Science.gov

Sample records for zinc lead mercury

  1. Mercury dispersion in soils of an abandoned lead-zinc-silver mine, San Quintín (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esbrí, José Maria; Martín-Crespo, T.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.; Monescillo, C. I.; Lorenzo, S.; Higueras, P.

    2010-05-01

    The mine considered on this work, namely San Quintín, is a filonian field with hydrothermal ores exploited during almost fifty years (1887-1934), producing 550.000Tm of galena, 550Tm of silver and 5.000 of sphalerite. Some rewashing works of tailings muds was achieved in recent times (1973-1985), including flotation tests of cinnabar ore from Almadén mines. The main problems remaining on the site are an active acid mine drainage (with pH ~ 2) and heavy metal dispersion on soils including gaseous mercury emissions. We present here results of a survey including soils sampling with mercury analysis and other pedological parameters, as well as determinations of mercury inmission in the atmosphere, using a common sampling grid. Analysis of soils samples has been carried out using an atomic absorption spectrometer AMA254, while air determinations were made by the same technique, using a Lumex RA-915+. The maps have been obtained by means of SURFER 8 software, as well as by ArcGIS software, and puts forward dispersion of mercury from cinnabar ore dump (108 ?g×g-1) to nearby soils (0.3 ?g×g-1 at 700 m of distance). The dispersion of mercury vapor exceed WHO level for chronic exposure (200 ng×m-3) in a small area (250 meters from cinnabar dump).

  2. Mercury isotope constraints on the source for sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits in the Changdu area, southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chunxia; Yin, Runsheng; Peng, Jiantang; Hurley, James P.; Lepak, Ryan F.; Gao, Jianfeng; Feng, Xinbin; Hu, Ruizhong; Bi, Xianwu

    2018-03-01

    The Lanuoma and Cuona sediment-hosted Pb-Zn deposits hosted by Upper Triassic limestone and sandstone, respectively, are located in the Changdu area, SW China. Mercury concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions from sulfide minerals and potential source rocks (e.g., the host sedimentary rocks and the metamorphic basement) were investigated to constrain metal sources and mineralization processes. In both deposits, sulfide minerals have higher mercury (Hg) concentrations (0.35 to 1185 ppm) than the metamorphic basement rocks (0.05 to 0.15 ppm) and sedimentary rocks (0.02 to 0.08 ppm). Large variations of mass-dependent fractionation (3.3‰ in δ202Hg) and mass-independent fractionation (0.3‰ in Δ199Hg) of Hg isotopes were observed. Sulfide minerals have Hg isotope signatures that are similar to the hydrothermal altered rocks around the deposit, and similar to the metamorphic basement, but different from barren sedimentary rocks. The variation of Δ199Hg suggests that Hg in sulfides was mainly derived from the underlying metamorphic basement. Mercury isotopes could be a geochemical tracer in understanding metal sources in hydrothermal ore deposits.

  3. Mercury removal from aqueous solutions by zinc cementation.

    PubMed

    Ku, Young; Wu, Ming-Huan; Shen, Yung-Shen

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to study the addition effect of the surfactant and other operating factors on the treatment of wastewater containing mercury ions in aqueous solution by cementation with sacrificing metal, zinc. The removal of mercury ions from aqueous solutions by cementation of zinc powder was found to be a function of solution pH and temperature, amount of zinc, concentration of mercury ion, contact time and the addition of several organic surfactants. Cementation of mercury was shown to be a feasible process to achieve a very high degree of mercury removal over a broad operational range within a fairly reasonable contact time. The reaction rate is approximately first order with respect to the concentration of mercury ion in aqueous solution. Among the surfactants used in this study, only the presence of SDS, an anionic surfactant, slightly enhanced the cementation rate of mercury. The presence of CTAB and Triton-X100 retarded the cementation of mercury by zinc.

  4. Simultaneous Automatic Electrochemical Detection of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Lead Ions in Environmental Samples Using a Thin-Film Mercury Electrode and an Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Kudr, Jiri; Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Gumulec, Jaromir; Nejdl, Lukas; Blazkova, Iva; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ion quantification, while Zn(II) did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME) were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933). PMID:25558996

  5. Recent trends and current practices for secondary processing of zinc and lead. Part II: zinc recovery from secondary sources.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Kamala Kanta; Agrawal, Archana; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2004-08-01

    Almost all metallurgical processes are associated with the generation of wastes and residues that may be hazardous or non-hazardous in nature depending upon the criteria specified by institutions such as the US Environment Protection Agency, etc. Wastes containing heavy and toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, copper, mercury, zinc, etc., that are present beyond permissible limits deemed to be treated or disposed of, and non-hazardous wastes can be utilized for metal recovery or safe disposal. Zinc is in growing demand all over the world. In India, a major amount of zinc is imported and therefore processing of zinc secondaries will assist in satisfying the gap between demand and supply to some extent. This report mainly focuses on the current practices and recent trends on the secondary processing of zinc. Attempts made by various laboratories to develop ecofriendly processes for the recovery of zinc from secondary raw materials are also described and discussed.

  6. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries.

    PubMed

    Recknagel, Sebastian; Radant, Hendrik; Kohlmeyer, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline-manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc-carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lead and zinc intoxication in companion birds.

    PubMed

    Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    Although the toxicity of lead and zinc to birds is widely recognized by veterinarians and bird owners, these metals are frequently found in the environments of pet and aviary birds, and intoxications are common. Clinical signs exhibited by intoxicated birds are often nonspecific, which makes early diagnosis difficult. Fortunately, lead and zinc analyses of whole blood and serum or plasma, respectively, are readily available and inexpensive; elevated concentrations can confirm intoxication. Once diagnosed, intoxication can be effectively treated by (1) preventing further exposure, (2) administering chelating drugs, and (3) providing symptomatic and supportive care.

  8. Zinc halogen battery electrolyte composition with lead additive

    DOEpatents

    Henriksen, Gary L.

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a zinc halogen battery electrolyte composition containing an additive providing improved zinc-on-zinc recyclability. The improved electrolyte composition involves the use of a lead additive to inhibit undesirable irregular plating and reduce nodular or dendritic growth on the electrode surface. The lead-containing electrolyte composition of the present invention appears to influence not only the morphology of the base plate zinc, but also the morphology of the zinc-on-zinc replate. In addition, such lead-containing electrolyte compositions appear to reduce hydrogen formation.

  9. Electronic characterization of defects in narrow gap semiconductors: Comparison of electronic energy levels and formation energies in mercury cadmium telluride, mercury zinc telluride, and mercury zinc selenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James D.; Li, Wei-Gang

    1995-01-01

    The project has evolved to that of using Green's functions to predict properties of deep defects in narrow gap materials. Deep defects are now defined as originating from short range potentials and are often located near the middle of the energy gap. They are important because they affect the lifetime of charge carriers and hence the switching time of transistors. We are now moving into the arena of predicting formation energies of deep defects. This will also allow us to make predictions about the relative concentrations of the defects that could be expected at a given temperature. The narrow gap materials mercury cadmium telluride (MCT), mercury zinc telluride (MZT), and mercury zinc selenide (MZS) are of interest to NASA because they have commercial value for infrared detecting materials, and because there is a good possibility that they can be grown better in a microgravity environment. The uniform growth of these crystals on earth is difficult because of convection (caused by solute depletion just ahead of the growing interface, and also due to thermal gradients). In general it is very difficult to grow crystals with both radial and axial homogeneity.

  10. Possible role of zinc in diminishing lead-related occupational stress-a zinc nutrition concern.

    PubMed

    Wani, Ab Latif; Ahmad, Ajaz; Shadab, G G H A; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Lead and zinc are mostly present at the same occupational source and usually found as co-contaminants. Lead is known to associate with detrimental effects to humans. Zinc however is an essential nutrient and its deficiency causes debilitating effects on growth and development. Besides, it acts as core ion of important enzymes and proteins. The purpose of this study was to examine if zinc concentrations are associated with blood lead levels and if zinc may prevent lead-induced DNA damage. Blood samples were collected from 92 workers as participants occupationally exposed to lead or lead and zinc and 38 comparison participants having no history of such exposure. Lead and zinc levels were determined from blood by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and genetic damage was assessed by comet assay. Correlation was calculated by Spearman's rho. Lead concentrations were observed to increase among workers with increase in years of exposure. There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) in blood lead levels between workers and controls. In addition, significant difference (p < 0.001) in the genetic damage was observed among workers and controls. A clear effect of increased occupational exposure was visible among workers. Multiple regression analysis further reveals the positive effect of lead, while as the inverse effect of zinc on DNA damage. The results suggest that zinc may influence body lead absorption and may have a role in preventing the genetic damage caused by lead.

  11. Electronic Characterization of Defects in Narrow Gap Semiconductors-Comparison of Electronic Energy Levels and Formation Energies in Mercury Cadmium Telluride, Mercury Zinc Telluride, and Mercury Zinc Selenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James D.

    1996-01-01

    We have used a Green's function technique to calculate the energy levels and formation energy of deep defects in the narrow gap semiconductors mercury cadmium telluride (MCT), mercury zinc telluride (MZT) and mercury zinc selenide (MZS). The formation energy is calculated from the difference between the total energy with an impurity cluster and the total energy for the perfect crystal. Substitutional (including antisite), interstitial (self and foreign), and vacancy deep defects are considered. Relaxation effects are calculated (with molecular dynamics). By use of a pseudopotential, we generalize the ideal vacancy model so as to be able to consider relaxation for vacancies. Different charge states are considered and the charged state energy shift (as computed by a modified Haldane-Anderson model) can be twice that due to relaxation. Different charged states for vacancies were not calculated to have much effect on the formation energy. For all cases we find deep defects in the energy gap only for cation site s-like orbitals or anion site p-like orbitals, and for the substitutional case only the latter are appreciably effected by relaxation. For most cases for MCT, MZT, MZS, we consider x (the concentration of Cd or Zn) in the range appropriate for a band gap of 0.1 eV. For defect energy levels, the absolute accuracy of our results is limited, but the precision is good, and hence chemical trends are accurately predicted. For the same reason, defect formation energies are more accurately predicted than energy level position. We attempt, in Appendix B, to calculate vacancy formation energies using relatively simple chemical bonding ideas due to Harrison. However, these results are only marginally accurate for estimating vacancy binding energies. Appendix C lists all written reports and publications produced for the grant. We include abstracts and a complete paper that summarizes our work which is not yet available.

  12. LEAD AND MERCURY EACH AS PRIME MATTER IN ALCHEMY

    PubMed Central

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1988-01-01

    Prime Matter is matter-cum-energy. The first substance identified as such was lead. When gently heated it becomes red and redness means soul or energy so that lead was potentially red or soul-like and as such dual natured. Mercury also becomes red and can return to white metal. It was thus dual natured and was the second substance recognized as Prime Matter. First lead alone and then lead and mercury were considered as the source of all metals. PMID:22557603

  13. [Mercury pollution in cricket in different biotopes suffering from pollution by zinc smelting].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dong-Mei; Li, Xin-Xin; Luo, Qing

    2012-10-01

    Total mercury contents in cricket bodies were studied in different biotopes in the surrounding of Huludao Zinc Plant to discuss the mercury distribution characteristics in cricket and to reveal the effects of environmental mercury accumulation in the short life-cycle insects through comparing cricket with other insect species. The average mercury content in cricket was 0.081 mg x kg(-1) and much higher than those in the control sites (0.012 mg x kg(-1) in average) in different biotopes. Mercury contents were found in the order of cricket head > wing > thorax approximately abdomen > leg. Mercury contents in cricket bodies varied greatly with sample sites. Significant correlation was found between the mercury contents in cricket and the distance from the pollution source as well as the mercury contents in plant stems. No significant correlation was found between the mercury contents in soil and in cricket bodies. Mercury contents in cricket were lower than those in cicadae, similar to those in other insects with shorter life-cycle periods.

  14. [Evaluation and source analysis of the mercury pollution in soils and vegetables around a large-scale zinc smelting plant].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Shu-Xiao; Wu, Qing-Ru; Lin, Hai

    2013-02-01

    The farming soil and vegetable samples around a large-scale zinc smelter were collected for mercury content analyses, and the single pollution index method with relevant regulations was used to evaluate the pollution status of sampled soils and vegetables. The results indicated that the surface soil and vegetables were polluted with mercury to different extent. Of the soil samples, 78% exceeded the national standard. The mercury concentration in the most severely contaminated area was 29 times higher than the background concentration, reaching the severe pollution degree. The mercury concentration in all vegetable samples exceeded the standard of non-pollution vegetables. Mercury concentration, in the most severely polluted vegetables were 64.5 times of the standard, and averagely the mercury concentration in the vegetable samples was 25.4 times of the standard. For 85% of the vegetable samples, the mercury concentration, of leaves were significantly higher than that of roots, which implies that the mercury in leaves mainly came from the atmosphere. The mercury concentrations in vegetable roots were significantly correlated with that in soils, indicating the mercury in roots was mainly from soil. The mercury emissions from the zinc smelter have obvious impacts on the surrounding soils and vegetables. Key words:zinc smelting; mercury pollution; soil; vegetable; mercury content

  15. Remediation of arsenic and lead with nanocrystalline zinc sulfide.

    PubMed

    Piquette, Alan; Cannon, Cody; Apblett, Allen W

    2012-07-27

    Nanocrystalline (1.7 ± 0.3 nm) zinc sulfide with a specific surface area up to 360 m(2) g(-1) was prepared from the thermal decomposition of a single-source precursor, zinc ethylxanthate. Zinc ethylxanthate decomposes to cubic zinc sulfide upon exposure to temperatures greater than or equal to 125 °C. The resulting zinc sulfide was tested as a water impurity extractant. The target impurities used in this study were As(5+), As(3+), and Pb(2+). The reaction of the nanocrystalline ZnS with Pb(2+) proceeds as a replacement reaction where solid PbS is formed and Zn(2+) is released into the aqueous system. Removal of lead to a level of less than two parts per billion is achievable. The results of a detailed kinetics experiment between the ZnS and Pb(2+) are included in this study. Unlike the instance of lead, both As(5+) and As(3+) adsorb on the surface of the ZnS extractant as opposed to an ion-exchange process. An uptake capacity of > 25 mg g(-1) for the removal of As(5+) is possible. The uptake of As(3+) appears to proceed by a slower process than that of the As(5+) with a capacity of nearly 20 mg g(-1). The nanocrystalline zinc sulfide was extremely successful for the removal of arsenic and lead from simulated oil sand tailing pond water.

  16. Histochemical detection of lead and zinc in plant tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, G.; Temple, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Histochemical studies on uptake and localization of lead and zinc in plant tissues were carried out. A histochemical stain technique was developed to differentiate zinc from lead. Lead was detected in plant tissues by soaking fresh plant materials in freshly prepared sodium rhodizonate stain (0.2% Na rhodizonate acidified to pH3 with glacial acetic acid). Samples were evacuated 5 min and soaked for 30 min before embedding in the congealed stain, then sectioned with a cryostat and examined under a light microscope. Lead particles in plant tissues were stained scarlet-red. Gelatinous, proteinaceous or saccharic embedding materials normally used to prepare plantmore » sampled for sectioning in the cryostat interfered with the color reaction. Sectioning plant samples without staining whole tissues resulted in a weakened response to the stain. Color of stained sample materials were retained for several months if stored in a frozen condition. This technique was used to detect lead both inside and on the surface of plant samples collected in the vicinity of highway and industrial lead sources and to trace the pathways of lead uptake from the air or from contaminated soils. A sodium rhodizonate technique was also developed to be specific for zinc in plant tissues. Plant samples were soaked in a neutral Na-rhodizonate in phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 for observation. The color of zinc developed to produce a purplish or reddish-brown color.« less

  17. LEAD AND COPPER CONTROL WITH NON-ZINC ORTHOPHOSPHATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful application of orthophosphate formulations not containing zinc for achieving control of copper and lead corrosion requires careful consideration of the background water chemistry, particularly pH and DIC. Inhibitor performance is extremely dependent upon dosage and pH,...

  18. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Recknagel, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.recknagel@bam.de; Radant, Hendrik; Kohlmeyer, Regina

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. • A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. • No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. • Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146more » different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline–manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc–carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels.« less

  19. Compatibility of structural materials with liquid bismuth, lead, and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.R.

    1996-06-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, a substantial program existed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of the Liquid Metal Fuel reactor program on the compatibility of bismuth, lead, and their alloys with structural materials. Subsequently, compatibility investigations of mercury with structural materials were performed in support of development of Rankine cycle mercury turbines for nuclear applications. The present talk will review present understanding of the corrosion/mass-transfer reactions of structural materials with these liquid metal coolants. Topics to be discussed include the basic solubility relationships of iron, chromium, nickel, and refractory metals in these liquid metals, the results of inhibition studies,more » the role of oxygen on the corrosion processes, and specialized topics such as cavitation-corrosion and liquid metal embrittlement. Emphasis will be placed on utilizing the understanding gained in this earlier work on the development of heavy liquid metal targets in spallation neutron sources.« less

  20. Pituitary gland levels of mercury, selenium, iron, and zinc in an Alzheimer`s disease study

    SciTech Connect

    Cornett, C.R.; Markesbery, W.R.; Wekstein, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Mercury, iron, selenium, and zinc imbalances have been observed in comparisons between Alzheimer`s disease (AD) and control subject brains. Analyses of the pituitary gland have demonstrated that this organ retains relatively high concentrations of trace elements, including mercury, iron, and zinc. Our previous work has shown that the pituitary glands of AD and control subjects are typically higher in these trace elements than brain samples from the same subject. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to compare the pituitary trace element levels of AD and control subjects. This study also describes the intrasubject relationships of brain trace element levelsmore » to those in the pituitary gland of AD and control subjects.« less

  1. Lead and zinc dust depositions from ore trains characterised using lead isotopic compositions.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, L J; Taylor, M P; Morrison, A L

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates an unusual source of environmental lead contamination - the emission and deposition of lead and zinc concentrates along train lines into and out of Australia's oldest silver-lead-zinc mine at Broken Hill, Australia. Transport of lead and zinc ore concentrates from the Broken Hill mines has occurred for more than 125 years, during which time the majority was moved in uncovered rail wagons. A significant amount of ore was lost to the adjoining environments, resulting in soil immediately adjacent to train lines elevated with concentrations of lead (695 mg kg(-1)) and zinc (2230 mg kg(-1)). Concentrations of lead and zinc decreased away from the train line and also with depth shown in soil profiles. Lead isotopic compositions demonstrated the soil lead contained Broken Hill ore in increasing percentages closer to the train line, with up to 97% apportioned to the mined Broken Hill ore body. SEM examination showed ceiling dusts collected from houses along the train line were composed of unweathered galena particles, characteristic of the concentrate transported in the rail wagons. The loss of ore from the uncovered wagons has significantly extended the environmental footprint of contamination from local mining operations over an area extending hundreds of kilometres along each of the three train lines.

  2. Immobilization of mercury and zinc in an alkali-activated slag matrix.

    PubMed

    Qian, Guangren; Sun, Darren Delai; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2003-07-04

    The behavior of heavy metals mercury and zinc immobilized in an alkali-activated slag (AAS) matrix has been evaluated using physical property tests, pore structure analysis and XRD, TG-DTG, FTIR and TCLP analysis. Low concentrations (0.5%) of mercury and zinc ions had only a slight affect on compressive strength, pore structure and hydration of AAS matrixes. The addition of 2% Hg ions to the AAS matrix resulted in a reduction in early compressive strength but no negative effects were noticed after 28 days of hydration. Meanwhile, 2% Hg ions can be effectively immobilized in the AAS matrix with the leachate meeting the USEPA TCLP mercury limit. For a 2% Zn-doped AAS matrix, the hydration of the AAS paste was greatly retarded and the zinc concentration in the leachate from this matrix was higher than 5mg/l even at 28 days. Based on these results, we conclude that the physical encapsulation and chemical fixation mechanisms were likely to be responsible for the immobilization of Hg ions in the AAS matrix while only chemical fixation mechanisms were responsible for the immobilization of Zn ions in the AAS matrix.

  3. Geochemistry, geochronology, mineralogy, and geology suggest sources of and controls on mineral systems in the southern Toquima Range, Nye County, Nevada; with geochemistry maps of gold, silver, mercury, arsenic, antimony, zinc, copper, lead, molybdenum, bismuth, iron, titanium, vanadium, cobalt, beryllium, boron, fluorine, and sulfur; and with a section on lead associations, mineralogy and paragenesis, and isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shawe, Daniel R.; Hoffman, James D.; Doe, Bruce R.; Foord, Eugene E.; Stein, Holly J.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Geochemistry maps showing the distribution and abundance of 18 elements in about 1,400 rock samples, both mineralized and unmineralized, from the southern Toquima Range, Nev., indicate major structural and lithologic controls on mineralization, and suggest sources of the elements. Radiometric age data, lead mineralogy and paragenesis data, and lead-isotope data supplement the geochemical and geologic data, providing further insight into timing, sources, and controls on mineralization. Major zones of mineralization are centered on structural margins of calderas and principal northwest-striking fault zones, as at Round Mountain, Manhattan, and Jefferson mining districts, and on intersections of low-angle and steep structures, as at Belmont mining district. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, mostly limestones (at Manhattan, Jefferson, and Belmont districts), and porous Oligocene ash-flow tuffs (at Round Mountain district) host the major deposits, although all rock types have been mineralized as evidenced by numerous prospects throughout the area. Principal mineral systems are gold-silver at Round Mountain where about 7 million ounces of gold and more than 4 million ounces of silver has been produced; gold at Gold Hill in the west part of the Manhattan district where about a half million ounces of gold has been produced; gold-mercury-arsenic-antimony in the east (White Caps) part of the Manhattan district where a few hundred thousand ounces of gold has been produced; and silver-lead-antimony at Belmont where more than 150,000 ounces of silver has been produced. Lesser amounts of gold and silver have been produced from the Jefferson district and from scattered mines elsewhere in the southern Toquima Range. A small amount of tungsten was produced from mines in the granite of the Round Mountain pluton exposed east of Round Mountain, and small amounts of arsenic, antimony, and mercury have been produced elsewhere in the southern Toquima Range. All elements show unique

  4. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for mining...

  5. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for mining...

  6. Correlations between lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in frozen tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, L.; Hardisson, A.; Montelongo, F.G.

    1986-04-01

    The presence of metallic pollutants in marine ecosystems has promoted wide research plans in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine organisms. However, little is known concerning environmental and physiological processes that regulate the concentration of trace metals in marine organisms. Even though the toxicity of lead and cadmium is well established, copper, zinc and iron are considered as essential elements for mammals. Little is known about heavy metals, other than mercury, concentrations in fresh and frozen tuna fish. Fifty samples obtained at the entrance of a canning factory in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), were analyzed by atomicmore » absorption spectrophotometry. Results were treated by applying the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences compiled and linked in the software of a Digital VAX/VMS 11/780 computer.« less

  7. Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilas, Faith (Editor); Chapman, Clark R. (Editor); Matthews, Mildred Shapley (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury.

  8. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at the...

  9. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at the...

  10. Influence of lead ions on the macromorphology of electrodeposited zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuda, Tetsuaki; Tobias, Charles W.

    1981-09-01

    The morphology of zinc as it is electrodeposited from acid solutions demonstrates a remarkable imprint of electrolyte flow conditions. The development of macromorphology of zinc deposits has been investigated under galvanostatic conditions on a rotating plantinum disk electrode by use of photomacrography, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and Auger microprobe analysis. Logarithmic spiral markings, which reflect the hydrodynamic flow on a rotating disk, appear in a certain region of current density well below the limiting current density. Morphological observations revealed the major influence of trace lead ions on the amplifications of surface roughness through coalescence and preferred growth ofmore » initial protrusions. Results obtained from ultra-pure electrolyte suggest preferred crystal growth towards well-mixed orientation in the concentration field caused by slight differences in crystallization overpotential. A qualitative model involving a coupling mechanism between the evolving surface roughness and instability phenomena in the boundary layer is advanced to explain the formation of spiral patterns.« less

  11. Release of iron, zinc, and lead from common iron construction bars and zinc metallic bars in water solutions and meals.

    PubMed

    Lechtig, Aarón; Lòpez de Romaña, Daniel; Boy, Erick; Vargas, Alejandro; Rosas del Portal, Mauricio; Huaylinos, María Luisa

    2007-12-01

    The use of iron pots has decreased the prevalence of anemia. To investigate the release of iron, zinc, and lead from metallic iron and zinc bars incubated in water and in meals. Iron, zinc, and lead concentrations were measured at different incubation conditions in water and in meals. The iron concentration in water was 1.26 mg/L after incubation with one iron bar at pH 7 and 100 degrees C for 20 minutes and in meals was 0.97 mg per 100 g of wet meals, rich in phytate, cooking at 100 degrees C during 20 minutes. The maximum contents were 7720 mg/L of iron and 1826 mg/L of zinc in vinegar at pH 3 and 20 degrees C after 90 and 32 days, respectively. Lead was released from the bars, but at concentrations well below the upper tolerable limits. In outreach populations, the use of iron and zinc metallic bars in water and meals could contribute to sustainable, very low-cost prevention of iron and zinc deficiencies, and home-fortified vinegar could be used for treatment of both deficiencies. Field trials should be performed to determine the impact that the use of iron and zinc metallic bars in water and meals might have on the iron and zinc status of population groups.

  12. Identification of sources of lead in children in a primary zinc-lead smelter environment.

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, Brian L; Mizon, Karen J; Davis, Jeff D; Palmer, Jacqueline M; Vimpani, Graham

    2004-01-01

    We compared high-precision lead isotopic ratios in deciduous teeth and environmental samples to evaluate sources of lead in 10 children from six houses in a primary zinc-lead smelter community at North Lake Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia. Teeth were sectioned to allow identification of lead exposure in utero and in early childhood. Blood lead levels in the children ranged from 10 to 42 micro g/dL and remained elevated for a number of years. For most children, only a small contribution to tooth lead can be attributed to gasoline and paint sources. In one child with a blood lead concentration of 19.7 microg/dL, paint could account for about 45% of lead in her blood. Comparison of isotopic ratios of tooth lead levels with those from vacuum cleaner dust, dust-fall accumulation, surface wipes, ceiling (attic) dust, and an estimation of the smelter emissions indicates that from approximately 55 to 100% of lead could be derived from the smelter. For a blood sample from another child, > 90% of lead could be derived from the smelter. We found varying amounts of in utero-derived lead in the teeth. Despite the contaminated environment and high blood lead concentrations in the children, the levels of lead in the teeth are surprisingly low compared with those measured in children from other lead mining and smelting communities. PMID:14698931

  13. Metal chelators and neurotoxicity: lead, mercury, and arsenic.

    PubMed

    Bjørklund, Geir; Mutter, Joachim; Aaseth, Jan

    2017-12-01

    This article reviews the clinical use of the metal chelators sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate (DMPS), meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and calcium disodium edetate (CaEDTA, calcium EDTA) in overexposure and poisonings with salts of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As). DMSA has considerably lower toxicity than the classic heavy metal antagonist BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) and is also less toxic than DMPS. Because of its adverse effects, CaEDTA should be replaced by DMSA as the antidote of choice in treating moderate Pb poisoning. Combination therapy with BAL and CaEDTA was previously recommended in cases of severe acute Pb poisoning with encephalopathy. We suggest that BAL in such cases acted as a shuttling Pb transporter from the intra- to the extracellular space. The present paper discusses if a combination of the extracellularly distributed DMSA with the ionophore, Monensin may provide a less toxic combination for Pb mobilization by increasing both the efflux of intracellularly deposited Pb and the urinary Pb excretion. Anyhow, oral therapy with DMSA should be continued with several intermittent courses. DMPS and DMSA are also promising antidotes in Hg poisoning, whereas DMPS seems to be a more efficient agent against As poisoning. However, new insight indicates that a combination of low-dosed BAL plus DMPS could be a preferred antidotal therapy to obtain mobilization of the intracerebral deposits into the circulation for subsequent rapid urinary excretion.

  14. Mississippi Valley-Type Lead-Zinc Deposit Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, David L.; Taylor, Ryan D.

    2009-01-01

    Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc (Pb+Zn) deposits are found throughout the world, and these deposits are characteristically distributed over hundreds of square kilometers that define individual ore districts. The median size of individual MVT deposits is 7.0 million tonnes with grades of about 7.9 percent Pb+Zn metal. However, MVT deposits usually occur in extensive districts consisting of several to as many as 400 deposits. Nearly one-quarter of the world's sedimentary and volcanic rock-hosted Pb+Zn resources are found in these deposits, with by-product commodities including silver (Ag), copper (Cu), and indium (In) for some deposits. Environmentally, MVT deposits are less of a concern than other types of mineral deposits since the carbonate-host rocks mitigate many environmental concerns.

  15. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21 Section 215.21 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw...

  16. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21 Section 215.21 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw...

  17. Removal of lead and zinc ions from water by low cost adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Mishra, P C; Patel, R K

    2009-08-30

    In this study, activated carbon, kaolin, bentonite, blast furnace slag and fly ash were used as adsorbent with a particle size between 100 mesh and 200 mesh to remove the lead and zinc ions from water. The concentration of the solutions prepared was in the range of 50-100 mg/L for lead and zinc for single and binary systems which are diluted as required for batch experiments. The effect of contact time, pH and adsorbent dosage on removal of lead and zinc by adsorption was investigated. The equilibrium time was found to be 30 min for activated carbon and 3h for kaolin, bentonite, blast furnace slag and fly ash. The most effective pH value for lead and zinc removal was 6 for activated carbon. pH value did not effect lead and zinc removal significantly for other adsorbents. Adsorbent doses were varied from 5 g/L to 20 g/L for both lead and zinc solutions. An increase in adsorbent doses increases the percent removal of lead and zinc. A series of isotherm studies was undertaken and the data evaluated for compliance was found to match with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. To investigate the adsorption mechanism, the kinetic models were tested, and it follows second order kinetics. Kinetic studies reveals that blast furnace slag was not effective for lead and zinc removal. The bentonite and fly ash were effective for lead and zinc removal.

  18. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead...

  19. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead...

  20. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead...

  1. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21 Section 215.21 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and...

  2. Copper and zinc content in wild game shot with lead or non-lead ammunition - implications for consumer health protection.

    PubMed

    Schlichting, Daniela; Sommerfeld, Christine; Müller-Graf, Christine; Selhorst, Thomas; Greiner, Matthias; Gerofke, Antje; Ulbig, Ellen; Gremse, Carl; Spolders, Markus; Schafft, Helmut; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contamination of game meat with copper and zinc and establish whether the use of alternative (non-lead) ammunition can lead to higher or unsafe levels of copper and zinc in the meat of roe deer, wild boar and red deer. The research project "Safety of game meat obtained through hunting" (LEMISI) was conducted in Germany with the purpose of examining the entry of lead as well as copper and zinc into the meat of hunted game when using either lead or non-lead ammunition. The outcome of this study shows that the usage of both lead-based ammunition and alternative non-lead ammunition results in the entry of copper and zinc into the edible parts of the game. Using non-lead ammunition does not entail dangerously elevated levels of copper and zinc, so replacing lead ammunition with alternative ammunition does not introduce a further health problem with regard to these metals. The levels of copper and zinc in game meat found in this study are in the range found in previous studies of game. The content of copper and zinc in game meat is also comparable to those regularly detected in meat and its products from livestock (pig, cattle, sheep) for which the mean human consumption rate is much higher. From the viewpoint of consumer health protection, the use of non-lead ammunition does not pose an additional hazard through copper and zinc contamination. A health risk due to the presence of copper and zinc in game meat at typical levels of consumer exposure is unlikely for both types of ammunition.

  3. An evaluation of airborne nickel, zinc, and lead exposure at hot dip galvanizing plants.

    PubMed

    Verma, D K; Shaw, D S

    1991-12-01

    Industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at three hot dip galvanizing plants to determine occupational exposure to nickel, zinc, and lead. All three plants employed the "dry process" and used 2% nickel, by weight, in their zinc baths. A total of 32 personal and area air samples were taken. The air samples were analyzed for nickel, zinc, and lead. Some samples were also analyzed for various species of nickel (i.e., metallic, soluble, and oxidic). The airborne concentrations observed for nickel and its three species, zinc, and lead at the three plants were all well below the current and proposed threshold limit values recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

  4. Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials - trend analysis of monitoring results.

    PubMed

    Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; de Jong, Jacob

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring programme and from representatives of the feed industry during the period 2007-13 were used. Data covered a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in the Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML) set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90th percentile concentrations of each of these elements were investigated. Based on the results, monitoring should focus on feed material of mineral origin, feed material of marine origin, especially fish meal, seaweed and algae, as well as feed additives belonging to the functional groups of (1) trace elements (notably cupric sulphate, zinc oxide and manganese oxide for arsenic) and (2) binders and anti-caking agents. Mycotoxin binders are a new group of feed additives that also need attention. For complementary feed it is important to make a proper distinction between mineral and non-mineral feed (lower ML). Forage crops in general do not need high priority in monitoring programmes, although for arsenic grass meal still needs attention.

  5. Water hyacinths and alligator weeds for removal of lead and mercury from polluted waters

    SciTech Connect

    Wolverton, B.C.; McDonald, R.C.

