Phanerozoic oceanic mantle domains. A sample from a continental lithospheric mantle domain is also examined. All samples have identical Ru isotopic compositions, within analytical uncertainties, indicating that Ru isotopes are well mixed in the oceanic mantle, defining a μ100Ru value of 1.2 ± 7.2 (2SD). The only known meteorites with the same Ru isotopic composition are enstatite chondrites and, when corrected for the effects of cosmic ray exposure, members of the Main Group and sLL subgroup of the IAB iron meteorite complex which have a collective CRE corrected μ100Ru value of 0.9 ± 3.0. This suggests that materials from the region(s) of the solar nebula sampled by these meteorites likely contributed the dominant portion of late accreted materials to Earth's mantle.

  19. Effect of subchronic zinc toxicity on rat salivary glands and serum composition.

    PubMed

    Mizari, Nazer; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Shahinpour, Shervin; Ghalichi-Tabriz, Mostafa; Beigy, Maani; Yamini, Ali; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2012-11-01

    Zinc plays an important role in a wide variety of metabolic processes in animal systems. The role of zinc in preservative treatment, fungicidal action and medicine, and addition of supplementary zinc have increased the probability of zinc toxicity, specially the chronic type. It is known that the composition and quantity of saliva influence the oral health. Regarding people's exposure to zinc in routine life and the importance of saliva, our purpose was to investigate the effects of oral zinc intoxication on secretory function in rat salivary glands and also on serum composition. In this study, there were five groups of female rats. Four groups received zinc acetate dehydrate through their drinking water. After 3 months of experiment, the chemical characteristics and flow rate of saliva and weight of salivary glands were determined. The effects of zinc on hematological and chemical factors of plasma were assessed too. Flow rate of submandibular glands was significantly lower in experimental groups and there were significant changes in Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) concentration both in saliva and in plasma. The serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glucose levels in the plasma and urine creatinine levels were also altered in experimental groups in comparison with the control group. Our results show that zinc toxicity will affect the quantity and quality of saliva probably through changes in the various neurologic pathways to the salivary glands or effects on acinar cells of the salivary glands. Furthermore, our results showed that zinc toxicity will affect the liver and renal function.

  20. Tracking the rise of eukaryotes to ecological dominance with zinc isotopes.

    PubMed

    Isson, Terry T; Love, Gordon D; Dupont, Christopher L; Reinhard, Christopher T; Zumberge, Alex J; Asael, Dan; Gueguen, Bleuenn; McCrow, John; Gill, Ben C; Owens, Jeremy; Rainbird, Robert H; Rooney, Alan D; Zhao, Ming-Yu; Stueeken, Eva E; Konhauser, Kurt O; John, Seth G; Lyons, Timothy W; Planavsky, Noah J

    2018-06-05

    The biogeochemical cycling of zinc (Zn) is intimately coupled with organic carbon in the ocean. Based on an extensive new sedimentary Zn isotope record across Earth's history, we provide evidence for a fundamental shift in the marine Zn cycle ~800 million years ago. We discuss a wide range of potential drivers for this transition and propose that, within available constraints, a restructuring of marine ecosystems is the most parsimonious explanation for this shift. Using a global isotope mass balance approach, we show that a change in the organic Zn/C ratio is required to account for observed Zn isotope trends through time. Given the higher affinity of eukaryotes for Zn relative to prokaryotes, we suggest that a shift toward a more eukaryote-rich ecosystem could have provided a means of more efficiently sequestering organic-derived Zn. Despite the much earlier appearance of eukaryotes in the microfossil record (~1700 to 1600 million years ago), our data suggest a delayed rise to ecological prominence during the Neoproterozoic, consistent with the currently accepted organic biomarker records. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Aerosol carbon isotope composition over Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbaras, Andrius; Pabedinskas, Algirdas; Masalaite, Agne; Petelski, Tomasz; Gorokhova, Elena; Sapolaite, Justina; Ezerinskis, Zilvinas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2017-04-01

    Particulate carbonaceous matter is significant contributor to ambient particulate matter originating from intervening sources which contribution is difficult to quantify due to source diversity, chemical complexity and processes during atmospheric transport. Carbon isotope analysis can be extremely useful in source apportionment of organic matter due to the unique isotopic signatures associated with anthropocentric (fossil fuel), continental (terrestrial plants) and marine sources, and is particularly effective when these sources are mixed (Ceburnis et al., 2011;Ceburnis et al., 2016). We will present the isotope ratio measurement results of aerosol collected during the cruise in the Baltic Sea. Sampling campaign of PM10 and size segregated aerosol particles was performed on the R/V "Oceania" in October 2015. Air mass back trajectories were prevailing both from the continental and marine areas during the sampling period. The total carbon concentration varied from 1 µg/m3 to 8 µg/m3. Two end members (δ13C = -25‰ and δ13C = -28 ‰ ) were established from the total stable carbon isotope analysis in PM10 fraction. δ13C analysis in size segregated aerosol particles revealed δ13C values being highest in the 1 - 2.5 µm range (δ13C = -24.9 ‰ ) during continental transport, while lowest TC δ13C values (δ13C ≈ -27 ‰ ) were detected in the size range D50 <1 µm during stormy weather when air mass trajectory prevailed from the western direction. These measurements revealed that simplified isotope mixing model can not be applied for the aerosol source apportionment (Masalaite et al., 2015) in the perturbed marine environment. Additionally, concentration of bacteria and fungi were measured in size segregated and PM10 aerosol fraction. We were able to relate aerosol source δ13C end members with the abundance of bacteria and fungi over Baltic Sea combining air mass trajectories, stable isotope data, fungi and bacteria concentrations. Ceburnis, D., Garbaras, A

  2. Iron isotope composition of depleted MORB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labidi, J.; Sio, C. K. I.; Shahar, A.

    2015-12-01

    In terrestrial basalts, iron isotope ratios are observed to weakly fractionate as a function of olivine and pyroxene crystallization. However, a ~0.1‰ difference between chondrites and MORB had been reported (Dauphas et al. 2009, Teng et al. 2013 and ref. therein). This observation could illustrate an isotope fractionation occurring during partial melting, as a function of the Fe valence in melt versus crystals. Here, we present high-precision Fe isotopic data measured by MC-ICP-MS on well-characterized samples from the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge (PAR, n=9) and from the Garrett Transform Fault (n=8). These samples allow exploring the Fe isotope fractionation between melt and magnetite, and the role of partial melting on Fe isotope fractionation. Our average δ56Fe value is +0.095±0.013‰ (95% confidence, n=17), indistinguishable from a previous estimate of +0.105±0.006‰ (95% confidence, n=43, see ref. 2). Our δ56Fe values correlate weakly with MgO contents, and correlate positively with K/Ti ratios. PAC1 DR10 shows the largest Ti and Fe depletion after titanomagnetite fractionation, with a δ56Fe value of +0.076±0.036‰. This is ~0.05‰ below other samples at a given MgO. This may illustrate a significant Fe isotope fractionation between the melt and titanomagnetite, in agreement with experimental determination (Shahar et al. 2008). GN09-02, the most incompatible-element depleted sample, has a δ56Fe value of 0.037±0.020‰. This is the lowest high-precision δ56Fe value recorded for a MORB worldwide. This basalt displays an incompatible-element depletion consistent with re-melting beneath the transform fault of mantle source that was depleted during a first melting event, beneath the ridge axis (Wendt et al. 1999). The Fe isotope observation could indicate that its mantle source underwent 56Fe depletion after a first melting event. It could alternatively indicate a lower Fe isotope fractionation during re-melting, if the source was depleted of its Fe3

  3. The Effects of Core Composition on Iron Isotope Fractionation During Planetary Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elardo, S. M.; Shahar, A.; Caracas, R.; Mock, T. D.; Sio, C. K. I.

    2018-05-01

    High pressure and temperature isotope exchange experiments and density functional theory calculations show how the composition of planetary cores affects the fractionation of iron isotopes during planetary differentiation.

  4. Isotopic compositions of cometary matter returned by Stardust.

    PubMed

    McKeegan, Kevin D; Aléon, Jerome; Bradley, John; Brownlee, Donald; Busemann, Henner; Butterworth, Anna; Chaussidon, Marc; Fallon, Stewart; Floss, Christine; Gilmour, Jamie; Gounelle, Matthieu; Graham, Giles; Guan, Yunbin; Heck, Philipp R; Hoppe, Peter; Hutcheon, Ian D; Huth, Joachim; Ishii, Hope; Ito, Motoo; Jacobsen, Stein B; Kearsley, Anton; Leshin, Laurie A; Liu, Ming-Chang; Lyon, Ian; Marhas, Kuljeet; Marty, Bernard; Matrajt, Graciela; Meibom, Anders; Messenger, Scott; Mostefaoui, Smail; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Nittler, Larry; Palma, Russ; Pepin, Robert O; Papanastassiou, Dimitri A; Robert, François; Schlutter, Dennis; Snead, Christopher J; Stadermann, Frank J; Stroud, Rhonda; Tsou, Peter; Westphal, Andrew; Young, Edward D; Ziegler, Karen; Zimmermann, Laurent; Zinner, Ernst

    2006-12-15

    Hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotopic compositions are heterogeneous among comet 81P/Wild 2 particle fragments; however, extreme isotopic anomalies are rare, indicating that the comet is not a pristine aggregate of presolar materials. Nonterrestrial nitrogen and neon isotope ratios suggest that indigenous organic matter and highly volatile materials were successfully collected. Except for a single (17)O-enriched circumstellar stardust grain, silicate and oxide minerals have oxygen isotopic compositions consistent with solar system origin. One refractory grain is (16)O-enriched, like refractory inclusions in meteorites, suggesting that Wild 2 contains material formed at high temperature in the inner solar system and transported to the Kuiper belt before comet accretion.

  5. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  6. Zinc

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  7. Isotope variations of dissolved Zn in the Rio Grande watershed, USA: The role of adsorption on Zn isotope composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szynkiewicz, Anna; Borrok, David M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand the factors influencing zinc (Zn) isotope composition in hydrological systems, we analyzed the δ66Zn of dissolved Zn in the streams and groundwater of the Upper and Middle Rio Grande watershed in Colorado and New Mexico, United States. The stream water samples have a wider variation of δ66Zn (-0.57 to + 0.41 ‰ relative to the JMC 3-0749-Lyon standard) than groundwater samples (-0.13 to + 0.12 ‰) and than samples from streams that are in close proximity to abandoned mining sites (+0.24 to + 0.40 ‰). Regional changes of bedrock geology, from primarily igneous rocks to primarily sedimentary rocks, have no resolvable effect on the δ66Zn of aqueous samples. Instead, an increase in water pH from 7.5 to 8.5 corresponds to a considerable decrease in the δ66Zn of dissolved Zn (R2 = - 0.37, p = 0.003, n = 22). Consequently, we link the observed Zn isotope variations to the process of adsorption of Zn onto suspended sediment and bedrock minerals (average Δ66Znadsorbed-dissolved = + 0.31 ‰). Our results are in good agreement with previous experimental and empirical studies suggesting that Zn adsorption leads to a residual dissolved pool enriched in light Zn isotopes. Given that anthropogenic Zn sources can also be responsible for lowering of δ66Zn, and may overlap with the pH/adsorption effect on δ66Zn, the latter needs to be carefully considered in future studies to differentiate between natural and anthropogenic factors influencing Zn isotopes in this and other aquatic systems.

  8. Verification of the isotopic composition of precipitation simulated by a regional isotope circulation model over Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Masahiro; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Yoshimura, Kei

    2016-01-01

    The isotopic composition (δ(18)O and δ(2)H) of precipitation simulated by a regional isotope circulation model with a horizontal resolution of 10, 30 and 50 km was compared with observations at 56 sites over Japan in 2013. All simulations produced reasonable spatio-temporal variations in δ(18)O in precipitation over Japan, except in January. In January, simulated δ(18)O values in precipitation were higher than observed values on the Pacific side of Japan, especially during an explosively developing extratropical cyclone event. This caused a parameterisation of precipitation formulation about the large fraction of precipitated water to liquid detrained water in the lower troposphere. As a result, most water vapour that transported from the Sea of Japan precipitated on the Sea of Japan side. The isotopic composition of precipitation was a useful verification tool for the parameterisation of precipitation formulation as well as large-scale moisture transport processes in the regional isotope circulation model.

  9. Magnesium isotope evidence that accretional vapour loss shapes planetary compositions

    PubMed Central

    Hin, Remco C.; Coath, Christopher D.; Carter, Philip J.; Nimmo, Francis; Lai, Yi-Jen; Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A.E.; Willbold, Matthias; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Walter, Michael J.; Elliott, Tim

    2017-01-01

    It has long been recognised that Earth and other differentiated planetary bodies are chemically fractionated compared to primitive, chondritic meteorites and by inference the primordial disk from which they formed. An important question has been whether the notable volatile depletions of planetary bodies are a consequence of accretion1, or inherited from prior nebular fractionation2. The isotopic compositions of the main constituents of planetary bodies can contribute to this debate3–6. Using a new analytical approach to address key issues of accuracy inherent in conventional methods, we show that all differentiated bodies have isotopically heavier magnesium compositions than chondritic meteorites. We argue that possible magnesium isotope fractionation during condensation of the solar nebula, core formation and silicate differentiation cannot explain these observations. However, isotopic fractionation between liquid and vapour followed by vapour escape during accretionary growth of planetesimals generates appropriate residual compositions. Our modelling implies that the isotopic compositions of Mg, Si and Fe and the relative abundances of the major elements of Earth, and other planetary bodies, are a natural consequence of substantial (~40% by mass) vapour loss from growing planetesimals by this mechanism. PMID:28959965

  10. Zinc isotope ratios of bones and teeth as new dietary indicators: results from a modern food web (Koobi Fora, Kenya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Beasley, Melanie; Schoeninger, Margaret; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-05-01

    In order to explore the possibilities of using zinc (Zn) stable isotope ratios as dietary indicators, we report here on the measurements of the ratio of stable isotopes of zinc (66Zn/64Zn, expressed here as δ66Zn) in bioapatite (bone and dental enamel) of animals from a modern food web in the Koobi Fora region of the Turkana Basin in Kenya. We demonstrate that δ66Zn values in both bone and enamel allow a clear distinction between carnivores and herbivores from this food web. Differences were also observed between browsers and grazers as well as between carnivores that consumed bone (i.e. hyenas) compared to those that largely consume flesh (i.e. lions). We conclude that Zn isotope ratio measurements of bone and teeth are a new and promising dietary indicator.

  11. Calcium Isotopic Compositions of Forearc Sediments from DSDP Site 144

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhu, H.; Nan, X.; Li, X.; Huang, F.

    2016-12-01

    It is important to investigate calcium isotopic compositions of reservoirs of the Earth for better application of Ca isotopes into studies of a variety of geochemical problems. Because Ca isotopic compositions for igneous rocks and carbonates are increasingly reported, this maybe bring new requirements on carefully understanding the isotopic compositions of subducted marine sediments. Marine sediments mainly contains carbonates and clays, controlling the compositions of slab-derived materials which are added to the mantle wedge. Obviously, it could have different elemental and calcium isotopic compositions with marine carbonate. Thus, it could also put biases on calcium isotopic signatures of basalts resulted from recycling oceanic carbonate into the mantle. Here, we report calcium isotopic compositions of 17 sediment samples from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) site 144 (09°27.23' N, 54°20.52' W) which is located about 400 km north of Surinam on the northern flank of the Demerara Rise with a water depth of 2957 meters. These samples have CaO contents ranging from 14.56 wt.% to 41.46 wt.% with an average of 29.61 ± 18.21 (2SD), δ44/40Ca ranges from 0.19 to 0.58 (relative to SRM915a) with an average of 0.40 ± 0.22 (2SD). These carbonate-rich sediments can be used to represent an endmember with high CaO content and low δ44/40Ca, which could modify chemical composition of the upper mantle and subduction zone lavas if they are recycled to the convective mantle during subduction. The positive linear correlation between CaO and δ44/40Ca in the sediments cannot be explained by a simple mixing between marine carbonate and clay. Instead, δ44/40Ca of these samples roughly increase from the Upper Cretaceous to the Early Oligocene, which might reflect the evolution of calcium isotopic compositions of seawater through time.

  12. Chemical and isotopic compositions in acid residues from various meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kano, N.; Yamakoshi, K.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nogami, K.

    1993-01-01

    We are planning to carry out systematic isotopic investigations of Ru, Mg, etc., in primordial samples. The investigations will be pursued in the context of a study of the pre-history of the solar system. It is hoped that the study will yield direct evidence for processes of nucleosynthesis in the pre-solar stage and detection of extinct radioactive nuclides. In this paper, we present the results of chemical compositions of acid residues obtained from three types of meteorites: Canyon Diablo (IA), Allende (CV3), and Nuevo Mercuro (H5); and the preliminary results of Ru isotopic compositions.

  13. Carbon isotopic composition of individual Precambrian microfossils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, C. H.; Schopf, J. W.; McKeegan, K. D.; Coath, C. D.; Harrison, T. M.; Stetter, K. O.

    2000-01-01

    Ion microprobe measurements of carbon isotope ratios were made in 30 specimens representing six fossil genera of microorganisms petrified in stromatolitic chert from the approximately 850 Ma Bitter Springs Formation, Australia, and the approximately 2100 Ma Gunflint Formation, Canada. The delta 13C(PDB) values from individual microfossils of the Bitter Springs Formation ranged from -21.3 +/- 1.7% to -31.9 +/- 1.2% and the delta 13C(PDB) values from microfossils of the Gunflint Formation ranged from -32.4 +/- 0.7% to -45.4 +/- 1.2%. With the exception of two highly 13C-depleted Gunflint microfossils, the results generally yield values consistent with carbon fixation via either the Calvin cycle or the acetyl-CoA pathway. However, the isotopic results are not consistent with the degree of fractionation expected from either the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle or the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, suggesting that the microfossils studied did not use either of these pathways for carbon fixation. The morphologies of the microfossils suggest an affinity to the cyanobacteria, and our carbon isotopic data are consistent with this assignment.

  14. Stable isotopic compositions in Australian precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianrong; Fu, Guobin; Song, Xianfang; Charles, Stephen P.; Zhang, Yinghua; Han, Dongmei; Wang, Shiqin

    2010-12-01

    Stable deuterium (δD) and oxygen-18 (δ18O) isotopes in 1962 to 2002 precipitation from the seven Australian stations of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) were used to investigate isotope characteristics including temporal and spatial distributions across different regions of Australia. On the basis of 1534 samples, the local meteoric water line (LMWL) was established as δD = 7.10δ18O + 8.21. δ18O showed a depletion trend from north and south to central Australia (a continental effect) and from west to east. Precipitation amount effects were generally greater than temperature effects, with quadratic or logarithmic correlations describing δ/T and δ/P better than linear relationships. Nonlinear stepwise regression was used to determine the significant meteorological control factors for each station, explaining about 50% or more of the δ18O variations. Geographical control factors for δ18O were given by the relationship δ18O (‰) = -0.005 longitude (°) - 0.034 latitude (°)-0.003 altitude (m) - 4.753. Four different types of d-excess patterns demonstrated particular precipitation formation conditions for four major seasonal rainfall zones. Finally, wavelet coherence (WTC) between δ18O and SOI confirmed that the influence of ENSO decreased from east and north to west Australia.

  15. Use of Repeated Fluoropolymer Suspensions to Obtain Composite Electrochemical Coating Based on Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musikhina, T. A.; Zemtsova, E. A.; Fuks, C. L.

    2017-11-01

    This article deals with the issues of utilization of the waste products of fluoropolymers, namely, the suspensions of fluoroplasts that have lost their consumer properties. Such waste is recommended to be used as a filler of zinc coatings to provide increased corrosion resistance. Using the method of mathematical planning of the experiment, the authors establish the optimal compositions of galvanizing chloride-ammonium electrolytes to obtain the corrosion-resistant composite electrochemical coatings (CEC) of zinc-fluoropolymer. As a result, coatings with a finely crystalline structure were obtained differing in the distribution pattern on the surface of the samples and depending on the variation in the zinc concentration in the electrolytes. The samples of steel reinforcement with the zinc-fluoropolymer coating were tested on corrosion resistance. The increase of anticorrosive properties in CEC zinc-fluoropolymer and a slight decrease in microhardness were indicated.

  16. Stable isotope composition of cocoa beans of different geographical origin.

    PubMed

    Perini, Matteo; Bontempo, Luana; Ziller, Luca; Barbero, Alice; Caligiani, Augusta; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic profile (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(18) O, δ(2) H, δ(34) S) was used to characterise a wide selection of cocoa beans from different renowned production areas (Africa, Asia, Central and South America). The factors most influencing the isotopic signatures of cocoa beans were climate and altitude for δ(13) C and the isotopic composition of precipitation water for δ(18) O and δ(2) H, whereas δ(15) N and δ(34) S were primarily affected by geology and fertilisation practises. Multi-isotopic analysis was shown to be sufficiently effective in determining the geographical origin of cocoa beans, and combining it with Canonical Discriminant Analysis led to more than 80% of samples being correctly reclassified. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Oxygen Isotope Composition of Nitrate Produced by Freshwater Nitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boshers, D.; Granger, J.; Bohlke, J. K.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of the naturally occurring nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of nitrate (NO3-), δ15N and δ18O, can be used to determine the source, dispersal, and fate of natural and contaminant NO3- in aquatic environments. To this end, it is necessary to know the extent to which NO3- isotopologues are modified by biological reactions, as heavy and light isotopes have different reaction rates. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the δ18O of ambient water on the isotope composition of NO3- produced during nitrification, the biological oxidation of ammonium (NH4+) to nitrite (NO2-) and then NO3-, which is poorly constrained in freshwater systems. To determine the δ18O of NO3- produced by nitrification in freshwater, we collected water from a stream in New England, which we amended with NH4+ and with increments of 18O-enriched water, to monitor the isotope composition of NO3- produced by a natural consortium of nitrifiers. Added NH4+ was completely oxidized to NO3- over 26 days. The final δ18O of nitrified NO3- revealed sensitivity to the δ18O of water mediated by (a) isotopic equilibration between water and NO2- and (b) kinetic isotope fractionation during O-atom incorporation from water into NO2- and NO3-. Our results concur with nitrifying culture experiments that have demonstrated analogous sensitivity of the δ18O of nitrified NO3- to equilibrium and kinetic O isotope effects (Buchwald et al. 2012), as well as show that these dynamics need to be considered to interpret NO3- isotope distribution in freshwater environments.

  18. Converting isotope ratios to diet composition - the use of mixing models - June 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    One application of stable isotope analysis is to reconstruct diet composition based on isotopic mass balance. The isotopic value of a consumer’s tissue reflects the isotopic values of its food sources proportional to their dietary contributions. Isotopic mixing models are used ...

  19. H-Isotopic Composition of Apatite in Northwest Africa 7034

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Barnes, J. J.; Santos, A. R.; Boyce, J. W.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 and its pairings comprise a regolith breccia with a basaltic bulk composition [1] that yields a better match than any other martian meteorite to estimates of Mars' bulk crust composition [1]. Given the similarities between NWA 7034 and the martian crust, NWA 7034 may represent an important sample for constraining the crustal composition of components that cannot be measured directly by remote sensing. In the present study, we seek to constrain the H isotopic composition of the martian crust using Cl-rich apatite in NWA 7034.

  20. Fe Isotope Composition of Neoproterozoic Post-Glacial "Cap Dolostones"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halverson, G. P.

    2005-12-01

    The largest variations in the Fe isotope composition in the geological record are found in sedimentary rocks, presumably as the result of redox transformations of iron during mineral precipitation, microbial processing, and diagenesis (Johnson et al., Cont. Min. Petrol., 2003). Systematic trends in the variability of the Fe isotope composition of sulfide minerals formed in ancient marine black shales broadly mirror patterns in sulfur isotope data (Δ33S, Δ34S), which are consistent with geological and other geochemical evidence for the progressive oxidation of the earth's surface during the Precambrian (Rouxel et al., Science, 2005). Therefore, the record of the Fe isotope composition of minerals formed in the marine environment appears to be a promising proxy for the redox evolution of the ocean. We have developed a method to extract the marine Fe isotope composition from carbonates in an attempt to establish higher resolution records of changes in marine redox changes than permitted by black shale geochemistry. We have applied this method to the study of ca. 635 Ma iron-rich dolostones, which are found in Neoproterozoic successions worldwide and immediately post-date a purported snowball (Marinoan) glaciation during which time the deep ocean is thought to have become anoxic (Hoffman et al., Science, 1998), allowing its Fe isotopic composition to evolve towards the composition of relatively light (δ57Fe vs. IRMM-14 ~ -0.6‰) hydrothermal iron (Beard et al., Geology, 2003). Fe isotope compositions were measured relative to IRMM-14 in medium-resolution mode on a Neptune MC-ICP-MS with a long-term external (2σ) reproducibility of < 0.04‰/amu. Preliminary data on dolomite samples from Svalbard, northern Namibia and northwest Canada show a range in δ57Fe values from -0.65 to 0.04‰, similar to the range found in siderite and Fe-rich dolomite in ancient BIFs (Johsnon et al., 2003) and to values for the Namibian cap dolostone reported by Leighton et al

  1. Magnesium Isotopic Composition of Kamchatka Sub-Arc Mantle Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Teng, F. Z.; Ionov, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Subduction of the oceanic slab may add a crustal isotopic signal to the mantle wedge. The highly variable Mg isotopic compositions (δ26Mg) of the subducted oceanic crust input[1] and arc lava output[2] imply a distinctive Mg isotopic signature of the mantle wedge. Magnesium isotopic data on samples from the sub-arc mantle are still limited, however. To characterize the Mg isotopic composition of typical sub-arc mantle, 17 large and fresh spinel harzburgite xenoliths from Avacha volcano were analyzed. The harzburgites were formed by 30% melt extraction at ≤ 1 2 GPa and fluid fluxing condition, and underwent possible fluid metasomatism as suggested by distinctively high orthopyroxene mode in some samples, the presence of accessory amphibole and highly variable Ba/La ratios[3]. However, their δ26Mg values display limited variation from -0.32 to -0.21, which are comparable to the mantle average at -0.25 ± 0.07[4]. The overall mantle-like and homogenous δ26Mg of Avacha sub-arc peridotites are consistent with their similar chemical compositions and high MgO contents (> 44 wt%) relative to likely crustal fluids. Furthermore, clinopyroxene (-0.24 ± 0.10, 2SD, n = 5), a late-stage mineral exsolved from high-temperature, Ca-rich residual orthopyroxene, is in broad Mg isotopic equilibrium with olivine (-0.27 ± 0.04, 2SD, n = 17) and orthopyroxene (-0.22 ± 0.06, 2SD, n = 17). Collectively, this study finds that the Kamchatka mantle wedge, as represented by the Avacha peridotites, has a mantle-like δ26Mg, and low-degree fluid-mantle interaction does not cause significant Mg isotope fractionation in sub-arc mantle peridotites. [1] Wang et al., EPSL, 2012 [2] Teng et al., PNAS, 2016 [3] Ionov, J. Petrol., 2010, [4] Teng et al., GCA, 2010.

  2. Tin isotope fractionation during magmatic processes and the isotope composition of the bulk silicate Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueying; Amet, Quentin; Fitoussi, Caroline; Bourdon, Bernard

    2018-05-01

    Tin is a moderately volatile element whose isotope composition can be used to investigate Earth and planet differentiation and the early history of the Solar System. Although the Sn stable isotope composition of several geological and archaeological samples has been reported, there is currently scarce information about the effect of igneous processes on Sn isotopes. In this study, high-precision Sn isotope measurements of peridotites and basalts were obtained by MC-ICP-MS with a double-spike technique. The basalt samples display small variations in δ124/116Sn ranging from -0.01 ± 0.11 to 0.27 ± 0.11‰ (2 s.d.) relative to NIST SRM 3161a standard solution, while peridotites have more dispersed and more negative δ124Sn values ranging from -1.04 ± 0.11 to -0.07 ± 0.11‰ (2 s.d.). Overall, basalts are enriched in heavy Sn isotopes relative to peridotites. In addition, δ124Sn in peridotites become more negative with increasing degrees of melt depletion. These results can be explained by different partitioning behavior of Sn4+ and Sn2+ during partial melting. Sn4+ is overall more incompatible than Sn2+ during partial melting, resulting in Sn4+-rich silicate melt and Sn2+-rich residue. As Sn4+ has been shown experimentally to be enriched in heavy isotopes relative to Sn2+, the effect of melting is to enrich residual peridotites in relatively more compatible Sn2+, which results in isotopically lighter peridotites and isotopically heavier mantle-derived melts. This picture can be disturbed partly by the effect of refertilization. Similarly, the presence of enriched components such as recycled oceanic crust or sediments could explain part of the variations in Sn isotopes in oceanic basalts. The most primitive peridotite analyzed in this study was used for estimating the Sn isotope composition of the BSE, with δ124Sn = -0.08 ± 0.11‰ (2 s.d.) relative to the Sn NIST SRM 3161a standard solution. Altogether, this suggests that Sn isotopes may be a powerful probe of

  3. The Chlorine Isotope Composition of Earth’s Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacie, M.; Jendrzejewski, N.; Agrinier, P.; Humler, E.; Coleman, M.; Javoy, M.

    2008-03-01

    Chlorine stable isotope compositions (δ37Cl) of 22 mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) correlate with Cl content. The high-δ37Cl, Cl-rich basalts are highly contaminated by Cl-rich materials (seawater, brines, or altered rocks). The low-δ37Cl, Cl-poor basalts approach the composition of uncontaminated, mantle-derived magmas. Thus, most or all oceanic lavas are contaminated to some extent during their emplacement. MORB-source mantle has δ37Cl ≤ 1.6 per mil (‰), which is significantly lower than that of surface reservoirs (~ 0‰). This isotopic difference between the surface and deep Earth results from net Cl isotopic fractionation (associated with removal of Cl from the mantle and its return by subduction over Earth history) and/or the addition (to external reservoirs) of a late volatile supply that is 37Cl-enriched.

  4. Magnesium Isotopic Compositions of Continental Basalts From Various Tectonic Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Li, S.; Tian, H.; Ke, S.

    2016-12-01

    Recycled sedimentary carbonate through subduction is the main light Mg isotopic reservoir in Earth's deep interior, thus Mg isotopic variation of mantle-derived melts provides a fresh perspective on investigating deep carbon cycling. Here we investigate Mg isotopic compositions of continental basalts from various tectonic settings: (1) The Cenozoic basalts from eastern China, coinciding with the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone revealed by seismic tomography; (2) The Cenozoic basalts from Tengchong area, southwestern China, which comprises a crucial part of the collision zone between the Indian and Eurasian plates; (3) The Permian basalts from Emeishan large igneous province, related to a mantle plume. The Cenozoic basalts from both eastern China and Tengchong area exhibit light Mg isotopic compositions (δ26Mg = -0.60 to -0.30‰ and -0.51 to -0.33‰), suggesting recycled sedimentary carbonates in their mantle sources. This is supported by their low Fe/Mn, high CaO/Al2O3, low Hf/Hf* and low Ti/Ti* ratios, which are typical features of carbonated peridotite-derived melt. The Tengchong basalts also show high 87Sr/86Sr, high radiogenic Pb and upper crustal-like trace element pattern, indicating contribution of recycled continental crustal materials. By contrast, all Emeishan basalts display a mantle-like Mg isotopic composition, with δ26Mg ranging from -0.35 to -0.19‰. Since the Emeishan basalts derived from a mantle plume, their mantle-like Mg isotopic composition may indicate limited sedimentary carbonated recycled into the lower mantle. This is consistent with a recent experimental study which concluded that direct recycling of carbon into the lower mantle may have been highly restricted throughout most of the Earth's history.

  5. Mechanisms controlling the silicon isotopic compositions of river waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georg, R. B.; Reynolds, B. C.; Frank, M.; Halliday, A. N.

    2006-09-01

    It has been proposed that silicon (Si) isotopes are fractionated during weathering and biological activity leading to heavy dissolved riverine compositions. In this study, the first seasonal variations of stable isotope compositions of dissolved riverine Si are reported and compared with concomitant changes in water chemistry. Four different rivers in Switzerland were sampled between March 2004 and July 2005. The unique high-resolution multi-collector ICP-MS Nu1700, has been used to provide simultaneous interference-free measurements of 28Si, 29Si and 30Si abundances with an average limiting precision of ± 0.04‰ on δ 30Si. This precision facilitates the clarification of small temporal variations in isotope composition. The average of all the data for the 40 samples is δ 30Si = + 0.84 ± 0.19‰ (± 1σ SD). Despite significant differences in catchment lithologies, biomass, climate, total dissolved solids and weathering fluxes the averaged isotopic composition of dissolved Si in each river is strikingly similar with means of + 0.70 ± 0.12‰ for the Birs,+ 0.95 ± 0.22‰ for the Saane,+ 0.93 ± 0.12‰ for the Ticino and + 0.79 ± 0.19‰ for the Verzasca. However, the δ 30Si undergoes seasonal variations of up to 0.6‰. Comparisons between δ 30Si and physico-chemical parameters, such as the concentration of dissolved Si and other cations, the discharge of the rivers, and the resulting weathering fluxes, permits an understanding of the processes that control the Si budget and the fate of dissolved Si within these rivers. The main mechanism controlling the Si isotope composition of the mountainous Verzasca River appears to be a two component mixing between the seepage of soil/ground waters, with heavier Si produced by clay formation and superficial runoff associated with lighter Si during high discharge events. A biologically-mediated fractionation can be excluded in this particular river system. The other rivers display increasing complexity with increases

  6. What is the iron isotope composition of the Moon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitrasson, F.; Zambardi, T.; Magna, T.; Neal, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    It is difficult to estimate the bulk chemical and isotopic composition of the Moon because of severe limitations in our sampling. As a result, there is currently a debate on the bulk Fe isotope composition of the Moon despite the constraints on the lunar accretion modes or differentiation processes it may provide. For this, a proper mass balance estimation of essential planetary reservoirs is required. For instance, the dichotomy in δ57Fe between low- and high-Ti mare basalt varieties as a consequence of differences in degree of fractional crystallization of their respective lunar mantle sources should be rigorously tested. To investigate this, we performed new iron isotope measurements of 33 bulk lunar mare basalts and highland rocks, including KREEP-related materials. The new data show significant Fe isotope differences between high-Ti and low-Ti mare basalts, yielding mean δ57FeIRMM-014=0.277±0.020‰ and δ57FeIRMM-014=0.127±0.020‰, respectively. Assuming that lunar basalts mirror the iron isotope composition of their respective mantle protoliths, the estimated relative proportion of the low-Ti and high-Ti mantle source suggests that the lunar upper mantle should be close to δ57Fe=0.14±0.03‰. At present, it is unclear whether the bulk lunar Fe isotope composition is indistinguishable from that of the Earth (δ57FeIRMM-014=0.10±0.03‰), when estimated solely from mare basalts data, or if it is twice as heavy relative to chondrites, as initially proposed. A large scatter at δ57Fe=0.08±0.19‰ for ferroan anorthosites, Mg-suite rocks and a KREEP basalt imparts more complexities for global isotopic view of the Moon. A better understanding of the cause of Fe isotope heterogeneity among the lunar highland rocks will likely allow to better estimate the bulk Moon composition, and possibly to improve our knowledge about the genesis of the lunar crust itself.

  7. The oceanic budgets of nickel and zinc isotopes: the importance of sulfidic environments as illustrated by the Black Sea

    PubMed Central

    Little, Susan H.; Archer, Corey; Cameron, Vyllinniskii; Andersen, Morten B.; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic data collected to date as part of the GEOTRACES and other programmes show that the oceanic dissolved pool is isotopically heavy relative to the inputs for zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni). All Zn sinks measured until recently, and the only output yet measured for Ni, are isotopically heavier than the dissolved pool. This would require either a non-steady-state ocean or other unidentified sinks. Recently, isotopically light Zn has been measured in organic carbon-rich sediments from productive upwelling margins, providing a potential resolution of this issue, at least for Zn. However, the origin of the isotopically light sedimentary Zn signal is uncertain. Cellular uptake of isotopically light Zn followed by transfer to sediment does not appear to be a quantitatively important process. Here, we present Zn and Ni isotope data for the water column and sediments of the Black Sea. These data demonstrate that isotopically light Zn and Ni are extracted from the water column, probably through an equilibrium fractionation between different dissolved species followed by sequestration of light Zn and Ni in sulfide species to particulates and the sediment. We suggest that a similar, non-quantitative, process, operating in porewaters, explains the Zn data from organic carbon-rich sediments. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry’. PMID:29035259

  8. Isotope composition and volume of Earth’s early oceans

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Emily C.; Bird, Dennis K.; Rosing, Minik T.

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of Earth’s seawater are controlled by volatile fluxes among mantle, lithospheric (oceanic and continental crust), and atmospheric reservoirs. Throughout geologic time the oxygen mass budget was likely conserved within these Earth system reservoirs, but hydrogen’s was not, as it can escape to space. Isotopic properties of serpentine from the approximately 3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt in West Greenland are used to characterize hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of ancient seawater. Archaean oceans were depleted in deuterium [expressed as δD relative to Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] by at most 25 ± 5‰, but oxygen isotope ratios were comparable to modern oceans. Mass balance of the global hydrogen budget constrains the contribution of continental growth and planetary hydrogen loss to the secular evolution of hydrogen isotope ratios in Earth’s oceans. Our calculations predict that the oceans of early Earth were up to 26% more voluminous, and atmospheric CH4 and CO2 concentrations determined from limits on hydrogen escape to space are consistent with clement conditions on Archaean Earth. PMID:22392985

  9. Isotope composition and volume of Earth's early oceans.

    PubMed

    Pope, Emily C; Bird, Dennis K; Rosing, Minik T

    2012-03-20

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of Earth's seawater are controlled by volatile fluxes among mantle, lithospheric (oceanic and continental crust), and atmospheric reservoirs. Throughout geologic time the oxygen mass budget was likely conserved within these Earth system reservoirs, but hydrogen's was not, as it can escape to space. Isotopic properties of serpentine from the approximately 3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt in West Greenland are used to characterize hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of ancient seawater. Archaean oceans were depleted in deuterium [expressed as δD relative to Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] by at most 25 ± 5‰, but oxygen isotope ratios were comparable to modern oceans. Mass balance of the global hydrogen budget constrains the contribution of continental growth and planetary hydrogen loss to the secular evolution of hydrogen isotope ratios in Earth's oceans. Our calculations predict that the oceans of early Earth were up to 26% more voluminous, and atmospheric CH(4) and CO(2) concentrations determined from limits on hydrogen escape to space are consistent with clement conditions on Archaean Earth.

  10. The Chlorine Isotopic Composition Of Lunar UrKREEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. J.; Tartese, R.; Anand, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; Neal, C. R.; Franchi, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the long standing paradigm of an anhydrous Moon was challenged there has been a renewed focus on investigating volatiles in a variety of lunar samples. However, the current models for the Moon’s formation have yet to fully account for its thermal evolution in the presence of H2O and other volatiles. When compared to chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks, lunar samples have exotic chlorine isotope compositions, which are difficult to explain in light of the abundance and isotopic composition of other volatile species, especially H, and the current estimates for chlorine and H2O in the bulk silicate Moon. In order to better understand the processes involved in giving rise to the heavy chlorine isotope compositions of lunar samples, we have performed a comprehensive in situ high precision study of chlorine isotopes, using NanoSIMS (Nanoscale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) of lunar apatite from a suite of Apollo samples covering a range of geochemical characteristics and petrologic types.

  11. Isotopic composition of hydrogen in insoluble organic matter from cherts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Epstein, S.

    1991-01-01

    Robert (1989) reported the presence of unusually enriched hydrogen in the insoluble HF-HCl residue extracted from two chert samples of Eocene and Pliocene ages. Since the presence of heavy hydrogen might be due to the incorporation of extraterrestrial materials, we desired to reexamine the same samples to isolate the D-rich components. Our experiments did not reveal any D-rich components, but the hydrogen isotope composition of the insoluble residue of the two chert samples was well within the range expected for terrestrial organic matter. We also describe a protocol that needs to be followed in the hydrogen isotope analysis of any insoluble organic matter.

  12. The Chlorine Isotopic Composition Of Lunar UrKREEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. J.; Tartese, R.; Anand, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; Neal, C. R.; Franchi, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the long standing paradigm of an anhydrous Moon was challenged there has been a renewed focus on investigating volatiles in a variety of lunar samples. Numerous studies have examined the abundances and isotopic compositions of volatiles in lunar apatite, Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH). In particular, apatite has been used as a tool for assessing the sources of H2O in the lunar interior. However, current models for the Moon's formation have yet to fully account for its thermal evolution in the presence of H2O and other volatiles. For ex-ample, in the context of the lunar magma ocean (LMO) model, it is anticipated that chlorine (and other volatiles) should have been concentrated in the late-stage LMO residual melts (i.e., the dregs enriched in incompatible elements such as K, REEs (Rare Earth Elements), and P, collectively called KREEP, and in its primitive form - urKREEP, given its incompatibility in mafic minerals like olivine and pyroxene, which were the dominant phases that crystallized early in the cumulate pile of the LMO. When compared to chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks, lunar samples have exotic chlorine isotope compositions, which are difficult to explain in light of the abundance and isotopic composition of other volatile species, especially H, and the current estimates for chlorine and H2O in the bulk silicate Moon (BSM). In order to better understand the processes involved in giving rise to the heavy chlorine isotope compositions of lunar samples, we have performed a comprehensive in situ high precision study of chlorine isotopes in lunar apatite from a suite of Apollo samples covering a range of geochemical characteristics and petrologic types.

  13. C-isotope composition of fossil sedges and grasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurschner, Wolfram M.

    2010-05-01

    C4 plants differ from C3 plants regarding their anatomy and their C-isotope composition. Both features can be used in the geological record to determine the presence of C4 plants. Yet, the evolution of the C4 pathway in the fossil record is enigmatic as palaeobotanical and geological evidence for C4 plants is sparse. The oldest structural evidence for Kranz anatomy has been found in Late Miocene permineralized grass leaf remains. But studies on the C-isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter indicate that abundant C4 biomass was present in N-America and Asia throughout the Miocene in expanding savannahs and grasslands. The success of C4 plants appears to be related also to an increasing seasonal aridity in the tropical climate belts and the co-evolution of grazers. However, C- isotope composition of palaeosols or vertebrate teeth only allows to estimate the abundance of C4 plant biomass in the vegetation or in the diet without further taxonomical specification which plant groups would have had C4 metabolism. In this contribution the first extensive C-isotope analysis of fossil seeds of sedges and a few grasses are presented. The age of the carpological material ranges from Late Eocene to Pliocene and was collected from several central European brown coal deposits. The 52 different taxa studied include several species of Carex, Cladiocarya, Eriopherum, Eleocharis, Scirpus, Sparganium. Most of them representing herbaceous elements of a (sub)tropical vegetation growing near the edge of a lake. The C-isotope composition of the fossil seeds varies between -30 and -23 o/oo indicating C3 photosynthesis. This first systematic inventory shows that C4 plants were absent in the European (sub)tropical brown coal forming wetland vegetation during the Tertiary. These preliminary data are in agreement with phylogenetic studies which predict the origin of C4 plants outside the European realm.

  14. New chemical determinations of zinc in basalts, and rocks of similar composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rader, L.F.; Swadley, W.C.; Huffman, C.; Lipp, H.H.

    1963-01-01

    New determinations of zinc in 124 basalts by the chemical method described (Huff-Man et al. 1963) are reported. Average zinc values, in per cent, for basalts from diverse regions are as follows: Idaho, 28 samples, 0.013; Hawaii, 33 samples, 0.010; Connecticut, 27 samples, 0.0090; Oregon, 17 samples, 0.0081; California, 8 samples, 0.0071; and New Mexico, 11 samples, 0.0086; average, all samples, 0.0099 per cent zinc. A plot of differentiation indicator ratios calculated from the conventional rock analyses, CaO/(Na2O + K2O) as the ordinate and SiO2/MgO as the abscissa, was used to select, from different localities, samples essentially the same in chemical composition that were to be used for comparisons of zinc and other minor elements. Zinc correlates with MnO and with total iron as FeO. An inverse relationship found for zinc and manganese is related to the total iron content of the basalts. Thus for a given iron concentration as zinc increases, manganese decreases and vice versa. Ratios of zinc, the common denominator, to 11 other minor elements determined spectro-graphically show correlations with cobalt, gallium, scandium, yttrium, and zirconium. ?? 1963.

  15. Dolomite clumped isotope constraints on the oxygen isotope composition of the Phanerozoic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryb, U.; Eiler, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The δ18O value of the Phanerozoic Sea has been debated several decades, largely motivated by an 8‰ increase in δ18O of sedimentary carbonates between the Cambrian and the present. Some previous studies have interpreted this increase to be a primary depositional signal, resulting from an increase in the 18O content of ocean water over time, or from a decrease in ocean temperature increasing the oxygen isotope fractionation between seawater and carbonates. In contrast, other studies have interpreted lower δ18O compositions as the products of diagenetic alteration at elevated burial temperatures. Here, we show that the Phanerozoic dolomite δ18O record overlaps with that of well-preserved calcite fossils, and use carbonate clumped isotope measurements of Cambrian to Pleistocene dolomites to calculate their formation temperatures and the isotopic compositions of their parent-waters. The observed variation in dolomite δ18O is largely explained by dolomite formation at burial temperatures of up to 158°C. The δ18O values of dolomite parent-waters range -2 to +12‰ and are correlated with formation temperatures. Such correlation is consistent with the modification of seawater (0±2‰, VSMOW) toward isotopically heavier compositions through water-rock reactions at elevated burial temperatures. The similarity between the dolomite and calcite δ18O records, and published clumped isotope-based calculations of water compositions, suggests that like dolomite, temporal variations of the calcite δ18O record may also be largely driven by diagenetic alteration. Finally, the relationship we observe between temperature of dolomitization and d18O of dolomite suggests platform carbonates generally undergo dolomitization through reaction with modified marine waters, and that there is no evidence those waters were ever significantly lower in d18O than the modern ocean.

  16. Particles and Zinc on the Absorbed Impact Energy of Gravity Cast Aluminum Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corchado, Marcos; Reyes, Fernando; Suárez, Oscar Marcelo

    2014-06-01

    The effect of different amounts of boron, in the form of AlB2 particles, as well as zinc concentration in a gravity cast Al-B-Zn composite, was studied and related to the absorbed energy upon fracture during Charpy impact experiments. In addition, the authors correlated the composite Brinell hardness with the quantitative assessment of brittle and ductile fracture areas of the Charpy fractured specimens and found that increasing AlB2 particle concentration resulted in a reduction of absorbed impact energy. Although larger zinc levels produced somewhat similar results, the AlB2 effect was prevalent. The energy absorption upon impact reached a maximum when no particles were present; conversely, the lowest amount of absorbed energy corresponded to a composite with a composition of 15 wt.% Zn and 8% in volume of AlB2, i.e., the highest concentration of AlB2 and zinc studied. Raising the amount of AlB2 as well as zinc, as expected, resulted in higher Brinell hardness. A statistical analysis allowed studying of the particle size distribution, whereas values for crack tip opening displacement were subsequently calculated for the range of particle sizes found and the corresponding AlB2 particle volume percent. Higher porosity values were measured for larger AlB2 volume percent. Finally, analyses of fracture surfaces corroborated that brittle fracture was favored in composites with higher amounts of AlB2 and zinc.

  17. Pb isotope compositions of modern deep sea turbidites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, S. R.; McLennan, S. M.

    2001-01-01

    Modern deep sea turbidite muds and sands collected from Lamont piston cores represent a large range in age of detrital sources as well as a spectrum of tectonic settings. Pb isotope compositions of all but three of the 66 samples lie to the right of the 4.56 Ga Geochron, and most also lie along a slope consistent with a time-integrated κ ( 232Th/ 238U) between 3.8 and 4.2. Modern deep sea turbidites show a predictable negative correlation between both Pb and Sr isotope ratios and ɛNd and ɛHf, clearly related to the age of continental sources. However, the consistency between Pb and Nd isotopes breaks down for samples with very old provenance ( ɛNd<-20) that are far less radiogenic than predicted by the negative correlation. The correlations among Sr, Nd and Hf isotopes also become more scattered in samples with very old provenance. The unradiogenic Pb isotopic character of modern sediments with Archean Nd model ages is consistent with a model where Th and U abundances of the Archean upper crust are significantly lower than the post-Archean upper crust.

  18. The mercury isotope composition of Arctic coastal seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štrok, Marko; Baya, Pascale Anabelle; Hintelmann, Holger

    2015-11-01

    For the first time, Hg isotope composition of seawater in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago is reported. Hg was pre-concentrated from large volumes of seawater sampling using anion exchange resins onboard the research vessel immediately after collection. Elution of Hg was performed in laboratory followed by isotope composition determination by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). For comparison, seawater from two stations was shipped to the laboratory and processed within it. Results showed negative mass-dependent fractionation in the range from -2.85 to -1.10‰ for δ202Hg, as well as slightly positive mass-independent fractionation of odd Hg isotopes. Positive mass-independent fractionation of 200Hg was also observed. Samples that were pre-concentrated in the laboratory showed different Hg isotope signatures and this is most probably due to the abiotic reduction of Hg in the dark by organic matter during storage and shipment after sampling. This emphasizes the need for immediate onboard pre-concentration.

  19. Chronic zinc deficiency alters chick gut microbiota composition and function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a prevalent micronutrient insufficiency. Although the gut is a vital organ for Zn utilization, and Zn deficiency is associated with impaired intestinal permeability and a global decrease in gastrointestinal health, alterations in the gut microbial ecology of the host under co...

  20. Nature and origin of the nonsulfide zinc deposits in the Sierra Mojada District, Coahuila, Mexico: constraints from regional geology, petrography, and isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, J. Richard; Ahn, Hyein; Gilg, H. Albert

    2018-02-01

    The Sierra Mojada District comprises multiple types of near-surface mineral concentrations ranging from polymetallic sulfide zones, "nonsulfide Zn" (NSZ) deposits, and a silver-rich Pb carbonate deposit hosted by lower Cretaceous carbonate strata. Hypogene concentrations of Fe-Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag sulfides and sulfosalts are locally preserved and are associated with hydrothermal dolomite and silica. Alteration mineralogy and sulfur isotope data suggest primary Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization from circa 200 °C hydrothermal fluids. The NSZ deposits dominantly consist of smithsonite and hemimorphite associated with local Mn-Fe oxides. The Red Zinc Zone consists of strata-bound zones dominantly of hemimorphite that fills pores in residual and resedimented Fe oxides. The White Zinc Zone shows local dissolution features, including internal sediments interbanded with and cemented by smithsonite. Similar Pb isotopic compositions of smithsonite, hemimorphite, and cerussite to Sierra Mojada galena document that the NSZ deposits originated from polymetallic carbonate-replacement sulfide deposits, with flow of metal-bearing groundwater being controlled by local topography and structural features in this extensional terrane. Oxygen isotope values for Sierra Mojada smithsonite are relatively constant (δ18OVSMOW = 20.9 to 23.3‰) but are unusually low compared to other supergene smithsonites. Using δ18OVSMOW (- 8‰) of modern groundwater at nearby Cuatrociénegas, smithsonite formational temperatures are calculated to have been between 26 to 35 °C. Smithsonite precipitation was favored by near-neutral conditions typical of carbonate terranes, whereas hemimorphite precipitated by reaction with wallrock silica and locally, or episodically, more acidic conditions resulting from sulfide oxidation. Transition to, and stabilization of, the modern desert climate over the past 9000 years from the Late Pleistocene wetter, cooler climate of northern Mexico resulted in episodic drawdown of the water

  1. Fossil black smoker yields oxygen isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic seawater.

    PubMed

    Hodel, F; Macouin, M; Trindade, R I F; Triantafyllou, A; Ganne, J; Chavagnac, V; Berger, J; Rospabé, M; Destrigneville, C; Carlut, J; Ennih, N; Agrinier, P

    2018-04-13

    The evolution of the seawater oxygen isotopic composition (δ 18 O) through geological time remains controversial. Yet, the past δ 18 O seawater is key to assess past seawater temperatures, providing insights into past climate change and life evolution. Here we provide a new and unprecedentedly precise δ 18 O value of -1.33 ± 0.98‰ for the Neoproterozoic bottom seawater supporting a constant oxygen isotope composition through time. We demonstrate that the Aït Ahmane ultramafic unit of the ca. 760 Ma Bou Azzer ophiolite (Morocco) host a fossil black smoker-type hydrothermal system. In this system we analyzed an untapped archive for the ocean oxygen isotopic composition consisting in pure magnetite veins directly precipitated from a Neoproterozoic seawater-derived fluid. Our results suggest that, while δ 18 O seawater and submarine hydrothermal processes were likely similar to present day, Neoproterozoic oceans were 15-30 °C warmer on the eve of the Sturtian glaciation and the major life diversification that followed.

  2. Alkali elemental and potassium isotopic compositions of Semarkona chondrules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Grossman, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of K isotope ratios in 28 Semarkona chondrules with a wide range of petrologic types and bulk compositions as well as the compositions of CPX-mesostasis pairs in 17 type I Semarkona chondrules, including two chondrules with radial alkali zonation and 19 type II chondrules. Despite the wide range in K/Al ratios, no systematic variations in K isotopic compositions were found. Semarkona chondrules do not record a simple history of Rayleigh-type loss of K. Experimentally determined evaporation rates suggest that considerable alkali evaporation would have occurred during chondrule formation. Nevertheless, based on Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients, the alkali contents of the cores of most chondrules in Semarkona were probably established at the time of final crystallization. However, Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients also show that alkali zonation in type I Semarkona chondrules was produced by entry of alkalis after solidification, probably during parent body alteration. This alkali metasomatism may have gone to completion in some chondrules. Our preferred explanation for the lack of systematic isotopic enrichments, even in alkali depleted type I chondrule cores, is that they exchanged with the ambient gas as they cooled. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2005.

  3. The Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Hg in Extraterrestrial Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    During the past three year grant period we made excellent progress in our study of the abundances and isotopic compositions of Hg and other volatile trace elements in extraterrestrial materials. As part of my startup package I received funds to construct a state-of-the-art experimental facility to study gas-solid reaction kinetics. Much of our effort was spent developing the methodology to measure the abundance and isotopic composition of Hg at ultratrace levels in solid materials. In our first study, the abundance and isotopic composition of Hg was determined in bulk samples of the Murchison (CM) and Allende (CV) carbonaceous chondrites. We have continued our study of mercury in primitive meteorites and expanded the suite of meteorites to include other members of the CM and CV chondrite group as well as CI and CO chondrites. Samples of the CI chondrite Orgueil, the CM chondrites Murray, Nogoya, and Cold Bokkeveld, the CO chondrites Kainsaz, Omans, and Isna, and the CV chondrites Vigarano, Mokoia, and Grosnaja were tested. We have developed a thermal analysis ICP-MS technique and applied it to the study of a suite of thermally labile elements (Zn, As, Se, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Hg, Au, Tl, Pb, and Bi) in geologic materials as well.

  4. The vanadium isotope compositions of subduction zone lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, S.; Huang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Vanadium is a redox sensitive element with multiple oxidation states, and thus it has the potential to trace redox-related processes. With the advancement of analytical method for V isotopes, we are now able to recognize V isotope fractionation for igneous rocks. Subduction zones are critical zones on the Earth for the interaction between crust and mantle where undergo complex geological processes. However, V isotope data of subduction zone lavas are still rare except those reported in [1]. To investigate the V isotope variations of subduction zones and discuss the potential to apply V to trace mantle redox state. In this contribution, we report δ51V for three subduction zone lavas from Kamchatka, Lesser Antilles, and Aleutians which are characterized by well-documented magmatic evolutionary series. 47 arc lava samples have been analyzed and the δ51V data of them range from -0.91‰ to -0.53‰ (2sd = 0.10 ‰). Among these samples, primitive arc basalts with MgO > 6 wt. % have an average δ51V of -0.80 ± 0.15‰ (2sd, n = 20), broadly consistent with δ51V data of MORB [2, 3]. Within the single arc of Kamchatka, δ51V data of primitive basalts from the arc front to the back-arc is almost constant, suggesting limited influences of mantle melting and source heterogeneity on V isotopes. δ51V data of these samples show no correlation with Ba/Nb, suggesting that fluids have little impact on V isotopes. On the other hand, δ51V data of the more involved samples with MgO < 6 wt. % are negatively correlated with MgO contents, indicating that the 50V preferentially enters crystalline minerals, which produces heavier V isotope compositions of residual melts. Distinct to the observation showing 2‰ fractionation reported in [1], the magnitude of V isotope fractionation in arc lavas is much smaller (0.38‰) in this study. Future works are needed for better understanding the V isotope fractionation mechanisms of subduction zone lavas. [1]Prytulak et al., 2017, Geochem

  5. NBL CRM 112-A: A new certified isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. B.; Essex, R. M.; Mason, P.

    2007-12-01

    NBL CRM 112-A Uranium Metal Assay Standard is commonly used as a natural uranium isotopic reference material within the earth science mass spectrometry community. The metal is from the same parent material as NBS SRM 960, the uranyl nitrate solution, CRM 145, and the high-purity uranyl nitrate solution CRM 145-B. Because CRM 112-A has not yet been certified for isotopic composition, it has been assumed that this material has a natural 235U/238U (0.0072527), and the δ234U has been determined by measurement (e.g. -37.1‰; Cheng et al., 2000). These values have been widely used to calibrate the concentration of spikes and standards, and to correct measurements for instrument or mass bias. New, preliminary, isotopic measurements on CRM 145 and CRM 112-A performed at New Brunswick Laboratory suggest that these reference materials have a slightly lower 235U/238U and δ234U than have been commonly used. If this is the case, then data using the accepted values may be slightly biased. The significance of this bias will depend on the uncertainty of the measurement, how the CRM 112-A data is used to correct measurement data, the cited values that were used to correct the data, and the final certified values of the CRM. This fall, New Brunswick Laboratory is certifying the isotopic composition of the CRM 112-A metal using high precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry techniques. Upon completion of certification, the new CRM 112- A standard with certified isotopic ratios will provide the earth science community with a well characterized and traceable reference for calibrating and correcting their mass spectrometry measurement systems.

  6. Time-resolved fluorescence and ultrafast energy transfer in a zinc (hydr)oxide-graphite oxide mesoporous composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secor, Jeff; Narinesingh, Veeshan; Seredych, Mykola; Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A.; Bandosz, Teresa; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast energy decay kinetics of a zinc (hydr)oxide-graphite oxide (GO) composite is studied via time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The time-resolved emission is spectrally decomposed into emission regions originating from the zinc (hydr)oxide optical gap, surface, and defect states of the composite material. The radiative lifetime of deep red emission becomes an order of magnitude longer than that of GO alone while the radiative lifetime of the zinc optical gap is shortened in the composite. An energy transfer scheme from the zinc (hydr)oxide to GO is considered.

  7. Magnesium stable isotope composition of Earth's upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, Monica R.; Baker, Joel A.; Schiller, Martin; Bennett, Vickie C.; Yaxley, Gregory M.