    1975-04-11

    Removal of lead and mercury by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb. was investigated. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to remove 0.176 mg of lead and 0.150 mg of mercury per gram of dry plant material from distilled water and river water in a 24-hour period. One acre of water hyacinths is potentially capable of removing 105.6 grams of lead and 90.0 grams of mercury per day. Alligator weeds removed 0.101 mg of lead per gram of dry plant material in a 24-hour period. This same plant also demonstrated the ability to removemore » a minimum of 0.153 mg of mercury per gram of dry plant material in a six hour period. (STAR)« less

  6. Water hyacinths and alligator weeds for removal of lead and mercury from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of lead and mercury by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb. was investigated. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to remove 0.176 mg of lead and 0.150 mg of mercury per gram of dry plant material from distilled water and river water in a 24-hour period. One acre of water hyacinths is potentially capable of removing 105.6 grams of lead and 90.0 grams of mercury per day. Alligator weeds removed 0.101 mg of lead per gram of dry plant material in a 24-hour period. This same plant also demonstrated the ability to remove a minimum of 0.153 mg of mercury per gram of dry plant material in a six hour period.

  7. From lead to manganese through mercury: mythology, science, and lessons for prevention.

    PubMed

    Alessio, Lorenzo; Campagna, Marcello; Lucchini, Roberto

    2007-11-01

    Lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and manganese (Mn) are well-known neurotoxic metals. The knowledge of toxicity was developed through an extensive amount of research, starting with lead and mercury and proceeding today with manganese. Unfortunately, the consequent implementation of preventive measures was generally delayed, causing important negative effects to the exposed populations. A review and historical reconstruction of the research development that yielded modern understanding of lead and mercury neurotoxicity was conducted to derive useful lessons for the prevention of manganese neurotoxicity. Medieval alchemists named planets and metals from gods since they were already aware of the toxicity and the adverse effects caused by lead and mercury. Historical lessons learned from these two metals may help to avoid the repetition of further mistakes regarding other neurotoxic metals like manganese. The knowledge and experience on the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of lead and mercury is useful and valuable to identify a proper approach to "safe" exposure levels for manganese. Further information is still needed on the early neurotoxic and neurobehavioral effects after prolonged exposure to very low doses of lead, mercury, and manganese. Nevertheless, according to the precautionary principle, effective preventive measures should be already undertaken to prevent the onset of more severe health effects in the population. This is the most important lesson to be learned and applied from more than 30 years of occupational and environmental neurotoxicology of metals. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Sedimentary exhalative (sedex) zinc-lead-silver deposit model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emsbo, Poul; Seal, Robert R.; Breit, George N.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2016-10-28

    This report draws on previous syntheses and basic research studies of sedimentary exhalative (sedex) deposits to arrive at the defining criteria, both descriptive and genetic, for sedex-type deposits. Studies of the tectonic, sedimentary, and fluid evolution of modern and ancient sedimentary basins have also been used to select defining criteria. The focus here is on the geologic characteristics of sedex deposit-hosting basins that contain greater than 10 million metric tons of zinc and lead. The enormous size of sedex deposits strongly suggests that basin-scale geologic processes are involved in their formation. It follows that mass balance constraints of basinal processes can provide a conceptual underpinning for the evaluation of potential ore-forming mechanisms and the identification of geologic indicators for ore potential in specific sedimentary basins. Empirical data and a genetic understanding of the physicochemical, geologic, and mass balance conditions required for each of these elements are used to establish a hierarchy of quantifiable geologic criteria that can be used in U.S. Geological Survey national assessments.  In addition, this report also provides a comprehensive evaluation of environmental considerations associated with the mining of sedex deposits.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.

    2006-01-01

    The ore of mercury, cinnabar, is soft and dark red, and native mercury is one of a few metals that is liquid at room temperatures. Cinnabar from Almaden, Spain, the world’s oldest producing mercury mine, was used during Roman times, and the chemical symbol for mercury (Hg) is from "hydrargyrum," from the Greek word meaning liquid silver. Cinnabar and mercury are associated with some hydrothermal mineral deposits and occur in fine-grained or sedimentary and volcanic rocks near hot springs or volcanic centers. Mercury may be recovered as a byproduct of processing copper, gold, lead-zinc or silver.

  10. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  11. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations of human breast milk as affected by maternal dietary practices

    SciTech Connect

    Umoren, J.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-01

    Maternal dietary practices have been found to affect the concentrations of some nutrients in human breast milk. Lead toxicity is a concern in young children. Lead, copper and zinc are thought to compete for intestinal absorption sites. The objective of the current project was to compare copper, lead and zinc contents of breast milk from practicing lacto-vegetarian and omnivore, lactating women at approximately four months post-partum. Analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a carbon rod attachment. Copper concentrations were higher in milk samples from lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Milk samples from the omnivores had the highest lead and zinc concentrations. Leadmore » and copper concentrations in milk were negatively correlated. The higher zinc concentrations in the milk of the omnivore women may have been related to better utilization of zinc from meat than from plant food sources.« less

  12. Reference Data for the Density and Viscosity of Liquid Cadmium, Cobalt, Gallium, Indium, Mercury, Silicon, Thallium, and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assael, Marc J.; Armyra, Ivi J.; Brillo, Juergen; Stankus, Sergei V.; Wu, Jiangtao; Wakeham, William A.

    2012-09-01

    The available experimental data for the density and viscosity of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, mercury, silicon, thallium, and zinc have been critically examined with the intention of establishing both a density and a viscosity standard. All experimental data have been categorized into primary and secondary data according to the quality of measurement, the technique employed and the presentation of the data, as specified by a series of criteria. The proposed standard reference correlations for the density of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, silicon, thallium, and zinc are characterized by percent deviations at the 95% confidence level of 0.6, 2.1, 0.4, 0.5, 2.2, 0.9, and 0.7, respectively. In the case of mercury, since density reference values already exist, no further work was carried out. The standard reference correlations for the viscosity of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, mercury, silicon, thallium, and zinc are characterized by percent deviations at the 95% confidence level of 9.4, 14.0, 13.5, 2.1, 7.3, 15.7, 5.1, and 9.3, respectively.

  13. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects ofmore » arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of

  14. On the problem of zinc extraction from the slags of lead heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, V. V.; Besser, A. D.; Paretskii, V. M.

    2013-12-01

    The possibilities of zinc extraction from the slags of lead heat are studied as applied to the ZAO Karat-TsM lead plant to be built for processing ore lead concentrates. The process of zinc extraction into commercial fumes using the technology of slag fuming by natural gas developed in Gintsvetmet is recommended for this purpose. Technological rules are developed for designing a commercial fuming plant, as applied to the conditions of the ZAO Karat-TsM plant.

  15. Nationwide residues of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium in starlings, 1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Bean, J.R.; Longcore, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) collected in 1973 at 51 sites throughout the continental United States were analyzed for mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium. All samples contained detectable levels of these elements. In general, residues were low: mercury residues ranged from <0.01 to 0.20 ppm: lead, from <0.10 10 3.20 ppm: cadmium, from <0.05 to 0.20 ppm: arsenic, from <0.05 to 1.40 ppm: and selenium, from 0.10 to 1.10 ppm. There was a significant overall decline in mercury and lead residues in starlings since 1971, and a significant increase in arsenic residues. Lead residues were significantly higher in starlings from urban areas than from rural areas.

  16. Mortality of Sardinian lead and zinc miners: 1960-88.

    PubMed Central

    Cocco, P L; Carta, P; Belli, S; Picchiri, G F; Flore, M V

    1994-01-01

    The mortality of 4740 male workers of two lead and zinc mines was followed up from 1960 to 1988. Exposure to respirable dust was comparable in the two mines, but the median concentration of silica in respirable dust was 10-fold higher in mine B (12.8%) than in mine A (1.2%), but the mean annual exposure to radon daughters in underground workplaces differed in the opposite direction (mine A: 0.13 working levels (WL), mine B: 0.011 WL). Total observed deaths (1205) were similar to expected figures (1156.3) over a total of 119 390.5 person-years at risk. Underground workers of mine B had significant increases in risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (SMR 706, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 473-1014) and non-malignant respiratory diseases (SMR 518; 95% CI 440-1606), whereas the only significant excess at mine A was for non-malignant respiratory diseases (SMR 246; 95% CI 191-312). Total cancer and lung cancer mortality did not exceed the expectation in the two mines combined. A 15% excess mortality for lung cancer, increased up to an SMR 204 (95% CI 89-470) for subjects employed > or = 26 years, was, however, found among underground workers in mine A who on the average experienced an exposure to radon daughters 10-fold higher than those of mine B. By contrast, despite their higher exposure to silica, mine B underground workers experienced a lower than expected lung cancer mortality. A ninefold increase in risk of peritoneal and retroperitoneal cancer combined was also found among underground workers of mine A (SMR 917; 95% CI 250-2347; based on four deaths). A causal association with workplace exposures is unlikely, however, as the SMR showed an inverse trend by duration of employment. These findings are consistent with low level exposure to radon daughters as a risk factor for lung cancer among metal miners. Exposure to silica at the levels estimated for the mine B underground environment did not increase the risk of lung cancer. PMID:8000492

  17. 78 FR 46948 - Proposed Agreement Regarding Site Costs and Covenants Not To Sue for American Lead and Zinc Mill...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Not To Sue for American Lead and Zinc Mill Site, Ouray County, Colorado AGENCY: Environmental... provides for Settling Party's payment of certain response costs incurred at the American Lead and Zinc Mill... reference the American Lead and Zinc Mill Site, the EPA Docket No. CERCLA-08-2013- 0004. The Agency's...

  18. New insight into atmospheric mercury emissions from zinc smelters using mass flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingru; Wang, Shuxiao; Hui, Mulin; Wang, Fengyang; Zhang, Lei; Duan, Lei; Luo, Yao

    2015-03-17

    The mercury (Hg) flow paths from three zinc (Zn) smelters indicated that a large quantity of Hg, approximately 38.0-57.0% of the total Hg input, was stored as acid slag in the landfill sites. Approximately 15.0-27.1% of the Hg input was emitted into water or stored as open-dumped slags, and 3.3-14.5% of the Hg input ended in sulfuric acid. Atmospheric Hg emissions, accounting for 1.4-9.6% of the total Hg input, were from both the Zn production and waste disposal processes. Atmospheric Hg emissions from the waste disposal processes accounted for 40.6, 89.6, and 94.6% of the total atmospheric Hg emissions of the three studied smelters, respectively. The Zn production process mainly contributed to oxidized Hg (Hg2+) emissions, whereas the waste disposal process generated mostly elemental Hg (Hg0) emissions. When the emissions from these two processes are considered together, the emission proportion of the Hg2+ mass was 51, 46, and 29% in smelters A, B, and C, respectively. These results indicated that approximately 10.8±5.8 t of atmospheric Hg emissions from the waste disposal process were ignored in recent inventories. Therefore, the total atmospheric Hg emissions from the Zn industry of China should be approximately 50 t.

  19. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  20. Optimization of method for zinc analysis in several bee products on renewable mercury film silver based electrode.

    PubMed

    Opoka, Włodzimierz; Szlósarczyk, Marek; Maślanka, Anna; Piech, Robert; Baś, Bogusław; Włodarczyk, Edyta; Krzek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an interesting target for detection as it is one of the elements necessary for the proper functioning of the human body, its excess and deficiency can cause several symptoms. Several techniques including electrochemistry have been developed but require laboratory equipment, preparative steps and mercury or complex working electrodes. We here described the development of a robust, simple and commercially available electrochemical system. Differential pulse (DP) voltammetry was used for this purpose with the cyclic renewable mercury film silver based electrode (Hg(Ag)FE) and 0.05 M KNO3 solution as a supporting electrolyte. The effect of various factors such as: preconcentration potential and time, pulse amplitude and width, step potential and supporting electrolyte composition are optimized. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 1.62 ng/mL and 4.85 ng/mL, respectively. The repeatability of the method at a concentration level of the analyte as low as 3 ng/mL, expressed as RSD is 3.5% (n = 6). Recovery was determined using certified reference material: Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2). The recovery of zinc ranged from 96.6 to 106.5%. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of zinc in bee products (honey, propolis and diet supplements) after digestion procedure.

  1. Mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Mercury has been used by humans for over 2,000 years and was associated with premature deaths of cinnabar (mercuric sulfide) miners as early as 700 B.C. More recent human poisonings have been related to agricultural and industrial uses of mercury. One of the best documented of these cases occurred in the 1950s in Minamata Bay, Japan, when mercury was discharged into the environment and accumulated in fish and shellfish used as human food. In addition to human poisonings, mercury poisoning or toxicosis has been identified in many other species.Mercury is sometimes used to recover gold from stream sediments, and it may pose hazards to wildlife if it is released to the environment during ore recovery. Fungicidal treatment of seeds with mercury was common in the 1950s and 1960s, but this agricultural practice has been largely halted in the Northern Hemisphere.

  2. Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic in US- and Indian-Manufactured Ayurvedic Medicines Sold via the Internet

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead, mercury, and arsenic have been detected in a subsantial portion of Indian-manufactured traditional Ayurvedic medicines. Metals may be present due to the parctice of rasa shastra (combining herbs with metals, minerals and gems). Whether toxic metals are present in both US-...

  3. Environmental pollution levels of lead and zinc in Ishiagu and Uburu communities of Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oje, Obinna A; Uzoegwu, Peter N; Onwurah, Ikechukwu N E; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U

    2010-09-01

    Water and soil samples from the area were therefore analyzed for their lead and zinc content. Computation of pollution statuses of lead and zinc revealed topsoil lead geoaccumulation indices of -0.143 and -0.069 and zinc geoaccumulation indices of 1.168 and 0.713 for Ishiagu and Uburu respectively. The pollution indices were determined to be 0.499 and 0.3564 for soil in Ishiagu and Uburu respectively and also 5.11 and 2.42 for water in Ishiagu and Uburu communities respectively. Water/soil concentration ratio were found to be 0.0018 and 0.0014 for lead in Ishiagu and Uburu respectively. On the other hand, the water/soil concentration ratio for zinc was computed to be 0.001 and 0.0008 for Ishiagu and Uburu respectively. These results seem to suggest that the pollution of the environment by these heavy metals in the areas were as a result of the water being contaminated by lead and zinc not necessarily their concentrations in the soil.

  4. Zinc, iron, and lead: relations to head start children's cognitive scores and teachers' ratings of behavior.

    PubMed

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Droke, Elizabeth A; Belanger, David M; Parker, Jill R

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of lead, zinc, and iron levels in relation to child cognition and behavior in a small sample of Head Start children. The design was cross-sectional and correlational. Participants were 42 3- to 5-year-old children attending rural Head Start centers. Nonfasting blood samples of whole blood lead, plasma zinc, and ferritin were collected. Teachers rated children's behavior on the California Preschool Social Competency Scale, Howes' Sociability subscale, and the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire. Children were tested individually with the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that zinc and ferritin jointly explained 25% of the variance in McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities verbal scores. Lead levels explained 25% of the variance in teacher ratings of girls' sociability and 20% of the variance in teacher ratings of girls' classroom competence. Zinc levels explained 39% of the variance in teacher ratings of boys' anxiety. Univariate analysis of variance revealed that the four children low in zinc and iron had significantly higher blood lead (median=0.23 micromol/L [4.73 microg/dL]) than the 31 children sufficient in zinc or iron (median=0.07 micromol/L [1.54 microg/dL]) or the 7 children sufficient in both (median=0.12 micromol/L [2.52 microg/dL]), suggesting an interaction among the three minerals. Within this small low-income sample, the results imply both separate and interacting effects of iron, zinc, and lead. They underscore the importance of studying these three minerals in larger samples of low-income preschool children to make more definitive conclusions.

  5. Accumulation of metals in fish from lead-zinc mining areas of southeastern Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; May, Thomas W.

    2007-01-01

    The potential effects of proposed lead-zinc mining in an ecologically sensitive area were assessed by studying a nearby mining district that has been exploited for about 30 yr under contemporary environmental regulations and with modern technology. Blood and liver samples representing fish of three species (largescale stoneroller, Campostoma oligolepis, n=91; longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, n=105; and northern hog sucker, Hypentelium nigricans, n=20) were collected from 16 sites representing a range of conditions relative to lead-zinc mining and ore beneficiation in southeastern Missouri. Samples were analyzed for lead, zinc, and cadmium, and for a suite of biomarkers (reported in a companion paper). A subset of the hog sucker (n=9) representing three sites were also analyzed for nickel and cobalt. Blood and liver lead concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.84-0.85, P < 0.01) in all three species and were significantly (ANOVA, P < 0.01) greater at sites < 10 km downstream of active lead-zinc mines and mills and in a historical lead-zinc mining area than at reference sites, including a site in the area proposed for new mining. Correlations between blood and liver cadmium concentrations were less evident than for lead but were nevertheless statistically significant (r=0.26-0.69, P < 0.01-0.07). Although blood and liver cadmium concentrations were highest in all three species at sites near mines, within-site variability was greater and mining-related trends were less evident than for lead. Blood and liver zinc concentrations were significantly correlated only in stoneroller (r=0.46, P < 0.01) and mining-related trends were not evident. Concentrations of cobalt and nickel in blood and liver were significantly higher (ANOVA, P < 0.01) at a site near an active mine than at a reference site and a site in the historical lead-zinc mining area. These findings confirm previous studies indicating that lead and other metals are released to streams from active lead-zinc

  6. Accumulation of metals in fish from lead-zinc mining areas of southeastern Missouri, USA.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christopher J; Brumbaugh, William G; May, Thomas W

    2007-05-01

    The potential effects of proposed lead-zinc mining in an ecologically sensitive area were assessed by studying a nearby mining district that has been exploited for about 30 yr under contemporary environmental regulations and with modern technology. Blood and liver samples representing fish of three species (largescale stoneroller, Campostoma oligolepis, n=91; longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, n=105; and northern hog sucker, Hypentelium nigricans, n=20) were collected from 16 sites representing a range of conditions relative to lead-zinc mining and ore beneficiation in southeastern Missouri. Samples were analyzed for lead, zinc, and cadmium, and for a suite of biomarkers (reported in a companion paper). A subset of the hog sucker (n=9) representing three sites were also analyzed for nickel and cobalt. Blood and liver lead concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.84-0.85, P<0.01) in all three species and were significantly (ANOVA, P<0.01) greater at sites <10 km downstream of active lead-zinc mines and mills and in a historical lead-zinc mining area than at reference sites, including a site in the area proposed for new mining. Correlations between blood and liver cadmium concentrations were less evident than for lead but were nevertheless statistically significant (r=0.26-0.69, P <0.01-0.07). Although blood and liver cadmium concentrations were highest in all three species at sites near mines, within-site variability was greater and mining-related trends were less evident than for lead. Blood and liver zinc concentrations were significantly correlated only in stoneroller (r=0.46, P<0.01) and mining-related trends were not evident. Concentrations of cobalt and nickel in blood and liver were significantly higher (ANOVA, P<0.01) at a site near an active mine than at a reference site and a site in the historical lead-zinc mining area. These findings confirm previous studies indicating that lead and other metals are released to streams from active lead-zinc mines and

  7. Lead inhibition of DNA-binding mechanism of Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Hanas, J S; Rodgers, J S; Bantle, J A; Cheng, Y G

    1999-11-01

    The association of lead with chromatin in cells suggests that deleterious metal effects may in part be mediated through alterations in gene function. To elucidate if and how lead may alter DNA binding of cysteine-rich zinc finger proteins, lead ions were analyzed for their ability to alter the DNA binding mechanism of the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger protein transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA). As assayed by DNase I protection, the interaction of TFIIIA with the 50-bp internal control region of the 5S ribosomal gene was partially inhibited by 5 microM lead ions and completely inhibited by 10 to 20 microM lead ions. Preincubation of free TFIIIA with lead resulted in DNA-binding inhibition, whereas preincubation of a TFIIIA/5S RNA complex with lead did not result in DNA-binding inhibition. Because 5S RNA binds TFIIIA zinc fingers, this result is consistent with an inhibition mechanism via lead binding to zinc fingers. The complete loss of DNase I protection on the 5S gene indicates the mechanism of inhibition minimally involves the N-terminal fingers of TFIIIA. Inhibition was not readily reversible and occurred in the presence of an excess of beta-mercaptoethanol. Inhibition kinetics were fast, progressing to completion in approximately 5 min. Millimolar concentrations of sulfhydryl-specific arsenic ions were not inhibitory for TFIIIA binding. Micromolar concentrations of lead inhibited DNA binding by Sp1, another Cys(2)His(2) finger protein, but not by the nonfinger protein AP2. Inhibition of Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factors by lead ions at concentrations near those known to have deleterious physiological effects points to new molecular mechanisms for lead toxicity in promoting disease.

  8. Cadmium, lead, and mercury levels in feathers of small passerine birds: noninvasive sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Nicola; Ancora, Stefania; di Fazio, Noemi; Leonzio, Claudio

    2008-10-01

    Bird feathers have been widely used as a nondestructive biological material for monitoring heavy metals. Sources of metals taken up by feathers include diet (metals are incorporated during feather formation), preening, and direct contact with metals in water, air, dust, and plants. In the literature, data regarding the origin of trace elements in feathers are not univocal. Only in the vast literature concerning mercury (as methyl mercury) has endogenous origin been determined. In the present study, we investigate cadmium, lead, and mercury levels in feathers of prey of Falco eleonorae in relation to the ecological characteristics (molt, habitat, and contamination by soil) of the different species. Cluster analysis identified two main groups of species. Differences and correlations within and between groups identified by cluster analysis were then checked by nonparametric statistical analysis. The results showed that mercury levels had a pattern significantly different from those of cadmium and lead, which in turn showed a significant positive correlation, suggesting different origins. Nests of F. eleonorae proved to be a good source for feathers of small trans-Saharan passerines collected by a noninvasive method. They provided abundant feathers of the various species in a relatively small area--in this case, the falcon colony on the Isle of San Pietro, Sardinia, Italy.

  9. Zinc and lead detoxifying abilities of humic substances relevant to environmental bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Perelomov, L V; Sarkar, Binoy; Sizova, O I; Chilachava, K B; Shvikin, A Y; Perelomova, I V; Atroshchenko, Y M

    2018-04-30

    The effect of humic substances (HS) and their different fractions (humic acids (HA) and hymatomelanic acids (HMA)) on the toxicity of zinc and lead to different strains of bacteria was studied. All tested bacteria demonstrated a lower resistance to zinc than lead showing minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.1 - 0.3mM and 0.3-0.5mM, respectively. The highest resistance to lead was characteristic of Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 and Rhodococcus RS67, while Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 showed the greatest resistance to zinc. The combined fractions of HS and HA alone reduced zinc toxicity at all added concentrations of the organic substances (50 - 200mgL -1 ) to all microorganisms, while hymatomelanic acids reduced zinc toxicity to Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 at 200mgL -1 organic concentration only. The HS fractions imparted similar effects on lead toxicity also. This study demonstrated that heavy metal toxicity to bacteria could be reduced through complexation with HS and their fractions. This was particularly true when the metal-organic complexes held a high stability, and low solubility and bioavailability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adsorption characteristics of Copper (Ⅱ), Zinc (Ⅱ) and Mercury (Ⅱ) by four kinds of immobilized fungi residues.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Zhang, Dan; Sheng, Fei; Qing, Hui

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the adsorption characteristics of Copper (Ⅱ), Zinc (Ⅱ) and Mercury (Ⅱ) by immobilized Flammulina velutipes, Auricularia polytricha, Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus residues. Lagergren model, elovich and intraparticle diffusion model were used to present the adsorption kinetics, and it was proved that Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order kinetics are the best suitable model with high correlation coefficient to characterize the adsorption process of Copper (Ⅱ), Zinc (Ⅱ) and Mercury (Ⅱ). The results showed that adsorption process finished in 120min at pH 6.0. The adsorption rate of Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ and Hg 2+ were reached to 53.8-84.1% of total in the initial 60min, and finished in 120min. Ion exchange and complexation of F. velutipes were the main mechanisms for adsorption of metal ions by characterizations of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). In addition the functional group of cell walls such as hydroxyl, amide, carbonyl, phosphoric played a critical role in ions adsorption of edible mushroom residues. Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ and Hg 2+ in wastewater could be efficiently removed by F. velutipes residue with removal ratio of 73.11%, 66.67% and 69.35%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure of cultured human proximal tubular cells to cadmium, mercury, zinc and bismuth: toxicity and metallothionein induction.

    PubMed

    Rodilla, V; Miles, A T; Jenner, W; Hawksworth, G M

    1998-08-14

    The kidney, in particular the proximal convoluted tubule, is a major target site for the toxic effects of various metals. However, little is known about the early effects of these metals after acute exposure in man. In the present study we have evaluated the toxicity of several inorganic metal compounds (CdCl2, HgCl2, ZnCl2, and Bi(NO3)3) and the induction of metallothionein by these compounds in cultured human proximal tubular (HPT) cells for up to 4 days. The results showed that bismuth was not toxic even at the highest dose (100 microM) used, while zinc, cadmium and mercury exhibited varying degrees of toxicity, zinc being the least toxic and mercury the most potent. A significant degree of interindividual variation between the different isolates used in these experiments was also observed. All metals used in the present study induced MT, as revealed by immunocytochemistry. All metals showed maximal induction between 1 and 3 days after treatment. Although a certain amount of constitutive MT was present in the cultures, the intensity of the staining varied with time in culture and between the different isolates studied. No correlation could be made between the intensity of the staining in control cultures (indicating total amount of constitutive MT) and the susceptibility of a given isolate to metal toxicity. Furthermore, no correlation could be made between metal-induced MT and the susceptibility of a given isolate to that particular metal.

  12. Detoxification of mercury, cadmium, and lead in Klebsiella aerogenes NCTC 418 growing in continuous culture

    SciTech Connect

    Aiking, H.; Govers, H.; van 'T Riet, J.

    1985-11-01

    Klebsiella aerogenes NCTC 418 growing in the presence of cadmium under glucose-, sulfate-, or phosphate-limited conditions in continuous culture exhibited sulfide formation and P/sub i/ accumulation as the only demonstrable detoxification mechanisms. In the presence of mercury under similar conditions only HgS formation could be confirmed, by an increased sensitivity to mercury under sulfate-limited conditions, among others. The fact that the cells were most sensitive to cadmium under conditions of phosphate limitation and most sensitive to mercury under conditions of sulfate limitation led to the hypothesis that these inorganic detoxification mechanisms generally depended on a kind of facilitated precipitation. Themore » process was coined thus because heavy metals were probably accumulated and precipitated near the cell perimeter due to the relatively high local concentrations of sulfide and phosphate there. Depending on the growth-limiting nutrient, mercury proved to be 25-fold (phosphate limitation), 75-fold (glycerol limitation), or 150-fold (sulfate limitation) more toxic than cadmium to this organism. In the presence of lead, PbS formation was suggested. since no other detoxification mechanisms were detected, for example, rendering heavy metal ions innocuous as metallo-organic compounds, it was concluded that formation of heavy metal precipitates is crucially important to this organism. In addition, it was observed that several components of a defined mineral medium were able to reduce mercuric ions to elemental mercury. This abiotic mercury volatilization was studied in detail, and its general and environmental implications are discussed.« less

  13. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    SciTech Connect

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals inmore » breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the

  14. [The morphofunctional state of the bone marrow in lead and zinc intoxication].

    PubMed

    Vladimtseva, T M; Pashkevich, I A; Salmina, A B

    2006-01-01

    The nucleolus is a compulsory nuclear structure of all cells of eukaryotes. The quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nuclei show the functional activity of a cell, the rate of its synthesis of RNA and portents, and its metabolic state. Heavy metals (zinc chloride and lead acetate) were comparatively investigated for their effects on the nucleolar apparatus of bone marrow cells in in vivo experiments. Zinc chloride and lead acetate were ascertained to damage the nucleolar apparatus of cells, thus decreasing their transcriptional activity or irreversibly damaging them.

  15. Use of natural clinoptilolite for the removal of lead, copper and zinc in fixed bed column.

    PubMed

    Stylianou, Marinos A; Hadjiconstantinou, Michalis P; Inglezakis, Vasilis J; Moustakas, Konstantinos G; Loizidou, Maria D

    2007-05-08

    This work deals with the removal of lead, copper and zinc from aqueous solutions by using natural zeolite (clinoptilolite). Fixed bed experiments were performed, using three different volumetric flow rates of 5, 7 and 10bed volume/h, under a total normality of 0.01N, at initial pH of 4 and ambient temperature (25 degrees C). The removal efficiency increased when decreasing the flow rate and the following selectivity series was found: Pb(2+)>Zn(2+)> or =Cu(2+). Conductivity measurements showed that lead removal follows mainly ion exchange mechanism, while copper and zinc removal follows ion exchange and sorption mechanism as well.

  16. Research keeps lead and zinc viable in high-tech markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Jerome F.

    1989-08-01

    Lead and zinc have long enjoyed widespread use in a variety of applications. To insure growing markets for the future, however, new applications for these durable metals must be developed. Currently, projects are underway to determine the capabilities of lead for such high-technology uses as earthquake damping and nuclear waste containment. Zinc's capabilities are being developed further, too, particularly in the areas of direct injection die casting, composites and the improvement of coating properties. Other ongoing research initiatives are attempting to better determine the health and environmental influences of these metals.

  17. Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.; Scott, E. R. D.

    2003-12-01

    Mercury is an important part of the solar system puzzle, yet we know less about it than any other planet, except Pluto. Mercury is the smallest of the terrestrial planets (0.05 Earth masses) and the closest to the Sun. Its relatively high density (5.4 g cm -3) indicates that it has a large metallic core (˜3/4 of the planet's radius) compared to its silicate mantle and crust. The existence of a magnetic field implies that the metallic core is still partly molten. The surface is heavily cratered like the highlands of the Moon, but some areas are smooth and less cratered, possibly like the lunar maria (but not as dark). Its surface composition, as explained in the next section, appears to be low in FeO (only ˜3 wt.%), which implies that either its crust is anorthositic (Jeanloz et al., 1995) or its mantle is similarly low in FeO ( Robinson and Taylor, 2001).The proximity of Mercury to the Sun is particularly important. In one somewhat outmoded view of how the solar system formed, Mercury was assembled in the hottest region close to the Sun so that virtually all of the iron was in the metallic state, rather than oxidized to FeO (e.g., Lewis, 1972, 1974). If correct, Mercury ought to have relatively a low content of FeO. This hypothesis also predicts that Mercury should have high concentrations of refractory elements, such as calcium, aluminum, and thorium, and low concentrations of volatile elements, such as sodium and potassium, compared to the other terrestrial planets.Alternative hypotheses tell a much more nomadic and dramatic story of Mercury's birth. In one alternative view, wandering planetesimals that might have come from as far away as Mars or the inner asteroid belt accreted to form Mercury (Wetherill, 1994). This model predicts higher FeO and volatile elements than does the high-temperature model, and similar compositions among the terrestrial planets. The accretion process might have been accompanied by a monumental impact that stripped away much of the

  18. Main and interaction effects of iron, zinc, lead, and parenting on children's cognitive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Mulugeta, Afework; Bogale, Alemtsehay; Kennedy, Tay S; Baker, Eric R; Stoecker, Barbara J

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations of blood lead < 10 microg/dL, iron, zinc, and parenting to Head Start children's (N = 112) scores on Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III (PPVT-III) and McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Venous whole blood and plasma samples were analyzed for lead and zinc by ICP-MS and iron status was assessed by serum transferrin receptors. Hierarchical regressions revealed significant effects of lead on MSCA perceptual scores and iron on PPVT-III and MSCA verbal scores. Children with lead > 2.5 microg/dL had significantly lower MSCA perceptual scores than children < 2.5 microg/dL. Permissive parenting significantly exacerbated negative effects of higher lead or lower iron on children's perceptual or verbal scores, respectively.

  19. Subacute effects of low dose lead nitrate and mercury chloride exposure on kidney of rats.

    PubMed

    Apaydın, Fatma Gökçe; Baş, Hatice; Kalender, Suna; Kalender, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Lead nitrate and mercury chloride are the most common heavy metal pollutants. In the present study, the effects of lead and mercury induced nephrotoxicity were studied in Wistar rats. Lead nitrate (LN, 45 mg/kg b.w/day) and mercury chloride (MC, 0.02 mg/kg b.w/day) and their combination were administered orally for 28 days. Four groups of rats were used in the study: control, LN, MC and LN plus MC groups. Serum biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and histopathological changes in kidney tissues were investigated in all treatment groups. LN and MC caused severe histopathological changes. It was shown that LN, MC and also co-treatment with LN and MC exposure induced significant increase in serum urea, uric acid and creatinine levels. There were also statistically significant changes in antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx and GST) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in all groups except control group. In this study, we showed that MC caused more harmful effects than LN in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents in edible dried seaweed in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Y O; Park, S G; Park, G Y; Choi, S M; Kim, M Y

    2010-01-01

    Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents were determined in 426 samples of seaweed sold in Korea in 2007-08. The average concentrations, expressed in mg kg(-1), dry weight, were: total arsenic 17.4 (less than the limit of detection [LOD] to 88.8), Hg 0.01 (from 0.001 to 0.050), lead 0.7 (less than the LOD to 2.7), and cadmium 0.50 (less than the LOD to 2.9). There were differences in mercury, cadmium, and arsenic content in seaweed between different kinds of products and between coastal areas. The intakes of total mercury, lead, and cadmium for Korean people from seaweed were estimated to be 0.11, 0.65, and 0.45 µg kg(-1) body weight week(-1), respectively. With respect to food safety, consumption of 8.5 g day(-1) of the samples analysed could represent up to 0.2-6.7% of the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, even if Korean people have a high consumption of seaweed, this study confirms the low probability of health risks from these metals via seaweed consumption.

  1. Biomarkers of metals exposure in fish from lead-zinc mining areas of Southeastern Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Whyte, J.J.; Roberts, A.P.; Annis, M.L.; May, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    The potential effects of proposed lead-zinc mining in an ecologically sensitive area were assessed by studying a nearby mining district that has been exploited for about 30 y under contemporary environmental regulations and with modern technology. Blood and liver samples representing fish of three species (largescale stoneroller, Campostoma oligolepis, n=91; longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, n=105; and northern hog sucker, Hypentelium nigricans, n=20) from 16 sites representing a range of conditions relative to mining activities were collected. Samples were analyzed for metals (also reported in a companion paper) and for biomarkers of metals exposure [erythrocyte ??-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity; concentrations of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), iron, and hemoglobin (Hb) in blood; and hepatic metallothionein (MT) gene expression and lipid peroxidation]. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher and ALA-D activity significantly lower in all species at sites nearest to active lead-zinc mines and in a stream contaminated by historical mining than at reference or downstream sites. ALA-D activity was also negatively correlated with blood lead concentrations in all three species but not with other metals. Iron and Hb concentrations were positively correlated in all three species, but were not correlated with any other metals in blood or liver in any species. MT gene expression was positively correlated with liver zinc concentrations, but neither MT nor lipid peroxidase differences among fish grouped according to lead concentrations were statistically significant. ZPP was not detected by hematofluorometry in most fish, but fish with detectable ZPP were from sites affected by mining. Collectively, these results confirm that metals are released to streams from active lead-zinc mining sites and are accumulated by fish. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicity to woodlice of zinc and lead oxides added to soil litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Anderson, A.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that high concentrations of metals in soil are associated with reductions in decomposer populations. We have here determined the relation between the concentrations of lead and zinc added as oxides to soil litter and the survival and reproduction of a decomposer population under controlled conditions. Laboratory populations of woodlice (Porcellio scaber Latr) were fed soil litter treated with lead or zinc at concentrations that ranged from 100 to 12,800 ppm. The survival of the adults, the maximum number of young alive, and the average number of young alive, were recorded over 64 weeks. Lead at 12,800 ppm and zinc at 1,600 ppm or more had statistically significant (p < 0.05) negative effects on the populations. These results agree with field observations suggesting that lead and zinc have reduced populations of decomposers in contaminated forest soil litter, and concentrations are similar to those reported to be associated with reductions in natural populations of decomposers. Poisoning of decomposers may disrupt nutrient cycling, reduce the numbers of invertebrates available to other wildlife for food, and contribute to the contamination of food chains.

  3. Mercury, cadmium, lead, and selenium in three waterbird species nesting in Galveston Bay, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; Cromartie, E.

    1986-01-01

    Heavy metal and selenium concentrations were determined in Olivaceous Cormorants (Phalacrocorax olivaceus ), Laughing gulls (Larus atricilla ), and Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger ) nesting in Galveston Bay, Texas, during 1980-81. Lead was detected at low levels in a small proportion of the liver samples. Mercury was present in all livers sampled, the highest levels being found in cormorants (7.8 ppm) and skimmers (16 ppm). Concentrations were considerably lower than those reported in birds from mercury-contaminated lakes in northern United States and Canada. Cadmium and selenium were detected in 93 and 95% of the kidneys. Cadmium was highest in gulls and skimmers with a maximum value of 16 ppm. Selenium levels were similar among species except for higher concentrations in gulls collected in 1981.

  4. Mercury contribution to an Adirondack lake

    SciTech Connect

    Scrudato, R.J.; Long, D.; Weinbloom, R.

    1987-01-01

    Elevated copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in the upper 10 to 20 cm of sediment sampled from Cranberry Lake, a large Adirondack lake, are attributed to atmospheric contributions. Pb-210 and pollen core data, however, suggest Cranberry Lake also received mercury discharges during the turn of the century when the area was the center of extensive lumbering and related activities. Elevated mercury concentrations in Cranberry Lake smallmouth bass derived from remobilization from mercury-contaminated bottom sediments which increased the bioavailability to Cranberry Lake organisms. Mercury remobilization and accumulation by fish are promoted by fluctuating pH values resulting from acid precipitation.

  5. Mercury contribution to an adirondack lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrudato, R. J.; Long, D.; Weinbloom, Robert

    1987-10-01

    Elevated copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in the upper 10 to 20 cm of sediment sampled from Cranberry Lake, a large Adirondack lake, are attributed to atmospheric contributions. Pb-210 and pollen core data, however, suggest Cranberry Lake also received mercury discharges during the turn of the century when the area was the center of extensive lumbering and related activities. Elevated mercury concentrations in Cranberry Lake smallmouth bass derived from remobilization from mercury-contaminated bottom sediments which increased the bioavailability to Cranberry Lake organisms. Mercury remobilization and accumulation by fish are promoted by fluctuating pH values resulting from acid precipilation.

  6. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  7. Zinc

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  8. Influence of zinc, lead, and cadmium pollutants on the microflora of hawthorn leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Bewley, R.J.F.; Campbell, R.

    1980-01-01

    Transect studies were conducted to determine the relative effects of zinc, lead, and cadmium pollution on microorganisms occurring on hawthorn leaves at varying distances from a smelting complex. Sporobolomyces roseus was absent from the most heavily contaminated leaves but, although lead was inhibitory, other environmental factors were also important in determining its overall population level. Conversely, Aureobasidium pullulans and nonpigmented yeasts showed a significant partial positive correlation with lead but were inhibited by zinc and/or cadmium. Numbers of bacterial colonies were only slightly reduced by the combined effect of all three metals, but total numbers of bacteria were highly negativelymore » correlated with lead. Filamentous fungi, isolated by leaf washing, were only slightly inhibited by all three metals, and the degree of mycelial proliferation on senescent leaves was little affected by heavy metal pollution. Computer-generated maps were produced of the distribution of A. pullulans in relation to zinc and lead fallout. 14 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.« less

  9. Copper and zinc content in wild game shot with lead or non-lead ammunition – implications for consumer health protection

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeld, Christine; Müller-Graf, Christine; Selhorst, Thomas; Greiner, Matthias; Gerofke, Antje; Ulbig, Ellen; Gremse, Carl; Spolders, Markus; Schafft, Helmut; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contamination of game meat with copper and zinc and establish whether the use of alternative (non-lead) ammunition can lead to higher or unsafe levels of copper and zinc in the meat of roe deer, wild boar and red deer. The research project “Safety of game meat obtained through hunting” (LEMISI) was conducted in Germany with the purpose of examining the entry of lead as well as copper and zinc into the meat of hunted game when using either lead or non-lead ammunition. The outcome of this study shows that the usage of both lead-based ammunition and alternative non-lead ammunition results in the entry of copper and zinc into the edible parts of the game. Using non-lead ammunition does not entail dangerously elevated levels of copper and zinc, so replacing lead ammunition with alternative ammunition does not introduce a further health problem with regard to these metals. The levels of copper and zinc in game meat found in this study are in the range found in previous studies of game. The content of copper and zinc in game meat is also comparable to those regularly detected in meat and its products from livestock (pig, cattle, sheep) for which the mean human consumption rate is much higher. From the viewpoint of consumer health protection, the use of non-lead ammunition does not pose an additional hazard through copper and zinc contamination. A health risk due to the presence of copper and zinc in game meat at typical levels of consumer exposure is unlikely for both types of ammunition. PMID:28934259

  10. Levels of iron, silver, zinc, and lead in oranges and avocados from two gold-rich towns compared with levels in an adjacent gold-deficient town

    SciTech Connect

    Golow, A.A.; Laryea, J.N.

    1994-09-01

    Fruits such as oranges and avocados are important sources of drinks and food in the Ghanaian Society. If such fruits contain various types of metals they may augument the types and amounts of them in the human body. The metals in fruits may depend on what is in the soils from which they are grown. If the soils contain toxic metals like lead, mercury and cadmium then the consumers may be poisoned as happened in the [open quotes]Ouchi - ouchi[close quotes], disease in Japan and similar episodes. In the area under study, the Geological Survey indicates the presence of 2.5more » ppm of lead, 10 - 20 ppm of copper and less than 15 ppm of nickel. Silver, not reported in commercial amounts, is a byproduct of gold productions at Obuasi. Since copper and nickel are presented in the area traces of silver will certainly occur. In the same manner zinc is usually associated with lead as sulphide of zinc blend trace amounts of it are likely to occur in the area. Of the four metals measured, iron and zinc essential for citrus. The extractable iron and zinc in the area of study were 90 and 1.8 mg/kg, levels on the low side for the healthy growth of crops. The investigation reported here is the comparison of the levels of some metals in oranges and avocados from farms in Obuasi and Konongo with those from farms in Kumasi City. This is a part of a project aimed at finding out differences in the metal contents of various food crops grown in various regions of the country. Konongo and Obuasi have soils which are rich in gold but Kumasi city, which is not too distant from these towns, does not have gold in its soil. 18 refs., 1 tab.« less

  11. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Abbas Ali; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein

    2012-12-17

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  12. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area. PMID:23369182

  13. Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper, zinc, and lead in geological materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.

    1976-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrometric method is described for the determination of copper, zinc, and lead in geological materials. The sample is digested with HF-HCl-H2O2; the final solution for analysis is in 10 % (v/v) HCl. Copper and zinc are determined directly by aspirating the solution into an air-acetylene flame. A separate aliquot of the solution is used for determination of lead; lead is extracted into TOPO-MIBK from the acidic solution in the presence of iodide and ascorbic acid. For a 0.50-g sample, the limits of determination are 10-2000 p.p.m. for Cu and Zn, and 5-5000 p.p.m. for Pb. As much as 40 % Fe or Ca. and 10 % Al, Mg, or Mn in the sample do not interfere. The proposed method can be applied to the determination of copper, zinc, and lead in a wide range of geological materials including iron- and manganese-rich, calcareous and carbonate samples. ?? 1976.

  14. Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gault, D. E.; Burns, J. A.; Cassen, P.; Strom, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Prior to the flight of the Mariner 10 spacecraft, Mercury was the least investigated and most poorly known terrestrial planet (Kuiper 1970, Devine 1972). Observational difficulties caused by its proximity to the Sun as viewed from Earth caused the planet to remain a small, vague disk exhibiting little surface contrast or details, an object for which only three major facts were known: 1. its bulk density is similar to that of Venus and Earth, much greater than that of Mars and the Moon; 2. its surface reflects electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths in the same manner as the Moon (taking into account differences in their solar distances); and 3. its rotation period is in 2/3 resonance with its orbital period. Images obtained during the flyby by Mariner 10 on 29 March 1974 (and the two subsequent flybys on 21 September 1974 and 16 March 1975) revealed Mercury's surface in detail equivalent to that available for the Moon during the early 1960's from Earth-based telescopic views. Additionally, however, information was obtained on the planet's mass and size, atmospheric composition and density, charged-particle environment, and infrared thermal radiation from the surface, and most significantly of all, the existence of a planetary magnetic field that is probably intrinsic to Mercury was established. In the following, this new information is summarized together with results from theoretical studies and ground-based observations. In the quantum jumps of knowledge that have been characteristic of "space-age" exploration, the previously obscure body of Mercury has suddenly come into sharp focus. It is very likely a differentiated body, probably contains a large Earth-like iron-rich core, and displays a surface remarkably similar to that of the Moon, which suggests a similar evolutionary history.

  15. Lead and mercury levels in an environmentally exposed population in the Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Leda Diva Freitas de; Moreira, Maria de Fátima Ramos; Azevedo, Sayonara Vieira de; Borges, Renato Marçullo; Gomes, Regina Aderne de Almeida; Bergamini, Fernanda Pereira Baptista; Teixeira, Liliane Reis

    2018-03-01

    The objective was to assess the level of exposure to lead and mercury in a population in the Pantanal region in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Blood lead (PbB) (n = 119) and urinary mercury (HgU) (n = 109) in local residents were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of means and correlations between variables used analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression, respectively, with 95% confidence intervals. Mean PbB was 2.82 ± 1.53µg dL-1. The comparison of PbB stratified by collection site (p ≤ 0.01), work activity (p ≤ 0.01), and consumption of locally produced cow's milk (p ≤ 0.05) showed statistically significant differences. There were also positive associations between PbB and collection site (p ≤ 0.01), participants' profession (p ≤ 0.05), local milk (p ≤ 0.01), and source of drinking water (p ≤ 0.01). Mean HgU was 1.41 ± 0.98µg L-1. The levels only showed significant differences for participants' profession (p ≤ 0.01), and positive associations emerged between HgU and work activity (p ≤ 0.01) and body mass index (p ≤ 0.01). The samples showed low lead and mercury levels, similar to those found in other environmentally exposed populations. Despite these low concentrations, current knowledge on the toxicity of these metals shows that health effects can already be felt at levels that were previously considered safe, thus characterizing a health hazard.

  16. Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic in US- and Indian-Manufactured Ayurvedic Medicines Sold via the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Robert B.; Phillips, Russell S.; Sehgal, Anusha; Khouri, Nadia; Davis, Roger B.; Paquin, Janet; Thuppil, Venkatesh; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2009-01-01

    Context Lead, mercury, and arsenic have been detected in a substantial proportion of Indian-manufactured traditional Ayurvedic medicines. Metals may be present due to the practice of rasa shastra (combining herbs with metals, minerals, and gems). Whether toxic metals are present in both US- and Indian-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines is unknown. Objectives To determine the prevalence of Ayurvedic medicines available via the Internet containing detectable lead, mercury, or arsenic and to compare the prevalence of toxic metals in US- vs Indian-manufactured medicines and between rasa shastra and non–rasa shastra medicines. Design A search using 5 Internet search engines and the search terms Ayurveda and Ayurvedic medicine identified 25 Web sites offering traditional Ayurvedic herbs, formulas, or ingredients commonly used in Ayurveda, indicated for oral use, and available for sale. From 673 identified products, 230 Ayurvedic medicines were randomly selected for purchase in August–October 2005. Country of manufacturer/Web site supplier, rasa shastra status, and claims of Good Manufacturing Practices were recorded. Metal concentrations were measured using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of medicines with detectable toxic metals in the entire sample and stratified by country of manufacture and rasa shastra status. Results One hundred ninety-three of the 230 requested medicines were received and analyzed. The prevalence of metal-containing products was 20.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.2%–27.1%). The prevalence of metals in US-manufactured products was 21.7% (95% CI, 14.6%–30.4%) compared with 19.5% (95% CI, 11.3%–30.1%) in Indian products (P=.86). Rasa shastra compared with non–rasa shastra medicines had a greater prevalence of metals (40.6% vs 17.1%; P=.007) and higher median concentrations of lead (11.5 μg/g vs 7.0 μg/g; P=.03) and mercury (20 800 μg/g vs 34.5 μg/g; P=.04). Among the metal-containing products, 95

  17. Lead, mercury, and arsenic in US- and Indian-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines sold via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Saper, Robert B; Phillips, Russell S; Sehgal, Anusha; Khouri, Nadia; Davis, Roger B; Paquin, Janet; Thuppil, Venkatesh; Kales, Stefanos N

    2008-08-27

    Lead, mercury, and arsenic have been detected in a substantial proportion of Indian-manufactured traditional Ayurvedic medicines. Metals may be present due to the practice of rasa shastra (combining herbs with metals, minerals, and gems). Whether toxic metals are present in both US- and Indian-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines is unknown. To determine the prevalence of Ayurvedic medicines available via the Internet containing detectable lead, mercury, or arsenic and to compare the prevalence of toxic metals in US- vs Indian-manufactured medicines and between rasa shastra and non-rasa shastra medicines. A search using 5 Internet search engines and the search terms Ayurveda and Ayurvedic medicine identified 25 Web sites offering traditional Ayurvedic herbs, formulas, or ingredients commonly used in Ayurveda, indicated for oral use, and available for sale. From 673 identified products, 230 Ayurvedic medicines were randomly selected for purchase in August-October 2005. Country of manufacturer/Web site supplier, rasa shastra status, and claims of Good Manufacturing Practices were recorded. Metal concentrations were measured using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Prevalence of medicines with detectable toxic metals in the entire sample and stratified by country of manufacture and rasa shastra status. One hundred ninety-three of the 230 requested medicines were received and analyzed. The prevalence of metal-containing products was 20.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.2%-27.1%). The prevalence of metals in US-manufactured products was 21.7% (95% CI, 14.6%-30.4%) compared with 19.5% (95% CI, 11.3%-30.1%) in Indian products (P = .86). Rasa shastra compared with non-rasa shastra medicines had a greater prevalence of metals (40.6% vs 17.1%; P = .007) and higher median concentrations of lead (11.5 microg/g vs 7.0 microg/g; P = .03) and mercury (20,800 microg/g vs 34.5 microg/g; P = .04). Among the metal-containing products, 95% were sold by US Web sites and 75% claimed Good

  18. Determination of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc in Vegetables in Jaipur (India).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Verma, P S

    2014-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectroscopic method was used for the determination of Lead, Cadmium and Zinc in vegetables grown in and around Jaipur food stuffs irrigated with industrial waste water. Vegetable samples were collected after maturity, and analyzed, such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea), ladyfinger (Abelmoschus esulentus), pepper mint (Menthe pipereta), brinjal (Solanum melongena), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), onion (Allium cepa), radish (Raphanus sativus), pointedgourd (Trichosanthes dioica), bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria), chilies (Capsicum annum), ribbedgourd (Luffa acutangula) and pumpkin (Curcurbites pepo). The concentration of Lead ranged between 1.40-71.06 ppm, Cadmium 0.61-34.48 ppm and Zinc 0.39-187.26 ppm in vegetable samples. The results reveal that urban consumers are at greater risk of purchasing fresh vegetables with high levels of heavy metal, beyond the permissible limits, as defined by the Indian Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and WHO.

  19. VO2+ ions in zinc lead borate glasses studied by EPR and optical absorption techniques.

    PubMed

    Prakash, P Giri; Rao, J Lakshmana

    2005-09-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption spectra of vanadyl ions in zinc lead borate (ZnO-PbO-B2O3) glass system have been studied. EPR spectra of all the glass samples exhibit resonance signals characteristic of VO2+ ions. The values of spin-Hamiltonian parameters indicate that the VO2+ ions in zinc lead borate glasses were present in octahedral sites with tetragonal compression and belong to C4V symmetry. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters g and A are found to be independent of V2O5 content and temperature but changing with ZnO content. The decrease in Deltag( parallel)/Deltag( perpendicular) value with increase in ZnO content indicates that the symmetry around VO2+ ions is more octahedral. The decrease in intensity of EPR signal above 10 mol% of V2O5 is attributed to a fall in the ratio of the number of V4+ ions (N4) to the number of V5+ ions (N5). The number of spins (N) participating in resonance was calculated as a function of temperature for VO2+ doped zinc lead borate glass sample and the activation energy was calculated. From the EPR data, the paramagnetic susceptibility was calculated at various temperatures and the Curie constant was evaluated from the 1/chi-T graph. The optical absorption spectra show single absorption band due to VO2+ ions in tetragonally distorted octahedral sites.

  20. Biosorption of lead, cadmium, and zinc by Citrobacter strain MCM B-181: Characterization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Puranik, P.R.; Paknikar, K.M.

    1999-03-01

    The biosorption process for removal of lead, cadmium, and zinc by Citrobacter strain MCM B-181, a laboratory isolate, was characterized. Effects of environmental factors and growth conditions on metal uptake capacity were studied. Pretreatment of biomass with chemical agents increased cadmium sorption efficiency; however, there was no significant enhancement in lead and zinc sorption capacity. Metal sorption by Citrobacter strain MCM B-181 was found to be influenced by the pH of the solution, initial metal concentration, biomass concentration, and type of growth medium. The metal sorption process was not affected by the age of the culture or change in temperature.more » Equilibrium metal sorption was found to fit the Langmuir adsorption model. Kinetic studies showed that metal uptake by Citrobacter strain MCm B-181 was a fast process, requiring < 20 min to achieve > 90% adsorption efficiency. The presence of cations reduced lead, zinc, and cadmium sorption to the extent of 11.8%, 84.3%, and 33.4%, respectively. When biomass was exposed to multimetal solutions, metals were adsorbed in the order Co{sup 2+} < Ni{sup 2+} < Cd{sup 2+} < Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} < Pb{sup 2+}. A new mathematical model used for batch kinetic studies was found to be highly useful in prediction of experimentally obtained metal concentration profiles as a function of time.« less

  1. Geological and Geochemical Characteristics of Skarn Type Lead-Zinc Deposit in Baoshan Block, Yunnan Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xue; Wang, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Baoshan block is an important Pb-Zn-Fe-Cu polymetallic ore-concentration area which is located in southern of the Sanjiang metallogenic belt in western Yunnan. The article is studying about the geological and geochemical characteristics of the skarn type lead-zinc deposit in Baoshan block. The skarn-type lead-zinc deposit Baoshan block is characterized by skarn and skarn marble, and the orebodies are layered, or bedded along the interlayer fault, which are significantly controlled by structure. The research about Stable isotope S, H and O indicates that the ore-forming fluids are mainly derived from magmatic water, partly mixed with parts of metamorphic water and atmospheric precipitation. The initial Sr isotopic Sr87/Sr86 ratio suggests that the ore-forming materials derived from deep concealed magmatic rock, age of Rb-Sr mineralization is similar to that of Yanshanian granite. In conclusion, the Yanshanian tectonic-magmatic-fluid coupling mineralization of Yanshan formation is the main reason for the skarn-type lead-zinc deposit in the Baoshan block.

  2. Rapid, efficient charging of lead-acid and nickel-zinc traction cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Lead-acid and nickel-zinc traction cells were rapidly and efficiently charged using a high rate tapered direct current (HRTDC) charge method which could possibly be used for on-the-road service recharge of electric vehicles. The HRTDC method takes advantage of initial high cell charge acceptance and uses cell gassing rate and temperature as an indicator of charging efficiency. On the average, in these preliminary tests, 300 amp-hour nickel-zinc traction cells were given a HRTDC (initial current 500 amps, final current 100 amps) to 78 percent of rated amp-hour capacity within 53 minutes at an amp-hour efficiency of 92 percent and an energy efficiency of 52 percent. Three hundred amp-hour lead-acid traction cells were charged to 69 percent of rated amp-hour capacity within 46 minutes at an amp-hour efficiency of 91 percent with an energy efficiency of 64 percent. In order to find ways to further decrease the recharge times, the effect of periodically (0 to 400 Hz) pulse discharging cells during a constant current charging process (94% duty cycle) was investigated. Preliminary data indicate no significant effect of this type of pulse discharging during charge on charge acceptance of lead-acid or nickel-zinc cells.

  3. Single and Combined Exposure to Zinc- and Copper-Containing Welding Fumes Lead to Asymptomatic Systemic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Markert, Agnieszka; Baumann, Ralf; Gerhards, Benjamin; Gube, Monika; Kossack, Veronika; Kraus, Thomas; Brand, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Recently, it has been shown that exposure to welding fumes containing both zinc and copper leads to asymptomatic systemic inflammation in humans as shown by an increase of blood C-reactive protein. In the present study, it was investigated which metal is responsible for this effect. Fifteen healthy male subjects were exposed under controlled conditions to welding fumes containing either zinc, or copper, or copper and zinc. For each exposure blood C-reactive protein increased. Copper- and zinc-containing welding fumes are able to induce systemic inflammation.

  4. Role of cobalt, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, platinum, selenium, and titanium in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kazantzis, G

    1981-01-01

    The possible carcinogenicity of cobalt, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, platinum, selenium, and titanium is reviewed, taking into account epidemiological data, the results of animal experimental studies, data on mutagenic effects and on other in vitro test systems. Of the great variety of occupations where exposure to one of these metals may occur, only haematite mining has been clearly shown to involve an increased human cancer risk. While the possibility that haematite might in some way act as a carcinogen has to be taken into consideration it is more likely that other carcinogens are responsible. Certain platinum coordination complexes are used in cancer chemotherapy, are mutagenic, and likely to be carcinogenic. Cobalt, its oxide and sulfide, certain lead salts, one organomanganese, and one organotitanium compound have been shown to have a limited carcinogenic effect in experimental animal studies, and except for titanium appear to be mutagenic. Certain mercury compounds are mutagenic but none have been shown to be carcinogenic. The presently available data are inadequate to assess the possible carcinogenicity of selenium compounds, but a few observations suggest that selenium may suppress the effect of other carcinogens administered to experimental animals and may even be associated with lower cancer mortality rates in man. Epidemiological observations are essential for the assessment of a human cancer risk, but the difficulty in collecting past exposure data in occupational groups and the complexity of multiple occupational exposures with changes over time, limits the usefulness of retrospective epidemiological studies. PMID:7023929

  5. [Evaluation of cadmium, mercury and lead intake with reproduced weekly food rations].

    PubMed

    Marzec, Z; Buliński, R

    1991-01-01

    In Lublin, Olsztyn, Poznań, Warszawa and Wrocław, weekly food rations characteristic of families other than those of manual workers, with medium incomes, were reproduced. Food rations comprised ca. 90 food products whose average weekly intakes were established consistently with the results of questionnaires of the Chief Census Bureau. Namely, from these results we calculated and prepared the average weekly food rations (from 11 470 g to 14 732 g), in which cadmium, mercury and lead were assayed by the ASA method. These average food rations afforded weekly intakes of 105-147 micrograms Cd, 441-931 micrograms Pb and 50.5-119.0 micrograms Hg. According to these results, the average food rations from the above-mentioned cities are moderately contaminated with the heavy metals tested, because in no case 50% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) were exceeded. The present results are lower than those obtained in the same year for families of manual workers; this is probably due to the fact that in the families of manual workers, as compared with other families, the weight of meals is usually higher. It is noteworthy that in the cities with greater numbers of industrial plants the contents of the metals tested, particularly of mercury and lead, in food are higher.

  6. Cadmium, lead and mercury levels in feeding yeast produced in Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed

    Cibulka, J; Turecki, T; Miholová, D; Mader, P; Száková, J; Brabec, M

    1992-04-01

    Ninety-six samples of the feeding yeast known as VITEX were analyzed for Cd, Pb and Hg content during 1987-1989. Cadmium content ranged from 0.30 to 5.12 mg/kg(-1), lead content from 0.21 to 3.01 mg/kg(-1) and mercury content from 0.008 to 0.187 mg/kg(-1). Our findings meet the current government standards (max. allowed Pb = 5.00, Cd = 0.50 and Hg = 0.100 mg/kg(-1)) only for lead, and with five exceptions, for mercury. With two exceptions, all cadmium levels found in the samples exceeded the limit. One raw material - the wood chips - was shown to be the main source of cadmium in the technological process. Relatively high Hg contents were measured in the wood chips (up to 0.155 mg/kg(-1)); the highest Hg level (1.105 mg/kg(-1)) however was found in a sample of KOH.

  7. THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MERCURY, LEAD AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN DEVELOPMENT OF AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Frank O.; Atchison, William

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to an environmental toxicant as a risk factor in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was first hinted (demonstrated) in the Chamorro indigenous people of Guam. During the 1950s and 1960s these indigenous people presented an extremely high incidence of ALS which was presumed to be associated with the consumption of flying fox and cycad seeds. No other strong association between ALS and environmental toxicants has since been reported, although circumstantial epidemiological evidence has implicated exposure to heavy metals such as lead and mercury, industrial solvents and exposure to pesticides especially organophosphates and certain occupations such as playing soccer. Given that only ~10% of all ALS diagnosis has a genetic basis, a gene-environmental interaction provides a plausible explanation for the other 90% of cases. This mini-review provides an overview of our current knowledge of environmental etiologies of ALS with emphasis on the effects of mercury, lead and pesticides as potential risk factors in developing ALS. Epidemiologic and experimental evidence from animal models investigating the possible association between exposure to environmental toxicant and ALS disease has proven inconclusive. Nonetheless, there are indications that there may be causal links, and a need for more research. PMID:19632272

  8. Significant deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.; DeYoung, J.H.; Ludington, S.

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 99 percent of past production and remaining identified resources of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States are accounted for by deposits that originally contained at least 2 metric tonnes (t) gold, 85 t silver, 50,000 t copper, 30,000 t lead, or 50,000 t zinc. The U.S. Geological Survey, beginning with the 1996 National Mineral Resource Assessment, is systematically compiling data on these deposits, collectively known as 'significant' deposits. As of December 31, 1996, the significant deposits database contained 1,118 entries corresponding to individual deposits or mining districts. Maintaining, updating and analyzing a database of this size is much easier than managing the more than 100,000 records in the Mineral Resource Data System and Minerals Availability System/Minerals Industry Location System, yet the significant deposits database accounts for almost all past production and remaining identified resources of these metals in the United States. About 33 percent of gold, 22 percent of silver, 42 percent of copper, 39 percent of lead, and 46 percent of zinc are contained in or were produced from deposits discovered after World War II. Even within a database of significant deposits, a disproportionate share of past production and remaining resources is accounted for by a very small number of deposits. The largest 10 producers for each metal account for one third of the gold, 60 percent of the silver, 68 percent of the copper, 85 percent of the lead, and 75 percent of the zinc produced in the United States. The 10 largest deposits in terms of identified remaining resources of each of the five metals contain 43 percent of the gold, 56 percent of the silver, 48 percent of the copper, 94 percent of the lead, and 72 percent of the zinc. Identified resources in significant deposits for each metal are less than the mean estimates of resources in undiscovered deposits from the 1996 U.S. National Mineral Resource Assessment. Identified

  9. l-Arginine normalizes NOS activity and zinc-MT homeostasis in the kidney of mice chronically exposed to inorganic mercury.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Francesco; Malavolta, Marco; Cipriano, Catia; Costarelli, Laura; Giacconi, Robertina; Muti, Elisa; Tesei, Silvia; Pierpaoli, Sara; Basso, Andrea; Bracci, Massimo; Bonacucina, Viviana; Santarelli, Lory; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2009-09-28

    Inorganic mercury (HgCl2) exposure provokes damage in many organs, especially kidney. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, total NOS activity and the profiles of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and Hg as well as their distribution when bound to specific intracellular proteins, including metallothioneins (MT), were studied during HgCl2 exposure and after l-arginine treatment in C57BL/6 mouse kidney. HgCl2 exposure modulates differently iNOS expression and NOS activity, increasing iNOS expression but, conversely, decreasing total NOS activity in the mouse kidney. Moreover, during Hg exposure an increased MT production occurs. The kidney damage leads to a loss of urinary proteins, increased plasma creatinine and high Zn mobilization with consequent increased urinary Zn excretion. l-arginine treatment recovers NOS activity and induces a normalization of MT induction, plasma creatinine values and urinary proteins excretion, suggesting that l-arginine may limit kidney damages by Hg exposure.

  10. Removal of metals from lead-zinc mine tailings using bioleaching and followed by sulfide precipitation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Maoyou; Li, Guojian; Yan, Pingfang; Ren, Jie; Zheng, Li; Han, Dajian; Sun, Shuiyu; Huang, Shaosong; Zhong, Yujian

    2017-10-01

    Mine tailings often contain significant amounts of metals and sulfide, many traditional operations used to minerals was not as good as those currently available. This study investigated metals removal from lead-zinc mine tailings using bioleaching and followed by sulfide precipitation. Metals were dissolved from the tailings by the bacteria in a bioleaching reactor. During a 10% pulp density bioleaching experiment, approximately 0.82% Pb, 97.38% Zn, and 71.37% Fe were extracted after 50 days. With the pulp density of 10% and 20%, the dissolution of metals followed shrinking core kinetic model. Metals (Pb, Zn, and Fe) present in the pregnant bioleaching leachate. Metals were next precipitated as a sulfide phase using sodium sulfide (Na 2 S). Metal precipitations were selectively and quantitatively produced from the bioleaching leachate by adding Na 2 S. More than 99% of the zinc and 75% of the iron was precipitated using 25 g/L Na 2 S in the bioleaching leachate. The results in the study were to provide useful information for recovering or removing metals from lead-zinc mine tailings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural Attenuation of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Zinc Using Hydrograph Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, J. E.; Peters, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    Strategies for remediating contaminated sites range from complete removal of the contaminated soil to in-situ monitored natural attenuation. The decision to let a property naturally attenuate is partially based on the estimated time it will take to return to ambient conditions. The Lehigh Gap Wildlife Refuge at Palmerton, PA was historically contaminated with arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc from a zinc smelting operation that ceased emissions twenty-nine years ago. This property provides an opportunity to assess whether the length of time required for the natural attenuation of metals in soil has been achieved using a watershed mass balance approach, focusing particularly on perturbations observed in the concentration-discharge relationships of contaminants compared to the conservative tracers sodium and chloride, and silicon as an indicator of rock-water interactions. Water samples were collected from 3 springs in the Wildlife Refuge for approximately 4 days following the onset of storm events and analyzed for cation and anion concentrations. Preliminary results show that while the concentrations of arsenic and lead were below detection limits, the fluxes of zinc and cadmium increase corresponding with the peak in the hydrograph relative to the fluxes of the tracers, indicating the solutes are being released from adsorption sites located in an unsaturated zone that is temporarily inundated during storm events. In comparison, the flux of the tracers remains constant, indicative of a steady-state leakage of the solutes from their respective reservoirs in the soil. Along with flux, the concentrations of zinc and cadmium also increase following the rise in discharge after storm events, further suggesting that these contaminants are being mobilized out of the soil profile.