    2009-05-01

    The mantle is Earth's largest reservoir of Mg containing > 99% of Earth's Mg inventory. However, no consensus exists on the stable Mg isotope composition of the Earth's mantle or how variable it is and, in particular, whether the mantle has the same stable Mg isotope composition as chondrite meteorites. We have determined the Mg isotope composition of olivine from 22 mantle peridotites from eastern Australia, west Antarctica, Jordan, Yemen and southwest Greenland by pseudo-high-resolution MC-ICP-MS on Mg purified to > 99%. The samples include fertile lherzolites, depleted harzburgites and dunites, cryptically metasomatised ('dry') peridotites and modally metasomatised apatite ± amphibole-bearing harzburgites and wehrlites. Olivine from these samples of early Archaean through to Permian lithospheric mantle have δ25Mg DSM-3 = - 0.22 to - 0.08‰. These data indicate the bulk upper mantle as represented by peridotite olivine is homogeneous within current analytical uncertainties (external reproducibility ≤ ± 0.07‰ [2 sd]). We find no systematic δ25Mg variations with location, lithospheric age, peridotite fertility, or degree or nature of mantle metasomatism. Although pyroxene may have slightly heavier δ25Mg than coexisting olivine, any fractionation between mantle pyroxene and olivine is also within current analytical uncertainties with a mean Δ25Mg pyr-ol = +0.06 ± 0.10‰ (2 sd; n = 5). Our average mantle olivine δ25Mg DSM-3 = - 0.14 ± 0.07‰ and δ26Mg DSM-3 = - 0.27 ± 0.14‰ (2 sd) are indistinguishable from the average of data previously reported for terrestrial basalts, confirming that basalts have stable Mg isotope compositions representative of the mantle. Olivine from five pallasite meteorites have δ25Mg DSM-3 = - 0.16 to - 0.11‰ that are identical to terrestrial olivine and indistinguishable from the average δ25Mg previously reported for chondrites. These data provide no evidence for measurable heterogeneity in the stable Mg isotope

  8. Controls on the iron isotopic composition of global arc magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foden, John; Sossi, Paolo A.; Nebel, Oliver

    2018-07-01

    We determined the iron isotope composition of 130 mafic lavas from 15 arcs worldwide with the hypothesis that the results would reflect the relatively high oxidation state of arc magmas. Although this expectation was not realized, this Fe isotope data set reveals important insights into the geodynamic controls and style of the melting regimes in the sub-arc mantle. Samples are from oceanic arcs from the circum-Pacific, the Indonesian Sunda-Banda islands, Scotia and the Lesser Antilles as well as from the eastern Pacific Cascades. Their mean δ57Fe value is +0.075 ± 0.05‰, significantly lighter than MORB (+0.15 ± 0.03‰). Western Pacific arcs extend to very light δ57Fe (Kamchatka = -0.11 ± 0.04‰). This is contrary to expectation, because Fe isotope fractionation factors (Sossi et al., 2016, 2012) and the incompatibility of ferric versus ferrous iron during mantle melting, predict that melts of more oxidized sources will be enriched in heavy Fe isotopes. Subducted oxidation capacity flux may correlate with hydrous fluid release from the slab. If so, a positive correlation between each arc's thermal parameter (ϕ) and δ57Fe is predicted. On the contrary, the sampled arcs mostly contribute to a negative array with the ϕ value. High ϕ arcs, largely in the western Pacific, have primary magmas with lower δ57Fe values than the low ϕ, eastern Pacific arcs. Arcs with MORB-like Sr-, Nd- and Pb-isotopes, show a large range of δ57Fe from heavy MORB-like values (Scotia or the Cascades) to very light values (Kamchatka, Tonga). Although all basalts with light δ57Fe values have MORB-like Pb-, Nd- and Sr-isotope ratios some, particularly those from eastern Indonesia, have heavier δ57Fe and higher Pb- and Sr- and lower Nd-isotope ratios reflecting sediment contamination of the mantle wedge. Because basalts with MORB-like radiogenic isotopes range all the way from heavy to light δ57Fe values this trend is process-, not source composition-driven. Neither the slab

  9. Zinc isotope investigation of surface and pore waters in a mountain watershed impacted by acid rock drainage.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Suzan; Borrok, David M; Wanty, Richard B; Balistrieri, Laurie S

    2012-03-15

    The pollution of natural waters with metals derived from the oxidation of sulfide minerals like pyrite is a global environmental problem. However, the metal loading pathways and transport mechanisms associated with acid rock drainage reactions are often difficult to characterize using bulk chemical data alone. In this study, we evaluated the use of zinc (Zn) isotopes to complement traditional geochemical tools in the investigation of contaminated waters at the former Waldorf mining site in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, U.S.A. Geochemical signatures and statistical analysis helped in identifying two primary metal loading pathways at the Waldorf site. The first was characterized by a circumneutral pH, high alkalinity, and high Zn/Cd ratios. The second was characterized by acidic pHs and low Zn/Cd ratios. Zinc isotope signatures in surface water samples collected across the site were remarkably similar (the δ(66)Zn, relative to JMC 3-0749-L, for most samples ranged from 0.20 to 0.30‰±0.09‰ 2σ). This probably suggests that the ultimate source of Zn is consistent across the Waldorf site, regardless of the metal loading pathway. The δ(66)Zn of pore water samples collected within a nearby metal-impacted wetland area, however, were more variable, ranging from 0.20 to 0.80‰±0.09‰ 2σ. Here the Zn isotopes seemed to reflect differences in groundwater flow pathways. However, a host of secondary processes might also have impacted Zn isotopes, including adsorption of Zn onto soil components, complexation of Zn with dissolved organic matter, uptake of Zn into plants, and the precipitation of Zn during the formation of reduced sulfur species. Zinc isotope analysis proved useful in this study; however, the utility of this isotopic tool would improve considerably with the addition of a comprehensive experimental foundation for interpreting the complex isotopic relationships found in soil pore waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. BOREAS TE-5 CO2 Concentration and Stable Isotope Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-5 team collected measurements in the NSA and SSA on gas exchange, gas composition, and tree growth. This data set contains measurements of the concentration and stable carbon (C-13/C-12 and oxygen (O-18/O-16) isotope ratios of atmospheric CO2 in air samples collected at different heights within forest canopies. The data were collected to determine the influence of photosynthesis and respiration by the forest ecosystems on the concentration and stable isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 These measurements were collected at the SSA during each 1994 IFC at OJP, OBS, and OA sites. Measurements were also collected at the NSA during each 1994 IFC at the OJP, T6R5S TE UBS, and T2Q6A TE OA sites. The stable isotope ratios are expressed using standard delta notation and in units of per mil. The isotope ratios are expressed relative to the international standard, PDB, for both carbon and oxygen samples. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  11. Nut traits and nutritional composition of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) as influenced by zinc fertilization.

    PubMed

    Özenç, Nedim; Özenç, Damla Bender

    2015-07-01

    Zinc is an essential element for plants and its deficiency is a widespread problem throughout the world, causing decreased yields and nutritional quality. In this study the effect of zinc fertilization on some nut traits and the nutritional composition of 'Tombul' hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) variety cultivated in the Black Sea region of Turkey was investigated and the contribution of this nut to human nutrition determined. Trials were carried out at 'Tombul' hazelnut orchards, and zinc fertilizers were applied at 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kg Zn ha(-1) in three consecutive years. Significant differences in some nut traits and mineral composition (protein, total oil, ash, kernel percentage, empty and wrinkled nuts, copper, boron, manganese and molybdenum) were observed with zinc fertilizer applications. In terms of daily nutritional element requirements, 100 g of hazelnut provided about 44.74% phosphorus, 13.39% potassium, 19.32% calcium, 37.49% magnesium, 0.19% sodium, 51.63% iron, 25.73% zinc and 14.05% boron of the recommended daily amounts (RDAs), while copper, manganese and molybdenum contents exceeded their RDAs. In order to improve some nut traits and the mineral composition of hazelnut, 0.8 and 1.6 kg Zn ha(-1) fertilizations could be recommended in practice. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Isotope-Labeled Composition B for Tracing Detonation Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manner, Virginia; Podlesak, David; Huber, Rachel; Amato, Ronald; Giambra, Anna; Bowden, Patrick; Hartline, Ernest; Dattelbaum, Dana

    2017-06-01

    To better understand how solid carbon forms and evolves during detonation, we have prepared Composition B with 13 C and 15 N-labeled 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in order to trace the formation of soot from the carbon and nitrogen atoms in these explosives. Isotope-labeling of explosives has been performed in the recent past for a variety of reasons, including environmental remediation and reaction mechanism studies. Because it is expensive and time consuming to prepare these materials, and our detection equipment only requires trace amounts of isotopes, we have prepared fully-labeled materials and substituted them into unlabeled RDX and TNT at less than the 1% level. We will discuss the preparation and full characterization of this labeled Composition B, the detonation tests performed, along with the results of the post-detonation soot analysis. Various detonation models predict differing amounts and forms of carbon and nitrogen; these isotopically-labeled precursors have allowed these models to be tested.

  13. Iron Bioavailability from Ferric Pyrophosphate in Extruded Rice Cofortified with Zinc Sulfate Is Greater than When Cofortified with Zinc Oxide in a Human Stable Isotope Study.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Laura; Zimmermann, Michael B; Zeder, Christophe; Parker, Megan; Johns, Paul W; Hurrell, Richard F; Moretti, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Background: Extruded rice grains are often cofortified with iron and zinc. However, it is uncertain if the addition of zinc to iron-fortified rice affects iron absorption and whether this is zinc-compound specific. Objective: We investigated whether zinc, added as zinc oxide (ZnO) or zinc sulfate (ZnSO 4 ), affects human iron absorption from extruded rice fortified with ferric pyrophosphate (FePP). Methods: In 19 iron-depleted Swiss women (plasma ferritin ≤16.5 μ/L) aged between 20 and 39 y with a normal body mass index (in kg/m 2 ; 18.7-24.8), we compared iron absorption from 4 meals containing fortified extruded rice with 4 mg Fe and 3 mg Zn. Three of the meals contained extruded rice labeled with FePP ( 57 FePP): 1 ) 1 meal without added zinc ( 57 FePP-Zn), 2 ) 1 cofortified with ZnO ( 57 FePP+ZnO), and 3 ) 1 cofortified with ZnSO 4 ( 57 FePP+ZnSO 4 ). The fourth meal contained extruded rice without iron or zinc, extrinsically labeled with ferrous sulfate ( 58 FeSO 4 ) added as a solution after cooking. All 4 meals contained citric acid. Iron bioavailability was measured by isotopic iron ratios in red blood cells. We also measured relative in vitro iron solubility from 57 FePP-Zn, 57 FePP+ZnO, and 57 FePP+ZnSO 4 expressed as a fraction of FeSO 4 solubility. Results: Geometric mean fractional iron absorption (95% CI) from 57 FePP+ZnSO 4 was 4.5% (3.4%, 5.8%) and differed from 57 FePP+ZnO (2.7%; 1.8%, 4.1%) ( P < 0.03); both did not differ from 57 FePP-Zn: 4.0% (2.8%, 5.6%). Relative iron bioavailabilities compared with 58 FeSO 4 were 62%, 57%, and 38% from 57 FePP+ZnSO 4 , 57 FePP-Zn, and 57 FePP+ZnO, respectively. In vitro solubility from 57 FePP+ZnSO 4 differed from that of 57 FePP-Zn (14.3%; P < 0.02) but not from that of 57 FePP+ZnO (10.2% compared with 13.1%; P = 0.08). Conclusions: In iron-depleted women, iron absorption from FePP-fortified extruded rice cofortified with ZnSO 4 was 1.6-fold (95% CI: 1.4-, 1.9-fold) that of rice cofortified with Zn

  14. Perchlorate in the Great Lakes: isotopic composition and origin.

    PubMed

    Poghosyan, Armen; Sturchio, Neil C; Morrison, Candice G; Beloso, Abelardo D; Guan, Yunbin; Eiler, John M; Jackson, W Andrew; Hatzinger, Paul B

    2014-10-07

    Perchlorate is a persistent and mobile contaminant in the environment with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Stable isotope ratios of oxygen (δ(18)O, Δ(17)O) and chlorine (δ(37)Cl) along with the abundance of the radioactive isotope (36)Cl were used to trace perchlorate sources and behavior in the Laurentian Great Lakes. These lakes were selected for study as a likely repository of recent atmospheric perchlorate deposition. Perchlorate concentrations in the Great Lakes range from 0.05 to 0.13 μg per liter. δ(37)Cl values of perchlorate from the Great Lakes range from +3.0‰ (Lake Ontario) to +4.0‰ (Lake Superior), whereas δ(18)O values range from -4.1‰ (Lake Superior) to +4.0‰ (Lake Erie). Great Lakes perchlorate has mass-independent oxygen isotopic variations with positive Δ(17)O values (+1.6‰ to +2.7‰) divided into two distinct groups: Lake Superior (+2.7‰) and the other four lakes (∼+1.7‰). The stable isotopic results indicate that perchlorate in the Great Lakes is dominantly of natural origin, having isotopic composition resembling that measured for indigenous perchlorate from preindustrial groundwaters of the western USA. The (36)Cl/Cl ratio of perchlorate varies widely from 7.4 × 10(-12) (Lake Ontario) to 6.7 × 10(-11) (Lake Superior). These (36)ClO4(-) abundances are consistent with an atmospheric origin of perchlorate in the Great Lakes. The relatively high (36)ClO4(-) abundances in the larger lakes (Lakes Superior and Michigan) could be explained by the presence of (36)Cl-enriched perchlorate deposited during the period of elevated atmospheric (36)Cl activity following thermonuclear bomb tests in the Pacific Ocean.

  15. Does burial diagenesis reset pristine isotopic compositions in paleosol carbonates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, M. K.; Sarkar, A.; Tandon, S. K.; Samanta, A.; Sanyal, P.

    2010-11-01

    Sedimentological study of early Oligocene continental carbonates from the fluvial Dagshai Formation of the Himalayan foreland basin, India resulted in the recognition of four different types namely, soil, palustrine, pedogenically modified palustrine and groundwater carbonates. Stable oxygen and carbon isotopic ( δ18O and δ13C) analyses of fabric selective carbonate microsamples show that although the pristine isotopic compositions are largely altered during deep-burial diagenesis, complete isotopic homogenization does not occur. δ18O and δ13C analyses of ~ 200 calcrete and palustrine carbonates from different stratigraphic horizons and comparison with δ18O of more robust bioapatite (fossil vertebrate tooth) phase show that dense micrites (~ > 70% carbonate) invariably preserve the pristine δ18O value (mean) of ~ - 9.8‰, while altered carbonates show much lower δ18O value ~ - 13.8‰. Such inhomogeneity causes large intra-sample and intra-soil profile variability as high as > 5‰, suggesting that soils behave like a closed system where diagenetic overprinting occurs in local domains. A simple fluid-rock interaction model suggests active participation of clay minerals to enhance the effect of fluid-rock ratio in local domains during diagenesis. This places an upper limit of 70% micrite concentration above which the effect of diagenetic alteration is minimal. Careful sampling of dense micritic part of the soil carbonate nodules, therefore, does provide pristine isotopic composition and it is inappropriate, as proposed recently, to reject the paleoclimatic potential of all paleosol carbonates affected by burial diagenesis. Based on pristine δ13C value of - 8.8 ± 0.2‰ in soil carbonates an atmospheric CO 2 concentration between ~ 764 and ~ 306 ppmv is estimated for the early Oligocene (~ 31 Ma) Dagshai time. These data show excellent agreement between two independent proxy records (viz. soil carbonate and marine alkenone) and support early Oligocene

  16. Oxygen isotope composition of mafic magmas at Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallai, L.; Cioni, R.; Boschi, C.; D'Oriano, C.

    2009-12-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of olivine and clinopyroxene from four plinian (AD 79 Pompeii, 3960 BP Avellino), subplinian (AD 472 Pollena) and violent strombolian (Middle Age activity) eruptions were measured to constrain the nature and evolution of the primary magmas of the last 4000 years of Mt. Vesuvius activity. A large set of mm-sized crystals was accurately separated from selected juvenile material of the four eruptions. Crystals were analyzed for their major and trace element compositions (EPMA, Laser Ablation ICP-MS), and for 18O/16O ratios. As oxygen isotope composition of uncontaminated mantle rocks on world-wide scale is well constrained (δ18Oolivine = 5.2 ± 0.3; δ18Ocpx = 5.6 ± 0.3 ‰), the measured values can be conveniently used to monitor the effects of assimilation/contamination of crustal rocks in the evolution of the primary magmas. Instead, typically uncontaminated mantle values are hardly recovered in Italian Quaternary magmas, mostly due to the widespread occurrence of crustal contamination of the primary magmas during their ascent to the surface (e.g. Alban Hills, Ernici Mts., and Aeolian Islands). Low δ18O values have been measured in olivine from Pompeii eruption (δ18Oolivine = 5.54 ± 0.03‰), whereas higher O-compositions are recorded in mafic minerals from pumices or scoria of the other three eruptions. Measured olivine and clinopyroxene share quite homogeneous chemical compositions (Olivine Fo 85-90 ; Diopside En 45-48, respectively), and represent phases crystallized in near primary mafic magmas, as also constrained by their trace element compositions. Data on melt inclusions hosted in crystals of these compositions have been largely collected in the past demonstrating that they crystallized from mafic melt, basaltic to tephritic in composition. Published data on volatile content of these melt inclusions reveal the coexistence of dissolved water and carbon dioxide, and a minimum trapping pressure around 200-300 MPa, suggesting

  17. Helium-carbon isotopic composition of thermal waters from Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourré, E.; Aiuppa, A.; di Napoli, R.; Parello, F.; Gaubi, E.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Allard, P.; Calabrese, S.; Ben Mammou, A.

    2010-12-01

    Tunisia has numerous thermo-mineral springs. Previous studies have shown that their chemical composition and occurrence are strongly influenced by the regional geology, however little work has been conducted to date to investigate the isotopic composition of volatiles associated with these geothermal manifestations. Here, we report the results of an extensive survey of both natural hot springs and production wells across Tunisia aimed at investigating the spatial distribution of the 3He/4He ratio and associated carbon isotopic compositions. With respect to helium isotopes, not unexpectedly, the lowest 3He/4He values (0.01-0.02 Ra) are associated with the old groundwaters of the “Continental Intercalaire” aquifer of the stable Saharan Platform. The 3He/4He values are equal to the crustal production ratio, with no detectable amount of mantle-derived 3He, in agreement with previous studies of helium isotopes in sedimentary basin, which conclude that tectonically-stable regions are essentially impermeable to mantle volatiles. The low 3He/4He domain extends to the entire Atlasic domain of central Tunisia. This Atlasic domain also displays the highest helium concentrations : along the Gafsa Fault, helium concentrations of 1777 and 4723 x 10-8 cm3STP/g (the highest value of our data set) are observed in the production wells of Sidi Ahmed Zarrouk. This emphasizes the role of deep tectonic features in channelling and transporting deep crustal volatiles to shallow levels. The eastern margin of Tunisia displays higher 3He/4He values indicative of a substantial mantle volatile input. The highest value is recorded in the carbo-gaseous mineral water of Ain Garci (2.4 Ra). This northeastern part of the African plate commonly referred to as the Pelagian block extends from Tunisia to Sicily and is characterized by strong extensional tectonics (Pantelleria rift zone) and present-day magmatic activity. This lithospheric stretching and decompressional mantle melts production in

  18. Preparation of organic and water hydrogen for stable isotope analysis. Effects due to reaction vessels and zinc reagent

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmelmann, A.; DeNiro, M.J.

    1993-03-15

    Combustion of organic matter in sealed Pyrex, Vycor, and quartz ampules at temperatures between 520 and 900[degrees]C yields less than stoichiometric amounts of water. The loss of hydrogen to hydration reactions between water vapor and glass/quartz interferes with the determination of C/H and N/H elemental ratios in organic matter. The effect increases from quartz to Vycor to Pyrex, but the incomplete yield does not significantly affect the precision and accuracy of the determination of stable hydrogen isotope ratios. Reactions between water and Pyrex do not affect the conversion of water to hydrogen with zinc in Pyrex ampules at 500[degrees]C, whichmore » is quantitative, but even preoutgassed zinc contains a deuterium-depleted hydrogen blank. D/H ratios in hydrogen from the Zn method require a nonlinear correction to achieve compatibility with [delta]D values from the uranium method. 19 refs., 4 tabs.« less

  19. Zinc absorption from composite meals. I. The significance of whest extraction rate, zinc, calcium, and protein content in meals based on bread.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B; Arvidsson, B; Cederblad, A; Björn-Rasmussen, E

    1980-04-01

    The absorption of zinc in man from composite meals based on bread was measured with a radionuclide technique using 65Zn and whole-body counting. Bread was made up from wheat flour of 100 and 72% extraction rate. A lower absolute amount of zinc was absorbed from the white bread compared to the absorption from the same amount of wholemeal bread. When the two types of bread were enriched with zinc chloride the absorption was higher from the white bread than from the wholemeal bread. Addition of calcium in the form of milk products improved the absorption of zinc from a meal with wholemeal bread. A significant positive correlation was found between zinc absorption and the protein content in meals containing milk, cheese, beef, and egg in various combinations with the wholemeal bread.

  20. The Dissolved Ca Isotope Composition of Himalayan-Tibetan Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipper, E. T.; Galy, A.; Bickle, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    Determining the relative proportions of carbonate versus silicate weathering in the Himalaya is important for understanding the long-term atmospheric CO2 budget and the marine Sr isotope record. 87Sr/86Sr is not a straightforward proxy of carbonate to silicate weathering in the Himalaya and up to 50% of the dissolved Ca may be removed by the precipitation of secondary calcite. Ca isotopes have the potential to constrain the relative inputs of carbonates to silicates and incongruent dissolution processes in the weathering environment. Ca is the major cation carried by rivers. Thirty four Himalayan rock and water samples from the Nepal Himalaya and Tibet have been analysed for 44/42Ca and 43/42Ca on a Nu-Instruments Multiple Collector -ICP-MS. Unlike the 44/40Ca ratio the 44/42Ca is not susceptible to excess 40Ca production from the decay of K. All samples lie on a single mass fractionation line. There is a total range of 0.4 \\permil variation in \\delta44Ca with values from 0.63 \\permil - 0.21 \\permil relative to the SRM915a standard. This is comparable to that already reported with \\delta44/40Ca for small catchments and global rivers. Small first order catchments from each of the main lithotectonic units of the Himalaya have been analysed to examine the effect of lithology on dissolved Ca isotopic composition. In agreement with previous studies elsewhere there is little correlation between source rock and dissolved composition for small rivers spanning a range of source rock from limestone to various silicates and covering a vegetation range from temperate semi-desert to jungle. \\delta44Ca is not correlated with 87Sr/86Sr or Na/Ca ratios confirming that source rock composition is not the dominant control on the observed range in \\delta44Ca. A time-series has been examined for the Marsyandi River, central Nepal. In spite of significant systematic variations in major element chemistry including Ca concentration and 87Sr/86Sr the variations in \\delta44Ca are

  1. Osmium Isotope Compositions of Komatiite Sources Through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. J.

    2001-12-01

    Extending Os isotopic measurements to ancient plume sources may help to constrain how and when the well-documented isotopic heterogeneities in modern systems were created. Komatiites and picrites associated with plume-related volcanism are valuable tracers of the Os isotopic composition of plumes because of their typically high Os concentrations and relatively low Re/Os. Re-Os data are now available for a variety of Phanerozoic, Proterozoic and Archean komatiites and picrites. As with modern plumes, the sources of Archean and Proterozoic komatiites exhibit a large range of initial 187Os/188Os ratios. Most komatiites are dominated by sources with chondritic Os isotopic compositions (e.g. Song La; Norseman-Wiluna; Pyke Hill; Alexo), though some (e.g. Gorgona) derive from heterogeneous sources. Of note, however, two ca. 2.7 Ga systems, Kostomuksha (Russia) and Belingwe (Zimbabwe), have initial ratios enriched by 2-3% relative to the contemporary convecting upper mantle. These results suggest that if the 187Os enrichment was due to the incorporation of minor amounts of recycled crust into the mantle source of the rocks, the crust formed very early in Earth history. Thus, the Os results could reflect derivation of melt from hybrid mantle whose composition was modified by the addition of mafic crustal material that would most likely have formed between 4.2 and 4.5 Ga. Alternately, the mantle sources of these komatiites may have derived a portion of their Os from the putative 187Os - and 186Os -enriched outer core. For this hypothesis to be applicable to Archean rocks, an inner core of sufficient mass would have to have crystallized sufficiently early in Earth history to generate an outer core with 187Os enriched by at least 3% relative to the chondritic average. Using the Pt-Re-Os partition coefficients espoused by our earlier work, and assuming linear growth of the inner core started at 4.5 Ga and continued to present, would yield an outer core at 2.7 Ga with a gamma Os

  2. Modeling the carbon isotope composition of bivalve shells (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanek, C.

    2010-12-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of bivalve shells is a valuable archive of paleobiological and paleoenvironmental information. Previous work has shown that the carbon isotope composition of the shell is related to the carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the ambient water in which a bivalve lives, as well as metabolic carbon derived from bivalve respiration. The contribution of metabolic carbon varies among organisms, but it is generally thought to be relatively low (e.g., <10%) in shells from aquatic organism and high (>90%) in the shells from terrestrial organisms. Because metabolic carbon contains significantly more C-12 than DIC, negative excursions from the expected environmental (DIC) signal are interpreted to reflect an increased contribution of metabolic carbon in the shell. This observation contrasts sharply with modeled carbon isotope compositions for shell layers deposited from the inner extrapallial fluid (EPF). Previous studies have shown that growth lines within the inner shell layer of bivalves are produced during periods of anaerobiosis when acidic metabolic byproducts (e.g., succinic acid) are neutralized (or buffered) by shell dissolution. This requires the pH of EPF to decrease below ambient levels (~7.5) until a state of undersaturation is achieved that promotes shell dissolution. This condition may occur when aquatic bivalves are subjected to external stressors originating from ecological (predation) or environmental (exposure to atm; low dissolved oxygen; contaminant release) pressures; normal physiological processes will restore the pH of EPF when the pressure is removed. As a consequence of this process, a temporal window should also exist in EPF at relatively low pH where shell carbonate is deposited at a reduced saturation state and precipitation rate. For example, EPF chemistry should remain slightly supersaturated with respect to aragonite given a drop of one pH unit (6.5), but under closed conditions

  3. Mass-independent sulfur isotopic compositions in stratospheric volcanic eruptions.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Mélanie; Thiemens, Mark H; Delmas, Robert J; Savarino, Joël

    2007-01-05

    The observed mass-independent sulfur isotopic composition (Delta33S) of volcanic sulfate from the Agung (March 1963) and Pinatubo (June 1991) eruptions recorded in the Antarctic snow provides a mechanism for documenting stratospheric events. The sign of Delta33S changes over time from an initial positive component to a negative value. Delta33S is created during photochemical oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid on a monthly time scale, which indicates a fast process. The reproducibility of the results reveals that Delta33S is a reliable tracer to chemically identify atmospheric processes involved during stratospheric volcanism.

  4. Mercury emissions and stable isotopic compositions at Vulcano Island (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambardi, T.; Sonke, J. E.; Toutain, J. P.; Sortino, F.; Shinohara, H.

    2009-01-01

    Sampling and analyses methods for determining the stable isotopic compositions of Hg in an active volcanic system were tested and optimized at the volcanic complex of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Condensed gaseous fumarole Hg (fum)T, plume gaseous elemental Hg (g)0 and plume particulate Hg (p)II were obtained at fumaroles F0, F5, F11, and FA. The average total Hg emissions, based on Hg T/SO 2 in condensed fumarolic gases and plumes, range from 2.5 to 10.1 kg y - 1 , in agreement with published values [Ferrara, R., Mazzolai, B., Lanzillotta, E., Nucaro, E., Pirrone, N., 2000. Volcanoes as emission sources of atmospheric mercury in the Mediterranean Basin. Sci. Total Environ. 259(1-3), 115-121; Aiuppa, A., Bagnato, E., Witt, M.L.I., Mather, T.A., Parello, F., Pyle, D.M., Martin, R.S., 2007. Real-time simultaneous detection of volcanic Hg and SO 2 at La Fossa Crater, Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Sicily). Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(L21307).]. Plume Hg (p)II increases with distance from the fumarole vent, at the expense of Hg (g)0 and indicates significant in-plume oxidation and condensation of fumarole Hg (fum)T. Relative to the NIST SRM 3133 Hg standard, the stable isotopic compositions of Hg are δ 202Hg (fum)T = - 0.74‰ ± 0.18 (2SD, n = 4) for condensed gaseous fumarole Hg (fum)T, δ 202Hg (g)0 = - 1.74‰ ± 0.36 (2SD, n = 1) for plume gaseous elemental Hg (g)0 at the F0 fumarole, and δ 202Hg (p)II = - 0.11‰ ± 0.18 (2SD, n = 4) for plume particulate Hg (p)II. The enrichment of Hg (p)II in the heavy isotopes and Hg (g)0 in the light isotopes relative to the total condensed fumarolic Hg (fum)T gas complements the speciation data and demonstrates a gas-particle fractionation occurring after the gas expulsion in ambient T° atmosphere. A first order Rayleigh equilibrium condensation isotope fractionation model yields a fractionation factor α cond-gas of 1.00135 ± 0.00058.

  5. V isotope composition in modern marine hydrothermal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, F.; Owens, J. D.; Nielsen, S.; German, C. R.; Rachel, M.

    2017-12-01

    Vanadium is multivalence transition metal with two isotopes (51V and 50V). Recent work has shown that large V isotope variations occur with oxygen variations in modern sediments (Wu et al., 2016 and 2017 Goldschmidt Abstracts), providing its potential as a promising proxy for determining low oxygen conditions. However, the development of V isotopes as a proxy to probe past redox conditions requires a comprehensive understanding of the modern oceanic isotopic mass balance. Therein, the scavenging of V from the hydrous iron oxides in hydrothermal fluid has been shown to be an important removal process from seawater (Rudnicki and Elderfield, 1993 GCA) but remains unquantified. In this study, we analyzed V isotopic compositions of metalliferous sediments around the active TAG hydrothermal mound from the mid-Atlantic Ridge (26° degrees North) and the Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect (GEOTRACES EPZT cruise GP16). The TAG sediments deposited as Fe oxyhydroxides from plume fall-out, and have δ51V values between -0.3 to 0‰. The good correlation between Fe and V for these metalliferous sediments indicate that the accumulation of V in these samples is directly related to the deposition of Fe oxyhydroxides, which also control their V isotope signature. The EPZT samples cover 8,000 km in the South Pacific Ocean with sedimentary areas that underlie the Peru upwelling region and the well-oxygenated deep South Pacific Ocean influenced by hydtorthermal plume material from southern East Pacific Rise (EPR). The sediments collected at the east of the EPR have δ51V values between -1.2 to -0.7‰, similar to previous δ51V of oxic sediments. In contrast, the sediments from the west of the EPR have δ51V values (-0.4 to 0‰) similar to hydrothermal sediments from the mid-Atlantic Ridge, indicating the long transportation (more than 4,000 km, Fitzsimmons et al., 2017 NG) of Fe and Mn from hydrothermal plume and their incorporation into sediments have a major impact on the cycle of V

  6. The Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Hg in Extraterrestrial Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, J. D.; Klaue, Bjorn

    2005-01-01

    During the three year grant period we made excellent progress in our study of the abundances and isotopic compositions of Hg and other volatile trace elements in extraterrestrial materials. At the time the grant started, our collaborating PI, Dante Lauretts, was a postdoctoral research associate working with Peter Buseck at Arizona State University. The work on chondritic Hg was done in collaboration with Dante Lauretta and Peter Buseck and this study was published in Lauretta et a1 (2001a). In July, 2001 Dante Lauretta accepted a position as an Assistant Professor in the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona. His funding was transferred and this grant has supported much of his research activities during his first two years at the U of A. Several other papers are in preparation and will be published soon. We presented papers on this topic at Goldschmidt Conferences, the Lunar and Planetary Science Conferences, and the Annual Meetings of the Meteoritical Society. The work done under this grant has spurred several new directions of inquiry, which we are still pursuing. Included in this paper are the studies of bulk abundances and isotopic compositions of metreoritic Mercury, and the development of a thermal analysis ICP-MS technique applied to thermally liable elements.

  7. ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF THE COMMON LEAD OF JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, H.; Sato, K.

    1958-11-01

    Lead tetramethyl was synthesized from lead iodide isolated from 14 galenas, 2 anglesites, and 6 pyromorphites of Japan. The mass spectrometric analysis was carried out for the peaks of lead and lead hydride ions. The isotopic compositions of leads from these minerais lie wiyhn a narrow range. The average values for gnlanas are 18.51 O 0.05 for Pb/sup 238//Pb/sup 204/ 15.60 plus or minus 0.05 for Pb/sup 207//Pb/sup 204/8.76 plus or minus 0.15 forPb/ sup 208//Pb/sup 204/ For lead of secondary minerals they are 18.52 plus or minus 0.05, 15.62 plus or minus 0.05, and 38.78 plus or minus 0.15,more » respectively. No detectabla difference was observed between the isotopic compositions of primary and secondary lead ores. The ratios, U/sub 238/Pb/sup 204, and Th/sup 232/ U/sup 238/, in the source magma are estimated from the lead abundances. They are« less

  8. Stable-carbon isotopic composition of maple sap and foliage.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, S W; Long, A

    1985-06-01

    The (13)C/(12)C ratios of Acer grandidentatum sap sugar collected during the dormant period are compared to those of buds, leaves, and wood developed over the following growing season. As the primary carbon source for cellulose manufacture at initiation of annual growth in deciduous trees, sap sucrose would be expected to have an isotopic composition similar to first-formed cellulose. Although constancy in concentration and (13)C/(12)C ratios of the maple sap sugar suggests any gains or losses (e.g. to maintenance metabolism) do not appreciably alter composition, the (13)C/(12)C ratios of cellulose of the enlarging buds in the spring are quite distinct from those of the sap sugar, seemingly precluding a simple direct biochemical pathway of sap sucrose-->glucose-->cellulose in favor of a more complex pathway with greater likelihood of isotopic fractionation. The (13)C/(12)C ratios of the leaves and in the growth ring were initially similar to the sap sugar but decreased steadily over the growing season.

  9. Preparation of Graphene-Zinc Oxide Nanostructure Composite for Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchtar, Ahmad Rifqi; Septiani, Ni Luh Wulan; Iqbal, Muhammad; Nuruddin, Ahmad; Yuliarto, Brian

    2018-03-01

    A simple method to synthesize graphene-zinc oxide nanocomposite has been developed. A reduced graphene oxide-ZnO nanocomposite was prepared using a reflux method with ethylene glycol as medium. X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements were used to characterize the resulting composite materials. The highest response of about 98% was observed when using pure ZnO at 300°C, while the second highest sensor response of about 96% was achieved by graphene-ZnO with 1:3 composition. It was found that the graphene-zinc oxide hybrid has potential to improve sensor performance at low temperature. The graphene-ZnO hybrid with 1:3 composition showed good response of 36% at 125°C, an operating temperature at which pure ZnO showed no response.

  10. Preparation of Graphene-Zinc Oxide Nanostructure Composite for Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchtar, Ahmad Rifqi; Septiani, Ni Luh Wulan; Iqbal, Muhammad; Nuruddin, Ahmad; Yuliarto, Brian

    2018-07-01

    A simple method to synthesize graphene-zinc oxide nanocomposite has been developed. A reduced graphene oxide-ZnO nanocomposite was prepared using a reflux method with ethylene glycol as medium. X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements were used to characterize the resulting composite materials. The highest response of about 98% was observed when using pure ZnO at 300°C, while the second highest sensor response of about 96% was achieved by graphene-ZnO with 1:3 composition. It was found that the graphene-zinc oxide hybrid has potential to improve sensor performance at low temperature. The graphene-ZnO hybrid with 1:3 composition showed good response of 36% at 125°C, an operating temperature at which pure ZnO showed no response.

  11. Variability of Fe isotope compositions of hydrothermal sulfides and oxidation products at mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohu; Wang, Jianqiang; Chu, Fengyou; Wang, Hao; Li, Zhenggang; Yu, Xing; Bi, Dongwei; He, Yongsheng

    2018-04-01

    Significant Fe isotopic fractionation occurs during the precipitation and oxidative weathering of modern seafloor hydrothermal sulfides, which has an important impact on the cycling of Fe isotopes in the ocean. This study reports the Fe-isotope compositions of whole-rock sulfides and single-mineral pyrite collected from hydrothermal fields at the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge (SMAR) and the East Pacific Rise (EPR) and discusses the impacts of precipitation and late-stage oxidative weathering of sulfide minerals on Fe isotopic fractionation. The results show large variation in the Fe-isotope compositions of the sulfides from the different hydrothermal fields on the mid-oceanic ridges, indicating that relatively significant isotope fractionation occurs during the sulfide precipitation and oxidative weathering processes. The Fe-isotope compositions of the sulfides from the study area at the SMAR vary across a relatively small range, with an average value of 0.01‰. This Fe-isotope composition is similar to the Fe-isotope composition of mid-oceanic ridge basalt, which suggests that Fe was mainly leached from basalt. In contrast, the Fe-isotope composition of the sulfides from the study area at the EPR are significantly enriched in light Fe isotopes (average value - 1.63‰), mainly due to the kinetic fractionation during the rapid precipitation process of hydrothermal sulfide. In addition, the pyrite from different hydrothermal fields is enriched in light Fe isotopes, which is consistent with the phenomenon in which light Fe isotopes are preferentially enriched during the precipitation of pyrite. The red oxides have the heaviest Fe-isotope compositions (up to 0.80‰), indicating that heavy Fe isotopes are preferentially enriched in the oxidation product during the late-stage oxidation process. The data obtained from this study and previous studies show a significant difference between the Fe-isotope compositions of the sulfides from the SMAR and EPR. The relatively heavy

  12. The effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth, body composition, and growth factors in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gómez, N Marta; Doménech, Eduardo; Barroso, Flora; Castells, Silvia; Cortabarria, Carmen; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2003-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth, body composition, and growth factors in premature infants. Thirty-six preterm infants (gestational age: 32.0 +/- 2.1 weeks, birth weight: 1704 +/- 364 g) participated in a longitudinal double-blind, randomized clinical trial. They were randomly allocated either to the supplemental (S) group fed with a standard term formula supplemented with zinc (final content 10 mg/L) and a small quantity of copper (final content 0.6 mg/L), or to the placebo group fed with the same formula without supplementation (final content of zinc: 5 mg/L and copper: 0.4 mg/L), from 36 weeks postconceptional age until 6 months corrected postnatal age. At each evaluation, anthropometric variables and bioelectrical impedance were measured, a 3-day dietary record was collected, and a blood sample was taken. We analyzed serum levels of total alkaline phosphatase, skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sALP), insulin growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, IGF binding protein-1, zinc and copper, and the concentrations of zinc in erythrocytes. The S group had significantly higher zinc levels in serum and erythrocytes and lower serum copper levels with respect to the placebo group. We found that the S group had a greater linear growth (from baseline to 3 months corrected age: Delta score deviation standard length: 1.32 +/-.8 vs.38 +/-.8). The increase in total body water and in serum levels of sALP was also significantly higher in the S group (total body water: 3 months; corrected age: 3.8 +/-.5 vs 3.5 +/-.4 kg, 6 months; corrected age: 4.5 +/-.5 vs 4.2 +/-.4 kg; sALP: 3 months; corrected age: 140.2 +/- 28.7 vs 118.7 +/- 18.8 micro g/L). Zinc supplementation has a positive effect on linear growth in premature infants.

  13. The initial Hf isotopic composition of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, A.; Boyet, M. M.; Vervoort, J. D.; Patchett, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    One area of considerable activity in trying to understand the formation and evolution of Earth's crust is the isotopic analysis of Hf in parallel with Sm-Nd and U-Pb zircon studies, either to constrain early crustal growth and evolution [1], or as a complement to detrital zircon studies [2]. The 176Lu decay constant deduced from early planetary and Earth materials have different values. It has been suggested that a period of irradiation in the early Solar System affected the 176Hf production rate in meteoritic and planetary materials [3,4]. In this scenario, the initial Hf isotopic composition of the Solar System and the Earth would be ~4 ∈Hf units lower, affecting tremendously the interpretation of the differentiation history of the early Earth. We investigated Lu-Hf compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, the oldest known objects of the Solar System dated at 4568 Ma [5], to assess the possibility of neutrino irradiation in the solar nebula. Here we report high-precision 176Lu-176Hf systematics of leached and unleached, and spiked and unspiked, bulk fractions and mineral separates of 6 individual CAIs from 2 CV3 chondrites. Isotopic analyses were carried out by Neptune MC-ICPMS at ASU. Analytical details are in [6,7]. The unspiked Hf fractions reveal stable isotope anomalies of μ178Hf= 20 ± 6 and μ180Hf= 31 ± 9 (2SD) for the CAI B4 fractions (n=3) and μ178Hf= -4 ± 10 and μ180Hf= 2 ± 10 (n=2) for BCR-2 relative to the JMC 475 Hf standard. Further high-precision analysis of unspiked Sm and Nd fractions of the samples will be made to correct from nucleosynthetic or neutron capture anomalies [8]. Such Hf stable isotopic anomalies predict no more than 50ppm correction on 176Hf/177Hf. At this stage, we have thus regressed together the spiked and unspiked Hf compositions of CAI fractions (n=13) for isochron calculations. The slope of the Lu-Hf isochron is 0.0882 ± 0.0026 (2SD) which corresponds to a 176Lu decay constant value of 1.852 (± 0.052) ×10

  14. Spectroscopic metrology for isotope composition measurements and transfer standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Balslev-Harder, David; Kääriäinen, Teemu; Richmond, Craig; Manninen, Albert; Mohn, Joachim; Kiseleva, Maria; Petersen, Jan C.; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has identified greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O as critical for global climate monitoring. Other molecules such as CO that has an indirect effect of enhancing global warming are also monitored. WMO has stated compatibility goals for atmospheric concentration and isotope ratio measurements of these gases, e.g. 0.1 ppm for CO2 concentration measurements in the northern hemisphere and 0.01 ‰ for δ13C-CO2. For measurements of the concentration of greenhouse gases, gas analysers are typically calibrated with static gas standards e.g. traceable to the WMO scale or to the International System of Units (SI) through a national metrology institute. However, concentrations of target components, e.g. CO, in static gas standards have been observed to drift, and typically the gas matrix as well as the isotopic composition of the target component does not always reflect field gas composition, leading to deviations of the analyser response, even after calibration. The deviations are dependent on the measurement technique. To address this issue, part of the HIGHGAS (Metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases) project [1] focused on the development of optical transfer standards (OTSs) for greenhouse gases, e.g. CO2 and CO, potentially complementing gas standards. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) [2] is currently used to provide state-of-the-art high precision (in the 0.01 ‰ range) measurements for the isotopic composition of greenhouse gases. However, there is a need for field-deployable techniques such as optical isotope ratio spectroscopy (OIRS) that can be combined with metrological measurement methods. Within the HIGHGAS project, OIRS methods and procedures based on e.g. cavity enhanced spectroscopy (CES) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), matched to metrological principles have been established for the measurement of 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios in CO2, 15N/14N ratios in N2O, and 13C/12C and 2H

  15. Seasonality of Leaf Carbon Isotopic Composition and Leaf Water Isotopic Enrichment in a Mixed Evergreen Forest in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, L. S.; Sickman, J. O.; Goulden, M.; DeVan, C.; Pasquini, S. C.; Pivovaroff, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    Leaf carbon isotopic composition and leaf water isotopic enrichment reflect physiological processes and are important for linking local and regional scale processes to global patterns. We investigated how seasonality affects the isotopic composition of bulk leaf carbon, leaf sugar carbon, and leaf water hydrogen under a Mediterranean climate. Leaf and stem samples were collected monthly from four tree species (Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa, and Quercus chrysolepis) at the James San Jacinto Mountain Reserve in southern California. Mean monthly bulk leaf carbon isotopic composition varied from -34.5 % in P. ponderosa to -24.7 % in P. lambertiana and became more depleted in 13C from the spring to the summer. Mean monthly leaf sugar varied from -29.3 % in P. ponderosa to -21.8 % in P. lambertiana and was enriched in 13C during the winter, spring and autumn, but depleted during the mid-summer. Leaf water hydrogen isotopic composition was 28.4 to 68.8 % more enriched in deuterium than source water and this enrichment was greater as seasonal drought progressed. These data indicate that leaf carbon and leaf water hydrogen isotopic composition provide sensitive measures that connect plant physiological processes to short-term climatic variability.

  16. Coordinated Petrography and Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Al-Rich Chondrules from CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M. M.; Lin, Y. T.; Tang, G. Q.; Li, X. H.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we coordinated the petrology, bulk compositions and oxygen isotope compositions of 12 ARCs from Allende and Leoville and Ningqiang chondrites in order to elucidate any potential genetic relationships between ARCs, CAIs and FMCs.

  17. Variations in Urine Calcium Isotope: Composition Reflect Changes in Bone Mineral Balance in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skulan, Joseph; Anbar, Ariel; Bullen, Thomas; Puzas, J. Edward; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in bone mineral balance cause rapid and systematic changes in the calcium isotope composition of human urine. Urine from subjects in a 17 week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Comparison of isotopic data with measurements of bone mineral density and metabolic markers of bone metabolism indicates the calcium isotope composition of urine reflects changes in bone mineral balance. Urine calcium isotope composition probably is affected by both bone metabolism and renal processes. Calcium isotope. analysis of urine and other tissues may provide information on bone mineral balance that is in important respects better than that available from other techniques, and illustrates the usefulness of applying geochemical techniques to biomedical problems.

  18. Osmium Isotopic Composition of the Sumbar Cretaceous- Tertiary Boundary, Turkmenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, T.; Krahenbuhl, U.; Nazarov, M. A.

    1992-07-01

    Turekian (1982) propagated the use of the osmium isotopic composition as a cosmic indicator for the origin of the high osmium (and iridium) layers at the K/T boundaries. He did not consider the osmium isotopic signature of the terrestrial mantle, which also has a chondritic evolution of the Re-Os system. Osmium cannot serve alone as an infallible indicator of the impact theory, but interesting results can be obtained from their investigation. Different K/T boundary section have been analyzed so far for ^187Os/^186Os. An overview of the values is presented in the table. Boundary Clay layer Os ratio Reference Stevns Klint fish clay 1.66 Luck and Turekian, 1983 Woodside Creek 1.12 Lichte et al., 1986 Raton Basin 1.23 Kraehenbuehl et al., 1988 Raton Basin (several) 1.15-1.23 Esser and Turekian, 1989 Sumbar (0-1 cm) 1.16 This work We obtained a complete marine section of the K/T boundary in southern Turkmenia (decribed by Alekseyev, 1988). It shows a very high Ir concentration (66 ppb) at the boundary layer and a remarkable Ir enrichment over crustal rocks continuing up to 30 cm above the boundary. Our aim of this investigation is to analyze several samples from above and below the boundary for the ^187Os/^186Os ratio to obtain a complete picture of the isotopic evolution of the section. We want to evaluate mixing of Os with chondritic ratios with Os from upper crustal rocks. Another goal is to investigate a mobilization of Os. So far only one sample has been analyzed with NTI-MS after fire assay digestion of the sample. The sample 0 to 1 cm has an ^187Os/^186Os ratio of 1.162 +- 13, which is quite low. We expect an even lower value for the boundary clay (0 cm) itself not taking into account a contribution of radiogenic osmium from the decay of terrestrial rhenium. This might put this K/T boundary section closest of all to the present day chondritic value (approx. 1.05). Further analysis will be presented at the meeting. References Alekseyev A. S., Nazarov M. A

  19. Isotopic composition of sulfate accumulations, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Halas, Stanislaw; Bojar, Hans-Peter; Trembaczowski, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    The Eastern Alps are characterised by the presence of three main tectonic units, such as the Lower, Middle and Upper Austroalpine, which overlie the Penninicum (Tollmann, 1977). The Upper Austroalpine unit consists of the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) overlying the Greywacke zone and corresponding to the Graz Paleozoic, Murau Paleozoic and the Gurktal Nappe. Evaporitic rocks are lacking in the later ones. The Northern Calcareous Alps are a detached fold and thrust belt. The sedimentation started in the Late Carboniferous or Early Permian, the age of the youngest sediments being Eocene. The NCA are divided into the Bajuvaric, Tirolic and Juvavic nappe complexes. The evaporitic Haselgebirge Formation occurs in connection with the Juvavic nappe complex at the base of the Tirolic units (Leitner et al., 2013). The Haselgebirge Formation consists mainly of salt, shales, gypsum and anhydrite and includes the oldest sediments of the NCA. The age of the Haselgebirge Formation, established by using spors and geochronological data, is Permian to Lower Triassic. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, the mineralogy of sulphate accumulations consists mainly of gypsum and anhydrite and subordonates of carbonates. The carbonates as magnesite, dolomite and calcite can be found either as singular crystals or as small accumulations within the hosting gypsum. Sulfides (sphalerite, galena, pyrite), sulfarsenides (enargite, baumhauerite) and native sulphur enrichments are known from several deposits (Kirchner, 1987; Postl, 1990). The investigated samples were selected from various gypsum and halite rich deposits of the Northern Calcareous Alps. A total of over 20 samples were investigated, and both oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition were determined for anhydrite, gyps, polyhalite, blödite and langbeinite. The sulfur isotopic values vary between 10.1 to 14 ‰ (CDT), with three values higher than 14 ‰. The Oxygen isotopic values show a range from 9 to 23 ‰ (SMOW). The sulfur

  20. Stable Cl isotope composition of the Changjiang River water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Y.; Liu, C. Q.; LI, S. L.; Aravena, R.; Ding, H.; WANG, B.; Benjamin, C.

    2017-12-01

    To understand chemical wreathing, nutrient cycling, and the impact of human activities on eco-environments of the Changjiang River (Yangtze River) Basin, we carried out a geochemical study on water chemistry and multiple isotopes (C, N, S, Sr…...) of Changjiang River water in the summer season. Some of the research results about the water chemistry, boron isotope geochemistry and suspended matter have been published (Chetelat et al., 2008; Li et al., 2010). Ten samples were selected for the measurement of δ37Cl values, among which 7 samples were collected from main stream and 3 samples from tributaries. The range of δ37Cl values varies between 0.02‰ and 0.33‰ in the main stream and between 0.16‰ and 0.71‰ in the tributary waters. The δ37Cl values in general are negatively correlated with Cl- concentrations for both main stream and tributary waters. δ37Cl value of Wujiang, which is one of the large tributaries in the upper reach of Changjiang and dominated by carbonate rocks in lithology of the watershed, has the maximum value but minimum value of Cl- concentration in this study. The lowest δ37Cl value was measured for the water collected from the estuary of Changjiang River. The variation of δ37Cl values in the waters would be attributed to mixing of different sources of chlorine, which most likely include rain water, ground water, seawater, and pollutants. Systematic characterization of different Cl sources in terms of their chlorine isotope composition is imperative for better understanding of sources and processes of chlorine cycling. Acknowledgements: This work was financially supported by NSFC through project 41073099. (Omit references)

  1. Sonochemically synthesized iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles: Influence of precursor composition on characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Anirban; Maitra, Saikat; Ghosh, Sobhan

    Highlights: • Sonochemical synthesis of iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. • Green synthesis without alkali at room temperature. • Characterization by UV–vis spectroscopy, FESEM, XRD and EDX. • Influence of precursor composition on characteristics. • Composition and characteristics are correlated. - Abstract: Iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized sonochemically from aqueous acetyl acetonate precursors of different proportions. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and microscopy. Influences of precursor mixture on the characteristics have been examined and modeled. Linear correlations have been proposed between dopant dosing, extent of doping and band gap energy. Experimental data corroborated with themore » proposed models.« less

  2. Spatial patterns of throughfall isotopic composition at the event and seasonal timescales

    Treesearch

    Scott T. Allen; Richard F. Keim; Jeffrey J. McDonnell

    2015-01-01

    Spatial variability of throughfall isotopic composition in forests is indicative of complex processes occurring in the canopy and remains insufficiently understood to properly characterize precipitation inputs to the catchment water balance. Here we investigate variability of throughfall isotopic composition with the objectives: (1) to quantify the spatial variability...

  3. Argon isotopic composition of Archaean atmosphere probes early Earth geodynamics.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Magali; Marty, Bernard; Burgess, Ray; Turner, Grenville; Philippot, Pascal

    2013-06-06

    Understanding the growth rate of the continental crust through time is a fundamental issue in Earth sciences. The isotopic signatures of noble gases in the silicate Earth (mantle, crust) and in the atmosphere afford exceptional insight into the evolution through time of these geochemical reservoirs. However, no data for the compositions of these reservoirs exists for the distant past, and temporal exchange rates between Earth's interior and its surface are severely under-constrained owing to a lack of samples preserving the original signature of the atmosphere at the time of their formation. Here, we report the analysis of argon in Archaean (3.5-billion-year-old) hydrothermal quartz. Noble gases are hosted in primary fluid inclusions containing a mixture of Archaean freshwater and hydrothermal fluid. Our analysis reveals Archaean atmospheric argon with a (40)Ar/(36)Ar value of 143 ± 24, lower than the present-day value of 298.6 (for which (40)Ar has been produced by the radioactive decay of the potassium isotope (40)K, with a half-life of 1.25 billion years; (36)Ar is primordial in origin). This ratio is consistent with an early development of the felsic crust, which might have had an important role in climate variability during the first half of Earth's history.

  4. Changes in stable isotope composition in Lake Michigan trout ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Researchers have frequently sought to use environmental archives of sediment, peat and glacial ice to try and assess historical trends in atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposition to aquatic ecosystems. While this information is valuable in the context of identifying temporal source trends, these types of assessments cannot account for likely changes in bioavailability of Hg sources that are tied to the formation of methylmercury (MeHg) and accumulation in fish tissues. For this study we propose the use of long-term fish archives and Hg stable isotope determination as an improved means to relate temporal changes in fish Hg levels to varying Hg sources in the Great Lakes. For this study we acquired 180 archived fish composites from Lake Michigan over a 40-year time period (1975 to 2014) from the Great Lakes Fish Monitoring and Surveillance Program, which were analyzed for their total Hg content and Hg isotope abundances. The results reveal that Hg sources to Lake Michigan trout (Salvelinus namaycush) have encountered considerable changes as well as a large shift in the food web trophic position as a result of the introduction of several invasive species, especially the recent invasion of dreissenid mussels. Total Hg concentrations span a large range (1,600 to 150 ng g-1) and exhibit large variations from 1975 to 1985. Ä199Hg signatures similarly exhibit large variation (3.2 to 6.9‰) until 1985, followed by less variation through the end of the data record in 2014.

  5. Volatile Concentrations and H-Isotope Composition of Unequilibrated Eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarafian, Adam R.; Nielsen, Sune G.; Marschall, Horst R.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Hauri, Erik H.; Righter, Kevin; Berger, Eve L.

    2017-01-01

    Eucrites are among the oldest and best studied asteroidal basalts (1). They represent magmatism that occurred on their parent asteroid, likely 4-Vesta, starting at 4563 Ma and continuing for approx. 30 Myr. Two hypotheses are debated for the genesis of eucrites, a magma ocean model (2), and a mantle partial melting model. In general, volatiles (H, C, F, Cl) have been ignored for eucrites and 4-Vesta, but solubility of wt% levels of H2O are possible at Vestan interior PT conditions. Targeted measurements on samples could aid our understanding considerably. Recent studies have found evidence of volatile elements in eucrites, but quantifying the abundance of volatiles remains problematic (6). Volatile elements have a disproportionately large effect on melt properties and phase stability, relative to their low abundance. The source of volatile elements can be elucidated by examining the hydrogen isotope ratio (D/H), as different H reservoirs have drastically different H isotope compositions. Recent studies of apatite in eucrites have shown that the D/H of 4-Vesta matches that of Earth and carbonaceous chondrites, however, the D/H of apatites may not represent the D/H of a primitive 4-Vesta melt due to the possibility of degassing prior to the crystallization of apatite. Therefore, the D/H of early crystallizing phases must be measured to determine if the D/H of 4-Vesta is equal to that of the Earth and carbonaceous chondrites.

  6. Chemical composition of HAL, an isotopically-unusual Allende inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. M.; Tanaka, T.; Grossman, L.; Lee, T.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1982-09-01

    Samples of hibonite, black rim, and portions of friable rim from an unusual Allende inclusion, named HAL, were analyzed by INAA and RNAA for 37 major, minor, and trace elements. An unusually low amount of Ce was found in HAL, although it otherwise was highly enriched in REE compared to C1 chondrites. HAL is also depleted in Sr, Ba, U, V, Ru, Os, and Ir relative to other refractory elements. It is concluded that the distribution of REE between hibonite and rims was established when hibonite and other refractory minerals were removed at slightly different temperatures from a hot, oxidizing gas in which they previously coexisted as separate grains. Possible locations for the chemical and mass dependent isotopic fractionation are considered to be in ejecta from the low temperature helium-burning zone of a supernova and in the locally oxidizing environment generated by evaporation of interstellar grains of near-chondritic chemical composition.

  7. Chemical composition of HAL, an isotopically-unusual Allende inclusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, A. M.; Tanaka, T.; Grossman, L.; Lee, T.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    Samples of hibonite, black rim, and portions of friable rim from an unusual Allende inclusion, named HAL, were analyzed by INAA and RNAA for 37 major, minor, and trace elements. An unusually low amount of Ce was found in HAL, although it otherwise was highly enriched in REE compared to C1 chondrites. HAL is also depleted in Sr, Ba, U, V, Ru, Os, and Ir relative to other refractory elements. It is concluded that the distribution of REE between hibonite and rims was established when hibonite and other refractory minerals were removed at slightly different temperatures from a hot, oxidizing gas in which they previously coexisted as separate grains. Possible locations for the chemical and mass dependent isotopic fractionation are considered to be in ejecta from the low temperature helium-burning zone of a supernova and in the locally oxidizing environment generated by evaporation of interstellar grains of near-chondritic chemical composition.

  8. Isotopic composition of a sample enriched in 93Zr

    DOE PAGES

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Hori, Jun-ichi; Du, Miting; ...

    2015-10-22

    A project to determine the neutron-capture cross section of long lived fission products and minor actinides has been started by using a beam-line at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). We prepared one of the target nuclides is Zr-93, which in Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Qualitative and quantitative analyses on the sample were performed at Kyoto University. The isotopic composition of (m) Zr (m 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, and 96) was precisely determined by multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry with < 0.1 % of 2 sigma uncertainty. We determined that the atomic abundance of Zr-93 in the sample tomore » be 18.86 ± A 0.05 %.« less

  9. Seasonality of Oxygen isotope composition in cow (Bos taurus) hair and its model interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guo; Schnyder, Hans; Auerswald, Karl

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen isotopes in animal and human tissues are expected to be good recorders of geographical origin and migration histories based on the isotopic relationship between hair oxygen and annual precipitation and the well-known spatial pattern of oxygen isotope composition in meteoric water. However, seasonal variation of oxygen isotope composition may diminish the origin information in the tissues. Here the seasonality of oxygen isotope composition in tail hair was investigated in a domestic suckler cow (Bos taurus) that underwent different ambient conditions, physiological states, and keeping and feeding strategies during five years. A detailed mechanistic model involving in ambient conditions, soil properties and animal physiology was built to explain this variation. The measured oxygen isotope composition in hair was significantly related (p<0.05) to the isotope composition in meteoric water in a regression analysis. Modelling suggested that this relation was only partly derived from the direct influence of feed moisture. Ambient conditions (temperature, moisture) did not only influence the isotopic signal of precipitation but also affected the animal itself (drinking water demand, transcutaneous vapor etc.). The clear temporal variation thus resulted from complex interactions with multiple influences. The twofold influence of ambient conditions via the feed and via the animal itself is advantageous for tracing the geographic origin because the oxygen isotope composition is then less influenced by variations in moisture uptake; however, it is unfavorable for indicating the production system, e.g. to distinguish between milk produced from fresh grass or from silage.

  10. Baseline shifts in coral skeletal oxygen isotopic composition: a signature of symbiont shuffling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, J. E.; Charles, C. D.; Garren, M.; McField, M.; Norris, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    Decades-long records of the stable isotopic composition of coral skeletal cores were analyzed from four sites on the Mesoamerican Reef. Two of the sites exhibited baseline shifts in oxygen isotopic composition after known coral bleaching events. Changes in pH at the calcification site caused by a change in the associated symbiont community are invoked to explain the observed shift in the isotopic composition. To test the hypothesis that changes in symbiont clade could affect skeletal chemistry, additional coral samples were collected from Belize for paired Symbiodinium identification and skeletal stable isotopic analysis. We found some evidence that skeletal stable isotopic composition may be affected by symbiont clade and suggest this is an important topic for future investigation. If different Symbiodinium clades leave consistent signatures in skeletal geochemical composition, the signature will provide a method to quantify past symbiont shuffling events, important for understanding how corals are likely to respond to climate change.

  11. The isotopic composition of CO in vehicle exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naus, S.; Röckmann, T.; Popa, M. E.

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the isotopic composition of CO in the exhaust of individual vehicles. Additionally, the CO2 isotopes, and the CO:CO2, CH4:CO2 and H2:CO gas ratios were measured. This was done under idling and revving conditions, and for three vehicles in a full driving cycle on a testbench. The spread in the results, even for a single vehicle, was large: for δ13 C in CO ∼ -60 to 0‰, for δ18 O in CO ∼ +10 to +35‰, and for all gas ratios several orders of magnitude. The results show an increase in the spread of isotopic values for CO compared to previous studies, suggesting that increasing complexity of emission control in vehicles might be reflected in the isotopic composition. When including all samples, we find a weighted mean for the δ13 C and δ18 O in CO of -28.7 ± 0.5‰ and +24.8 ± 0.3‰ respectively. This result is dominated by cold petrol vehicles. Diesel vehicles behaved as a distinct group, with CO enriched in 13C and depleted in 18O, compared to petrol vehicles. For the H2:CO ratio of all vehicles, we found a value of 0.71 ± 0.31 ppb:ppb. The CO:CO2 ratio, with a mean of 19.4 ± 6.8 ppb:ppm, and the CH4:CO2 ratio, with a mean of 0.26 ± 0.05 ppb:ppm, are both higher than recent literature indicates. This is likely because our sampling distribution was biased towards cold vehicles, and therefore towards higher emission situations. The CH4:CO2 ratio was found to behave similarly to the CO:CO2 ratio, suggesting that the processes affecting CO and CH4 are similar. The δ13 C values in CO2 were close to the expected δ13 C in fuel, with no significant difference between petrol and diesel vehicles. The δ18 O values in CO2 for petrol vehicles covered a range of 20-35‰, similar to the δ18 O of CO. The δ18 O values in CO2 for diesel vehicles were close to the δ18 O in atmospheric oxygen. A set of polluted atmospheric samples, taken near a highway and inside parking garages, showed an isotopic signature of CO and a H2:CO ratio that were

  12. Iron and nickel isotope compositions of presolar silicon carbide grains from supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodolányi, János; Stephan, Thomas; Trappitsch, Reto; Hoppe, Peter; Pignatari, Marco; Davis, Andrew M.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    We report the carbon, silicon, iron, and nickel isotope compositions of twenty-five presolar SiC grains of mostly supernova (SN) origin. The iron and nickel isotope compositions were measured with the new Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization, CHILI, which allows the analysis of all iron and nickel isotopes without the isobaric interferences that plagued previous measurements with the NanoSIMS. Despite terrestrial iron and nickel contamination, significant isotopic anomalies in 54Fe/56Fe, 57Fe/56Fe, 60Ni/58Ni, 61Ni/58Ni, 62Ni/58Ni, and 64Ni/58Ni were detected in nine SN grains (of type X). Combined multi-isotope data of three grains with the largest nickel isotope anomalies (>100‰ or <-100‰ in at least one isotope ratio, when expressed as deviation from the solar value) are compared with the predictions of two SN models, one with and one without hydrogen ingestion in the He shell prior to SN explosion. One grain's carbon-silicon-iron-nickel isotope composition is consistent with the prediction of the model without hydrogen ingestion, whereas the other two grains' isotope anomalies could not be reproduced using either SN models. The discrepancies between the measured isotope compositions and model predictions may indicate element fractionation in the SN ejecta prior to or during grain condensation, and reiterate the need for three-dimensional SN models.

  13. Magnetic behaviour of composites containing polyaniline-coated manganese-zinc ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, N. E.; Vilčáková, J.; Křesálek, V.; Sáha, P.; Sapurina, I.; Stejskal, J.

    2004-02-01

    Polycrystalline manganese-zinc ferrite has been coated with polyaniline (PANI) and embedded into a polyurethane matrix. The complex permeability of the composites was studied in the frequency range 1 MHz-3 GHz. The conductivity of PANI coating was adjusted by controlled protonation with picric acid. Large shifts in the resonance frequency were observed as a function of varying PANI conductivity. The changes in the magnetic properties of the PANI-coated composite material are due to the change of the boundary conditions of the microwave field at the interface between the ferrite particle and polymer matrix. This effect is observed especially when the magnetic anisotropy of ferrite is low.

  14. Tooth enamel maturation reequilibrates oxygen isotope compositions and supports simple sampling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trayler, Robin B.; Kohn, Matthew J.

    2017-02-01

    Oxygen isotope and major element zoning patterns of several disparate ungulate teeth were collected to evaluate the timing and geometry of enamel formation, records of isotope zoning, and tooth enamel sampling strategies. Isotopic zoning in mammalian tooth enamel encodes a sub-annual time series of isotopic variation of an animal's body water composition, with a damping factor that depends on the specifics of how enamel mineralizes. Enamel formation comprises two stages: precipitation of appositional enamel with a high CO3:PO4 ratio, followed by precipitation of maturational enamel with a lower CO3:PO4. If appositional and maturational enamel both contribute to isotope compositions (but with different CO3:PO4), and if isotope compositions vary seasonally, paired δ18O values from CO3 and PO4 profiles should show a spatial separation. CO3 isotope patterns should be shifted earlier seasonally than PO4 isotope patterns. Such paired profiles for new and published data show no resolvable shifts, i.e. CO3 and PO4 δ18O profiles show coincident maxima and minima. This coincidence suggests that enamel maturation reequilibrates appositional isotope compositions. If enamel maturation establishes enamel isotope compositions, the geometry of maturation, not apposition, should be considered when devising sampling protocols. X-ray maps of Ca zoning show that the majority of enamel (inner and middle layers) mineralizes heavily at a high angle to the external tooth surface and the enamel-dentine junction over length scales of 2-4 mm, while the outer enamel surface mineralizes more slowly. These data suggest that isotopic sampling strategies should parallel maturational geometry and focus on interior enamel to improve data fidelity. The magnitude of isotopic damping is also smaller than implied in previous studies, so tooth enamel zoning more closely reflects original body water isotopic variations than previously assumed.

  15. Reassessing the stable isotope composition assigned to methane flux from natural wetlands in isotope-constrained budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornibrook, Edward; Maxfield, Peter; Gauci, Vincent; Stott, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Stable isotope ratios in CH4 preserve information about its origin and history, and are commonly used to constrain global CH4 budgets. Wetlands are key contributors to the atmospheric burden of CH4 and typically are assigned a stable carbon isotope composition of ~-60 permil in isotope-weighted stable isotope models despite the considerable range of δ13C(CH4) values (~ -100 to -40 permil) known to occur in these diverse ecosystems. Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) associated with the metabolism of CH4-producing microorganisms generate much of the natural variation but highly negative and positive δ13C(CH4) values generally result from secondary processes (e.g., diffusive transport or oxidation by soil methanotrophs). Despite these complexities, consistent patterns exist in the isotope composition of wetland CH4 that can be linked conclusively to trophic status and consequently, natural succession or human perturbations that impact nutrient levels. Another challenge for accurate representation of wetlands in carbon cycle models is parameterisation of sporadic CH4 emission events. Abrupt release of large volumes of CH4-rich bubbles in short periods of time can account for a significant proportion of the annual CH4 flux from a wetland but such events are difficult to detect using conventional methods. New infrared spectroscopy techniques capable of high temporal resolution measurements of CH4 concentration and stable isotope composition can readily quantify short-lived CH4 pulses. Moreover, the isotope data can be used conclusively to determine shifts in the mode of CH4 transport and provide the potential to link initiation of abrupt emission events to forcing by internal or external factors.

  16. Zinc isotope fractionation during adsorption onto Mn oxyhydroxide at low and high ionic strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Allison L.; Dong, Shuofei; Wilkes, Elise B.; Wasylenki, Laura E.

    2015-05-01

    Marine ferromanganese sediments represent one of the largest sinks from global seawater for Zn, a critical trace metal nutrient. These sediments are variably enriched in heavier isotopes of Zn relative to deep seawater, and some are among the heaviest natural samples analyzed to date. New experimental results demonstrate that adsorption of Zn to poorly crystalline Mn oxyhydroxide results in preferential association of heavier isotopes with the sorbent phase. At low ionic strength our experimental system displayed a short-lived kinetic isotope effect, with light isotopes adsorbed to birnessite (Δ66/64Znadsorbed-dissolved ∼ -0.2‰). After 100 h the sense of fractionation was opposite, such that heavier isotopes were preferentially adsorbed at steady state, but the magnitude of Δ66/64Znadsorbed-dissolved was indistinguishable from zero (+0.05 ± 0.08‰). At high ionic strength, we observed preferential sorption of heavy isotopes, with a strong negative correlation between Δ66/64Znadsorbed-dissolved and the percentage of Zn on the birnessite. Values of Δ66/64Znadsorbed-dissolved ranged from nearly +3‰ at low surface loading to +0.16‰ at high surface loading. Based on previous EXAFS work we infer that Zn adsorbs first as tetrahedral, inner-sphere complexes at low surface loading, with preferential incorporation of heavier isotopes relative to the octahedral Zn species predominating in solution. As surface loading increases, so does the proportion of Zn adsorbing as octahedral complexes, thus diminishing the magnitude of fractionation between the dissolved and adsorbed pools of Zn. The magnitude of fractionation at high ionic strength is also governed by aqueous speciation of Zn in synthetic seawater; a substantial fraction of Zn ions reside in chloro complexes, which preferentially incorporate light Zn isotopes, and this drives the adsorbed pool to be heavier relative to the bulk solution than it was at low ionic strength. Our results explain the observation

  17. Tracing cadmium, zinc and lead sources in bivalves from the coasts of western Canada and the USA using isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiel, Alyssa E.; Weis, Dominique; Orians, Kristin J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental monitoring and remediation require techniques to identify the source and fate of metals emissions. The measurement of heavy metal isotopic signatures, made possible by the advent of the MC-ICP-MS, is a powerful new geochemical tool, which may be used to trace the source of these metals in the environment. In a multi-tracer study, Cd, Zn and Pb isotopic compositions (MC-ICP-MS) and elemental concentrations (HR-ICP-MS) are used to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of these metals in bivalves collected from western Canada (British Columbia), Hawaii, and the USA East Coast. Variability in the δ 114/110Cd values of bivalves (-1.20‰ to -0.09‰) is attributed to differences in the relative contributions of Cd from natural and anthropogenic sources between sites. Cadmium isotopic compositions (δ 114/110Cd = -0.69‰ to -0.09‰) identify high Cd levels in B.C. oysters as primarily natural (i.e., upwelling of Cd rich intermediate waters in the North Pacific), with some variability attributed to anthropogenic sources (e.g., mining and smelting). Variability in the δ 66/64Zn values exhibited by the B.C. bivalves is relatively small (0.28-0.36‰). Despite the low Pb levels found in B.C. oysters, Pb isotopes are used to identify emissions from industrial processes and the consumption of unleaded gasoline and diesel fuel as significant metal sources. Although the Cd concentrations of the USA East Coast bivalves are primarily lower than those of B.C. oysters, their relatively light Cd isotopic compositions (δ 114/110Cd = -1.20‰ to -0.54‰) indicate the significance of anthropogenic Cd sources and are attributed to the high prevalence of industry on this coast. The δ 114/110Cd values of USA East Coast bivalves include the lightest ever reported, with the exception of values reported for extraterrestrial materials. In addition, the Pb isotopic compositions of bivalves from the USA East Coast indicate Pb emissions from the combustion of

  18. Dual-isotope method for determination of human zinc absorption: the use of a test meal of turkey meat

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, P.R.; Cluett, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    The percentage of /sup 65/Zn taken up (absorbed) from extrinsically labeled turkey meat was calculated from the amounts of /sup 65/Zn and a nonabsorbed /sup 51/Cr marker present in the body or in a single stool specimen after 1-2 d. /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/ proved to be a suitable marker for unabsorbed /sup 65/Zn and so the early determination of /sup 65/Zn absorption was possible. With stool counting, /sup 65/Zn absorption data from first stool samples after 1-2 d were accurate as judged by correlation with the amount of /sup 65/Zn in the body 7-10 d later (retention); results from subsequentmore » stools gave lower absorption values due to the early excretion of some absorbed /sup 65/Zn. The dual-isotope method gave reproducible results when four successive tests of zinc absorption were carried out in a group of six subjects. The average (mean +/- SD) /sup 65/Zn absorption from turkey meals containing 31 mumol (2 mg) and 46 mumol (3 mg) of zinc was 39 +/- 8% and 29 +/- 6%, respectively, measured by stool counting; /sup 65/Zn absorption and retention correlated well in both studies. A series of different beverages was given in place of water with the turkey meal. Orange juice significantly reduced /sup 65/Zn absorption and milk also showed this tendency, but tea, whiskey, wine or beer had no significant effect on the absorption of /sup 65/Zn from the turkey meal. In groups of subjects the mean ratio of /sup 65/Zn absorption from extrinsically labeled turkey meat on two occasions (1.06) was not significantly different from that of the absorption of extrinsic to intrinsic /sup 65/Zn labels (1.16). The dual-isotope technique with either stool or body counting is suitable for the rapid determination of /sup 65/Zn absorption from extrinsically labeled turkey within 2 d.« less

  19. Modelling and intepreting the isotopic composition of water vapour in convective updrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolot, M.; Legras, B.; Moyer, E. J.

    2012-08-01

    The isotopic compositions of water vapour and its condensates have long been used as tracers of the global hydrological cycle, but may also be useful for understanding processes within individual convective clouds. We review here the representation of processes that alter water isotopic compositions during processing of air in convective updrafts and present a unified model for water vapour isotopic evolution within undiluted deep convective cores, with a special focus on the out-of-equilibrium conditions of mixed phase zones where metastable liquid water and ice coexist. We use our model to show that a combination of water isotopologue measurements can constrain critical convective parameters including degree of supersaturation, supercooled water content and glaciation temperature. Important isotopic processes in updrafts include kinetic effects that are a consequence of diffusive growth or decay of cloud particles within a supersaturated or subsaturated environment; isotopic re-equilibration between vapour and supercooled droplets, which buffers isotopic distillation; and differing mechanisms of glaciation (droplet freezing vs. the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process). As all of these processes are related to updraft strength, droplet size distribution and the retention of supercooled water, isotopic measurements can serve as a probe of in-cloud conditions of importance to convective processes. We study the sensitivity of the profile of water vapour isotopic composition to differing model assumptions and show how measurements of isotopic composition at cloud base and cloud top alone may be sufficient to retrieve key cloud parameters.

  20. Modelling and interpreting the isotopic composition of water vapour in convective updrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolot, M.; Legras, B.; Moyer, E. J.

    2013-08-01

    The isotopic compositions of water vapour and its condensates have long been used as tracers of the global hydrological cycle, but may also be useful for understanding processes within individual convective clouds. We review here the representation of processes that alter water isotopic compositions during processing of air in convective updrafts and present a unified model for water vapour isotopic evolution within undiluted deep convective cores, with a special focus on the out-of-equilibrium conditions of mixed-phase zones where metastable liquid water and ice coexist. We use our model to show that a combination of water isotopologue measurements can constrain critical convective parameters, including degree of supersaturation, supercooled water content and glaciation temperature. Important isotopic processes in updrafts include kinetic effects that are a consequence of diffusive growth or decay of cloud particles within a supersaturated or subsaturated environment; isotopic re-equilibration between vapour and supercooled droplets, which buffers isotopic distillation; and differing mechanisms of glaciation (droplet freezing vs. the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process). As all of these processes are related to updraft strength, particle size distribution and the retention of supercooled water, isotopic measurements can serve as a probe of in-cloud conditions of importance to convective processes. We study the sensitivity of the profile of water vapour isotopic composition to differing model assumptions and show how measurements of isotopic composition at cloud base and cloud top alone may be sufficient to retrieve key cloud parameters.

  1. Zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine-Fe3O4 nanoparticle composite for laccase immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jun; Liu, Cheng; Xiao, Haiyan; Wang, Juntao; Jiang, Desheng; GU, Erdan

    2007-01-01

    Zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine-Fe3O4 nanoparticle composites were prepared by organic-inorganic complex technology and characterized. It has been proved that the ZnTAPc dispersed randomly onto the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles to form molecular dispersion layer and there was a relatively strong bond between central zinc cation and oxygen. The nanoparticle composite took the shape of roundish spheres with the mean diameter of about 15 nm. Active amino groups of magnetic carriers could be used to bind laccase via glutaraldehyde. The optimal pH for the activity of the immobilized laccases and free laccase were the same at pH 3.0 and the optimal temperature for laccase immobilization on ZnTAPc-Fe3O4 nanoparticle composite was 45°. The immobilization yields and Km value of the laccase immobilized on ZnTAPc-Fe3O4 nanoparticle composite were 25% and 20.1 μM, respectively. This kind of immobilized laccase has good thermal, storage and operation stability, and could be used as the sensing biocomponent for the fiber optic biosensor based on enzyme catalysis. PMID:18203444

  2. Separation of copper, iron, and zinc from complex aqueous solutions for isotopic measurement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borrok, D.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Ridley, W.I.; Wolf, R.; Lamothe, P.J.; Adams, M.

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of Cu, Fe, and Zn isotopes in natural samples may provide valuable information about biogeochemical processes in the environment. However, the widespread application of stable Cu, Fe, and Zn isotope chemistry to natural water systems remains limited by our ability to efficiently separate these trace elements from the greater concentrations of matrix elements. In this study, we present a new method for the isolation of Cu, Fe, and Zn from complex aqueous solutions using a single anion-exchange column with hydrochloric acid media. Using this method we are able to quantitatively separate Cu, Fe, and Zn from each other and from matrix elements in a single column elution. Elution of the elements of interest, as well as all other elements, through the anion-exchange column is a function of the speciation of each element in the various concentrations of HCl. We highlight the column chemistry by comparing our observations with published studies that have investigated the speciation of Cu, Fe, and Zn in chloride solutions. The functionality of the column procedure was tested by measuring Cu, Fe, and Zn isotopes in a variety of stream water samples impacted by acid mine drainage. The accuracy and precision of Zn isotopic measurements was tested by doping Zn-free stream water with the Zn isotopic standard. The reproducibility of the entire column separation process and the overall precision of the isotopic measurements were also evaluated. The isotopic results demonstrate that the Cu, Fe, and Zn column separates from the tested stream waters are of sufficient purity to be analyzed directly using a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS), and that the measurements are fully-reproducible, accurate, and precise. Although limited in scope, these isotopic measurements reveal significant variations in ??65Cu (- 1.41 to + 0.30???), ??56Fe (- 0.56 to + 0.34???), and ??66Zn (0.31 to 0.49???) among samples collected from different

  3. Zinc (hydr)oxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites: role of surface features in H₂S reactive adsorption.

    PubMed

    Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2014-12-15

    Zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites with various levels of complexity were synthesized using an in situ precipitation method. Then they were used as H2S adsorbents in visible light. The materials' surfaces were characterized before and after H2S adsorption by various physical and chemical methods (XRD, FTIR, thermal analysis, potentiometric titration, adsorption of nitrogen and SEM/EDX). Significant differences in surface features and synergistic effects were found depending on the materials' composition. Addition of graphite oxide and the deposition of gold nanoparticles resulted in a marked increase in the adsorption capacity in comparison with that on the zinc hydroxide and zinc hydroxide/AuNP. Addition of AuNPs to zinc hydroxide led to a crystalline ZnO/AuNP composite while the zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNP composite was amorphous. The ZnOH/GO/AuNPs composite exhibited the greatest H2S adsorption capacity due to the increased number of OH terminal groups and the conductive properties of GO that facilitated the electron transfer and consequently the formation of superoxide ions promoting oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. AuNPs present in the composite increased the conductivity, helped with electron transfer to oxygen, and prevented the fast recombination of the electrons and holes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrogen and oxygen in brine shrimp chitin reflect environmental water and dietary isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Kristine E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2010-03-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of the common structural biopolymer chitin are a potential recorder of ecological and environmental information, but our understanding of the mechanisms of incorporation of H and O from environmental substrates into chitin is limited. We report the results of a set of experiments in which the isotopic compositions of environmental water and diet were varied independently in order to assess the contribution of these variables to the H and O isotopic composition of Artemia franciscana chitin. Hydrogen isotope ratios of chitin were strongly linearly correlated with both food and water, with approximately 26% of the hydrogen signal reflecting food and approximately 38% reflecting water. Oxygen isotopes were also strongly correlated with the isotopic composition of water and food, but whereas 69% of oxygen in chitin exchanged with environmental water, only 10% was derived from food. We propose that these observations reflect the position-specific, partial exchange of H and O atoms with brine shrimp body water during the processes of digestion and chitin biosynthesis. Comparison of culture experiments with a set of natural samples collected from the Great Salt Lake, UT in 2006 shows that, with some exceptions, oxygen isotope compositions of chitin track those of water, whereas hydrogen isotopes vary inversely with those of lake water. The different behavior of the two isotopic systems can be explained in terms of a dietary shift from allochthonous particulate matter with relatively higher δ 2H values in the early spring to autochthonous particulate matter with significantly lower δ 2H values in the late summer to autumn. These results suggest oxygen in chitin may be a valuable proxy for the oxygen isotopic composition of environmental water, whereas hydrogen isotope values from the same molecule may reveal ecological and biogeochemical changes within lakes.

  5. Oxygen isotopic composition and U-Pb discordance in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, A.L.; Kolodny, Y.; Chamberlain, C.P.; McWilliams, M.; Schmitt, A.K.; Wooden, J.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated U-Pb discordance and oxygen isotopic composition of zircon using high-spatial resolution ??18O measurement by ion microprobe. ??18O in both concordant and discordant zircon grains provides an indication of the relationship between fluid interaction and discordance. Our results suggest that three characteristics of zircon are interrelated: (1) U-Pb systematics and concomitant age discordance, (2) ??18O and the water-rock interactions implied therein, and (3) zircon texture, as revealed by cathodoluminescence and BSE imaging. A key observation is that U-Pb-disturbed zircons are often also variably depleted in 18O, but the relationship between discordance and ??18O is not systematic. ??18O values of discordant zircons are generally lighter but irregular in their distribution. Textural differences between zircon grains can be correlated with both U-Pb discordance and ??18O. Discordant grains exhibit either a recrystallized, fractured, or strongly zoned CL texture, and are characteristic of 18O depletion. We interpret this to be a result of metamictization, leading to destruction of the zircon lattice and an increased susceptibility to lead loss. Conversely, grains that are concordant have less-expressed zoning and a smoother CL texture and are enriched in 18O. From this it is apparent that various stages of water-rock interaction, as evidenced by systematic variations in ??18O, leave their imprint on both the texture and U-Pb systematics of zircon. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Effects of climatic seasonality on the isotopic composition of evaporating soil waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettin, Paolo; Volkmann, Till H. M.; von Freyberg, Jana; Frentress, Jay; Penna, Daniele; Dawson, Todd E.; Kirchner, James W.

    2018-05-01

    Stable water isotopes are widely used in ecohydrology to trace the transport, storage, and mixing of water on its journey through landscapes and ecosystems. Evaporation leaves a characteristic signature on the isotopic composition of the water that is left behind, such that in dual-isotope space, evaporated waters plot below the local meteoric water line (LMWL) that characterizes precipitation. Soil and xylem water samples can often plot below the LMWL as well, suggesting that they have also been influenced by evaporation. These soil and xylem water samples frequently plot along linear trends in dual-isotope space. These trend lines are often termed "evaporation lines" and their intersection with the LMWL is often interpreted as the isotopic composition of the precipitation source water. Here we use numerical experiments based on established isotope fractionation theory to show that these trend lines are often by-products of the seasonality in evaporative fractionation and in the isotopic composition of precipitation. Thus, they are often not true evaporation lines, and, if interpreted as such, can yield highly biased estimates of the isotopic composition of the source water.

  7. Soil drying effects on the carbon isotope composition of soil respiration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotopes are used widely as a tool for determining sources of carbon (C) fluxes in ecosystem C studies. Environmental factors that change over time, such as moisture, can create dynamic changes in the isotopic composition of C assimilated by plants, and offers a unique opp...

  8. On the equilibrium isotopic composition of the thorium-uranium-plutonium fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshalkin, V. Ye.; Povyshev, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    The equilibrium isotopic compositions and the times to equilibrium in the process of thorium-uranium-plutonium oxide fuel recycling in VVER-type reactors using heavy water mixed with light water are estimated. It is demonstrated thEhfat such reactors have a capacity to operate with self-reproduction of active isotopes in the equilibrium mode.

  9. On the equilibrium isotopic composition of the thorium–uranium–plutonium fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Marshalkin, V. Ye., E-mail: marshalkin@vniief.ru; Povyshev, V. M.

    2016-12-15

    The equilibrium isotopic compositions and the times to equilibrium in the process of thorium–uranium–plutonium oxide fuel recycling in VVER-type reactors using heavy water mixed with light water are estimated. It is demonstrated thEhfat such reactors have a capacity to operate with self-reproduction of active isotopes in the equilibrium mode.

  10. Mercury isotope constraints on the source for sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits in the Changdu area, southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chunxia; Yin, Runsheng; Peng, Jiantang; Hurley, James P.; Lepak, Ryan F.; Gao, Jianfeng; Feng, Xinbin; Hu, Ruizhong; Bi, Xianwu

    2018-03-01

    The Lanuoma and Cuona sediment-hosted Pb-Zn deposits hosted by Upper Triassic limestone and sandstone, respectively, are located in the Changdu area, SW China. Mercury concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions from sulfide minerals and potential source rocks (e.g., the host sedimentary rocks and the metamorphic basement) were investigated to constrain metal sources and mineralization processes. In both deposits, sulfide minerals have higher mercury (Hg) concentrations (0.35 to 1185 ppm) than the metamorphic basement rocks (0.05 to 0.15 ppm) and sedimentary rocks (0.02 to 0.08 ppm). Large variations of mass-dependent fractionation (3.3‰ in δ202Hg) and mass-independent fractionation (0.3‰ in Δ199Hg) of Hg isotopes were observed. Sulfide minerals have Hg isotope signatures that are similar to the hydrothermal altered rocks around the deposit, and similar to the metamorphic basement, but different from barren sedimentary rocks. The variation of Δ199Hg suggests that Hg in sulfides was mainly derived from the underlying metamorphic basement. Mercury isotopes could be a geochemical tracer in understanding metal sources in hydrothermal ore deposits.

  11. Titanium and Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Individual Chondrules from Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, K. K.; Schönbächler, M.; Fehr, M. A.; Vennemann, T.; Chaumard, N.; Zanda, B.

    2016-08-01

    We measured Ti and triple-O isotope compositions of individual chondrules (characterized by CT scanning) from ordinary chondrites. We will discuss correlations between Ti and ∆17O and their implication for the origin of nucleosynthetic anomalies.

  12. Isotopic composition of Pb and Th in interplinian volcanics from Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cortini, M.; Ayuso, R.A.; de Vivo, B.; Holden, P.; Somma, R.

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed isotopic study of volcanic rocks emitted from Somma-Vesuvius volcano during three periods of interplinian activity: "Protohistoric" (3550 y B.P. to 79 A.D.), "Ancient Historic" (79 to 472 A.D.) and "Medieval" (472 to 1631 A.D.). Pb isotopic compositions of two acid leached fractions and whole rock residues of 37 whole rock samples (determined by Somma et al., 2001) show that each of the three interplinian periods is distinguished by small, systematic, and unique uranogenic and thorogenic Pb isotopic trends. This key and novel feature is compatible with the notion that the Pb isotopic data reflect small-scale source heterogeneity operating over relatively short periods of time. From this representative group of samples, a selected set of nine whole rocks were analysed for Th isotopes. 232Th/238U ratios in the source can be obtained independently from Pb and from Th isotopes. Those obtained from Pb isotopes represent source ratios, time-integrated over the whole age of the Earth; they range from 3.9 to 4.1. 232Th/238U obtained from Th isotopes are those of the present source. They are lower, and cluster around 3.5; this difference probably indicates recent U enrichment of the present source. The behaviour of Pb, as inferred by its isotopic ratios, is quite distinct from that of Sr and Nd isotopes: Pb isotope variations are not correlated to Sr or Nd isotope variations. The isotopic contrast is compatible with the idea that the isotopes were decoupled during magmatic production, evolution, and ascent through the crust. Thus, the Pb isotopes do not reflect the effects of the same processes as in the case of the Sr and Nd isotopes, or, as we also favor, they do not necessarily reflect the same source contributions into the magmas. Moreover, the Pb isotopic evolution of the interplinian rocks chiefly reflects mixing, driven by processes that are superimposed on, and independent of, other source contributions that determine the isotopic compositions

  13. Spacecraft measurements of the elemental and isotopic composition of solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Within the past few years, instruments flown on satellites and space probes have made significant progress in measuring the elemental and isotopic composition of energetic heavy nuclei accelerated in solar flares. These new observations are discussed, focusing on: (1) the energy dependence of the elemental composition at energies not greater than 1 MeV/nucleon; (2) flare to flare variations in the composition; and (3) comparisons of the average solar particle abundances (Z not less than 2 and not greater than 28) with other measures of the solar composition, including photospheric, coronal, and solar wind observations. These comparisons have led to the suggestion that solar flares sample the composition of the corona. Isotopic measurements of heavy solar flare nuclei have recently added a new dimension to these studies. In particular, the isotopic composition of solar flare neon has been found to be significantly different from that measured in the solar wind, but consistent with the meteoritic component neon-A.

  14. Non-destructive measurement of carbonic anhydrase activity and the oxygen isotope composition of soil water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sam; Sauze, Joana; Ogée, Jérôme; Wohl, Steven; Bosc, Alexandre; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrases are a group of metalloenzymes that catalyse the hydration of aqueous carbon dioxide (CO2). The expression of carbonic anhydrase by bacteria, archaea and eukarya has been linked to a variety of important biological processes including pH regulation, substrate supply and biomineralisation. As oxygen isotopes are exchanged between CO2 and water during hydration, the presence of carbonic anhydrase in plants and soil organisms also influences the oxygen isotope budget of atmospheric CO2. Leaf and soil water pools have distinct oxygen isotope compositions, owing to differences in pool sizes and evaporation rates, which are imparted on CO2during hydration. These differences in the isotopic signature of CO2 interacting with leaves and soil can be used to partition the contribution of photosynthesis and soil respiration to net terrestrial CO2 exchange. However, this relies on our knowledge of soil carbonic anhydrase activity and currently, the prevalence and function of these enzymes in soils is poorly understood. Isotopic approaches used to estimate soil carbonic anhydrase activity typically involve the inversion of models describing the oxygen isotope composition of CO2 fluxes to solve for the apparent, potentially catalysed, rate of oxygen exchange during hydration. This requires information about the composition of CO2 in isotopic equilibrium with soil water obtained from destructive, depth-resolved soil water sampling. This can represent a significant challenge in data collection given the considerable potential for spatial and temporal variability in the isotopic composition of soil water and limited a priori information with respect to the appropriate sampling resolution and depth. We investigated whether we could circumvent this requirement by constraining carbonic anhydrase activity and the composition of soil water in isotopic equilibrium with CO2 by solving simultaneously the mass balance for two soil CO2 steady states differing only in the

  15. Evaluation of wound healing potential of β-chitin hydrogel/nano zinc oxide composite bandage.

    PubMed

    P T, Sudheesh Kumar; Lakshmanan, Vinoth-Kumar; Raj, Mincy; Biswas, Raja; Hiroshi, Tamura; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, Rangasamy

    2013-02-01

    β-chitin hydrogel/nZnO composite bandage was fabricated and evaluated in detail as an alternative to existing bandages. β-chitin hydrogel was synthesized by dissolving β-chitin powder in Methanol/CaCl(2) solvent, followed by the addition of distilled water. ZnO nanoparticles were added to the β-chitin hydrogel and stirred for homogenized distribution. The resultant slurry was frozen at 0°C for 12 h. The frozen samples were lyophilized for 24 h to obtain porous composite bandages. The bandages showed controlled swelling and degradation. The composite bandages showed blood clotting ability as well as platelet activation, which was higher when compared to the control. The antibacterial activity of the bandages were proven against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E.coli). Cytocompatibility of the composite bandages were assessed using human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF) and these cells on the composite bandages were viable similar to the Kaltostat control bandages and bare β-chitin hydrogel based bandages. The viability was reduced to 50-60% in bandages with higher concentration of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) and showed 80-90% viability with lower concentration of nZnO. In vivo evaluation in Sprague Dawley rats (S.D. rats) showed faster healing and higher collagen deposition ability of composite bandages when compared to the control. The prepared bandages can be used on various types of infected wounds with large volume of exudates.

  16. Long-term data set analysis of stable isotopic composition in German rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckerth, Anne; Stichler, Willibald; Schmidt, Axel; Stumpp, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) are commonly used to investigate hydrological processes in catchments. However, only a few isotope studies have been conducted on a large scale and rarely over long time periods. The objective of this study was to identify the spatial and seasonal variability of isotopic composition in river water and how it is affected by geographical and hydrological factors. The stable isotopic composition of river water has been measured in nine large river catchments in Germany for a time period of 12 years or 26 years. We conducted time series and correlation analyses to identify spatial and temporal patterns of the isotopic composition in the rivers. Further, we compared it to isotopic composition in local precipitation and catchments characteristics. In the majority of the rivers, the spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation were directly reflected in river water. The isotopic signals of the river water were time shifted and show attenuated amplitudes. Further deviations from isotopic compositions in local precipitation were observed in catchments with complex flow systems. These deviations were attributed to catchment processes and influences like evaporation, damming and storage. The seasonality of the isotopic composition was mainly determined by the discharge regimes of the rivers. We found correlations between isotopic long-term averages and catchment altitude as well as latitude and longitude, resulting in a northwest-southeast gradient. Furthermore, it was shown that long-term averages of d-excess were inversely related to flow length and catchment size, which indicates that evaporation enrichment has an impact on the isotopic composition even in catchments of humid climates. This study showed that isotopic composition in rivers can serve as a proxy for the local precipitation and can be utilized as an indicator for hydrological processes even in large river basins. In future, such long time series will help to

  17. Mathematical model of the direct reduction of dust composite pellets containing zinc and iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xiu-wei; Wang, Jing-song; She, Xue-feng; Xue, Qing-guo

    2013-07-01

    Direct reduction of dust composite pellets containing zinc and iron was examined by simulating the conditions of actual production process of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) in laboratory. A mathematical model was constructed to study the reduction kinetics of iron oxides and ZnO in the dust composite pellets. It was validated by comparing the calculated values with experimental results. The effects of furnace temperature, pellet radius, and pellet porosity on the reduction were investigated by the model. It is shown that furnace temperature has obvious influence on both of the reduction of iron oxides and ZnO, but the influence of pellet radius and porosity is much smaller. Model calculations suggest that both of the reduction of iron oxides and ZnO are under mixed control with interface reactions and Boudouard reaction in the early stage, but only with interface reactions in the later stage.

  18. A paired apatite and calcite clumped isotope thermometry approach to estimating Cambro-Ordovician seawater temperatures and isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Kristin D.; Finnegan, Seth; Creel, Roger; Eiler, John M.; Hughes, Nigel C.; Popov, Leonid E.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2018-03-01

    The secular increase in δ18O values of both calcitic and phosphatic marine fossils through early Phanerozoic time suggests either that (1) early Paleozoic surface temperatures were high, in excess of 40 °C (tropical MAT), (2) the δ18O value of seawater has increased by 7-8‰ VSMOW through Paleozoic time, or (3) diagenesis has altered secular trends in early Paleozoic samples. Carbonate clumped isotope analysis, in combination with petrographic and elemental analysis, can deconvolve fluid composition from temperature effects and therefore determine which of these hypotheses best explain the secular δ18O increase. Clumped isotope measurements of a suite of calcitic and phosphatic marine fossils from late Cambrian- to Middle-late Ordovician-aged strata-the first paired fossil study of its kind-document tropical sea surface temperatures near modern temperatures (26-38 °C) and seawater oxygen isotope ratios similar to today's ratios.

  19. Iron isotopic composition of blood serum in anemia of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Anoshkina, Yulia; Costas-Rodríguez, Marta; Speeckaert, Marijn; Van Biesen, Wim; Delanghe, Joris; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2017-05-24

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a general term for disorders that affect the structure and function of the kidneys. Iron deficiency (ID) and anemia occur in the vast majority of CKD patients, most of whom are elderly. However, establishing the cause of anemia in CKD, and therefore making an informed decision concerning the corresponding therapeutic treatment, is still a challenge. High-precision Fe isotopic analysis of blood serum samples of CKD patients with and without ID/anemia was performed via multi-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) for such a purpose. Patients with CKD and/or iron disorders showed a heavier serum Fe isotopic composition than controls. Many clinical parameters used for the diagnosis and follow-up of anemia correlated significantly with the serum Fe isotopic composition. In contrast, no relation was observed between the serum Fe isotopic composition and the estimated glomerular filtration rate as a measure of kidney function. Among the CKD patients, the serum Fe isotopic composition was substantially heavier in the occurrence of ID anemia, while erythropoietin-related anemia did not exert this effect. The Fe isotopic composition can thus be useful for distinguishing these different types of anemias in CKD patients, i.e. ID anemia vs. erythropoietin-related anemia.

  20. Spatial patterns of throughfall isotopic composition at the event and seasonal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Scott T.; Keim, Richard F.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2015-03-01

    Spatial variability of throughfall isotopic composition in forests is indicative of complex processes occurring in the canopy and remains insufficiently understood to properly characterize precipitation inputs to the catchment water balance. Here we investigate variability of throughfall isotopic composition with the objectives: (1) to quantify the spatial variability in event-scale samples, (2) to determine if there are persistent controls over the variability and how these affect variability of seasonally accumulated throughfall, and (3) to analyze the distribution of measured throughfall isotopic composition associated with varying sampling regimes. We measured throughfall over two, three-month periods in western Oregon, USA under a Douglas-fir canopy. The mean spatial range of δ18O for each event was 1.6‰ and 1.2‰ through Fall 2009 (11 events) and Spring 2010 (7 events), respectively. However, the spatial pattern of isotopic composition was not temporally stable causing season-total throughfall to be less variable than event throughfall (1.0‰; range of cumulative δ18O for Fall 2009). Isotopic composition was not spatially autocorrelated and not explained by location relative to tree stems. Sampling error analysis for both field measurements and Monte-Carlo simulated datasets representing different sampling schemes revealed the standard deviation of differences from the true mean as high as 0.45‰ (δ18O) and 1.29‰ (d-excess). The magnitude of this isotopic variation suggests that small sample sizes are a source of substantial experimental error.

  1. Ac-conductivity and dielectric response of new zinc-phosphate glass/metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaroufi, A.; Oabi, O.; Lucas, B.

    2016-07-01

    The ac-conductivity and dielectric response of new composites based on zinc-phosphate glass with composition 45 mol%ZnO-55 mol%P2O5, filled with metallic powder of nickel (ZP/Ni) were investigated by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz at room temperature. A high percolating jump of seven times has been observed in the conductivity behavior from low volume fraction of filler to the higher fractions, indicating an insulator - semiconductor phase transition. The measured conductivity at higher filler volume fraction is about 10-1 S/cm and is frequency independent, while, the obtained conductivity for low filler volume fraction is around 10-8 S/cm and is frequency dependent. Moreover, the elaborated composites are characterized by high dielectric constants in the range of 105 for conductive composites at low frequencies (100 Hz). In addition, the distribution of the relaxation processes was also evaluated. The Debye, Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole and Havriliak-Negami models in electric modulus formalism were used to model the observed relaxation phenomena in ZP/Ni composites. The observed relaxation phenomena are fairly simulated by Davidson-Cole model, and an account of the interpretation of results is given.

  2. Calcium and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Calcium Carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermayr, Andrea; Eisenhauer, Anton; Böhm, Florian; Kisakürek, Basak; Balzer, Isabelle; Immenhauser, Adrian; Jürgen Köhler, Stephan; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Different isotopic systems are influenced in multiple ways corresponding to the crystal structure, dehydration, deprotonation, adsorption, desorption, isotope exchange and diffusion processes. In this study we investigated the structural and kinetic effects on fractionation of stable Ca- and O-isotopes during CaCO3 precipitation. Calcite, aragonite and vaterite were precipitated using the CO2 diffusion technique[1]at a constant pH of 8.3, but various temperatures (6, 10, 25 and 40° C) and precipitation rates R (101.5 to 105 μmol h-1 m-2). The calcium isotopic fractionation between solution and vaterite is lower (Δ44/40Ca= -0.10 to -0.55 ‰) compared to calcite (-0.69 to -2.04 ‰) and aragonite (-0.91 to -1.55 ‰). In contrast the fractionation of oxygen isotopes is highest for vaterite (32.1 ‰), followed by aragonite (29.2 ‰) and calcite (27.6 ‰) at 25° C and equilibrium. The enrichment of 18O vs. 16O in all polymorphs decreases with increasing precipitation rate by around -0.7 ‰ per log(R). The calcium isotopic fractionation between calcite/ vaterite and aqueous Ca2+ increases with increasing precipitation rate by ˜0.45 ‰ per log(R) and ˜0.1 ‰ per log(R) at 25° C and 40° C, respectively. In contrast the fractionation of Ca-isotopes between aragonite and aqueous Ca2+ decreases with increasing precipitation rates. The large enrichment of 18O vs. 16O isotopes in carbonates is related to the strong bond of oxygen to the small and highly charged C4+-ion. In contrast equilibrium isotopic fractionation between solution and calcite or vaterite is nearly zero as the Ca-O bond length is similar for calcite, vaterite and the hydrated Ca. Aragonite incorporates preferentially the lighter 40Ca isotope as it has very large Ca-O bonds in comparison to the hydrated Ca. At the crystal surface the lighter 40Ca isotopes are preferentially incorporated as dehydration and diffusion of lighter isotopes are faster. Consequently, the surface becomes enriched in 40

  3. The isotopic composition of cosmic-ray calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedenbeck, M. E.; George, J. S.; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; Israel, M. H.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; hide

    2001-01-01

    We find that the relative abundance of cosmic ray calcium isotopes in the cosmic-ray source are very similar to those found in solar-system material, in spite of the fact that different types of stars are thought to be responsible for producing these two isotopes. This observation is consistent with the view that cosmic rays are derived from a mixed sample of interstellar matter.

  4. Analysis of the site-specific carbon isotope composition of propane by gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecki, Alison; Sessions, Alex; Lawson, Michael; Ferreira, A. A.; Neto, E. V. Santos; Eiler, John M.

    2016-09-01

    Site-specific isotope ratio measurements potentially provide valuable information about the formation and degradation of complex molecules-information that is lost in conventional bulk isotopic measurements. Here we discuss the background and possible applications of such measurements, and present a technique for studying the site-specific carbon isotope composition of propane at natural abundance based on mass spectrometric analysis of the intact propane molecule and its fragment ions. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach through measurements of mixtures of natural propane and propane synthesized with site-specific 13C enrichment, and we document the limits of precision of our technique. We show that mass balance calculations of the bulk δ13C of propane based on our site-specific measurements is generally consistent with independent constraints on bulk δ13C. We further demonstrate the accuracy of the technique, and illustrate one of its simpler applications by documenting the site-specific carbon isotope signature associated with gas phase diffusion of propane, confirming that our measurements conform to the predictions of the kinetic theory of gases. This method can be applied to propane samples of moderate size (tens of micromoles) isolated from natural gases. Thus, it provides a means of studying the site-specific stable isotope systematics of propane at natural isotope abundances on sample sizes that are readily recovered from many natural environments. This method may also serve as a model for future techniques that apply high-resolution mass spectrometry to study the site-specific isotopic distributions of larger organic molecules, with potential applications to biosynthesis, forensics and other geochemical subjects.

  5. Stable isotopic composition of perchlorate and nitrate accumulated in plants: Hydroponic experiments and field data.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Nubia Luz; Böhlke, J K; Sturchio, Neil C; Gu, Baohua; Harvey, Greg; Burkey, Kent O; Grantz, David A; McGrath, Margaret T; Anderson, Todd A; Rao, Balaji; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Hatzinger, Paul B; Jackson, W Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Natural perchlorate (ClO 4 - ) in soil and groundwater exhibits a wide range in stable isotopic compositions (δ 37 Cl, δ 18 O, and Δ 17 O), indicating that ClO 4 - may be formed through more than one pathway and/or undergoes post-depositional isotopic alteration. Plants are known to accumulate ClO 4 - , but little is known about their ability to alter its isotopic composition. We examined the potential for plants to alter the isotopic composition of ClO 4 - in hydroponic and field experiments conducted with snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In hydroponic studies, anion ratios indicated that ClO 4 - was transported from solutions into plants similarly to NO 3 - but preferentially to Cl - (4-fold). The ClO 4 - isotopic compositions of initial ClO 4 - reagents, final growth solutions, and aqueous extracts from plant tissues were essentially indistinguishable, indicating no significant isotope effects during ClO 4 - uptake or accumulation. The ClO 4 - isotopic composition of field-grown snap beans was also consistent with that of ClO 4 - in varying proportions from irrigation water and precipitation. NO 3 - uptake had little or no effect on NO 3 - isotopic compositions in hydroponic solutions. However, a large fractionation effect with an apparent ε ( 15 N/ 18 O) ratio of 1.05 was observed between NO 3 - in hydroponic solutions and leaf extracts, consistent with partial NO 3 - reduction during assimilation within plant tissue. We also explored the feasibility of evaluating sources of ClO 4 - in commercial produce, as illustrated by spinach, for which the ClO 4 - isotopic composition was similar to that of indigenous natural ClO 4 - . Our results indicate that some types of plants can accumulate and (presumably) release ClO 4 - to soil and groundwater without altering its isotopic characteristics. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of ClO 4 - and NO 3 - in plants may be useful for determining sources of fertilizers and sources of ClO 4 - in their growth

  6. Stable isotopic composition of perchlorate and nitrate accumulated in plants: Hydroponic experiments and field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estrada, Nubia Luz; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C.; Gu, Baohua; Harvey, Greg; Burkey, Kent O.; Grantz, David A.; McGrath, Margaret T.; Anderson, Todd A.; Rao, Balaji; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Jackson, W. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Natural perchlorate (ClO4−) in soil and groundwater exhibits a wide range in stable isotopic compositions (δ37Cl, δ18O, and Δ17O), indicating that ClO4− may be formed through more than one pathway and/or undergoes post-depositional isotopic alteration. Plants are known to accumulate ClO4−, but little is known about their ability to alter its isotopic composition. We examined the potential for plants to alter the isotopic composition of ClO4− in hydroponic and field experiments conducted with snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In hydroponic studies, anion ratios indicated that ClO4− was transported from solutions into plants similarly to NO3− but preferentially to Cl− (4-fold). The ClO4− isotopic compositions of initial ClO4− reagents, final growth solutions, and aqueous extracts from plant tissues were essentially indistinguishable, indicating no significant isotope effects during ClO4− uptake or accumulation. The ClO4− isotopic composition of field-grown snap beans was also consistent with that of ClO4− in varying proportions from irrigation water and precipitation. NO3− uptake had little or no effect on NO3− isotopic compositions in hydroponic solutions. However, a large fractionation effect with an apparent ε (15N/18O) ratio of 1.05 was observed between NO3− in hydroponic solutions and leaf extracts, consistent with partial NO3− reduction during assimilation within plant tissue. We also explored the feasibility of evaluating sources of ClO4− in commercial produce, as illustrated by spinach, for which the ClO4− isotopic composition was similar to that of indigenous natural ClO4−. Our results indicate that some types of plants can accumulate and (presumably) release ClO4− to soil and groundwater without altering its isotopic characteristics. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of ClO4−and NO3− in plants may be useful for determining sources of fertilizers and sources of ClO4− in their growth environments and

  7. Origin of isotopically light Zn in lunar samples through vaporization and the Zn isotope composition of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, C.; Valdes, M. C.; Dhaliwal, J.; Day, J. M.; Moynier, F.

    2013-12-01

    the surface of the Moon. This represents secondary effects and mixing with exogenous Zn, explaining the higher abundance of Zn in highland rocks, relative to mare basalts. The pyroclastic green glass (15426) has a higher measured Zn concentration (~50ppm) compared with mare basalts, but is still depleted in Zn relative to most terrestrial basalts (typically >50 to 100 ppm). 15426 is also isotopically light (δ66Zn= -0.98), which is similar to previous measurements of Zn composition made for high-Ti pyroclastic glass beads (74220). We interpret the composition of the lunar pyroclastic glasses to reflect lava fountaining and coating of the surface of the beads by a volatile rich and isotopically light vapor. Thus, we conclude that mare basalts, which are isotopically heavier than the Earth, best represent the lunar silicate composition.

  8. Behaviour of Structural Carbonate Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Compositions in Bioapatite During Burning of Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, L. E.; Longstaffe, F. J.; White, C. D.

    2003-12-01

    Bioapatite, the principal inorganic phase comprising bone, commonly contains a small fraction of carbonate, which has been substituted into the phosphate structure during bone formation. The isotopic compositions of both the phosphate oxygen and the structural carbonate oxygen are now commonly used in palaeoclimatological and bioarchaeological investigations. The potential for post-mortem alteration of these isotopic compositions, therefore, is of interest, with the behaviour of structural carbonate being of most concern. In bioarchaeological studies, alteration of bone isotopic compositions has the potential to occur not only during low-temperature processes associated with burial but also during food preparation involving heating (burning, boiling). Here, we examine the stable isotopic behaviour of structural carbonate oxygen and carbon, and coexisting phosphate oxygen during the burning of bone. Freshly deceased (6<8 months) white-tailed deer leg bones (Odocoileus virginianus) were collected from Pinery Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. Each long bone was sectioned and incrementally heated from 25 to 900° C, in 25° intervals. The samples were then ground to a standardized grain-size (45<63μ m), and changes in bioapatite crystallinity (CI) were determined using powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). Combined differential thermal and thermogravimetric analyses (DTA/TG) were used to evaluate weight loss and associated reactions during heating. Stable carbon isotope compositions of the bioapatite remain relatively constant (+/-1‰ ) during heating to 650° C. A 4‰ increase in stable carbon isotopic composition then occurs between 650-750° C, accompanied by an increase in CI, followed by a 10‰ decline at temperatures above 800° C, as carbonate carbon is lost. Carbonate and phosphate oxygen isotopic compositions are correlated over the entire heating range, with carbonate being enriched relative to phosphate by

  9. Visible-light-enhanced interactions of hydrogen sulfide with composites of zinc (oxy)hydroxide with graphite oxide and graphene.

    PubMed

    Seredych, Mykola; Mabayoje, Oluwaniyi; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2012-01-17

    Composites of zinc(oxy)hydroxide-graphite oxide and of zinc(oxy)hydroxide-graphene were used as adsorbents of hydrogen sulfide under ambient conditions. The initial and exhausted samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, potentiometric titration, EDX, thermal analysis, and nitrogen adsorption. An increase in the amount of H(2)S adsorbed/oxidized on their surfaces in comparison with that of pure Zn(OH)(2) is linked to the structure of the composite, the relative number of terminal hydroxyls, and the kind of graphene-based phase used. Although terminal groups are activated by a photochemical process, the graphite oxide component owing to the chemical bonds with the zinc(oxy)hydroxide phase and conductive properties helps in electron transfer, leading to more efficient oxygen activation via the formation of superoxide ions. Elemental sulfur, zinc sulfide, sulfite, and sulfate are formed on the surface. The formation of sulfur compounds on the surface of zinc(oxy)hydroxide during the course of the breakthrough experiments and thus Zn(OH)(2)-ZnS heterojunctions can also contribute to the increased surface activity of our materials. The results show the superiority of graphite oxide in the formation of composites owing to its active surface chemistry and the possibility of interface bond formation, leading to an increase in the number of electron-transfer reactions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. The stable Cr isotopic compositions of chondrites and silicate planetary reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenberg, Ronny; Merdian, Alexandra; Holmden, Chris; Kleinhanns, Ilka C.; Haßler, Kathrin; Wille, Martin; Reitter, Elmar

    2016-06-01

    The depletion of chromium in Earth's mantle (∼2700 ppm) in comparison to chondrites (∼4400 ppm) indicates significant incorporation of chromium into the core during our planet's metal-silicate differentiation, assuming that there was no significant escape of the moderately volatile element chromium during the accretionary phase of Earth. Stable Cr isotope compositions - expressed as the ‰-difference in 53Cr/52Cr from the terrestrial reference material SRM979 (δ53/52CrSRM979 values) - of planetary silicate reservoirs might thus yield information about the conditions of planetary metal segregation processes when compared to chondrites. The stable Cr isotopic compositions of 7 carbonaceous chondrites, 11 ordinary chondrites, 5 HED achondrites and 2 martian meteorites determined by a double spike MC-ICP-MS method are within uncertainties indistinguishable from each other and from the previously determined δ53/52CrSRM979 value of -0.124 ± 0.101‰ for the igneous silicate Earth. Extensive quality tests support the accuracy of the stable Cr isotope determinations of various meteorites and terrestrial silicates reported here. The uniformity in stable Cr isotope compositions of samples from planetary silicate mantles and undifferentiated meteorites indicates that metal-silicate differentiation of Earth, Mars and the HED parent body did not cause measurable stable Cr isotope fractionation between these two reservoirs. Our results also imply that the accretionary disc, at least in the inner solar system, was homogeneous in its stable Cr isotopic composition and that potential volatility loss of chromium during accretion of the terrestrial planets was not accompanied by measurable stable isotopic fractionation. Small but reproducible variations in δ53/52CrSRM979 values of terrestrial magmatic rocks point to natural stable Cr isotope variations within Earth's silicate reservoirs. Further and more detailed studies are required to investigate whether silicate

  11. Origin of heavy Fe isotope compositions in high-silica igneous rocks: A rhyolite perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, De-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Tao; Chen, Xin; Li, Jun-Yong; Li, Weiqiang

    2017-12-01

    The origin of heavy Fe isotope compositions in high-silica (>70 wt% SiO2) igneous rocks remains a highly controversial topic. Considering that fluid exsolution in eruptive rocks is more straight-forward to constrain than in plutonic rocks, this study addresses the problem of Fe isotope fractionation in high-silica igneous rocks by measuring Fe isotope compositions of representative rhyolitic samples from the Neoproterozoic volcanic-sedimentary basins in southern China and the Triassic Tu Le Basin in northern Vietnam. The samples show remarkably varied δ56FeIRMM014 values ranging from 0.05 ± 0.05‰ to 0.55 ± 0.05‰, which is among the highest values reported from felsic rocks. The extensional tectonic setting and short melt residence time in magma chambers for the studied rhyolites rule out Soret diffusion and thermal migration processes as causes of the high δ56Fe values. Effects of volcanic degassing and fluid exsolution on bulk rock δ56Fe values for the rhyolites are also assessed using bulk rock geochemical indicators and Rayleigh fractionation models, and these processes are found to be insufficient to produce resolvable changes in Fe isotope compositions of the residual melt. The most probable mechanism accounting for heavy Fe isotope compositions in the high-silica rhyolites is narrowed down to fractional crystallization processes in the magma before rhyolite eruption. Removal of isotopically light Fe-bearing minerals (i.e. ulvöspinel-rich titanomagnetite, ilmenite and biotite) is proposed as the main cause of Fe isotope variation in silicic melts during magmatic evolution. This study implies that crystal fractionation is the dominant mechanism that controls Fe isotope fractionation in eruptive rocks and Fe isotopes could be used to study magmatic differentiation of high-silica magmas.

  12. Trihalomethanes formed from natural organic matter isolates: Using isotopic and compositional data to help understand sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Fram, Miranda S.; Fujii, Roger; Aiken, George R.; Kendall, Carol; Silva, Steven R.

    2000-01-01

    Over 20 million people drink water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta despite problematic levels of natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide in Delta water, which can form trihalomethanes (THMs) during the treatment process. It is widely believed that NOM released from Delta peat islands is a substantial contributor to the pool of THM precursors present in Delta waters. Dissolved NOM was isolated from samples collected at five channel sites within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and Delta, California, USA, and from a peat island agricultural drain. To help understand the sources of THM precursors, samples were analyzed to determine their chemical and isotopic composition, their propensity to form THMs, and the isotopic composition of the THMs.The chemical composition of the isolates was quite variable, as indicated by significant differences in carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and carbon-to-nitrogen concentration ratios. The lowest propensity to form THMs per unit of dissolved organic carbon was observed in the peat island agricultural drain isolate, even though it possessed the highest fraction of aromatic material and the highest specific ultraviolet absorbance. Changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of the isolates and the isotopic composition of the THMs suggest that the source of the THMs precursors was different between samples and between isolates. The pattern of variability in compositional and isotopic data for these samples was not consistent with simple mixing of river- and peat-derived organic material.

  13. The Cd and Zn Isotope Compositions of PM10 in the Atmosphere of Paris: New Tools for Discrimination and Tracking of the Origin of Metallic Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelet-Giraud, E.; Widory, D.; Innocent, C.; Quetel, C.; Le Bihan, O.; Fraboulet, I.; Forti, L.; Joos, E.; Goupil, G.; Canard, E.

    2008-12-01

    Due to their relatively high concentration in urban environments (from 10 to more than 50 μg.m-3), atmospheric particles (PM10) have potential damaging effects on the Public Health. Hence, the development of measures dealing with fine particulate matter is considered a priority by the EU Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) Program. Still, the origin of these airborne particles is subject to debate, as classical chemical methods showed their limitations. Recent studies have shown that stable isotopes of elements such as carbon, nitrogen or lead could be of great help in the search of new particle air pollution tracking tools. We will present here preliminary results on the pioneer use of stable isotope compositions of cadmium, zinc and mercury to help decipher the different possible origins of PM10 pollution in the atmosphere of Paris (France). Main potential sources were characterized: (1) waste incineration, (2) road traffic, (3) central heating and (4) coal-fired power plants. Results show that the use of cadmium (d114Cd) and zinc (d66Zn) isotopes, and the combination of both provides a reliable and precise tool for discriminating the different families of particle vectors. The isotope systematic of mercury (d200Hg) is more difficult to apprehend due to the low levels encountered (mercury is mainly present under gaseous form, but is still observed at low concentrations in particles), but does show significant variations between the different sources. Daily cumulative air samples were taken on three different locations, covering different scenarios in Paris city: 1) background pollution in Paris, 2) under the plume of a major pollution source and 3) Paris vicinity. Corresponding chemical and isotope analyses help identify the main vectors for the three elements (Cd, Zn and Hg) considered as well as assess their respective contributions to the levels of pollution observed.

  14. Uniformity in sulfur isotope composition in the orogenic gold deposits from the Dharwar Craton, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthi Saravanan, C.; Mishra, B.

    2009-07-01

    The sulfur isotope composition of sulfides (mainly pyrite and arsenopyrite) from gold deposits/prospects of the Dharwar Craton such as Hutti, Hira-Buddini, Uti, Kolar (Chigargunta), Ajjanahalli, and Jonnagiri has a narrow range (δ34S = +1.1 to +7.1‰). Such craton-scale uniformity of the above gold camps is noteworthy, in spite of the wide diversity in host rock compositions and their metamorphic conditions, and suggests a magmatic or average crustal source of sulfur for all deposits studied. In addition, our study points towards gold precipitation from reduced ore fluids, with near-homogeneous sulfur isotope compositions.