  12. Geochemical background of zinc, cadmium and mercury in anthropically influenced soils in a semi-arid zone (SE, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lorenzo, M. L.; Pérez-Sirvent, C.; Martínez-Sánchez, M. J.; Molina, J.; Tudela, M. L.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2009-04-01

    This work seeks to establish the geochemical background for three potentially toxic trace elements (Zn, Cd and Hg) in a pilot zone included in the DesertNet project in the province of Murcia. The studied area, known as Campo de Cartagena, Murcia (SE Spain) is an area of intensive agriculture and has been much affected over the years by anthropic activity. The zone can be considered an experimental pilot zone for establishing background levels in agricultural soils. Sixty four samples were collected and corresponded to areas subjected to high and similar agricultural activity or soils with natural vegetation, which correspond to abandoned agricultural areas. The Zn content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Cd content was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry and mercury content was determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Geostatistical analysis consisting of kriging and mapping was performed using the geostatistical analyst extension of ArcGIS 8.3. Zinc values ranged from 10 mg kg-1 to 151 mg kg-1, with an average value of 45 mg kg-1. Cadmium values ranged between 0.1 mg kg-1 and 0.9mg kg-1, with a mean value of 0.3 mg kg-1 and mercury values ranged from 0.1 mg kg-1 to 2.3 mg kg-1, with a mean value of 0.5 mg kg-1. At a national level, the Spanish Royal Decree 9/2005 proposes toxicological and statistical approaches to establish background values. According to the statistical approach, background values consist of the median value for the selected element. The background values for Zn, Cd and Hg in the studied area were 40 mg kg-1 for Zn, 0.3 mg kg-1 for Cd and 0.4 mg kg-1 for Hg.

  13. Assimilation of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, and iron by the spider Dysdera crocata, a predator of woodlice

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkin, S.P.; Martin, M.H.

    1985-02-01

    In this paper, an experiment is described on the assimilation of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and iron by Dysdera crocata collected from a site in central Bristol. The spiders were fed on woodlice from their own site, and on woodlice from a site contaminated by a smelting works which contained much higher levels of zinc, cadmium and lead than the spiders would have been used to in their normal diet.

  14. Concentrations and sources of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in house dust in Christchurch, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kim, N; Fergusson, J

    1993-09-30

    The amounts (microgram m-2) and concentrations (microgram g-1) of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc have been measured in house dust in Christchurch, New Zealand. For 120 houses surveyed the geometric mean concentrations of the four metals are 4.24 micrograms g-1, 165 micrograms g-1, 573 micrograms g-1 and 10,400 micrograms g-1, respectively. In addition eleven variables, such as house age, carpet wear and traffic density, were recorded for each property and the results analysed with respect to their effects on the amounts and concentrations of the four elements. The amounts of all the metals were highly correlated with the overall dustiness of the houses, which was found to be predominantly determined by the degree of carpet wear. No one dominant source of cadmium was identified, although several minor sources including carpet wear, galvanized iron roofs and red/orange/yellow coloured carpets were implicated. Petrol lead and lead-based paints were identified as significant sources of lead in house dust. Rubber carpet underlays or backings were identified as a significant source of zinc, with some contribution from galvanized iron roofs. Road traffic and probably the existence of a fire place appear to contribute to the copper levels.

  15. Cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure assessment among croatian consumers of free-living game.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Maja; Prevendar Crnić, Andreja; Bilandžić, Nina; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven

    2014-09-29

    Free-living game can be an important source of dietary cadmium and lead; the question is whether exposure to these two elements is such that it might cause adverse health effects in the consumers. The aim of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to cadmium, lead, and mercury from free-living big game (fallow deer, roe deer, red deer, wild boar, and brown bear), and to mercury from small game (pheasant and hare), hunted in Croatia from 1990 to 2012. The exposure assessment was based on available literature data and our own measurements of metal levels in the tissues of the game, by taking into account different consumption frequencies (four times a year, once a month and once a week). Exposure was expressed as percentage of (provisional) tolerable weekly intake [(P)TWI] values set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Consumption of game meat (0.002-0.5 % PTWI) and liver (0.005-6 % PTWI) assumed for the general population (four times a year) does not pose a health risk to consumers from the general population, nor does monthly (0.02-6 % PTWI) and weekly (0.1-24 % PTWI) consumption of game meat. However, because of the high percentage of free-living game liver and kidney samples exceeding the legislative limits for cadmium (2-99 %) and lead (1-82 %), people should keep the consumption of certain game species' offal as low as possible. Children and pregnant and lactating women should avoid eating game offal altogether. Free-living game liver could be an important source of cadmium if consumed on a monthly basis (3-74 % TWI), and if consumed weekly (11-297 % TWI), it could even give rise to toxicological concern.

  16. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    SciTech Connect

    Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se; Fabricius-Lagging, Elisabeth; Lundh, Thomas

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and coldmore » vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 {mu}g/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 {mu}g/g for mercury, and 0.08 {mu}g/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 {mu}g/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 {mu}g/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 {mu}g/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.« less

  17. Convective forcing of mercury and ozone in the Arctic boundary layer induced by leads in sea ice.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher W; Obrist, Daniel; Steffen, Alexandra; Staebler, Ralf M; Douglas, Thomas A; Richter, Andreas; Nghiem, Son V

    2014-02-06

    The ongoing regime shift of Arctic sea ice from perennial to seasonal ice is associated with more dynamic patterns of opening and closing sea-ice leads (large transient channels of open water in the ice), which may affect atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles in the Arctic. Mercury and ozone are rapidly removed from the atmospheric boundary layer during depletion events in the Arctic, caused by destruction of ozone along with oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) to oxidized mercury (Hg(II)) in the atmosphere and its subsequent deposition to snow and ice. Ozone depletion events can change the oxidative capacity of the air by affecting atmospheric hydroxyl radical chemistry, whereas atmospheric mercury depletion events can increase the deposition of mercury to the Arctic, some of which can enter ecosystems during snowmelt. Here we present near-surface measurements of atmospheric mercury and ozone from two Arctic field campaigns near Barrow, Alaska. We find that coastal depletion events are directly linked to sea-ice dynamics. A consolidated ice cover facilitates the depletion of Hg(0) and ozone, but these immediately recover to near-background concentrations in the upwind presence of open sea-ice leads. We attribute the rapid recoveries of Hg(0) and ozone to lead-initiated shallow convection in the stable Arctic boundary layer, which mixes Hg(0) and ozone from undepleted air masses aloft. This convective forcing provides additional Hg(0) to the surface layer at a time of active depletion chemistry, where it is subject to renewed oxidation. Future work will need to establish the degree to which large-scale changes in sea-ice dynamics across the Arctic alter ozone chemistry and mercury deposition in fragile Arctic ecosystems.

  18. Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Mercury and Selenium Concentrations in Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) from the New Jersey Pine Barrens.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Zappalorti, Robert; Pittfield, Taryn; DeVito, Emile

    2017-05-01

    Top trophic level predators are at risk from bioaccumulation of heavy metals from their prey. Using nondestructively collected tissues as a method of assessing metal concentrations in snakes is useful for populations that are threatened or declining. This paper reports concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in tissues of Northern pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) from the New Jersey Pine Barrens, a relatively pristine, undisturbed habitat. We also determined if skin is an appropriate indicator of internal concentrations and identified the factors (tissue, year of collection, length, sex) that might explain variations in metal concentrations. Because they can grow to 2-m long and live for 25 years, we suggest that these snakes might accumulate heavy metals. Multiple regression models were significant, explaining 16% (lead) to 61% (mercury) of variation by tissue type. For mercury and chromium, size also was significant. The highest concentrations were in liver and kidney for all metals, except chromium and lead. Mercury concentrations in tissues were within the range reported for other snakes and were below effects concentrations in reptiles. The concentrations in skin were correlated with all internal tissues for mercury and for all internal tissues except heart for cadmium. These data show that shed skin can be used as an indicator of metals in pine snakes and that, at present, concentrations of heavy metals in this population are within the range of those found in other snake species from uncontaminated sites.

  19. Radioactive zinc ( sup 65 Zn), zinc, cadmium, and mercury in the Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus (Ayres), off the West Coast of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, J.R.

    1974-06-01

    The Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus (Ayers) was used to monitor the waters off Puget Sound and the West Coast of the US for zinc(Zn), cadmium(Cd), mercury(Hg) and {sup 65}Zn. The Columbia River is not the source of Zn, Cd or Hg contamination, but is the source of {sup 65}Zn, with the concentration in the Hake reflecting the position of the Columbia River plume. Zn and Cd accumulation in the Hake were fit to the equation Y=B{sub 1}+B{sub 2}e{sup B}{sub 3}X where Y is the concentration of the element and X is the length or weight of the fish. Biological attributesmore » were assigned to the other parameters as follows: B{sub 1} is the asymptotic value for Zn or Cd at chemical maturity; B{sub 2} is the location of the curve with respect to the length or weight of the fish; and B{sub 3} is a constant pertaining to the rate of change of Zn or Cd. Although Zn, Cd and Hg are all Group 2B elements, only the concentrations of Zn and Cd were correlated for all locations; Hg concentrations varied as a function of location. Zn and Cd concentrations increase with fish size and approach an asymptotic value at maturity, while Hg concentrations were linear and the slope is a function of sampling location. Zn and Cd levels are regulated in the adult, while Hg continues to increase with age. It may be significant that the age distribution of fish caught commercially coincides with the maximum concentration of Zn and Cd. 195 refs., 30 figs., 10 tabs. (MHB)« less

  20. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Butler Walker, Jody; Houseman, Jan; Seddon, Laura

    Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and the trace elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are reported for Inuit, Dene/Metis, Caucasian, and Other nonaboriginal participants from Arctic Canada. This is the first human tissue monitoring program covering the entire Northwest Territories and Nunavut for multiple contaminants and establishes a baseline upon which future comparisons can be made. Results for chlorinated organic pesticides and PCBs for these participants have been reported elsewhere. Between May 1994 and June 1999, 523 women volunteered to participate by giving their written informed consent, resulting in themore » collection of 386 maternal blood samples, 407 cord samples, and 351 cord:maternal paired samples. Geometric mean (GM) maternal total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.87{mu}g/L (SD=1.95) in the Caucasian group of participants (n=134) to 3.51{mu}g/L (SD=8.30) in the Inuit group (n=146). The GM of the Inuit group was 2.6-fold higher than that of the Dene/Metis group (1.35{mu}g/L, SD=1.60, n=92) and significantly higher than those of all other groups (P<0.0001). Of Inuit women participants, 3% (n=4) were within Health Canada's level of concern range (20-99{mu}g/L) for methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. Of Inuit and Dene/Metis cord samples, 56% (n=95) and 5% (n=4), respectively, exceeded 5.8{mu}g/L MeHg, the revised US Environmental Protection Agency lower benchmark dose. GM maternal Pb was significantly higher in Dene/Metis (30.9{mu}g/L or 3.1{mu}g/dL; SD=29.1{mu}g/L) and Inuit (31.6{mu}g/L, SD=38.3) participants compared with the Caucasian group (20.6{mu}g/L, SD=17.9) (P<0.0001). Half of all participants were smokers. GM blood Cd in moderate smokers (1-8 cigarettes/day) and in heavy smokers (>8 cigarettes/day) was 7.4-fold higher and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, than in nonsmokers. The high percentage of smokers among Inuit (77%) and Dene/Metis (48%) participants highlights the

  1. Statistical assessment of a sampling pattern for evaluation of changes in mercury and zinc concentrations in Patella coerulea

    SciTech Connect

    Puel, D.; Zsuerger, N.; Breittmayer, J.P.

    1987-04-01

    The validity and representativeness of sampling, whether in temporal or in geographic terms, are always a problematical aspect of the evaluation of metal pollution in coastal sea water. Numerous field studies have underscored the great variety in metal levels in a given site, even in the very short term. The choice of sedentary test species disposes of the variation factor associated with those that move from place to place. Because they are ubiquitous and easy to collect, mollusks have very often been used for this purpose. This is particularly true of the mussel and the oyster because they are eatenmore » by man. The limpet (Patella) is a primary herbivore consumer and would seem an equally elective test organism. Its very localized feeding habits (grazing the algae colonizing the rocks where it lives) are less prone to sudden changes than those of the filtering mollusks. Indeed, it has already been employed in campaigns evaluating pollution by hydrocarbons and metals. To be able to compare several areas in this way, however, or follow their progress over the course of time, it is essential to work out a representative sampling plan. This paper reports an investigation of this aspect of the question with regard to two metals: mercury, which is toxic and plays no part in any natural metabolic process, and zinc, a cation required in weak concentrations by certain enzyme systems.« less

  2. Differential toxicity of copper, zinc, and lead during the embryonic development of Chasmagnathus granulatus (Brachyura, Varunidae).

    PubMed

    Lavolpe, Mariano; Greco, Laura López; Kesselman, Daniela; Rodríguez, Enrique

    2004-04-01

    Ovigerous females of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulatus were exposed to copper (0.01 and 1 mg/L), zinc (0.05, 1, and 10 mg/L), or lead (0.01 and 1 mg/L) during early, late, or whole embryonic development. None of the assayed heavy metals produced a significant mortality of females, neither a decrease in the number of hatched larvae nor a decrease in the egg incubation time, but several morphological abnormalities were detected in hatched larvae. The abnormalities were classified in three categories: eye, body pigmentary, and body morphological abnormalities. Those larvae with eye and body pigmentary abnormalities, particularly those involving retinal pigments and chromatophores, showed the highest incidence by exposure to the assayed metals. In addition, embryos were more susceptible to copper and zinc during the late period of development, whereas the effect of lead was greater during the early period of embryogenesis. Some teratogenic effects observed in C. granulatus embryos exposed to heavy metals, particularly the hypertrophy and hypopigmentation of eyes observed in the laboratory at a lead concentration as low as that reported for the natural environment, could be considered as sensitive biomarkers for this kind of pollutant.

  3. Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Creekmore, L.H.; Fowler, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    We found up to 10 ppm wet weight of selenium in blood samples collected from emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon‐Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. Incubating adult females captured in late May through mid‐June 1997 had significantly higher concentrations of selenium in their blood (mean = 5.60 ppm) than adult females captured during wing molt in late July 1996 (mean = 2.78 ppm). Females that nested early or were in good body condition had higher concentrations of selenium in their blood than did other nesting females. Blood samples from 4 of 29 goslings had detectable levels of selenium (mean = 0.14 ppm). Our findings suggest that emperor geese are exposed to more selenium in the marine environment of their wintering and staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula than on the breeding grounds. The highest concentration of mercury found in the blood of emperor geese was 0.24 ppm. One bird had a blood lead concentration of 0.67 ppm, but 82% had no detectable lead in their blood, suggesting that lead exposure from the ingestion of lead shot poses little threat for emperor geese in western Alaska, contrary to findings reported for sympatric spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

  4. Lead and mercury in fall migrant golden eagles from western North America.

    PubMed

    Langner, Heiko W; Domenech, Robert; Slabe, Vincent A; Sullivan, Sean P

    2015-07-01

    Lead exposure from ingestion of bullet fragments is a serious environmental hazard to eagles. We determined blood lead levels (BLL) in 178 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured during fall migration along a major North American flyway. These eagles spent the breeding season distributed over a large range and are the best currently available representation of free flying golden eagles on the continent. We found 58 % of these eagles containing increased BLL > 0.1 mg/L; 10 % were clinically lead poisoned with BLL > 0.6 mg/L; and 4 % were lethally exposed with BLL > 1.2 mg/L. No statistical difference in BLL existed between golden and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Golden eagles captured on carrion had higher BLL than those captured using live bait suggesting differences in feeding habits among individuals. Median BLL increased with age class. We propose a conceptual model for the long-term increase in BLL after ingestion of lead particles. The mean blood mercury level in golden eagles was 0.023 mg/L. We evaluate a field test for BLL that is based on anodic stripping voltammetry. This cost-effective and immediate method correlated well with results from inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, although results needed to be corrected for each calibration of the test kit.

  5. The contents and distributions of cadmium, mercury, and lead in Usnea antarctica lichens from Solorina Valley, James Ross Island (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Zvěřina, Ondřej; Coufalík, Pavel; Barták, Miloš; Petrov, Michal; Komárek, Josef

    2017-12-11

    Lichens are efficient and cost-effective biomonitors of the environment. Their geographic distribution together with their slow growth rate enable investigation of the deposition patterns of various elements and substances. In this research, levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in Usnea antarctica lichens in the area of James Ross Island, Antarctica, were investigated. The lichens were microwave-digested, and the metals were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace and a direct mercury analyzer. Median total contents of Cd, Hg, and Pb were 0.04, 0.47, and 1.6 mg/kg in whole lichens, respectively. The bottom-up distributions of these metals in the fruticose lichen thalli were investigated, and it was revealed that the accumulation patterns for mercury and lead were opposite to that for cadmium. The probable reason for this phenomenon may lie in the inner structure of thalli. The total contents of metals were comparable with those published for other unpolluted areas of maritime Antarctica. However, this finding was not expected for mercury, since the sampling locality was close to an area with some of the highest mercury contents published for Antarctic lichens. In short, lichens proved their usability as biological monitors, even in harsh conditions. However, the findings emphasize the need to take into account the distributions of elements both in the environment and in the lichen itself.

  6. The effects of CaEDTA injection on lead, zinc, copper and ALAD in erythrocyte, plasma and urine in lead-exposed workers: a 24-h observation.

    PubMed

    Aono, H; Araki, S

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (CaEDTA) on the concentrations of lead, zinc and copper in plasma, erythrocyte and urine, and the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in erythrocyte, we administered CaEDTA in 1-h intravenous infusion to ten male gun metal founders with blood-lead concentration of 39 to 64 micrograms/dl (mean 49 micrograms/dl). We found that the plasma concentration of lead, following a rapid rise within the first 3 h, fell temporarily to the level significantly lower than the initial level 19 h after start of the infusion. The plasma concentration of zinc fell to the minimal level 5 h after the infusion; and the erythrocyte concentration of zinc and the ALAD activity concurrently rose to the maximal level 5 h after the infusion. By contrast, no significant alteration was observed in the concentrations of copper in plasma and erythrocyte. The maximal level of urinary metal excretion was attained during the period between 1 and 2 h after start of CaEDTA infusion for lead; within 2 h for zinc; and between 2 and 4 h for copper. The urinary metal excretion returned to the initial level 14 to 24 h after infusion for zinc and copper; but lead excretion was still higher than the initial level during this period. The difference in the kinetics of the three metals following CaEDTA injection is discussed in the light of these findings.

  7. Loading estimates of lead, copper, cadmium, and zinc in urban runoff from specific sources.

    PubMed

    Davis, A P; Shokouhian, M; Ni, S

    2001-08-01

    Urban stormwater runoff is being recognized as a substantial source of pollutants to receiving waters. A number of investigators have found significant levels of metals in runoff from urban areas, especially in highway runoff. As an initiatory study, this work estimates lead, copper, cadmium, and zinc loadings from various sources in a developed area utilizing information available in the literature, in conjunction with controlled experimental and sampling investigations. Specific sources examined include building siding and roofs; automobile brakes, tires, and oil leakage; and wet and dry atmospheric deposition. Important sources identified are building siding for all four metals, vehicle brake emissions for copper and tire wear for zinc. Atmospheric deposition is an important source for cadmium, copper, and lead. Loadings and source distributions depend on building and automobile density assumptions and the type of materials present in the area examined. Identified important sources are targeted for future comprehensive mechanistic studies. Improved information on the metal release and distributions from the specific sources, along with detailed characterization of watershed areas will allow refinements in the predictions.

  8. Recycling of Zinc- and Lead-Bearing Residues with Pyrolysis Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, C.; Antrekowitsch, J.

    2015-09-01

    Efforts in the metallurgical industry for an approximation to the zero waste concept has led to many different investigations. Together with the greenhouse effect, CO2 emissions have caused additional costs for different process steps in the industry. For this reason, alternative carbon carriers have been sought, and charcoal was found to be an ideal substitute, due to its CO2 neutrality. In order to use it in the metallurgical industry, an optimization of the charcoal production through a carbonization process must be carried out. Beside the charcoal, pyrolysis gas also occurs during the heating of wood or agricultural wastes under the exclusion of air. Because of combustible compounds in this gas, it is possible to use it as a reduction agent instead of fossil carbon carriers. Together with the idea of preventing landfilling of metallurgical by-products, an investigation was carried out to treat zinc- and lead-containing materials. For this issue a special process concept was designed and developed. The main aspect was to recycle the zinc- and lead-containing Waelz slag, which results from the processing of steel mill dusts, in a vertical retort. Two different sizes of facilities were constructed to perform the reaction system of the solid Waelz slag with the gaseous reduction agent of pyrolysis gas.

  9. Interactions of dietary calcium with toxic levels of lead and zinc in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, F.A.; Krook, L.; Pond, W.G.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-four weanling Yorkshire pigs were used in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine their response to high levels of dietary lead (Pb) (1000 ppm) and zinc (Zn) (4000 ppm) (as lead acetate and zinc oxide), to investigate the influence of high dietary calcium (Ca) (1.1%) on the biochemical and morphological manifestations of Pb and Zn toxicity, and to determine the effect of excess Zn on Pb toxicity. Clinical signs of Pb toxicity included behavioral changes, lameness, and anorexia. Pb content of blood, soft tissues, and bone was increased markedly by 1000 ppm Pb inmore » the diet during the 13-week experiment. Zn and Pb fed together, as compared with Pb alone, tended to increase Pb levels in blood, soft tissues, and bone and to enhance the toxic effects of Pb as shown by reduced weight gains, severe clinical signs, and pathological changes. High Ca reduced blood and bone Zn and Pb concentrations. The results indicate that high dietary Ca has a protective effect against the adverse effects of diet Pb and Zn, and that Zn aggravates Pb toxicity in growing pigs.« less

  10. EDTA chelation effects on urinary losses of cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, and zinc.

    PubMed

    Waters, R S; Bryden, N A; Patterson, K Y; Veillon, C; Anderson, R A

    2001-12-01

    The efficacy of a chelating agent in binding a given metal in a biological system depends on the binding constants of the chelator for the particular metals in the system, the concentration of the metals, and the presence and concentrations of other ligands competing for the metals in question. In this study, we make a comparison of the in vitro binding constants for the chelator, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, with the quantitative urinary excretion of the metals measured before and after EDTA infusion in 16 patients. There were significant increases in lead, zinc, cadmium, and calcium, and these increases roughly corresponded to the expected relative increases predicted by the EDTA-metal-binding constants as measured in vitro. There were no significant increases in urinary cobalt, chromium, or copper as a result of EDTA infusion. The actual increase in cobalt could be entirely attributed to the cobalt content of the cyanocobalamin that was added to the infusion. Although copper did increase in the post-EDTA specimens, the increase was not statistically significant. In the case of magnesium, there was a net retention of approximately 85% following chelation. These data demonstrate that EDTA chelation therapy results in significantly increased urinary losses of lead, zinc, cadmium, and calcium following EDTA chelation therapy. There were no significant changes in cobalt, chromium, or copper and a retention of magnesium. These effects are likely to have significant effects on nutrient concentrations and interactions and partially explain the clinical improvements seen in patients undergoing EDTA chelation therapy.

  11. Temporal and spatial variations of copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc in Ten Mile Creek in South Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuangen; He, Zhenli; Lin, Youjian; Phlips, Edward J; Stoffella, Peter J; Powell, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and cadmium (Cd) often seriously deteriorate water quality. Spatial and temporal fluctuations of the metal concentrations in the Ten Mile Creek (Florida) (TMC) were monitored on a weekly basis at 7 sampling sites, from June 2005 to September 2007. River sediment samples were also collected from these sites in April, June, and October 2006 and January 2007, and analyzed for water, Mehlich 1 (M1), and Mehlich 3 (M3)-extractable metals (Mehlich, 1953, 1984), to examine the role of sediments as sources or sinks of the metals. The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium in the water samples were lead (zinc (6.45 microg/L), copper (2.53 microg/L), and cadmium (lead, 120 microg/L for zinc, 9.0 microg/L for copper, and 0.25 microg/L for cadmium), pulse concentrations of the metals significantly exceeded these limits. Correlations of lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium concentrations in the TMC to other environmental factors, including the results of principal component analysis, suggest that there are different sources of metals. These sources include surface runoff from agricultural lands or urban wastewater, geological backgrounds, and tidal flow. Water-, M1-, and M3-extractable lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium concentrations in river sediments indicate the possibility that river sediment serves as an internal source of the metals for the TMC. This hypothesis was supported by positive correlations between concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc in the river water and their respective water-extractable concentrations in the sediments.

  12. A zinc fluorescent sensor used to detect mercury (II) and hydrosulfide.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Min; Lee, Jae Jun; Nam, Eunju; Lim, Mi Hee; Kim, Cheal; Harrison, Roger G

    2017-05-05

    A zinc sensor based on quinoline and morpholine has been synthesized. The sensor selectively fluoresces in the presence of Zn 2+ , while not for other metal ions. Absorbance changes in the 350nm region are observed when Zn 2+ binds, which binds in a 1:1 ratio. The sensor fluoresces due to Zn 2+ above pH values of 6.0 and in the biological important region. The Zn 2+ -sensor complex has the unique ability to detect both Hg 2+ and HS - . The fluorescence of the Zn 2+ -sensor complex is quenched when it is exposed to aqueous solutions of Hg 2+ with sub-micromolar detection levels for Hg 2+ . The fluorescence of the Zn 2+ -sensor complex is also quenched by aqueous solutions of hydrosulfide. The sensor was used to detect Zn 2+ and Hg 2+ in living cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Behavior of lead and zinc in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine and ALAD in erythrocytes following intravenous infusion of CaEDTA in lead workers.

    PubMed

    Araki, S; Aono, H; Fukahori, M; Tabuki, K

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (CaEDTA) on concentrations of lead and zinc in plasma, erythrocytes, whole blood, and urine, we administered CaEDTA by intravenous infusion for 1 hr to seven lead workers with blood lead concentrations of 46-67 micrograms/100 g (mean 54 micrograms/100 g). The plasma lead concentration (PPb) and the mobilization yield of lead in urine by CaEDTA were highest during the period between 1 and 2 hr after the infusion was started. In contrast, the lead concentration in erythrocytes (EPb) and in whole blood (BPb) remained unchanged during the 24 hr following infusion. Plasma zinc concentration (PZn) also fell rapidly following CaEDTA infusion; the decline was followed by a gradual rise in the zinc concentration in erythrocytes (EZn) without alteration in the zinc in whole blood. The mobilization yield of zinc in urine by CaEDTA (MZn) reached its highest level within 1 hr after the start of the infusion. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in erythrocytes gradually increased for 5 hr following CaEDTA infusion. These observations suggest that (1) PPb concentration is a more sensitive indicator of the body burden of chelatable lead than is either BPb or EPb; (2) MZn is mobilized mostly from plasma during the first several hours following the start of CaEDTA infusion, and the fall in PZn concentration following infusion is compensated first by a rise in EZn concentration and then by an immediate redistribution of zinc in other organs to the blood; and (3) Pb-inhibited ALAD activity is reactivated by the increased EZn during and shortly after CaEDTA infusion.

  14. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 - 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  15. Mercury, lead, and cadmium in blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, from the Atlantic coast of Florida, USA: a multipredator approach.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas H; Engel, Marc E

    2014-04-01

    Blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, from the Atlantic coast of Florida were analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, lead, and cadmium. Paired samples of two tissue types were analyzed for each crab, (1) muscle tissue (cheliped and body muscles) and (2) whole-body tissue (all organs, muscle tissue and connective tissue), for evaluation of the concentration of metals available to human consumers as well as estuarine predators. There were clear patterns of tissue-specific partitioning for each metal. Total mercury was significantly greater in muscle tissue (mean=0.078 µg/g) than in whole-body tissue (mean=0.055 µg/g). Conversely, whole-body concentrations of lead and cadmium (means=0.131 and 0.079 µg/g, respectively) were significantly greater than concentrations in muscle (means=0.02 and 0.029 µg/g, respectively). There were no significant correlations between any metal contaminant and crab size. Cadmium levels were significantly greater in the muscle tissue of females, but, no other sex-related differences were seen for other metals or tissue types. Methylmercury composed 93-100% of the total mercury in tissues. Compared to previous blue crab studies from different regions of the United States, mean concentrations of mercury, lead, and cadmium were relatively low, although isolated groups or individual blue crabs accumulated high metal concentrations. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Lead, cadmium and mercury in the blood of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) from the coast of Sinaloa, Gulf of California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lerma, Miriam; Castillo-Guerrero, José Alfredo; Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Fernández, Guillermo

    2016-09-15

    We used blood samples of the Blue-footed Booby, considering sex (female and male) and age-class (adult and chick) of individuals at different breeding stages during two breeding seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012) in Isla El Rancho, Sinaloa, to determine lead, cadmium, and mercury concentrations. Lead and cadmium concentrations were below our detection limit (0.05 and 0.36ppm, respectively). A higher concentration of mercury was found in early stages of breeding, likely related to changes in mercury environmental availability. Mercury concentrations in adults did not relate with their breeding output. Males and adults had higher mercury concentration than females and chicks. We provide information of temporal, sex and age-related variations in the concentrations of mercury in blood of the Blue-footed Booby. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Sulfide Nanoparticles on Dissolved Mercury and Zinc Quantification by Diffusive Gradient in Thin-Film Passive Samplers.