  15. Measurement of natural carbon isotopic composition of acetone in human urine.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Keita; Ohishi, Kazuki; Gilbert, Alexis; Akasaka, Mai; Yoshida, Naohiro; Yoshimura, Ryoko

    2016-02-01

    The natural carbon isotopic composition of acetone in urine was measured in healthy subjects using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry combined with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC-C-IRMS). Before applying the technique to a urine sample, we optimized the measurement conditions of HS-SPME-GC-C-IRMS using aqueous solutions of commercial acetone reagents. The optimization enabled us to determine the carbon isotopic compositions within ±0.2 ‰ of precision and ±0.3‰ of error using 0.05 or 0.2 mL of aqueous solutions with acetone concentrations of 0.3-121 mg/L. For several days, we monitored the carbon isotopic compositions and concentrations of acetone in urine from three subjects who lived a daily life with no restrictions. We also monitored one subject for 3 days including a fasting period of 24 h. These results suggest that changes in the availability of glucose in the liver are reflected in changes in the carbon isotopic compositions of urine acetone. Results demonstrate that carbon isotopic measurement of metabolites in human biological samples at natural abundance levels has great potential as a tool for detecting metabolic changes caused by changes in physiological states and disease.

  16. The influence of kinetics on the oxygen isotope composition of calcium carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, James M.; Nielsen, Laura C.; Ryerson, Frederick J.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2013-08-01

    Paleotemperature reconstructions rely on knowledge of the equilibrium separation of oxygen isotopes between aqueous solution and calcium carbonate. Although oxygen isotope separation is expected on theoretical grounds, the temperature-dependence remains uncertain because other factors, such as slow exchange of isotopes between dissolved CO2-species and water, can obscure the temperature signal. This is problematic for crystal growth experiments on laboratory timescales and for interpreting the oxygen isotope composition of crystals formed in natural settings. We present results from experiments in which inorganic calcite is precipitated in the presence of 0.25 μM dissolved bovine carbonic anhydrase (CA). The presence of dissolved CA accelerates oxygen isotope equilibration between the dissolved carbon species CO2, H2CO3, HCO3-, CO32- and water, thereby eliminating this source of isotopic disequilibrium during calcite growth. The experimental results allow us to isolate, for the first time, kinetic oxygen isotope effects occurring at the calcite-water interface. We present a framework of ion-by-ion growth of calcite that reconciles our new measurements with measurements of natural cave calcites that are the best candidate for having precipitated under near-equilibrium conditions. Our findings suggest that isotopic equilibrium between calcite and water is unlikely to have been established in laboratory experiments or in many natural settings. The use of CA in carbonate precipitation experiments offers new opportunities to refine oxygen isotope-based geothermometers and to interrogate environmental variables other than temperature that influence calcite growth rates.

  17. Study of samarium modified lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite composite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Rekha; Juneja, J. K.; Singh, Sangeeta; Raina, K. K.; Prakash, Chandra

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, composites of samarium substituted lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite with compositional formula 0.95Pb1-3x/2 SmxZr0.65Ti0.35O3-0.05Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 (x=0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) were prepared by the conventional solid state route. X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out to confirm the coexistence of individual phases. Microstructural study was done by using scanning electron microscope. Dielectric constant and loss were studied as a function of temperature and frequency. To study ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the composite samples, corresponding P-E and M-H hysteresis loops were recorded. Change in magnetic properties of electrically poled composite sample (x=0.02) was studied to confirm the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. ME coefficient (dE/dH) of the samples (x=0 and 0.02) was measured as a function of DC magnetic field.

  18. Assessment of shock effects on amphibole water contents and hydrogen isotope compositions: 1. Amphibolite experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minitti, Michelle E.; Rutherford, Malcolm J.; Taylor, Bruce E.; Dyar, M. Darby; Schultz, Peter H.

    2008-02-01

    Kaersutitic amphiboles found within a subset of the Martian meteorites have low water contents and variably heavy hydrogen isotope compositions. In order to assess if impact shock-induced devolatilization and hydrogen isotope fractionation were determining factors in these water and isotopic characteristics of the Martian kaersutites, we conducted impact shock experiments on samples of Gore Mountain amphibolite in the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). A parallel shock experiment conducted on an anorthosite sample indicated that contamination of shocked samples by the AVGR hydrogen propellant was unlikely. Petrographic study of the experimental amphibolite shock products indicates that only ˜ 10% of the shock products experienced levels of damage equivalent to those found in the most highly shocked kaersutite-bearing Martian meteorites (30-35 GPa). Ion microprobe studies of highly shocked hornblende from the amphibolite exhibited elevated water contents (ΔH 2O ˜ 0.1 wt.%) and enriched hydrogen isotope compositions (Δ D ˜ + 10‰) relative to unshocked hornblende. Water and hydrogen isotope analyses of tens of milligrams of unshocked, moderately shocked, and highly shocked hornblende samples by vacuum extraction/uranium reduction and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), respectively, are largely consistent with analyses of single grains from the ion microprobe. The mechanisms thought to have produced the excess water in most of the shocked hornblendes are shock-induced reduction of hornblende Fe and/or irreversible adsorption of hydrogen. Addition of the isotopically enriched Martian atmosphere to the Martian meteorite kaersutites via these mechanisms could explain their enriched and variable isotopic compositions. Alternatively, regrouping the water extraction and IRMS analyses on the basis of isotopic composition reveals a small, but consistent, degree of impact-induced devolatilization (˜ 0.1 wt.% H 2O) and H isotope enrichment (Δ D ˜ + 10

  19. Structure-property-composition relationships in doped zinc oxides: enhanced photocatalytic activity with rare earth dopants.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Josephine B M; Illsley, Derek; Lines, Robert; Makwana, Neel M; Darr, Jawwad A

    2015-02-09

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) technology to rapidly produce a library of 56 crystalline (doped) zinc oxide nanopowders and two undoped samples, each with different particle properties. Each sample was produced in series from the mixing of an aqueous stream of basic zinc nitrate (and dopant ion or modifier) solution with a flow of superheated water (at 450 °C and 24.1 MPa), whereupon a crystalline nanoparticle slurry was rapidly formed. Each composition was collected in series, cleaned, freeze-dried, and then characterized using analytical methods, including powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Photocatalytic activity of the samples toward the decolorization of methylene blue dye was assessed, and the results revealed that transition metal dopants tended to reduce the photoactivity while rare earth ions, in general, increased the photocatalytic activity. In general, low dopant concentrations were more beneficial to having greater photodecolorization in all cases.

  20. Exchange bias in zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB based metallic glass composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, Lisha; T, Hysen; P, Geetha; B, Aravind P.; Ojha, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Ramanujan, R. V.; Anantharaman, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The Exchange bias phenomenon and methods to manipulate the bias field in a controlled manner are thrust areas in magnetism due to its sophisticated theoretical concepts as well as advanced technological utility in the field of spintronics. The Exchange bias effect is observed as a result of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic (FM-AFM) exchange interaction, usually observed as a loop shift on field cooling below the Neel temperature of AFM. In the present study, we have chosen zinc ferrite which is a well known antiferromagnet, and FeNiMoB based metallic glass as the ferromagnet. The films were prepared by RF sputtering technique. The thickness and composition was obtained by RBS. The magnetic studies using SQUID VSM indicate exchange bias effect in the system. The effect of thermal annealing on exchange bias effect was studied. The observed exchange bias in the zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB system is not due to FM-AFM coupling but due to spin glass-ferromagnetic interaction.

  1. Exchange bias in zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB based metallic glass composite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    R, Lisha; P, Geetha; B, Aravind P.

    2015-06-24

    The Exchange bias phenomenon and methods to manipulate the bias field in a controlled manner are thrust areas in magnetism due to its sophisticated theoretical concepts as well as advanced technological utility in the field of spintronics. The Exchange bias effect is observed as a result of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic (FM-AFM) exchange interaction, usually observed as a loop shift on field cooling below the Neel temperature of AFM. In the present study, we have chosen zinc ferrite which is a well known antiferromagnet, and FeNiMoB based metallic glass as the ferromagnet. The films were prepared by RF sputtering technique. The thickness andmore » composition was obtained by RBS. The magnetic studies using SQUID VSM indicate exchange bias effect in the system. The effect of thermal annealing on exchange bias effect was studied. The observed exchange bias in the zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB system is not due to FM-AFM coupling but due to spin glass-ferromagnetic interaction.« less

  2. Multi-layered zinc oxide-graphene composite thin films for selective nitrogen dioxide sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Bhowmick, T.; Majumder, S. B.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, selective nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sensing characteristics of multi-layered graphene-zinc oxide (G-ZnO) thin films have been demonstrated at 150 °C. The response% of 5 ppm NO2 was measured to be 894% with response and recovery times estimated to be 150 s and 315 s, respectively. In these composite films, the interaction between graphene and zinc oxide is established through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with the analyses of photoluminescence spectra. Superior NO2 sensing of these films is due to simultaneous chemiadsorption of molecular oxygen and NO2 gases onto graphene and ZnO surfaces, resulting in an appreciable increase in the depletion layer width and thereby the sensor resistance. The sensor responses for other reducing gases (viz., CO, H2, and i-C4H10) are postulated to be due to their catalytic oxidation on the sensor surface, resulting in a decrease in the sensor resistance upon gas exposure. At lower operating temperature, due to the molecular nature of the chemiadsorbed oxygen, poor catalytic oxidation leads to a far lower sensor response for reducing gases as compared to NO2. For mixed NO2 and reducing gas sensing, we have reported that fast Fourier transformation of the resistance transients of all these gases in conjunction with principal component analyses forms a reasonably distinct cluster and, therefore, could easily be differentiated.

  3. Natural variations in the rhenium isotopic composition of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R.; Hu, L.; Humayun, M.

    2017-03-01

    Rhenium is an important element with which to test hypotheses of isotope variation. Historically, it has been difficult to precisely correct the instrumental mass bias in thermal ionization mass spectrometry. We used W as an internal standard to correct mass bias on the MC-ICP-MS, and obtained the first precise δ187Re values ( ±0.02‰, 2SE) for iron meteorites and chondritic metal. Relative to metal from H chondrites, IVB irons are systematically higher in δ187Re by 0.14 ‰. δ187Re for other irons are similar to H chondritic metal, although some individual samples show significant isotope fractionation. Since 185Re has a high neutron capture cross section, the effect of galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) irradiation on δ187Re was examined using correlations with Pt isotopes. The pre-GCR irradiation δ187Re for IVB irons is lower, but the difference in δ187Re between IVB irons and other meteoritic metal remains. Nuclear volume-dependent fractionation for Re is about the right magnitude near the melting point of iron, but because of the refractory and compatible character of Re, a compelling explanation in terms of mass-dependent fractionation is elusive. The magnitude of a nucleosynthetic s-process deficit for Re estimated from Mo and Ru isotopes is essentially unresolvable. Since thermal processing reduced nucleosynthetic effects in Pd, it is conceivable that Re isotopic variations larger than those in Mo and Ru may be present in IVBs since Re is more refractory than Mo and Ru. Thus, the Re isotopic difference between IVBs and other irons or chondritic metal remains unexplained.

  4. Ca-,Al-rich inclusions in the unique chondrite ALH85085 - Petrology, chemistry, and isotopic compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimura, Makoto; El-Goresy, Ahmed; Palme, Herbert; Zinner, Ernst

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive study is performed for the Ca-,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the unique chondrite ALH85085. The ALH85085 inclusions are smaller (5-80 microns) and more refractory than their counterparts in carbonaceous chondrites. The study includes 42 inclusions for petrography and mineralogy, 15 for bulk major and minor element chemical composition, six for Mg-Al isotopic systematics, 10 for Ca isotopes, nine for Ti isotopes, and six for trace element abundances. In addition, oxygen-isotopic compositions were determined in minerals from a single inclusion. No correlation is found between mineralogy, major element chemistry, and trace element abundances. It is further shown that the high-temperature geochemical behavior of ultrarefractory trace elements is decoupled from that of the major elements Ca and Ti (Ti is correlated with the relatively volatile elements Nb and Yb) implying that perovskite is of only minor importance as carrier of ultrarefractories.

  5. Osmium Stable Isotope Composition of Chondrites and Iron Meteorites: Implications for Planetary Core Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanne, J. A. M.; Millet, M. A.; Burton, K. W.; Dale, C. W.; Nowell, G. M.; Williams, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    Mass-dependent Os stable isotope fractionation is expected to occur during metal-silicate segregation as well as during crystallization of metal alloys due to the different bonding environment between silicate and metals. As such, Os stable isotopes have the potential to resolve questions pertaining to planetary accretion and differentiation. Here, we present stable Os isotope data for a set of chondrites and iron meteorites to examine the processes associated with core solidification. Carbonaceous, ordinary, and enstatite chondrites show no detectable stable isotope variation with a δ190Os weighted average of +0.12±0.04 (n=37). The uniform composition observed for chondrites implies Os stable isotope homogeneity of the bulk solar nebula. Contrary to chondrites, iron meteorites display a large range in Os stable isotope compositions from δ190Os of +0.05 up to +0.49‰. Variation is only observed in the IIAB and IIIAB irons. Type IVB irons display values similar to chondrites (+0.107±0.047 [n=3]) and IVA compositions are slightly different +0.187±0.004 (n=2). The type IIAB and IIIAB groups show values both within the chondritic range and up to heavier values extending up to +0.49‰. Since core formation in small planetary bodies is expected to quantitatively sequester Os in metal phases, bulk planetary cores are expected to display chondritic δ190Os values. Conversely, samples of the IIAB and IIIAB group display significant variation, possibly indicating that stable isotope fractionation occurred during solidification of the parent-body core. However, no covariation is observed between δ190Os and either Os abundance or radiogenic Os isotope ratios. Instead, liquid immiscibility during core crystallization, where the liquid metal splits into separate S- and P-rich liquids, may be a source of Os stable isotope fractionation.

  6. Clumped Isotope Composition of Cold-Water Corals: A Role for Vital Effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, P.; Guo, W.; Robinson, L. F.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements on a set of cold-water corals (mainly Desmophyllum dianthus) have suggested that their clumped isotope composition could serve as a promising proxy for reconstructing paleocean temperatures. Such measurements have also offered support for certain isotope models of coral calcification. However, there are differences in the clumped isotope compositions between warm-water and cold-water corals, suggesting that different kinds of corals could have differences in their biocalcification processes. In order to understand the systematics of clumped isotope variations in cold-water corals more fully, we present clumped isotope data from a range of cold-water coral species from the tropical Atlantic and the Southern Ocean.Our samples were either collected live or recently dead (14C ages < 1,000 yrs) with associated temperature data. They include a total of 11 solitary corals and 1 colonial coral from the Atlantic, and 8 solitary corals from the Southern Ocean. The data indicate that coral clumped isotope systematics may be more complicated than previously thought. For example, for the genus Caryophyllia we observe significant variations in clumped isotope compositions for corals which grew at the same temperature with an apparent negative correlation between Δ47 and δ18O, different to patterns previously observed in Desmophyllum. These results indicate that existing isotope models of biocalcification may not apply equally well to all corals. Clumped isotope vital effects may be present in certain cold-water corals as they are in warm-water corals, complicating the use of this paleoclimate proxy.

  7. Variation in the terrestrial isotopic composition and atomic weight of argon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, John Karl

    2014-01-01

    The isotopic composition and atomic weight of argon (Ar) are variable in terrestrial materials. Those variations are a source of uncertainty in the assignment of standard properties for Ar, but they provide useful information in many areas of science. Variations in the stable isotopic composition and atomic weight of Ar are caused by several different processes, including (1) isotope production from other elements by radioactive decay (radiogenic isotopes) or other nuclear transformations (e.g., nucleogenic isotopes), and (2) isotopic fractionation by physical-chemical processes such as diffusion or phase equilibria. Physical-chemical processes cause correlated mass-dependent variations in the Ar isotope-amount ratios (40Ar/36Ar, 38Ar/36Ar), whereas nuclear transformation processes cause non-mass-dependent variations. While atmospheric Ar can serve as an abundant and homogeneous isotopic reference, deviations from the atmospheric isotopic ratios in other Ar occurrences limit the precision with which a standard atomic weight can be given for Ar. Published data indicate variation of Ar atomic weights in normal terrestrial materials between about 39.7931 and 39.9624. The upper bound of this interval is given by the atomic mass of 40Ar, as some samples contain almost pure radiogenic 40Ar. The lower bound is derived from analyses of pitchblende (uranium mineral) containing large amounts of nucleogenic 36Ar and 38Ar. Within this interval, measurements of different isotope ratios (40Ar/36Ar or 38Ar/36Ar) at various levels of precision are widely used for studies in geochronology, water–rock interaction, atmospheric evolution, and other fields.

  8. The GENESIS Mission: Solar Wind Isotopic and Elemental Compositions and Their Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Burnett, D. S.; McKeegan, K. D.; Kallio, A. P.; Mao, P. H.; Heber, V. S.; Wieler, R.; Meshik, A.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Mabry, J. C.; Gilmour, J.; Crowther, S. A.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Jurewicz, A.; Marty, B.; Pepin, R. O.; Barraclough, B. L.; Nordholt, J. E.; Olinger, C. T.; Steinberg, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    The GENESIS mission was a novel NASA experiment to collect solar wind at the Earth's L1 point for two years and return it for analysis. The capsule crashed upon re-entry in 2004, but many of the solar-wind collectors were recovered, including separate samples of coronal hole, interstream, and CME material. Laboratory analyses of these materials have allowed higher isotopic precision than possible with current in-situ detectors. To date GENESIS results have been obtained on isotopes of O, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe on the order of 1% accuracy and precision, with poorer uncertainty on Xe isotopes and significantly better uncertainties on the lighter noble gases. Elemental abundances are available for the above elements as well as Mg, Si, and Fe. When elemental abundances are compared with other in situ solar wind measurements, agreement is generally quite good. One exception is the Ne elemental abundance, which agrees with Ulysses and Apollo SWC results, but not with ACE. Neon is of particular interest because of the uncertainty in the solar Ne abundance, which has significant implications for the standard solar model. Helium isotopic results of material from the different solar wind regimes collected by GENESIS is consistent with isotopic fractionation predictions of the Coulomb drag model, suggesting that isotopic fractionation corrections need to be applied to heavier elements as well when extrapolating solar wind to solar compositions. Noble gas isotopic compositions from GENESIS are consistent with those obtained for solar wind trapped in lunar grains, but have for the first time yielded a very precise Ar isotopic result. Most interesting for cosmochemistry is a preliminary oxygen isotopic result from GENESIS which indicates a solar enrichment of ~4% in 16O relative to the planets, consistent with a photolytic self-shielding phenomenon during solar system formation. Analyses of solar wind N and C isotopes may further elucidate this phenomenon. Preliminary results

  9. Clumped isotope composition of cold-water corals: A role for vital effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, Peter T.; Guo, Weifu; Robinson, Laura F.; Thiagarajan, Nivedita; Hendry, Katharine R.; Rosenheim, Brad E.; Leng, Melanie J.

    2016-04-01

    The carbonate clumped isotope thermometer is a promising tool for determining past ocean temperatures. It is based on the temperature dependence of rare isotopes 'clumping' into the same carbonate ion group in the carbonate mineral lattice. The extent of this clumping effect is independent of the isotope composition of the water from which carbonate precipitates, providing unique advantages over many other paleotemperature proxies. Existing calibrations of this thermometer in cold-water and warm-water corals suggest clumped isotope 'vital effects' are negligible in cold-water corals but may be significant in warm-water corals. Here, we test the calibration of the carbonate clumped isotope thermometer in cold-water corals with a recently collected and well characterised sample set spanning a range of coral genera (Balanophyllia, Caryophyllia, Dasmosmilia, Desmophyllum, Enallopsammia and Javania). The clumped isotope compositions (Δ47) of these corals exhibit systematic dependences on their growth temperatures, confirming the basis of the carbonate clumped isotope thermometer. However, some cold-water coral genera show Δ47 values that are higher than the expected equilibrium values by up to 0.05‰ (equivalent to underestimating temperature by ∼9 °C) similar to previous findings for some warm-water corals. This finding suggests that the vital effects affecting corals Δ47 are common to both warm- and cold-water corals. By comparison with models of the coral calcification process we suggest that the clumped isotope offsets in these genera are related to the kinetic isotope effects associated with CO2 hydration/hydroxylation reactions in the corals' calcifying fluid. Our findings complicate the use of the carbonate clumped isotope thermometer in corals, but suggest that species- or genus-specific calibrations could be useful for the future application of this paleotemperature proxy.

  10. MAST - A mass spectrometer telescope for studies of the isotopic composition of solar, anomalous, and galactic cosmic ray nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Walter R.; Cummings, Alan C.; Cummings, Jay R.; Garrard, Thomas L.; Kecman, Branislav; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Selesnick, Richard S.; Stone, Edward C.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1993-01-01

    The Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST) on SAMPEX is designed to provide high resolution measurements of the isotopic composition of energetic nuclei from He to Ni (Z = 2 to 28) over the energy range from about 10 to several hundred MeV/nuc. During large solar flares MAST will measure the isotopic abundances of solar energetic particles to determine directly the composition of the solar corona, while during solar quiet times MAST will study the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic rays. In addition, MAST will measure the isotopic composition of both interplanetary and trapped fluxes of anomalous cosmic rays, believed to be a sample of the nearby interstellar medium.

  11. The relation between isotopic composition of argon and carbon in natural gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavrilov, Y. Y.; Zhurov, Y. A.; Teplinskiy, G. I.

    1977-01-01

    The methods and results of determination of the argon and carbon isotope compositions of hydrocarbon gases of Mezozoic complexes of Western Siberia are presented. Based on the Ar-36, Ar-40, C-12, C-13 content of the various deposits and on the presumed mechanisms of entry of these isotopes into the deposits, it is concluded that formation of natural gas in some deposits included vertical migration from a lower complex.

  12. Factors that control the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in an anoxic marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alperin, M. J.; Blair, Neal E.; Albert, D. B.; Hoehler, T. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in anoxic marine sediment is controlled by four factors: (1) the pathway of methane formation, (2) the isotopic composition of the methanogenic precursors, (3) the isotope fractionation factors for methane production, and (4) the isotope fractionation associated with methane oxidation. The importance of each factor was evaluated by monitoring stable carbon isotope ratios in methane produced by a sediment microcosm. Methane did not accumulate during the initial 42-day period when sediment contained sulfate, indicating little methane production from 'noncompetitive' substrates. Following sulfate depletion, methane accumulation proceeded in three distinct phases. First, CO2 reduction was the dominant methanogenic pathway and the isotopic composition of the methane produced ranged from -80 to -94 per thousand. The acetate concentration increased during this phase, suggesting that acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria were unable to keep pace with acetate production. Second, acetate fermentation became the dominant methanogenic pathway as bacteria responded to elevated acetate concentrations. The methane produced during this phase was progressively enriched in C-13, reaching a maximum delta(C-13) value of -42 per thousand. Third, the acetate pool experienced a precipitous decline from greater than 5 mM to less than 20 micro-M and methane production was again dominated by CO2 reduction. The delta(C-13) of methane produced during this final phase ranged from -46 to -58 per thousand. Methane oxidation concurrent with methane production was detected throughout the period of methane accumulation, at rates equivalent to 1 to 8 percent of the gross methane production rate. Thus methane oxidation was too slow to have significantly modified the isotopic signature of methane. A comparison of microcosm and field data suggests that similar microbial interactions may control seasonal variability in the isotopic composition of methane

  13. Potassium Isotopic Compositions of NIST Potassium Standards and 40Ar/39Ar Mineral Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Leah; Tappa, Mike; Ellam, Rob; Mark, Darren; Higgins, John; Simon, Justin I.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the isotopic ratios of standards, spikes, and reference materials is fundamental to the accuracy of many geochronological methods. For example, the 238U/235U ratio relevant to U-Pb geochronology was recently re-determined [1] and shown to differ significantly from the previously accepted value employed during age determinations. These underlying values are fundamental to accurate age calculations in many isotopic systems, and uncertainty in these values can represent a significant (and often unrecognized) portion of the uncertainty budget for determined ages. The potassium isotopic composition of mineral standards, or neutron flux monitors, is a critical, but often overlooked component in the calculation of K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages. It is currently assumed that all terrestrial materials have abundances indistinguishable from that of NIST SRM 985 [2]; this is apparently a reasonable assumption at the 0.25per mille level (1s) [3]. The 40Ar/39Ar method further relies on the assumption that standards and samples (including primary and secondary standards) have indistinguishable 40K/39K values. We will present data establishing the potassium isotopic compositions of NIST isotopic K SRM 985, elemental K SRM 999b, and 40Ar/39Ar biotite mineral standard GA1550 (sample MD-2). Stable isotopic compositions (41K/39K) were measured by the peak shoulder method with high resolution MC-ICP-MS (Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus), using the accepted value of NIST isotopic SRM 985 [2] for fractionation [4] corrections [5]. 40K abundances were measured by TIMS (Thermo Scientific TRITON), using 41K/39K values from ICP-MS measurements (or, for SRM 985, values from [2]) for internal fractionation corrections. Collectively these data represent an important step towards a metrologically traceable calibration of 40K concentrations in primary 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards and improve uncertainties by ca. an order of magnitude in the potassium isotopic compositions of standards.

  14. Effect of zinc oxide on flexural and physical properties of PMMA composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Wan Nur Fadilla Wan; Abdullah, Abdul Manaf; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2016-12-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is the most widely accepted material in maxillofacial implants due to its superior advantages. The material used for craniofacial implant should have good mechanical and antibacterial properties to withstand forces and eliminate infection. A study was conducted to prepare PMMA incorporated with β-tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP) filler and zinc oxide as an antibacterial agent at different compositions and investigate the flexural properties of the produced PMMA/β- TCP/ZnOcomposites. Pure PMMA as control,15 % β -TCP filled, 15% β -TCPwith 2.5% ZnO filled as well as15% β -TCPwith5% ZnOfilled PMMA were prepared. PMMA were mixed together with β -TCP and zinc oxide manually according to the percentages specified until it has reached the homogeneous state. Flexural specimens were prepared by casting the paste in silicone mould which has been fabricated using 3D printed flexural template. The number of samples was n=7 for each composition. Statistical analysis of One Way ANOVA was employed to compare the flexural properties of each samples. Flexural strength of pure PMMA,15 % β -TCP filled, 15% β -TCP with 2.5% ZnO filled as well as 15% β -TCP with 5% ZnO filled PMMA were 60.79, 46.75, 38.72 and 41.49 MPa respectively. The addition of either β- TCP or β- TCP with ZnO decreased the flexural properties and it showed significant differences as compared to pure PMMA (p<0.05).5% ZnO filled PMMA showed higher flexural properties as compared to 2.5% ZnO filled PMMA, however the differences were found not significant(p>0.05).

  15. Nd and Sm isotopic composition of spent nuclear fuels from three material test reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Sharp, Nicholas; Ticknor, Brian W.; Bronikowski, Michael; ...

    2016-11-17

    Rare earth elements such as neodymium and samarium are ideal for probing the neutron environment that spent nuclear fuels are exposed to in nuclear reactors. The large number of stable isotopes can provide distinct isotopic signatures for differentiating the source material for nuclear forensic investigations. The rare-earth elements were isolated from the high activity fuel matrix via ion exchange chromatography in a shielded cell. The individual elements were then separated using cation exchange chromatography. In conclusion, the neodymium and samarium aliquots were analyzed via MC–ICP–MS, resulting in isotopic compositions with a precision of 0.01–0.3%.

  16. Isotopic composition of high-activity particles released in the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Osuch, S; Dabrowska, M; Jaracz, P; Kaczanowski, J; Le Van Khoi; Mirowski, S; Piasecki, E; Szeflińska, G; Szefliński, Z; Tropiło, J

    1989-11-01

    Gamma spectra were measured and activities of the detected isotopes were analyzed for 206 high-activity particles (hot particles, HPs) found in northeastern Poland after the Chernobyl accident. The isotopic composition of HPs observed in gamma-activity is compared with that of the general fallout and core inventory calculations. Particle formation and a process of depletion in Ru and Cs isotopes are discussed. On the basis of a search performed a year later, some comments on the behavior of HPs in the soil are made.

  17. Nd and Sm isotopic composition of spent nuclear fuels from three material test reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, Nicholas; Ticknor, Brian W.; Bronikowski, Michael

    Rare earth elements such as neodymium and samarium are ideal for probing the neutron environment that spent nuclear fuels are exposed to in nuclear reactors. The large number of stable isotopes can provide distinct isotopic signatures for differentiating the source material for nuclear forensic investigations. The rare-earth elements were isolated from the high activity fuel matrix via ion exchange chromatography in a shielded cell. The individual elements were then separated using cation exchange chromatography. In conclusion, the neodymium and samarium aliquots were analyzed via MC–ICP–MS, resulting in isotopic compositions with a precision of 0.01–0.3%.

  18. Determining the oxygen isotope composition of evapotranspiration with eddy covariance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The oxygen isotope componsition of evapotranspiration (dF) represents an important tracer in the study of biosphere-atmosphere interactions, hydrology, paleoclimate, and carbon cycling. Here we demonstrate direct measurement of dF based on eddy covariance (EC) and tunable diode laser (EC-TDL) techni...

  19. Zirconium isotope constraints on the composition of Theia and current Moon-forming theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, W.; Schönbächler, M.

    2016-09-01

    The giant impact theory is the most widely recognized formation scenario of the Earth's Moon. Giant impact models based on dynamical simulations predict that the Moon acquired a significant amount of impactor (Theia) material, which is challenging to reconcile with geochemical data for O, Si, Cr, Ti and W isotopes in the Earth and Moon. Three new giant impact scenarios have been proposed to account for this discrepancy - hit-and-run impact, impact with a fast-spinning protoEarth and massive impactors - each one reducing the proportion of the impactor in the Moon compared to the original canonical giant impact model. The validity of each theory and their different dynamical varieties are evaluated here using an integrated approach that considers new high-precision Zr isotope measurements of lunar rocks, and quantitative geochemical modelling of the isotopic composition of the impactor Theia. All analysed lunar samples (whole-rock, ilmenite and pyroxene separates) display identical Zr isotope compositions to that of the Earth within the uncertainty of 13 ppm for 96Zr/90Zr (2σ weighted average). This 13 ppm upper limit is used to infer the most extreme isotopic composition that Theia could have possessed, relative to the Earth, for each of the proposed giant impact theories. The calculated Theian composition is compared with the Zr isotope compositions of different solar system materials in order to constrain the source region of the impactor. As a first order approximation, we show that all considered models (including the canonical) are plausible, alleviating the initial requirement for the new giant impact models. Albeit, the canonical and hit-and-run models are the most restrictive, suggesting that the impactor originated from a region close to the Earth. The fast-spinning protoEarth and massive impactor models are more relaxed and increase the allowed impactor distance from the Earth. Similar calculations carried out for O, Cr, Ti and Si isotope data support

  20. Xenon isotopic composition of the Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peto, M. K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2012-12-01

    Although convection models do not preclude preservation of smaller mantle regions with more pristine composition throughout Earth's history, it has been widely assumed that the moon forming giant impact likely homogenizes the whole mantle following a magma ocean that extended all the way to the bottom of the mantle. Recent findings of tungsten and xenon heterogeneities in the mantle [1,2,3,4], however, imply that i) the moon forming giant impact may not have homogenized the whole mantle and ii) plate tectonics was inefficient in erasing early formed compositional differences, particularly for the xenon isotopes. Therefore, the xenon isotope composition in the present day mantle still preserves a memory of early Earth processes. However, determination of the xenon isotopic composition of the mantle source is still scarce, since the mantle composition is overprinted by post-eruptive atmospheric contamination in basalts erupted at ocean islands and mid ocean ridges. The xenon composition of the depleted upper mantle has been defined by the gas rich sample, 2πD43 (also known as "popping rock"), from the North Atlantic (13° 469`N). However, the composition of a single sample is not likely to define the composition of the upper mantle, especially since popping rock has an "enriched" trace element composition. We will present Ne, Ar and Xe isotope data on MORB glass samples with "normal" helium isotope composition (8±1 Ra) from the Southeast Indian Ridge, the South Atlantic Ridge, the Sojourn Ridge, the Juan de Fuca, the East Pacific Rise, and the Gakkel Ridge. Following the approach of [1], we correct for syn- and post-eruptive atmosphere contamination, and determine the variation of Ar and Xe isotope composition of the "normal" MORB source. We investigate the effect of atmospheric recycling in the variation of MORB mantle 40Ar/36Ar and 129Xe/130Xe ratios, and attempt to constrain the average upper mantle argon and xenon isotopic compositions. [1] Mukhopadhyay, Nature

  1. Characterization of Antimicrobial Poly (Lactic Acid)/Nano-Composite Films with Silver and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Zhuangzhuang; Zhao, Tianrui; Li, Lin; Fan, Jian; Qin, Yuyue

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial active films based on poly (lactic acid) (PLA) were prepared with nano-silver (nano-Ag) and nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) using a solvent volatilizing method. The films were characterized for mechanical, structural, thermal, physical and antimicrobial properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images characterized the fracture morphology of the films with different contents of nano-Ag and nano-ZnO. The addition of nanoparticles into the pure PLA film decreased the tensile strength and elasticity modulus and increased the elongation of breaks—in other words, the flexibility and extensibility of these composites improved. According to the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the glass transition temperature of the PLA nano-composite films decreased, and the crystallinity of these films increased; a similar result was apparent from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The water vapor permeability (WVP) and opacity of the PLA nano-composite films augmented compared with pure PLA film. Incorporation of nanoparticles to the PLA films significantly improved the antimicrobial activity to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli. The results indicated that PLA films with nanoparticles could be considered a potential environmental-friendly packaging material. PMID:28773018

  2. Rhelogical and antibacterial performance of sodium alginate/zinc oxide composite coating for cellulosic paper.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Tao; He, Haibing; Wu, Xihu; Cao, Xianwu; Jin, Jia; Sun, Qijun; Roy, Vellaisamy A L; Li, Robert K Y

    2018-07-01

    Coating of antibacterial layer on the surface of cellulosic paper has numerous potential applications. In the present work, sodium alginate (SA) served as a binder to disperse Zn 2+ and the prepared zinc oxide (ZnO) particles were used as antibacterial agents. The rheology test revealed that there were cross-linking between Zn 2+ and SA molecular chains in the aqueous solution, resulting in the viscosity of ZnO/SA composite coating increased in the low shear rate region and decreased in the high shear rate region as compared with pure SA. SEM and EDS mapping images showed that the ZnO particles were prepared successfully at 120 °C and dispersed homogeneously on the surface of cellulose fibers and the pores of cellulosic papers. The thermal stabilities of the coated papers decreased as compared to the original blank cellulosic paper, which was ascribed to the low thermal stability of SA and the catalytic effect of ZnO on SA. The tensile stress and Young's modulus of ZnO/SA composite coated paper increased up 39.5% and 30.7%, respectively, as compared with those of blank cellulosic paper. The antibacterial activity tests indicated that the ZnO/SA composite coating endowed the cellulosic paper with effectively growth inhibition of both Gram-negative bacteria E. coli and Gram-positive bacteria S. aureu. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Elemental composition, isotopes, electrons and positrons in cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.

    1979-01-01

    Papers presented at the 16th International Cosmic Ray Conference, Kyoto, Japan, dealing with the composition of cosmic rays are reviewed. Particular interest is given to data having bearing on nucleosynthesis sites, supernovae, gamma-process, comparison with solar system composition, multiplicity of sources, and the energy dependence of composition.

  4. Evaluating the Microshear Bond Strength and Microleakage of Flowable Composites Containing Zinc Oxide Nano-particles.

    PubMed

    Teymoornezhad, Koorosh; Alaghehmand, Homayoun; Daryakenari, Ghazaleh; Khafri, Soraya; Tabari, Mitra

    2016-11-01

    Preventive resin restorations (PRR) are the conservative choice for the most common carious lesions in children. Thus, new age flowable resin composites with higher filler content are readily used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microshear bond strength and microleakage of two flowable resin composites containing different percentages of nano zinc oxide (NZnO) particles, which have proven to have antimicrobial properties. This experimental in-vitro study was carried out in the Dental Material Research Center of Babol University of Medical Sciences in 2015. One nanohybrid and one nanofill flowable resin composite were chosen and modified with the incorporation of 1% and 3% Wt NZnO particles. Six groups (n=10, 0%, 1%, and 3%) of resin composite sticks on dental enamel (2×2mm) were prepared to be placed in the microtensile tester. The microshear bond strength magnitude (MPa) was recorded at the point of failure. A class I box (3×0.8×1 mm) was prepared on 60 premolars and filled using the resin composites (6 groups, n=10). The specimens were immersed in a 5% basic fuschin solution and sectioned bucco-lingually to view the microleakage using a stereomicroscope. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests for microshear and Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests for microleakage were used to analyze the data in the IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 software. The bond strength of the 3% clearfill group significantly decreased while no significant change occurred in the bond strength in other groups. The Z-350 group had significantly lower microleakage as nanoparticles increased. No significant difference was observed in the clearfill group. Up to 3% Wt incorporation of NZnO particles will not diversely alter the bond strength, but it will be beneficial in providing antimicrobial effects with lower microleakage rates.

  5. Thallium-isotopic compositions of euxinic sediments as a proxy for global manganese-oxide burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Jeremy D.; Nielsen, Sune G.; Horner, Tristan J.; Ostrander, Chadlin M.; Peterson, Larry C.

    2017-09-01

    Thallium (Tl) isotopes are a new and potentially powerful paleoredox proxy that may track bottom water oxygen conditions based on the global burial flux of manganese oxides. Thallium has a residence time of ∼20 thousand years, which is longer than the ocean mixing time, and it has been inferred that modern oxic seawater is conservative with respect to both concentration and isotopes. Marine sources of Tl have nearly identical isotopic values. Therefore, the Tl sinks, adsorption onto manganese oxides and low temperature oceanic crust alteration (the dominant seawater output), are the primary controls of the seawater isotopic composition. For relatively short-term, ∼million years, redox events it is reasonable to assume that the dominant mechanism that alters the Tl isotopic composition of seawater is associated with manganese oxide burial because large variability in low temperature ocean crust alteration is controlled by long-term, multi-million years, average ocean crust production rates. This study presents new Tl isotope data for an open ocean transect in the South Atlantic, and depth transects for two euxinic basins (anoxic and free sulfide in the water column), the Cariaco Basin and Black Sea. The Tl isotopic signature of open ocean seawater in the South Atlantic was found to be homogeneous with ε205Tl = -6.0 ± 0.3 (±2 SD, n = 41) while oxic waters from Cariaco and the Black Sea are -5.6 and -2.2, respectively. Combined with existing data from the Pacific and Arctic Oceans, our Atlantic data establish the conservatism of Tl isotopes in the global ocean. In contrast, partially- and predominantly-restricted basins reveal Tl isotope differences that vary between open-ocean (-6) and continental material (-2) ε205Tl, scaling with the degree of restriction. Regardless of the differences between basins, Tl is quantitatively removed from their euxinic waters below the chemocline. The burial of Tl in euxinic sediments is estimated to be an order of magnitude

  6. SIMSISH Technique Does Not Alter the Apparent Isotopic Composition of Bacterial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chapleur, Olivier; Wu, Ting-Di; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Mazéas, Laurent; Bouchez, Théodore

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the function of uncultured microorganisms in their environment, the SIMSISH method, combining in situ hybridization (ISH) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) imaging, has been proposed to determine the quantitative uptake of specific labelled substrates by uncultured microbes at the single cell level. This technique requires the hybridization of rRNA targeted halogenated DNA probes on fixed and permeabilized microorganisms. Exogenous atoms are introduced into cells and endogenous atoms removed during the experimental procedures. Consequently differences between the original and the apparent isotopic composition of cells may occur. In the present study, the influence of the experimental procedures of SIMSISH on the isotopic composition of carbon in E. coli cells was evaluated with nanoSIMS and compared to elemental analyser-isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (EA-IRMS) measurements. Our results show that fixation and hybridization have a very limited, reproducible and homogeneous influence on the isotopic composition of cells. Thereby, the SIMSISH procedure minimizes the contamination of the sample by exogenous atoms, thus providing a means to detect the phylogenetic identity and to measure precisely the carbon isotopic composition at the single cell level. This technique was successfully applied to a complex sample with double bromine – iodine labelling targeting a large group of bacteria and a specific archaea to evaluate their specific 13C uptake during labelled methanol anaerobic degradation. PMID:24204855

  7. The uranium-isotopic composition of Saharan dust collected over the central Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aciego, Sarah M.; Aarons, Sarah M.; Sims, Kenneth W. W.

    2015-06-01

    Uranium isotopic compositions, (234U/238U)activity , are utilized by earth surface disciplines as chronometers and source tracers, including in soil science where aeolian dust is a significant source to the total nutrient pool. However, the (234U/238U)activity composition of dust is under characterized due to material and analytical constraints. Here we present new uranium isotope data measured by high precision MC-ICP-MS on ten airborne dust samples collected on the M55 trans-Atlantic cruise in 2002. Two pairs of samples are presented with different size fractions, coarse (1-30 μm) and fine (<1 μm), and all samples were processed to separate the water soluble component in order to assess the controls on the (234U/238U)activity of mineral aerosols transported from the Sahara across the Atlantic. Our results indicate (234U/238U)activity above one for both the water soluble (1.13-1.17) and the residual solid (1.06-1.18) fractions of the dust; no significant correlation is found between isotopic composition and travel distance. Residual solids indicate a slight dependance of (234U/238U)activity on particle size. Future modeling work that incorporates dust isotopic compositions into mixing or isotopic fractionation models will need to account for the wide variability in dust (234U/238U)activity .

  8. Evaluating climate model performance in the tropics with retrievals of water isotopic composition from Aura TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Robert; Kim, Daehyun; Kelley, Max; LeGrande, Allegra; Worden, John; Schmidt, Gavin

    2014-05-01

    Observational and theoretical arguments suggest that satellite retrievals of the stable isotope composition of water vapor could be useful for climate model evaluation. The isotopic composition of water vapor is controlled by the same processes that control water vapor amount, but the observed distribution of isotopic composition is distinct from amount itself . This is due to the fractionation that occurs between the abundant H216O isotopes (isotopologues) and the rare and heavy H218O and HDO isotopes during evaporation and condensation. The fractionation physics are much simpler than the underlying moist physics; discrepancies between observed and modeled isotopic fields are more likely due to problems in the latter. Isotopic measurements therefore have the potential for identifying problems that might not be apparent from more conventional measurements. Isotopic tracers have existed in climate models since the 1980s but it is only since the mid 2000s that there have been enough data for meaningful model evaluation in this sense, in the troposphere at least. We have evaluated the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model over the tropics against water isotope (HDO/H2O) retrievals from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), alongside more conventional measurements. A small ensemble of experiments was performed with physics perturbations to the cumulus and planetary boundary layer schemes, done in the context of the normal model development process. We examined the degree to which model-data agreement could be used to constrain a select group of internal processes in the model, namely condensate evaporation, entrainment strength, and moist convective air mass flux. All are difficult to parameterize, but exert strong influence over model performance. We found that the water isotope composition was significantly more sensitive to physics changes than precipitation, temperature or relative humidity through the depth of the tropical troposphere. Among the

  9. Spurious and functional correlates of the isotopic composition of a generalist across a tropical rainforest landscape

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The isotopic composition of generalist consumers may be expected to vary in space as a consequence of spatial heterogeneity in isotope ratios, the abundance of resources, and competition. We aim to account for the spatial variation in the carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of a generalized predatory species across a 500 ha. tropical rain forest landscape. We test competing models to account for relative influence of resources and competitors to the carbon and nitrogen isotopic enrichment of gypsy ants (Aphaenogaster araneoides), taking into account site-specific differences in baseline isotope ratios. Results We found that 75% of the variance in the fraction of 15N in the tissue of A. araneoides was accounted by one environmental parameter, the concentration of soil phosphorus. After taking into account landscape-scale variation in baseline resources, the most parsimonious model indicated that colony growth and leaf litter biomass accounted for nearly all of the variance in the δ15N discrimination factor, whereas the δ13C discrimination factor was most parsimoniously associated with colony size and the rate of leaf litter decomposition. There was no indication that competitor density or diversity accounted for spatial differences in the isotopic composition of gypsy ants. Conclusion Across a 500 ha. landscape, soil phosphorus accounted for spatial variation in baseline nitrogen isotope ratios. The δ15N discrimination factor of a higher order consumer in this food web was structured by bottom-up influences - the quantity and decomposition rate of leaf litter. Stable isotope studies on the trophic biology of consumers may benefit from explicit spatial design to account for edaphic properties that alter the baseline at fine spatial grains. PMID:19930701

  10. Vanadium isotopic composition of the sea squirt (Ciona savignyi).

    PubMed

    Nomura, Masao; Nakamura, Mana; Soeda, Ryosuke; Kikawada, Yoshikazu; Fukushima, Michiko; Oi, Takao

    2012-09-01

    Vanadium (V) in the sea squirt (Ciona savignyi) from Onagawa Bay, Miyagi, Japan, was isolated and purified through adsorption on a diamine resin and anion and cation exchanges after the dissolution of sea squirt samples with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The (50)V/(51)V isotope ratio of V thus obtained was mass-spectrometrically determined to be from 2.51×10(-3) to 2.55×10(-3) with the average of 2.53×10(-3) by the thermal ionisation technique. This value agreed with those of vanadyl chloride and vanadyl nitrate both prepared from vanadyl sulphate (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd., Japan) and of V in coastal seawater (Shimokita Peninsula, Aomori, Japan) within experimental uncertainties (standard deviation of±0.04), which suggested that no appreciable V isotope fractionation occurs accompanying V uptake by the sea squirt from sea water.

  11. Plutonium isotopes in the atmosphere of Central Europe: Isotopic composition and time evolution vs. circulation factors.

    PubMed

    Kierepko, Renata; Mietelski, Jerzy W; Ustrnul, Zbigniew; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Wershofen, Herbert; Holgye, Zoltan; Kapała, Jacek; Isajenko, Krzysztof

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports evidence of Pu isotopes in the lower part of the troposphere of Central Europe. The data were obtained based on atmospheric aerosol fraction samples collected from four places in three countries (participating in the informal European network known as the Ring of Five (Ro5)) forming a cell with a surface area of about 200,000km(2). We compared our original data sets from Krakow (Poland, 1990-2007) and Bialystok (Poland, 1991-2007) with the results from two other locations, Prague (Czech Republic; 1997-2004) and Braunschweig (Germany; 1990-2003) to find time evolution of the Pu isotopes. The levels of the activity concentration for (238)Pu and for ((239+240))Pu were estimated to be a few and some tens of nBqm(-3), respectively. However, we also noted some results were much higher (even about 70 times higher) than the average concentration of (238)Pu in the atmosphere. The achieved complex data sets were used to test a new approach to the problem of solving mixing isotopic traces from various sources (here up to three) in one sample. Results of our model, supported by mesoscale atmospheric circulation parameters, suggest that Pu from nuclear weapon accidents or tests and nuclear burnt-up fuel are present in the air. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of phosphomonoesterases on the oxygen isotope composition of phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Sperber, Christian; Kries, Hajo; Tamburini, Federica; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Plants and microorganisms under phosphorus (P) stress release extracellular phosphatases as a strategy to acquire inorganic phosphate (Pi). These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoesters leading to a release of Pi. During the enzymatic hydrolysis an isotopic fractionation (ε) occurs leaving an imprint on the oxygen isotope composition of the released Pi which might be used to trace phosphorus in the environment. Therefore, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from wheat germ and potato tuber and alkaline phosphatase from Escherichia coli were prepared in order to determine the oxygen isotope fractionation caused by these enzymes. Adenosine 5‧ monophosphate and glycerol phosphate were used as substrates. The oxygen isotope fractionation caused by acid phosphatases is 20-30‰ smaller than for alkaline phosphatases, resulting in a difference of 5-7.5‰ in δ18O of Pi depending on the enzyme. We attribute the enzyme dependence of the isotopic fractionation to distinct reaction mechanisms of the two types of phosphatases. The observed difference is large enough to distinguish between the two enzymatic processes in environmental samples. These findings show that the oxygen isotope composition of Pi can be used to trace different enzymatic processes, offering an analytical tool that might contribute to a better understanding of the P-cycle in the environment.

  13. Nickel oxide decorated zinc oxide composite nanorods: Excellent catalyst for photoreduction of hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Singh, Simranjeet; Ahmed, Imtiaz; Haldar, Krishna Kanta

    2018-08-01

    In light of the growing interest and ability to search for new materials, we have synthesized Nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles decorated Zinc (ZnO) nanorods composite (NiO/ZnO) nanostructure. The NiO/ZnO heterostructure formation was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The fabricated environmental friendly NiO/ZnO composite nanostructure shows a well-defined photoreduction characteristic of hexavalent Chromium (Cr) (VI) to tri-valent Chromium (Cr) (III) under UV-light. Such an enhanced photoreduction property is attributed due to the decreased electron-hole recombination process which was proved by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, photocurrent study, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity rate of the NiO decorated ZnO nanorods was much higher than that of bare ZnO nanorods for the reduction of chromium (VI) and the rate is found to be 0.306 min -1 . These results have demonstrates that suitable surface engineering may open up new opportunities in the development of high-performance photocatalyst. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molybdenum Isotopic Composition of the Archean Mantle As Inferred from Studies of Komatiites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greber, N. D.; Puchtel, I. S.; Nagler, T. F.; Mezger, K.

    2014-12-01

    Molybdenum isotopic composition has been shown to be a powerful tool in studies of planetary processes, e.g. estimating core formation temperatures [1,2]. However, Mo isotope compositions of terrestrial reservoirs are not well constrained. In order to better constrain the Mo isotopic composition of the early Earth's mantle, komatiites from four locations were analyzed for their Mo concentrations and isotopic compositions. Komatiites are particularly appropriate for this type of study because they formed by high degrees of partial melting of the mantle leading to a complete base metal sulfide removal from the residual mantle and the production of sulfur-undersaturated melts and thus a quantitative removal of Mo from the source into the melt. All samples, except for two strongly altered specimens specifically chosen to study the effects of secondary alteration, are very fresh having preserved most of their primary mineralogy. The Mo concentrations in komatiites range from 10 to 120 ng/g. Fresh komatiites have lighter δ98Mo (NIST SRM 3134 = 0.25‰, [3]) than altered samples. The estimated primary Mo isotope compositions of the studied komatiite melts range from 0.02 ± 0.16‰ to 0.19 ± 0.14‰ and are therefore indistinguishable within analytical uncertainty (2SD) from published values for chondritic meteorites (0.09 ± 0.04 ‰; 2SD; [2]) and lighter than the proposed average for Earth's continental crust (0.3 to 0.4‰ [4]). All data combined, although overlapping in errors, show a consistent trend of lighter δ98Mo and lower Mo concentrations in more melt-depleted mantle sources, indicating incompatible behaviour of Mo and preferential mobilization of heavy Mo isotopes during mantle melting. [1] Hin et al. (2013) EPSL, 379 [2] Burkhardt et al. (2014) EPSL, 391 [3] Nägler, et al. (2014) GGR, 38. [4] Voegelin et al. (2014) Lithos, 190-191.

  15. Lead isotope studies of the Guerrero composite terrane, west-central Mexico: implications for ore genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potra, Adriana; Macfarlane, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    New thermal ionization mass spectrometry and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry Pb isotope analyses of three Cenozoic ores from the La Verde porphyry copper deposit located in the Zihuatanejo-Huetamo subterrane of the Guerrero composite terrane are presented and the metal sources are evaluated. Lead isotope ratios of 3 Cenozoic ores from the El Malacate and La Esmeralda porphyry copper deposits located in the Zihuatanejo-Huetamo subterrane and of 14 ores from the Zimapan and La Negra skarn deposits from the adjoining Sierra Madre terrane are also presented to look for systematic differences in the lead isotope trends and ore metal sources among the proposed exotic tectonostratigraphic terranes of southern Mexico. Comparison among the isotopic signatures of ores from the Sierra Madre terrane and distinct subterranes of the Guerrero terrane supports the idea that there is no direct correlation between the distinct suspect terranes of Mexico and the isotopic signatures of the associated Cenozoic ores. Rather, these Pb isotope patterns are interpreted to reflect increasing crustal contribution to mantle-derived magmas as the arc advanced eastward onto a progressively thicker continental crust. The lead isotope trend observed in Cenozoic ores is not recognized in the ores from Mesozoic volcanogenic massive sulfide and sedimentary exhalative deposits. The Mesozoic ores formed prior to the amalgamation of the Guerrero composite terrane to the continental margin, which took place during the Late Cretaceous, in intraoceanic island arc and intracontinental marginal basin settings, while the Tertiary deposits formed after this event in a continental arc setting. Lead isotope ratios of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic ores appear to reflect these differences in tectonic setting of ore formation. Most Pb isotope values of ores from the La Verde deposit (206Pb/204Pb = 18.674-18.719) are less radiogenic than those of the host igneous rocks, but plot within the

  16. Efficient mixing of the solar nebula from uniform Mo isotopic composition of meteorites.

    PubMed

    Becker, Harry; Walker, Richard J

    2003-09-11

    The abundances of elements and their isotopes in our Galaxy show wide variations, reflecting different nucleosynthetic processes in stars and the effects of Galactic evolution. These variations contrast with the uniformity of stable isotope abundances for many elements in the Solar System, which implies that processes efficiently homogenized dust and gas from different stellar sources within the young solar nebula. However, isotopic heterogeneity has been recognized on the subcentimetre scale in primitive meteorites, indicating that these preserve a compositional memory of their stellar sources. Small differences in the abundance of stable molybdenum isotopes in bulk rocks of some primitive and differentiated meteorites, relative to terrestrial Mo, suggest large-scale Mo isotopic heterogeneity between some inner Solar System bodies, which implies physical conditions that did not permit efficient mixing of gas and dust. Here we report Mo isotopic data for bulk samples of primitive and differentiated meteorites that show no resolvable deviations from terrestrial Mo. This suggests efficient mixing of gas and dust in the solar nebula at least to 3 au from the Sun, possibly induced by magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. These mixing processes must have occurred before isotopic fractionation of gas-phase elements and volatility-controlled chemical fractionations were established.

  17. Unexpected variations in the triple oxygen isotope composition of stratospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegel, Aaron A.; Cole, Amanda S.; Hoag, Katherine J.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Schauffler, Sue M.; Boering, Kristie A.

    2013-10-01

    We report observations of stratospheric CO2 that reveal surprisingly large anomalous enrichments in 17O that vary systematically with latitude, altitude, and season. The triple isotope slopes reached 1.95 ± 0.05(1σ) in the middle stratosphere and 2.22 ± 0.07 in the Arctic vortex versus 1.71 ± 0.03 from previous observations and a remarkable factor of 4 larger than the mass-dependent value of 0.52. Kinetics modeling of laboratory measurements of photochemical ozone-CO2 isotope exchange demonstrates that non-mass-dependent isotope effects in ozone formation alone quantitatively account for the 17O anomaly in CO2 in the laboratory, resolving long-standing discrepancies between models and laboratory measurements. Model sensitivities to hypothetical mass-dependent isotope effects in reactions involving O3, O(1D), or CO2 and to an empirically derived temperature dependence of the anomalous kinetic isotope effects in ozone formation then provide a conceptual framework for understanding the differences in the isotopic composition and the triple isotope slopes between the laboratory and the stratosphere and between different regions of the stratosphere. This understanding in turn provides a firmer foundation for the diverse biogeochemical and paleoclimate applications of 17O anomalies in tropospheric CO2, O2, mineral sulfates, and fossil bones and teeth, which all derive from stratospheric CO2.

  18. Isotopic composition of Murchison organic compounds: Intramolecular carbon isotope fractionation of acetic acid. Simulation studies of cosmochemical organic syntheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G. U.; Cronin, J. R.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, in our laboratories, samples of Murchison acetic acid were decarboxylated successfully and the carbon isotopic composition was measured for the methane released by this procedure. These analyses showed significant differences in C-13/C-12 ratios for the methyl and carboxyl carbons of the acetic acid molecule, strongly suggesting that more than one carbon source may be involved in the synthesis of the Murchison organic compounds. On the basis of this finding, laboratory model systems simulating cosmochemical synthesis are being studied, especially those processes capable of involving two or more starting carbon sources.

  19. Magnesium isotope compositions of Solar System materials determined by double spiking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hin, R.; Lai, Y. J.; Coath, C.; Elliott, T.

    2015-12-01

    As a major element, magnesium is of interest for investigating large scale processes governing the formation and evolution of rocky planetary bodies. Determining the Mg isotope composition of the Earth and other planetary bodies has hence been a topic of interest ever since mass-dependent fractionation of 'non-traditional' stable isotopes has been used to study high-temperature processes. Published results, however, suffer from disagreement on the Mg isotope compositions of the Earth and chondrites [1-5], which is attributed to residual matrix effects. Nonetheless, most recent studied have converged towards a homogeneous (chondritic) Mg isotope composition in the Solar System [2-5]. However, in several of the recent studies there is a hint of a systematic difference of about 0.02-0.06‰ in the 26Mg/24Mg isotope compositions of chondrites and Earth. Such difference, however, is only resolvable by taking standard errors, which assumes robust data for homogenous sample sets. The discrepancies between various studies unfortunately undermine the confidence in such robustness and homogeneity. The issues with matrix effects during isotopic analyses can be overcome by using a double spike approach. Such methodology generally requires three isotope ratios to solve for three unknowns, a requirement that cannot be met for Mg. However, using a newly developed approach, we present Mg isotope compositions obtained by critical mixture double spiking. This new approach should allow greater confidence in the robustness of the data and hence enable improvement of. Preliminary data indicate that chondrites have a resolvable ~0.04‰ lighter 26Mg/24Mg than (ultra)mafic rocks from Earth, Mars and the eucrite parent body, which appear indistinguishable from each other. It seems implausible that this difference is caused by magmatic process such as partial melting or crystallisation. More likely, Mg isotopes are fractionated by a non-magmatic process during the formation of planets, e

  20. [Changes of chlorine isotope composition characterize bacterial dehalogenation of dichloromethane].

    PubMed

    Ziakun, A M; Firsova, Iu E; Torgonskaia, M L; Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2007-01-01

    Fractionation of dichloromethane (DCM) molecules with different chlorine isotopes by aerobic methylobacteria Methylobacterium dichloromethanicum DM4 and Albibacter nethylovorans DM10; cell-free extract of strain DM4; and transconjugant Methylobacterium evtorquens Al1/pME 8220, expressing the dcmA gene for DCM dehalogenase but unable to grow on DCM, was studied. Kinetic indices of DCM isotopomers for chlorine during bacterial dehalogenation and diffusion were compared. A two-step model is proposed, which suggests diffusional DCM transport to bacterial cells.

  1. In situ observations of the isotopic composition of methane at the Cabauw tall tower site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röckmann, Thomas; Eyer, Simon; van der Veen, Carina; Popa, Maria E.; Tuzson, Béla; Monteil, Guillaume; Houweling, Sander; Harris, Eliza; Brunner, Dominik; Fischer, Hubertus; Zazzeri, Giulia; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan G.; Brand, Willi A.; Necki, Jaroslav M.; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    High-precision analyses of the isotopic composition of methane in ambient air can potentially be used to discriminate between different source categories. Due to the complexity of isotope ratio measurements, such analyses have generally been performed in the laboratory on air samples collected in the field. This poses a limitation on the temporal resolution at which the isotopic composition can be monitored with reasonable logistical effort. Here we present the performance of a dual isotope ratio mass spectrometric system (IRMS) and a quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS)-based technique for in situ analysis of the isotopic composition of methane under field conditions. Both systems were deployed at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in the Netherlands and performed in situ, high-frequency (approx. hourly) measurements for a period of more than 5 months. The IRMS and QCLAS instruments were in excellent agreement with a slight systematic offset of (+0.25 ± 0.04) ‰ for δ13C and (-4.3 ± 0.4) ‰ for δD. This was corrected for, yielding a combined dataset with more than 2500 measurements of both δ13C and δD. The high-precision and high-temporal-resolution dataset not only reveals the overwhelming contribution of isotopically depleted agricultural CH4 emissions from ruminants at the Cabauw site but also allows the identification of specific events with elevated contributions from more enriched sources such as natural gas and landfills. The final dataset was compared to model calculations using the global model TM5 and the mesoscale model FLEXPART-COSMO. The results of both models agree better with the measurements when the TNO-MACC emission inventory is used in the models than when the EDGAR inventory is used. This suggests that high-resolution isotope measurements have the potential to further constrain the methane budget when they are performed at multiple sites that are representative for the entire European domain.

  2. Antimony isotopic composition in river waters affected by ancient mining activity.

    PubMed

    Resongles, Eléonore; Freydier, Rémi; Casiot, Corinne; Viers, Jérôme; Chmeleff, Jérôme; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise

    2015-11-01

    In this study, antimony (Sb) isotopic composition was determined in natural water samples collected along two hydrosystems impacted by historical mining activities: the upper Orb River and the Gardon River watershed (SE, France). Antimony isotope ratio was measured by HG-MC-ICP-MS (Hydride Generation Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) after a preconcentration and purification step using a new thiol-cellulose powder (TCP) procedure. The external reproducibility obtained for δ(123)Sb measurements of our in-house Sb isotopic standard solution and a certified reference freshwater was 0.06‰ (2σ). Significant isotopic variations were evident in surface waters from the upper Orb River (-0.06‰≤δ(123)Sb≤+0.11‰) and from the Gardon River watershed (+0.27‰≤δ(123)Sb≤+0.83‰). In particular, streams that drained different former mining sites exploited for Sb or Pb-Zn exhibited contrasted Sb isotopic signature, that may be related to various biogeochemical processes occurring during Sb transfer from rocks, mine wastes and sediments to the water compartment. Nevertheless, Sb isotopic composition appeared to be stable along the Gardon River, which might be attributed to the conservative transport of Sb at distance from mine-impacted streams, due to the relative mobile behavior of Sb(V) in natural oxic waters. This study suggests that Sb isotopic composition could be a useful tool to track pollution sources and/or biogeochemical processes in hydrologic systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lithium contents and isotopic compositions of ferromanganese deposits from the global ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chan, L.-H.; Hein, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    To test the feasibility of using lithium isotopes in marine ferromanganese deposits as an indicator of paleoceanographic conditions and seawater composition, we analyzed samples from a variety of tectonic environments in the global ocean. Hydrogenetic, hydrothermal, mixed hydrogenetic–hydrothermal, and hydrogenetic–diagenetic samples were subjected to a two-step leaching and dissolution procedure to extract first the loosely bound Li and then the more tightly bound Li in the Mn oxide and Fe oxyhydroxide. Total leachable Li contents vary from 2 by coulombic force. Hence, the abundant Li in hydrothermal deposits is mainly associated with the dominant phase, MnO2. The surface of amorphous FeOOH holds a slightly positive charge and attracts little Li, as demonstrated by data for hydrothermal Fe oxyhydroxide. Loosely sorbed Li in both hydrogenetic crusts and hydrothermal deposits exhibit Li isotopic compositions that resemble that of modern seawater. We infer that the hydrothermally derived Li scavenged onto the surface of MnO2 freely exchanged with ambient seawater, thereby losing its original isotopic signature. Li in the tightly bound sites is always isotopically lighter than that in the loosely bound fraction, suggesting that the isotopic fractionation occurred during formation of chemical bonds in the oxide and oxyhydroxide structures. Sr isotopes also show evidence of re-equilibration with seawater after deposition. Because of their mobility, Li and Sr in the ferromanganese crusts do not faithfully record secular variations in the isotopic compositions of seawater. However, Li content can be a useful proxy for the hydrothermal history of ocean basins. Based on the Li concentrations of the globally distributed hydrogenetic and hydrothermal samples, we estimate a scavenging flux of Li that is insignificant compared to the hydrothermal flux and river input to the ocean.

  4. Silicon isotope fractionation by marine sponges and the reconstruction of the silicon isotope composition of ancient deep water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Rocha, Christina L.

    2003-05-01

    The silicon isotope composition (δ30Si) of biogenic opal provides a view of the silica cycle at times in the past. Reconstructions require the knowledge of silicon isotope fractionation during opal biomineralization. The δ30Si of specimens of hexactinellid sponges and demosponges growing in the modern ocean ranged from -1.2‰ to -3.7‰ (n = 6), corresponding to the production of opal that has a δ30Si value 3.8‰ ± 0.8‰ more negative than seawater silicic acid and a fractionation factor (α) of 0.9964. This is three times the fractionation observed during opal formation by marine diatoms and terrestrial plants and is the largest fractionation of silicon isotopes observed for any natural process on Earth. The δ30Si values of sponge spicules across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary at Ocean Drilling Program Site 689 on Maud Rise range from -1.1‰ to -3.0‰, overlapping the range observed for sponges growing in modern seawater.

  5. Isotopic composition analysis and age dating of uranium samples by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, A. I.; Pantelica, A.; Sima, O.; Fugaru, V.

    2016-09-01

    Non-destructive methods were applied to determine the isotopic composition and the time elapsed since last chemical purification of nine uranium samples. The applied methods are based on measuring gamma and X radiations of uranium samples by high resolution low energy gamma spectrometric system with planar high purity germanium detector and low background gamma spectrometric system with coaxial high purity germanium detector. The ;Multigroup γ-ray Analysis Method for Uranium; (MGAU) code was used for the precise determination of samples' isotopic composition. The age of the samples was determined from the isotopic ratio 214Bi/234U. This ratio was calculated from the analyzed spectra of each uranium sample, using relative detection efficiency. Special attention is paid to the coincidence summing corrections that have to be taken into account when performing this type of analysis. In addition, an alternative approach for the age determination using full energy peak efficiencies obtained by Monte Carlo simulations with the GESPECOR code is described.

  6. Controls on the distribution and isotopic composition of helium in deep ground-water flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, X.; Fritzel, T.L.B.; Quinodoz, H.A.M.; Bethke, C.M.; Torgersen, T.

    1998-01-01

    The distribution and isotopic composition of helium in sedimentary basins can be used to interpret the ages of very old ground waters. The piston-flow model commonly used in such interpretation, how ever, does not account for several important factors and as such works well only in very simple flow regimes. In this study of helium transport in a hypothetical sedimentary basin, we develop a numerical model that accounts for the magnitude and distribution of the basal helium flux, hydrodynamic dispersion, and complexities in flow regimes such as subregional flow cells. The modeling shows that these factors exert strong controls on the helium distribution and isotopic composition. The simulations may provide a basis for more accurate interpretations of observed helium concentrations and isotopic ratios in sedimentary basins.

  7. Constraints on Galactic Cosmic-Ray Origins from Elemental and Isotopic Composition Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; deNolfo, G. A.; Israel, M. H.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A,; Stone, E. C.; vonRosevinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent measurements by the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite of ultra-heavy cosmic ray isotopic and elemental abundances will be presented. A range of isotope and element ratios, most importantly Ne-22/Ne-20, Fe-58/Fe-56, and Ga-31/Ge -32 show that the composition is consistent with source material that is a mix of approx 80% ISM (with Solar System abundances) and 20% outflow/ejecta from massive stars. In addition, our data show that the ordering of refractory and volatile elements with atomic mass is greatly improved when compared to an approx 80%/20% mix rather than pure ISM, that the refractory and volatile elements have similar slopes, and that refractory elements are preferentially accelerated by a factor of approx 4. We conclude that these data are consistent with an OB association origin of GCRs.

  8. The isotopic composition of methane in polar ice cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, H.; Chou, C. C.; Welhan, J. A.; Stevens, C. M.; Engelkemeir, A.

    1988-01-01

    Air bubbles in polar ice cores indicate that about 300 years ago the atmospheric mixing ratio of methane began to increase rapidly. Today the mixing ratio is about 1.7 parts per million by volume, and, having doubled once in the past several hundred years, it will double again in the next 60 years if current rates continue. Carbon isotope ratios in methane up to 350 years in age have been measured with as little as 25 kilograms of polar ice recovered in 4-meter-long ice-core segments. The data show that: (1) in situ microbiology or chemistry has not altered the ice-core methane concentrations, and (2) that the carbon-13 to carbon-12 ratio of atmospheric CH4 in ice from 100 years and 300 years ago was about 2 per mil lower than at present. Atmospheric methane has a rich spectrum of isotopic sources: the ice-core data indicate that anthropogenic burning of the earth's biomass is the principal cause of the recent C-13H4 enrichment, although other factors may also contribute.

  9. Sulphur isotopic compositions of deep-sea hydrothermal vent animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, B.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The S-34/S-32 ratios of tissues from vestimentiferan worms, brachyuran crabs, and giant clams living around deep hydrothermal vents are reported. Clean tissues were dried, ground, suspended in 0.1 M LiCl, shaken twice at 37 C to remove seawater sulfates, dried at 60 C, combusted in O2 in a Parr bomb. Sulfur was recovered as BaSO4, and the isotopic abundances in SO2 generated by thermal decomposition of 5-30-mg samples were determined using an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. The results are expressed as delta S-34 and compared with values measured in seawater sulfates and in normal marine fauna. The values ranged from -4.7 to 4.7 per thousand, comparable to vent sulfide minerals (1.3-4.1 per thousand) and distinct from seawater sulfates (20.1 per thousand) and normal marine fauna (about 13-20 per thousand). These results indicate that vent sulfur rather than seawater sulfur is utilized by these animals, a process probably mediated by chemoautotrophic bacteria which can use inorganic sulfur compounds as energy sources.

  10. Temperature evolution and the oxygen isotope composition of Phanerozoic oceans from carbonate clumped isotope thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkes, Gregory A.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Grossman, Ethan L.; Shenton, Brock J.; Yancey, Thomas E.; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Surface temperature is among the most important parameters describing planetary climate and habitability, and yet there remains considerable debate about the temperature evolution of the Earth's oceans during the Phanerozoic Eon (541 million years ago to present), the time during which complex metazoan life radiated on Earth. Here we critically assess the emerging record of Phanerozoic ocean temperatures based on carbonate clumped isotope thermometry of fossil brachiopod and mollusk shells, and we present new data that fill important gaps in the Late Paleozoic record. We evaluate and reject the hypothesis that solid-state reordering of 13C-18O bonds has destroyed the primary clumped isotope temperature signal of most fossils during sedimentary burial at elevated temperatures. The resulting Phanerozoic record, which shows a general coupling between tropical seawater temperatures and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels since the Paleozoic, indicates that tropical temperatures during the icehouse climate of the Carboniferous period were broadly similar to present (∼25-30 °C), and suggests that benthic metazoans were able to thrive at temperatures of 35-40 °C during intervals of the early and possibly the latest Paleozoic when CO2 levels were likely 5-10× higher than present-day values. Equally important, there is no resolvable trend in seawater oxygen isotope ratios (δ18 O) over the past ∼500 million years, indicating that the average temperature of oxygen exchange between seawater and the oceanic crust has been high (∼270 °C) since at least the early Paleozoic, which points to mid-ocean ridges as the dominant locus of water-rock interaction over the past half-billion years.

  11. Incorporation of zinc for fabrication of low-cost spinel-based composite ceramic membrane support to achieve its stabilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingling; Dong, Xinfa; Dong, Yingchao; Zhu, Li; You, Sheng-Jie; Wang, Ya-Fen

    2015-04-28

    In order to reduce environment risk of zinc, a spinel-based porous membrane support was prepared by the high-temperature reaction of zinc and bauxite mineral. The phase evolution process, shrinkage, porosity, mechanical property, pore size distribution, gas permeation flux and microstructure were systematically studied. The XRD results, based on a Zn/Al stoichiometric composition of 1/2, show a formation of ZnAl2O4 structure starting from 1000°C and then accomplished at 1300°C. For spinel-based composite membrane, shrinkage and porosity are mainly influenced by a combination of an expansion induced by ZnAl2O4 formation and a general densification due to amorphous liquid SiO2. The highest porosity, as high as 44%, is observed in ZnAl4 membrane support among all the investigated compositions. Compared with pure bauxite (Al), ZnAl4 composite membrane support is reinforced by ZnAl2O4 phase and inter-locked mullite crystals, which is proved by the empirical strength-porosity relationships. Also, an increase in average pore diameter and gas flux can be observed in ZnAl4. A prolonged leaching experiment reveals the zinc can be successfully incorporated into ceramic membrane support via formation of ZnAl2O4, which has substantially better resistance toward acidic attack. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical and stable-radiogenic isotope compositions of Polatlı-Haymana thermal waters (Ankara, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akilli, Hafize; Mutlu, Halim

    2016-04-01

    Complex tectono-magmatic evolution of the Anatolian land resulted in development of numerous geothermal areas through Turkey. The Ankara region in central Anatolia is surrounded by several basins which are filled with upper Cretaceous-Tertiary sediments. Overlying Miocene volcanics and step faulting along the margins of these basins played a significant role in formation of a number of low-enthalpy thermal waters. In this study, chemical and isotopic compositions of Polatlı and Haymana geothermal waters in the Ankara region are investigated. The Polatlı-Haymana waters with a temperature range of 24 to 43 °C are represented by Ca-(Na)-HCO3 composition implying derivation from carbonate type reservoir rocks. Oxygen-hydrogen isotope values of the waters are conformable with the Global Meteoric Water Line and point to a meteoric origin. The carbon isotopic composition in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the studied waters is between -21.8 and -1.34 permil (vs. VPDB). Marine carbonates and organic rocks are the main sources of carbon. There is a high correlation between oxygen (3.7 to 15.0 permil; VSMOW) and sulfur (-9.2 to 19.5 permil; VCDT) isotope compositions of sulfate in waters. The mixing of sulfate from dissolution of marine carbonates and terrestrial evaporite units is the chief process behind the observed sulfate isotope systematics of the samples. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of waters varying from 0.705883 to 0.707827 are consistent with those of reservoir rocks. The temperatures calculated by SO4-H2O isotope geothermometry are between 81 and 138 °C nearly doubling the estimates from chemical geothermometers.

  13. Stable water isotopic composition of the Antarctic subglacial Lake Vostok: implications for understanding the lake's hydrology.

    PubMed

    Ekaykin, Alexey A; Lipenkov, Vladimir Y; Kozachek, Anna V; Vladimirova, Diana O

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the stable isotopic composition of water from the subglacial Lake Vostok using two different sets of samples: (1) water frozen on the drill bit immediately after the first lake unsealing and (2) water frozen in the borehole after the unsealing and re-drilled one year later. The most reliable values of the water isotopic composition are: -59.0 ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18, -455 ± 1 ‰ for deuterium and 17 ± 1 ‰ for d-excess. This result is also confirmed by the modelling of isotopic transformations in the water which froze in the borehole, and by a laboratory experiment simulating this process. A comparison of the newly obtained water isotopic composition with that of the lake ice (-56.2 ‰ for oxygen-18, -442.4 ‰ for deuterium and 7.2 ‰ for d-excess) leads to the conclusion that the lake ice is very likely formed in isotopic equilibrium with water. In turn, this means that ice is formed by a slow freezing without formation of frazil ice crystals and/or water pockets. This conclusion agrees well with the observed physical and chemical properties of the lake's accreted ice. However, our estimate of the water's isotopic composition is only valid for the upper water layer and may not be representative for the deeper layers of the lake, so further investigations are required.

  14. Effects of diagenesis on strontium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen concentration and isotopic composition of bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Bruce K.; Deniro, Michael J.; Schoeninger, Margaret J.; De Paolo, Donald J.; Hare, P. E.

    1986-09-01

    Paleodietary analysis based on variations in the trace element and stable isotopic composition of inorganic and organic phases in fossil bone depends on the assumption that measured values reflect in vivo values. To test for postmortem alteration, we measured 87Sr /86Sr , 13C /12C , 18O /16O and 15N /14N ratios and Sr concentrations in modern and prehistoric (610 to 5470 yr old) bones of animals with marine or terrestrial diets from Greenland. Bones from modern terrestrial feeders have substantially lower Sr concentrations and more radiogenic 87Sr /86Sr ratios than those from modern marine feeders. This contrast was not preserved in the prehistoric samples, which showed almost complete overlap for both Sr concentration and isotopic composition in bones from the two types of animals. Leaching experiments, X-ray diffraction analysis and infrared spectroscopy indicate that alteration of the Sr concentration and isotopic composition in prehistoric bone probably results from nearly complete exchange with groundwater. Oxygen isotope ratios in fossil apatite carbonate also failed to preserve the original discrimination between modern terrestrial and marine feeders. The C isotope ratio of apatite carbonate did not discriminate between animals with marine or terrestrial diets in the modern samples. Even so, the ranges of apatite δ 13C values in prehistoric bone are more scattered than in modern samples for both groups, suggesting alteration had occurred. δ 13C and δ 15N values of collagen in modern bone are distinctly different for the two feeding types, and this distinction is preserved in most of the prehistoric samples. Our results suggest that postmortem alteration of dietary tracers in the inorganic phases of bone may be a problem at all archaeological sites and must be evaluated in each case. While collagen analyzed in this study was resistant to alteration, evaluation of the possibility of diagenetic alteration of its isotopic composition in bones from other

  15. Soil moisture effects on the carbon isotopic composition of soil respiration

    EPA Science Inventory

    The carbon isotopic composition ( 13C) of recently assimilated plant carbon is known to depend on water-stress, caused either by low soil moisture or by low atmospheric humidity. Air humidity has also been shown to correlate with the 13C of soil respiration, which suggests indir...

  16. Habitat use and trophic position effects on contaminant bioaccumulation in fish indicated by stable isotope composition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of our study was to determine the relationship between fish tissue stable isotope composition and total mercury or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in a Great Lakes coastal food web. We sampled two resident fishes, Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) and Bl...

  17. Soil moisture effects on the carbon isotope composition of soil respiration

    Treesearch

    Claire L. Phillips; Nick Nickerson; David Risk; Zachary E. Kayler; Chris Andersen; Alan Mix; Barbara J. Bond

    2010-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of recently assimilated plant carbon is known to depend on water-stress, caused either by low soil moisture or by low atmospheric humidity. Air humidity has also been shown to correlate with the δ13C of soil respiration, which suggests indirectly that recently fixed photosynthates...

  18. Bulk Chemistry and Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Lunar Meteorites Dhofar 025 and Dhofar 026

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Nazarov, M. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Warren, P. H.; Barsukova, L. D.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.

    2001-03-01

    The major- and trace-element composition of highlands meteorites Dh25 and Dh26 show that both are dominated by a FAN component. Incompatible element depletion and low Ti abundances suggest a farside origin. O-isotopes are typical for lunar meteorites.

  19. Isotopic composition and neutronics of the Okelobondo natural reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palenik, Christopher Samuel

    The Oklo-Okelobondo and Bangombe uranium deposits, in Gabon, Africa host Earth's only known natural nuclear fission reactors. These 2 billion year old reactors represent a unique opportunity to study used nuclear fuel over geologic periods of time. The reactors in these deposits have been studied as a means by which to constrain the source term of fission product concentrations produced during reactor operation. The source term depends on the neutronic parameters, which include reactor operation duration, neutron flux and the neutron energy spectrum. Reactor operation has been modeled using a point-source computer simulation (Oak Ridge Isotope Generation and Depletion, ORIGEN, code) for a light water reactor. Model results have been constrained using secondary ionization mass spectroscopy (SIMS) isotopic measurements of the fission products Nd and Te, as well as U in uraninite from samples collected in the Okelobondo reactor zone. Based upon the constraints on the operating conditions, the pre-reactor concentrations of Nd (150 ppm +/- 75 ppm) and Te (<1 ppm) in uraninite were estimated. Related to the burnup measured in Okelobondo samples (0.7 to 13.8 GWd/MTU), the final fission product inventories of Nd (90 to 1200 ppm) and Te (10 to 110 ppm) were calculated. By the same means, the ranges of all other fission products and actinides produced during reactor operation were calculated as a function of burnup. These results provide a source term against which the present elemental and decay abundances at the fission reactor can be compared. Furthermore, they provide new insights into the extent to which a "fossil" nuclear reactor can be characterized on the basis of its isotopic signatures. In addition, results from the study of two other natural systems related to the radionuclide and fission product transport are included. A detailed mineralogical characterization of the uranyl mineralogy at the Bangombe uranium deposit in Gabon, Africa was completed to improve

  20. Variations in the isotopic composition of stable mercury isotopes in typical mangrove plants of the Jiulong estuary, SE China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lumin; Lu, Bingyan; Yuan, Dongxing; Hao, Wenbo; Zheng, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Variations in the composition of stable isotopes of mercury contained in tissues (root, stem, leaf, and hypocotyl or flower) of three typical mangrove plants (Kandelia candel, Aegiceras corniculata, and Bruguiera gymnorhiza), collected from the mangrove wetland of Jiulong estuary, SE China, were used to investigate the sources and transformation of mercury in the mangrove plants. Tissue samples from the plants were digested and mercury in the solution was pre-concentrated with purge-trap method and then analyzed by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The results showed that the mass dependent fractionation (MDF) of mercury ranged from -2.67 to -0.87 ‰ for δ 202 Hg while the mass independent fractionation (MIF) of mercury isotopes ranged from -0.16 to 0.09 and -0.19 to 0.05 ‰ for Δ 199 Hg and Δ 201 Hg, respectively, relative to the standard NIST SRM 3133. The ratio of Δ 199 Hg/Δ 201 Hg was 0.991, indicating that the mercury had been photo-reduced before being accumulated in mangrove plants. Analyses of the data from MIF studies revealed that the major portion of the mercury measured in leaves (∼90 %) originated from the atmosphere while the source of over half of the mercury present in roots was the surficial sediment. This study, the first of its kind investigating the variations in isotopic composition of mercury in the tissues of mangrove plants, could be helpful to identify the source of mercury contamination in mangroves and understand the biogeochemical cycle of mercury in the estuarine mangrove wetlands.

  1. Variable Isotopic Compositions of Host Plant Populations Preclude Assessment of Aphid Overwintering Sites

    PubMed Central

    Voegtlin, David J.; Hamilton, Krista L.; Hogg, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a pest of soybean in the northern Midwest whose migratory patterns have been difficult to quantify. Improved knowledge of soybean aphid overwintering sites could facilitate the development of control efforts with exponential impacts on aphid densities on a regional scale. In this preliminary study, we explored the utility of variation in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to distinguish soybean aphid overwintering origins. We compared variation in bulk 13C and 15N content in buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) and soybean aphids in Wisconsin, among known overwintering locations in the northern Midwest. Specifically, we looked for associations between buckthorn and environmental variables that could aid in identifying overwintering habitats. We detected significant evidence of correlation between the bulk 13C and 15N signals of soybean aphids and buckthorn, despite high variability in stable isotope composition within and among buckthorn plants. Further, the 15N signal in buckthorn varied predictably with soil composition. However, lack of sufficient differentiation of geographic areas along axes of isotopic and environmental variation appears to preclude the use of carbon and nitrogen isotopic signals as effective predictors of likely aphid overwintering sites. These preliminary data suggest the need for future work that can further account for variability in 13C and 15N within/among buckthorn plants, and that explores the utility of other stable isotopes in assessing likely aphid overwintering sites. PMID:29206134

  2. Oxygen and nitrogen isotopic composition of nitrate in commercial fertilizers, nitric acid, and reagent salts.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Greg; Kolanowski, Michelle; Riha, Krystin M

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is a key component of synthetic fertilizers that can be beneficial to crop production in agro-ecosystems, but can also cause damage to natural ecosystems if it is exported in large amounts. Stable isotopes, both oxygen and nitrogen, have been used to trace the sources and fate of nitrate in various ecosystems. However, the oxygen isotope composition of synthetic and organic nitrates is poorly constrained. Here, we present a study on the N and O isotope composition of nitrate-based fertilizers. The δ(15)N values of synthetic and natural nitrates were 0 ± 2 ‰ similar to the air N2 from which they are derived. The δ(18)O values of synthetic nitrates were 23 ± 3 ‰, similar to air O2, and natural nitrate fertilizer δ(18)O values (55 ± 5 ‰) were similar to those observed in atmospheric nitrate. The Δ(17)O values of synthetic fertilizer nitrate were approximately zero following a mass-dependent isotope relationship, while natural nitrate fertilizers had Δ(17)O values of 18 ± 2 ‰ similar to nitrate produced photochemically in the atmosphere. These narrow ranges of values can be used to assess the amount of nitrate arising from fertilizers in mixed systems where more than one nitrate source exists (soil, rivers, and lakes) using simple isotope mixing models.

  3. Stable bromine isotopic composition of methyl bromide released from plant matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, Axel; Holmstrand, Henry; Andersson, Per; Thornton, Brett F.; Wishkerman, Asher; Keppler, Frank; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2014-01-01

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) emitted from plants constitutes a natural source of bromine to the atmosphere, and is a component in the currently unbalanced global CH3Br budget. In the stratosphere, CH3Br contributes to ozone loss processes. Studies of stable isotope composition may reduce uncertainties in the atmospheric CH3Br budget, but require well-constrained isotope fingerprints of the source end members. Here we report the first measurements of stable bromine isotopes (δ81Br) in CH3Br from abiotic plant emissions. Incubations of both KBr-fortified pectin, a ubiquitous cell-stabilizing macromolecule, and of a natural halophyte (Salicornia fruticosa), yielded an enrichment factor (ε) of -2.00 ± 0.23‰ (1σ, n = 8) for pectin and -1.82 ± 0.02‰ (1σ, n = 4) for Salicornia (the relative amount of the heavier 81Br was decreased in CH3Br compared to the substrate salt). For short incubations, and up to 10% consumption of the salt substrate, this isotope effect was similar for temperatures from 30 up to 300 °C. For longer incubations of up to 90 h at 180 °C the δ81Br values increased from -2‰ to 0‰ for pectin and to -1‰ for Salicornia. These δ81Br source signatures of CH3Br formation from plant matter combine with similar data for carbon isotopes to facilitate multidimensional isotope diagnostics of the CH3Br budget.

  4. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  5. The distribution of lead concentrations and isotope compositions in the eastern Tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgestock, Luke; Rehkämper, Mark; van de Flierdt, Tina; Paul, Maxence; Milne, Angela; Lohan, Maeve C.; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic emissions have dominated marine Pb sources during the past century. Here we present Pb concentrations and isotope compositions for ocean depth profiles collected in the eastern Tropical Atlantic Ocean (GEOTRACES section GA06), to trace the transfer of anthropogenic Pb into the ocean interior. Variations in Pb concentration and isotope composition were associated with changes in hydrography. Water masses ventilated in the southern hemisphere generally featured lower 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios than those ventilated in the northern hemisphere, in accordance with Pb isotope data of historic anthropogenic Pb emissions. The distributions of Pb concentrations and isotope compositions in northern sourced waters were consistent with differences in their ventilation timescales. For example, a Pb concentration maximum at intermediate depth (600-900 m, 35 pmol kg-1) in waters sourced from the Irminger/Labrador Seas, is associated with Pb isotope compositions (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1818-1.1824, 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4472-2.4483) indicative of northern hemispheric emissions during the 1950s and 1960s close to peak leaded petrol usage, and a transit time of ∼50-60 years. In contrast, North Atlantic Deep Water (2000-4000 m water depth) featured lower Pb concentrations and isotope compositions (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1762-1.184, 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4482-2.4545) indicative of northern hemispheric emissions during the 1910s and 1930s and a transit time of ∼80-100 years. This supports the notion that transient anthropogenic Pb inputs are predominantly transferred into the ocean interior by water mass transport. However, the interpretation of Pb concentration and isotope composition distributions in terms of ventilation timescales and pathways is complicated by (1) the chemical reactivity of Pb in the ocean, and (2) mixing of waters ventilated during different time periods. The complex effects of water mass mixing on Pb distributions is particularly apparent in seawater in the

  6. Humidity Sensor Based on PEDOT:PSS and Zinc Stannate Nano-composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Shahid; Chang, Dong Eui; Doh, Yang Hoi; Kang, Chul Ung; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2015-10-01

    A composite of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and zinc stannate (ZnSnO3) has been introduced for impedance-based humidity sensing, owing to its high sensitivity, good stability, very fast response (˜0.2 s) and recovery time (˜0.2 s), small hysteresis, repeatability, low-cost fabrication and wide range of sensitivity. Both materials were mixed in three different weight percentage ratios, to optimize the performance of the sensors. Best response was observed for 5 wt.% PEDOT:PSS and 5 wt.% ZnSnO3. The impedance of the sensor was dropped immensely from 1.5 MΩ to 50 kΩ by changing relative humidity from 0% to 90%. The reason for this improvement in sensitivity was analyzed by virtue of sensing mechanisms and different characterizations (three dimensional (3D) nano-profiler, optical microscope, and fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy) revealing the surface morphology and chemical structure of the film. Due to its response and ability to sense human breath and skin humidity, it is suitable for environmental, artificial skin and food industry applications.

  7. Transport of bare and capped zinc oxide nanoparticles is dependent on porous medium composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlanda-Witek, H.; Ngwenya, B. T.; Butler, I. B.

    2014-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are one of the most frequently used nanoparticles in industry and hence are likely to be introduced to the groundwater environment. The mobility of these nanoparticles in different aquifer materials has not been assessed. While some studies have been published on the transport of ZnO nanoparticles in individual porous media, these studies do not generally account for varying porous medium composition both within and between aquifers. As a first step towards understanding the impact of this variability, this paper compares the transport of bare ZnO nanoparticles (bZnO-NPs) and capped ZnO nanoparticles, coated with tri-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (cZnO-NPs), in saturated columns packed with glass beads, fine grained sand and fine grained calcite, at near-neutral pH and groundwater salinity levels. With the exception of cZnO-NPs in sand columns, ZnO nanoparticles are highly immobile in all three types of studied porous media, with most retention taking place near the column inlet. Results are in general agreement with DLVO theory, and the deviation in experiments with cZnO-NPs flowing through columns packed with sand is linked to variability in zeta potential of the capped nanoparticles and sand grains. Therefore, differences in surface charge of nanoparticles and porous media are demonstrated to be key drivers in nanoparticle transport.

  8. Central Composite Design Optimization of Zinc Removal from Contaminated Soil, Using Citric Acid as Biodegradable Chelant.

    PubMed

    Asadzadeh, Farrokh; Maleki-Kaklar, Mahdi; Soiltanalinejad, Nooshin; Shabani, Farzin

    2018-02-08

    Citric acid (CA) was evaluated in terms of its efficiency as a biodegradable chelating agent, in removing zinc (Zn) from heavily contaminated soil, using a soil washing process. To determine preliminary ranges of variables in the washing process, single factor experiments were carried out with different CA concentrations, pH levels and washing times. Optimization of batch washing conditions followed using a response surface methodology (RSM) based central composite design (CCD) approach. CCD predicted values and experimental results showed strong agreement, with an R 2 value of 0.966. Maximum removal of 92.8% occurred with a CA concentration of 167.6 mM, pH of 4.43, and washing time of 30 min as optimal variable values. A leaching column experiment followed, to examine the efficiency of the optimum conditions established by the CCD model. A comparison of two soil washing techniques indicated that the removal efficiency rate of the column experiment (85.8%) closely matching that of the batch experiment (92.8%). The methodology supporting the research experimentation for optimizing Zn removal may be useful in the design of protocols for practical engineering soil decontamination applications.

  9. Calcium isotopic fractionation in mantle peridotites by melting and metasomatism and Ca isotope composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jin-Ting; Ionov, Dmitri A.; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Chen-Lei; Golovin, Alexander V.; Qin, Li-Ping; Zhang, Zhao-Feng; Huang, Fang

    2017-09-01

    To better constrain the Ca isotopic composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) and explore the Ca isotope fractionation in the mantle, we determined the Ca isotopic composition of 28 peridotite xenoliths from Mongolia, southern Siberia and the Siberian craton. The samples are divided in three chemical groups: (1) fertile, unmetasomatized lherzolites (3.7-4.7 wt.% Al2O3); (2) moderately melt-depleted peridotites (1.3-3.0 wt.% Al2O3) with no or very limited metasomatism (LREE-depleted cpx); (3) strongly metasomatized peridotites (LREE-enriched cpx and bulk rock) further divided in subgroups 3a (harzburgites, 0.1-1.0% Al2O3) and 3b (fertile lherzolites, 3.9-4.3% Al2O3). In Group 1, δ44/40Ca of fertile spinel and garnet peridotites, which experienced little or no melting and metasomatism, show a limited variation from 0.90 to 0.99‰ (relative to SRM 915a) and an average of 0.94 ± 0.05‰ (2SD, n = 14), which defines the Ca isotopic composition of the BSE. In Group 2, the δ44/40Ca is the highest for three rocks with the lowest Al2O3, i.e. the greatest melt extraction degrees (average 1.06 ± 0.04 ‰, i.e. ∼0.1‰ heavier than the BSE estimate). Simple modeling of modal melting shows that partial melting of the BSE with 103 ln ⁡αperidotite-melt ranging from 0.10 to 0.25 can explain the Group 2 data. By contrast, δ44/40Ca in eight out of nine metasomatized Group 3 peridotites are lower than the BSE estimate. The Group 3a harzburgites show the greatest δ44/40Ca variation range (0.25-0.96‰), with δ44/40Ca positively correlated with CaO and negatively correlated with Ce/Eu. Chemical evidence suggests that the residual, melt-depleted, low-Ca protoliths of the Group 3a harzburgites were metasomatized, likely by carbonate-rich melts/fluids. We argue that such fluids may have low (≤0.25‰) δ44/40Ca either because they contain recycled crustal components or because Ca isotopes, similar to trace elements and their ratios, may be fractionated by kinetic and

  10. Isotopic signatures suggest important contributions from recycled gasoline, road dust and non-exhaust traffic sources for copper, zinc and lead in PM10 in London, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuofei; Ochoa Gonzalez, Raquel; Harrison, Roy M.; Green, David; North, Robin; Fowler, Geoff; Weiss, Dominik

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of what controls the isotope composition of Cu, Zn and Pb in particulate matter (PM) in the urban environment and to develop these isotope systems as possible source tracers. To this end, isotope ratios (Cu, Zn and Pb) and trace element concentrations (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Sb, Ba, Pb, Cr, Ni and V) were determined in PM10 collected at two road sites with contrasting traffic densities in central London, UK, during two weeks in summer 2010, and in potential sources, including non-combustion traffic emissions (tires and brakes), road furniture (road paint, manhole cover and road tarmac surface) and road dust. Iron, Ba and Sb were used as proxies for emissions derived from brake pads, and Ni, and V for emissions derived from fossil fuel oil. The isotopic composition of Pb (expressed using 206Pb/207Pb) ranged between 1.1137 and 1.1364. The isotope ratios of Cu and Zn expressed as δ65CuNIST976 and δ66ZnLyon ranged between -0.01‰ and +0.51‰ and between -0.21‰ and +0.33‰, respectively. We did not find significant differences in the isotope signatures in PM10 over the two weeks sampling period and between the two sites, suggesting similar sources for each metal at both sites despite their different traffic densities. The stable isotope composition of Pb suggests significant contribution from road dust resuspension and from recycled leaded gasoline. The Cu and Zn isotope signatures of tires, brakes and road dust overlap with those of PM10. The correlation between the enrichments of Sb, Cu, Ba and Fe in PM10 support the previously established hypothesis that Cu isotope ratios are controlled by non-exhaust traffic emission sources in urban environments (Ochoa Gonzalez et al., 2016). Analysis of the Zn isotope signatures in PM10 and possible sources at the two sites suggests significant contribution from tire wear. However, temporary additional sources, likely high temperature industrial emissions, need to be invoked

  11. Breast composition measurement with a cadmium-zinc-telluride based spectral computed tomography system

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Huanjun; Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of breast tissue composition in terms of water, lipid, and protein with a cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) based computed tomography (CT) system to help better characterize suspicious lesions. Methods: Simulations and experimental studies were performed using a spectral CT system equipped with a CZT-based photon-counting detector with energy resolution. Simulations of the figure-of-merit (FOM), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the dual energy image with respect to the square root of mean glandular dose (MGD), were performed to find the optimal configuration of the experimental acquisition parameters. A calibration phantom 3.175 cm in diameter was constructed from polyoxymethylene plastic with cylindrical holes that were filled with water and oil. Similarly, sized samples of pure adipose and pure lean bovine tissues were used for the three-material decomposition. Tissue composition results computed from the images were compared to the chemical analysis data of the tissue samples. Results: The beam energy was selected to be 100 kVp with a splitting energy of 40 keV. The tissue samples were successfully decomposed into water, lipid, and protein contents. The RMS error of the volumetric percentage for the three-material decomposition, as compared to data from the chemical analysis, was estimated to be approximately 5.7%. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the CZT-based photon-counting detector may be employed in the CT system to quantify the water, lipid, and protein mass densities in tissue with a relatively good agreement. PMID:22380361

  12. Regulation of Isotopic Composition of Water - way of Improvement of Cosmonauts Drinking Water Functional Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikova, Ekaterina; Utina, Dina; Vorozhtsova, Svetlana; Severyuhin, Yuri; Abrosimova, Anna; Sinyak, Yuri; Ivanov, Alexander

    The problem in providing drinking water to cosmonauts is solved - at this moment there is a task to improve the functional properties of the water. One of the perspectives of this trend is the use of light isotopic water. The animal studies have shown that long-term consumption of water with a depletion of deuterium and oxygen heavy isotopes accelerates the rise of mass non-irradiated mice, the phase fluctuations reducing or increasing hematological parameters were having adaptive nature. These fluctuations didn’t overcome values beyond the physiological norm of this type of animal. It is established that the therapeutic use of light isotopic water with 35 - 90 ppm in deuterium increases the survival of irradiated mice by an average of 30%, contributes to the preservation of irradiated animals body weight. Treatment of acute radiation sickness with light isotopic water stimulates hematopoietic recovery. At the same time, keeping mice drinking light isotopic water for 7 - 8 days before the irradiation (from 4 to 8.5 Gr) has no effect on the level of radio resistance. Longer keeping mice on light isotopic water, for 14 -21 days - reduction in life expectancy, animal mass, bone marrow cellularity and the level of white blood cells in irradiated animals is noted. It was established that keeping mice on light isotopic water for 14 days before exposure in experimental animals causes an increase in the mitotic index and the frequency of formation of aberrant mitosis after 24 hours of Co(60) gamma radiation in doses of 1 , 2, and 4 Gr. Thus, it is clear that the regulation of the isotopic composition of drinking water - way to improve its functional properties.

  13. Isotopic composition of Mg and Fe in garnet peridotites from the Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yajun; Huang, Jin-Xiang; Griffin, W. L.; Liu, Chuanzhou; Huang, Fang

    2017-03-01

    We present Mg and Fe isotopic data for whole rocks and separated minerals (olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, garnet, and phlogopite) of garnet peridotites that equilibrated at depths of 134-186 km beneath the Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons. There is no clear difference in δ26Mg and δ56Fe of garnet peridotites from these two cratons. δ26Mg of whole rocks varies from -0.243‰ to -0.204‰ with an average of -0.225 ± 0.037‰ (2σ, n = 19), and δ56Fe from -0.038‰ to 0.060‰ with an average of -0.003 ± 0.068‰ (2σ, n = 19). Both values are indistinguishable from the fertile upper mantle, indicating that there is no significant Mg-Fe isotopic difference between the shallow and deep upper mantle. The garnet peridotites from ancient cratons show δ26Mg similar to komatiites and basalts, further suggesting that there is no obvious Mg isotopic fractionation during different degrees of partial melting of deep mantle peridotites and komatiite formation. The precision of the Mg and Fe isotope data (⩽±0.05‰ for δ26Mg and δ56Fe, 2σ) allows us to distinguish inter-mineral isotopic fractionations. Olivines are in equilibrium with opx in terms of Mg and Fe isotopes. Garnets have the lowest δ26Mg and δ56Fe among the coexisting mantle minerals, suggesting the dominant control of crystal structure on the Mg-Fe isotopic compositions of garnets. Elemental compositions and mineralogy suggest that clinopyroxene and garnet were produced by later metasomatic processes as they are not in chemical equilibrium with olivine or orthopyroxene. This is consistent with the isotopic disequilibrium of Mg and Fe isotopes between orthopyroxene/olivine and garnet/clinopyroxene. Combined with one sample showing slightly heavy δ26Mg and much lighter δ56Fe, these disequilibrium features in the garnet peridotites reveal kinetic isotopic fractionation due to Fe-Mg inter-diffusion during reaction between peridotites and percolating melts in the Kaapvaal craton.

  14. Sr isotopic composition of Afar volcanics and its implication for mantle evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberi, F.; Civetta, L.; Varet, J.

    1980-10-01

    Investigations of Rb-Sr systematics of basalts from the Afar depression (Ethiopia) indicate the presence of a heterogeneous mantle source region. The Sr isotopic compositions of the basalts from the Afar axial and transverse ranges identify source regions which are enriched in LIL elements and radiogenic Sr (axial ranges) and others which are relatively depleted (transverse ranges). Sr isotopic composition of basalts from the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Tadjoura, which range from 0.70300 to 0.70340 are also reported and compared with the more radiogenic Afar region, which is characterized by 87Sr/ 86Sr ranging from 0.70328 to 0.70410. Available geochemical and isotopic data suggest that a relation exists between magma composition and the advancement of the rifting process through progressive lithosphere attenuation leading to continental break-up. However, the petrogenetic process is not simple and probably implies a vertically zoned mantle beneath the Afar region. Sr isotopic evidence suggests that the vertically zoned mantle is more radiogenic and enriched in LIL elements in its upper part.

  15. A non-terrestrial 16O-rich isotopic composition for the protosolar nebula.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Ko; Chaussidon, Marc

    2005-03-31

    The discovery in primitive components of meteorites of large oxygen isotopic variations that could not be attributed to mass-dependent fractionation effects has raised a fundamental question: what is the composition of the protosolar gas from which the host grains formed? This composition is probably preserved in the outer layers of the Sun, but the resolution of astronomical spectroscopic measurements is still too poor to be useful for comparison with planetary material. Here we report a precise determination of the oxygen isotopic composition of the solar wind from particles implanted in the outer hundreds of nanometres of metallic grains in the lunar regolith. These layers of the grains are enriched in 16O by >20 +/- 4 per thousand relative to the Earth, Mars and bulk meteorites, which implies the existence in the solar accretion disk of reactions--as yet unknown--that were able to change the 17O/16O and 18O/16O ratios in a way that was not dependent strictly on the mass of the isotope. Photochemical self-shielding of the CO gas irradiated by ultraviolet light may be one of these key processes, because it depends on the abundance of the isotopes, rather than their masses.

  16. Boron Isotopic Composition of Metasomatized Mantle Xenoliths from the Western Rift, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudgins, T.; Nelson, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Western Branch of the East African Rift System is known to have a thick lithosphere and sparse, alkaline volcanism associated with a metasomatized mantle source. Recent work investigating the relationship between Western Branch metasomatized mantle xenoliths and associated lavas has suggested that these metasomes are a significant factor in the evolution of the rift. Hydrous/carbonated fluids or silicate melts are potent metasomatic agents, however gaining insight into the source of a metasomatic agent proves challenging. Here we investigate the potential metasomatic fluid sources using B isotope analysis of mineral separates from Western Branch xenoliths. Preliminary SIMS analyses of phlogopite from Katwe Kikorongo and Bufumbira have and average B isotopic composition of -28.2‰ ± 5.1 and -16.4‰ ± 3.6, respectively. These values are are dissimilar to MORB (-7.5‰ ± 0.7; Marschall and Monteleone, 2015), primitive mantle (-10‰ ± 2; Chaussidon and Marty, 1995), and bulk continental crust (-9.1‰ ± 2.4; Marschall et al., 2017) and display significant heterogeneity across a relatively short ( 150km) portion of the Western Branch. Though displaying large variability, these B isotopic compositions are indicative of a metasomatic agent with a more negative B isotopic composition than MORB, PM, or BCC. These results are consistent with fluids that released from a subducting slab and may be related to 700 Ma Pan-African subduction.

  17. Preservation of Earth-forming events in the tungsten isotopic composition of modern flood basalts.

    PubMed

    Rizo, Hanika; Walker, Richard J; Carlson, Richard W; Horan, Mary F; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Manthos, Vicky; Francis, Don; Jackson, Matthew G

    2016-05-13

    How much of Earth's compositional variation dates to processes that occurred during planet formation remains an unanswered question. High-precision tungsten isotopic data from rocks from two large igneous provinces, the North Atlantic Igneous Province and the Ontong Java Plateau, reveal preservation to the Phanerozoic of tungsten isotopic heterogeneities in the mantle. These heterogeneities, caused by the decay of hafnium-182 in mantle domains with high hafnium/tungsten ratios, were created during the first ~50 million years of solar system history, indicating that portions of the mantle that formed during Earth's primary accretionary period have survived to the present. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of MIL 090001: A CR2 Chondrite with Abundant Refractory Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; McKeegan, K. D.; Sharp, Z. D.

    2012-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (>6 kg) carbonaceous chondrite that was classified as a member of the CV reduced subgroup (CVred) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. Based on the abundance of refractory inclusions and the extent of aqueous alteration, Keller [2] suggested a CV2 classification. Here we report additional mineralogical and petrographic data for MIL 090001, its whole-rock oxygen isotopic composition and ion microprobe analyses of individual phases. The whole rock oxygen isotopic analyses show that MIL 090001 should be classified as a CR chondrite.

  19. Southern Greenland water vapour isotopic composition at the crossroads of Atlantic and Arctic moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonne, J. L.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Risi, C. M.; Werner, M.; Sodemann, H.; Lacour, J. L.; Fettweis, X.; Cesana, G.; Delmotte, M.; Cattani, O.; Clerbaux, C.; Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. E.; Masson-Delmotte, V.

    2014-12-01

    Since September 2011, a continuous water vapour isotopic composition monitoring instrument has been remotely operated in Ivittuut (61.21°N, 48.17°W), southern Greenland. Meteorological parameters are monitored and precipitation has been sampled and analysed for isotopic composition, suggesting equilibrium between surface vapour and precipitation. The data depict small summer diurnal variations. δ18O and deuterium excess (d-excess) are generally anti-correlated and show important seasonal variations (with respective amplitudes of 10 and 20 ‰), and large synoptic variations associated to low-pressure systems (typically +5‰ on δ18O and -15‰ on d-excess). The moisture sources, estimated based on Lagrangian back-trajectories, are primarily influenced by the western North Atlantic, and north-eastern American continent. Notable are important seasonal and synoptic shifts of the moisture sources, and sporadic influences of the Arctic or the eastern North Atlantic. Moisture sources variations can be related to changes in water vapour isotopic composition, and the isotopic fingerprints can be attributed to the areas of moisture origins. Isotopic enabled AGCMs nudged to meteorology (LMDZiso, ECHAM5-wiso), despite biases, correctly capture the δ18O changes, but underestimate the d-excess changes. They allow to identify a high correlation between the southern Greenland d-excess and the simulated relative humidity and d-excess in the moisture source region south of Greenland. An extreme high temperature event in July 2012 affecting all Greenland, similar to ice sheet melt events during the medieval periods and one event in 1889 documented by Greenland ice core records, has been analysed regarding water vapour isotopic composition, using remote sensing (IASI) and in situ observations from Bermuda to northern Greenland (NEEM station). Our southern Greenland observations allow to track the water vapour evolution during this event along the moisture transport path

  20. The boron and lithium isotopic composition of mid-ocean ridge basalts and the mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, Horst R.; Wanless, V. Dorsey; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Elliott, Tim; Monteleone, Brian D.

    2017-06-01

    A global selection of 56 mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses were analysed for Li and B abundances and isotopic compositions. Analytical accuracy and precision of analyses constitute an improvement over previously published MORB data and allow a more detailed discussion of the Li and B systematics of the crust-mantle system. Refined estimates for primitive mantle abundances ([ Li ] = 1.39 ± 0.10 μg/g and [ B ] = 0.19 ± 0.02 μg/g) and depleted mantle abundances ([ Li ] = 1.20 ± 0.10 μg/g and [ B ] = 0.077 ± 0.010 μg/g) are presented based on mass balance and on partial melting models that utilise observed element ratios in MORB. Assimilation of seawater (or brine) or seawater-altered material beneath the ridge, identified by high Cl / K , causes significant elevation of MORB δ11 B and variable elevation in δ7 Li . The B isotope ratio is, hence, identified as a reliable indicator of assimilation in MORB and values higher than -6‰ are strongly indicative of shallow contamination of the magma. The global set of samples investigated here were produced at various degrees of partial melting and include depleted and enriched MORB from slow and fast-spreading ridge segments with a range of radiogenic isotope signatures and trace element compositions. Uncontaminated (low- Cl / K) MORB show no significant boron isotope variation at the current level of analytical precision, and hence a homogenous B isotopic composition of δ11 B = - 7.1 ± 0.9 ‰ (mean of six ridge segments; 2SD). Boron isotope fractionation during mantle melting and basalt fractionation likely is small, and this δ11 B value reflects the B isotopic composition of the depleted mantle and the bulk silicate Earth, probably within ±0.4‰. Our sample set shows a mean δ7 Li = + 3.5 ± 1.0 ‰ (mean of five ridge segments; 2SD), excluding high- Cl / K samples. A significant variation of 1.0-1.5‰ exists among various ridge segments and among samples within individual ridge segments, but this

  1. Experimental constraints on reconstruction of Archean seawater Ni isotopic composition from banded iron formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shui-Jiong; Wasylenki, Laura E.

    2017-06-01

    The Ni isotopic systematics in banded iron formations (BIFs) potentially recorded the Ni isotopic composition of ancient seawater over Precambrian geological history. However, the utility of BIFs as proxies requires quantitative knowledge of how Ni isotopes fractionated as dissolved Ni was initially incorporated into iron-rich sediments and how diagenesis may have affected the Ni isotopic systematics. Here we report results of synthesis experiments to investigate the behavior of Ni isotopes during Ni coprecipitation with ferrihydrite and then transformation of ferrihydrite to hematite. Ferrihydrite coprecipitation experiments at neutral pH demonstrated that the dissolved Ni was variably heavier than coprecipitated Ni (likely a mixture of surface-adsorbed and structurally incorporated Ni), with the isotope fractionation becoming larger as the fraction of Ni associated with solid increased (Δ60/58Nisolution-solid = +0.08 to +0.50‰). Further experiments at lower pH (3.7-6.7), in which structurally incorporated Ni likely dominated in solids, documented a decrease in Δ60/58Nisolution-solid from +0.44‰ to -0.18‰ as the pH decreased. The negative value for Δ60/58Nisolution-solid at low pH indicates the enrichment of heavier isotopes in incorporated Ni relative to dissolved and adsorbed Ni, possibly as a result of the presence of a small amount of tetrahedral Ni2+ in addition to octahedral Ni2+ in the ferrihydrite structure. The results of the ferrihydrite experiments thus reflect equilibrium isotope fractionation between three pools of Ni, with δ60/58Ni values in the order of incorporated > dissolved > adsorbed. Hematite was synthesized by transformation of Ni-bearing ferrihydrite in aqueous solution at ∼100 °C. A significant amount of Ni (up to 60%) was released (desorbed) from solids into solutions as pH dropped from ∼7 to 4.5-5.5 upon phase transformation. Rinsing of the synthesized hematite in 2 M acetic acid released only very small amounts of Ni (<4

  2. Stable isotope composition of waters in the Great Basin, United States 1. Air-mass trajectories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Harris, J.M.; Smith, G.I.; Johnson, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Isentropic trajectories, calculated using the NOAA/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory's isentropic transport model, were used to determine air-parcel origins and the influence of air mass trajectories on the isotopic composition of precipitation events that occurred between October 1991 and September 1993 at Cedar City, Utah, and Winnemucca, Nevada. Examination of trajectories that trace the position of air parcels backward in time for 10 days indicated five distinct regions of water vapor origin: (1) Gulf of Alaska and North Pacific, (2) central Pacific, (3) tropical Pacific, (4) Gulf of Mexico, and (5) continental land mass. Deuterium (??D) and oxygen-18 (??18O) analyses were made of precipitation representing 99% of all Cedar City events. Similar analyses were made on precipitation representing 66% of the precipitation falling at Winnemucca during the same period. The average isotopic composition of precipitation derived from each water vapor source was determined. More than half of the precipitation that fell at both sites during the study period originated in the tropical Pacific and traveled northeast to the Great Basin; only a small proportion traversed the Sierra Nevada. The isotopic composition of precipitation is determined by air-mass origin and its track to the collection station, mechanism of droplet formation, reequilibration within clouds, and evaporation during its passage from cloud to ground. The Rayleigh distillation model can explain the changes in isotopic composition of precipitation as an air mass is cooled pseudo-adiabatically during uplift. However, the complicated processes that take place in the rapidly convecting environment of cumulonimbus and other clouds that are common in the Great Basin, especially in summer, require modification of this model because raindrops that form in the lower portion of those clouds undergo isotopic change as they are elevated to upper levels of the clouds from where they eventually drop to the

  3. Thallium isotope composition of the upper continental crust and rivers - An investigation of the continental sources of dissolved marine thallium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, S.G.; Rehkamper, M.; Porcelli, D.; Andersson, P.; Halliday, A.N.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Latkoczy, C.; Gunther, D.

    2005-01-01

    The thallium (Tl) concentrations and isotope compositions of various river and estuarine waters, suspended riverine particulates and loess have been determined. These data are used to evaluate whether weathering reactions are associated with significant Tl isotope fractionation and to estimate the average Tl isotope composition of the upper continental crust as well as the mean Tl concentration and isotope composition of river water. Such parameters provide key constraints on the dissolved Tl fluxes to the oceans from rivers and mineral aerosols. The Tl isotope data for loess and suspended riverine detritus are relatively uniform with a mean of ??205Tl = -2.0 ?? 0.3 (??205Tl represents the deviation of the 205Tl/203Tl isotope ratio of a sample from NIST SRM 997 Tl in parts per 104). For waters from four major and eight smaller rivers, the majority were found to have Tl concentrations between 1 and 7 ng/kg. Most have Tl isotope compositions very similar (within ??1.5 ??205Tl) to that deduced for the upper continental crust, which indicates that no significant Tl isotope fractionation occurs during weathering. Based on these results, it is estimated that rivers have a mean natural Tl concentration and isotope composition of 6 ?? 4 ng/kg and ??205Tl = -2.5 ?? 1.0, respectively. In the Amazon estuary, both additions and losses of Tl were observed, and these correlate with variations in Fe and Mn contents. The changes in Tl concentrations have much lower amplitudes, however, and are not associated with significant Tl isotope effects. In the Kalix estuary, the Tl concentrations and isotope compositions can be explained by two-component mixing between river water and a high-salinity end member that is enriched in Tl relative to seawater. These results indicate that Tl can display variable behavior in estuarine systems but large additions and losses of Tl were not observed in the present study. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Carbon isotope composition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G.; Blair, N.; Des Marais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions have been measured for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from the Murchison meteorite, a C2 carbonaceous chondrite which fell in Australia in 1969. With few exceptions, notably benzene, the volatile products are substantially isotopically heavier than their terrestrial counterparts, signifying their extraterrestrial origin. For both classes of compounds, the ratio of C-13 to C-12 decreases with increasing carbon number in a roughly parallel manner, and each carboxylic acid exhibits a higher isotopic ratio than the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms. These trends are consistent with the kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues from lower ones. The results suggest the possibility that the production mechanisms for hydrocarbons and carboxylic acids may be similar, and impose constraints on the identity of the reactant species.

  5. Stable isotope and chemical compositions of European and Australasian ciders as a guide to authenticity.

    PubMed

    Carter, James F; Yates, Hans S A; Tinggi, Ujang

    2015-01-28

    This paper presents a data set derived from the analysis of bottled and canned ciders that may be used for comparison with suspected counterfeit or substitute products. Isotopic analysis of the solid residues from ciders (predominantly sugar) provided a means to determine the addition of C4 plant sugars. The added sugars were found to comprise cane sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, glucose, or combinations. The majority of ciders from Australia and New Zealand were found to contain significant amounts of added sugar, which provided a limited means to distinguish these ciders from European ciders. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the whole ciders (predominantly water) were shown to be controlled by two factors, the water available to the parent plant and evaporation. Analysis of data derived from both isotopic and chemical analysis of ciders provided a means to discriminate between regions and countries of manufacture.

  6. The chlorine isotope composition of the moon and implications for an anhydrous mantle.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Z D; Shearer, C K; McKeegan, K D; Barnes, J D; Wang, Y Q

    2010-08-27

    Arguably, the most striking geochemical distinction between Earth and the Moon has been the virtual lack of water (hydrogen) in the latter. This conclusion was recently challenged on the basis of geochemical data from lunar materials that suggest that the Moon's water content might be far higher than previously believed. We measured the chlorine isotope composition of Apollo basalts and glasses and found that the range of isotopic values [from -1 to +24 per mil (per thousand) versus standard mean ocean chloride] is 25 times the range for Earth. The huge isotopic spread is explained by volatilization of metal halides during basalt eruption--a process that could only occur if the Moon had hydrogen concentrations lower than those of Earth by a factor of approximately 10(4) to 10(5), implying that the lunar interior is essentially anhydrous.

  7. Lead isotopic compositions of common arsenical pesticides used in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert; Foley, Nora; Robinson, Gilpin; Wandless, Gregory; Dillingham, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    The three most important arsenical pesticides and herbicides that were extensively used on apple, blueberry, and potato crops in New England from mid-1800s to recent times are lead arsenate, calcium arsenate, and sodium arsenate. Lead arsenate was probably the most heavily used of the arsenical pesticides until it was banned in 1988. Other metal-arsenic pesticides were also used but in lesser amounts. A recent report identified areas in New England where arsenical pesticides were used extensively (Robinson and Ayuso, 2004). On the basis of factor analysis of metal concentrations in stream sediment samples, a positive correlation with pesticide use was shown in regions having stream sediment sample populations that contained concentrations of high arsenic and lead. Lead isotope compositions of stream sediments from areas with heavy use of the pesticides could not be entirely explained by lead originating from rock sulfides and their weathering products. An industrial lead contribution (mostly from atmospheric deposition of lead) was suggested in general to explain the lead isotopic distributions of the stream sediments that could not be accounted for by the natural lead in the environment. We concluded that when agricultural land previously contaminated with arsenical pesticides is urbanized, pesticide residues in the soils and stream sediments could be released into the groundwater. No lead isotopic data characterizing the compositions of pesticides were available for comparison. We have determined the lead isotopic compositions of commonly used pesticides in New England, such as lead arsenate, sodium metaarsenite, and calcium arsenate, in order to assist in future isotopic comparisons and to better establish anthropogenic sources of Pb and As. New data are also presented for copper acetoarsenite (or Paris green), methyl arsonic acid and methane arsonic acid, as well as for arsanilic acid, all of which are used as feed additives to promote swine and poultry growth

  8. Neodymium Isotopic Compositions of the Titanite Reference Materials Used in U-Pb Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q.; Yang, Y.; Zhao, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Titanite (CaTiSiO5) is a widespread mineral and preferentially incorporates considerable uranium and significant light rare earth elements (LREEs) in its structure. Geochronology based upon U-Pb and Pb-Pb analyses of titanite has proven to be useful for understanding the P-T-t evolution of many igneous, metamorphic and hydrothermally altered rock samples (Scott and St-Onge, 1995). In the meantime, Sm-Nd isotopic composition in single titanite can be used to obtain initial Nd isotope composition at the time of titanite crystallization when combined with its U-Pb age, making titanite the most versatile mineral for dating metamorphism and tracing hydrothermal source (Amelin et al., 2009). The widely utilized in situ analyses by SIMS and LA-(MC)-ICP-MS have emphasized the significance for uniform and homogeneous reference materials for external correction (Liu et al., 2012, Sun et al., 2012, Yang et al., 2014). Here, we present U-Pb ages and Sm-Nd isotope analyses of twelve natural titanite crystals (12YQ82, T004, Ontario, BLR-1, OLT1, Khan, Qinghu, TLS-36, NW-IOA, C253, Pakistan and MKED1) acquired by Agilent 7500a Q-ICP-MS and Neptune MC-ICP-MS, respectively, combined a 193 nm ArF excimer laser ablation system. For U-Pb dating, elemental fractionation and instrumental drift were externally corrected using MKED1 titanite standard, showing results of U-Pb analyses all within error of those recommended values. With respect to Sm-Nd isotopes, we employed the interference-free 147Sm/149Sm to deduct 144Sm isobaric interference on 144Nd, and the fractionation between 147Sm and 144Nd was calibrated using BLR-1 titanite, which is proved homogenous in Sm-Nd isotopic system. The obtained Sm-Nd isotopic compositions for natural titanite samples are all consistent with those values determined by isotope dilution (ID) MC-ICP-MS, demonstrating the precision and accuracy currently available for in situ Sm-Nd analyses. Our results demonstrate that BLR-1, OLT1 and Ontario titanites

  9. Experimental Constraints on Reconstruction of Archean Seawater Ni Isotopic Composition from Banded Iron Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Wasylenki, L.