    PubMed

    Pham, Anh Le-Tuan; Johnson, Carol; Manley, Devon; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-11-03

    Diffusive gradient in thin-film (DGT) passive samplers are frequently used to monitor the concentrations of metals such as mercury and zinc in sediments and other aquatic environments. The application of these samplers generally presumes that they quantify only the dissolved fraction and not particle-bound metal species that are too large to migrate into the sampler. However, metals associated with very small nanoparticles (smaller than the pore size of DGT samplers) can be abundant in certain environments, yet the implications of these nanoparticles for DGT measurements are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine how the performance of the DGT sampler is affected by the presence of nanoparticulate species of Hg and Zn. DGT samplers were exposed to solutions containing known amounts of dissolved Hg(II) and nanoparticulate HgS (or dissolved Zn(II) and nanoparticulate ZnS). The amounts of Hg and Zn accumulated onto the DGT samplers were quantified over hours to days, and the rates of diffusion of the dissolved metal (i.e., the effective diffusion coefficient D) into the sampler's diffusion layer were calculated and compared for solutions containing varying concentrations of nanoparticles. The results suggested that the nanoparticles deposited on the surface of the samplers might have acted as sorbents, slowing the migration of the dissolved species into the samplers. The consequence was that the DGT sampler data underestimated the dissolved metal concentration in the solution. In addition, X-ray absorption spectroscopy was employed to determine the speciation of the Hg accumulated on the sampler binding layer, and the results indicated that HgS nanoparticles did not appear to directly contribute to the DGT measurement. Overall, our findings suggest that the deployment of DGT samplers in settings where nanoparticles are relevant (e.g., sediments) may result in DGT data that incorrectly estimated the dissolved metal concentrations. Models for metal uptake

  18. Environmental exposures to lead, mercury, and cadmium among South Korean teenagers (KNHANES 2010-2013): Body burden and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook; Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho

    2017-07-01

    Limited information is available on the association of age and sex with blood concentrations of heavy metals in teenagers. In addition, factors such as a shared family environment may have an association. We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2013) to determine whether blood levels of heavy metals differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in a representative sample of teenagers. This study used data obtained in the KNHANES 2010-2013, which had a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Our cross-sectional analysis was restricted to teenagers and their parents who completed the health examination survey, and for whom blood measurements of cadmium, lead, and mercury were available. The final analytical sample consisted of 1585 teenagers, and 376 fathers and 399 mothers who provided measurements of blood heavy metal concentrations. Male teenagers had greater blood levels of lead and mercury, but sex had no association with blood cadmium level. There were age-related increases in blood cadmium, but blood lead decreased with age, and age had little association with blood mercury. The concentrations of cadmium and mercury declined from 2010 to 2013. The blood concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury in teenagers were positively associated with the levels in their parents after adjustment for covariates. Our results show that blood heavy metal concentrations differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in teenagers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sediment-Hosted Zinc-Lead Deposits of the World - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Donald A.; Berger, Vladimir I.; Moring, Barry C.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides information on sediment-hosted zinc-lead mineral deposits based on the geologic settings that are observed on regional geologic maps. The foundation of mineral-deposit models is information about known deposits. The purpose of this publication is to make this kind of information available in digital form for sediment-hosted zinc-lead deposits. Mineral-deposit models are important in exploration planning and quantitative resource assessments: Grades and tonnages among deposit types are significantly different, and many types occur in different geologic settings that can be identified from geologic maps. Mineral-deposit models are the keystone in combining the diverse geoscience information on geology, mineral occurrences, geophysics, and geochemistry used in resource assessments and mineral exploration. Too few thoroughly explored mineral deposits are available in most local areas for reliable identification of the important geoscience variables, or for robust estimation of undiscovered deposits - thus, we need mineral-deposit models. Globally based deposit models allow recognition of important features because the global models demonstrate how common different features are. Well-designed and -constructed deposit models allow geologists to know from observed geologic environments the possible mineral-deposit types that might exist, and allow economists to determine the possible economic viability of these resources in the region. Thus, mineral-deposit models play the central role in transforming geoscience information to a form useful to policy makers. This publication contains a computer file of information on sediment-hosted zinc-lead deposits from around the world. It also presents new grade and tonnage models for nine types of these deposits and a file allowing locations of all deposits to be plotted in Google Earth. The data are presented in FileMaker Pro, Excel and text files to make the information available to as many as possible. The

  20. Effects of mining-associated lead and zinc soil contamination on native floristic quality.

    PubMed

    Struckhoff, Matthew A; Stroh, Esther D; Grabner, Keith W

    2013-04-15

    We assessed the quality of plant communities across a range of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) soil concentrations at a variety of sites associated with Pb mining in southeast Missouri, USA. In a novel application, two standard floristic quality measures, Mean Coefficient of Conservatism (Mean C) and Floristic Quality Index (FQI), were examined in relation to concentrations of Pb and Zn, soil nutrients, and other soil characteristics. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling and Regression Tree Analyses identified soil Pb and Zn concentrations as primary explanatory variables for plant community composition and indicated negative relationships between soil metals concentrations and both Mean C and FQI. Univariate regression also demonstrated significant negative relationships between metals concentrations and floristic quality. The negative effects of metals in native soils with otherwise relatively undisturbed conditions indicate that elevated soil metals concentrations adversely affect native floristic quality where no other human disturbance is evident. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The relationship between bone health and plasma zinc, copper lead and cadmium concentration in osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behzad, Masoomeh; Behfar, Abdolazim; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Saadatmand, Sahereh

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a multi factorial disease with dimension of genetic and nutritional considerations. The aim of this study was to present data from the association of plasma zinc, copper and toxic elements of lead and cadmium levels with bone mineral density in Iranian women. 135 women gave their information and enrolled. Fasting plasma was used for measurement of trace elements and heavy metals by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Control group (n = 51) were normal in both lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck density (T-score ≥ -1), but just femoral neck T-score was considered as criterion in selection of patient group (n = 49, Tscore < -1). No differences were found in the nutritional status, number of diseases, drugs and functional activities between these groups. Plasma Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd levels were analyzed by, a method of voltammetry. Mean ± SD levels of copper and zinc was 1.168 ± 0.115, 1.097 ± 0.091 μg/ml in control group, 1.394 ± 0.133, 1.266 ± 0.11 μg/ml in total patient (TP) and 1.237 ± 0.182, 1.127 ± 0.176 μg/ml in Mild patients(-1 > T-score > -1.7), 1.463 ± 0.174, 1.327 ± 0.147 μg/ml in Severe patient group (T-score < -1.7); respectively. Mean ± SD plasma level of lead and cadmium was 168.42 ± 9.61 ng/l, 2.91 ± 0.18 ng/ml in control group, 176.13 ± 8.64 ng/l, 2.97 ± 0.21 ng/ml in TP, 176.43 ± 13.2 ng/l, 2.99 ± 0.1 ng/ml in mild patients, 221.44 ± 20 ng/l and 3.80 ± 0.70 ng/ml in severe patient group, respectively. In this study plasma zinc, copper, lead & cadmium concentrations were higher in the patients than in the control, though differences were not significant. However, differences were higher between the controls and patients with severe disease (T-score < -1.7). In addition adjusted T-score of femur with age and BMI showed negative significant correlation with plasma levels of zinc and lead in total participants (p < 0.05, r = -0.201, p = 0.044, r = -0.201). It seems that more extensive study with larger

  2. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Danville and Springfield coal members (Pennsylvanian) from Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc contents and distributions are discussed in two major Pennsylvanian coal beds in Indiana: the Danville Coal Member and the Springfield Coal Member. Arsenic contents of the Danville and Springfield coals show similar ranges from 0.5 to 43??ppm for the Danville Coal and 1 to 50??ppm for the Springfield Coal, with an average of 12.7??ppm for the Danville and 9.4??ppm for the Springfield Coal. Cadmium concentrations do not exceed 9??ppm, with an average of 0.4 for Danville and 0.7??ppm for the Springfield. Average Pb contents are 21.3 and 6.3??ppm, whereas Zn contents are 101 and 54??ppm for the Danville and the Springfield, respectively. The distribution of these elements varies both laterally and vertically within the coals, as functions of their mineral associations and the time of their emplacement. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pyrolysis of Plants After Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil with Lead, Cadmium and Zinc.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Aysun; Günkaya, Zerrin; Banar, Müfide

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to remediate lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soil and stabilize to pyrolysis solid product. To accomplish this, phytoremediation of soil contaminated with Pb, Cd and Zn by different plants (sunflower, corn and rape) was performed with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). According to phytoremediation results, rape was the most effective plant with 72 %, 76 % and 77 % removal efficiency for Pb, Cd and Zn, respectively. Also, EDTA addition had no significant effect on translocation of the metals from roots to stems. According to pyrolysis results, Pb, Cd and Zn in the contaminated plants were stabilized in the ash/char fraction. In addition, the solid product can be safely landfilled as inert waste since its toxicity leaching value is lower than the limit values given in the Turkish Regulation on Landfilling of Wastes.

  4. Effects of mining-associated lead and zinc soil contamination on native floristic quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Stroh, Esther D.; Grabner, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the quality of plant communities across a range of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) soil concentrations at a variety of sites associated with Pb mining in southeast Missouri, USA. In a novel application, two standard floristic quality measures, Mean Coefficient of Conservatism (Mean C) and Floristic Quality Index (FQI), were examined in relation to concentrations of Pb and Zn, soil nutrients, and other soil characteristics. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling and Regression Tree Analyses identified soil Pb and Zn concentrations as primary explanatory variables for plant community composition and indicated negative relationships between soil metals concentrations and both Mean C and FQI. Univariate regression also demonstrated significant negative relationships between metals concentrations and floristic quality. The negative effects of metals in native soils with otherwise relatively undisturbed conditions indicate that elevated soil metals concentrations adversely affect native floristic quality where no other human disturbance is evident.

  5. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in surface soils, Pueblo, Colorado: Implications for population health risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diawara, D.M.; Litt, J.S.; Unis, D.; Alfonso, N.; Martinez, L.A.; Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Carsella, J.

    2006-01-01

    Decades of intensive industrial and agricultural practices as well as rapid urbanization have left communities like Pueblo, Colorado facing potential health threats from pollution of its soils, air, water and food supply. To address such concerns about environmental contamination, we conducted an urban geochemical study of the city of Pueblo to offer insights into the potential chemical hazards in soil and inform priorities for future health studies and population interventions aimed at reducing exposures to inorganic substances. The current study characterizes the environmental landscape of Pueblo in terms of heavy metals, and relates this to population distributions. Soil was sampled within the city along transects and analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb). We also profiled Pueblo's communities in terms of their socioeconomic status and demographics. ArcGIS 9.0 was used to perform exploratory spatial data analysis and generate community profiles and prediction maps. The topsoil in Pueblo contains more As, Cd, Hg and Pb than national soil averages, although average Hg content in Pueblo was within reported baseline ranges. The highest levels of As concentrations ranged between 56.6 and 66.5 ppm. Lead concentrations exceeded 300 ppm in several of Pueblo's residential communities. Elevated levels of lead are concentrated in low-income Hispanic and African-American communities. Areas of excessively high Cd concentration exist around Pueblo, including low income and minority communities, raising additional health and environmental justice concerns. Although the distribution patterns vary by element and may reflect both industrial and non-industrial sources, the study confirms that there is environmental contamination around Pueblo and underscores the need for a comprehensive public health approach to address environmental threats in urban communities. ?? Springer 2006.

  6. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Stephani; Arora, Monica; Fernandez, Cristina; Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph; Chen, Aimin

    2013-10-01

    There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5-8, 9-12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07-5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Lead, Mercury, and Cadmium Exposure and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Stephani; Arora, Monica; Fernandez, Cristina; Caruso, Joseph; Landero, Julio; Chen, Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. Objectives To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. Methods We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5–8, 9–12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and Others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Results Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb Geometric Mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07–5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Conclusions Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. PMID:24034783

  8. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Stephani; Arora, Monica; Fernandez, Cristina

    Background: There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. Objectives: To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. Methods: We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA.more » The participants were matched on age group (5–8, 9–12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07–5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Conclusions: Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. -- Highlights: • Blood Pb levels are associated with ADHD diagnosis in children. • No association was found between blood Cd or Hg levels and ADHD. • Children living close to hazardous waste site need to reduce metal exposure.« less

  9. Enhancement of emulsifier production by Curvularia lunata in cadmium, zinc and lead presence.

    PubMed

    Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Frycie, Aleksandra; Słaba, Mirosława; Długoński, Jerzy

    2007-10-01

    The influence of cadmium, zinc and lead on fungal emulsifier synthesis and on the growth of filamentous fungus Curvularia lunata has been studied. Tolerance to heavy metals established for C. lunata was additionally compared with the sensitivity exhibited by strains of Curvularia tuberculata and Paecilomyces marquandii-fungi which do not secrete compounds of emulsifying activity. Although C. lunata, as the only one out of all studied fungi, exhibited the lowest tolerance to heavy metals when grown on a solid medium (in conditions preventing emulsifier synthesis), it manifested the highest tolerance in liquid culture - in conditions allowing exopolymer production. Cadmium, zinc and lead presented in liquid medium up to a concentration of 15 mM had no negative effect on C. lunata growth and stimulated emulsifier synthesis. In the presence of 15 mM of heavy metals, both the emulsifier and 24-h-old growing mycelium exhibited maximum sorption capacities, which were determined as 18.2 +/- 2.67, 156.1 +/- 10.32 mg g(-1) for Cd2+, 22.2 +/- 3.40, 95.2 +/- 14.21 mg g(-1) for Zn2+ and 51.1 +/- 1.85, 230.0 +/- 28.47 mg g(-1) for Pb2+ respectively. The results obtained by us in this work indicate that the emulsifier acts as a protective compound increasing the ability of C. lunata to survive in heavy metal polluted environment. Enhancement of exopolymer synthesis in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ may also suggest, at least to some extent, a metal-specific nature of emulsifier production in C. lunata. Due to accumulation capability and tolerance to heavy metals, C. lunata mycelium surrounded by the emulsifier could be applied for toxic metal removal.

  10. Application of granulated lead-zinc slag in concrete as an opportunity to save natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwaeli, Mohamed

    2013-02-01

    The last decades marked a period of growth and prosperity in construction industry which involves the use of natural resources. This growth is jeopardized by the lack of natural resources that are available. On the other hand there has been rapid increase in the industrial waste production. Most of the waste do not find any effective use and cause a waste disposal crisis, thereby contributing to health and environmental problems. Recycling of industrial waste as aggregate is thus a logical option to manage this problem. The paper reports on some experimental results obtained from the production of concretes containing granulated slag of lead and zinc industry as sand replacement mixed in different proportions. Granulated slag is substituted for raw sand, partly or totally. Ratios of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight of sand are used. The effects of granulated lead-zinc slag (GLZS) as sand replacement material on the compressive strength and gamma radiation attenuation properties of concrete are investigated and analyzed. Then, these properties are compared with those of ordinary concrete. The results showed that replacement material have some effects on the compressive strength and gamma radiation properties of the concrete. The experimental results indicate that, the concrete mixed with GLZS as a sand replacement have better strength. Concerning the absorption properties for gamma radiation the data show that the addition of GLZS resulted in an increase of the attenuation of gamma radiation. Consequently, these concretes could be used for construction of shields protecting personnel who work in laboratories where radiation is used. Additionally, the thickness of the concrete with GLZS was calculated and compared with ordinary concrete.

  11. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 μg/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit.

  12. Effects of various cooking processes on the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in foods.

    PubMed

    Perelló, Gemma; Martí-Cid, Roser; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2008-12-10

    The effects of cooking processes commonly used by the population of Catalonia (Spain) on total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) concentrations in various foodstuffs were investigated. All food samples were randomly acquired in local markets, big supermarkets, and grocery stores of Reus (Catalonia). Foods included fish (sardine, hake, and tuna), meat (veal steak, loin of pork, breast and thigh of chicken, and steak and rib of lamb), string bean, potato, rice, and olive oil. For each food item, two composite samples were prepared for metal analyses, whose levels in raw and cooked (fried, grilled, roasted, and boiled) samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As, Hg, and Pb (raw and cooked samples) were mainly found in fish, with a clear tendency, in general, to increase metal concentrations after cooking. However, in these samples, Cd levels were very close to their detection limit. In turn, the concentrations of metals in raw and cooked meat samples were detected in all samples (As) or only in a very few samples (Cd, Hg, and Pb). A similar finding corresponded to string beans, rice, and olive oil, while in potatoes, Hg could not be detected and Pb only was detected in the raw samples. In summary, the results of the present study show that, in general terms, the cooking process is only of a very limited value as a means of reducing metal concentrations. This hypothetical reduction depends upon cooking conditions (time, temperature, and medium of cooking).

  13. Surface plasmon resonance sensing detection of mercury and lead ions based on conducting polymer composite.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Mahnaz M; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Sadrolhosseini, Amir R; Mat Yunus, Wan Mahmood; Moksin, Mohd Maarof; Tahir, Paridah Md

    2011-01-01

    A new sensing area for a sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was fabricated to detect trace amounts of mercury and lead ions. The gold surface used for SPR measurements were modified with polypyrrole-chitosan (PPy-CHI) conducting polymer composite. The polymer layer was deposited on the gold surface by electrodeposition. This optical sensor was used for monitoring toxic metal ions with and without sensitivity enhancement by chitosan in water samples. The higher amounts of resonance angle unit (ΔRU) were obtained for PPy-CHI film due to a specific binding of chitosan with Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) ions. The Pb(2+) ion bind to the polymer films most strongly, and the sensor was more sensitive to Pb(2+) compared to Hg(2+). The concentrations of ions in the parts per million range produced the changes in the SPR angle minimum in the region of 0.03 to 0.07. Data analysis was done by Matlab software using Fresnel formula for multilayer system.

  14. 700 years reconstruction of mercury and lead atmospheric deposition in the Pyrenees (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corella, J. P.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Wang, F.; Martínez-Cortizas, A.; Cuevas, C. A.; Saiz-Lopez, A.

    2017-04-01

    Geochemical analyses in varved lake sediment cores (Lake Montcortès, Pre-Pyrenees) allowed reconstruction of mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) atmospheric deposition over the past seven centuries in the Pyrenees (NE Spain). Accumulation Rates (AR) from the Middle Ages to the Industrial Period ranged from 2500 to 26130 μg m2.y-1 and 15-152 μg m2.y-1 for Pb and Hg respectively. Significant metal pollution started ca CE 1550 during a period of increased exploitation of ore resources in Spain. Colder and humid conditions in the Pyrenees during the Little Ice Age may have also favoured Hg and Pb atmospheric deposition in the lake. Therefore, the interplay between increased rainfall (wet deposition) and mining activities in the Iberian Peninsula has driven Hg and Pb AR during the Pre-industrial Period. More recently, the use of leaded gasoline in Europe in the mid-20th century may explain the highest Pb AR between CE 1953 and 1971. The highest Hg AR occurred in CE 1940 synchronous with the highest Hg production peak in Almadén mining district (southern Spain) and the Second World War. The record of Hg enrichment in Lake Montcortès shows a decrease during the last decades in Western Europe similar to other regional records and global emission models. This study highlights the exceptional quality of varved sequences to tease apart pollutants depositional mechanisms, identify historical periods of increased atmospheric pollution and provide a historical context for pollutant baseline values to make correct assessments of recent (atmospheric) pollution in lake ecosystems.

  15. Mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in interior and exterior New Orleans house paint films.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Howard W; Gonzales, Chris

    2008-06-01

    Pre-1992, latex paint was formulated with mercury (Hg) as phenylmercuric acetate (PMA). Hg vaporizes reducing its content, and lead (Pb) is stable and remains unchanged. The objective of this study is to describe the content of Hg and Pb in existing paint coatings. Forty paint chip samples were collected from both interior and exterior surfaces of homes in metropolitan New Orleans and analyzed for Hg and Pb. The median Hg in exterior paints is 26.9 mg kg(-1) (0.8-214.0) compared with 7.1 mg kg(-1) (0.03-39.2) for interior paints. The median Pb content is 76603 mg kg(-1) (464-317151) and 416 mg kg(-1) (24-63313) respectively, for exterior and interior paints. The Spearman correlation coefficients for Hg and Pb are -0.312 (P=0.13) and -0.471 (P=0.07) respectively, in exterior and interior samples. Hg and Pb vary independently with each other in paint films. Median Hg in exterior paints is four times larger than for interior paints. Median Pb in exterior paints is 184 times larger than interior paints. The Pb and Hg content in exterior and interior paint chips are significantly different (Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test, P0.001 and P=0.006, respectively). Only 1 of the 25 exterior paints contained less than the current 5000 mg kg(-1) US standard for Pb, the criteria for exemption from the power-sanding restrictions of the New Orleans Lead Ordinance. Prior to banning PMA in paint, Hg poisonings presented as acrodynia were reported for children living in homes freshly painted with latex paint. Because of the affinity of Hg and Pb for sulfur-containing amino acid proteins, their presence in paint coatings poses an increased hazard when released as dust.

  16. Biomonitoring of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and mercury in urine and hair of children living near mining and industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Molina-Villalba, Isabel; Lacasaña, Marina; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Hernández, Antonio F; Gonzalez-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Gil, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Huelva (South West Spain) and its surrounding municipalities represent one of the most polluted estuaries in the world owing to the discharge of mining and industrial related pollutants in their proximity. A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess exposure to arsenic and some trace metals (cadmium, mercury, manganese and lead) in urine and scalp hair from a representative sample of children aged 6-9 years (n=261). This is the only study simultaneously analyzing those five metal elements in children urine and hair. The potential contribution of gender, water consumption, residence area and body mass index on urinary and hair metal concentrations was also studied. Urine levels of cadmium and total mercury in a proportion (25-50%) of our children population living near industrial/mining areas might have an impact on health, likely due to environmental exposure to metal pollution. The only significant correlation between urine and hair levels was found for mercury. Children living near agriculture areas showed increased levels of cadmium and manganese (in urine) and arsenic (in hair). In contrast, decreased urine Hg concentrations were observed in children living near mining areas. Girls exhibited significantly higher trace metal concentrations in hair than boys. The greatest urine arsenic concentrations were found in children drinking well/spring water. Although human hair can be a useful tool for biomonitoring temporal changes in metal concentrations, levels are not correlated with those found in urine except for total mercury, thus providing additional information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biomonitoring of lead, zinc, and cadmium in streams draining lead-mining and non-mining areas, Southeast Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; May, Thomas W.; Schmitt, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated exposure of aquatic biota to lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) in streams draining a Pb-mining district in southeast Missouri. Samples of plant biomass (detritus, periphyton, and filamentous algae), invertebrates (snails, crayfish, and riffle benthos), and two taxa of fish were collected from seven sites closest to mining areas (mining sites), four sites further downstream from mining (downstream sites), and eight reference sites in fall 2001. Samples of plant biomass from mining sites had highest metal concentrations, with means 10- to 60-times greater than those for reference sites. Mean metal concentrations in over 90% of samples of plant biomass from mining sites were significantly greater than those from reference sites. Mean concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd in most invertebrate samples from mining sites, and mean Pb concentrations in most fish samples from mining sites, were also significantly greater than those from reference sites. Concentrations of all three metals were lower in samples from downstream sites, but several samples of plant biomass from downstream sites had metal concentrations significantly greater than those from reference sites. Analysis of supplemental samples collected in the fall of 2002, a year of above-average stream discharge, had lower Pb concentrations and higher Cd concentrations than samples collected in 2001, near the end of a multi-year drought. Concentrations of Pb measured in fish and invertebrates collected from mining sites during 2001 and 2002 were similar to those measured at nearby sites in the 1970s, during the early years of mining in the Viburnum Trend. Results of this study demonstrate that long-term Pb mining activity in southeast Missouri has resulted in significantly elevated concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn in biota of receiving streams, compared to biota of similar streams without direct influence of mining. Our results also demonstrate that metal exposure in the study area differed

  18. Zinc supplementation leads to immune modulation and improved survival in a juvenile model of murine sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ganatra, Hammad A; Varisco, Brian M; Harmon, Kelli; Lahni, Patrick; Opoka, Amy; Wong, Hector R

    2017-01-01

    Children with severe sepsis are known to have altered zinc homeostasis and decreased circulating zinc levels, suggesting a role for zinc supplementation to improve outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that zinc supplementation would improve survival in a juvenile model of polymicrobial sepsis. Juvenile (13-14-d-old) C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10 mg/kg of zinc via i.p. injections (or vehicle) for 3 d prior to induction of polymicrobial sepsis via i.p. cecal slurry injections. Survival after sepsis was followed for 3 d, and bacterial clearance, ex vivo phagocytosis, systemic inflammatory markers and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation were quantified. We found a significant survival benefit and decreased bacterial burden among zinc supplemented mice when compared with the control group. Zinc supplementation also resulted in enhanced phagocytic activity, greater neutrophil recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and NET formation, suggesting a possible mechanism for improved bacterial clearance and survival. We also noted decreased serum cytokine levels and decreased myeloperoxidase activity in lung tissue following zinc supplementation, suggesting attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response. In conclusion, zinc supplementation improves bacterial clearance, and hence survival, in juvenile mice with polymicrobial sepsis.

  19. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic properties of alluvial soils contaminated with lead, zinc and cadmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovský, E.; Kapička, A.; Jordanova, N.; Borůvka, L.

    2001-09-01

    Several proxy methods have been used recently to outline increased levels of pollution. One of them is based on measurements of the concentration of (ferri)magnetic minerals of anthropogenic origin. This method has been used recently in the mapping of both polluted and unpolluted areas. In order to validate this method, a more detailed study of links between magnetic parameters characterising the physical shape of magnetic minerals and concentrations of heavy metals is needed. In this study, we analysed the magnetic characteristics of alluvial soils, formed as a result of several breakdowns of wet deposit sink of ashes from a lead ore smelter. The soils were previously analysed for concentration of lead, zinc and cadmium. Our results show that in this case of a shared source of heavy metals and magnetic minerals, simple measurements of magnetic susceptibility discriminate well between polluted and clean areas. In addition, the concentration pattern agrees with the concentrations of the heavy metals studied in deeper soil layers that were not affected by post-depositional changes due to climate and remediation efforts.

  1. Zn/Cd ratios and cadmium isotope evidence for the classification of lead-zinc deposits

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hanjie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Zhang, Yuxu; Cloquet, Christophe; Fan, Haifeng; Fu, Shaohong

    2016-01-01

    Lead-zinc deposits are often difficult to classify because clear criteria are lacking. In recent years, new tools, such as Cd and Zn isotopes, have been used to better understand the ore-formation processes and to classify Pb-Zn deposits. Herein, we investigate Cd concentrations, Cd isotope systematics and Zn/Cd ratios in sphalerite from nine Pb-Zn deposits divided into high-temperature systems (e.g., porphyry), low-temperature systems (e.g., Mississippi Valley type [MVT]) and exhalative systems (e.g., sedimentary exhalative [SEDEX]). Our results showed little evidence of fractionation in the high-temperature systems. In the low-temperature systems, Cd concentrations were the highest, but were also highly variable, a result consistent with the higher fractionation of Cd at low temperatures. The δ114/110Cd values in low-temperature systems were enriched in heavier isotopes (mean of 0.32 ± 0.31‰). Exhalative systems had the lowest Cd concentrations, with a mean δ114/110Cd value of 0.12 ± 0.50‰. We thus conclude that different ore-formation systems result in different characteristic Cd concentrations and fraction levels and that low-temperature processes lead to the most significant fractionation of Cd. Therefore, Cd distribution and isotopic studies can support better understanding of the geochemistry of ore-formation processes and the classification of Pb-Zn deposits. PMID:27121538

  2. Leaching assessment of road materials containing primary lead and zinc slags.

    PubMed

    Barna, R; Moszkowicz, P; Gervais, C

    2004-01-01

    Characterisation of the leaching behaviour of waste-containing materials is a crucial step in the environmental assessment for reuse scenarios. In our research we applied the multi-step European methodology ENV 12-920 to the leaching assessment of road materials containing metallurgical slag. A Zn slag from an imperial smelting furnace (ISF) and a Pb slag from a lead blast furnace (LBF) are investigated. The two slags contain up to 11.2 wt% of lead and 3.5 wt% of zinc and were introduced as a partial substitute for sand in two road materials, namely sand-cement and sand-bitumen. At the laboratory scale, a leaching assessment was performed first through batch equilibrium leaching tests. Second, the release rate of the contaminants was evaluated using saturated leaching tests on monolithic material. Third, laboratory tests were conducted on monolithic samples under intermittent wetting conditions. Pilot-scale tests were conducted for field testing of intermittent wetting conditions. The results show that the release of Pb and Zn from the materials in a saturated scenario was controlled by the pH of the leachates. For the intermittent wetting conditions, an additional factor, blocking of the pores by precipitation during the drying phase is proposed. Pilot-scale leaching behaviour only partially matched with the laboratory-scale test results: new mass transfer mechanisms and adapted laboratory leaching tests are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of blood zinc, calcium and blood lead levels among children aged 1-36 months.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaojun; He, Hong; Ren, Lisheng; Liu, Ji; Han, Chunhua

    2014-09-01

    Early childhood lead exposure is associated with numerous adverse health effects. Biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of the study is to evaluate the blood lead (Pb) and total blood calcium (Ca) levels; blood zinc (Zn) levels. A cross-sectional study was designed to collect healthy children age 1- 36 months (Mean ± SD: 1.5 ± 0.6 age, 60% boys) in the study from January 2010 to September 2011. The overall mean blood Pb levels were 42.18 ± 12.13 μg/L, the overall mean blood Zn and total blood Ca concentrations were 62.18 ± 12.33 μmol/L and 1.78 ± 0.13 mmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of elevated blood Pb levels in all children was 1.3%. A significant difference was found between female and male subjects for the blood Pb and Zn. After controlling for gender and age, there was a weak positive correlation between total blood Ca and Zn level. The blood Pb levels had a significant negative correlation with total blood Ca level after adjusting for age and gender, and these findings suggest that Pb had effect on positive blood Zn and total blood Ca levels; parents should pay more attention to the nutrition of girls. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of lead and zinc mining contamination on bacterial community diversity and enzyme activities of vicinal cropland.

    PubMed

    Qu, Juanjuan; Ren, Guangming; Chen, Bao; Fan, Jinghua; E, Yong

    2011-11-01

    In the process of mining activity, many kinds of heavy metals enter into soils with dust, causing serious contamination to the environment. In this study, six soils were sampled from cropland at different distances from a lead/zinc mine in Heilongjiang Province, China. The total contents of lead and zinc in the vicinal cropland exceeded the third level of environmental quality standard for soil in China, which indicated that soils in this area were moderately contaminated. Bacterial community diversity and population were greatly decreased when the concentrations of lead and zinc were beyond 1,500 and 995 mg kg(-1), respectively, as analyzed by plate counting and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The bands of DGGE patterns varied with the degree of contamination. The activities of soil urease, phosphatase, and dehydrogenase were negatively correlated with the concentrations of lead and zinc. The highest inhibitory effect of heavy metals on soil enzyme activities was observed in urease. It was noted that PCR-DGGE patterns combined with soil enzyme activity analysis can be indices for the soil quality assessment by heavy metal contamination.

  5. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... process alone or in conjunction with other processes, for the beneficiation of copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, or molybdenum ores, or any combination of these ores; (3) Mines and mills that use dump, heap, in-situ leach, or vat-leach processes to extract copper from ores or ore waste materials; and (4) Mills...

  6. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... process alone or in conjunction with other processes, for the beneficiation of copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, or molybdenum ores, or any combination of these ores; (3) Mines and mills that use dump, heap, in-situ leach, or vat-leach processes to extract copper from ores or ore waste materials; and (4) Mills...

  7. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... process alone or in conjunction with other processes, for the beneficiation of copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, or molybdenum ores, or any combination of these ores; (3) Mines and mills that use dump, heap, in-situ leach, or vat-leach processes to extract copper from ores or ore waste materials; and (4) Mills...

  8. Influence of farmyard manure on retention and availability of nickel, zinc and lead in metal-contaminated calcareous loam soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Continuous irrigation of crops with untreated municipal effluent can result in the accumulation of nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) in soils and translocation to the plants. Application of farm yard manure (FYM) to metal-contaminated soils may increase or decrease the availability and retention...

  9. Mercury, Cadmium, and Lead Levels in Human Placenta: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Vasallo, María D.; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollan, Marina; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Placental tissue may furnish information on the exposure of both mother and fetus. Mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) are toxicants of interest in pregnancy because they are associated with alterations in child development. Objectives: The aim of this study was to summarize the available information regarding total Hg, Cd, and Pb levels in human placenta and possible related factors. Methods: We performed a systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Lilacs, OSH, and Web of Science for original papers on total Hg, Cd, or Pb levels in human placenta that were published in English or Spanish (1976–2011). Data on study design, population characteristics, collection and analysis of placenta specimens, and main results were extracted using a standardized form. Results: We found a total of 79 papers (73 different studies). Hg, Cd, and Pb levels were reported in 24, 46, and 46 studies, respectively. Most studies included small convenience samples of healthy pregnant women. Studies were heterogeneous regarding populations selected, processing of specimens, and presentation of results. Hg concentrations > 50 ng/g were found in China (Shanghai), Japan, and the Faroe Islands. Cd levels ranged from 1.2 ng/g to 53 ng/g and were highest in the United States, Japan, and Eastern Europe. Pb showed the greatest variability, with levels ranging from 1.18 ng/g in China (Shanghai) to 500 ng/g in a polluted area of Poland. Conclusion: The use of the placenta as a biomarker to assess heavy metals exposure is not properly developed because of heterogeneity among the studies. International standardized protocols are needed to enhance comparability and increase the usefulness of this promising tissue in biomonitoring studies. PMID:22591711

  10. Placental transfer and concentrations of cadmium, mercury, lead, and selenium in mothers, newborns, and young children

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhu; Myers, Robert; Wei, Taiyin; Bind, Eric; Kassim, Prince; Wang, Guoying; Ji, Yuelong; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Bartell, Tami; Gong, Yiwei; Strickland, Paul; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Wang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging hypothesis that exposure to cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in utero and early childhood could have long-term health consequences. However, there are sparse data on early life exposures to these elements in US populations, particularly in urban minority samples. This study measured levels of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se in 50 paired maternal, umbilical cord, and postnatal blood samples from the Boston Birth Cohort (BBC). Maternal exposure to Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se was 100% detectable in red blood cells (RBCs), and there was a high degree of maternal–fetal transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se. In particular, we found that Hg levels in cord RBCs were 1.5 times higher than those found in the mothers. This study also investigated changes in concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se during the first few years of life. We found decreased levels of Hg and Se but elevated Pb levels in early childhood. Finally, this study investigated the association between metal burden and preterm birth and low birthweight. We found significantly higher levels of Hg in maternal and cord plasma and RBCs in preterm or low birthweight births, compared with term or normal birthweight births. In conclusion, this study showed that maternal exposure to these elements was widespread in the BBC, and maternal–fetal transfer was a major source of early life exposure to Hg, Pb, and Se. Our results also suggest that RBCs are better than plasma at reflecting the trans-placental transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se from the mother to the fetus. Our study findings remain to be confirmed in larger studies, and the implications for early screening and interventions of preconception and pregnant mothers and newborns warrant further investigation. PMID:24756102

  11. Towards Prenatal Biomonitoring in North Carolina: Assessing Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury, and Lead Levels in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Alison P.; Flood, Kaye; Chiang, Shu; Herring, Amy H.; Wolf, Leslie; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to toxic metals during the prenatal period carries the potential for adverse developmental effects to the fetus, yet such exposure remains largely unmonitored in the United States. The aim of this study was to assess maternal exposure to four toxic metals (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb)) in a cohort of pregnant women in North Carolina. We analyzed blood samples submitted to the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services for blood typing to assess toxic metal levels in pregnant women (n = 211) across six North Carolina counties. Whole blood metal concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The association between maternal characteristics, including county of residence, age, and race, and metal exposure was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. A large fraction of the blood samples showed detectable levels for each of the four metals. Specifically, As (65.7%), Cd (57.3%), Hg (63.8%), and Pb (100%) were detected in blood samples. Moreover, compared with adult females participating in the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals and guidelines for pregnant women, some women in the sample population exceeded benchmark levels of Cd, Hg, and Pb. Evidence from this pilot study indicates that pregnant women in North Carolina are exposed to As, Cd, Hg, and Pb and suggests that factors related to maternal county of residence and race may impact maternal exposure levels. As increased levels of one or more of these metals in utero have been associated with detrimental developmental and reproductive outcomes, further study is clearly warranted to establish the impacts to newborns. PMID:22427803

  12. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb.