    2016-12-01

    Ni isotope systematics in banded iron formations (BIFs) potentially recorded the Ni isotopic composition of ancient seawater during the Precambrian Eon[1]. The use of BIFs as seawater proxies requires knowing how Ni isotopes fractionated during initial incorporation into iron-rich sediments and during early diagenesis. We conducted experiments to investigate Ni isotope behavior during coprecipitation with ferrihydrite and transformation of ferrihydrite to hematite. Ferrihydrite synthesis at neutral pH demonstrated that dissolved Ni was variably heavier than coprecipitated Ni (Δ60/58Ni = +0.08 to +0.50 ‰), in contrast to the constant offset observed earlier during adsorption to pre-existing ferrihydrite[2]. Experiments at lower pH (<7) yielded negative values of Δ60/58Ni ( -0.18 ‰), suggesting enrichment in heavier isotopes of structurally incorporated Ni relative to dissolved and adsorbed Ni, possibly due to the presence of a small amount of highly fractionated tetrahedral Ni2+ in the ferrihydrite structure. We model our results as equilibrium fractionation among three pools of Ni with systematically varied proportions. We synthesized hematite by transforming Ni-bearing ferrihydrite in aqueous solution at 100 °C and observed significant Ni release from solids (up to 60 %) as pH dropped from 7 to 4.5 - 5.5 during phase transformation. Rinsing hematite with acetic acid released very little Ni (presumably surface-adsorbed) compared to the amounts remaining in solid residues (presumably incorporated). We infer that Δ60/58Ni values (-0.04 to +0.77 ‰) observed in hematite experiments likely reflect Rayleigh fractionation between incorporated and dissolved Ni. The final hematite was slightly lighter than the ferrihydrite had been (by 0.08 ‰), indicating that this phase transformation results in very limited change in Ni isotopic composition, given current analytical uncertainty of ± 0.09 ‰. [1] Wasylenki and Wang (2016) Goldschmidt; [2] Wasylenki et al

  10. Detection of phosphohydrolytic enzyme activity through the oxygen isotope composition of dissolved phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphohydrolytic enzymes play an important role in phosphorus remineralization. As they release phosphate (Pi) from various organophosphorus compounds, these enzymes facilitate the transfer of oxygen atoms from water to the phosphoryl moieties. Most such enzymatic reactions impart a significant isotopic fractionation to the oxygen transferred. If this reaction occurs within a cell, then the resultant oxygen isotope signal is overprinted by continued recycling of the Pi. However, if this reaction occurs extracellularly, then the isotopic signal will be preserved until the Pi is transported back into a cell. Thus, the oxygen isotope composition of Pi (δ18Op) in an aquatic ecosystem can serve as a useful indicator of the mechanisms by which P is remineralized. We develop a time-dependent model illustrating the sensitivity of the δ18O of dissolved phosphate to various modes of P remineralization. The model is informed by cell lysis experiments that reveal the relative proportions of P­i that are directly liberated from cytosol vs. regenerated from co-liberated dissolved organic phosphorus compounds via extracellular hydrolysis. By incorporating both cellular uptake and release fluxes of P, we show that the degree of isotopic disequilibrium in an aquatic ecosystem can be a strong indicator of P remineralization mode. Apparent oxygen isotope equilibrium between Pi and water arises in this model as a steady-state scenario in which fractionation upon cellular uptake of Pi counterbalances the hydrolytic source flux of disequilibrated Pi. Low and high rates of extracellular phosphohydrolase activity are shown to produce steady-state δ18Op values that are respectively above or below thermodynamic equilibrium compositions.

  11. Natural calcium isotopic composition of urine as a marker of bone mineral balance.

    PubMed

    Skulan, Joseph; Bullen, Thomas; Anbar, Ariel D; Puzas, J Edward; Shackelford, Linda; LeBlanc, Adrian; Smith, Scott M

    2007-06-01

    We investigated whether changes in the natural isotopic composition of calcium in human urine track changes in net bone mineral balance, as predicted by a model of calcium isotopic behavior in vertebrates. If so, isotopic analysis of natural urine or blood calcium could be used to monitor short-term changes in bone mineral balance that cannot be detected with other techniques. Calcium isotopic compositions are expressed as delta(44)Ca, or the difference in parts per thousand between the (44)Ca/(40)Ca of a sample and the (44)Ca/(40)Ca of a standard reference material. delta(44)Ca was measured in urine samples from 10 persons who participated in a study of the effectiveness of countermeasures to bone loss in spaceflight, in which 17 weeks of bed rest was used to induce bone loss. Study participants were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: controls received no treatment, one treatment group received alendronate, and another group performed resistive exercise. Measurements were made on urine samples collected before, at 2 or 3 points during, and after bed rest. Urine delta(44)Ca values during bed rest were lower in controls than in individuals treated with alendronate (P <0.05, ANOVA) or exercise (P <0.05), and lower than the control group baseline (P <0.05, t-test). Results were consistent with the model and with biochemical and bone mineral density data. Results confirm the predicted relationship between bone mineral balance and calcium isotopes, suggesting that calcium isotopic analysis of urine might be refined into a clinical and research tool.

  12. Stable isotope study of a new chondrichthyan fauna (Kimmeridgian, Porrentruy, Swiss Jura): an unusual freshwater-influenced isotopic composition for the hybodont shark Asteracanthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuzinger, L.; Kocsis, L.; Billon-Bruyat, J.-P.; Spezzaferri, S.; Vennemann, T.

    2015-12-01

    Chondrichthyan teeth (sharks, rays, and chimaeras) are mineralized in isotopic equilibrium with the surrounding water, and parameters such as water temperature and salinity can be inferred from the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18Op) of their bioapatite. We analysed a new chondrichthyan assemblage, as well as teeth from bony fish (Pycnodontiformes). All specimens are from Kimmeridgian coastal marine deposits of the Swiss Jura (vicinity of Porrentruy, Ajoie district, NW Switzerland). While the overall faunal composition and the isotopic composition of bony fish are generally consistent with marine conditions, unusually low δ18Op values were measured for the hybodont shark Asteracanthus. These values are also lower compared to previously published data from older European Jurassic localities. Additional analyses on material from Solothurn (Kimmeridgian, NW Switzerland) also have comparable, low-18O isotopic compositions for Asteracanthus. The data are hence interpreted to represent a so far unique, freshwater-influenced isotopic composition for this shark that is classically considered a marine genus. While reproduction in freshwater or brackish realms is established for other hybodonts, a similar behaviour for Asteracanthus is proposed here. Regular excursions into lower salinity waters can be linked to the age of the deposits and correspond to an ecological adaptation, most likely driven by the Kimmeridgian transgression and by the competition of the hybodont shark Asteracanthus with the rapidly diversifying neoselachians (modern sharks).

  13. Stable isotope study of a new chondrichthyan fauna (Kimmeridgian, Porrentruy, Swiss Jura): an unusual freshwater-influenced isotopic composition for the hybodont shark Asteracanthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuzinger, L.; Kocsis, L.; Billon-Bruyat, J.-P.; Spezzaferri, S.; Vennemann, T.

    2015-08-01

    Chondrichthyan teeth (sharks, rays and chimaeras) are mineralised in isotopic equilibrium with the surrounding water, and parameters such as water temperature and salinity can be inferred from the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18Op) of their bioapatite. We analysed a new chondrichthyan assemblage, as well as teeth from bony fish (Pycnodontiformes). All specimens are from Kimmeridgian coastal marine deposits of the Swiss Jura (vicinity of Porrentruy, Ajoie district, NW Switzerland). While the overall faunal composition and the isotopic composition of bony fish are consistent with marine conditions, unusually low δ18Op values were measured for the hybodont shark Asteracanthus. These values are also lower compared to previously published data from older European Jurassic localities. Additional analyses on material from Solothurn (Kimmeridgian, NW Switzerland) also have comparable, low-18O isotopic compositions for Asteracanthus. The data are hence interpreted to represent a so far unique, freshwater-influenced isotopic composition for this shark that is classically considered as a marine genus. While reproduction in freshwater or brackish realms is established for other hybodonts, a similar behaviour for Asteracanthus is proposed here. Regular excursions into lower salinity waters can be linked to the age of the deposits and correspond to an ecological adaptation, most likely driven by the Kimmeridgian transgression and by the competition of the primitive shark Asteracanthus with the rapidly diversifying neoselachians (modern sharks).

  14. Preparation of Diatomite Supported Nano Zinc Oxide Composite Photocatalytic Material and Study on its Formaldehyde Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liguang; Pang, Bo

    2017-09-01

    This experiment used zinc nitrate as precursor, ethanol as solvent and polyethylene glycol as dispersant, diatomite as carrier, diatomite loaded nano Zinc Oxide was prepared by sol-gel method, in addition, the formaldehyde degradation was studied by two kinds of experimental methods: preparation and loading, preparation and post loading, The samples were characterized by SEM, XRD, BET and IR. Experimental results showed that: Diatomite based nano Zinc Oxide had a continuous adsorption and degradation of formaldehyde, formaldehyde gas with initial concentration was 0.7mg/m3, after 36h degradation, the concentration reached 0.238mg/m3, the degradation rate reached to 66%.

  15. Extreme Hf-Os Isotope Compositions in Hawaiian Peridotite Xenoliths: Evidence for an Ancient Recycled Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizimis, M.; Lassiter, J. C.; Salters, V. J.; Sen, G.; Griselin, M.

    2004-12-01

    We report on the first combined Hf-Os isotope systematics of spinel peridotite xenoliths from the Salt Lake Crater (SLC), Pali and Kaau (PK) vents from the island of Oahu, Hawaii. These peridotites are thought to represent the Pacific oceanic lithosphere beneath Oahu, as residues of MORB-type melting at a paleo-ridge some 80-100Ma ago. Clinopyroxene mineral separates in these peridotites have very similar Nd and Sr isotope compositions with the post erosional Honolulu Volcanics (HV) lavas that bring these xenoliths to the surface. This and their relatively elevated Na and LREE contents suggest that these peridotites are not simple residues of MORB-type melting but have experience some metasomatic enrichment by the host HV lavas. However, the SLC and PK xenoliths show an extreme range in Hf isotope compositions towards highly radiogenic values (ɛ Hf= 7-80), at nearly constant Nd isotope compositions (ɛ Nd= 7-10), unlike any OIB or MORB basalt. Furthermore, these Oahu peridotites show a bimodal distribution in their bulk rock 187Os/186Os ratios: the PK peridotites have similar ratios to the abyssal peridotites (0.130-0.1238), while the SLC peridotites have highly subchondritic ratios (0.1237-0.1134) that yield 500Ma to 2Ga Re-depletion ages. Hf-Os isotopes show a broad negative correlation whereby the samples with the most radiogenic 176Hf/177Hf have the most unradiogenic 187Os/186Os ratios. Based on their combined Hf-Os-Nd isotope and major element compositions, the PK peridotites can be interpreted as fragments of the Hawaiian lithosphere, residue of MORB melting 80-100Ma ago, that have been variably metasomatized by the host HV lavas. In contrast, the extreme Hf-Os isotope compositions of the SLC peridotites suggest that they cannot be the source nor residue of any kind of Hawaiian lavas, and that Hf and Os isotopes survived the metasomatism or melt-rock reaction that has overprinted the Nd and Sr isotope compositions of these peridotites. The ancient (>1Ga

  16. The neodymium stable isotope composition of the silicate Earth and chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy-West, Alex J.; Millet, Marc-Alban; Burton, Kevin W.

    2017-12-01

    The non-chondritic neodymium (Nd) 142Nd/144Nd ratio of the silicate Earth potentially provides a key constraint on the accretion and early evolution of the Earth. Yet, it is debated whether this offset is due to the Earth being formed from material enriched in s-process Nd isotopes or results from an early differentiation process such as the segregation of a late sulfide matte during core formation, collisional erosion or a some combination of these processes. Neodymium stable isotopes are potentially sensitive to early sulfide segregation into Earth's core, a process that cannot be resolved using their radiogenic counterparts. This study presents the first comprehensive Nd stable isotope data for chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks. Stable Nd measurements were made using a double spike technique coupled with thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. All three of the major classes of chondritic meteorites, carbonaceous, enstatite and ordinary chondrites have broadly similar isotopic compositions allowing calculation of a chondritic mean of δ146/144Nd = -0.025 ± 0.025‰ (±2 s.d.; n = 39). Enstatite chondrites yield the most uniform stable isotope composition (Δ146/144Nd = 26 ppm), with considerably more variability observed within ordinary (Δ146/144Nd = 72 ppm) and carbonaceous meteorites (Δ146/144Nd = 143 ppm). Terrestrial weathering, nucleosynthetic variations and parent body thermal metamorphism appear to have little measurable effect on δ146/144Nd in chondrites. The small variations observed between ordinary chondrite groups most likely reflect inherited compositional differences between parent bodies, with the larger variations observed in carbonaceous chondrites being linked to varying modal proportions of calcium-aluminium rich inclusions. The terrestrial samples analysed here include rocks ranging from basaltic to rhyolitic in composition, MORB glasses and residual mantle lithologies. All of these terrestrial rocks possess a broadly similar Nd

  17. Measurement of the oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate in seawater and freshwater using the denitrifier method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casciotti, K.L.; Sigman, D.M.; Hastings, M. Galanter; Böhlke, J.K.; Hilkert, A.

    2002-01-01

    We report a novel method for measurement of the oxygen isotopic composition (18O/16O) of nitrate (NO3-) from both seawater and freshwater. The denitrifier method, based on the isotope ratio analysis of nitrous oxide generated from sample nitrate by cultured denitrifying bacteria, has been described elsewhere for its use in nitrogen isotope ratio (15N/14N) analysis of nitrate.1Here, we address the additional issues associated with 18O/16O analysis of nitrate by this approach, which include (1) the oxygen isotopic difference between the nitrate sample and the N2O analyte due to isotopic fractionation associated with the loss of oxygen atoms from nitrate and (2) the exchange of oxygen atoms with water during the conversion of nitrate to N2O. Experiments with 18O-labeled water indicate that water exchange contributes less than 10%, and frequently less than 3%, of the oxygen atoms in the N2O product for Pseudomonas aureofaciens. In addition, both oxygen isotope fractionation and oxygen atom exchange are consistent within a given batch of analyses. The analysis of appropriate isotopic reference materials can thus be used to correct the measured 18O/16O ratios of samples for both effects. This is the first method tested for 18O/16O analysis of nitrate in seawater. Benefits of this method, relative to published freshwater methods, include higher sensitivity (tested down to 10 nmol and 1 μM NO3-), lack of interference by other solutes, and ease of sample preparation.

  18. Iron and zinc isotope fractionation during uptake and translocation in rice (Oryza sativa) grown in oxic and anoxic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Tim; Markovic, Tamara; Kirk, Guy J. D.; Schönbächler, Maria; Rehkämper, Mark; Zhao, Fangjie J.; Weiss, Dominik J.

    2015-11-01

    Stable isotope fractionation is emerging quickly as a powerful novel technique to study metal uptake and translocation in plants. Fundamental to this development is a thorough understanding of the processes that lead to isotope fractionation under differing environmental conditions. In this study, we investigated Zn and Fe isotope fractionation in rice grown to maturity in anaerobic and aerobic soils under greenhouse conditions. The overall Zn isotope fractionation between the soil and above ground plant material was negligible in aerobic soil but significant in anaerobic soil with isotopically lighter Zn in the rice plant. The observed range of fractionation is in line with previously determined fractionations of Zn in rice grown in hydroponic solutions and submerged soils and emphasizes the effect of taking up different chemical forms of Zn, most likely free and organically complexed Zn. The Zn in the grain was isotopically lighter than in the rest of the above ground plant in rice grown in aerobic and anaerobic soils alike. This suggests that in the course of the grain loading and during the translocation within the plant important biochemical and/or biophysical processes occur. The isotope fractionation observed in the grains would be consistent with an unidirectional controlled transport from shoot to grain with a fractionation factor of α ≈ 0.9994. Iron isotopes showed an isotopic lighter signature in shoot and grain compared to the bulk soil or the leachate in aerobic and anaerobic soils alike. The negative direction of isotopic fractionation is consistent with possible changes in the redox state of Fe occurring during the uptake and translocation processes. The isotope fractionation pattern between shoots and grain material are different for Zn and Fe which finally suggests that different mechanisms operate during translocation and grain-loading in rice for these two key micronutrients.

  19. Hydrogen isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes in Arabidopsis lines with different transpiration rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, N.; Lawson, T.; Eley, Y.; McAusland, L.

    2012-04-01

    Stable isotopic compositions of oxygen and hydrogen are used widely to investigate modern and ancient water cycles. The D/H composition of organic compounds derived from terrestrial plants has recently attracted significant attention as a proxy for palaeohydrology. However, the role of various plant physiological and biochemical factors in controlling the D/H signature of leaf wax lipids in extant plants remains unclear. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of plant transpiration on the D/H composition of n-alkanes in terrestrial plants. This experiment includes 4 varieties of Arabidopsis thaliana that differ with respect to stomatal density and stomatal geometry. All 4 varieties were grown indoors under identical temperature, relative humidity, light and watering regimes and then sampled for leaf wax and leaf water stable isotopic measurements. During growth, stomatal conductance to carbon dioxide and water vapour were also determined. We found that the plants varied significantly in terms of their transpiration rates. Transpiration rates were significantly higher in Arabidopsis ost1 and ost1-1 varieties (2.4 and 3.2 mmol m-2 s-1, respectively) than in Arabidopsis RbohD and Col-0 (1.5 and 1.4). However, hydrogen isotope measurements of n-alkanes extracted from leaf waxes revealed a very different pattern. Varieties ost1, ost1-1, and RbohD have very similar deltaD values of n-C29 alkane (-125, -128, and -127 per mil), whereas the deltaD value of Col-0 is more negative (-137 per mil). The initial results of this work suggest that plant transpiration is decoupled from the D/H composition of n-alkanes. In other words, physical processes that affect water vapour movement between the plant and its environment apparently cannot account for the stable hydrogen isotope composition of organic compounds that comprise leaf waxes. Additional, perhaps biochemical, processes that affect hydrogen isotope fractionation during photosynthesis might need to be invoked

  20. Light Stable Isotopic Compositions of Enriched Mantle Sources: Resolving the Dehydration Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, J. E.; Bindeman, I. N.; Kingsley, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    An outstanding puzzle in mantle geochemistry has been the origin and evolution of Earth's volatile components. The "dehydration paradox" refers to the following conundrum. Mantle compositions for some enriched mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and ocean island (OIB) basalts basalts require involvement of a mostly dehydrated slab component to explain the trace element ratios and radiogenic isotopic compositions, but a fully hydrated slab component to explain the stable isotopic compositions. Volatile and stable isotopic data on enriched MORB show a diversity of enriched components. Pacific PREMA-type basalts (H2O/Ce = 215 ± 30, δDSMOW = -45 ± 5 ‰) are similar to those in the north Atlantic (H2O/Ce = 220 ± 30; δDSMOW = -30 to -40 ‰). Basalts with EM-type signatures have regionally variable volatile compositions. North Atlantic EM-type basalts are wetter (H2O/Ce = 330 ± 30) and have isotopically heavier hydrogen (δDSMOW = -57 ± 5 ‰) than north Atlantic MORB. South Atlantic EM-type basalts are damp (H2O/Ce = 120 ± 10) with intermediate δDSMOW (-68 ± 2 ‰), similar to dDSMOW for Pacific MORB. North EPR EM-type basalts are dry (H2O/Ce = 110 ± 20) and isotopically light (δDSMOW = -94 ± 3 ‰). Boron and lithium isotopic ratios parallel the trends observed for dDSMOW. A multi-stage metasomatic and melting model accounts for the origin of the enriched components by extending the subduction factory concept down through the mantle transition zone, with slab temperature a key variable. The dehydration paradox is resolved by decoupling of volatiles from lithophile elements, reflecting primary dehydration of the slab followed by secondary rehydration and re-equilibration by fluids derived from subcrustal hydrous phases (e.g., antigorite) in cooler, deeper parts of the slab. The "expanded subduction factory" model includes melting at several key depths, including 1) 180 to 280 km, where EM-type mantle compositions are generated above slabs with average to hot thermal

  1. Effect of accelerated crucible rotation on melt composition in high-pressure vertical Bridgman growth of cadmium zinc telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeckel, Andrew; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2000-02-01

    Three-dimensional axisymmetric, time-dependent simulations of the high-pressure vertical Bridgman growth of large-diameter cadmium zinc telluride are performed to study the effect of accelerated crucible rotation (ACRT) on crystal growth dynamics. The model includes details of heat transfer, melt convection, solid-liquid interface shape, and dilute zinc segregation. Application of ACRT greatly improves mixing in the melt, but causes an overall increased deflection of the solid-liquid interface. The flow exhibits a Taylor-Görtler instability at the crucible sidewall, which further enhances melt mixing. The rate of mixing depends strongly on the length of the ACRT cycle, with an optimum half-cycle length between 2 and 4 Ekman time units. Significant melting of the crystal occurs during a portion of the rotation cycle, caused by periodic reversal of the secondary flow at the solid-liquid interface, indicating the possibility of compositional striations.

  2. Stable isotope compositions of gases and vegetation near naturally burning coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, J.D.; Kyser, T.K.

    1984-01-01

    Our measurements of stable isotope compositions of CO2 issuing from vents produced by naturally burning coal indicate that the coal is oxidized through a kinetic process in which groundwater is the oxidizing agent. The CO2 produced by the oxidation of the coal is extremely depleted in 13C relative to normal atmospheric CO2. The change in the ??13C value of atmospheric CO2 near the vents resulting from the burning coal was not recorded in tree rings from red cedars, but the ??13C values of some C3 and C4 type plants collected from within the area were greatly affected. Our results indicate that the ??13C values of some species of plants may be sensitive indicators of changes in the carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. Isotopic compositions and probable origins of organic molecules in the Eocene Messel shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. M.; Takigiku, Ray; Ocampo, Ruben; Callot, Enry J.; Albrecht, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    It is shown here that the carbon isotopic compositions of biomarkers from the Eocene Messel shale, accumulated 47 + or - 2 million years ago in anaerobic waters at the bottom of a lake, allow identification of specific sources for some materials and reconstruction of carbon flows within the lake and its sediments. The C-13 content of organic matter synthesized by lacustrine primary producers can be estimated from the observed C-13 content of the geoporphyrins derived from their chlorophylls. Total organic material in the shale is depleted in C-13 by six parts per thousand relative to that input. This difference cannot be explained by selective loss of components enriched in C-13, nor, as shown by isotopic compositions of other biomarkers, by inputs from land plants surrounding the lake or from methanogenic bacteria.

  4. Isotopic composition of cosmic ray nitrogen at 1.5 GeV/amu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, R.; Meyer, P.

    1975-01-01

    For any location, the earth's magnetic field acts as a filter for incoming cosmic rays, allowing only particles above a certain rigidity. The relative isotopic composition of abundant elements can be measured with a detector sensitive to the velocity of particles in the penumbra of the earth's magnetic field. In this paper, the nitrogen velocity spectrum is compared with that of carbon plus oxygen as a reference, since in this case Z-dependent effects are minimal. The form of the energy spectrum of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, needed for proper correction, was measured in the same experiment. The results were obtained using a scintillator-Cerenkov counter telescope with a geometric factor of 0.25 sq in sr, flown twice on high-altitude balloons from Palestine, Texas, obtaining an exposure factor of 20 sq m sr hr. Results are presented on the isotopic composition of nitrogen at about 1.5GeV/amu.

  5. Study of the dynamics of Zn, Fe, and Cu in the soil-plant system during leaf litter decomposition using isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichat, S.; Fekiacova, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Litter decomposition is a key process in the cycle of the elements in the soil-plant system. We have investigated the dynamics of three essential micronutrients (Zn, Fe, and Cu) in the vegetal cover, litter, organic horizons, and upper soil horizon (0-2 and 5-10 cm) using both element concentrations and isotopic compositions. The study was conducted on the O3HP (Oak Observatory at the Haute-Provence Observatory) experimental field site in southern France. O3HP is located far from pollution sources. It has been a fallow land for 70 years with the tree cover represented mainly by oak trees (Quercus pubescens). The soil is a thin layer of Calcisol developed under Mediterranean climate. The area has been subdivided in four zones as a function of plant cover. The results for two of these zones, dominated by respectively Poaceae and Genista hispanica, are reported here. We found that the concentrations of the three elements increase from the Ol to the Of horizon. Copper concentration in the Of horizon is close to that of the soil, whereas it is lower for Fe and Zn. For isotopic compositions, the behavior of the three elements is, however, different, which suggests different processes of redistribution for these elements. An enrichment in light Fe isotopes was observed from the Ol to the Of horizon, the latter having an isotopic composition similar to that of the soil. Zinc isotopic compositions are also similar in the Of horizon and the soil but they are isotopically heavier than in the Ol horizon. For Cu, the O horizons are isotopically heavier than the soil, with Of being the heaviest horizon. In addition, for Cu and Zn, the profiles in the O-horizons in the Poaceae-dominated and Genista hispanica-dominated areas are similar but their values are offset, suggesting an influence of the vegetal cover. The increase in concentration for Cu, Zn and Fe with age/depth in the O horizons is in agreement with what is commonly observed in litter-bag experiments, e.g. 1,2. Two

  6. In-Situ Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Tagish Lake: An Ungrouped Type 2 Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Engrand, Cecile; Gounelle, Matthieu; Zolensky, Mike E.

    2001-01-01

    We have measured the oxygen isotopic composition of several components of Tagish Lake by ion microprobe. This meteorite constitutes the best preserved sample of C2 matter presently available for study. It presents two different lithologies (carbonate-poor and -rich) which have fairly comparable oxygen isotopic composition, with regard to both the primary or secondary minerals. For the olivine and pyroxene grains, their delta O-18 values range from - 10.5% to + 7.4% in the carbonate-poor lithology, with a mean Delta O-17 value of - 3.7 2.4%. In the carbonate-rich lithology, delta O-18 varies from - 7.9% to + 3.3%, and the mean Delta O-17 value is - 4.7 +/- 1.4%. Olivine inclusions (Fo(sub >99)) with extreme O-16-enrichment were found in both lithologies: delta O-18 = - 46.1 %, delta O-187= - 48.3% and delta O-18 = - 40.6%, delta O-17 = - 41.2% in the carbonate-rich lithology; delta O-18 = - 41.5%, delta O-17 = -43.4%0 in the carbonate-poor lithology. Anhydrous minerals in the carbonate-poor lithology are slightly more O-16-rich than in the carbonate-rich one. Four low-iron manganese-rich (LIME) olivine grains do not have an oxygen isotopic composition distinct from the other "normal" olivines. The phyllosilicate matrix presents the same range of oxygen isotopic compositions in both lithologies: delta O-18 from approximately 11 % to approximately 6%, with an average Delta. O-17 approximately 0%. Because the bulk Tagish Lake oxygen isotopic composition given by Brown et al. is on the high end of our matrix analyses, we assume that this "bulk Tagish Lake" composition probably only represents that of the carbonate-rich lithology. Calcium carbonates have delta O-18 values up to 35%, with Delta O-17 approximately 0.5%0. Magnetite grains present very high Delta O-17 values approximately + 3.4%0 +/- 1.2%. Given our analytical uncertainties and our limited carbonate data, the matrix and the carbonate seem to have formed in isotopic equilibrium. In that case, their large

  7. Isotopic composition of cosmic ray nuclei with Z greater than or equal to 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, W. R.; Lezniak, J. A.; Kish, J.

    1974-01-01

    Results of measurements of the isotopic composition of Z greater than or equal to 10 cosmic ray nuclei using a new technique employing a combination of Cerenkov and total energy counters. An effective mass resolution of about 0.4 AMU is obtained for particles with energies between 400 and 500 MeV/nuc and charges between 12 and 16. The preliminary mass distribution of nuclei with charges from 12 to 28 is presented and discussed.

  8. Assessment of oceanic productivity with the triple-isotope composition of dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Luz, B; Barkan, E

    2000-06-16

    Plant production in the sea is a primary mechanism of global oxygen formation and carbon fixation. For this reason, and also because the ocean is a major sink for fossil fuel carbon dioxide, much attention has been given to estimating marine primary production. Here, we describe an approach for estimating production of photosynthetic oxygen, based on the isotopic composition of dissolved oxygen of seawater. This method allows the estimation of integrated oceanic productivity on a time scale of weeks.

  9. Mineralogy and Oxygen Isotope Compositions of an Unusual Hibonite-Perovskite Refractory Inclusion from Allende

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Snead, C.; Rahman, Z.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Hibonite-rich Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are among the earliest formed solids that condensed in the early nebula. We discovered an unusual refractory inclusion from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL) containing an approx 500 micron long single crystal of hibonite and co-existing coarse-grained perovskite. The mineralogy and petrography of SHAL show strong similarities to some FUN inclusions, especially HAL. Here we report on the mineralogy, petrography, mineral chemistry and oxygen isotopic compositions in SHAL.

  10. Microscale determination of the spectral characteristics and carbon-isotopic compositions of porphyrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popp, B. N.; Hayes, J. M.; Boreham, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Molar extinction coefficients for band III of Ni porphyrins are calculated from results of spectrophotometric and manometric analyses of individual etioporphyrins, DPEP, cyclic, and diDPEP porphyrins known to initially be pure from mass spectrometry, 1H NMR, and analytical HPLC studies. A method for determining carbon-isotopic compositions and purity of micromolar quantities of individual porphyrins using combined spectrophotometric and manometric techniques is presented.

  11. The nitrogen isotopic composition in soils and plants: Its use in environmental studies (A Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, M. I.

    2009-12-01

    The results of studying the isotopic composition of the nitrogen in soils and plants and its use for characterizing the nitrogen cycle in ecosystems, the transformation of nitrogen compounds in soils, the sources of nitrogen nutrition for plants, and the assessment of the symbiotic nitrogen fixation’s contribution to the nitrogen budget of ecosystems were considered for a wide variety of natural and agricultural ecosystems.

  12. Tetrathionate and Elemental Sulfur Shape the Isotope Composition of Sulfate in Acid Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Balci, Nurgul; Brunner, Benjamin; Turchyn, Alexandra V.

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur compounds in intermediate valence states, for example elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate, are important players in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. However, key understanding about the pathways of oxidation involving mixed-valance state sulfur species is still missing. Here we report the sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation effects during the oxidation of tetrathionate (S4O62−) and elemental sulfur (S°) to sulfate in bacterial cultures in acidic conditions. Oxidation of tetrathionate by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans produced thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and sulfate. Up to 34% of the tetrathionate consumed by the bacteria could not be accounted for in sulfate or other intermediate-valence state sulfur species over the experiments. The oxidation of tetrathionate yielded sulfate that was initially enriched in 34S (ε34SSO4−S4O6) by +7.9‰, followed by a decrease to +1.4‰ over the experiment duration, with an average ε34SSO4−S4O6 of +3.5 ± 0.2‰ after a month of incubation. We attribute this significant sulfur isotope fractionation to enzymatic disproportionation reactions occurring during tetrathionate decomposition, and to the incomplete transformation of tetrathionate into sulfate. The oxygen isotope composition of sulfate (δ18OSO4) from the tetrathionate oxidation experiments indicate that 62% of the oxygen in the formed sulfate was derived from water. The remaining 38% of the oxygen was either inherited from the supplied tetrathionate, or supplied from dissolved atmospheric oxygen (O2). During the oxidation of elemental sulfur, the product sulfate became depleted in 34S between −1.8 and 0‰ relative to the elemental sulfur with an average for ε34SSO4−S0 of −0.9 ± 0.2‰ and all the oxygen atoms in the sulfate derived from water with an average normal oxygen isotope fractionation (ε18OSO4−H2O) of −4.4‰. The differences observed in δ18OSO4 and the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4), acid

  13. In-situ observations of the isotopic composition of methane at the Cabauw tall tower site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röckmann, Thomas; Eyer, Simon; van der Veen, Carina; E Popa, Maria; Tuzson, Béla; Monteil, Guillaume; Houweling, Sander; Harris, Eliza; Brunner, Dominik; Fischer, Hubertus; Zazzeri, Giulia; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan G.; Brand, Willi A.; Necki, Jaroslav M.; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    High precision analyses of the isotopic composition of methane in ambient air can potentially be used to discriminate between different source categories. Due to the complexity of isotope ratio measurements, such analyses have generally been performed in the laboratory on air samples collected in the field. This poses a limitation on the temporal resolution at which the isotopic composition can be monitored with reasonable logistical effort. Here we present the performance of a dual isotope ratio mass spectrometric system (IRMS) and a quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS) based technique for in-situ analysis of the isotopic composition of methane under field conditions. Both systems were deployed at the Cabauw experimental site for atmospheric research (CESAR) in the Netherlands and performed in-situ, high-frequency (approx. hourly) measurements for a period of more than 5 months. The IRMS and QCLAS instruments were in excellent agreement with a slight systematic offset of +0.05 ± 0.03 ‰ for δ13C-CH4 and -3.6 ± 0.4 ‰ for δD-CH4. This was corrected for, yielding a combined dataset with more than 2500 measurements of both δ13C and δD. The high precision and temporal resolution dataset does not only reveal the overwhelming contribution of isotopically depleted agricultural CH4 emissions from ruminants at the Cabauw site, but also allows the identification of specific events with elevated contributions from more enriched sources such as natural gas and landfills. The final dataset was compared to model calculations using the global model TM5 and the mesoscale model FLEXPART-COSMO. The results of both models agree better with the measurements when the TNO-MACC emission inventory is used in the models than when the EDGAR inventory is used. This suggests that high-resolution isotope measurements have the potential to further constrain the methane budget, when they are performed at multiple sites that are representative for the entire European

  14. Tungsten isotopic compositions of iron meteorites: Chronological constraints vs. cosmogenic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowski, A.; Quitté, G.; Halliday, A. N.; Kleine, T.

    2006-02-01

    High-precision W isotopic compositions are presented for 35 iron meteorites from 7 magmatic groups (IC, IIAB, IID, IIIAB, IIIF, IVA, and IVB) and 3 non-magmatic groups (IAB, IIICD, and IIE). Small but resolvable isotopic variations are present both within and between iron meteorite groups. Variations in the 182W/ 184W ratio reflect either time intervals of metal-silicate differentiation, or result from the burnout of W isotopes caused by a prolonged exposure to galactic cosmic rays. Calculated apparent time spans for some groups of magmatic iron meteorites correspond to 8.5 ± 2.1 My (IID), 5.1 ± 2.3 My (IIAB), and 5.3 ± 1.3 My (IVB). These time intervals are significantly longer than those predicated from models of planetesimal accretion. It is shown that cosmogenic effects can account for a large part of the W isotopic variation. No simple relationship exists with exposure ages, compromising any reliable method of correction. After allowance for maximum possible cosmogenic effects, it is found that there is no evidence that any of the magmatic iron meteorites studied here have initial W isotopic compositions that differ from those of Allende CAIs [ ɛ182W = - 3.47 ± 0.20; [T. Kleine, K. Mezger, H. Palme, E. Scherer and C. Münker, Early core formation in asteroids and late accretion of chondrite parent bodies: evidence from 182Hf- 182W in CAIs, metal-rich chondrites and iron meteorites, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (in press)]. Cosmogenic corrections cannot yet be made with sufficient accuracy to obtain highly precise ages for iron meteorites. Some of the corrected ages nevertheless require extremely early metal-silicate segregation no later than 1 My after formation of CAIs. Therefore, magmatic iron meteorites appear to provide the best examples yet identified of material derived from the first planetesimals that grew by runaway growth, as modelled in dynamic simulations. Non-magmatic iron meteorites have a more radiogenic W isotopic composition than magmatic

  15. Application of iron and zinc isotopes to track the sources and mechanisms of metal loading in a mountain watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borrok, D.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Ian, Ridley W.; Lamothe, P.J.; Kimball, B.A.; Verplanck, P.L.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Here the hydrogeochemical constraints of a tracer dilution study are combined with Fe and Zn isotopic measurements to pinpoint metal loading sources and attenuation mechanisms in an alpine watershed impacted by acid mine drainage. In the tested mountain catchment, ??56Fe and ??66Zn isotopic signatures of filtered stream water samples varied by ???3.5??? and 0.4???, respectively. The inherent differences in the aqueous geochemistry of Fe and Zn provided complimentary isotopic information. For example, variations in ??56Fe were linked to redox and precipitation reactions occurring in the stream, while changes in ??66Zn were indicative of conservative mixing of different Zn sources. Fen environments contributed distinctively light dissolved Fe (<-2.0???) and isotopically heavy suspended Fe precipitates to the watershed, while Zn from the fen was isotopically heavy (>+0.4???). Acidic drainage from mine wastes contributed heavier dissolved Fe (???+0.5???) and lighter Zn (???+0.2???) isotopes relative to the fen. Upwelling of Fe-rich groundwater near the mouth of the catchment was the major source of Fe (??56Fe ??? 0???) leaving the watershed in surface flow, while runoff from mining wastes was the major source of Zn. The results suggest that given a strong framework for interpretation, Fe and Zn isotopes are useful tools for identifying and tracking metal sources and attenuation mechanisms in mountain watersheds. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Composition of Hydrothermal Vent Microbial Communities as Revealed by Analyses of Signature Lipids, Stable Carbon Isotopes and Aquificales Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, L. L.; Eder, W.; Huber, Robert; Hinrichs, K-U.; Hayes, J. M.; DesMarais, D. J.; Cady, S. L.; Hope, J. M.; Summons, R. E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a study of lipid biomarker composition and carbon isotopic fractionation in cultured Aquificales and natural analogues from Yellowstone National Park. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Quantifying the isotopic composition of NOx emission sources: An analysis of collection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibiger, D.; Hastings, M.

    2012-04-01

    We analyze various collection methods for nitrogen oxides, NOx (NO2 and NO), used to evaluate the nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N). Atmospheric NOx is a major contributor to acid rain deposition upon its conversion to nitric acid; it also plays a significant role in determining air quality through the production of tropospheric ozone. NOx is released by both anthropogenic (fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, aircraft emissions) and natural (lightning, biogenic production in soils) sources. Global concentrations of NOx are rising because of increased anthropogenic emissions, while natural source emissions also contribute significantly to the global NOx burden. The contributions of both natural and anthropogenic sources and their considerable variability in space and time make it difficult to attribute local NOx concentrations (and, thus, nitric acid) to a particular source. Several recent studies suggest that variability in the isotopic composition of nitric acid deposition is related to variability in the isotopic signatures of NOx emission sources. Nevertheless, the isotopic composition of most NOx sources has not been thoroughly constrained. Ultimately, the direct capture and quantification of the nitrogen isotopic signatures of NOx sources will allow for the tracing of NOx emissions sources and their impact on environmental quality. Moreover, this will provide a new means by which to verify emissions estimates and atmospheric models. We present laboratory results of methods used for capturing NOx from air into solution. A variety of methods have been used in field studies, but no independent laboratory verification of the efficiencies of these methods has been performed. When analyzing isotopic composition, it is important that NOx be collected quantitatively or the possibility of fractionation must be constrained. We have found that collection efficiency can vary widely under different conditions in the laboratory and fractionation does not vary

  18. Natural Ca Isotope Composition of Urine as a Rapid Measure of Bone Mineral Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Morgan, J.; Romaniello, S. J.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring stable Ca isotope variations in urine are emerging as a powerful tool to detect changes in bone mineral balance. Bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases isotopically light Ca into soft tissue. Previously published work found that variations in Ca isotope composition could be detected at 4 weeks of bed rest in a 90-day bed rest study (data collected at 4, 8 and 12 weeks). A new 30-day bed rest study involved 12 patients on a controlled diet, monitored for 7 days prior to bed rest and 7 days post bed rest. Samples of urine, blood and food were collected throughout the study. Four times daily blood samples and per void urine samples were collected to monitor diurnal or high frequency variations. An improved chemical purification protocol, followed by measurement using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) allowed accurate and precise determinations of mass-dependent Ca isotope variations in these biological samples to better than ±0.2% (δ44/42Ca) on <25 μg of Ca. Results from this new study show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density by X-ray measurements occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged over this period. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Using a mass-balance model, our results indicate an average loss of 0.62 ± 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. This is consistent with the rate of bone loss in longer-term studies as seen by X-ray measurements. This Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  19. Limitations of the isotopic composition of nitrates as a tracer of their origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Mayer, Bernhard; Otero, Neus; Sebilo, Mathieu; Gooddy, Daren; Lapworth, Dan; Surridge, Ben; Petelet Giraud, Emmanuelle; Flehoc, Christine; Baran, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen and oxygen isotopes are traditionally considered and frequently used as tracers of nitrate sources in watersheds used for drinking water production. The enrichment of synthetic nitrate-containing fertilizers in 18O due to the contribution of atmospheric oxygen in the production process confers a specific isotopic fingerprint to mineral fertilizers. In spite of the still widespread use on nitrate-containing synthetic fertilizers, their characteristic N and O isotope signatures are rarely unambiguously observed in nitrate-contaminated groundwater. We postulate, in line with Mengis et al. (2001), that fertilizer-derived nitrate is not directly and rapidly transferred to groundwater but rather retained in the soil-plant system as organic N and then mineralized and re-oxidized (termed the mineralization-immobilization turnover, MIT) thereby re-setting the oxygen isotope composition of nitrate and also changing its N isotope ratios. We show examples from watersheds on diverse alluvial/clastic and carbonate aquifers in eastern and northern France where, in spite of the use of mineral fertilizers, evidenced also through other isotopic tracers (boron isotopes), both N and O-isotope ratios are very homogeneous and compatible with nitrification of ammonium where 2/3 of oxygen is derived from soil water and 1/3 from atmospheric O2. These field data are corroborated by lysimeter data from Canada. Even if in areas where ammonium is derived from chemical fertilizers, N values still tend to be lower than in areas where ammonium is derived from manure/sewage, this is clearly a limitation to the dual isotope method (N, O) for nitrate source identification, but has important implications for the nitrogen mobility and residence time in soils amended with synthetic fertilizers (Sebilo et al., 2013). Mengis M., Walther U., Bernasconi S. M., Wehrli B. (2001) Limitations of Using δ18O for the Source Identification of Nitrate in Agricultural Soils. Environmental Science

  20. The isotopic composition of uranium and lead in Allende inclusions and meteoritic phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    The isotopic compositions of uranium and lead in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende chondrite and in whitlockite from the St. Severin chondrite and the Angra dos Reis achondrite are reported. Isoptopic analysis of acid soluble fractions of the Allende inclusions and the meteoritic whitlockite, which show isotopic anomalies in other elements, reveals U-235/U-238 ratios from 1/137.6 to 1/138.3, within 20 per mil of normal terrestrial U abundances. The Pb isotopic compositions of five coarse-grained Allende inclusions give a mean Pb-207/Pb-206 model age of 4.559 + or - 0.015 AE, in agreement with the U results. Pb isotope ratios of two fine-grained inclusions and a coarse-grained inclusion with strong mass fractionation and some nonlinear isotopic anomalies indicate that the U-Pb systems of these inclusions have evolved differently from the rest of Allende. Th/U abundance ratios in the Allende inclusions and meteoritic phosphate are found to range from 3.8 to 96, presumably indicating an optimal case for Cm/U fractionation, although the normal U concentrations do not support claims of abundant live Cm-247 or Cm-247/U-238 fractionation at the time of meteorite formation, in contrast to previous results. A limiting Cm-247/U-235 ratio of 0.004 at the time of meteorite formation is calculated which implies that the last major r process contribution at the protosolar nebula was approximately 100 million years prior to Al-26 formation and injection.

  1. The bulk isotopic composition of hydrocarbons in subaerial volcanic-hydrothermal emissions from different tectonic settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebig, J.; Tassi, F.; Vaselli, O.; Viveiros, M. F.; Silva, C.; Lopez, T. M.; D'Alessandro, W.; Stefansson, A.

    2015-12-01

    Assuming that methane and its higher chain homologues derive from a common source, carbon isotope patterns have been applied as a criterion to identify occurrences of abiogenic hydrocarbons. Based on these, it has been postulated that abiogenic hydrocarbon production occurs within several (ultra)mafic environments. More evolved volcanic-hydrothermal systems may also provide all the prerequisites necessary for abiogenic hydrocarbon production, such as availability of inorganic CO2, hydrogen and heat. We have investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of n-alkanes contained within subaerial hydrothermal discharges emitted from a range of hot spot, subduction and rift-related volcanoes to determine the origin of hydrocarbons in these systems. Amongst these are Nisyros (Greece), Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Pantelleria and Vulcano (all Italy), Mt. Mageik and Trident (USA), Copahue (Argentina), Teide (Spain), Furnas and Fogo (Portugal). The carbon isotopic composition of methane emitted from these sites varies from -65 to -8‰ , whereas δ13C of ethane and propane exhibit a much narrower variation from -17‰ to -31‰. Methane that occurs most enriched in 13C is also characterized by relatively positive δD values ranging up to -80‰. Carbon isotope reversals between methane and ethane are only observed for locations exhibiting δ13C-CH4 values > -20‰, such as Teide, Pantelleria, Trident and Furnas. At Furnas, δ13C-CH4 varies by 50‰ within a relatively short distance of <50m between two vents, whereas δ13C-C2H6 varies by less than 2‰ only. For some of the investigated locations apparent carbon isotopic temperatures between methane and CO2 are in agreement with those derived from gas concentration geothermometers. At these locations methane, however seems to be in disequilibrium with ethane and propane. These findings imply that methane on the one hand and the C2+ hydrocarbons on the other hand often might derive from distinct sources.

  2. Oxygen isotopic composition of chondritic interplanetary dust particles: A genetic link between carbonaceous chondrites and comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aléon, J.; Engrand, C.; Leshin, L. A.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2009-08-01

    Oxygen isotopes were measured in four chondritic hydrated interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and five chondritic anhydrous IDPs including two GEMS-rich particles (Glass embedded with metal and sulfides) by a combination of high precision and high lateral resolution ion microprobe techniques. All IDPs have isotopic compositions tightly clustered around that of solar system planetary materials. Hydrated IDPs have mass-fractionated oxygen isotopic compositions similar to those of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, consistent with hydration of initially anhydrous protosolar dust. Anhydrous IDPs have small 16O excesses and depletions similar to those of carbonaceous chondrites, the largest 16O variations being hosted by the two GEMS-rich IDPs. Coarse-grained forsteritic olivine and enstatite in anhydrous IDPs are isotopically similar to their counterparts in comet Wild 2 and in chondrules suggesting a high temperature inner solar system origin. The small variations in the 16O content of GEMS-rich IDPs suggest that most GEMS either do not preserve a record of interstellar processes or the initial interstellar dust is not 16O-rich as expected by self-shielding models, although a larger dataset is required to verify these conclusions. Together with other chemical and mineralogical indicators, O isotopes show that the parent-bodies of carbonaceous chondrites, of chondritic IDPs, of most Antarctic micrometeorites, and comet Wild 2 belong to a single family of objects of carbonaceous chondrite chemical affinity as distinct from ordinary, enstatite, K- and R-chondrites. Comparison with astronomical observations thus suggests a chemical continuum of objects including main belt and outer solar system asteroids such as C-type, P-type and D-type asteroids, Trojans and Centaurs as well as short-period comets and other Kuiper Belt Objects.

  3. Rainfall Type as a Dominant Control of the Isotopic Composition of Precipitation in the South Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Shanahan, T. M.; Partin, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The processes that control the isotopic composition of precipitation in the mid-latitudes are understudied compared to the high and low latitudes, but are critical for interpreting paleo records using isotope proxies. To better understand these processes, we investigated changes of isotopic composition of rainwater in Central Texas using 20 months of event-based rainwater collection. We find that in both the event-based data and the monthly data from the Waco GNIP station, the dominant control on the isotopic composition of precipitation is the proportion that is derived from convective systems. This finding is consistent with previously reported data largely from tropical localities (Aggarwal et al., 2016), where large organized convective systems lead to high rainfall amounts and isotopically depleted precipitation. Although there are seasonal differences in the dominant rainfall types over the South Central US, with winter precipitation almost entirely stratiform, seasonality plays very little role in the net isotopic composition of precipitation because the total contribution during winter is small compared with spring, summer and fall. We also find that changes of source have little effect on the isotopic composition of rainfall, as the majority of the moisture is derived from the Gulf of Mexico with little influence of reevaporation or mixing. The majority of the warm season precipitation in the South Central US occurs in association with mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) and the development of these systems plays a critical role in the overall isotopic signature of precipitation. MCSs are characterized by a combination of intense, organized convection at their leading edges and trailing stratiform precipitation. Larger MCSs tend to contain higher proportions of stratiform rainfall and as a result, have isotopically depleted values. Proxy records from this region displaying more negative isotope values in the past should therefore be interpreted with

  4. Seasonal and ENSO Influences on the Stable Isotopic Composition of Galápagos Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, N. J.; Conroy, J. L.; Noone, D.; Cobb, K. M.; Konecky, B. L.; Rea, S.

    2018-01-01

    The origin of stable isotopic variability in precipitation over time and space is critical to the interpretation of stable isotope-based paleoclimate proxies. In the eastern equatorial Pacific, modern stable isotope measurements in precipitation (δ18Op and δDp) are sparse and largely unevaluated in the literature, although insights from such analyses would benefit the interpretations of several regional isotope-based paleoclimate records. Here we present a new 3.5 year record of daily-resolved δ18Op and δDp from Santa Cruz, Galápagos. With a prior 13 year record of monthly δ18Op and δDp from the island, these new data reveal controls on the stable isotopic composition of regional precipitation on event to interannual time scales. Overall, we find Galápagos δ18Op is significantly correlated with precipitation amount on daily and monthly time scales. The majority of Galápagos rain events are drizzle, or garúa, derived from local marine boundary layer vapor, with corresponding high δ18Op values due to the local source and increased evaporation and equilibration of smaller drops with boundary layer vapor. On monthly time scales, only precipitation in very strong, warm season El Niño months has substantially lower δ18Op values, as the sea surface temperature threshold for deep convection (28°C) is only surpassed at these times. The 2015/2016 El Niño event did not produce strong precipitation or δ18Op anomalies due to the short period of warm SST anomalies, which did not extend into the peak of the warm season. Eastern Pacific proxy isotope records may be biased toward periods of high rainfall during strong to very strong El Niño events.

  5. Discrimination of the Cigarettes Geographical Origin by DRC-ICP-MS Measurements of Pb Isotope Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, W.; Hu, S.; Jin, L.

    2014-12-01

    Trace Pb are taken up with the same isotopic ratios as is present in the source soil, and the isotopic composition of Pb could used to reflect these sources and provide powerful indicators of the geographic origin of agriculture products derived from vegetative matter. We developed a simple and high throughput method, which based on DRC-ICP-MS for determination of Pb isotope ratios for discriminating the geographic origin of cigarettes. After acid digestion procedure, the cigarette digested solutions were directly analyzed by ICP-QMS with a DRC pressurized by the non-reactive gas Ne. In the DRC, Ne molecules collision with Pb ions and improves Pb isotope ratios precision 3-fold, which may be due to the collisional dampling smoothes out the ion beam fluctuations. Under the optimum DRC rejection parameter Q (RPq = 0.45), the main matrix components (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe etc.) originating from cigarettes were filtered out. Mass discrimination of 208Pb/206Pb ratio in Ne DRC mode increased 0.3% compared to the standard mode, the mass bias due to the in-cell Ne gas collision can be accurately corrected by NIST 981 Pb isotope standard. This method was verified by a tobacco reference material CTV-OTL-2. Results of 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb were 2.0848 ± 0.0028 (2δ) and 0.8452 ± 0.0011 (2δ) for CTA-VTL-2, which were agreed with the literature values (208Pb/206Pb = 2.0884 ± 0.0090 and 207Pb/206Pb = 0.8442 ± 0.0032). The precision of Pb isotope ratios (208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb) for the cigarette samples are ranged from 0.01 to 0.08% (N = 5). It has sufficient precision to discriminate 91 different brand cigarettes originated from four different geographic regions (Shown in Fig).

  6. Isotopic Composition of the Neolithic Alpine Iceman's Tooth Enamel and Clues to his Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, W.; Muller, W.; Halliday, A. N.

    2001-12-01

    Five small enamel fragments from three teeth of the upper right jaw from the mummy of the Neolithic Alpine Iceman have been investigated for their isotopic composition in order to shed light on his geographic origins. Soils from approximately contemporaneous sites were sampled for comparison. Tooth enamel forms ontogenetically very early and is not re-mineralized during later lifetime (unlike with bone material). Therefore, unique insights into the Iceman's childhood can be acquired. Enamel also is the densest tissue of a human body and is thus less susceptible to post-mortem alteration. Both radiogenic (Sr, Pb, Nd) and stable isotopes (O, C) are investigated. Radiogenic isotopes allow reconstruction of the local geological background, because humans incorporate Sr, Pb and Nd from their local environment by eating local food. Stable isotopes provide information about altitude and/or position relative to the main Alpine watershed. High spatial-resolution laser-ablation ICPMS profiles reveal that most elements are distributed in a manner that is essentially similar to modern human teeth except of that La, Ce, Nd (LREE) show up to a 100-fold enrichment towards the outer enamel surface. These uptake-profiles may reflect interaction with melt water, consistent with data for the composition of samples of the Iceman's skin. Biogenic apatites (enamel, bone) have very low in-vivo LREE concentrations, but take up LREEs post-mortem from the burial environment. Ice core samples from the finding site show concentrations up to 400 ppt Ce. Such high uptake of the LREEs precludes the derivation of an in-vivo Nd isotopic signal, but both other radiogenic tracers, Sr and Pb, show pristine (in-vivo) concentrations of 87 ppm and 0.1 ppm, respectively. Strontium isotopic compositions were determined on fragments from the canine, the first and second premolar (1 - 9 mg) and two hip bone samples, utilizing three sequential leaching steps for each sample to detect possible alteration

  7. Fabrication, characterization, and in vitro study of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin composite coatings on titanium for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhenyu; Ma, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Zinc substituted hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin composite coatings were deposited on titanium substrates at room temperature by electrophoretic deposition. Microscopic characterization of the synthesized composite nanoparticles revealed that the particle size ranged 50-200 nm, which increased a little after zinc substitution. The obtained coatings maintained the phase of hydroxyapatite and they could induce fast apatite formation in simulated body fluid, indicating high bone activity. The cell culturing results showed that the biomimetic hydroxyapatite coatings could regulate adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, the biological behavior of the zinc substituted hydroxyapatite coatings was found to be better than the bare titanium without coatings and hydroxyapatite coatings without zinc, increasing MC3T1-E1 cell differentiation in alkaline phosphatase expression.

  8. Isotopic Composition of Trapped and Cosmogenic Noble Gases in Several Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Daniel H.; Bogard, Donald D.

    1997-01-01

    Isotopic abundances of the noble gases were measured in the following Martian meteorites: two shock glass inclusions from EET79001, shock vein glass from Shergotty and Y793605, and whole rock samples of ALH84001 and QUE94201. These glass samples, when combined with literature data on a separate single glass inclusion from EET79001 and a glass vein from Zagami, permit examination of the isotopic composition of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe trapped from the Martian atmosphere in greater detail. The isotopic composition of Martian Ne, if actually present in these glasses, remains poorly defined. The Ar-40/Ar-36 ratio of Martian atmospheric Ar may be much less than the ratio measured by Viking and possibly as low as approx. 1900. The atmospheric Ar-36/Ar-38 ratio is less than or equal to 4.0. Martian atmospheric Kr appears to be enriched in lighter isotopes by approx. 0.4%/amu compared to both solar wind Kr and to the Martian composition previously reported. The Martian atmospheric Ar-36/Xe-132 and Kr-84/Xe-132 Xe elemental ratios are higher than those reported by Viking by factors of approx. 3.3 and approx. 2.5, respectively. Cosmogenic gases indicate space exposure ages of 13.9 +/- 1 Myr for ALH84001 and 2.7 +/- 0.6 Myr for QUE94201. Small amounts of Ne-21 produced by energetic solar protons may be present in QUE94201, but are not present in ALH84001 or Y793605. The space exposure age for Y793605 is 4.9 +/- 0.6 Myr and appears to be distinctly older than the ages for basaltic shergottites.

  9. Amino acid compositions in heated carbonaceous chondrites and their compound-specific nitrogen isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Queenie Hoi Shan; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Takano, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for compound-specific nitrogen isotope compositions with an achiral column which was previously shown to offer high precision for nitrogen isotopic analysis. We applied the method to determine the amino acid contents and stable nitrogen isotopic compositions of individual amino acids from the thermally metamorphosed (above 500 °C) Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites Ivuna-like (CI)1 (or CI-like) Yamato (Y) 980115 and Ornans-like (CO)3.5 Allan Hills (ALH) A77003 with the use of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. ALHA77003 was deprived of amino acids due to its extended thermal alteration history. Amino acids were unambiguously identified in Y-980115, and the δ15N values of selected amino acids (glycine +144.8 ‰; α-alanine +121.2 ‰) are clearly extraterrestrial. Y-980115 has experienced an extended period of aqueous alteration as indicated by the presence of hydrous mineral phases. It has also been exposed to at least one post-hydration short-lived thermal metamorphism. Glycine and alanine were possibly produced shortly after the accretion event of the asteroid parent body during the course of an extensive aqueous alteration event and have abstained from the short-term post-aqueous alteration heating due to the heterogeneity of the parent body composition and porosity. These carbonaceous chondrite samples are good analogs that offer important insights into the target asteroid Ryugu of the Hayabusa-2 mission, which is a C-type asteroid likely composed of heterogeneous materials including hydrated and dehydrated minerals.

  10. Tracing the distribution of erosion in the Brahmaputra watershed from isotopic compositions of stream sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sunil K.; France-Lanord, Christian

    2002-09-01

    Bank sediments and suspended loads of the Brahmaputra River and its important tributaries were collected from the Himalayan front to Bangladesh along with most of the important tributaries. Chemical and isotopic compositions of the sediments are used to trace sediment provenance and to understand erosion patterns in the basin. Overall isotopic compositions range from 0.7053 to 0.8250 for Sr and ɛNd from -20.5 to -6.9. This large range derives from the variable proportions of sediments from Himalayan formations with high Sr isotopic ratios and low ɛNd, and Transhimalayan plutonic belt with lower Sr isotopic ratios and higher ɛNd. The latter are exposed to erosion in the Tsangpo and in the eastern tributary drainages. Overall erosion of the Himalayan rocks is dominant, representing ca 70% of the detrital influx. Compositions of the Brahmaputra main channel are rather stable between 0.7177 and 0.7284 for Sr and between -14.4 and -12.5 for ɛNd throughout its course in the plain from the Siang-Tsangpo at the foot of the Himalayan range down to the delta. This stability, despite the input of large Himalayan rivers suggests that the Siang-Tsangpo River represents the major source of sediment to the whole Brahmaputra. Geochemical budget implies that erosion of the Namche Barwa zone represents about 45% of the total flux at its outflow before confluence with the Ganga from only 20% of the mountain area. Higher erosion rates in the eastern syntaxis compared to the other Himalayan ranges is related to the rapid exhumation rates of this region, possibly triggered by higher precipitation over the far-eastern Himalaya and the high incision potential of the Tsangpo River due to its very high water discharge.

  11. New perspectives on the Li isotopic composition of the upper continental crust and its weathering signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauzéat, Lucie; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Chauvel, Catherine; Garçon, Marion; Tang, Ming

    2015-10-01

    Lithium isotopes are increasingly used to trace both present-day and past weathering processes at the surface of the Earth, and could potentially be used to evaluate the average degree of past weathering recorded by the upper continental crust (UCC). Yet the previous estimate of average δ7Li of the UCC has a rather large uncertainty, hindering the use of Li isotopes for this purpose. New δ7Li for desert and periglacial loess deposits (windblown dust) from several parts of the world (Europe, Argentina, China and Tajikistan) demonstrate that the former are more homogeneous than the latter, and may therefore serve as excellent proxies of the average composition of large tracts of the UCC. The Li isotopic compositions and concentrations of desert loess samples are controlled by eolian sorting that can be quantified by a binary mixing between a weathered, fine-grained end-member, dominated by phyllosilicates and having low δ7Li, and an unweathered, coarse-grained end-member, that is a mixture of quartz and plagioclase having higher δ7Li. We use correlations between insoluble elements (REE, Nd/Hf and Fe2O3/SiO2), Li concentrations (henceforth referred as [Li]), and δ7Li to estimate a new, more precise, average Li isotopic composition and concentration for the UCC: [ Li ] = 30.5 ± 3.6 (2 σ) ppm, and δ7Li = + 0.6 ± 0.6 (2 σ). The δ7Li for desert loess deposits is anti-correlated with the chemical index of alteration (CIA). Using this relationship, along with our average δ7Li, we infer that (1) the present-day CIA of the average UCC is 61-2+4 (2 σ), higher than the common reference value of 53, and (2) the average proportion of chemically weathered components is as high as 37-10+17 (2 σ)% at the surface of the Earth.

  12. Selective recharge and isotopic composition of shallow groundwater within temperate, epigenic carbonate aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florea, Lee J.

    2013-05-01

    This paper considers the variation of δ18O and δ2H (VSMOW) in precipitation and shallow groundwater from carbonate aquifers that lend insight into the source and timing of recharge within temperate, epigenic karst. The shallow groundwater collected during 2010 and 2011 at Stream Cave (SC) and Natural Bridge Caverns (NBC) represent one input to and the primary output from the Redmond Creek karst aquifer in the Cumberland Plateau of southeast Kentucky, respectively. These data are compared with the isotopic composition of concurrent samples of precipitation from the same watershed that covers some 1900 ha. Values of δ18O and δ2H at SC and NBC are statistically similar and cluster at the midpoint of the local meteoric water line. These values remain surprisingly constant despite seasonal changes in temperature regimens and discharge. Samples in 2012 from regional springs that include Redmond Creek are more depleted in the heavier isotope and similarly stable despite coming from aquifers of a range of sizes and physical characteristics. Applying a Priestly-Taylor model for daily values of potential evapotranspiration, only 43% of the 1.10 m of precipitation in the 2010-2011 dataset remains as potential recharge, primarily during cooler months with lower solar insolation. Weighting δ18O and δ2H values of precipitation by potential recharge creates a better match with the isotopic composition of shallow groundwater than by weighting by precipitation amount. The isotopic composition and deuterium excess of precipitation samples are directly and inversely proportional to temperature, respectively. Deuterium excess in this study and displays intra- and inter-annual variation that ranges from a minimum of +11.1‰ to a maximum of +29.5‰ that demonstrate the higher-than-average deuterium excess in greater Appalachia and the shifting latitude of moisture sources, including a significant winter component of re-evaporated, continental moisture.

  13. Characterization of a customized calibration unit for continuous measurements of the isotopic composition of water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, Giovanni; Zannoni, Daniele; Dreossi, Giuliano; Stenni, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this work is the development, standardization and creation of a method to carry out continuous measurement of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of the atmospheric water vapor using a wavelength-scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) instrument produced by Picarro, L1102-i model. Some technical improvements of the standard instrument configuration have been made to create three different inlet gas lines: a "standard" line, a calibration line and a line connected with the external sampler. The calibration line is composed of a syringe-pump that continuously injects standard water into a steel tee heated at the temperature of 170°C and flushed with dry nitrogen gas. In this way, instantaneous and complete vaporization of the standard water takes place. The resulting steam is characterized by a well-defined composition in δD e δ18O values. To allow comparison with other international data, we have characterized the individual instrumental response to variation of the isotopic composition of the water vapor. Several humidity-isotope response functions (6000-26000 ppmv) have been estimated with three different internal standards (0.35‰ -8.75‰ -29.11‰ and -40.28‰ for δ18O; 2.31‰ -58.91‰ -222.19‰ and -317.78‰ for δD). Moreover, we have measured the instrumental drift at regular time intervals to apply the opportune corrections to instrument data. The setup has been tested using a 3.5 day continuous measurements carried out with the Picarro sampling the water vapor outside our campus in Venice and parallel sampling using the classical cryogenic trapping procedure, obtaining excellent results. Furthermore, our analysis technique has given good results for the standards with values which are similar to those obtained with the isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) technique.

  14. Assessing the ability of isotope-enabled General Circulation Models to simulate the variability of Iceland water vapor isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erla Sveinbjornsdottir, Arny; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Jonsson, Thorsteinn; Ritter, Francois; Riser, Camilla; Messon-Delmotte, Valerie; Bonne, Jean Louis; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2014-05-01

    During the fall of 2010 we installed an autonomous water vapor spectroscopy laser (Los Gatos Research analyzer) in a lighthouse on the Southwest coast of Iceland (63.83°N, 21.47°W). Despite initial significant problems with volcanic ash, high wind, and attack of sea gulls, the system has been continuously operational since the end of 2011 with limited down time. The system automatically performs calibration every 2 hours, which results in high accuracy and precision allowing for analysis of the second order parameter, d-excess, in the water vapor. We find a strong linear relationship between d-excess and local relative humidity (RH) when normalized to SST. The observed slope of approximately -45 o/oo/% is similar to theoretical predictions by Merlivat and Jouzel [1979] for smooth surface, but the calculated intercept is significant lower than predicted. Despite this good linear agreement with theoretical calculations, mismatches arise between the simulated seasonal cycle of water vapour isotopic composition using LMDZiso GCM nudged to large-scale winds from atmospheric analyses, and our data. The GCM is not able to capture seasonal variations in local RH, nor seasonal variations in d-excess. Based on daily data, the performance of LMDZiso to resolve day-to-day variability is measured based on the strength of the correlation coefficient between observations and model outputs. This correlation coefficient reaches ~0.8 for surface absolute humidity, but decreases to ~0.6 for δD and ~0.45 d-excess. Moreover, the magnitude of day-to-day humidity variations is also underestimated by LMDZiso, which can explain the underestimated magnitude of isotopic depletion. Finally, the simulated and observed d-excess vs. RH has similar slopes. We conclude that the under-estimation of d-excess variability may partly arise from the poor performance of the humidity simulations.

  15. Estimation of the isotopic composition and origins of winter precipitation over Japan using a regional isotope circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoue, M.; Ichiyanagi, K.; Yoshimura, K.; Shimada, J.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of the origins of precipitation (i.e., vapor source regions of evaporated moisture) is useful for long-term forecasting and calibration of water isotope thermometer. In the Asian monsoon region, vapor source regions are identified by the deuterium excess (d-excess; defined as δD - 8 • δ18O) of precipitation because its values mainly reflect humidity conditions during evaporation at the source regions. In Japan, previous studies assumed the Sea of Japan to be the dominant source of winter precipitation when the d-excess value in winter is >20‰ or higher than the average value in summer. Because this assumption is based on an interpretation that the high d-excess value is due to an interaction between the continental winter monsoon (WM) and warm sea surface at the Sea of Japan, it may not be appropriate for winter precipitation caused by extratropical cyclones (EC). Here, we utilized a regional isotope circulation model and then clarified local patterns of isotopic composition and the origins of precipitation in the WM and EC types over Japan. The results indicated that moisture originating from the Sea of Japan made the highest contribution to precipitation on the Sea of Japan side of Japan in the WM type, whereas the Pacific Ocean was the dominant source of precipitation over Japan in the EC type. Because d-excess values were higher in the WM than in the EC type, we can assume that the Sea of Japan was the dominant source of precipitation on the Sea of Japan side when the d-excess value was high. Because precipitation on the Pacific Ocean side and the Kyushu island of Japan was mainly caused by the EC type, we could not identify the dominant source of precipitation as the Sea of Japan from only the d-excess values in these regions. We also found that WM activity could be estimated from observed d-excess values due to a clear positive correlation between simulated d-excess values and the activity.

  16. Isotopic and Trace Element Compositions of Antarctic Micrometeorites and Comparison with IDPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadermann, F. J.; Olinger, C. T.

    1992-07-01

    Antarctic micrometeorites (AMMs) show resemblances and differences to both stratospheric interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and chondritic meteorites, but the exact nature of this relationship has yet to be established. We measured Ne, H, C, and N isotopic compositions, as well as trace element abundances in several AMMs in order to compare the results to similar measurements of IDPs (Stadermann, 1991). AMMs for this study were collected near Cap-Prudhomme (Maurette et al., 1989), and optically selected (Olinger et al., 1990). Noble gases of 23 selected AMMs were extracted through laser vaporization. Nine of these particles contained implanted solar Ne and one showed a clear signature from spallogenic Ne, confirming their extraterrestrial origin. We selected fragments from 6 of these particles, plus 2 containing apparent Ne excess and one with a roughly chondritic bulk chemistry but immeasurably low Ne, for further analyses. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to measure the H, C, and N isotopic compositions. These measurements turned out to be difficult, since the concentrations of H and C in the analyzed samples were significantly lower than in IDPs. The low concentration of C also affected the N isotopic measurements because N could only be measured as CN-. We were able to measure H in 9, as well as C and N in 3 AMMs. All measurements yielded isotopically normal results. Previous determinations of the O isotopic compositions of the same samples (Virag, pers. comm.) also gave no indication of isotopic anomalies. These results are significantly different from measurements of IDPs, where isotopic anomalies in H and N were found in roughly 1/2 and 1/3 of the particles, respectively. SIMS was also used to measure the rare earth and trace element abundances in up to 4 different fragments of 6 AMMs. Although most particles had roughly chondritic abundances, anomalous concentrations were found for Ca, Li, Co, Ni, and Ba. Significant Ca depletions up to 0

  17. Chrysanthemum flower-like NiCo2O4-nitrogen doped graphene oxide composite: an efficient electrocatalyst for lithium-oxygen and zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Moni, Prabu; Hyun, Suyeon; Vignesh, Ahilan; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2017-07-06

    Chrysanthemum flower-like NiCo 2 O 4 -nitrogen doped graphene oxide composite material has been explored as a bifunctional cathode electrocatalyst for aqueous zinc-air and non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries. This cathode exhibits maximum discharge capacities of 712 and 15 046 mA h g -1 for zinc-air and lithium-oxygen batteries, respectively, with stable cycling over 50 cycles.

  18. Investigating the source, transport, and isotope composition of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer

    DOE PAGES

    Griffis, Timothy J.; Wood, Jeffrey D.; Baker, John M.; ...

    2016-04-25

    Increasing atmospheric humidity and convective precipitation over land provide evidence of intensification of the hydrologic cycle – an expected response to surface warming. The extent to which terrestrial ecosystems modulate these hydrologic factors is important to understand feedbacks in the climate system. We measured the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of water vapor at a very tall tower (185 m) in the upper Midwest, United States, to diagnose the sources, transport, and fractionation of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over a 3-year period (2010 to 2012). These measurements represent the first set of annual water vapor isotopemore » observations for this region. Several simple isotope models and cross-wavelet analyses were used to assess the importance of the Rayleigh distillation process, evaporation, and PBL entrainment processes on the isotope composition of water vapor. The vapor isotope composition at this tall tower site showed a large seasonal amplitude (mean monthly δ 18O v ranged from –40.2 to –15.9 ‰ and δ 2H v ranged from –278.7 to –113.0 ‰) and followed the familiar Rayleigh distillation relation with water vapor mixing ratio when considering the entire hourly data set. However, this relation was strongly modulated by evaporation and PBL entrainment processes at timescales ranging from hours to several days. The wavelet coherence spectra indicate that the oxygen isotope ratio and the deuterium excess ( d v) of water vapor are sensitive to synoptic and PBL processes. According to the phase of the coherence analyses, we show that evaporation often leads changes in d v, confirming that it is a potential tracer of regional evaporation. Isotope mixing models indicate that on average about 31 % of the growing season PBL water vapor is derived from regional evaporation. However, isoforcing calculations and mixing model analyses for high PBL water vapor mixing ratio events ( > 25 mmol mol –1) indicate that

  19. Uranium isotope composition of a laterite profile during extreme weathering of basalt in Guangdong, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Zhou, Z.; Gong, Y.; Lundstrom, C.; Huang, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rock weathering and soil formation in the critical zone are important for material cycle from the solid Earth to superficial system. Laterite is a major type of soil in South China forming at hot-humid climate, which has strong effect on the global uranium cycle. Uranium is closely related to the environmental redox condition because U is stable at U(Ⅳ) in anoxic condition and U(Ⅵ) as soluble uranyl ion (UO22+) under oxic circumstance. In order to understand the behavior of U isotopes during crust weathering, here we report uranium isotopic compositions of soil and base rock samples from a laterite profile originated from extreme weathering of basalt in Guangdong, South China. The uranium isotopic data were measured on a Nu Plasma MC-ICP-MS at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign using the double spike method. The δ238U of BCR-1 is -0.29±0.03‰ (relative to the international standard CRM-112A), corresponding to a 238U/235U ratio of 137.911±0.004. Our result of BCR-1 agrees with previous analyses (e.g., -0.28‰ in Weyer et al. 2008) [1]. U contents of the laterite profile decrease from 1.9 ppm to 0.9 ppm with depth, and peak at 160 - 170 cm (2.3 ppm), much higher than the U content of base rocks (~0.5 ppm). In contrary, U/Th of laterites is lower than that of base rock (0.27) except the peak at the depth of 160-170 cm (0.38), indicating significant U loss during weathering. Notably, U isotope compositions of soils show a small variation from -0.38 to -0.28‰, consistent with the base rock within analytical error (0.05‰ to 0.08‰, 2sd). Such small variation can be explained by a "rind effect" (Wang et al., 2015) [2], by which U(Ⅳ) can be completely oxidized to U(VI) layer by layer during basalt weathering by dissolved oxygen. Therefore, our study indicates that U loss during basalt weathering at the hot-humid climate does not change U isotope composition of superficial water system. [1] Weyer S. et al. (2008) Natural fractionation of 238U/235

  20. Investigating the source, transport, and isotope composition of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Griffis, Timothy J.; Wood, Jeffrey D.; Baker, John M.

    Increasing atmospheric humidity and convective precipitation over land provide evidence of intensification of the hydrologic cycle – an expected response to surface warming. The extent to which terrestrial ecosystems modulate these hydrologic factors is important to understand feedbacks in the climate system. We measured the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of water vapor at a very tall tower (185 m) in the upper Midwest, United States, to diagnose the sources, transport, and fractionation of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over a 3-year period (2010 to 2012). These measurements represent the first set of annual water vapor isotopemore » observations for this region. Several simple isotope models and cross-wavelet analyses were used to assess the importance of the Rayleigh distillation process, evaporation, and PBL entrainment processes on the isotope composition of water vapor. The vapor isotope composition at this tall tower site showed a large seasonal amplitude (mean monthly δ 18O v ranged from –40.2 to –15.9 ‰ and δ 2H v ranged from –278.7 to –113.0 ‰) and followed the familiar Rayleigh distillation relation with water vapor mixing ratio when considering the entire hourly data set. However, this relation was strongly modulated by evaporation and PBL entrainment processes at timescales ranging from hours to several days. The wavelet coherence spectra indicate that the oxygen isotope ratio and the deuterium excess ( d v) of water vapor are sensitive to synoptic and PBL processes. According to the phase of the coherence analyses, we show that evaporation often leads changes in d v, confirming that it is a potential tracer of regional evaporation. Isotope mixing models indicate that on average about 31 % of the growing season PBL water vapor is derived from regional evaporation. However, isoforcing calculations and mixing model analyses for high PBL water vapor mixing ratio events ( > 25 mmol mol –1) indicate that

  1. On the progressive enrichment of the oxygen isotopic composition of water along a leaf.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, G. D.; Gan, K. S.

    2003-06-01

    A model has been derived for the enrichment of heavy isotopes of water in leaves, including progressive enrichment along the leaf. In the model, lighter water is preferentially transpired leaving heavier water to diffuse back into the xylem and be carried further along the leaf. For this pattern to be pronounced, the ratio of advection to diffusion (Péclet number) has to be large in the longitudinal direction, and small in the radial direction. The progressive enrichment along the xylem is less than that occurring at the sites of evaporation in the mesophyll, depending on the isolation afforded by the radial Péclet number. There is an upper bound on enrichment, and effects of ground tissue associated with major veins are included. When transpiration rate is spatially nonuniform, averaging of enrichment occurs more naturally with transpiration weighting than with area-based weighting. This gives zero average enrichment of transpired water, the modified Craig-Gordon equation for average enrichment at the sites of evaporation and the Farquhar and Lloyd (In Stable Isotopes and Plant Carbon-Water Relations, pp. 47-70. Academic Press, New York, USA, 1993) prediction for mesophyll water. Earlier results on the isotopic composition of evolved oxygen and of retro-diffused carbon dioxide are preserved if these processes vary in parallel with transpiration rate. Parallel variation should be indicated approximately by uniform carbon isotope discrimination across the leaf.

  2. On The Effect Of Zinc Melt Composition On The Structure Of Hot-Dip Galvanized Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konidaris, S.; Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergiou, A.; Stergioudis, G.; Polychroniadis, E. K.

    2007-04-01

    Zinc hot-dip galvanizing is an effective method for the corrosion protection of ferrous materials. A way of improving the results is through the addition of various elements in the zinc melt. In the present work the effect of Ni, Bi, Cr, Mn, Se and Si at concentration of 0.5 or 1.5 wt.% was examined. Coupons of carbon steel St-37 were coated with zinc containing the above-mentioned elements and were exposed in a Salt Spray Chamber (SSC). The micro structure of these coatings was examined with SEM and XRD. In every case the usual morphology was observed, while differences at the thickness and the crystal size of each layer were induced. However the alloying elements were present in the coating affecting its reactivity and, at least in the case of Mn and Cr, improving corrosion resistance.

  3. Calibrating NIST SRM 683 as A New International Reference Standard for Zn Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Yu, H.; Huang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Zinc isotopes have been widely applied in the cosmochemical, geochemical, and environmental studies (Moynier et al. 2017). Obtaining precise Zn isotopic data for inter-laboratory comparison is a prerequisite to these applications. Currently, the JMC3-0749L is the primary reference standard for Zn isotopes (Albarède 2004), but it is not commercially available now. Thus, it is necessary to calibrate a new international primary reference standard for Zn isotopic analysis. Chen et al. (2016) showed that NIST SRM 683 (a pure Zn metal nugget of 140 grams) has a δ66ZnJMC of 0.12‰, which is falling within the range of natural Zn isotopic compositions, and it may a good candidate for the next generation of international reference standard (Chen et al. 2016). In order to further examine whether NIST SRM 683 has a homogeneous Zn isotopic composition, we measured more NIST SRM 683 by double-spike methods using MC-ICPMS (Conway et al. 2013). The metal nuggets of NIST SRM 683 were intensively sampled by micro-drilling. Zinc isotope analyses for two nuggets show that they have δ66Zn of 0.14 ± 0.02‰ (2SD, N = 32) and 0.13 ± 0.02‰ (2SD, N = 33), respectively. These values are similar to those of two Zn metal nuggets (0.11 ± 0.02‰ vs. 0.12 ± 0.02‰) reported previously by Chen et al. (2016). We fully dissolved one nugget, producing pure Zn solution with identical Zn isotopic composition with the drilling samples. All results strongly support that NIST SRM 683 is homogeneous in Zn isotopic compositions which could be an ideal candidate for the next reference for Zn isotopes. Tests on more metal nuggets will be performed in a few months for further confirming the Zn isotope compositions and homogeneity. Reference: Albarède et al., 2004. 'The stable isotope geochemistry of copper and zinc', Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 55: 409-27. Chen et al., 2016. 'Zinc Isotopic Compositions of NIST SRM 683 and Whole-Rock Reference Materials', Geostandards and

  4. Elemental and isotopic compositions of noble gases in the mantle: Pete's path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Manuel; Péron, Sandrine; Colin, Aurélia

    2016-04-01

    Noble gases are tracers of the origin of the volatiles on Earth and other terrestrial planets. The determination of their isotopic compositions in oceanic basalts allows discriminating between different possible scenarios for the origin of volatiles (chondritic, solar, cometary). However, oceanic basalts show a ubiquitous component having atmospheric noble gas compositions, which reflects a shallow air contamination. This component masks the mantle composition and only step crushing is able to (partially) remove it. Nevertheless, the exact mantle composition is always unconstrained due to the uncertainty on its complete removal. Developed by Pete Burnard (Burnard et al., 1997; Burnard, 1999), single vesicle analysis using laser ablation is a challenging technique to determine the mantle composition, free of atmospheric contamination. We have used this technique to measure He, Ne, Ar isotopes and CO2 in single vesicles from both MORB and OIB (Galapagos, Iceland). Vesicles are located using microtomography and the noble gases are measured using the Noblesse mass spectrometer from IPGP using an Excimer laser to open the vesicles. Both Galapagos and Iceland samples show that the 20Ne/22Ne ratio is limited to ~12.8 in the primitive mantle, suggesting that the origin of the light noble gases can be attributed to irradiated material instead of a simple dissolution of solar gases into a magma ocean (Moreira and Charnoz, 2016). Such a scenario of incorporation of light noble gases by irradiation also explains the terrestrial argon isotopic composition. However, the Kr and Xe contribution of implanted solar wind is small and these two noble gases were carried on Earth by chondrites and/or cometary material. Burnard, P., D. Graham and G. Turner (1997). "Vesicle-specific noble gas analyses of « popping rock »: implications for primordial noble gases in the Earth." Science 276: 568-571. Burnard, P. (1999). "The bubble-by-bubble volatile evolution of two mid-ocean ridge

  5. [Quantitative estimation source of urban atmospheric CO2 by carbon isotope composition].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Nan-Nan; Wang, Guang-Hua; Yao, Jian; Zeng, You-Shi; Fan, Xue-Bo; Geng, Yan-Hong; Li, Yan

    2012-04-01

    To effectively reduce urban carbon emissions and verify the effectiveness of currently project for urban carbon emission reduction, quantitative estimation sources of urban atmospheric CO2 correctly is necessary. Since little fractionation of carbon isotope exists in the transportation from pollution sources to the receptor, the carbon isotope composition can be used for source apportionment. In the present study, a method was established to quantitatively estimate the source of urban atmospheric CO2 by the carbon isotope composition. Both diurnal and height variations of concentrations of CO2 derived from biomass, vehicle exhaust and coal burning were further determined for atmospheric CO2 in Jiading district of Shanghai. Biomass-derived CO2 accounts for the largest portion of atmospheric CO2. The concentrations of CO2 derived from the coal burning are larger in the night-time (00:00, 04:00 and 20:00) than in the daytime (08:00, 12:00 and 16:00), and increase with the increase of height. Those derived from the vehicle exhaust decrease with the height increase. The diurnal and height variations of sources reflect the emission and transport characteristics of atmospheric CO2 in Jiading district of Shanghai.

  6. Isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate in a tropical marine boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Savarino, Joel; Morin, Samuel; Erbland, Joseph; Grannec, Francis; Patey, Matthew D; Vicars, William; Alexander, Becky; Achterberg, Eric P

    2013-10-29

    Long-term observations of the reactive chemical composition of the tropical marine boundary layer (MBL) are rare, despite its crucial role for the chemical stability of the atmosphere. Recent observations of reactive bromine species in the tropical MBL showed unexpectedly high levels that could potentially have an impact on the ozone budget. Uncertainties in the ozone budget are amplified by our poor understanding of the fate of NOx (= NO + NO2), particularly the importance of nighttime chemical NOx sinks. Here, we present year-round observations of the multiisotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate in the tropical MBL at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory. We show that the observed oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate are compatible with nitrate formation chemistry, which includes the BrNO3 sink at a level of ca. 20 ± 10% of nitrate formation pathways. The results also suggest that the N2O5 pathway is a negligible NOx sink in this environment. Observations further indicate a possible link between the NO2/NOx ratio and the nitrogen isotopic content of nitrate in this low NOx environment, possibly reflecting the seasonal change in the photochemical equilibrium among NOx species. This study demonstrates the relevance of using the stable isotopes of oxygen and nitrogen of atmospheric nitrate in association with concentration measurements to identify and constrain chemical processes occurring in the MBL.

  7. Continental paleothermometry and seasonality using the isotopic composition of aragonitic otoliths of freshwater fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, William P.; Smith, Gerald R.; Lohmann, Kyger C.

    To investigate the applicability of oxygen isotope themometry using fish aragonite, the δ18O values of paired otolith and water samples were analyzed from six large modem temperate lakes. Otoliths are accretionaiy aragonitic structures which are precipitated within the sacculus of fish ears. Deep-water obligate benthic species from the hypolimnion of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America and Lake Baikal, Siberia, provided cold-water end member values for aragonite δ18O. Warm-water values were obtained from naturally grown warm-water stenothermic species and from fish grown in aquaria under controlled conditions. These two groups, which represent growth over a temperature range of 3.2-30.3°C. were employed to determine the oxygen isotope temperature fractionation relationship for aragonite-water: 103lnα = 18.56 (±0.319)·(103)T-1 K -33.49 (±0.307). Empirical calibration of a fish aragonite thennometry equation allows its direct application to studies of paleoclimate. For example, high-resolution sampling of shallow-water eurythermic species coupled with a knowledge of the isotopic composition of meteoric waters can be used to determine seasonal temperature variation. This approach was tested using a modem shallow-water eurythermic species from Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie. Temperatures calculated from carbonate composition agree with meteorological records from the Sandusky Bay weather station for the same time period.

  8. Isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate in a tropical marine boundary layer

    PubMed Central

    Savarino, Joel; Morin, Samuel; Erbland, Joseph; Grannec, Francis; Patey, Matthew D.; Vicars, William; Alexander, Becky; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term observations of the reactive chemical composition of the tropical marine boundary layer (MBL) are rare, despite its crucial role for the chemical stability of the atmosphere. Recent observations of reactive bromine species in the tropical MBL showed unexpectedly high levels that could potentially have an impact on the ozone budget. Uncertainties in the ozone budget are amplified by our poor understanding of the fate of NOx (= NO + NO2), particularly the importance of nighttime chemical NOx sinks. Here, we present year-round observations of the multiisotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate in the tropical MBL at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory. We show that the observed oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate are compatible with nitrate formation chemistry, which includes the BrNO3 sink at a level of ca. 20 ± 10% of nitrate formation pathways. The results also suggest that the N2O5 pathway is a negligible NOx sink in this environment. Observations further indicate a possible link between the NO2/NOx ratio and the nitrogen isotopic content of nitrate in this low NOx environment, possibly reflecting the seasonal change in the photochemical equilibrium among NOx species. This study demonstrates the relevance of using the stable isotopes of oxygen and nitrogen of atmospheric nitrate in association with concentration measurements to identify and constrain chemical processes occurring in the MBL. PMID:23431201

  9. The isotopic composition and concentration of Ag in iron meteorites and the origin of exotic silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, T.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Ag and the concentration of Ag and Pd in Canyon Diablo (IA), Grant (IIIB), Santa Clara, Tlacotepec and Warburton Range (IVB), Pinon and Deep Springs (anom) were analyzed. Troilite from Santa Clara and from Grant was also studied. With the exception of IA, all the meteorites were enriched in Ag-107 by about 2%-212% and the ratio of Ag-107/Ag-109 in the metal phase was found to be greater than the terrestrial value. Ag of anomalous isotopic composition was found to be common in all IVB and anomalous meteorites. A correlation of Ag-107/Ag-109 with Pd/Ag was established except for the iron meteorite of Santa Clara. The excess Ag-107 is thought to result from the decay of Pd-107. The Grant data appear to represent a Pd-107-Ag-107 isochron and indicate that the cooling rate at elevated temperatures was rapid enough to preserve the isotopic differences between metal and troilite. The data suggest that Ag in Santa Clara is made up of almost pure Ag-107 produced from Pd-107 decay and Ag-109 produced by nuclear reactions with only a small amount of 'normal' Ag. This indicates an intense energetic particle bombardment history in the early solar system which occurred after the formation of small planetary bodies.

  10. The isotope composition of inorganic germanium in seawater and deep sea sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillermic, Maxence; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Hendry, Katharine R.; Rouxel, Olivier J.

    2017-09-01

    Although dissolved concentrations of germanium (Ge) and silicon (Si) in modern seawater are tightly correlated, uncertainties still exist in the modern marine Ge cycle. Germanium stable isotope systematics in marine systems should provide additional constraints on marine Ge sources and sinks, however the low concentration of Ge in seawater presents an analytical challenge for isotopic measurement. Here, we present a new method of pre-concentration of inorganic Ge from seawater which was applied to measure three Ge isotope profiles in the Southern Ocean and deep seawater from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Germanium isotopic measurements were performed on Ge amounts as low as 2.6 ng using a double-spike approach and a hydride generation system coupled to a MC-ICP-MS. Germanium was co-precipitated with iron hydroxide and then purified through anion-exchange chromatography. Results for the deep (i.e. >1000 m depth) Pacific Ocean off Hawaii (nearby Loihi Seamount) and the deep Atlantic off Bermuda (BATS station) showed nearly identical δ74/70Ge values at 3.19 ± 0.31‰ (2SD, n = 9) and 2.93 ± 0.10‰ (2SD, n = 2), respectively. Vertical distributions of Ge concentration and isotope composition in the deep Southern Ocean for water depth > 1300 m yielded an average δ74/70Ge = 3.13 ± 0.25‰ (2SD, n = 14) and Ge/Si = 0.80 ± 0.09 μmol/mol (2SD, n = 12). Significant variations in δ74/70Ge, from 2.62 to 3.71‰, were measured in the first 1000 m in one station of the Southern Ocean near Sars Seamount in the Drake Passage, with the heaviest values measured in surface waters. Isotope fractionation by diatoms during opal biomineralization may explain the enrichment in heavy isotopes for both Ge and Si in surface seawater. However, examination of both oceanographic parameters and δ74/70Ge values suggest also that water mass mixing and potential contribution of shelf-derived Ge also could contribute to the variations. Combining these results with new Ge isotope data

  11. Tracing the secular evolution of the UCC using the iron isotope composition of ancient glacial diamictites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. M.; Gaschnig, R. M.; Rudnick, R. L.; Hazen, R. M.; Shahar, A.

    2014-12-01

    Iron is the fourth most abundant element in the continental crust and influences global climate and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean1. Continental inputs, including river waters, sediments and atmospheric dust are dominant sources (>95%) of iron into the ocean2. Therefore, understanding how continental inputs may have changed through time is important in understanding the secular evolution of the marine Fe cycle. We analysed the Fe isotopic composition of twenty-four glacial diamictite composites, upper continental crust (UCC) proxies, with ages ranging from the Mesoarchean to the Paleozoic eras to characterize the secular evolution of the UCC. The diamictites all have elevated chemical index of alteration (CIA) and other characteristics of weathered regolith (e.g., strong depletion in soluble elements such as Sr), which they inherited from their upper crustal source region3. δ56Fe in the diamictite composites range from -0.59 to +0.23‰, however, most diamictites cluster with an average δ56Fe of 0.11± 0.20 (2s), overlapping juvenile continental material such as island arc basalts (IABs), which show a narrow range in δ56Fe from -0.04 to +0.14 ‰4. There is no obvious correlation between δ56Fe of the glacial diamictites and the CIA, except that the diamictite with the lowest δ56Fe at -0.59 ‰ also has the highest CIA = 89 (the Paleoproterozoic Makganyene Fm.). The data suggest that the Fe isotope compositions in the upper continental crust did not vary throughout Earth history. Interestingly, chemical weathering and sedimentary transport likely play only a minor role in producing Fe isotope variations in the upper continental crust. Anoxic weathering pre-GOE (Great Oxidation Event) does not seem to generate different Fe isotopic signatures from the post-GOE oxidative weathering environment in the upper continental crust. Therefore, large Fe isotopic fractionations observed in various marine sedimentary records are likely due to other processes occurring

  12. Tracing the secular evolution of the UCC using the iron isotope composition of ancient glacial diamictites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. M.; Gaschnig, R. M.; Rudnick, R. L.; Hazen, R. M.; Shahar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Iron is the fourth most abundant element in the continental crust and influences global climate and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean1. Continental inputs, including river waters, sediments and atmospheric dust are dominant sources (>95%) of iron into the ocean2. Therefore, understanding how continental inputs may have changed through time is important in understanding the secular evolution of the marine Fe cycle. We analysed the Fe isotopic composition of twenty-four glacial diamictite composites, upper continental crust (UCC) proxies, with ages ranging from the Mesoarchean to the Paleozoic eras to characterize the secular evolution of the UCC. The diamictites all have elevated chemical index of alteration (CIA) and other characteristics of weathered regolith (e.g., strong depletion in soluble elements such as Sr), which they inherited from their upper crustal source region3. δ56Fe in the diamictite composites range from -0.59 to +0.23‰, however, most diamictites cluster with an average δ56Fe of 0.11± 0.20 (2s), overlapping juvenile continental material such as island arc basalts (IABs), which show a narrow range in δ56Fe from -0.04 to +0.14 ‰4. There is no obvious correlation between δ56Fe of the glacial diamictites and the CIA, except that the diamictite with the lowest δ56Fe at -0.59 ‰ also has the highest CIA = 89 (the Paleoproterozoic Makganyene Fm.). The data suggest that the Fe isotope compositions in the upper continental crust did not vary throughout Earth history. Interestingly, chemical weathering and sedimentary transport likely play only a minor role in producing Fe isotope variations in the upper continental crust. Anoxic weathering pre-GOE (Great Oxidation Event) does not seem to generate different Fe isotopic signatures from the post-GOE oxidative weathering environment in the upper continental crust. Therefore, large Fe isotopic fractionations observed in various marine sedimentary records are likely due to other processes occurring

  13. Gradients in seasonality and seawater oxygen isotopic composition along the early Permian Gondwanan coast, SE Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, J. Andrew; Ivany, Linda C.; Runnegar, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of marine carbonates are commonly employed for understanding ancient temperatures, but this approach is complicated in the very distant past due to uncertainties about the effects of diagenesis and the isotopic composition of seawater, both locally and globally. Microsampled accretionary calcite from two species of the fossil bivalve Eurydesma Sowerby and Morris 1845 collected from sediments of Cisuralian age in high latitude marine sediments along the SE coast of Australia records cyclic seasonal fluctuations in shell δ18O values during growth, demonstrating the primary nature of the isotope signal and thus allowing investigation of early Permian seawater isotopic composition and water temperature in the high southern latitudes. The mean and seasonal range of δ18Ocarb decreases poleward across about 10° of paleolatitude (∼67°S-77°S). The presence of co-occurring dropstones and stratigraphically associated glendonites constrains winter temperatures across the region to near-freezing, thus permitting calculation of realistic estimates of water composition and summer temperatures. Summer δ18Ocarb values indicate water temperatures between 5 °C and 12 °C, with warmer values at lower latitudes. The decrease in both mean sea surface temperature and seasonal amplitude with increasing latitude on the Gondwanan coast is much like that observed along high-latitude coastlines today. Calculated δ18Owater decreases toward the pole, likely associated with an increasing contribution of isotopically light fresh water derived from summer snow-melt. The gradient in δ18Owater is similar to that documented over a similar span of latitude on the modern SE Greenland coast. We infer the presence of a north-flowing coastal current of cold, O18-depleted water that entrains progressively greater amounts of more typical seawater as it moves away from the pole. δ18O values in SE Australia, however, are about 3‰ lower than those off Greenland

  14. EasyDelta: A spreadsheet for kinetic modeling of the stable carbon isotope composition of natural gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yan-Rong; Wang, Lianyuan; Shuai, Yanhua; Peng, Ping'an

    2005-08-01

    A new kinetic model and an Excel © spreadsheet program for modeling the stable carbon isotope composition of natural gases is provided in this paper. The model and spreadsheet could be used to describe and predict the variances in stable carbon isotope of natural gases under both experimental and geological conditions with heating temperature or geological time. It is a user-friendly convenient tool for the modeling of isotope variation with time under experimental and geological conditions. The spreadsheet, based on experimental data, requires the input of the kinetic parameters of gaseous hydrocarbons generation. Some assumptions are made in this model: the conventional (non-isotope species) kinetic parameters represent the light isotope species; the initial isotopic value is the same for all parallel chemical reaction of gaseous hydrocarbons generation for simplicity, the re-exponential factor ratio, 13A/ 12A, is a constant, and both heavy and light isotope species have similar activation energy distribution. These assumptions are common in modeling of isotope ratios. The spreadsheet is used for searching the best kinetic parameters of the heavy isotope species to reach the minimum errors compared with experimental data, and then extrapolating isotopic changes to the thermal history of sedimentary basins. A short calculation example on the variation in δ13C values of methane is provided in this paper to show application to geological conditions.

  15. Asian anthropogenic lead contamination in the North Pacific Ocean as evidenced by stable lead isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbrick, Cheryl M.

    This dissertation work determined the changing scope of lead (Pb) contamination in the North Pacific Ocean since the phase-out of leaded gasoline in most of the world. Chapters 1 and 2 consisted of validating our method for determining Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in seawater. Chapter 3 established a baseline of Pb isotopic compositions (PbICs) in the western and central North Pacific in 2002. This was an ideal time to establish such a baseline because China had recently (mid-2000) ceased their use of leaded gasoline and simultaneously began consuming increasingly large amounts of coal, known to have relatively high Pb concentrations. We found subsurface waters were contaminated with Asian industrial Pb, predominantly Chinese coal emissions. In contrast, the abyssal waters were a mix of Asian industrial Pb and background (i.e., natural) Pb. Chapter 4 revisited the western and central North Pacific in 2009 -- 2011 to determine what, if any, changes had occurred in this short time period. We found that Pb in subsurface and abyssal waters of the western North Pacific were similar to Chinese aerosols. Such a large change in the PbICs of abyssal water in 9 years was unanticipated and attributed to the relatively large flux of particle-bound Pb from the euphotic zone to the deep ocean, which was in isotopic equilibrium with the reservoir of dissolved Pb. In contrast, the central North Pacific abyssal water PbICs were similar to values previously reported because of the relatively lower particulate export. Based on comparisons to baseline PbIC data, we determined that abyssal waters in the western and central North Pacific would be isotopically indistinguishable from surface waters in the next three decades. Sources of Pb to coastal California waters were reevaluated in Chapter 5. Prior studies had found that surface waters of the California Current System (CCS) were isotopically consistent with both Asian industrial Pb and US leaded gasoline, still in use

  16. Global patterns of the isotopic composition of soil and plant nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundson, Ronald; Austin, A.T.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Yoo, K.; Matzek, V.; Kendall, C.; Uebersax, A.; Brenner, D.; Baisden, W.T.

    2003-01-01

    We compiled new and published data on the natural abundance N isotope composition (??15N values) of soil and plant organic matter from around the world. Across a broad range of climate and ecosystem types, we found that soil and plant ??15N values systematically decreased with increasing mean annual precipitation (MAP) and decreasing mean annual temperature (MAT). Because most undisturbed soils are near N steady state, the observations suggest that an increasing fraction of ecosystem N losses are 15N-depleted forms (NO3, N2O, etc.) with decreasing MAP and increasing MAT. Wetter and colder ecosystems appear to be more efficient in conserving and recycling mineral N. Globally, plant ??15N values are more negative than soils, but the difference Nitrogen isotopes reflect time integrated measures of the controls on N storage that are critical for predictions of how these ecosystems will respond to human-mediated disturbances of the global N cycle.

  17. X-ray diffraction characterization of epitaxial CVD diamond films with natural and isotopically modified compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Prokhorov, I. A., E-mail: igor.prokhorov@mail.ru; Voloshin, A. E.; Ralchenko, V. G.

    2016-11-15

    Comparative investigations of homoepitaxial diamond films with natural and modified isotopic compositions, grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on type-Ib diamond substrates, are carried out using double-crystal X-ray diffractometry and topography. The lattice mismatch between the substrate and film is precisely measured. A decrease in the lattice constant on the order of (Δa/a){sub relax} ∼ (1.1–1.2) × 10{sup –4} is recorded in isotopically modified {sup 13}C (99.96%) films. The critical thicknesses of pseudomorphic diamond films is calculated. A significant increase in the dislocation density due to the elastic stress relaxation is revealed by X-ray topography.

  18. Stable isotopic investigations of early development in extant and fossil chambered cephalopods I. Oxygen isotopic composition of eggwater and carbon isotopic composition of siphuncle organic matter in Nautilus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Kimberley C.; DeNiro, Michael J.; Ward, Peter D.

    1985-12-01

    Eggwaters from the chambered cephalopod Nautilus are depleted in both 18O and deuterium relative to ambient seawater. Eggwaters from six other species, including the related chambered cephalopod Sepia, do not show such depletion. These observations indicate that the previously observed step towards more positive δ 18O values in calcium carbonate laid down after Nautilus hatches, relative to carbonate precipitated prior to hatching, can be explained by equilibration of the carbonate with water in the egg before hatching and with seawater after hatching. The presence of an oxygen isotope difference between eggwater and seawater for Nautilus and its absence for Sepia suggest that hatching will be recorded in the δ 18O values of shell carbonates for some but not all extinct and extant chambered cephalopods. The δ 13C values of the organic fraction of the siphuncle in Nautilus do not show any consistent pattern with regard to the time of formation before or after hatching. This observation suggests that the minimum in δ 13C values previously observed for calcium carbonate precipitated after Nautilus hatches is not caused by a change in food sources once the animal becomes free-swimming, as has been suggested.

  19. Paloma: In-situ Measurement of The Elemental and Isotopic Composition of The Mars Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassefiere, E.; Jambon, A.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Correia, J.-J.; Covinhes, J.; Goulpeau, G.; Leblanc, F.; Malique, Ch.; Sarda, P.; Schaetzel, P.; Sabroux, J.-C.; Ferry, C.; Richon, P.; Pineau, J.-F.; Desjean, M.-C.

    The PALOMA instrument, presently under study in the frame of the NASA/CNES Mars exploration program, is devoted to the accurate measurement of isotopic and el- emental ratios in Mars atmosphere. It consists of a mass spectrometer coupled with a gas preparation line for separation of reactive and noble gas species, and noble gas species (and reactive gases) from each other, by chemical and cryogenic trapping, and possibly permeation techniques. This instrument, ranked among the most important four types of measurement recommended by the US Committee on Planetary and Lu- nar Exploration (COMPLEX), will be proposed as a part of the payload of the 07 NASA smart landers. The general objectives of PALOMA are to provide instanta- neous and time-varying patterns of noble gas isotopic spectra, and stable isotopes. Such measurements will allow to improve our general understanding of volatile cy- cles on Mars, and to better decipher the history of the atmosphere and climate. Past escape processes, exchanges between solid planet and atmosphere, post-accretional addition of volatil-rich matter from comets, are expected to have imprinted specific isotopic signatures. Although these signatures are strongly interlocked, a compara- tive Earth-Mars approach may allow to discriminate between them, and therefore to reconstruct the history of Martian volatiles. The evolution of atmospheric mass and composition may have had a major impact on climate evolution, e.g. through massive escape of carbon dioxide and water. In addition, precise measurements of isotopes in the present Mars atmosphere are the most promising way on the short term to confirm that SNC meteorites are from Martian origin. PALOMA also includes a small separate device for measuring ambient natural radioactivity, which might provide information about the presence of a near subsurface permafrost, possible residual volcanic activity, vertical mixing rate in the boundary layer.

  20. Triple oxygen isotope composition of leaf waters in Mpala, central Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuning; Levin, Naomi E.; Soderberg, Keir; Dennis, Kate J.; Caylor, Kelly K.

    2017-06-01

    Variations in triple oxygen isotopes have been used in studies of atmospheric photochemistry, global productivity and increasingly in studies of hydroclimate. Understanding the distribution of triple oxygen isotopes in plant waters is critical to studying the fluxes of oxygen isotopes between the atmosphere and hydrosphere, in which plants play an important role. In this paper we report triple oxygen isotope data for stem and leaf waters from Mpala, Kenya and explore how Δ17 O, the deviation from an expected relationship between 17O /16O and 18O /16O ratios, in plant waters vary with respect to relative humidity and deuterium excess (d-excess). We observe significant variation in Δ17 O among waters in leaves and stems from a single plant (up to 0.16‰ range in Δ17 O in leaf water in a plant over the course of a signal day), which correlates to changes in relative humidity. A steady state model for evaporation in leaf water reproduces the majority of variation in Δ17 O and d-excess we observed in leaf waters, except for samples that were collected in the morning, when relative humidity is high and the degree of fractionation in the system is minimal. The data and the steady state model indicate that the slope, λtransp, that links δ17 O and δ18 O values of stem and leaf waters and characterizes the fractionation during transpiration, is strongly influenced by the isotopic composition of ambient vapor when relative humidity is high. We observe a strong, positive relationship between d-excess and Δ17 O, with a slope 2.2 ± 0.2 per meg ‰-1, which is consistent with the observed relationship in tropical rainfall and in water in an evaporating open pan. The strong linear relationship between d-excess and Δ17 O should be typical for any process involving evaporation or any other fractionation that is governed by kinetic effects.

  1. Mercury Stable Isotopic Composition of Monomethylmercury in Estuarine Sediments and Pure Cultures of Mercury Methylating Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, S.; Johnson, M. W.; Barkay, T.; Blum, J. D.; Reinfelder, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Tracking monomethylmercury (MeHg) from its source in soils and sediments through various environmental compartments and transformations is critical to understanding its accumulation in aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Advances in the field of mercury (Hg) stable isotopes have allowed for the tracking of discrete Hg sources and the examination of photochemical and bacterial transformations. Despite analytical advances, measuring the Hg stable isotopic signature of MeHg in environmental samples or laboratory experiments remains challenging due to difficulties in the quantitative separation of MeHg from complex matrices with high concentrations of inorganic Hg. To address these challenges, we have developed a MeHg isolation method for sediments and bacterial cultures which involves separation by gas chromatography. The MeHg eluting from the GC is passed through a pyrolysis column and purged onto a gold amalgam trap which is then desorbed into a final oxidizing solution. A MeHg reference standard carried through our separation process retained its isotopic composition within 0.02 ‰ for δ202Hg, and for native estuarine sediments, MeHg recoveries were 80% to 100%. For sediment samples from the Hackensack and Passaic Rivers (New Jersey, USA), δ202Hg values for MeHg varied from -1.2 to +0.58 ‰ (relative to SRM 3133) and for individual samples were significantly different from that of total Hg (-0.38 ± 0.06 ‰). No mass independent fractionation was observed in MeHg or total Hg from these sediments. Pure cultures of Geobacter sulfurreducens, grown under fermentative conditions showed preferential enrichment of lighter isotopes (lower δ202Hg) during Hg methylation. The Hg stable isotope signatures of MeHg in sediments and laboratory methylation experiments will be discussed in the context of the formation and degradation of MeHg in the environment and the bioaccumulation of MeHg in estuarine food webs.

  2. Mixing ratio and carbon isotopic composition investigation of atmospheric CO2 in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jiaping; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    The stable isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 can be used as a tracer in the study of urban carbon cycles, which are affected by anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 components. Continuous measurements of the mixing ratio and δ(13)C of atmospheric CO2 were conducted in Beijing from Nov. 15, 2012 to Mar. 8, 2014 including two heating seasons and a vegetative season. Both δ(13)C and the isotopic composition of source CO2 (δ(13)CS) were depleted in the heating seasons and enriched in the vegetative season. The diurnal variations in the CO2 mixing ratio and δ(13)C contained two peaks in the heating season, which are due to the effects of morning rush hour traffic. Seasonal and diurnal patterns of the CO2 mixing ratio and δ(13)C were affected by anthropogenic emissions and biogenic activity. Assuming that the primary CO2 sources at night (22:00-04:00) were coal and natural gas combustion during heating seasons I and II, an isotopic mass balance analysis indicated that coal combustion had average contributions of 83.83±14.11% and 86.84±12.27% and that natural gas had average contributions of 16.17±14.11% and 13.16±12.27%, respectively. The δ(13)C of background CO2 in air was the main error source in the isotopic mass balance model. Both the mixing ratio and δ(13)C of atmospheric CO2 had significant linear relationships with the air quality index (AQI) and can be used to indicate local air pollution conditions. Energy structure optimization, for example, reducing coal consumption, will improve the local air conditions in Beijing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Isotopic compositions and sources of nitrate in ground water from western Salt River Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellenbeck, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Isotopic and chemical compositions of ground water from western Salt River Valley near Phoenix, Arizona, were used to develop identification tech- niques for sources of nitrate in ground water. Four possible sources of nitrate were studied: dairies and feedlots, sewage-treatment plants, agricultural activities, and natural source. End members that represent these sources were analyzed for a variety of chemical and isotopic constituents; contents of the end-member and the ground water were compared to identify nitrate from these sources. Nitrate from dairies and feedlots was identified by delta 15N values higher than +9.0 per mil. Nitrate from sewage treatment plants was identified by some chemical constituents and values of delta 15N, delta 34S, delta 7Li, and delta 11B that were lighter than the values determined for ground water not affected by sewage-treatment plants. Nitrate from agricultural activities was identified by delta 15N, 3H, and delta 34S compositions. Natural nitrate derived from decomposing plants and accumulated by biological fixation was identified by delta 15N values that range between +2 and +8 per mil. In addition to identifying nitrate sources, some chemical and isotopic charabteristics of ground water were determined on the basis of data collected during this study. Concentrations of major ions, lithium, and boron and delta 7Li, delta 11B, 3H, delta D, and delta 18O data identify ground water in different geographic regions in the study area. These differences probably are related to different sources of ground water, geochemical processes, or geologic deposits. The Luke salt body and a geothermal anomaly alter the chemical and isotopic content of some ground water.

  4. The tungsten isotopic composition of the Earth's mantle before the terminal bombardment.

    PubMed

    Willbold, Matthias; Elliott, Tim; Moorbath, Stephen

    2011-09-07

    Many precious, 'iron-loving' metals, such as gold, are surprisingly abundant in the accessible parts of the Earth, given the efficiency with which core formation should have removed them to the planet's deep interior. One explanation of their over-abundance is a 'late veneer'--a flux of meteorites added to the Earth after core formation as a 'terminal' bombardment that culminated in the cratering of the Moon. Some 3.8 billion-year-old rocks from Isua, Greenland, are derived from sources that retain an isotopic memory of events pre-dating this cataclysmic meteorite shower. These Isua samples thus provide a window on the composition of the Earth before such a late veneer and allow a direct test of its importance in modifying the composition of the planet. Using high-precision (less than 6 parts per million, 2 standard deviations) tungsten isotope analyses of these rocks, here we show that they have a isotopic tungsten ratio (182)W/(184)W that is significantly higher (about 13 parts per million) than modern terrestrial samples. This finding is in good agreement with the expected influence of a late veneer. We also show that alternative interpretations, such as partial remixing of a deep-mantle reservoir formed in the Hadean eon (more than four billion years ago) or core-mantle interaction, do not explain the W isotope data well. The decrease in mantle (182)W/(184)W occurs during the Archean eon (about four to three billion years ago), potentially on the same timescale as a notable decrease in (142)Nd/(144)Nd (refs 3 and 6). We speculate that both observations can be explained if late meteorite bombardment triggered the onset of the current style of mantle convection.

  5. Mixing ratio and carbon isotopic composition investigation of atmospheric CO2 in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, J.; Wen, X.; Sun, X.

    2016-12-01

    The stable isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 can be used as a tracer in the study of urban carbon cycles, which are affected by anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 components. Continuous measurements of the mixing ratio and δ13C of atmospheric CO2 were conducted in Beijing from Nov. 15, 2012 to Mar. 8, 2014 including two heating seasons and a vegetative season. Both δ13C and the isotopic composition of source CO2 (δ13CS) were depleted in the heating seasons and enriched in the vegetative season. The diurnal variations in the CO2 mixing ratio and δ13C contained two peaks in the heating season, which are due to the effects of morning rush hour traffic. Seasonal and diurnal patterns of the CO2 mixing ratio and δ13C were affected by anthropogenic emissions and biogenic activity. Assuming that the primary CO2 sources at night (22:00-04:00) were coal and natural gas combustion during heating seasons I and II, an isotopic mass balance analysis indicated that coal combustion had average contributions of 83.83 ± 14.11% and 86.84 ± 12.27% and that natural gas had average contributions of 16.17 ± 14.11% and 13.16 ± 12.27%, respectively. The δ13C of background CO2 in air was the main error source in the isotopic mass balance model. Both the mixing ratio and δ13C of atmospheric CO2 had significant linear relationships with the air quality index (AQI) and can be used to indicate local air pollution conditions. Energy structure optimization, for example, reducing coal consumption, will improve the local air conditions in Beijing.

  6. Tracing Altiplano-Puna plateau surface uplift via radiogenic isotope composition of Andean arc lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. M.; Allen, M. B.; Macpherson, C.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Davidson, J.; Saville, C.

    2016-12-01

    We have compiled published geochemical data for Jurassic to Holocene Andean arc lavas from 5oN to 47oS, covering the current extent of the northern, central and southern volcanic zones. Using this dataset we evaluate the spatial and temporal evolution of age corrected Sr- and Nd-radiogenic isotopes in arc lavas at a continental-scale, in order to understand the tectonic and surface uplift histories of the Andean margin. It has long been noted that baseline 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of Quaternary lavas from the central volcanic zone, located within the Altiplano-Puna plateau, are distinct from volcanic rocks to the north and south. This is commonly attributed to greater crustal thickness, which increases to roughly twice that of the average continental crust within the Altiplano-Puna plateau. By comparing 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios in Quaternary lavas to published crustal thickness models, present day topography and the compositions of basement terranes, we note that Sr- and Nd-isotope values of Quaternary lavas are an effective proxy for present day regional elevation. In contrast, variation in basement terranes has only a small, second order effect on isotopic composition at the scale of our study. Using this isotopic proxy, we infer the spatial extent of the plateau and its surface uplift history from the Jurassic to the present. Our results concur with a crustal thickening model of continued surface uplift, which initiated in the Altiplano, with deformation propagating southwards into the Puna throughout the Neogene and then continuing in central Chile and Argentina up to the present day.

  7. Compositional changes in the UCC through time revealed by tungsten isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundl, A.; Walker, R. J.; Reimink, J. R.; Rudnick, R. L.; Gaschnig, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    During periods of glaciation, ice scrapes off large areas of Earth's surface. The resulting sediments, termed glacial diamictites, are typically little affected by chemical alteration during their accumulation and lithification. The fine-grained matrix of a diamictite can therefore provide important information about the average composition of a portion of the upper continental crust (UCC) preceding the time of its deposition. Major and trace element studies of diamictites have reported compositional changes in the UCC through Earth's history, documenting changes in its average lithology. Short-lived radiogenic isotope systems are useful tools to further study crustal evolution via diamictites, as small-scale 182W (182Hf → 182W, t½ = 8.9 Ma) and 142Nd (146Nd → 142Nd, t½= 103 Ma) anomalies may reflect mantle or crustal processes that occurred very early in Earth history. We have investigated 182W/184W ratios in thirteen glacial diamictite composites from four different continents. These rocks were deposited during the Archean (3.0 Ga), Proterozoic (2.4, 2.3, 2.2, 0.6 Ga) and Paleozoic (0.3 Ga) in South Africa, as well as during the Proterozoic (2.4, 0.7, 0.6 Ga) in North America, and the Paleozoic (0.3 Ga) in South America. Individual glacial diamictites sample multiple crustal sources, so the isotopic compositions of the diamictites are more representative of the UCC at the time of deposition, than the komatiites and early Archean supracrustal rocks, which have been the focus of most prior studies. Tungsten isotope compositions reveal well-resolved deficits in 182W/184W of as much as 14 ppm in three of the four Archean samples from South Africa. By contrast, there are no clearly resolved deficits in Paleoproterozoic diamictites from the same area, although results for multiple analyses of the same samples suggest that a small deficit of 6 ppm may be present. No anomalies are present in younger diamictites. The Archean diamictites provide additional evidence

  8. Triple oxygen isotope composition of tropospheric carbon dioxide and terrestrial carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, M. E.; Horváth, B.; Pack, A.

    2011-12-01

    The triple oxygen isotope composition of tropospheric CO2 is a potential new tracer in urban air studies and for biosphere-atmosphere interactions [1]. In this study, we are analyzing CO2 from different provenances in order to trace the influx of anthropogenic CO2 to urban air and to test predictions on the stratosphere-troposphere exchange flux. Since July 2010, we are monitoring the triple oxygen isotope composition of CO2 in urban air in a two-week interval. For this purpose, carbon dioxide was extracted from ~450L of ambient air on the campus of the University of Göttingen using a Russian Doll type cryogenic trap [2]. The CO2 was analyzed by CO2-CeO2 equilibration at 685°C and subsequent IR laser fluorination of CeO2 and CF-irmMS [3]. All triple oxygen isotope data are reported as Δ17OTFL values relative to the terrestrial fractionation line (TFL) with a slope βTFL=0.5251 and an intercept γTFL=-0.014%. On average, the Δ17OTFL value of ambient CO2 was -0.11±0.05% (SD) with a seasonal cycle of 0.04±0.01%. Lower Δ17O values were observed during wintertime. In order to test the potential of Δ17O as a tracer for anthropogenic CO2, we analyzed CO2 from different combustion processes. Our results showed that the Δ17O anomaly of tropospheric O2 [4] is passed on fully, or partially to the combustion CO2 [5]. We estimate that elevated anthropogenic emission during wintertime could be responsible for a decrease in Δ17O of urban air CO2 of -0.02±0.01%. In order to predict the triple oxygen isotope composition of tropospheric CO2 on a global scale, we revised the box model calculation from Hoag et al. [1]. For the exponent β for CO2-water equilibrium, we assume that βCO2-water=0.522±0.001 [6]. Furthermore, we took into account that the Δ17OTFL value of CO2 released from soils is affected by kinetic fractionation. Thus, we obtained a Δ17OTFL value for global tropospheric CO2 of -0.13%. The model calculation agrees well with the Δ17OTFL value determined for

  9. Mercury Abundances and Isotopic Compositions in the Murchison (CM) and Allende (CV)Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Klaue, B.; Blum, J. D.; Buseck, P. R.