  13. History of Inuit Community Exposure to Lead, Cadmium, and Mercury in Sewage Lake Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Hermanson, Mark H.; Brozowski, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to lead, cadmium, and mercury is known to be high in many arctic Inuit communities. These metals are emitted from industrial and urban sources, are distributed by long-range atmospheric transport to remote regions, and are found in Inuit country foods. Current community exposure to these metals can be measured in food, but feces and urine are also excellent indicators of total exposure from ingestion and inhalation because a high percentage of each metal is excreted. Bulk domestic sewage or its residue in a waste treatment system is a good substitute measure. Domestic waste treatment systems that accumulate metals in sediment provide an accurate historical record of changes in ingestion or inhalation. We collected sediment cores from an arctic lake used for facultative domestic sewage treatment to identify the history of community exposure to Pb, Cd, and Hg. Cores were dated and fluxes were measured for each metal. A nearby lake was sampled to measure combined background and atmospheric inputs, which were subtracted from sewage lake data. Pb, Cd, and Hg inputs from sewage grew rapidly after the onset of waste disposal in the late 1960s and exceeded the rate of population growth in the contributing community from 1970 to 1990. The daily per-person Pb input in 1990 (720,000 ng/person per day) exceeded the tolerable daily intake level. The Cd input (48,000 ng/person per day) and Hg input (19,000 ng/person per day) were below the respective TDI levels at the time. PMID:16203239

  14. Adsorption by and artificial release of zinc and lead from porous concrete for recycling of adsorbed zinc and lead and of porous concrete to reduce urban non-point heavy metal runoff.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shigeki; Yanbe, Miyu

    2018-04-01

    This report describes the use of porous concrete at the bottom of a sewage trap to prevent runoff of non-point heavy metals into receiving waters, and, secondarily, to reduce total runoff volume during heavy rains in urbanized areas while simultaneously increasing the recharge volume of heavy-metal-free water into underground aquifers. This idea has the advantage of preventing clogging, which is fundamentally very important when using pervious materials. During actual field experiments, two important parameters were identified: maximum adsorption weight of lead and zinc by the volume of porous concrete, and heavy metal recovery rate by artificial acidification after adsorption. To understand the effect of ambient heavy metal concentration, a simple mixing system was used to adjust the concentrations of lead and zinc solutions. The concrete blocks used had been prepared for a previous study by Harada & Komuro (2010). The results showed that maximum adsorption depended on the ambient concentration, expressed as the linear isothermal theory, and that recovery depended on the final pH value (0.5 or 0.0). The dependence on pH is very important for recycling the porous concrete. A pH of 0.5 is important for recycling both heavy metals, especially zinc, (8.0-22.1% of lead and 42-74% of zinc) and porous concrete because porous concrete has not been heavily damaged by acid. However, at a pH of 0.0, the heavy metals could be recovered: 30-60% of the lead and 75-125% of the zinc. At a higher pH, such as 2.0, no release of heavy metals occurred, indicating the safety to the environment of using porous concrete, because the lowest recorded pH of rainfall in Japan is. 4.0. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and adsorption characteristics for heavy metals of active silicon adsorbent from leaching residue of lead-zinc tailings.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chang; Yan, Bo; Chen, Tao; Xiao, Xian-Ming

    2018-05-19

    To comprehensively reuse the leaching residue obtained from lead-zinc tailings, an active silicon adsorbent (ASA) was prepared from leaching residue and studied as an adsorbent for copper(II), lead(II), zinc(II), and cadmium(II) in this paper. The ASA was prepared by roasting the leaching residue with either a Na 2 CO 3 /residue ratio of 0.6:1 at 700 °C for 1 h or a CaCO 3 /residue ratio of 0.8:1 at 800 °C for 1 h. Under these conditions, the available SiO 2 content of the ASA was more than 20%. The adsorption behaviors of the metal ions onto the ASA were investigated and the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models were used to analyze the adsorption isotherm. The result showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of copper(II), lead(II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) calculated by the Langmuir model were 3.40, 2.83, 0.66, and 0.62 mmol g -1 , respectively. The FT-IR spectra of the ASA and the mean free adsorption energies indicated that ion exchange was the mechanism of copper(II), lead(II), and cadmium(II) adsorption and that chemical reaction was the mechanism of zinc(II) adsorption. These results provide a method for reusing the leaching residue obtained from lead-zinc tailings and show that the ASA is an effective adsorbent for heavy metal pollution remediation.

  16. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854

    2011-08-15

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and livermore » of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may

  17. Biomonitoring of lead, zinc, and cadmium in streams draining lead-mining and non-mining areas, Southeast Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.; Schmitt, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated exposure of aquatic biota to lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) in streams draining a Pb-mining district in southeast Missouri. Samples of plant biomass (detritus, periphyton, and filamentous algae), invertebrates (snails, crayfish, and riffle benthos), and two taxa of fish were collected from seven sites closest to mining areas (mining sites), four sites further downstream from mining (downstream sites), and eight reference sites in fall 2001. Samples of plant biomass from mining sites had highest metal concentrations, with means 10- to 60-times greater than those for reference sites. Mean metal concentrations in over 90% of samples of plant biomass from mining sites were significantly greater than those from reference sites. Mean concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd in most invertebrate samples from mining sites, and mean Pb concentrations in most fish samples from mining sites, were also significantly greater than those from reference sites. Concentrations of all three metals were lower in samples from downstream sites, but several samples of plant biomass from downstream sites had metal concentrations significantly greater than those from reference sites. Analysis of supplemental samples collected in the fall of 2002, a year of above-average stream discharge, had lower Pb concentrations and higher Cd concentrations than samples collected in 2001, near the end of a multi-year drought. Concentrations of Pb measured in fish and invertebrates collected from mining sites during 2001 and 2002 were similar to those measured at nearby sites in the 1970s, during the early years of mining in the Viburnum Trend. Results of this study demonstrate that long-term Pb mining activity in southeast Missouri has resulted in significantly elevated concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn in biota of receiving streams, compared to biota of similar streams without direct influence of mining. Our results also demonstrate that metal exposure in the study area differed

  18. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue☆

    PubMed Central

    Pemmer, B.; Roschger, A.; Wastl, A.; Hofstaetter, J.G.; Wobrauschek, P.; Simon, R.; Thaler, H.W.; Roschger, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Streli, C.

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radiation induced micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR μ-XRF) in combination with quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the distribution and accumulation of Zn, Sr, and Pb in human bone tissue. Fourteen human bone samples (10 femoral necks and 4 femoral heads) from individuals with osteoporotic femoral neck fractures as well as from healthy individuals were analyzed. Fluorescence intensity maps were matched with BE images and correlated with calcium (Ca) content. We found that Zn and Pb had significantly increased levels in the cement lines of all samples compared to the surrounding mineralized bone matrix. Pb and Sr levels were found to be correlated with the degree of mineralization. Interestingly, Zn intensities had no correlation with Ca levels. We have shown for the first time that there is a differential accumulation of the trace elements Zn, Pb and Sr in BSUs of human bone indicating different mechanisms of accumulation. PMID:23932972

  19. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Pemmer, B; Roschger, A; Wastl, A; Hofstaetter, J G; Wobrauschek, P; Simon, R; Thaler, H W; Roschger, P; Klaushofer, K; Streli, C

    2013-11-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radiation induced micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR μ-XRF) in combination with quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the distribution and accumulation of Zn, Sr, and Pb in human bone tissue. Fourteen human bone samples (10 femoral necks and 4 femoral heads) from individuals with osteoporotic femoral neck fractures as well as from healthy individuals were analyzed. Fluorescence intensity maps were matched with BE images and correlated with calcium (Ca) content. We found that Zn and Pb had significantly increased levels in the cement lines of all samples compared to the surrounding mineralized bone matrix. Pb and Sr levels were found to be correlated with the degree of mineralization. Interestingly, Zn intensities had no correlation with Ca levels. We have shown for the first time that there is a differential accumulation of the trace elements Zn, Pb and Sr in BSUs of human bone indicating different mechanisms of accumulation. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic incentive for applying vetiver grass to remediate lead, copper and zinc contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Danh, Luu Thai; Truong, Paul; Mammucari, Raffaella; Fostert, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The application of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizaniodes) for phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils can be promoted by economic return through essential oil production. Four levels of lead (0, 500, 2000, and 8000 mg kg(-1) dry soil), copper (0, 100, 400, and 1600 mg kg(-1) dry soil) and zinc (0, 400, 1600, and 6400 mg kg(-1) dry soil) were used to study their effects on vetiver growth, essential oil composition and yield. This study also investigated the effect of nitrogen concentrations on vetiver oil yield. Vetiver accumulated high concentrations of Pb, Cu and Zn in roots (3246, 754 and 2666 mg kg(-1), respectively) and small amounts of contaminants in shoots (327, 55, and 642 mg kg(-1), respectively). Oil content and yield were not affected at low and moderate concentrations of Cu and Zn. Only the application of Pb had a significant detrimental effect on oil composition. Extraction of vetiver essential oils by hydrodistillation produced heavy metal free products. High level of nitrogen reduced oil yields. Results show that phytoremediation of Cu and Zn contaminated soils by vetiver can generate revenue from the commercialization of oil extracts.

  1. Teratogenic versus mutagenic abnormalities in chironomid larvae exposed to zinc and lead.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Edward A; Moore, Barry C; Schaumloffel, John; Dasgupta, Nairanjana

    2004-08-01

    Before chironomid mouthpart deformities can be utilized as indicators of aquatic metal pollution with certainty, it must first be established that deformities are teratogenic and not mutagenic. A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess this question using Zn and Pb as causative agents. Parent populations were reared in sediments spiked with zinc (Zn) or lead (Pb) and their resulting offspring (F1 generation) were reared in clean sediments. The proportions of mouthpart deformities in C. tentans larvae were compared via logistic regression, accounting for time of exposure, between parent and offspring populations. Results indicate that 14% of chironomids from Zn-spiked sediment contained deformed menta and/or mandibles. However, the F1-Zn generation displayed a deformity of 1.7%. Larvae reared in Pb-spiked sediments displayed a deformity frequency of 9% and the F1 generations (F1-Pb a and F1-Pb b) had deformity proportion of 7 and 6%, respectively. We concluded that the deformities caused by Zn stress were morphological because the resulting F1 deformity frequencies declined to control levels. However, deformities caused by Pb appear to be genetic since F1 deformity percentages did not differ from the parent deformity frequency. Because larvae reared in Zn- and Pb-spiked sediments were larger than larvae reared in uncontaminated sediments, we could not conclude that Zn and Pb in the sediments stunted the development of C. tentans.

  2. Study of samarium modified lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite composite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Rekha; Juneja, J. K.; Singh, Sangeeta; Raina, K. K.; Prakash, Chandra

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, composites of samarium substituted lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite with compositional formula 0.95Pb1-3x/2 SmxZr0.65Ti0.35O3-0.05Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 (x=0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) were prepared by the conventional solid state route. X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out to confirm the coexistence of individual phases. Microstructural study was done by using scanning electron microscope. Dielectric constant and loss were studied as a function of temperature and frequency. To study ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the composite samples, corresponding P-E and M-H hysteresis loops were recorded. Change in magnetic properties of electrically poled composite sample (x=0.02) was studied to confirm the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. ME coefficient (dE/dH) of the samples (x=0 and 0.02) was measured as a function of DC magnetic field.

  3. Human Exposure Pathways of Heavy Metals in a Lead-Zinc Mining Area, Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Chang-Sheng; Ma, Zong-Wei; Yang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is becoming a serious issue in developing countries such as China, and the public is increasingly aware of its adverse health impacts in recent years. We assessed the potential health risks in a lead-zinc mining area and attempted to identify the key exposure pathways. We evaluated the spatial distributions of personal exposure using indigenous exposure factors and field monitoring results of water, soil, food, and indoor and outdoor air samples. The risks posed by 10 metals and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact pathways to these risks were estimated. Human hair samples were also analyzed to indicate the exposure level in the human body. Our results show that heavy metal pollution may pose high potential health risks to local residents, especially in the village closest to the mine (V1), mainly due to Pb, Cd and Hg. Correspondingly, the residents in V1 had higher Pb (8.14 mg/kg) levels in hair than those in the other two villages. Most of the estimated risks came from soil, the intake of self-produced vegetables and indoor air inhalation. This study highlights the importance of site-specific multipathway health risk assessments in studying heavy-metal exposures in China. PMID:23152752

  4. Optical characterization of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions doped zinc lead borate glasses.

    PubMed

    Thulasiramudu, A; Buddhudu, S

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports on the spectral analysis of Eu3+ or Tb3+ ions (0.5 mol%) doped heavy metal oxide (HMO) based zinc lead borate glasses from the measurement of their absorption, emission spectra and also different physical properties. From the XRD, DSC profiles, the glass nature and glass thermal properties have been studied. The measured emission spectrum of Eu3+ glass has revealed five transitions (5D0-->7F0, 7F1, 7F2, 7F3 and 7F4) at 578, 591, 613, 654 and 702 nm, respectively, with lambdaexci=392 nm (7F0-->5L6). In the case of Tb3+:ZLB glass, four emission transitions such as (5D4-->7F6, 7F5, 7F4 and 7F3) that are located at 489, 542, 585 and 622 nm, respectively, have been measured with lambdaexci=374 nm. For all these emission bands decay curves have been plotted to evaluate their lifetimes and the emission processes that arise in the glasses have been explained in terms of energy level schemes.

  5. Beryllium, zinc and lead single crystals as a thermal neutron monochromators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N.; Bashter, I. I.; Morcos, H. N.; El-Mesiry, M. S.; Mansy, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    The monochromatic features of Be, Zn and Pb single crystals are discussed in terms of orientation, mosaic spread, and thickness within the wavelength band from 0.04 up to 0.5 nm. A computer program MONO written in "FORTRAN-77", has been adapted to carry out the required calculations. Calculations show that a 5 mm thick of beryllium (HCP structure) single crystal cut along its (0 0 2) plane having 0.6° FWHM are the optimum parameters when it is used as a monochromator with high reflected neutron intensity from a thermal neutron flux. Furthermore, at wavelengths shorter than 0.16 nm it is free from the accompanying higher order ones. Zinc (HCP structure) has the same parameters, with intensity much less than the latter. The same features are seen with lead (FCC structure) cut along its (3 1 1) plane with less reflectivity than the former. However, Pb (3 1 1) is more preferable than others at neutron wavelengths ⩽ 0.1 nm, since the glancing angle (θ ∼ 20°) is more suitable to carry out diffraction experiments. For a cold neutron flux, the first-order neutrons reflected from beryllium is free from the higher orders up to 0.36 nm. While for Zn single crystal is up to 0.5 nm.

  6. The protective effects of zinc in lead-induced testicular and epididymal toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Anjum, M Reshma; Madhu, P; Reddy, K Pratap; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of zinc (Zn) in preventing lead (Pb)-induced reproductive toxicity in Wistar rats. The rats were divided into four groups, namely, control group, Pb group, Zn group, and Pb + Zn group. Animals were exposed to Pb (819 mg of Pb/L) or Zn (71 mg of Zn/L) or both through drinking water for 65 days. Rats exposed to Pb showed decreased weights of testes and accessory sex organs. Significant decrease in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, motility, viability, and number of hypoosmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in Pb-exposed rats. Testicular 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity levels and circulatory testosterone levels were also decreased significantly in Pb-exposed rats. A significant increase in the lipid peroxidation products with a significant decrease in the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were observed in the testes and epididymis of Pb-exposed rats. Moreover, the testicular architecture showed lumens devoid of sperm in Pb-exposed rats. Supplementation of Zn mitigated Pb-induced oxidative stress and restored the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in Pb-exposed rats. In conclusion, cotreatment of Zn is effective for recovering suppressed spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, elevated oxidative status, and histological damage in the testis of rats treated with Pb.

  7. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet.

    PubMed

    Noël, Marie; Christensen, Jennie R; Spence, Jody; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-10-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size=30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r(2)=0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the Spring River flood plain and tributary flood plains, Cherokee County, Kansas, 2009--11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Historical mining activity in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment. To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County, Kansas, superfund site, a 4-year study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey that was requested and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A combination of surficial-soil sampling and coring was used to investigate the occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the superfund site. Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment. Lead and zinc contamination was assessed with reference to probable-effect concentrations (PECs), which represent the concentrations above which adverse aquatic biological effects are likely to occur. The general PECs for lead and zinc were 128 and 459 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. The TSMD-specific PECs for lead and zinc were 150 and 2,083 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. Typically, surficial soils in the Spring River flood plain had lead and zinc concentrations that were less than the general PECs. Lead and zinc concentrations in the surficial-soil samples were variable with distance downstream and with distance from the Spring River channel, and the largest lead and zinc concentrations usually were located near the channel. Lead and zinc concentrations larger than the general or TSMD-specific PECs, or both, were infrequent at depth in the Spring River flood plain. When present, such contamination typically was confined to the upper 2 feet of the core and frequently was confined to the upper 6 inches. Tributaries with few or no lead- and zinc-mined areas in the basin—Brush Creek

  9. Determining lead, cadmium and mercury in cosmetics using sweeping via dynamic chelation by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Ling; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2017-03-01

    International limits have been established for metal impurities in cosmetics to prevent overexposure to heavy metal ions. Sweeping via dynamic chelation was developed using capillary electrophoresis to analyze lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) impurities in cosmetics. The sweeping via dynamic chelation mechanism involves a large volume of metal ions being swept by a small quantity of chelating agents that were electrokinetically injected into the capillary to chelate metal ions and increase the detection sensitivity. The optimized conditions were as follows: Firstly, the capillary was rinsed by a 0.6 mM TTAB solution to reverse the EOF. The sample solution, which was diluted using 25 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6.0), was injected into the capillary using a pressure of 3.5 psi for 99.9 s. Then, EDTA was injected at -25 kV for 1 min from the EDTA buffer (25 mM ammonium acetate containing 0.6 mM TTAB and 5 mM EDTA), and the metal ions were swept and stacked simultaneously. Finally, the separation was performed at -20 kV using a separation buffer (100 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6.0)). A small quantity of chelating agents introduced into the capillary could yield 33-, 50- and 100-fold detection improvements for Pb, Cd and Hg, respectively, more sensitive than conventional capillary zone electrophoresis. Correlation coefficients greater than 0.998 indicated that this method exhibited good linearity. The relative standard deviation and relative error were less than 8.7%, indicating high precision and accuracy. The recovery value of the homemade lotion, which was employed to simulate the real sample matrix, was 93-104%, which indicated that the sample matrix does not affect the quantitative results. Finally, commercial cosmetics were employed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method to determine Pb, Cd and Hg without complicated sample pretreatment. Graphical Abstract The procedure of analyzing metal ions in cosmetics by sweeping via dynamic chelation.

  10. Effects of environmental lead contamination on cattle in a lead/zinc mining area: changes in cattle immune systems on exposure to lead in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Muroya, Taro; Yabe, John; Konnai, Satoru; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Mainda, Geoffrey; Teraoka, Hiroki; Umemura, Takashi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2012-10-01

    The Republic of Zambia is rich in mineral resources, such as zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb), and mining is a key industry in Zambia. A previous study of Pb pollution in Kabwe, one of the main mining areas, found that soil was contaminated with high levels of toxic metals over a substantial area. In the present study, the authors focus on toxic metal pollution in cattle, one of the most important domestic animals in Zambia. Blood samples from cattle in Kabwe and a control area (Lusaka) were tested for toxic metal content. They also measured mRNA expression of metal-responsive proteins and cytokines in white blood cells using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In the present in vitro study, The authors cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cattle, exposing them to Pb acetate for 24 h and analyzing mRNA expression of metal-responsive proteins and selected cytokines. Lead concentrations in cattle blood from Kabwe were significantly greater than those from Lusaka, as were the mRNA expressions of metallothionein-2 (MT-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The present in vitro study demonstrated that Pb exposure led to an increase in the expressions of MT-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and iNOS, similar to those found in vivo. These results indicate the possibility of immune system modulations in cattle from the Kabwe area. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  11. Zinc Chloride and Lead Acetate-Induced Passive Avoidance Memory Retention Deficits Reversed by Nicotine and Bucladesine in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tabrizian, Kaveh; Yazdani, Abdolmajid; Baheri, Behnam; Payandemehr, Borna; Sanati, Mehdi; Hashemzaei, Mahmoud; Miri, Abdolhossein; Zandkarimi, Majid; Belaran, Maryam; Fanoudi, Sahar; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    It is very important to investigate the neurotoxic effects of metals on learning and memory processes. In this study, we tried to investigate the effects and time course properties of oral administration of zinc chloride (25, 50, and 75 mg/kg, for 2 weeks), lead acetate (250, 750, 1,500, and 2,500 ppm for 4, 6 and 8 weeks), and their possible mechanisms on a model of memory function. For this matter, we examined the intra-peritoneal injections of nicotine (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mg/kg) and bucladesine (50, 100, 300, and 600 nM/mouse) for 4 days alone and in combination with mentioned metals in the step-through passive avoidance task. Control animals received saline, drinking water, saline, and DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide)/deionized water (1:9), respectively. At the end of each part of studies, animals were trained for 1 day in step-through task. The avoidance memory retention alterations were evaluated 24 and 48 h later in singular and combinational studies. Zinc chloride (75 mg/kg) oral gavage for 2 weeks decreased latency times compared to control animals. Also, lead acetate (750 ppm oral administrations for 8 weeks) caused significant lead blood levels and induced avoidance memory retention impairments. Four-days intra-peritoneal injection of nicotine (1 mg/kg) increased latency time compared to control animals. Finally, findings of this research showed that treatment with intra-peritoneal injections of nicotine (1 mg/kg) and/or bucladesine (600 nM/mouse) reversed zinc chloride- and lead acetate-induced avoidance memory retention impairments. Taken together, these results showed the probable role of cholinergic system and protein kinase A pathways in zinc chloride- and lead acetate-induced avoidance memory alterations.

  12. Biochemical changes in longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, associated with lead, cadmium and zinc from mine tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Schmitt, C.J.; Finger, S.E.; Mehrle, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    Longear sunfish were collected from a stream contaminated with mine tailings rich in lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn). Blood samples were analysed for δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity and Pb concentration. Vertebrae were tested for bone strength and composition, and Pb, Zn, and Cd concentrations were determined in muscle tissue. ALA-D activity was negatively correlated with blood Pb concentration (r=–0.66), and enzyme activity was significantly higher and blood Pb significantly lower at the reference site than at the contaminated sites. Blood Pb was highly correlated with Pb in muscle tissue (r= 0.72), and the concentrations of Pb and Cd in muscle tissues were themselves correlated (r= 0.64). In fish from contaminated sites, two of the mechanical properties of the vertebrae measured (elastic limit and modulus of elasticity) were significantly different from values in fish from the reference site. These properties and one other (stress) were weakly correlated with muscle Cd concentration (0.42 < r < 0.46). Biochemical differences among fish from different sites were also evident; concentrations of calcium, phosphorus and collagen were lower in the vertebrae of fish from some of the contaminated sites than at the reference site, and bone phosphorus was negatively correlated with concentrations of Pb in both muscle (r=– 0.62) and blood (r=– 0.75). Collectively, these results indicate that, in addition to the well-documented effects of Pb on haem synthesis, other important biochemical pathways may be disrupted by continuous low-level exposure to elemental contaminants.

  13. Immobilisation of lead and zinc in contaminated soil using compost derived from industrial eggshell.

    PubMed

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the capacity of a compost obtained by co-composting of industrial eggshell (CES) to immobilise lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in an acidic soil contaminated by mining activities. Mature compost without eggshell (CWES) and natural eggshell (ES) were also tested as soil amendments for comparison purposes. Three different application rates were used for each material, ensuring the same quantity in terms of neutralizing capacity. Incubation experiments were conducted under controlled conditions and CO2 emissions monitored for 94 days. The environmental availability of Pb and Zn in the amended soil was assessed and bioassays were performed at the end of the incubation period. When eggshells were present, the CES compost raised the soil pH to values higher than 6 and reduced the soil mobile fraction for both Pb and Zn, in more than 95%. Soil toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri was also suppressed and environmental risk decreased to "low level". However, the immobilisation in the acid insoluble soil component was significantly achieved only for Zn. In addition, regarding soil carbon dynamics the CO2-C emissions were enhanced, mainly in the case of the highest rate of amendment. Both first order-E and parallel first order models may adequately describe the kinetic data of CO2-C cumulative release. Without eggshells, the CWES compost revealed limited effect on heavy metals immobilisation, likely due to its small capacity to correct soil acidity, at lower application rates. Using solely eggshells, the ES waste had similar outcomes when compared with CES, but at the higher application rate, CO2 emissions were enhanced with the eggshell compost due to the contribution of biotic carbon present therein. Therefore, this study points out that CES is an effective liming material and may be used for in situ remediation of contaminated soil with Pb and Zn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Zinc, lead, and cadmium levels in serum and milk of lactating women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Edem, Victory Fabian; Akintunde, Kikelomo; Adelaja, Yewande Adeola; Nwozo, Sarah O; Charles-Davies, Mabel

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is known to interact with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) reversing their toxicity and reducing their concentrations. However, lactating women are at high risk of developing Zn deficiency, which may result in Pb and Cd intoxication or increased exposure of breast-fed infants to Pb and Cd from breast milk. The aim of this study was to determine Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations and examine their relationship in serum and breast milk of lactating women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ninety-two lactating women were recruited into this study. Anthropometric measurements were assessed by standard methods while serum and breast milk concentrations of Zn, Pb, and Cd were assessed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data analyzed statistically by Student's t test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and a multiple regression model were significant at p < 0.05. Zn deficiency was observed in 12 (17.1%) of lactating women. Breast milk levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd were significantly higher than their levels in serum, whereas the ratios Zn:Pb and Zn:Cd in milk were significantly less than serum ratios. Significant negative correlation was observed between milk Pb and serum Zn:Pb while milk Cd correlated positively with milk Zn. Significant positive correlations were observed between serum Zn and serum Zn:Pb, serum Zn and serum Zn:Cd, as well as serum Zn:Cd and serum Zn:Pb. Serum Cd and serum Zn were significantly negatively related. Significant negative correlations between serum Pb and serum Zn:Pb as well as milk Zn:Pb. Serum Cd and serum Zn:Pb as well as serum Zn:Cd correlated negatively. Milk Cd and Zn/Cd positively related with milk Pb while milk Zn was a negatively related with milk Pb in a multiple regression model ( R 2 = 0.333; p = 0.023). Breast milk may be contaminated by toxic metals. However, Zn supplementation in deficient mothers may protect maternal and infant health.

  15. Phosphorite-hosted zinc and lead mineralization in the Sekarna deposit (Central Tunisia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garnit, Hechmi; Bouhel, Salah; Barca, Donatella; Johnson, Craig A.; Chtara, Chaker

    2012-01-01

    The Sekarna Zn–Pb deposit is located in Central Tunisia at the northeastern edge of the Cenozoic Rohia graben. Mineralization comprises two major ore types: (1) disseminated Zn–Pb sulfides that occur as lenses in sedimentary phosphorite layers and (2) cavity-filling zinc oxides (calamine-type ores) that crosscut Late Cretaceous and Early Eocene limestone. We studied Zn sulfide mineralization in the Saint Pierre ore body, which is hosted in a 5-m-thick sedimentary phosphorite unit of Early Eocene age. The sulfide mineralization occurs as replacements of carbonate cement in phosphorite. The ores comprise stratiform lenses rich in sphalerite with minor galena, Fe sulfides, and earlier diagenetic barite. Laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses of sphalerite and galena show a wide range of minor element contents with significant enrichment of cadmium in both sphalerite (6,000–20,000 ppm) and galena (12–189 ppm). The minor element enrichments likely reflect the influence of the immediate organic-rich host rocks. Fluid inclusions in sphalerite give homogenization temperatures of 80–130°C. The final ice melting temperatures range from −22°C to −11°C, which correspond to salinities of 15–24 wt.% NaCl eq. and suggest a basinal brine origin for the fluids. Sulfur isotope analyses show uniformly negative values for sphalerite (−11.2‰ to −9.3‰) and galena (−16‰ to −12.3‰). The δ34S of barite, which averages 25.1‰, is 4‰ higher than the value for Eocene seawater sulfate. The sulfur isotopic compositions are inferred to reflect sulfur derivation through bacterial reduction of contemporaneous seawater sulfate, possibly in restricted basins where organic matter was abundant. The Pb isotopes suggest an upper crustal lead source.

  16. Phosphorite-hosted zinc and lead mineralization in the Sekarna deposit (Central Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnit, Hechmi; Bouhlel, Salah; Barca, Donatella; Johnson, Craig A.; Chtara, Chaker

    2012-06-01

    The Sekarna Zn-Pb deposit is located in Central Tunisia at the northeastern edge of the Cenozoic Rohia graben. Mineralization comprises two major ore types: (1) disseminated Zn-Pb sulfides that occur as lenses in sedimentary phosphorite layers and (2) cavity-filling zinc oxides (calamine-type ores) that crosscut Late Cretaceous and Early Eocene limestone. We studied Zn sulfide mineralization in the Saint Pierre ore body, which is hosted in a 5-m-thick sedimentary phosphorite unit of Early Eocene age. The sulfide mineralization occurs as replacements of carbonate cement in phosphorite. The ores comprise stratiform lenses rich in sphalerite with minor galena, Fe sulfides, and earlier diagenetic barite. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses of sphalerite and galena show a wide range of minor element contents with significant enrichment of cadmium in both sphalerite (6,000-20,000 ppm) and galena (12-189 ppm). The minor element enrichments likely reflect the influence of the immediate organic-rich host rocks. Fluid inclusions in sphalerite give homogenization temperatures of 80-130°C. The final ice melting temperatures range from -22°C to -11°C, which correspond to salinities of 15-24 wt.% NaCl eq. and suggest a basinal brine origin for the fluids. Sulfur isotope analyses show uniformly negative values for sphalerite (-11.2‰ to -9.3‰) and galena (-16‰ to -12.3‰). The δ34S of barite, which averages 25.1‰, is 4‰ higher than the value for Eocene seawater sulfate. The sulfur isotopic compositions are inferred to reflect sulfur derivation through bacterial reduction of contemporaneous seawater sulfate, possibly in restricted basins where organic matter was abundant. The Pb isotopes suggest an upper crustal lead source.

  17. Database of significant deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Keith R.; DeYoung,, John H.; Ludington, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the largest mineral deposits contain most of the known mineral endowment (Singer and DeYoung, 1980). Sometimes called giant or world-class deposits, these largest deposits account for a very large share of historic and current mineral production and resources in industrial society (Singer, 1995). For example, Singer (1995) shows that the largest 10 percent of the world’s gold deposits contain 86 percent of the gold discovered to date. Many mineral resource issues and investigations are more easily addressed if limited to the relatively small number of deposits that contain most of the known mineral resources. An estimate of known resources using just these deposits would normally be sufficient, because considering smaller deposits would not add significantly to the total estimate. Land-use planning should treat mainly with these deposits due to their relative scarcity, the large share of known resources they contain, and the fact that economies of scale allow minerals to be produced much more cheaply from larger deposits. Investigation of environmental and other hazards that result from mining operations can be limited to these largest deposits because they account for most of past and current production.The National Mineral Resource Assessment project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled a database on the largest known deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States to complement the 1996 national assessment of undiscovered deposits of these same metals (Ludington and Cox, 1996). The deposits in this database account for approximately 99 percent of domestic production of these metals and probably a similar share of identified resources. These data may be compared with results of the assessment of undiscovered resources to characterize the nation’s total mineral endowment for these metals. This database is a starting point for any national or regional mineral-resource or mineral

  18. Declining blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels in Ecuadorian Andean children.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Coronel Parra, Angelica M; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B; Rifai, Nader; Hoover, Patricia Nolan

    2013-09-01

    To investigate current lead (Pb) exposure in children living in Andean Ecuadorian communities. Blood Pb (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels were used respectively as biomarkers of acute and chronic Pb poisoning. The current PbB-ZPP levels were compared with previous pediatric PbB-ZPP levels recorded over years in the study area. Samples of whole blood were collected from 22 Andean children of Quechua and Mestizo backgrounds and measured for PbB concentrations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. ZPP/heme ratio and ZPP whole blood (ZPP WB) levels were measured with a hematofluorometer. The mean PbB level for children in the current study group was 14.5 μg/dL, which was significantly lower than the mean PbB level of 41.1 μg/dL found in the same study area in the 1996-2000 test period, and lower than the 22.2 μg/dL mean level found in the 2003-2007 period. The current mean ZPP/heme ratio was 102.1 μmol/mol, and the mean ZPP WB level was 46.3 μg/dL, both lower than values previously found in children in the study area. While the current pediatric PbB-ZPP levels in the study area remain elevated in some children, the overall levels indicate a decline relative to levels observed in the same Pb-contaminated area in the period between 1996 and 2007. The elevated ZPP levels suggest a history of chronic Pb exposure, and potential iron deficiency in some children. The overall reduction in PbB-ZPP levels suggests a positive outcome of a Pb-exposure education and prevention program, and the therapeutic intervention of succimer chelation therapy. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal and chemical variations of the Nigerian Benue trough lead-zinc-barite-fluorite deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogundipe, Ibukun Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    The Benue trough is an intra-continental rift initiated in the Cretaceous during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Lead-zinc-barite-fluorite mineralization occurs along the 600 km axis of the trough in three discrete sub-basins which coincide with the lower, middle and upper mineral districts of the Benue Valley. Lithologically these sub-basins are dominated by black carbonaceous shale in the Lower Benue, platform carbonates in the Middle Benue and sandstones in the Upper Benue. Micro-thermometric analysis of fluid inclusions in sphalerite, fluorite, barite and quartz have shown that each mineral district has its own unique thermal and chemical imprint. For example, the temperature can be bracketed between 109 °C and 160 °C for lower Benue, 89 °C-144 °C for the Middle Benue and 176 °C-254 °C for the Upper Benue. Chemical differentiation also exists between each mineral district with the Lower Benue having 22 wt % equivalent NaCl while the Middle and Upper Benue have 18 and 16 wt % equivalent NaCl respectively. This study shows that inter-district thermal and chemical variations exist between the ore-stage sulfide and post-sulfide gangue minerals of the entire Benue Valley. Similarly, intra-district thermal and chemical variations have also been observed among all the paragenetic minerals of each district. The thermal variations may be as a result of variations in the geothermal gradient accompanying continental rifting from one district to the other. The variations in the chemistry between the Lower Benue and the Upper Benue paragenic minerals may be as a result of the distinct lithological differences across the Benue Trough.

  20. Effects of Zinc and N-Acetylcysteine in Damage Caused by Lead Exposure in Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Taíse F; Oliveira, Cláudia S; Fonseca, Mariana M; Oliveira, Vitor A; Pereira, Maria Ester

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of rats exposed to lead acetate (AcPb) during the second phase of brain development (8-12 days postnatal) in hematological and cerebral parameters. Moreover, the preventive effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was investigated. Pups were injected subcutaneously with saline (0.9% NaCl solution), ZnCl 2 (27 mg/kg/day), NAC (5 mg/kg/day) or ZnCl 2 plus NAC for 5 days (3rd-7th postnatal days), and with saline (0.9% NaCl solution) or AcPb (7 mg/kg/day) in the five subsequent days (8th-12th postnatal days). Animals were sacrificed 21 days after the last AcPb exposure. Pups exposed to AcPb presented inhibition of blood porphobilinogen-synthase (PBG-synthase) activity without changes in hemoglobin content. ZnCl 2 pre-exposure partially prevented PBG-synthase inhibition. Regarding neurotoxicity biomarkers, animals exposed to AcPb presented a decrease in cerebrum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and an increase in Pb accumulation in blood and cerebrum. These changes were prevented by pre-treatment with ZnCl 2 , NAC, and ZnCl 2 plus NAC. AcPb exposure caused no alteration in behavioral tasks. In short, results show that AcPb inhibited the activity of two important enzymatic biomarkers up to 21 days after the end of the exposure. Moreover, ZnCl 2 and NAC prevented the alterations induced by AcPb.

  1. Tectonic controls of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc mineralization in orogenic forelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, D.C.; Leach, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Most of the world's Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) zinc-lead deposits occur in orogenic forelands. We examine tectonic aspects of foreland evolution as part of a broader study of why some forelands are rich in MVT deposits, whereas others are barren. The type of orogenic foreland (collisional versus Andean-type versus inversion-type) is not a first-order control, because each has MVT deposits (e.g., Northern Arkansas, Pine Point, and Cevennes, respectively). In some MVT districts (e.g., Tri-State and Central Tennessee), mineralization took place atop an orogenic forebulge, a low-amplitude (a few hundred meters), long-wavelength (100-200 km) swell formed by vertical loading of the foreland plate. In the foreland of the active Banda Arc collision zone, a discontinuous forebulge reveals some of the physiographic and geologic complexities of the forebulge environment, and the importance of sea level in determining whether or not a forebulge will emerge and thus be subject to erosion. In addition to those on extant forebulges, some MVT deposits occur immediately below unconformities that originated at a forebulge, only to be subsequently carried toward the orogen by the plate-tectonic conveyor (e.g., Daniel's Harbour and East Tennessee). Likewise, some deposits are located along syn-collisional, flexure-induced normal and strike-slip faults in collisional forelands (e.g., Northern Arkansas, Daniel's Harbour, and Tri-State districts). These findings reveal the importance of lithospheric flexure, and suggest a conceptual tectonic model that accounts for an important subset of MVT deposits-those in the forelands of collisional orogens. The MVT deposits occur both in flat-lying and in thrust-faulted strata; in the latter group, mineralization postdated thrusting in some instances (e.g., Picos de Europa) but may have predated thrusting in other cases (e.g., East Tennessee).

  2. Simultaneous determination of thorium, niobium, lead, and zinc by photon-induced x-ray fluorescence of lateritic material

    SciTech Connect

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Adames, D.; Parker, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    A rapid method is presented for the simultaneous determinations of thorium, niobium, lead, and zinc in lateritic material from Cerro Impacto, Estado Bolivar, Venezuela. This technique uses a PDP - 11/05 processor - based photon induced x-ray fluorescence system. The total variations of approximately 5% for concentrations of approximately 1 and 10% for concentrations of approximately 0.1% were obtained with only 500 s of fluorescent time. The values obtained by this method were in agreement with values measured by conventional flame atomic absorption spectroscopy for lead and zinc. The values for thorium measured were in agreement with the reported valuesmore » for the reference materials supplied by NBL.« less

  3. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  4. Sources of lead and zinc associated with metal smelting activities in the Trail area, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Fariborz; Sanei, Hamed; Labonté, Marcel; Duncan, William F

    2002-06-01

    The spatial distribution and deposition of lead and zinc emitted from the Trail smelter, British Columbia, Canada, was studied by strategically locating moss bags in the area surrounding the smelter and monitoring the deposition of elements every three months. A combined diffusion/distribution model was applied to estimate the relative contribution of stack-emitted material and material emitted from the secondary sources (e.g., wind-blown dust from ore/slag storage piles, uncovered transportation/trucking of ore, and historical dust). The results indicate that secondary sources are the major contributor of lead and zinc deposited within a short distance from the smelter. Gradually, the stack emissions become the main source of Pb and Zn at greater distances from the smelter. Typical material originating from each source was characterized by SEM/EDX, which indicated a marked difference in their morphology and chemical composition.

  5. Modelling drivers and distribution of lead and zinc concentrations in soils of an urban catchment (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    PubMed

    Johnson, L E; Bishop, T F A; Birch, G F

    2017-11-15

    The human population is increasing globally and land use is changing to accommodate for this growth. Soils within urban areas require closer attention as the higher population density increases the chance of human exposure to urban contaminants. One such example of an urban area undergoing an increase in population density is Sydney, Australia. The city also possesses a notable history of intense industrial activity. By integrating multiple soil surveys and covariates into a linear mixed model, it was possible to determine the main drivers and map the distribution of lead and zinc concentrations within the Sydney estuary catchment. The main drivers as derived from the model included elevation, distance to main roads, main road type, soil landscape, population density (lead only) and land use (zinc only). Lead concentrations predicted using the model exceeded the established guideline value of 300mgkg -1 over a large portion of the study area with concentrations exceeding 1000mgkg -1 in the south of the catchment. Predicted zinc did not exceed the established guideline value of 7400mgkg -1 ; however concentrations were higher to the south and west of the study area. Unlike many other studies we considered the prediction uncertainty when assessing the contamination risk. Although the predictions indicate contamination over a large area, the broadness of the prediction intervals suggests that in many of these areas we cannot be sure that the site is contaminated. More samples are required to determine the contaminant distribution with greater precision, especially in residential areas where contamination was highest. Managing sources and addressing areas of elevated lead and zinc concentrations in urban areas has the potential to reduce the impact of past human activities and improve the urban environment of the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of novel reactive MgO activated slag binder for the immobilisation of lead and zinc.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fei; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2014-12-01

    Although Portland cement is the most widely used binder in the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) processes, slag-based binders have gained significant attention recently due to their economic and environmental merits. In the present study, a novel binder, reactive MgO activated slag, is compared with hydrated lime activated slag in the immobilisation of lead and zinc. A series of lead or zinc-doped pastes and mortars were prepared with metal to binder ratio from 0.25% to 1%. The hydration products and microstructure were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The major hydration products were calcium silicate hydrate and hydrotalcite-like phases. The unconfined compressive strength was measured up to 160 d. Findings show that lead had a slight influence on the strength of MgO-slag paste while zinc reduced the strength significantly as its concentration increased. Leachate results using the TCLP tests revealed that the immobilisation degree was dependent on the pH and reactive MgO activated slag showed an increased pH buffering capacity, and thus improved the immobilisation efficiency compared to lime activated slag. It was proposed that zinc was mainly immobilised within the structure of the hydrotalcite-like phases or in the form of calcium zincate, while lead was primarily precipitated as the hydroxide. It is concluded, therefore, that reactive MgO activated slag can serve as clinker-free alternative binder in the S/S process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The geology, mineralogy and paragenesis of the Castrovirreyna lead-zinc-silver deposits, Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Richard Wheatley

    1964-01-01

    The Castrovirreyna mining district lies in the Andean Cordillera of South Central Peru, and has been worked sporadically since its discovery in 1591. Supergene silver ores were first mined. Currently the district produces about 20,000 tons of lead-zinc ore and 5000 tons of silver ore annually. The district is underlain by Tertiary andesitic rocks interbedded with basalts and intruded by small bodies of quartz latite porphyry. The terrane reflects recent glaciation and is largely covered by glacial debris. The ore deposits are steeply dipping veins that strike N. 60? E. to S. 50? E., and average 60 centimeters wide and 300 meters long. The principal veins are grouped around three centers, lying 5 kilometers apart along a line striking N. 55? E. They are, from east to west: San Genaro, Caudalosa, and La Virreyna. A less important set of veins, similarly aligned, lies 2 kilometers to the north. Most of the veins were worked to depths of about 30 meters, the limit of supergene enrichment; but in the larger veins hypogene ores have been worked to depths of over 150 meters. Galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and tetrahedrite are common to all veins, but are most abundant in the westernmost veins at La Virreyna. In the center of the district, around Caudalosa, land sulfantimonides are the commonest ore minerals, and at the eastern end, around San Genaro and Astohuaraca, silver sulfosalts predominate. Supergene enrichment of silver is found at shallow depths in all deposits. Silver at San Genaro, however, was concentrated towards the surface by migration along hypogene physico-chemical gradients in time and space, as vein material was reworked by mineralizing fluids. The pattern of wallrock alteration throughout the district grades from silicification and scricitization adjacent to the veins, through argillization and propylitization, to widespread chloritization farther away. Mineralization can be divided into three stages: 1) Preparatory stage, characterized by

  8. What do we know of childhood exposures to metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) in emerging market countries?

    PubMed

    Horton, Lindsey M; Mortensen, Mary E; Iossifova, Yulia; Wald, Marlena M; Burgess, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.

  9. What Do We Know of Childhood Exposures to Metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury) in Emerging Market Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Lindsey M.; Mortensen, Mary E.; Iossifova, Yulia; Wald, Marlena M.; Burgess, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets. PMID:23365584

  10. Metal residues, histopathology and presence of parasites in the liver and gills of fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) near a former lead-zinc mine in East Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Mai

    Fourhorn sculpins (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) and shorthorn sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) have been considered suitable local bioindicators for environmental monitoring studies in the Arctic. Because these species share many characteristics, data from the two species have previously been pooled when assessing marine metal contamination. A chemical and histological study was conducted on fourhorn and shorthorn sculpins collected around a contaminated lead-zinc mine at East Greenland to investigate whether there were any differences in the residues of metals, histopathology and parasites in liver and gills between the two sculpin species. The results demonstrated that concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), mercury (Hg) andmore » lead (Pb) were significantly higher in the fourhorn sculpins (p<0.001) while there were no significant differences for arsenic (As) or cadmium (Cd). Furthermore, density of blood vessel fibrosis (p=0.028), prevalence and density of chondroplasia (p=0.002 and p=0.005, respectively), number of mucin-containing mucous cells (p<0.001) and chloride cells (p<0.001) and mean intensity of colonial Peritricha (p<0.001) were significantly higher in fourhorn sculpin. Based on these results we suggest that pooling the two species when conducting environmental assessments is not recommended as it can lead to incorrect conclusions. We propose that a larger study investigating the biological effects of zinc-lead mining in Greenland is needed. - Highlights: • Fourhorn sculpins (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) more sensitive to pollution than shorthorn sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius). • Metal residues, histological changes and presence of parasites were species-specific. • Different sculpin species should not be pooled together as pollution biomarkers.« less

  11. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu,more » Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.« less

  12. Assessment of Hair Aluminum, Lead, and Mercury in a Sample of Autistic Egyptian Children: Environmental Risk Factors of Heavy Metals in Autism.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Farida El Baz; Zaky, Eman Ahmed; El-Sayed, Adel Bassuoni; Elhossieny, Reham Mohammed; Zahra, Sally Soliman; Salah Eldin, Waleed; Youssef, Walaa Yousef; Khaled, Rania Abdelmgeed; Youssef, Azza Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The etiological factors involved in the etiology of autism remain elusive and controversial, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. The aim of this study was to assess the levels and possible environmental risk factors and sources of exposure to mercury, lead, and aluminum in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared to their matched controls. One hundred ASD children were studied in comparison to 100 controls. All participants were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of mercury, lead, and aluminum through hair analysis which reflects past exposure. The mean Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in hair of the autistic patients were significantly higher than controls. Mercury, lead, and aluminum levels were positively correlated with maternal fish consumptions, living nearby gasoline stations, and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively. Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in the hair of autistic children are higher than controls. Environmental exposure to these toxic heavy metals, at key times in development, may play a causal role in autism.

  13. Assessment of Hair Aluminum, Lead, and Mercury in a Sample of Autistic Egyptian Children: Environmental Risk Factors of Heavy Metals in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Farida El Baz; Zaky, Eman Ahmed; El-Sayed, Adel Bassuoni; Elhossieny, Reham Mohammed; Zahra, Sally Soliman; Salah Eldin, Waleed; Youssef, Walaa Yousef; Khaled, Rania Abdelmgeed; Youssef, Azza Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. The etiological factors involved in the etiology of autism remain elusive and controversial, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. The aim of this study was to assess the levels and possible environmental risk factors and sources of exposure to mercury, lead, and aluminum in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared to their matched controls. Methods. One hundred ASD children were studied in comparison to 100 controls. All participants were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of mercury, lead, and aluminum through hair analysis which reflects past exposure. Results. The mean Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in hair of the autistic patients were significantly higher than controls. Mercury, lead, and aluminum levels were positively correlated with maternal fish consumptions, living nearby gasoline stations, and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively. Conclusion. Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in the hair of autistic children are higher than controls. Environmental exposure to these toxic heavy metals, at key times in development, may play a causal role in autism. PMID:26508811

  14. Associations of cadmium, zinc, and lead in soils from a lead and zinc mining area as studied by single and sequential extractions.

    PubMed

    Anju, M; Banerjee, D K

    2011-05-01

    -soluble fraction and zinc was predominantly associated (32.42%) with residual fraction. Pb (66.86%) and Zn (30.44%) were present mainly in the reducible fraction. Assuming that the mobility and bioavailability are related to solubility of geochemical forms of metals and decrease in the order of extraction, the apparent mobility and potential metal bioavailability for these contaminated soil samples is Cd > Zn > Pb.

  15. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the elderly living in institutionalized care in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Rambousková, Jolana; Krsková, Andrea; Slavíková, Miroslava; Cejchanová, Mája; Cerná, Milena

    2014-10-01

    There is limited research examining the chemical load of toxic metals in the elderly. The aim of the present study was two-fold: to determine the body burden of lead, cadmium and mercury in association with age, gender, locality, lifestyle factors and potential health impacts among this population and to compare the values with blood values from the general Czech population aged 18-64 years. Lead, cadmium and mercury were examined in the blood of institutionalized senior citizens (46 males, 151 females aged 61-100 years) from two localities in the Czech Republic (Prague and Teplice) from 2009 through 2011. Measurements were made using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Pb, Cd) and a single purpose spectrometer AMA 254 (Hg). Geometric means (GM) of whole blood lead (B-Pb), cadmium (B-Cd) and mercury (B-Hg) levels were 25.3μg/l, 0.55μg/l and 0.21μg/l, respectively. No age-related differences were found for B-Pb and B-Cd levels but a negative correlation with age was observed for B-Hg levels (p=0.04). B-Pb levels in men were significantly higher than in women (GM 29.9μg/l vs. 24.1μg/l). B-Cd was significantly higher in women (GM 0.57μg/l) than in men (0.50μg/l) (p=0.007) and in smokers (GM 1.29μg/l) than in nonsmokers (GM 0.53μg/l) (p=<0.001) and in seniors from Prague (GM 0.60μg/l) compared to those from Teplice (GM 0.43μg/l) (p=<0.001). Seniors with a history of chronic kidney disease, stroke and those using psycho-pharmaceuticals had higher B-Pb levels (p=0.008, 0.04 and 0.05, resp.), seniors diagnosed with atherosclerosis had higher B-Cd levels (p=0.002) and seniors using psycho-pharmaceuticals had higher B-Hg levels (p=0.07). B-Hg levels were also positively correlated with blood albumin levels (p=0.015). This study provides data on levels of heavy metals in a group of elderly people. Such information is very scarce. Associations with diseases should be the subject of further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Contamination of houses by workers occupationally exposed in a lead-zinc-copper mine and impact on blood lead concentrations in the families.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaradia, M; Gulson, B L; MacDonald, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pathway of leaded dust from a lead-zinc-copper mine to houses of employees, and the impact on blood lead concentrations (PbB) of children. METHODS: High precision lead isotope and lead concentration data were obtained on venous blood and environmental samples (vacuum cleaner dust, interior dustfall accumulation, water, paint) for eight children of six employees (and the employees) from a lead-zinc-copper mine. These data were compared with results for 11 children from occupationally unexposed control families living in the same city. RESULTS: The median (range) concentrations of lead in vacuum cleaner dust was 470 (21-1300) ppm. In the houses of the mine employees, vacuum cleaner dust contained varying higher proportions of mine lead than did airborne particulate matter measured as dustfall accumulated over a three month period. The median (range) concentrations of lead in soil were 30 (5-407) ppm and these showed no evidence of any mine lead. Lead in blood of the mine employees varied from 7 to 25 micrograms/dl and was generally dominated by mine lead (> 60%). The mean (SD) PbB in the children of the mine employees was 5.7 (1.7) micrograms/dl compared with 4.1 (1.4) micrograms/dl for the control children (P = 0.02). The PbB of all children was always < 10 micrograms/dl, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council goal for all Australians. Some of the control children had higher PbB than the children of mine employees, probably from exposure to leaded paint as six of the eight houses of the control children were > 50 years old. In five of the eight children of mine employees > 20% of PbB was from the lead mine. However, in the other three cases of children of mine employees, their PbB was from sources other than mine lead (paint, petrol, background sources). CONCLUSIONS: Houses of employees from a lead mine can be contaminated by mine lead even if they are not situated in the same place as the mine. Delineation of the mine

  17. Alternative drugs go global: possible lead and/ or mercury intoxication from imported natural health products and a need for scientifically evaluated poisoning monitoring from environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Budnik, Lygia Therese; Baur, Xaver; Harth, Volker; Hahn, Axel

    2016-01-01

    With increases in globalization, cultural remedies from Chinese, Ayurvedic, Arab and other traditions have become more available to international consumers, offering unfamiliar "Natural Health Products" (NHP), used as alternative medicine or supplementary medicine. Contamination with toxic ingredients including lead, mercury, arsenic, and other toxic elements has been documented in several of these products from various parts of the globe, particularly from some parts of Asia and the Orient. We have been following this development in the last 6 years and have analyzed n  = 20 such products (60 analyses) from patients with intoxication symptoms in a pilot study, showing alarming high concentrations of mercury and/or lead (the first one in "therapeutic" doses). 82 % of the studied NHP contained lead concentrations above the EU limit for dietary supplements. 62 % of the samples exceeded the limit values for mercury. Elevated blood lead and mercury levels in patients along with clinical intoxication symptoms corroborate the causal assumption of intoxication (s). We present one detailed clinical case report of severe lead and mercury intoxications and give an overview about blood concentration related symptoms and signs of n  = 41 case reports of mercury intoxications of the German monitoring BfR-DocCenter. For NHP there is evidence on a distinct toxicological risk with alarming low awareness for a possible intoxication which prevents potentially life-saving diagnostic steps in affected cases. In many cases patients do not communicate the events to their physicians or the local health authority so that case reports (e.g. the BfR-DocCentre) are missing. Thus, there is an urgent need to raise awareness and to initiate more suitable monitory systems (e.g. National Monitoring of Poisonings) and control practice protecting the public.

  18. Adverse health effects in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) associated with waste from zinc and lead mines in the Tri-State Mining District (Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA).

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Deon; Carpenter, James W; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Miesner, John F

    2011-07-01

    Lead and zinc poisoning have been recorded in a variety of bird species, including migrating waterfowl such as Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), at sites contaminated with mine waste from lead and zinc mines in the Tri-State Mining District, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA. The adverse health impacts from mine waste on these birds may, however, be more extensive than is apparent from incidental reports of clinical disease. To characterize health impacts from mine waste on Canada Geese that do not have observable signs of poisoning, four to eight apparently healthy birds per site were collected from four contaminated sites and an uncontaminated reference site, and examined for physical and physiologic evidence of metals poisoning. Tissue concentrations of silver, aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Adverse health effects due to lead were characterized by assessing blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) enzyme activity. Adverse effects associated with zinc poisoning were determined from histologic examination of pancreas tissues. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and inhibited blood ALAD enzyme activities were consistently found in birds at all contaminated sites. Histopathologic signs of zinc poisoning, including fibrosis and vacuolization, were associated with elevated pancreatic zinc concentrations at one of the study sites. Adverse health effects associated with other analyzed elements, or tissue concentrations indicating potentially toxic exposure levels to these elements, were not observed.

  19. Historical records of mercury, lead, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons depositions in a dated sediment core from the Eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Azoury, S; Tronczyński, J; Chiffoleau, J-F; Cossa, D; Nakhlé, K; Schmidt, S; Khalaf, G

    2013-07-02

    Depth profiles of mercury, lead and its stable isotopes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in a dated sediment core from the Levantine basin. Sedimentary records show that preindustrial fluxes and levels of Hg, Pb, and PAHs remained generally constant in the region before 1850. An almost concurrent uniform increase of both metals and PAHs deposition occurring at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution suggests coal combustion as a main source of these contaminants in the Levantine basin after the 1850s. However, none of the contaminant profiles indicates a decline after 1950-60, the characteristic period of coal use reduction. The modern fluxes of Hg and Pb reveal a 3- to 5-fold increase over preindustrial loads, while the contemporaneous flux of PAHs rises by 4-7 times. On the whole, records in the Eastern Mediterranean suggest atmospheric inputs from relatively distant sources, likely from Central and Eastern Europe.

  20. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Akçay, Nilay, E-mail: nilay.akcay@erdogan.edu.tr; Batan, Nevzat, E-mail: nbatan@ktu.edu.tr; Çinar, Yunus, E-mail: yunus.cinar@erdogan.edu.tr

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this studymore » is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.« less

  1. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akçay, Nilay; Batan, Nevzat; Ćinar, Yunus

    2016-04-01

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  2. Assessment of water resources in lead-zinc mined areas in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, Timothy B.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate water-resources problems related to abandoned lead and zinc mines in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas in Missouri and Oklahoma. Past mining activities have caused changes in the hydrogeology of the area. Lead and zinc mining has caused discontinuities and perforations in the confining shale west of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the western area), which have created artificial ground-water recharge and discharge areas. Recharge to the shallow aquifer (rocks of Mississippian age) through collapses, shafts, and drill holes in the shale has caused the formation of a groundwater "mound" in the vicinity of the Picher Field in Kansas and Oklahoma. Discharge of mine-contaminated ground water to Tar Creek occurs in'Oklahoma from drill holes and shafts where the potentiometric surface of the shallow aquifer is above the land surface. Mining of ore in the shallow aquifer has resulted in extensive fracturing and removal of material, which has created highly transmissive zones and voids and increased ground-water storage properties of the aquifer. In the area east of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the eastern area), fractured rock and tailings on the land surface increased the amount of water available for infiltration to the shallow aquifer; in the western area, tailings on the impermeable shale created artificial, perched aquifer systems that slowly drain to surface streams.Pumping of the deep aquifer (rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age) by towns and industries, which developed as a result of the mining industry, has resulted in a potential for downward movement of water from the shallow aquifer. The potential is greatest in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Because of the large volume of water that may be transported from the shallow to the deep aquifer, open drill holes or casings present the greatest contamination hazard to water supplies in the deep aquifer

  3. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard

  4. Toxicity of sediments from lead-zinc mining areas to juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) compared to standard test organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kemble, Nile E.; May, Thomas W.; Wang, Ning; MacDonald, Donald D.; Roberts, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests compared chronic effects on survival, growth, and biomass of juvenile freshwater mussels (28-d exposures with Lampsilis siliquoidea) to the responses of standard test organisms—amphipods (28-d exposures with Hyalella azteca) and midges (10-d exposures with Chironomus dilutus)—in sediments from 2 lead–zinc mining areas: the Tri-State Mining District and Southeast Missouri Mining District. Mussel tests were conducted in sediments sieved to <0.25 mm to facilitate recovery of juvenile mussels (2–4 mo old). Sediments were contaminated primarily with lead, zinc, and cadmium, with greater zinc and cadmium concentrations in Tri-State sediments and greater lead concentrations in southeast Missouri sediments. The frequency of highly toxic responses (reduced 10% or more relative to reference sites) in Tri-State sediments was greatest for amphipod survival (25% of samples), midge biomass (20%), and mussel survival (14%). In southeast Missouri sediments, the frequency of highly toxic samples was greatest for mussel biomass (25%) and amphipod biomass (13%). Thresholds for metal toxicity to mussels, expressed as hazard quotients based on probable effect concentrations, were lower for southeast Missouri sediments than for Tri-State sediments. Southeast Missouri sites with toxic sediments had 2 or fewer live mussel taxa in a concurrent mussel population survey, compared with 7 to 26 taxa at reference sites. These results demonstrate that sediment toxicity tests with juvenile mussels can be conducted reliably by modifying existing standard methods; that the sensitivity of mussels to metals can be similar to or greater than standard test organisms; and that responses of mussels in laboratory toxicity tests are consistent with effects on wild mussel populations.

  5. Relationship of lead, mercury, mirex, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls to timing of menarche among Akwesasne Mohawk girls.

    PubMed

    Denham, Melinda; Schell, Lawrence M; Deane, Glenn; Gallo, Mia V; Ravenscroft, Julia; DeCaprio, Anthony P

    2005-02-01

    Children are commonly exposed at background levels to several ubiquitous environmental pollutants, such as lead and persistent organic pollutants, that have been linked to neurologic and endocrine effects. These effects have prompted concern about alterations in human reproductive development. Few studies have examined the effects of these toxicants on human sexual maturation at levels commonly found in the general population, and none has been able to examine multiple toxicant exposures. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the relationship between attainment of menarche and levels of 6 environmental pollutants to which children are commonly exposed at low levels, ie, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), mirex, lead, and mercury. This study was conducted with residents of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation, a sovereign territory that spans the St Lawrence River and the boundaries of New York State and Ontario and Quebec, Canada. Since the 1950s, the St Lawrence River has been a site of substantial industrial development, and the Nation is currently adjacent to a US National Priority Superfund site. PCB, p,p'-DDE, HCB, and mirex levels exceeding the US Food and Drug Administration recommended tolerance limits for human consumption have been found in local animal species. The present analysis included 138 Akwesasne Mohawk Nation girls 10 to 16.9 years of age. Blood samples and sociodemographic data were collected by Akwesasne community members, without prior knowledge of participants' exposure status. Attainment of menses (menarche) was assessed as present or absent at the time of the interview. Congener-specific PCB analysis was available, and all 16 PCB congeners detected in >50% of the sample were included in analyses (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry numbers 52, 70, 74, 84, 87, 95, 99, 101 [+90], 105, 110, 118, 138 [+163 and 164], 149 [+123], 153, 180, and 187). Probit

  6. Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits through geological time: Implications from recent age-dating research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, D.L.; Bradley, D.; Lewchuk, Michael T.; Symons, David T. A.; De Marsily, G.; Brannon, J.

    2001-01-01

    Remarkable advances in age dating Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits provide a new opportunity to understand how and where these deposits form in the Earth's crust. These dates are summarized and examined in a framework of global tectonics, paleogeography, fluid migration, and paleoclimate. Nineteen districts have been dated by paleomagnetic and/or radiometric methods. Of the districts that have both paleomagnetic and radiometric dates, only the Pine Point and East Tennessee districts have significant disagreements. This broad agreement between paleomagnetic and radiometric dates provides added confidence in the dating techniques used. The new dates confirm the direct connection between the genesis of MVT lead-zinc ores with global-scale tectonic events. The dates show that MVT deposits formed mainly during large contractional tectonic events at restricted times in the history of the Earth. Only the deposits in the Lennard Shelf of Australia and Nanisivik in Canada have dates that correspond to extensional tectonic events. The most important period for MVT genesis was the Devonian to Permian time, which corresponds to a series of intense tectonic events during the assimilation of Pangea. The second most important period for MVT genesis was Cretaceous to Tertiary time when microplate assimilation affected the western margin of North America and Africa-Eurasia. There is a notable paucity of MVT lead-zinc ore formation following the breakup of Rodinia and Pangea. Of the five MVT deposits hosted in Proterozoic rocks, only the Nanisivik deposit has been dated as Proterozoic. The contrast in abundance between SEDEX and MVT lead-zinc deposits in the Proterozoic questions the frequently suggested notion that the two types of ores share similar genetic paths. The ages of MVT deposits, when viewed with respect to the orogenic cycle in the adjacent orogen suggest that no single hydrologic model can be universally applied to the migration of the ore fluids

  7. Pyrolysis Gas as a Renewable Reducing Agent for the Recycling of Zinc- and Lead-Bearing Residues: A Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, C.; Antrekowitsch, J.

    2017-04-01

    The topic "Zero Waste" has been in existence for several years in the industry, and the metallurgical industry has also made efforts to reduce the amounts of residues occurring and have started several investigations to cut down on metallurgical by-products which have to be landfilled. Especially, the additional costs for CO2 emissions in different metallurgical steps have led to investigations into alternative carbon carriers. Charcoal has been identified to serve as an ideal substitute due its CO2-neutrality. For the applications of this renewable carbon carrier in metallurgical processes, charcoal production by means of a carbonization process needs to be optimized. As a by-product during the heating of agricultural wastes or wood by excluding air, pyrolysis gas occurs. Due to the existence of combustible compounds in this gas, an application as a reduction agent instead of fossil carbon carriers in metallurgy is possible. Based on the prevention of dumping metallurgical by-products, an investigation has been developed to treat zinc- and lead-containing materials. To realize this, a dedicated process concept has been designed and developed. As the main focuses, the usage of the pyrolysis gas from charcoal production for the Waelz kiln process and the recycling of zinc- and lead-containing Waelz slag, resulting from the processing of steel mill dust in a vertical retort, have to be mentioned. Within this research, the process concept was executed from laboratory-scale up to pilot-scale testing, described in this article.

  8. Survey of Manual Methods of Measurements of Asbestos, Beryllium, Lead, Cadmium, Selenium, and Mercury in Stationary Source Emissions. Environmental Monitoring Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Dale M.; And Others

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate existing manual methods for analyzing asbestos, beryllium, lead, cadmium, selenium, and mercury, and from this evaluation to provide the best and most practical set of analytical methods for measuring emissions of these elements from stationary sources. The work in this study was divided into two phases.…

  9. Group 13 ligand supported heavy-metal complexes: first structural evidence for gallium-lead and gallium-mercury bonds.

    PubMed

    Prabusankar, Ganesan; Gemel, Christian; Winter, Manuela; Seidel, Rüdiger W; Fischer, Roland A

    2010-05-25

    Heavy-metal complexes of lead and mercury stabilized by Group 13 ligands were derived from the oxidative addition of Ga(ddp) (ddp=HC(CMeNC(6)H(3)-2,6-iPr(2))(2), 2-diisopropylphenylamino-4-diisopropyl phenylimino-2-pentene) with corresponding metal precursors. The reaction of Me(3)PbCl and Ga(ddp) afforded compound [{(ddp)Ga(Cl)}PbMe(3)] (1) composed of Ga-Pb(IV) bonds. In addition, the monomeric plumbylene-type compound [{(ddp)Ga(OSO(2)CF(3))}(2)Pb(thf)] (2a) with an unsupported Ga-Pb(II)-Ga linkage was obtained by the reaction of [Pb(OSO(2)CF(3))(3)] with Ga(ddp) (2 equiv). Compound 2a falls under the rare example of a discrete plumbylene-type compound supported by a nonclassical ligand. Interesting structural changes were observed when [Pb(OSO(2)CF(3))(3)]2.H(2)O was treated with Ga(ddp) in a 1:2 ratio to yield [{(ddp)Ga(mu-OSO(2)CF(3))}(2)(OH(2))Pb] (2b) at below -10 degrees C. Compound 2b consists of a bent Ga-Pb-Ga backbone with a bridging triflate group between the Ga-Pb bond and a weakly interacting water molecule at the gallium center. Similarly, the reaction of mercury thiolate Hg(SC(6)F(5)) with Ga(ddp) (2 equiv) produced the bimetallic homoleptic compounds anti-[{(ddp)Ga(SC(6)F(5))}(2)Hg] (3a) and gauche-[{(ddp)Ga(SC(6)F(5))}(2)Hg] (3b), respectively, with a linear Ga-Hg-Ga linkage. Compounds 1-3 were structurally characterized and these are the first examples of compounds comprised of Ga-Pb(II), Ga-Pb(IV), and Ga-Hg bonds.