    2001-01-01

    The abundance and isotopic composition of Hg was determined in bulk samples of both the Murchison (CM) and Allende (CV) carbonaceous chondrites using single- and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bulk abundances of Hg are 294 6 15 ng/g in Murchison and 30.0 6 1.5 ng/g in Allende. These values are within the range of previous measurements of bulk Hg abundances by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Prior studies suggested that both meteorites contain isotopically anomalous Hg, with d l 96/202Hg values for the anomalous, thermal-release components from bulk samples ranging from 2260 %o to 1440 9/00 in Murchison and from 2620 9/00 to 1540 9/00 in Allende (Jovanovic and Reed, 1976a; 1976b; Kumar and Goel, 1992). Our multi-collector ICP-MS measurements suggest that the relative abundances of all seven stable Hg isotopes in both meteorites are identical to terrestrial values within 0.2 to 0.5 9/00m. On-line thermal-release experiments were performed by coupling a programmable oven with the singlecollector ICP-MS. Powdered aliquots of each meteorite were linearly heated from room temperature to 900 C over twenty-five minutes under an Ar atmosphere to measure the isotopic composition of Hg released fiom the meteorites as a h c t i o n of temperature. In separate experiments, the release profiles of S and Se were determined simultaneously with Hg to constrain the Hg distribution within the meteorites and to evaluate the possibility of Se interferences in previous NAA studies. The Hg-release patterns differ between Allende and Murchison. The Hg-release profile for Allende contains two distinct peaks, at 225" and 343"C, whereas the profile for Murchison has only one peak, at 344 C. No isotopically anomalous Hg was detected in the thermal-release experiments at a precision level of 5 to 30 9/00, depending on the isotope ratio. In both meteorites the Hg peak at ;340"C correlates with a peak in the S-release profile. This correlation

  10. Tungsten residence in silicate rocks: implications for interpreting W isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Pearson, G. D.; Chacko, T.; Luo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    High-precision measurements of W isotopic ratios have boosted recent exploration of early Earth processes from the small W isotope anomalies observable in some Hadean-Archean rocks. However, before applying W isotopic data to understand the geological processes responsible for the formation of these rocks, it is critical to evaluate whether the rocks' present W contents and isotopic compositions reflect that of the protolith or the effects of secondary W addition/mobilization. To investigate this issue, we have carried out in situ concentration measurements of W and other HFSEs in mineral phases and alteration assemblages within a broad spectrum of rocks using LA-ICP-MS. Isotope dilution whole-rock W concentration measurements are used along with modes calculated from mineral and bulk rock major element data to examine the mass balance for W and other elements. In general, W is positively correlated with Nb, Ta, Ti, Sn, Mo and U, indicating similar geochemical behavior. Within granitic gneisses and amphibolites, biotite, hornblende, titanite and ilmenite control the W budget, while plagioclase and k-feldspar have little effect. For granulites, pyroxenites and eclogites, titanite, rutile, ilmenite, magnetite and sulfide, as well as grain boundary alteration assemblages dominate the W budget, while garnet, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and plagioclase have little or no W. Within mantle harzburgites and dunites, major phases such as olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and spinel/chromite have very low concentrations of W, Nb, Ta, Sn and Mo. Instead, these elements are concentrated along grain boundaries and within sulfide/mss. Mass balance shows that for granitic gneisses and amphibolites, the rock-forming minerals can adequately account for the whole-rock W budget, whereas for ultramafic rocks such as pyroxenites, eclogites and harzburgites and dunites, significant W is hosted along grain boundaries, indicating that metamorphism and melt/fluid metasomatism can

  11. A new method and application for determining the nitrogen isotopic composition of NOx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, M. G.; Miller, D. J.; Wojtal, P.; O'Connor, M.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play key roles in atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and radiative forcing, and contribute to nitric acid deposition. Sources of NOx include both natural and anthropogenic emissions, which vary significantly in space and time. NOx isotopic signatures offer a potentially valuable tool to trace source impacts on atmospheric chemistry and regional acid deposition. Previous work on NOx isotopic signatures suggests large ranges in values, even from the same emission source, as well as overlapping ranges amongst different sources, making it difficult to use the isotopic composition as a quantitative tracer of source influences. These prior measurements have utilized a variety of methods for collecting the NOx as nitrate or nitrite for isotopic analysis, and testing of some of these methods (including active and passive collections) reveal inconsistencies in efficiency of collection, as well as issues related to changes in conditions such as humidity, temperature, and NOx fluxes. A recently developed method allows for accurately measuring the nitrogen isotopic composition of NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) after capturing the NOx in a potassium permanganate/sodium hydroxide solution as nitrate (Fibiger et al., Anal. Chem., 2014). The method has been thoroughly tested in the laboratory and field, and efficiently collects NO and NO2 under a variety of conditions. There are several advantages to collecting NOx actively, including the ability to collect over minutes to hourly time scales, and the ability to collect in environments with highly variable NOx sources and concentrations. Challenges include a nitrate background present in potassium permanganate (solid and liquid forms), accurately deriving ambient NOx concentrations based upon flow rate and solution concentrations above this variable background, and potential interferences from other nitrogen species. This method was designed to collect NOx in environments with very different

  12. Isotopic composition of water vapor near the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zannoni, Daniele; Bergamasco, Andrea; Peschiutta, Mirco; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Stenni, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Evaporation is a key process in water cycle that links liquid water to the atmosphere. In the last fifty years stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen have been intensively used to describe climate processes related to evaporation and precipitation, ranging in different spatial and temporal scales. Evaporation introduces large isotopic effects in the phases involved. The well known Craig-Gordon model (Craig & Gordon, 1965) describes those isotopic effects involving several steps and different processes, moving from the air-water interface to the free atmosphere. However, very few works in literature have tested the vertical behavior of the Craig-Gordon model in natural conditions on both fresh and marine waters. In this work we present the results from four field experiments aimed to describe the vertical variability of δ18O and δD in the first few meters over a large water body (the coastal lagoon of Venice, northern Italy) and to test the Craig-Gordon model in such conditions. Each experiment involved cryotrapping of water vapor at different height over the water surface (0.1m, 2m and 4m) and the sampling of the liquid water at two depth (surface and 0.5m). During the experiments, water vapor was also sampled in the nearest mainland (˜2.5 km from gradient measurements) to determine the isotopic composition of background water vapor. Liquid samples were then analyzed with a Picarro L1102-i and Thermo-Fisher Delta Plus Advantage for water vapor and lagoon water, respectively. The last two experiments have also involved simultaneous measurements of relative humidity using commercially-available humidity probes at each height. This approach was used to determine a reference scale in order to compare observations to modeled estimates. Despite the coarse time resolution due to cryotrapping method (measurements are averaged over 1.5 hours), preliminary results show measurable differences in the isotopic composition of water vapor along the vertical gradient and good

  13. Sr isotopic composition as a tracer of Ca sources in two forest ecosystems in Belgium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouet, T.; Herbauts, J.; Demaiffe, D.

    2003-04-01

    The two main sources of Ca in forest ecosystem are the mineral weathering release and atmospheric inputs. We use the 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratio (Sr is a proxy for Ca) to determine the Ca contribution from rain input in two forest ecosystems (beech stands) growing on soils formed from parent materials with distinct total Ca contents and contrasted isotopic ratios: Pleistocene loess in Central Belgium (leached brown soil) with present-day 87Sr/86Sr =0.72788 and Lower Devonian shales and sandstones in Ardennes (ochreous brown earth) with 87Sr/86Sr = 0.76913. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios and the Ca and Sr contents were measured in rainwater, vegetation (beech wood growth rings and leaves) and main soil horizons (total, labile and HCl 0.1 M soluble forms). The relative contributions of atmospheric input and soil mineral weathering to vegetation were calculated using mixing equations. Calculations based on the Sr isotope ratios of rainwater (endmember 1; 87Sr/86Sr close to seawater: 0.7090), labile soil fraction (endmember 2; 87Sr/86Sr: 0.71332 to 0.71785) and beech wood (mixing compartment) indicate that about 50 % (Central Belgium) to 35 % (Ardennes) of Ca uptake originate from atmospheric inputs. The choice of the appropriate 87Sr/86Sr ratio for the weathering endmember is however critical. The isotopic composition of the mineral source is theoretically determined by the mineralogical composition of the soil and the relative weatherability of the Sr-bearing minerals. Due to soil processes (weathering and clay illuviation), the distribution of minerals in both soil profiles is not homogeneous and varies from horizon to horizon. Which horizons are relevant and which kind of soil extract (labile soil fraction, acid soluble fraction, total soil,...) should be selected for isotopic measurement of weathering endmember, is therefore questionable. The different ways of estimation are discussed. Quantitative mineralogical reconstitutions of soil horizons and isotopic data indicate

  14. SULFUR ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF SUBMICROMETER SiC GRAINS FROM THE MURCHISON METEORITE

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yuchen; Zinner, Ernst; Gallino, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    We report C, Si, N, S, Mg-Al, and Ca-Ti isotopic compositions of presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains from the SiC-rich KJE size fraction (0.5-0.8 μm) of the Murchison meteorite. One thousand one hundred thirteen SiC grains were identified based on their C and Si isotopic ratios. Mainstream, AB, C, X, Y, and Z subtypes of SiC, and X-type silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) account for 81.4%, 5.7%, 0.1%, 1.5%, 5.8%, 4.9%, and 0.4%, respectively. Twenty-five grains with unusual Si isotopic ratios, including one C grain, 16 X grains, 1 Y grain, 5 Z grains, and 2 X-type Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grainsmore » were selected for N, S, Mg-Al, and Ca-Ti isotopic analysis. The C grain is highly enriched in {sup 29}Si and {sup 30}Si (δ{sup 29}Si = 1345‰ ± 19‰, δ{sup 30}Si = 1272‰ ± 19‰). It has a huge {sup 32}S excess, larger than any seen before, and larger than that predicted for the Si/S supernova (SN) zone, providing evidence against the elemental fractionation model by Hoppe et al. Two SN models investigated here present a more satisfying explanation in terms of a radiogenic origin of {sup 32}S from the decay of short-lived {sup 32}Si (τ{sub 1/2} = 153 yr). Silicon-32 as well as {sup 29}Si and {sup 30}Si can be produced in SNe by short neutron bursts; evidence for initial {sup 44}Ti (τ{sub 1/2} = 60 yr) in the C grain is additional evidence for an SN origin. The X grains have marginal {sup 32}S excesses, much smaller than expected from their large {sup 28}Si excesses. Similarly, the Y and Z grains do not show the S-isotopic anomalies expected from their large Si isotopic anomalies. Low intrinsic S contents and contamination with isotopically normal S are the most likely explanations.« less

  15. High temporal resolution measurements of the isotopic composition of CH4 at the Lutjewad station, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röckmann, Thomas; van der Veen, Carina; Chen, Huilin; Scheeren, Bert

    2017-04-01

    Isotope measurements can help constraining the atmospheric budget of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) because different sources emit CH4 with slightly different isotopic composition. In the past, high precision isotope measurements have primarily been carried out by isotope ratio mass spectrometry on flask samples that are usually collected at relatively low temporal resolution. We have recently developed a fully automated gas chromatography - isotope ratio mass spectrometry system (GC-IRMS) for autonomous and unattended CH4 isotope measurements (δD and δ13C) in the field. The first deployment at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) indicated that CH4 emissions from fossil fuel sources are overestimated in this region [1]. To further exploit the potential of this approach, the in situ system has been installed in November 2016 at the Lutjewad atmospheric monitoring and sampling site in the North of the Netherlands. This site is expected to sample also emissions from the large Groningen gas fields. The isotope measurements are expected to allow distinguishing these emissions from the agricultural emissions, which are also strong in this region. We will present the results from these ongoing measurements of δD and δ13C in CH4.. 1. Röckmann, T., et al., In situ observations of the isotopic composition of methane at the Cabauw tall tower site, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2016. 16: 10469-10487.

  16. Sulfide in the core and the Nd isotopic composition of the silicate Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy-West, A.; Millet, M. A.; Nowell, G. M.; Wohlers, A.; Wood, B. J.; Burton, K. W.

    2016-12-01

    The chemical composition of the Earth is traditionally explained in terms of evolution from a solar-like composition, similar to that found in primitive chondritic meteorites. It now appears, however, that the silicate Earth is not chondritic, but depleted in incompatible elements and a resovable 20 ppm excess is observed in 142Nd relative to chondirtes [1, 2]. This anomaly requires a process that occurred within 30 Myr of solar system formation and has been variably ascribed to: a complementary enriched reservoir in the deep Earth [1]; loss to space through collisional erosion [3]; or the inhertence of nucleosynthetic anomalies [4]. Sulfide in the core may provide a reservoir capable of balancing the composition of the silicate Earth. Recent experimental work suggests that the core contains a significant proportion of sulfide, added during the final stages of accretion and new data suggests that at high pressures sulfide can incorporate a substantial amount of refractory lithophile and heat-producing elements [5]. The drawback of the short-lived 146Sm-142Nd radiogenic isotope system is that it is not possible to distinguish between fractionations of Sm/Nd that occurs during silicate melting or segregation of a sulfide-melt. Neodymium stable isotopes have the potential to provide just such a tracer of sulfide segregation, because there is a significant contrast in bonding environment between sulfide and silicate, where heavy isotopes should be preferentially incorporated into high force-constant bonds involving REE3+ (i.e. the silicate mantle). Preliminary data indicate that mantle rocks do indeed possess heavier 146Nd/144Nd values than chondritic meteorites by 0.3 ‰, consistent with the removal of light Nd into sulfide in the core, driving the residual mantle to heavier values. Overall, our isotope and elemental data indicate that the rare earths and other incompatible elements are substantially incorporated into sulfide. While Nd stable isotope data for

  17. Iron isotope composition of particles produced by UV-femtosecond laser ablation of natural oxides, sulfides, and carbonates.

    PubMed

    d'Abzac, Francois-Xavier; Beard, Brian L; Czaja, Andrew D; Konishi, Hiromi; Schauer, James J; Johnson, Clark M

    2013-12-17

    The need for femtosecond laser ablation (fs-LA) systems coupled to MC-ICP-MS to accurately perform in situ stable isotope analyses remains an open question, because of the lack of knowledge concerning ablation-related isotopic fractionation in this regime. We report the first iron isotope analysis of size-resolved, laser-induced particles of natural magnetite, siderite, pyrrhotite, and pyrite, collected through cascade impaction, followed by analysis by solution nebulization MC-ICP-MS, as well as imaging using electron microscopy. Iron mass distributions are independent of mineralogy, and particle morphology includes both spheres and agglomerates for all ablated phases. X-ray spectroscopy shows elemental fractionation in siderite (C-rich agglomerates) and pyrrhotite/pyrite (S-rich spheres). We find an increase in (56)Fe/(54)Fe ratios of +2‰, +1.2‰, and +0.8‰ with increasing particle size for magnetite, siderite, and pyrrhotite, respectively. Fe isotope differences in size-sorted aerosols from pyrite ablation are not analytically resolvable. Experimental data are discussed using models of particles generation by Hergenröder and elemental/isotopic fractionation by Richter. We interpret the isotopic fractionation to be related to the iron condensation time scale, dependent on its saturation in the gas phase, as a function of mineral composition. Despite the isotopic variations across aerosol size fractions, total aerosol composition, as calculated from mass balance, confirms that fs-LA produces a stoichiometric sampling in terms of isotopic composition. Specifically, both elemental and isotopic fractionation are produced by particle generation processes and not by femtosecond laser-matter interactions. These results provide critical insights into the analytical requirements for laser-ablation-based stable isotope measurements of high-precision and accuracy in geological samples, including the importance of quantitative aerosol transport to the ICP.

  18. Rubidium Isotope Composition of the Earth and the Moon: Evidence for the Origin of Volatile Loss During Planetary Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, E. A.; Moynier, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth-Moon system has a variety of chemical and isotopic characteristics that provide clues to understanding the mechanism of lunar formation. One important observation is the depletion in moderately volatile elements in the Moon compared to the Earth. This volatile element depletion may be a signature of volatile loss during the Moon-forming Giant Impact. Stable isotopes are powerful tracers of such a process, since volatile loss via evaporation enriches the residue in heavy isotopes. However, early studies searching for the fingerprint of volatile loss failed to find any resolvable variations [1]. Recent work has now revealed heavy isotope enrichments in the Moon relative to the Earth for the moderately volatile elements Zn [2,3] and K [4]. The purely lithophile nature of Rb (in contrast to the chalcophile/lithophile nature of Zn) and the higher volatility of Rb compared to K make Rb an ideal element with which to study the origin of lunar volatile element depletion. We have developed a new method for the high-precision measurement of Rb isotope ratios by MC-ICP-MS. The Rb isotope compositions of terrestrial rocks define a narrow range, indicating that Rb isotope fractionation during igneous differentiation is limited (<30 ppm/amu). There is a clear signature of Rb loss during evaporation in volatile-depleted achondrites and lunar rocks. In particular, eucrites are significantly enriched in 87Rb (up to several per mil) relative to chondrites. Similarly, lunar basalts are enriched in 87Rb compared to terrestrial basalts, by 200 ppm for 87Rb/85Rb. These data are the first measurements of a resolvable difference in Rb isotope composition between the Earth and the Moon. The variations in Rb isotope composition between the Earth and the Moon are consistent with Rb isotope fractionation due to evaporation. References: [1] Humayun & Clayton GCA 1995. [2] Paniello et al. Nature 2012. [3] Kato et al. Nat. Comm. 2015. [4] Wang and Jacobsen Nature in press.

  19. Technical note: An inverse method to relate organic carbon reactivity to isotope composition from serial oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemingway, Jordon D.; Rothman, Daniel H.; Rosengard, Sarah Z.; Galy, Valier V.

    2017-11-01

    Serial oxidation coupled with stable carbon and radiocarbon analysis of sequentially evolved CO2 is a promising method to characterize the relationship between organic carbon (OC) chemical composition, source, and residence time in the environment. However, observed decay profiles depend on experimental conditions and oxidation pathway. It is therefore necessary to properly assess serial oxidation kinetics before utilizing decay profiles as a measure of OC reactivity. We present a regularized inverse method to estimate the distribution of OC activation energy (E), a proxy for bond strength, using serial oxidation. Here, we apply this method to ramped temperature pyrolysis or oxidation (RPO) analysis but note that this approach is broadly applicable to any serial oxidation technique. RPO analysis directly compares thermal reactivity to isotope composition by determining the E range for OC decaying within each temperature interval over which CO2 is collected. By analyzing a decarbonated test sample at multiple masses and oven ramp rates, we show that OC decay during RPO analysis follows a superposition of parallel first-order kinetics and that resulting E distributions are independent of experimental conditions. We therefore propose the E distribution as a novel proxy to describe OC thermal reactivity and suggest that E vs. isotope relationships can provide new insight into the compositional controls on OC source and residence time.

  20. Tracing changes in atmospheric sources of lead contamination using lead isotopic compositions in Australian red wine.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Evans, Andrew James

    2016-07-01

    Air quality data detailing changes to atmospheric composition from Australia's leaded petrol consumption is spatially and temporally limited. In order to address this data gap, wine was investigated as a potential proxy for atmospheric lead conditions. Wine spanning sixty years was collected from two wine regions proximal to the South Australian capital city, Adelaide, and analysed for lead concentration and lead and strontium isotopic composition for source apportionment. Maximum wine lead concentrations (328 μg/L) occur prior to the lead-in-air monitoring in South Australia in the later 1970s. Wine lead concentrations mirror available lead-in-air measurements and show a declining trend reflecting parallel reductions in leaded petrol emissions. Lead from petrol dominated the lead in wine ((206)Pb/(207)Pb: 1.086; (208)Pb/(207)Pb: 2.360) until the introduction of unleaded petrol, which resulted in a shift in the wine lead isotopic composition closer to vineyard soil ((206)Pb/(207)Pb: 1.137; (208)Pb/(207)Pb: 2.421). Current mining activities or vinification processes appear to have no impact with recent wine samples containing less than 4 μg/L of lead. This study demonstrates wine can be used to chronicle changes in environmental lead emissions and is an effective proxy for atmospherically sourced depositions of lead in the absence of air quality data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of amino acids on the precipitation kinetics and Ca isotopic composition of gypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harouaka, Khadouja; Kubicki, James D.; Fantle, Matthew S.

    2017-12-01

    Stirred gypsum (CaSO4 · 2H2O) precipitation experiments (initial Ωgypsum = 2.4 ± 0.14, duration ≈ 1.0-1.5 h) were conducted in the presence of the amino acids glycine (190 μM), L-alanine (190 μM), D- and L-arginine (45 μM), and L-tyrosine (200 μM) to investigate the effect of simple organic compounds on both the precipitation kinetics and Ca isotopic composition of gypsum. Relative to abiotic controls, glycine, tyrosine, and alanine inhibited precipitation rates by ∼22%, 27%, and 29%, respectively, while L- and D-arginine accelerated crystal growth by ∼8% and 48%, respectively. With the exception of tyrosine, amino acid induced inhibition resulted in fractionation factors (αs-f) associated with precipitation that were no more than 0.3‰ lower than amino acid-free controls. In contrast, the tyrosine and D- and L-arginine experiments had αs-f values associated with precipitation that were similar to the controls. Our experimental results indicate that Ca isotopic fractionation associated with gypsum precipitation is impacted by growth inhibition in the presence of amino acids. Specifically, we propose that the surface-specific binding of amino acids to gypsum can change the equilibrium fractionation factor of the bulk mineral. We investigate the hypothesis that amino acids can influence the growth of gypsum at specific crystal faces via adsorption and that different faces have distinct fractionation factors (αface-fluid). Accordingly, preferential sorption of amino acids at particular faces changes the relative, face-specific mass fluxes of Ca during growth, which influences the bulk isotopic composition of the mineral. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that the energetic favorability of glycine sorption onto gypsum crystal faces occurs in the order: (1 1 0) > (0 1 0) > (1 2 0) > (0 1 1), while glycine sorption onto the (-1 1 1) face was found to be energetically unfavorable. Face-specific fractionation factors constrained by

  2. Insights From Magnesium Isotopic Compositions on the Oceanic Hydrothermal Circulation: Is Seamount Weathering the Solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, A.; Carder, E.; Elderfield, H.

    2006-12-01

    It has been long recognised that the input of Mg in the ocean by river is removed by precipitation of Mg-rich bearing phases, either directly from the ocean such as dolomite or through hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust. The sampling of hydrothermal fluids demonstrated the efficiency of Mg consumption by the alteration of the oceanic crust, even at temperatures as low as 15°. For high-temperature fluids vented through black or white smokers in the vicinity of the ridge, the Mg concentration is up to 50 time lower than in seawater, and the close relationship between chlorine and Mg led to the idea that seawater was feeding the hydrothermal system and that Mg is quantitatively removed from it during high-T° alteration, the so called zero Mg hypothesis. Despite some hint for a non zero Mg hydrothermal end-member for a handful sites, the low concentration of Mg in oceanic hydrothermal fluids (around 1 mmol/l) has been mainly attributed to contamination by seawater during the sampling. Here we present Mg isotopic composition of 14 seawater samples from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Mediterranean and Red Seas and covering a range of depth of almost 5km and 26 hydrothermal fluids from 7 sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with temperature from 15° to 380°C. We find the magnesium isotope composition of seawater to be constant, with a δ^{26}Mg = -0.82±0.10 ‰ relative to the DSM3 standard. This value is consistent with a long residence time for Mg in seawater. In addition, out of the 26 hydrothermal fluids studied, more than 58% differ from seawater for their Mg isotopic composition by more than 2σ. This number rises up to 88% at 2σmean level and the shift is systematic with the fluids being either indistinguishable from seawater or enriched in light isotopes by up to 2.4‰ in δ^{26}Mg. This clearly demonstrates that fluids having low Mg concentrations are not solely bearing Mg added by contamination during sampling. The isotopic

  3. Can the evolution of nitrogen cycle be traced by the N isotopic composition in mica?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinti, D. L.; Hashizume, K.

    2011-12-01

    A significant portion of nitrogen present in sedimentary rocks has a biological origin, trapped either in organic form, or as ammonium ion substituting potassium in mica. Mica might preserve biological N isotopic signatures (δ15N) in the geological record, allowing the evolution of the N cycle to be traced. However, diagenetic or metamorphic events can modify the pristine N isotopic signature leading to inaccurate interpretations. For example, devolatilization of the rock leads to a reduction in the N abundance and a contemporary increase of the δ15N because 14N escapes faster than 15N. We measured N isotopic compositions in whole rock, mica and feldspars separates from two Archean suites of cherts: 3.5 Ga Kitty's Gap and North Pole sequences in Pilbara, Western Australia and from the 3.45 Ga Hooggenoeg Fm, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. N was compared with the argon elemental and isotopic composition, because a relation between NH4+, which replaces K+ and radiogenic 40Ar*, which is produced by electron capture of K+ is expected. Both Pilbara and Barberton cherts show a clear correlation between N and 40Ar*, confirming the occurrence of a common speciation. K-Ar dating of the Hooggenoeg Formation mica and feldspars give ages of 2.1 and 1.1 Ga, respectively, indicating that loosely-bounded noble gas 40Ar* is lost from the host mineral during known metamorphic events. Observed correlations between 40Ar* and N suggests that nitrogen, although more strongly bounded as ammonium is also lost, possibly leading to isotopic fractionation. Measured δ15N values, however, are relatively constant (+8.1±0.6% for whole rock and +10.9±1.2% for mica) and do not display an inverse correlation with N abundances. This suggests either 1) that isotopic fractionation is not produced during N loss or; 2) that a process other than devolatilization fractionate N isotopes. Measured δ15N values are at levels far greater than those expected for Early Archean kerogens (0±2

  4. Uncovering trophic positions and food resources of soil animals using bulk natural stable isotope composition.

    PubMed

    Potapov, Anton M; Tiunov, Alexei V; Scheu, Stefan

    2018-06-19

    Despite the major importance of soil biota in nutrient and energy fluxes, interactions in soil food webs are poorly understood. Here we provide an overview of recent advances in uncovering the trophic structure of soil food webs using natural variations in stable isotope ratios. We discuss approaches of application, normalization and interpretation of stable isotope ratios along with methodological pitfalls. Analysis of published data from temperate forest ecosystems is used to outline emerging concepts and perspectives in soil food web research. In contrast to aboveground and aquatic food webs, trophic fractionation at the basal level of detrital food webs is large for carbon and small for nitrogen stable isotopes. Virtually all soil animals are enriched in 13 C as compared to plant litter. This 'detrital shift' likely reflects preferential uptake of 13 C-enriched microbial biomass and underlines the importance of microorganisms, in contrast to dead plant material, as a major food resource for the soil animal community. Soil organic matter is enriched in 15 N and 13 C relative to leaf litter. Decomposers inhabiting mineral soil layers therefore might be enriched in 15 N resulting in overlap in isotope ratios between soil-dwelling detritivores and litter-dwelling predators. By contrast, 13 C content varies little between detritivores in upper litter and in mineral soil, suggesting that they rely on similar basal resources, i.e. little decomposed organic matter. Comparing vertical isotope gradients in animals and in basal resources can be a valuable tool to assess trophic interactions and dynamics of organic matter in soil. As indicated by stable isotope composition, direct feeding on living plant material as well as on mycorrhizal fungi is likely rare among soil invertebrates. Plant carbon is taken up predominantly by saprotrophic microorganisms and channelled to higher trophic levels of the soil food web. However, feeding on photoautotrophic microorganisms and non

  5. Occurrences of ikaite and pseudomorphs after ikaite in Patagonian lakes - crystal morphologies and stable isotope composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehlerich, Markus; Mayr, Christoph; Griesshaber, Erika; Ohlendorf, Christian; Zolitschka, Bernd; Sánchez-Pastor, Nuria; Kremer, Barbara; Lücke, Andreas; Oeckler, Oliver; Schmahl, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    Ikaite (CaCO3•6H2O), a hydrated calcium carbonate mineral occasionally found in marine sediments, has so far rarely been reported from non-marine sites. Modern ikaite and calcitic pseudomorphs after ikaite were recently discovered in Patagonian Argentina at the polymictic lakes of Laguna Potrok Aike (51°57´S, 70°23´W) and Laguna Cháltel (49°57´S, 71°07´W), respectively. Both lakes are of volcanic origin and have phosphorous-rich, alkaline waters, but differ in altitude (790 m asl and 110 m asl for Laguna Cháltel and Laguna Potrok Aike, respectively) and water temperature. The aim of this study is (1) to investigate conditions for the formation of ikaite and its transformation to more stable, water-free carbonate pseudomorphs after ikaite and (2) to assess the potential of ikaite and calcite pseudomorphs after ikaite as a paleoenvironmental tool in freshwater lakes. Crystallographic, morphological and isotopic characteristics of the pseudomorphs were investigated. Ikaite crystals were found (in September 2008) primarily on aquatic macrophytes and cyanobacteria colonies at Laguna Potrok Aike. Ikaite crystals transformed quickly to calcite pseudomorphs after ikaite after recovery from the cool lake water (4°C). The crystal structure of ikaite was investigated with single crystal X-ray diffraction on samples that were permanently kept cold (in the lake water). At Laguna Cháltel calcite pseudomorphs after ikaite were discovered in littoral sediment cores from 25 m water depth. The mm-sized, porous, polycrystalline calcium carbonate aggregates from the 104 cm long sediment core of Laguna Cháltel are morphologically pseudomorphs after ikaite. SEM and XRD analyses highlight that these pseudomorphs consist of several µm-small calcite crystals in a calcitic matrix. The shape of these micro-crystals changes from rounded to fibrous with increasing sediment depth. Some specimens show casts of cyanobacteria trichomes. The oxygen isotopic composition of calcite

  6. Isotopic composition of inorganic mercury and methylmercury downstream of a historical gold mining region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Singer, Michael B.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Tsui, Martin T.K.

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) and monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations and mercury (Hg) isotopic compositions in sediment and aquatic organisms from the Yuba River (California, USA) to identify Hg sources and biogeochemical transformations downstream of a historical gold mining region. Sediment THg concentrations and δ202Hg decreased from the upper Yuba Fan to the lower Yuba Fan and the Feather River. These results are consistent with the release of Hg during gold mining followed by downstream mixing and dilution. The Hg isotopic composition of Yuba Fan sediment (δ202Hg = −0.38 ± 0.17‰ and Δ199Hg = 0.04 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1 SD, n = 7) provides a fingerprint of inorganic Hg (IHg) that could be methylated locally or after transport downstream. The isotopic composition of MMHg in the Yuba River food web was estimated using biota with a range of %MMHg (the percent of THg present as MMHg) and compared to IHg in sediment, algae, and the food web. The estimated δ202Hg of MMHg prior to photodegradation (−1.29 to −1.07‰) was lower than that of IHg and we suggest this is due to mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) of up to −0.9‰ between IHg and MMHg. This result is in contrast to net positive MDF (+0.4 to +0.8‰) previously observed in lakes, estuaries, coastal oceans, and forests. We hypothesize that this unique relationship could be due to differences in the extent or pathway of biotic MMHg degradation in stream environments.

  7. Measurement of the Carbon Isotopic Composition of Methane Using Helicoidal Laser Eigenstates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D.; Le Floch, A.; Bretenaker, F.; Guenot, P.

    1996-06-01

    The spatially generalized Jones matrix formalism is used to design a laser cavity to make intracavity measurements of the carbon isotopic composition of methane. the method is based on a double optical lever effect for helicoidally polarized eigenstates, permitting to measure successively the ^{12}CH_4 and ^{13}CH_4 concentrations. To choose the probed isotope, one simply tunes the frequency of the laser by Zeeman effect. The experiment exhibits a good agreement with the predictions and permits to measure the ^{13}CH4/^{12}CH_4 composition ratio of methane with an uncertainty of the order of ± 0.07% for a sample containing only 6× 10^{-9} mole of methane. On utilise le formalisme des matrices de Jones généralisées spatialement pour concevoir une cavité laser permettant la mesure intra-cavité de la composition isotopique du carbone présent dans le méthane. La méthode est fondée sur une double application de l'effet de levier optique pour les états propres hélicoïdaux, permettant de mesurer successivement les concentrations de ^{12}CH_4 et de ^{13}CH_4. Pour passer d'un isotope à l'autre, on ajuste simplement la fréquence du laser par effet Zeeman. L'expérience est en bon accord avec les prédictions et permet d'effectuer la mesure du rapport isotopique ^{13}CH4/^{12}CH_4 avec une fourchette d'incertitude de ± 0,07% pour des échantillons de gaz ne contenant que 6× 10^{-9} mole de méthane.

  8. Isotopic Composition of Inorganic Mercury and Methylmercury Downstream of a Historical Gold Mining Region.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Patrick M; Blum, Joel D; Singer, Michael Bliss; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Tsui, Martin T K

    2016-02-16

    We measured total mercury (THg) and monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations and mercury (Hg) isotopic compositions in sediment and aquatic organisms from the Yuba River (California, USA) to identify Hg sources and biogeochemical transformations downstream of a historical gold mining region. Sediment THg concentrations and δ(202)Hg decreased from the upper Yuba Fan to the lower Yuba Fan and the Feather River. These results are consistent with the release of Hg during gold mining followed by downstream mixing and dilution. The Hg isotopic composition of Yuba Fan sediment (δ(202)Hg = -0.38 ± 0.17‰ and Δ(199)Hg = 0.04 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1 SD, n = 7) provides a fingerprint of inorganic Hg (IHg) that could be methylated locally or after transport downstream. The isotopic composition of MMHg in the Yuba River food web was estimated using biota with a range of %MMHg (the percent of THg present as MMHg) and compared to IHg in sediment, algae, and the food web. The estimated δ(202)Hg of MMHg prior to photodegradation (-1.29 to -1.07‰) was lower than that of IHg and we suggest this is due to mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) of up to -0.9‰ between IHg and MMHg. This result is in contrast to net positive MDF (+0.4 to +0.8‰) previously observed in lakes, estuaries, coastal oceans, and forests. We hypothesize that this unique relationship could be due to differences in the extent or pathway of biotic MMHg degradation in stream environments.

  9. Box-modeling of bone and tooth phosphate oxygen isotope compositions as a function of environmental and physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Langlois, C; Simon, L; Lécuyer, Ch

    2003-12-01

    A time-dependent box model is developed to calculate oxygen isotope compositions of bone phosphate as a function of environmental and physiological parameters. Input and output oxygen fluxes related to body water and bone reservoirs are scaled to the body mass. The oxygen fluxes are evaluated by stoichiometric scaling to the calcium accretion and resorption rates, assuming a pure hydroxylapatite composition for the bone and tooth mineral. The model shows how the diet composition, body mass, ambient relative humidity and temperature may control the oxygen isotope composition of bone phosphate. The model also computes how bones and teeth record short-term variations in relative humidity, air temperature and delta18O of drinking water, depending on body mass. The documented diversity of oxygen isotope fractionation equations for vertebrates is accounted for by our model when for each specimen the physiological and diet parameters are adjusted in the living range of environmental conditions.

  10. The Oxygen Isotope Composition of Dark Inclusions in HEDs, Ordinary and Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, R. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Buchanan, P. C.; Franchi, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dark inclusions (DIs) are lithic fragments that form a volumetrically small, but important, component in carbonaceous chondrites. Carbonaceous clasts similar to DIs are also found in some ordinary chondrites and HEDs. DIs are of particular interest because they provide a record of nebular and planetary processes distinct from that of their host meteorite. DIs may be representative of the material that delivered water and other volatiles to early Earth as a late veneer. Here we focus on the oxygen isotopic composition of DIs in a variety of settings with the aim of understanding their formational history and relationship to the enclosing host meteorite.

  11. Comparative studies of Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide as a potential filler in Polypropylene reinforced rice husk composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, M.; Mohd, W. R. Wan

    2018-04-01

    Arising global environmental issues have triggered the search of new products and processes that are compatible with the environment while maintaining novel properties of materials. In this work, green composites containing rice husk (RH), polypropylene (PP), and incorporated with two different fillers namely titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) were prepared using an internal mixer and were injected into desired specimen by using an injection molding method. Mechanical properties of the composite were studied using Instron universal testing machine with load cell of 30kN capacity. Morphological of tensile fractured surface of composites was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the composites with the addition of TiO2 gave an excellent mechanical properties than the composites filled with ZnO. Furthermore, morphological image of PP/RH/TiO2 also shows a good interaction occurred between polymer matrix and RH particles as compared to that of PP/RH/ZnO.

  12. Morphological tuned preparation of zinc oxide: reduced graphene oxide composites for non-enzymatic fluorescence glucose sensing and enhanced photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivalingam, Muthu Mariappan; Balasubramanian, Karthikeyan

    2016-07-01

    Zinc oxide: reduced graphene oxide (ZnO:rgo) composites with varying ZnO morphologies have been synthesized towards the application of non-enzymatic fluorescence (FL) glucose sensor and photocatalysis for methylene blue (MB) degradation. The phase structure of ZnO has confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies, and the band gap calculations were done by UV absorption spectra. Scanning electron microscope and Raman spectra revealed the morphological change and the vibrational studies of the prepared samples, respectively. The quenching of the FL emission band of ZnO:rgo composite sample confirmed the transfer of electrons from ZnO to rgo which inhibit the exciton recombination process. The non-enzymatic FL glucose sensing was carried out by the addition of dextrose glucose ( d-glucose) into the ZnO:rgo composite solution, which shows strong relationship between glucose concentration and the FL intensity. The photocatalytic studies showed that composite with high surface to volume ratio exhibits a maximum degradation of MB over 93 %. Our combined results ensured that the ZnO:rgo composites with varying morphologies could be an effective system for applications such as FL-based glucose sensing and photocatalytic degradation.

  13. Re-assessing the Molybdenum Isotope Composition of Pre-GOE Seawater: Evidence for Dynamic Ocean Redox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrander, C. M.; Kendall, B.; Roy, M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Nunn, S. J.; Gordon, G. W.; Olson, S. L.; Lyons, T. W.; Zheng, W.; Anbar, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) isotope compositions of Archean shales can provide important insights into ocean and atmosphere redox dynamics prior to the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). Unfortunately, the relatively limited Mo isotope database and small number of sample sets for Archean shales do not allow for in-depth reconstructions and specifically make it difficult to differentiate global from local effects. To accurately estimate the Mo isotope composition of Archean seawater and better investigate the systematics of local and global redox, more complete sample sets are needed. We carried out a Mo isotope analysis of the euxinic 2.65 Ga Roy Hill Shale sampled in two stratigraphically correlated cores, and revisited the well-studied euxinic 2.5 Ga Mt. McRae Shale in higher resolution. Our data show contrasting Mo isotope values in the 2.65 Ga Roy Hill Shale between near- and offshore depositional environments, with systematically heavier isotope values in the near-shore environment. High-resolution analysis of the Mt. McRae Shale yields oscillating Mo concentrations and isotope values at the cm- to dm-scale during the well-characterized "whiff of O2" interval, with the heaviest isotope values measured during euxinic deposition. Variations in the measured isotope values within each section are primarily associated with redox changes in the local depositional environment and amount of detrital content. Both non-quantitative removal of Mo associated with incorporation into non-euxinic sediments and large detrital Mo contributions shift some measured isotopic compositions toward lighter values. This is readily apparent in the near-shore Roy Hill Shale section and the Mt. McRae Shale, but may not fully explain variations observed in the offshore Roy Hill Shale deposit. Here, euxinic deposition is not accompanied by Mo enrichments or isotopic compositions as heavy as the near-shore equivalent, even after detrital correction. This disparity between the near- and offshore environment

  14. The stable isotopic and chemical composition of pedogenic carbonate in the Minusinsk Basin, South Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilchuk, Jessica; Ivanova, Elena; Krechetov, Pavel; Litvinskiy, Vladimir; Budantseva, Nadine; Chizhova, Julia; Vasil'chuk, Yurij

    2017-04-01

    Stable isotope composition of carbonate neoformations can be used as a proxy for the reconstructons of environmental conditions of the past. Carbonate coatings on coarse rock framents are studied in order to indicate the climatic conditions and predominant vegetation under which they were formed. Such coatings commonly occur in different types of soils and paleosols of South Siberian intermountain basins mainly in relatively dry modern conditions. The purpose of the research is to characterize the isotopic composition and chemical composition of carbonate pedofeatures in soils of Minusink Hollow and estimate its correlation with defferent factors. The samples of pedogenic carbonates, vegetation, carbonate parent material, soil water and precipitation water were analyzed using the Delta-V mass spectrometer with options of a gas bench and element analyser. The soils we studied are mainly Kastanozems that are poorly moisturized; therefore, soil pore water was extracted by ethanol. Minor and major elements content was also measured by ICP-MS. Carbonates mostly contain calcuim (37-45%) and highly enriched in Pb, Tl and Ba. Oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonates was analyzed in 3 key sites. Kazanovka Khakass state national reserve, Hankul salt lake, region of Sayanogorsk aluminum smelter. Vegetation photosynthetic pathway in the region is mainly C3. δ18O values of carbonate coatings in soils of Kazanovka vary in a range from -7.49 to -10.5‰ (vs V-PDB). The lowest values corresponds the coatings found between two buried mid-Holocene soil horizons. That may indicate cooler conditions of late Holocene than nowadays. In Sayanogorsk carbonates' δ18O values' range is -8.3...-11.1‰ and near the Hankul Lake is -9.0...-10.2‰ all ranges are quite similar and may indicate close conditions of pendants formation. δ13C values of carbonate coatings in Kazanovka vary from -2.5 to -6.7‰, the highest values correspond to the soils of Askiz and Syglygkug

  15. Carbon, nitrogen, magnesium, silicon, and titanium isotopic compositions of single interstellar silicon carbide grains from the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Peter; Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst; Ireland, Trevor; Lewis, Roy S.

    1994-01-01

    Seven hundred and twenty SiC grains from the Murchison CM2 chondrite, ranging in size from 1 to 10 micrometers, were analyzed by ion microprobe mass spectrometry for their C-isotopic compositions. Subsets of the grains were also analyzed for N (450 grains), Si (183 grains), Mg (179 grains), and Ti (28 grains) isotopes. These results are compared with previous measurements on 41 larger SiC grains (up to 15 x 26 micrometers) from a different sample of Murchison analyzed by Virag et al. (1992) and Ireland, Zinner, & Amari (1991a). All grains of the present study are isotopically anomalous with C-12/C-13 ratios ranging from 0.022 to 28.4 x solar, N-14/N-15 ratios from 0.046 to 30 x solar, Si-29/Si-28 from 0.54 to 1.20 x solar, Si-30/Si-28 from 0.42 to 1.14 x solar, Ti-49/Ti-48 from 0.96 to 1.95 x solar, and Ti-50/Ti-48 from 0.94 to 1.39 x solar. Many grains have large Mg-26 excesses from the decay of Al-26 with inferred Al-26/Al-27 ratios ranging up to 0.61, or 12,200 x the ratio of 5 x 10(exp -5) inferred for the early solar system. Several groups can be distinguished among the SiC grains. Most of the grains have C-13 and N-14 excesses, and their Si isotopic compositions (mostly excesses in Si-29 and Si-30) plot close to a slope 1.34 line on a Delta Si-29/Si-28 versus Delta Si-30/Si-28 three-isotope plot. Grains with small C-12/C-13 ratios (less than 10) tend to have smaller or no N-14 excesses and high Al-26/Al-27 ratios (up to 0.01). Grains with C-12/C-13 greater than 150 fall into two groups: grains X have N-15 excesses and Si-29 and Si-30 deficits and the highest (0.1 to 0.6) Al-26/Al-27 ratios; grains Y have N-14 excesses and plot on a slope 0.35 line on a Si three-isotope plot. In addition, large SiC grains of the Virag et al. (1992) study fall into three-distinct clusters according to their C-, Si-, and Ti-isotopic compositions. The isotopic diversity of the grains and the clustering of their isotopic compositions imply distinct and multiple stellar sources

  16. Atmospheric CO2 effect on stable carbon isotope composition of terrestrial fossil archives.

    PubMed

    Hare, Vincent J; Loftus, Emma; Jeffrey, Amy; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk

    2018-01-17

    The 13 C/ 12 C ratio of C 3 plant matter is thought to be controlled by the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO 2 and stomatal response to environmental conditions, particularly mean annual precipitation (MAP). The effect of CO 2 concentration on 13 C/ 12 C ratios is currently debated, yet crucial to reconstructing ancient environments and quantifying the carbon cycle. Here we compare high-resolution ice core measurements of atmospheric CO 2 with fossil plant and faunal isotope records. We show the effect of pCO 2 during the last deglaciation is stronger for gymnosperms (-1.4 ± 1.2‰) than angiosperms/fauna (-0.5 ± 1.5‰), while the contributions from changing MAP are -0.3 ± 0.6‰ and -0.4 ± 0.4‰, respectively. Previous studies have assumed that plant 13 C/ 12 C ratios are mostly determined by MAP, an assumption which is sometimes incorrect in geological time. Atmospheric effects must be taken into account when interpreting terrestrial stable carbon isotopes, with important implications for past environments and climates, and understanding plant responses to climate change.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of alkyl porphyrins from the Triassic Serpiano oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicarelli, M. I.; Hayes, J. M.; Popp, B. N.; Eckardt, C. B.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    The carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of seven of the most abundant alkylporphyrins from the Serpiano oil shale (marine, Triassic) were determined. For the C31 and C32 butanoporphyrins, values of delta 13CPDB and delta 15NAIR averaged -24.0% and -3.1%. In contrast, the C31 and C32 methylpropanoporphyrins, DPEP, and a C30 13-nor etioporphyrin had delta 13C and delta 15N values averaging -27.5 and -3.3%, respectively. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic values for kerogen averaged -30.8 and -0.9, whereas those for total extract averaged -31.6, and -4.0%. The butanoporphyrins apparently derive from a biological source different from that giving rise to the other porphyrins, their 13C enrichment not being related to carbon isotopic fractionation accompanying diagenetic reactions. The delta 15N values for all the porphyrins indicate that the depletion of 15N observed in the kerogen is of primary origin. Consistent with the very high abundance of hopanoids and methyl hopanoids in the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction, it is suggested that cyanobacterial fixation of N2 may have been the main cause of 15N depletion.

  18. The impact of Tibet and the Andes on the climate and isotopic composition of precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisti, D. S.; Ding, Q.; Liu, X.; Roe, G.

    2012-12-01

    We summarize modeling and theoretical evidence for the impact of the high topography in Tibet and the Andes on the climate and the isotopic (δ18O) composition of precipitation, regionally and globally. Tibet controls the seasonal cycle of precipitation over eastern China, mainly via dynamical processes, and has little to no impact on the Indian and southeast Asian monsoons. Tibet is also responsible for the northwesterly winds and extraordinary cold winters in northern China, and contributes to the mid-winter suppression of storminess in the western and central Pacific. The Andes greatly shape the climatological precipitation over South America, and are an important contributor to the annual cycle in sea surface temperature, precipitation and atmospheric circulation throughout the eastern half of the tropical Pacific. We have performed a series of numerical experiments with the isotope-enabled ECHAM 4.6 atmospheric general circulation model to illuminate the impact of the Andes and Tibet on the regional distribution of oxygen isotopes in precipitation. Experiments to be discussed include a world without an elevated Andes circa 12 million years BP, and a series of experiments that prescribed a plausible evolution of the continental geometry and topography for the past 50 million years in and around the Indian Ocean basin. In the latter case, additional idealized experiments are performed to illuminate the separate impacts of topography and continental configuration.

  19. Chlorine isotopic composition of perchlorate in human urine as a means of distinguishing among exposure sources.

    PubMed

    Poghosyan, Armen; Morel-Espinosa, Maria; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Blount, Benjamin C; Ferreccio, Catterina; Steinmaus, Craig M; Sturchio, Neil C

    2016-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4(-)) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant with high human exposure potential. Natural perchlorate forms in the atmosphere from where it deposits onto the surface of Earth, whereas synthetic perchlorate is manufactured as an oxidant for industrial, aerospace, and military applications. Perchlorate exposure can potentially cause adverse health effects in humans by interfering with the production of thyroid hormones through competitively blocking iodide uptake. To control and reduce perchlorate exposure, the contributions of different sources of perchlorate exposure need to be quantified. Thus, we demonstrate a novel approach for determining the contribution of different perchlorate exposure sources by quantifying stable and radioactive chlorine isotopes of perchlorate extracted from composite urine samples from two distinct populations: one in Atlanta, USA and one in Taltal, Chile (Atacama region). Urinary perchlorate from the Atlanta region resembles indigenous natural perchlorate from the western USA (δ(37)Cl=+4.1±1.0‰; (36)Cl/Cl=1 811 (±136) × 10(-15)), and urinary perchlorate from the Taltal, Chile region is similar to natural perchlorate in nitrate salt deposits from the Atacama Desert of northern Chile (δ(37)Cl=-11.0±1.0‰; (36)Cl/Cl=254 (±40) × 10(-15)). Neither urinary perchlorate resembled the isotopic pattern found in synthetic perchlorate. These results indicate that natural perchlorate of regional provenance is the dominant exposure source for the two sample populations, and that chlorine isotope ratios provide a robust tool for elucidating perchlorate exposure pathways.

  20. Characterizing the oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate sources to aquatic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, M.B.; McLaughlin, K.; Kendall, C.; Stringfellow, W.; Rollog, M.; Elsbury, K.; Donald, E.; Paytan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic phosphate (δ18Op) in many aquatic ecosystems is not in isotopic equilibrium with ambient water and, therefore, may reflect the source δ18Op. Identification of phosphate sources to water bodies is critical for designing best management practices for phosphate load reduction to control eutrophication. In order for δ18O p to be a useful tool for source tracking, the δ18Op of phosphate sources must be distinguishable from one another; however, the δ18Op of potential sources has not been well characterized. We measured the δ18O p of a variety of known phosphate sources, including fertilizers, semiprocessed phosphorite ore, particulate aerosols, detergents, leachates of vegetation, soil, animal feces, and wastewater treatment plant effluent. We found a considerable range of δ18Op values (from +8.4 to +24.9‰) for the various sources, and statistically significant differences were found between several of the source types. δ18Op measured in three different fresh water systems was generally not in equilibrium with ambient water. Although there is overlap in δ18Op values among the groups of samples, our results indicate that some sources are isotopically distinct and δ18Op can be used for identifying phosphate sources to aquatic systems.

  1. Isotopic composition of low-latitude paleoprecipitation during the Early Cretaceous

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suarez, M.B.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Vega, F.J.; Alvarado-Ortega, J.

    2009-01-01

    The response of the hydrologic cycle in global greenhouse conditions is important to our understanding of future climate change and to the calibration of global climate models. Past greenhouse conditions, such as those of the Cretaceous, can be used to provide empirical data with which to evaluate climate models. Recent empirical studies have utilized pedogenic carbonates to estimate the isotopic composition of meteoric waters and calculate precipitation rates for the AptianAlbian. These studies were limited to data from mid(35??N) to high (75??N) paleolatitudes, and thus future improvements in accuracy will require more estimates of meteoric water compositions from numerous localities around the globe. This study provides data for tropical latitudes (18.5??N paleolatitude) from the Tlayua Formation, Puebla, Mexico. In addition, the study confirms a shallow nearshore depositional environment for the Tlayua Formation. Petrographic observations of fenestral fabrics, gypsum crystal molds, stromatolitic structures, and pedogenic matrix birefringence fabric support the interpretation that the strata represent deposition in a tidal flat environment. Carbonate isotopic data from limestones of the Tlayua Formation provide evidence of early meteoric diagenesis in the form of meteoric calcite lines. These trends in ??18O versus ??13C were used to calculate the mean ??18O value of meteoric water, which is estimated at -5.46 ?? 0.56??? (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water [VSMOW]). Positive linear covariant trends in oxygen and carbon isotopic values from some horizons were used to estimate evaporative losses of vadose groundwater from tropical exposure surfaces during the Albian, and the resulting values range from 8% to 12%. However, the presence of evaporative mineral molds indicates more extensive evaporation. The added tropical data improve latitudinal coverage of paleoprecipitation ??18O estimates. The data presented here imply that earlier isotope mass balance models most

  2. Altitude effect on leaf wax carbon isotopic composition in humid tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mong Sin; Feakins, Sarah J.; Martin, Roberta E.; Shenkin, Alexander; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Blonder, Benjamin; Salinas, Norma; Asner, Gregory P.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2017-06-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of plant leaf wax biomarkers is commonly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. Adding to the limited calibration information available for modern tropical forests, we analyzed plant leaf and leaf wax carbon isotopic compositions in forest canopy trees across a highly biodiverse, 3.3 km elevation gradient on the eastern flank of the Andes Mountains. We sampled the dominant tree species and assessed their relative abundance in each tree community. In total, 405 sunlit canopy leaves were sampled across 129 species and nine forest plots along the elevation profile for bulk leaf and leaf wax n-alkane (C27-C33) concentration and carbon isotopic analyses (δ13C); a subset (76 individuals, 29 species, five forest plots) were additionally analyzed for n-alkanoic acid (C22-C32) concentrations and δ13C. δ13C values display trends of +0.87 ± 0.16‰ km-1 (95% CI, r2 = 0.96, p < 0.01) for bulk leaves and +1.45 ± 0.33‰ km-1 (95% CI, r2 = 0.94, p < 0.01) for C29n-alkane, the dominant chain length. These carbon isotopic gradients are defined in multi-species sample sets and corroborated in a widespread genus and several families, suggesting the biochemical response to environment is robust to taxonomic turnover. We calculate fractionations and compare to adiabatic gradients, environmental variables, leaf wax n-alkane concentrations, and sun/shade position to assess factors influencing foliar chemical response. For the 4 km forested elevation range of the Andes, 4-6‰ higher δ13C values are expected for upland versus lowland C3 plant bulk leaves and their n-alkyl lipids, and we expect this pattern to be a systematic feature of very wet tropical montane environments. This elevation dependency of δ13C values should inform interpretations of sedimentary archives, as 13C-enriched values may derive from C4 grasses, petrogenic inputs or upland C3 plants. Finally, we outline the potential for leaf wax carbon isotopes to trace biomarker

  3. Hf isotope compositions In detrital zircons as a new tool for provenance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Y. J.; Münker, C.; Mezger, K.

    2003-04-01

    Identifying the provenance of continental sediments is a major issue in palaeo-tectonic studies, providing important information for paleogeographic reconstructions. Isotope studies, e.g. those of whole rock Sm-Nd or detrital zircon U-Pb dating, have widely been used for this purpose. Here we assess the potential of combined Lu-Hf data and U-Pb ages determined on the same single detrital zircons as a new tool for provenance studies. Due to the low Lu/Hf ratios in zircons the Hf isotope composition of a zircon changes insignificantly after its crystallization. Thus each particular grain preserves information on the Hf-siotpe composition of its source and the age of this source. Provided that both the U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope systems have not been disturbed, this information can be used to constrain the sources of each individual zircon. In order to demonstrate the capability of Hf isotope studies on detrital zircons for provenance studies, we obtained combined U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotope data for zircons from the Cambrian Junction Formation in New Zealand. The Junction Formation was deposited on the (present) SE margin of Gondwana near the Australian continent and consists of turbidites, siltstones and conglomerates [1]. Typical continent derived Paleozoic sediments in SE Gondwana generally show characteristic age maxima at 500-600 Ma, 1000-1200 Ma (Grenvillian) and additional older peaks (early Proterozoic to Archean) [2]. We focused on two groups of detrital zircons with Grenvillian and Proterozoic to Late Archean ages. The initial ɛHf values for these zircons range from 0.7 to -15.5 for the Grenvillian and from -5.2 to -14.1 for the Proterozoic/Archean zircons. Corresponding two stage Hf model ages range from ca. 1500 to 2500 Ma for the Grenvillian and from ca. 3200 to 3600 Ma for the Proterozoic/Archean zircons. Furthermore it can be shown that the Grenvillian zircons must have been derived from recycled Grenvillian provinces. Comparison of these Hf model ages

  4. Characterisation of methane isotope composition over the Silesian Coal Basin, Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necki, Jaroslaw; Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Jasek, Alina; Chmura, Lukasz; Galkowski, Michal; Wolkowicz, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Methane emissions from Silesian Coal Basin (SCB), one of European regions associated with coal excavation industry constitute an important component of the continental anthropogenic flux of this gas into the atmosphere. It is estimated by different methodology that SCB is responsible for between 450 - 1350 Gg CH4 of atmospheric methane releases annually, making it one of the most significant sources of this gas in Europe. In this region, active or restructuring coal mining methane emissions may lead to elevated concentrations of this gas in near-ground atmosphere. Observed methane mixing ratio in pbl during nighttime over the specific areas of SCB is elevated by up to 50ppm with carbon isotope source ratio -46‰ to -52‰ with occasionally lighter methane (-58) form particular coal beds. Numbers were derived from direct measurement of samples taken from ventilation shafts (concentration 1.5% to 4% of CH4, subsequently diluted to 2ppm with zero air and measured by Picarro CRDS analyzer). Measurements of CH4 mixing ratios and isotopic composition were performed along latitudinal transects (ca. 50oN), typically extending from ca. 15oE to 20oE, covering the Upper Silesia and bordering regions on the public roads in vicinity of the mine ventilation shafts. Apart from CH4 emissions associated with coal production, other sources of anthropogenic methane are also active over SCB. These include city gas networks leakages that enrich the air by up to 5ppm (in the city centers, carbon isotope ratio on average -52). Most of the numerous landfills, not yet equipped with appropriate CH4 uptake installations, also contribute to substantial anthropogenic flux of this gas to the atmosphere. Values of methane mixing ratio recorded during the in-situ measurements close to the landfill sites reached 15ppm (with carbon isotope ratio -56‰ to -60). The transects of methane concentration over Silesian area, assisted by analysis of its stable isotopic composition has been performed in

  5. Historical variations in the stable isotope composition of mercury in Arctic lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Togwell A; Muir, Derek C G; Vincent, Warwick F

    2004-05-15

    The stable isotope composition of mercury (Hg) in a dated core from the anoxic zone of a saline, meromictic Arctic lake was found to vary as a complex function of the age and chemical composition of the sediment. Throughout the stratigraphic sequence, which spans the years 1899-1997, the ratios 198Hg/202Hg, 199Hg/202Hg, 200Hg/202Hg, 201Hg/202Hg, and 204Hg/202Hg expressed as delta-values (per mil deviations relative to a standard) reveal enrichment in 198Hg, 199Hg, 200Hg, and 201Hg, with depletion in 204Hg, the degree of enrichment varying inversely with atomic mass. A plot of delta198Hg, delta199Hg, delta200Hg, and delta201Hg against depth gave parallel profiles characterized by large, regular undulations superimposed on an overall trend toward increase with depth (i.e. age), and the delta204Hg profile is a mirror image of them. The delta198Hg, delta199Hg, delta200Hg, and delta201Hg values of the oldest (1899-1929) strata vary inversely with NH2OH.HCl/HNO3-extractable manganese concentration, but those of the youngest (1963-1997) strata give a positive correlation; intermediate (1936-1956) strata show no correlation and negligible variation in delta-values, possibly signifying a transition phase in which the two opposite trends offset each other. The delta-values show similar but weaker relationships with organic carbon. The results strongly suggest fractionation of Hg isotopes by microbial activities linked to oxidation-reduction reactions in the lake, although effects of isotopic signatures indicative of the sources of the Hg have not been ruled out. The radical change in the nature of the relationship between 6-values and sediment chemistry over time may reflect environmental and biotic changes that altered the isotope-fractionating processes. These findings imply that variations in the isotopic makeup of Hg, together with related physical, chemical, and biological data, could yield important new information about the biogeochemical cycle of Hg.

  6. Characterizing agricultural soil nitrous acid (HONO) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions with their nitrogen isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, J.; Miller, D. J.; Guo, F.; Dell, C. J.; Karsten, H.; Hastings, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is a major source of atmospheric hydroxyl radical (OH), which greatly impacts air quality and climate. Fertilized soils may be important sources of HONO in addition to nitric oxide (NO). However, soil HONO emissions are especially challenging to quantify due to huge spatial and temporal variation as well as unknown HONO chemistry. With no in-situ measurements available, soil HONO emissions are highly uncertain. Isotopic analysis of HONO may provide a tool for tracking these sources. We characterize in situ soil HONO and NO fluxes and their nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) across manure management and meteorological conditions during a sustainable dairy cropping study in State College, Pennsylvania. HONO and NO were simultaneously collected at hourly resolution from a custom-coated dynamic soil flux chamber ( 3 LPM) using annular denuder system (ADS) coupled with an alkaline-permanganate NOx collection system for offline