  10. Re-evaluation of blood mercury, lead and cadmium concentrations in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Québec): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Julie; Dewailly, Éric; Benedetti, Jean-Louis; Pereg, Daria; Ayotte, Pierre; Déry, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Background Arctic populations are exposed to mercury, lead and cadmium through their traditional diet. Studies have however shown that cadmium exposure is most often attributable to tobacco smoking. The aim of this study is to examine the trends in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure between 1992 and 2004 in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Northern Québec, Canada) using the data obtained from two broad scale health surveys, and to identify sources of exposure in 2004. Methods In 2004, 917 adults aged between 18 and 74 were recruited in the 14 communities of Nunavik to participate to a broad scale health survey. Blood samples were collected and analysed for metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and dietary and life-style characteristics were documented by questionnaires. Results were compared with data obtained in 1992, where 492 people were recruited for a similar survey in the same population. Results Mean blood concentration of mercury was 51.2 nmol/L, which represent a 32% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Mercury blood concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20; p < 0.0001), and the most important source of exposure to mercury was marine mammal meat consumption (partial r2 = 0.04; p < 0.0001). In 2004, mean blood concentration of lead was 0.19 μmol/L and showed a 55% decrease since 1992. No strong associations were observed with any dietary source, and lead concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20.; p < 0.001). Blood cadmium concentrations showed a 22% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Once stratified according to tobacco use, means varied between 5.3 nmol/L in never-smokers and 40.4 nmol/L in smokers. Blood cadmium concentrations were mainly associated with tobacco smoking (partial r2 = 0.56; p < 0.0001), while consumption of caribou liver and kidney remain a minor source of cadmium exposure among never-smokers. Conclusion Important decreases in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure

  11. Bioleaching combined brine leaching of heavy metals from lead-zinc mine tailings: Transformations during the leaching process.

    PubMed

    Ye, Maoyou; Yan, Pingfang; Sun, Shuiyu; Han, Dajian; Xiao, Xiao; Zheng, Li; Huang, Shaosong; Chen, Yun; Zhuang, Shengwei

    2017-02-01

    During the process of bioleaching, lead (Pb) recovery is low. This low recovery is caused by a problem with the bioleaching technique. This research investigated the bioleaching combination of bioleaching with brine leaching to remove heavy metals from lead-zinc mine tailings. The impact of different parameters were studied, including the effects of initial pH (1.5-3.0) and solid concentration (5-20%) for bioleaching, and the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (10-200 g/L) and temperature (25 and 50 °C) for brine leaching. Complementary characterization experiments (Sequential extraction, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM)) were also conducted to explore the transformation of tailings during the leaching process. The results showed that bioleaching efficiency was significantly influenced by initial pH and solid concentration. Approximately 85.45% of iron (Fe), 4.12% of Pb, and 97.85% of zinc (Zn) were recovered through bioleaching in optimum conditions. Increasing the brine concentration and temperature promoted lead recovery. Lead was recovered from the bioleaching residues at a rate of 94.70% at 25 °C and at a rate of 99.46% at 50 °C when the NaCl concentration was 150 g/L. The study showed that bioleaching significantly changed the speciation of heavy metals and the formation and surface morphology of tailings. The metals were mainly bound in stable fractions after bioleaching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A screening-level assessment of lead, cadmium, and zinc in fish and crayfish from northeastern Oklahoma, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Linder, G.L.; Hinck, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate potential human and ecological risks associated with metals in fish and crayfish from mining in the Tri-States Mining District (TSMD). Crayfish (Orconectes spp.) and fish of six frequently consumed species (common carp, Cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; spotted bass, M. punctulatus; and white crappie, Pomoxis annularis) were collected in 2001-2002 from the Oklahoma waters of the Spring River (SR) and Neosho River (NR), which drain the TSMD. Samples from a mining-contaminated site in eastern Missouri and from reference sites were also analyzed. Individual fish were prepared for human consumption in the manner used locally by Native Americans (headed, eviscerated, and scaled) and analyzed for lead, cadmium, and zinc. Whole crayfish were analyzed as composite samples of 5-60 animals. Metals concentrations were typically higher in samples from sites most heavily affected by mining and lowest in reference samples. Within the TSMD, most metals concentrations were higher at sites on the SR than on the NR and were typically highest in common carp and crayfish than in other taxa. Higher concentrations and greater risk were associated with fish and crayfish from heavily contaminated SR tributaries than the SR or NR mainstems. Based on the results of this and previous studies, the human consumption of carp and crayfish could be restricted based on current criteria for lead, cadmium, and zinc, and the consumption of channel catfish could be restricted due to lead. Metals concentrations were uniformly low in Micropterus spp. and crappie and would not warrant restriction, however. Some risk to carnivorous avian wildlife from lead and zinc in TSMD fish and invertebrates was also indicated, as was risk to the fish themselves. Overall, the wildlife assessment is consistent with previously reported biological effects attributed to metals

  13. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in feathers of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) from Prince William Sound, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Sullivan, Kelsey; Irons, David; McKnight, Aly

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Shoup Bay in Prince William Sound, Alaska to determine if there were age-related differences in metal levels, and in Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani)) from the same region to determine if there were differences in oiled and unoiled birds. Except for mercury, there were no age-related differences in metals levels in the feathers of kittiwakes. Kittiwakes over 13 years of age had the highest levels of mercury. There were no differences in levels of metals in the feathers of oystercatchers from oiled and unoiled regions of Prince William Sound. Except for mercury, the feathers of oystercatchers had significantly higher levels of all metals than those of kittiwakes. Levels of mercury in kittiwake feathers (mean of 2910 ng/g [ppb]) were within the range of many species of seabirds reported for other studies, and were generally below adverse effects levels. PMID:18440597

  14. Assessment of metals in down feathers of female common eiders and their eggs from the Aleutians: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Snigaroff, Daniel; Snigaroff, Ronald; Stamm, Timothy; Volz, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were examined in the down feathers and eggs of female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska to determine whether there were (1) differences between levels in feathers and eggs, (2) differences between the two islands, (3) positive correlations between metal levels in females and their eggs, and (4) whether there was more variation within or among clutches. Mean levels in eggs (dry weight) were as follows: arsenic (769 ppb, ng/g), cadmium (1.49 ppb), chromium (414 ppb), lead (306 ppb), manganese (1,470 ppb), mercury (431 ppb) and selenium (1,730 ppb). Levels of arsenic were higher in eggs, while chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury were higher in feathers; there were no differences for selenium. There were no significant interisland differences in female feather levels, except for manganese (eider feathers from Amchitka were four times higher than feathers from Kiska). Levels of manganese in eggs were also higher from Amchitka than Kiska, and eider eggs from Kiska had significantly higher levels of arsenic, but lower levels of selenium. There were no significant correlations between the levels of any metals in down feathers of females and in their eggs. The levels of mercury in eggs were below ecological benchmark levels, and were below human health risk levels. However, Aleuts can seasonally consume several meals of bird eggs a week, suggesting cause for concern for sensitive (pregnant) women. PMID:17934788

  15. Cadmium, lead, tin, total mercury, and methylmercury in canned tuna commercialised in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Paiva, Esther Lima; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Milani, Raquel Fernanda

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this work was to determine levels of inorganic contaminants in 30 samples of five commercial brands of canned tuna, acquired on the local market in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, in the year of 2015. Total mercury and methylmercury (MeHg+) were determined by atomic absorption with thermal decomposition and amalgamation; and cadmium, lead, and tin were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Results indicated that 20% of the tuna samples surpassed limits determined by the Brazilian and European Commission legislation for cadmium; for lead, the maximum value found was 59 µg kg -1 and tin was not detected in any samples. The maximum values found for total Hg and MeHg+ were 261 and 258 µg kg -1 , respectively. As from the results obtained, it was estimated that the consumption of four cans per week (540 g) of tuna canned in water could surpass the provisional tolerable monthly intake for MeHg + by 100%.

  16. Contamination of wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer by abandoned zinc and lead mines, Ottawa County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott C.

    1995-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer in Ottawa County Oklahoma is used extensively as a source of water for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts. Water in the Roubidoux aquifer in eastern Ottawa County has relatively low dissolved-solids concentrations (less than 200 mg/L) with calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as the major ions. The Boone Formation is stratigraphically above the Roubidoux aquifer and is the host rock for zinc and lead sulfide ores, with the richest deposits located in the vicinity of the City of Picher. Mining in what became known as the Picher mining district began in the early 1900's and continued until about 1970. The water in the abandoned zinc and lead mines contains high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulfate, fluoride, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc. Water from the abandoned mines is a potential source of contamination to the Roubidoux aquifer and to wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer. Water samples were collected from wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer in the Picher mining district and from wells outside the mining district to determine if 10 public supply wells in the mining district are contaminated. The chemical analyses indicate that at least 7 of the 10 public supply wells in the Picher mining district are contaminated by mine water. Application of the Mann-Whitney test indicated that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination are different in water samples from wells in the mining area as compared to wells outside the mining area. Application of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination were higher in current (1992-93) data than in historic (1981-83) data, except for pH, which was lower in current than in historic data. pH and sulfate, alkalinity, bicarbonate, magnesium, iron, and tritium concentrations consistently

  17. Mercury-Free Analysis of Lead in Drinking Water by Anodic Stripping Square Wave Voltammetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilburn, Jeremy P.; Brown, Kyle L.; Cliffel, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of drinking water for lead, which has well-known health effects, is presented as an instructive example for undergraduate chemistry students. It allows the students to perform an experiment and evaluate to monitor risk factors and common hazard of everyday life.

  18. Luminescence performance of Eu{sup 3+} doped lead free zinc phosphate glasses for red emission

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, V. Reddy; Babu, S.; Ratnakaram, Y. C., E-mail: ratnakaramsvu@gmail.com

    2016-05-06

    Luminescence performance of zinc phosphate glasses containing Eu{sup 3+} ion with the chemical compositions (60-x)NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-20ZnO-10BaF{sub 2}-10NaF-x Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x = 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mol%) has been studied. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) shows several vibrations bands. Luminescence spectra of these glasses exhibit characteristic emission of Eu{sup 3+} ion with an intense and most prominent red emission (614 nm) which is attributed to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition. Judd-Ofelt (Ω{sub 2}, Ω{sub 4}) parameters have been evaluated from the luminescence intensity ratios of {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub J} (where J = 2 and 4)more » to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1} transition as well as absorption spectra under different constraints. Using J-O parameters and excitation spectra, the radiative parameters are calculated for different Eu{sup 3+} doped glasses.« less

  19. Increased sensitivity of anodic stripping voltammetry at the hanging mercury drop electrode by ultracathodic deposition.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, José A; Rodrigues, Carlos M; Almeida, Paulo J; Valente, Inês M; Gonçalves, Luís M; Compton, Richard G; Barros, Aquiles A

    2011-09-09

    An improved approach to the anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) determination of heavy metals, using the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE), is reported. It was discovered that using very cathodic accumulation potentials, at which the solvent reduction occurs (overpotential deposition), the voltammetric signals of zinc(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and copper(II) increase. When compared with the classical methodology a 5 to 10-fold signal increase is obtained. This effect is likely due to both mercury drop oscillation at such cathodic potentials and added local convection at the mercury drop surface caused by the evolution of hydrogen bubbles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Clark, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc are very useful elements in geochemical exploration. In the proposed method, geological samples are fused with potassium pyrosulphate and the fusate is dissolved in a solution of hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. When this solution is shaken with a 10% V/V Aliquat 336 - isobutyl methyl ketone organic phase, the nine elements of interest are selectively partitioned in the organic phase. All nine elements can then be determined in the organic phase using flame atomic-absorption spectrometry. The method is rapid and allows the determination of Ag and Cd at levels down to 0.1 p.p.m., Cu, Mo, and Zn down to 0.5 p.p.m., Pb, Bi and Sb down to 1 p.p.m. and As down to 5 p.p.m. in geological materials.

  1. Trace-elements in sheep grazing near a lead-zinc smelting complex at Port Pirie, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, T.S.; Judson, G.J.

    1986-07-01

    In South Australia, several studies have shown that heavy metal pollution of soils and plants occurs in the vicinity of a lead/zinc smelter at Port Pirie. Data on soil analysis indicates that at least 3400 km/sup 2/ of land near these smelters has been contaminated by the fallout of Pb, Zn and Cd. It is possible that contamination of soil and pasture by heavy metals may adversely affect the health of livestock grazing near the smelters. In sheep, Pb toxicity causes anorexia, abdominal pain and diarrhea while Zn or Cd supplementation reduces the Cu status. This study was undertaken tomore » investigate the effects of heavy metals on the trace-element status of sheep grazing at selected distances from the Port Pirie smelters.« less

  2. Levels of cadmium, lead and zinc protoporphyrin absorption in different risk groups.

    PubMed

    Aurelio, L M; Pilar, D L; Fulgencio, G G; Adoración, P B; Enrique, G C; Alicia, H M; Aurelio, L M

    1993-12-01

    We studied groups of workers, of pregnant women and of neonates exposed and unexposed to cadmium and lead at their place of work or in the environment. A total of 118 exposed and 28 unexposed workers were studied, together with 90 exposed and 100 unexposed pregnant women and neonates. Concentrations of cadmium and lead in the blood were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. There were significant differences in cadmium concentrations between workers and neonates, and significant differences in lead concentrations between workers and pregnant women. We believe these differences are due mainly to high levels of pollution in the area studied.

  3. The Role of Blood Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Copper in Development and Severity of Acne Vulgaris in a Nigerian Population.

    PubMed

    Ikaraoha, C I; Mbadiwe, N C; Anyanwu, C J; Odekhian, J; Nwadike, C N; Amah, H C

    2017-04-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common skin disorder affecting human beings. There is a paucity of report on the role of heavy metals-lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd)-globally, and trace metals-zinc (Zn) and copper (Cd)-particularly in Nigeria in the development/severity of acne vulgaris. This study is aimed to determine the blood levels of some heavy metals-cadmium and lead-and trace metals-zinc and copper-in acne vulgaris sufferers in a Nigerian population. Venous blood samples were collected from a total number of 90 non-obese female subjects consisting of 30 mild, 30 moderate and 30 severe acne vulgaris sufferers for blood Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn determination. They were age-matched with 60 females without acne vulgaris who served as the control subjects. Acne sufferers had significantly higher blood Cd and Pb (P = 0.0143 and P = 0.0001 respectively) and non-significantly different blood levels of Cu and Zn (P = 0.910 and P = 0.2140 respectively) compared to controls. There were significant progressive increases in blood levels of Cd and Pb (P = 0.0330 and P = 0.0001 respectively) and non-significant differences in the mean blood level of Cu and Zn (P = 0.1821 and P = 0.2728 respectively) from mild to moderate and severe acne vulgaris sufferers. Increases in blood Cd and Pb may play critical roles in the pathogenesis/severity of acne vulgaris, while Cu and Zn seem to play less significant roles in the development of this disorder in this environment.

  4. Comparative analysis on the effect of Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) in reducing cadmium, mercury and lead accumulation in liver.

    PubMed

    Nwokocha, Chukwuemeka R; Nwokocha, Magdalene I; Aneto, Imaria; Obi, Joshua; Udekweleze, Damian C; Olatunde, Bukola; Owu, Daniel U; Iwuala, Moses O

    2012-06-01

    L. esculentum (tomato) contain compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, able to synthesize metal chelating proteins. We examined the ability of fruit extract to protect against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. Rats were fed on tomato mixed with rat chow (10% w/w), while Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) was given in drinking water. Tomato was administered together with the metals (group 2), a week after exposure (group 3) or a week before metal exposure (group 4) for a period of six weeks. The metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. There was a significant (P<0.05) increase in protection by tomato to Cd and Hg accumulation but not to Pb (P<0.05) in weeks 2 and 4 for groups 2 and 3. The protective ability was significantly (P<0.05) increased for Pb in group 4, but was less comparable to Cd and Hg. Tomato reduces uptake while enhancing the elimination of these metals in a time dependent manner. The highest hepatoprotective effect was to Cd followed by Hg and least to Pb. Its administration is beneficial in reducing heavy metal accumulation in the liver. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and selenium levels in blood of four species of turtles from the Amazon in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis erythrocephala), big-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Peltocephalus dumerilianus), and matamata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus). Blood samples were taken from the vein in the left hind leg of each turtle. There were significant interspecific differences in the sizes of the turtles from the Rio Negro, and in concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Se; the smallest species (red-headed turtles) had the highest levels of Pb in their blood, while Se levels were highest in big-headed turtles and lowest in red-headed turtles. Hg in blood was highest in matamata, intermediate in big-headed, and lowest in the other two turtles. Even though females were significantly larger than males, there were no significant differences in metal levels as a function of gender, and the only relationship of metals to size was for Cd. Variations in metal levels among species suggest that blood may be a useful bioindicator. Metal levels were not high enough to pose a health risk to the turtles or to consumers, such as humans.

  6. Assessment of water resources in lead-zinc mined areas in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, Timothy B.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate water-resources problems related to abandoned lead and zinc mines in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas in Missouri and Oklahoma. Past mining activities have caused changes in the hydrogeology of the area. Lead and zinc mining has caused discontinuities and perforations in the confining shale west of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the western area), which have created artificial ground-water recharge and discharge areas. Recharge to the shallow aquifer (rocks of Mississippian age) through collapses, shafts, and drill holes in the shale has caused the formation of a ground-water 'mound' in the vicinity of the Picher Field in Kansas and Oklahoma. Discharge of mine-contaminated ground water to Tar Creek occurs in Oklahoma from drill holes and shafts where the potentiometric surface of the shallow aquifer is above the land surface. Mining of ore in the shallow aquifer has resulted in extensive fracturing and removal of material, which has created highly transmissive zones and voids and increased ground-water storage properties of the aquifer. In the area east of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the eastern area), fractured rock and tailings on the land surface increased the amount of water available for infiltration to the shallow aquifer; in the western area, tailings on the impermeable shale created artificial, perched aquifer systems that slowly drain to surface streams. Pumping of the deep aquifer (rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age) by towns and industries, which developed as a result of the mining industry, has resulted in a potential for downward movement of water from the shallow aquifer. The potential is greatest in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Because of the large volume of water that may be transported from the shallow to the deep aquifer, open drill holes or casings present the greatest contamination hazard to water supplies in the deep aquifer. Mining

  7. One century sedimentary record of lead and zinc pollution in Yangzong Lake, a highland lake in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Enlou; Liu, Enfeng; Shen, Ji; Cao, Yanmin; Li, Yanling

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of trace metal pollution histories and sources may help us to regulate current pollutant discharge. This is especially important for the highland lakes in southwestern China, which are facing trace metals pollution. We present sedimentary records of 11 metals accumulated in Yangzong Lake since the 1870's, a highland lake in southwestern China. Pollution of lead and zinc (Pb and Zn) was differentiated based on principal component analysis, geochemical normalization, and lead isotope ratios. Nearly all the metals as well as grain size composition show generally constant values before the mid-1980's, denoting stable detrital input in the catchment. Fluctuations in the concentrations of the metals as well as grain size composition since the mid-1980's indicate an increase in soil erosion with strengthened human disturbance in the catchment. After geochemical normalization, Pb and Zn showed constant values before 1990 AD and then a gradual increase in parallel with the variations in 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios, indicating that Pb and Zn pollution occurred. Combining the data of 208pb/206Pb and 207Pb/6Pb ratios in the sediments of Yangzong Lake, leaded gasoline, Pb-Zn ore and coal, and consumption or production historical trends, we deduced that the enhanced Pb and Zn pollution in Yangzong Lake is caused primarily by ore mining and refining.

  8. Application of Polypyrrole Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite Layer for Detection of Mercury, Lead and Iron Ions Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Technique

    PubMed Central

    Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Noor, A. S. M.; Bahrami, Afarin; Lim, H. N.; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Mahdi, Mohd. Adzir

    2014-01-01

    Polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotube composite layers were used to modify the gold layer to measure heavy metal ions using the surface plasmon resonance technique. The new sensor was fabricated to detect trace amounts of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and iron (Fe) ions. In the present research, the sensitivity of a polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotube composite layer and a polypyrrole layer were compared. The application of polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotubes enhanced the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor for detecting ions in an aqueous solution due to the binding of mercury, lead, and iron ions to the sensing layer. The Hg ion bonded to the sensing layer more strongly than did the Pb and Fe ions. The limitation of the sensor was calculated to be about 0.1 ppm, which produced an angle shift in the region of 0.3° to 0.6°. PMID:24733263

  9. Association of blood lead and mercury with estimated GFR in herbalists after the ban of herbs containing aristolochic acids in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsing-Hua; Chou, Shan-An; Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Kuo, Ching-Hua; Kao, Tze-Wah; Lo, Tsai-Chang; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2013-08-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with exposure to aristolochic acids (ALAs) and nephrotoxic metals in herbalists after the ban of herbs containing ALAs in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 138 herbalists without end-stage renal disease or urothelial carcinoma from the Occupational Union of Chinese Herbalists in Taiwan in 2007. Aristolochic acid I (ALA-I) was measured by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and heavy metals in blood samples were analysed by Agilent 7500C inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Renal function was assessed by using a simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation to estimate GFR. Blood lead was higher in herbal dispensing procedures (p=0.053) and in subjects who self-prescribe herbal medicine (p=0.057); mercury was also higher in subjects living in the workplace (p=0.03). Lower estimated GFR was significantly associated with lead (β=-10.66, 95% CI -18.7 to -2.6) and mercury (β=-12.52, 95% CI -24.3 to -0.8) with a significant interaction (p=0.01) between mercury and lead; however, estimated GFR was not significantly associated with high ALA-I level groups, arsenic and cadmium after adjusting for other confounding factors. We found that lower estimated GFR was associated with blood lead and mercury in herbalists after the ban of herbs containing ALAs in Taiwan. The ALA-I exposure did not show a significant negative association of estimated GFR, which might due to herbalists having known how to distinguish ALA herbs after the banning policy. Rigorous monitoring is still needed to protect herbalists and the general population who take herbs.

  10. [Remediation Pb, Cd contaminated soil in lead-zinc mining areas by hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride composites].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Li, Yong-Hua; Ji, Yan-Fang; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Li, Hai-Rong; Zhang, Xiu-Wu; Yu, Jiang-Ping

    2011-07-01

    The composite agents containing potassium chloride (KCl) and Hydroxyapatite (HA) were used to remediate the lead and cadmium contaminated soil in Fenghuang lead-zinc mining-smelting areas, Hunan province. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the influence of Cl- to the fixing efficiency of Pb and Cd by HA. Two types of contaminated soil (HF-1, HF-2) were chosen and forty treatments were set by five different Hydroxyapatite (HA) dosages and four different Cl- dosages. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the results. It showed that HA could efficiently fix the Pb and Cd from TCLP form. The maximum Pb-fixing efficiency and Cd-fixing efficiency of two types of soil were 83.3%, 97.27% and 35.96%, 57.82% when the HA: Pb: KCl molar ratio was 8: 1: 2. Compared to the fixing efficiency without KCl, KCl at the KCl: Pb molar ratio of 2 improved Pb-fixing efficiency and Cd-fixing efficiency by 6.26%, 0.33% and 7.74%, 0.83% respectively when the HA: Pb molar ratio was 8. Generally, Cl- can improve the Pb/Cd-fixing efficiency in heavy metal contaminated soil by Hydroxyapatite.

  11. Environmental risk assessment of lead-zinc mining: a case study of Adudu metallogenic province, middle Benue Trough, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igwe, Ogbonnaya; Una, Chuku Okoro; Abu, Ezekiel; Adepehin, Ekundayo Joseph

    2017-09-07

    Assessment of the impacts of lead-zinc mining in Adudu-Imon metallogenic province was carried out. Reconnaissance and detailed field studies were done. Lithologies, stream sediments, farmland soils, mine tailings, artificial pond water, stream water, well water, and borehole water were collected and subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses. Geochemical maps were generated using ArcGIS 10.1. Significant contamination with cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), and lead (Pb) was recorded in the collected water samples. Virtually all collected soil samples were observed to be highly contaminated when compared with the European Union environmental policy standard. The discharge of mining effluents through farmlands to the Bakebu stream, which drains the area, further exposes the dwellers of this environment to the accumulation of potentially harmful metals (PHMs) in their bodies through the consumption of food crops, aquatic animals, and domestic uses of the water collected from the stream channels. The study revealed non-conformity of past mining operations in the Adudu-Imon province to existing mining laws in Nigeria. Inhabitants of this region should stop farming in the vicinity of the mines, fishing from the Bakebu stream channels should be discouraged, and domestic use of the water should be condemned, even as concerned government agencies put necessary mercenaries in place to ensure conformity of miners to standard mining regulations in Nigeria.

  12. Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children

    PubMed Central

    Dufault, Renee; Schnoll, Roseanne; Lukiw, Walter J; LeBlanc, Blaise; Cornett, Charles; Patrick, Lyn; Wallinga, David; Gilbert, Steven G; Crider, Raquel

    2009-01-01

    Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity are a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and mental retardation. Essential nutrients help maintain normal neuronal plasticity. Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutritional deficiencies and mercury exposure have been shown to alter neuronal function and increase oxidative stress among children with autism. These dietary factors may be directly related to the development of behavior disorders and learning disabilities. Mercury, either individually or in concert with other factors, may be harmful if ingested in above average amounts or by sensitive individuals. High fructose corn syrup has been shown to contain trace amounts of mercury as a result of some manufacturing processes, and its consumption can also lead to zinc loss. Consumption of certain artificial food color additives has also been shown to lead to zinc deficiency. Dietary zinc is essential for maintaining the metabolic processes required for mercury elimination. Since high fructose corn syrup and artificial food color additives are common ingredients in many foodstuffs, their consumption should be considered in those individuals with nutritional deficits such as zinc deficiency or who are allergic or sensitive to the effects of mercury or unable to effectively metabolize and eliminate it from the body. PMID:19860886

  13. Spatial clustering of toxic trace elements in adolescents around the Torreón, Mexico lead-zinc smelter.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Weaver, Virginia; Zamoiski, Rachel; Resnick, Carol; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acién, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-11-01

    High blood lead (BPb) levels in children and elevated soil and dust arsenic, cadmium, and lead were previously found in Torreón, northern Mexico, host to the world's fourth largest lead-zinc metal smelter. The objectives of this study were to determine spatial distributions of adolescents with higher BPb and creatinine-corrected urine total arsenic, cadmium, molybdenum, thallium, and uranium around the smelter. Cross-sectional study of 512 male and female subjects 12-15 years of age was conducted. We measured BPb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and urine trace elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, with dynamic reaction cell mode for arsenic. We constructed multiple regression models including sociodemographic variables and adjusted for subject residence spatial correlation with spatial lag or error terms. We applied local indicators of spatial association statistics to model residuals to identify hot spots of significant spatial clusters of subjects with higher trace elements. We found spatial clusters of subjects with elevated BPb (range 3.6-14.7 μg/dl) and urine cadmium (0.18-1.14 μg/g creatinine) adjacent to and downwind of the smelter and elevated urine thallium (0.28-0.93 μg/g creatinine) and uranium (0.07-0.13 μg/g creatinine) near ore transport routes, former waste, and industrial discharge sites. The conclusion derived from this study was that spatial clustering of adolescents with high BPb and urine cadmium adjacent to and downwind of the smelter and residual waste pile, areas identified over a decade ago with high lead and cadmium in soil and dust, suggests that past and/or present plant operations continue to present health risks to children in those neighborhoods.

  14. Effects of Lead and Mercury on Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Activity in a Biological Process for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Jinting; Jiang, Feng; Wei, Li; Chen, Guanghao; Hao, Xiaodi

    2016-07-01

    Biological sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may be effective in removing toxic lead and mercury ions (Pb(II) and Hg(II)) from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater through anaerobic sulfite reduction. To confirm this hypothesis, a sulfite-reducing up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was set up to treat FGD wastewater at metal loading rates of 9.2 g/m3-d Pb(II) and 2.6 g/m3-d Hg(II) for 50 days. The reactor removed 72.5 ± 7% of sulfite and greater than 99.5% of both Hg(II) and Pb(II). Most of the removed lead and mercury were deposited in the sludge as HgS and PbS. The contribution of cell adsorption and organic binding to Pb(II) and Hg(II) removal was 20.0 ± 0.1% and 1.8 ± 1.0%, respectively. The different bioavailable concentration levels of lead and mercury resulted in different levels of lethal toxicity. Cell viability analysis revealed that Hg(II) was less toxic than Pb(II) to the sludge microorganisms. In the batch tests, increasing the Hg(II) feeding concentration increased sulfite reduction rates. In conclusion, a sulfite-reducing reactor can efficiently remove sulfite, Pb(II) and Hg(II) from FGD wastewater.

  15. Effects of Lead and Mercury on Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Activity in a Biological Process for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Jinting; Jiang, Feng; Wei, Li; Chen, Guanghao; Hao, Xiaodi

    2016-01-01

    Biological sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may be effective in removing toxic lead and mercury ions (Pb(II) and Hg(II)) from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater through anaerobic sulfite reduction. To confirm this hypothesis, a sulfite-reducing up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was set up to treat FGD wastewater at metal loading rates of 9.2 g/m3-d Pb(II) and 2.6 g/m3-d Hg(II) for 50 days. The reactor removed 72.5 ± 7% of sulfite and greater than 99.5% of both Hg(II) and Pb(II). Most of the removed lead and mercury were deposited in the sludge as HgS and PbS. The contribution of cell adsorption and organic binding to Pb(II) and Hg(II) removal was 20.0 ± 0.1% and 1.8 ± 1.0%, respectively. The different bioavailable concentration levels of lead and mercury resulted in different levels of lethal toxicity. Cell viability analysis revealed that Hg(II) was less toxic than Pb(II) to the sludge microorganisms. In the batch tests, increasing the Hg(II) feeding concentration increased sulfite reduction rates. In conclusion, a sulfite-reducing reactor can efficiently remove sulfite, Pb(II) and Hg(II) from FGD wastewater. PMID:27455890

  16. Lead Contamination and Source Characterization in Soils Around a Lead-Zinc Smelting Plant in a Near-Urban Environment in Baoji, China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenbo; Li, Xuxiang; An, Zhisheng; Yang, Liu

    2016-11-01

    Economic reforms in China since 1978 have promoted nationwide socioeconomic advancement but led to a considerable amount of environmental pollution. The distribution and sources of Pb in a typical peri-urban industrial part of Baoji, China, were assessed by determining the Pb contents and isotopic compositions in 52 topsoil samples from the study area. The topsoil samples were polluted averagely with 40.88 mg Pb kg -1 , was 1.86 times higher than the Pb content of local background soil (22.04 mg kg -1 ). Pb isotopic compositions were determined by analyzing samples prepared using total digestion and acid extraction methods. Radiogenic isotopes contributed more to the Pb concentrations in the acid extracts than in the total digests. This was shown by the 207/206 Pb and 208/206 Pb ratios, which were 0.845-0.88 and 2.088-2.128, respectively, in the acid extracts and 0.841-0.875 and 2.086-2.125, respectively, in the total digests. This indicates that anthropogenic sources of Pb could be identified more sensitively in acid extracts than in total digests. The Pb isotope ratios showed that burning coal and smelting ore are the predominant anthropogenic sources of Pb in the study area, i.e., a lead-zinc smelter and a coking plant are major sources of Pb in the study area.

  17. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, and Barium Levels in Human Breast Milk and Factors Affecting Their Concentrations in Hamadan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Vahidinia, Aliasghar; Samiee, Fateme; Faradmal, Javad; Rahmani, Alireza; Taravati Javad, Masoumeh; Leili, Mostafa

    2018-04-26

    Breast milk is considered the best source of nutrition for all infants. However, exposure of newborns to toxic metals is of special interest due to their potential harmful effects. Thus, the primary aims of this study were to determine the concentration of toxic heavy metals including lead, mercury, cadmium, and barium in breast milk samples from Hamadan, Iran, in relation to some sociodemographic variables. A total of 100 breast milk samples were collected and their heavy metal contents were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The median breast milk concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Ba were 41.9, 2.8, and 1.95 μg/L, respectively. Cd levels were < 1 μg/L in all samples. The Pb level in 94% of the samples was higher than the recommended Pb limit of < 5 μg/L in breast milk suggested by World Health Organization (WHO). Hg levels in 54% of the breast milk samples were higher than the normal mean concentration (1.7 μg/L) suggested by WHO. We found no correlation between Hg levels in breast milk and sociodemographic factors. Ba levels in all the breast milk samples were lower than the WHO's proposed health-based drinking water guideline (0.7 mg/L). Considering the results of the present study and the vulnerability of infants, along with the well-known toxicity of these metals, further studies are warranted to identify the main sources of exposure that contribute their concentration in breast milk, establish harmless intake values of toxic metals in breast milk, and develop preventive measures.

  18. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury and other elements in seeds of Lupinus mutabilis and of other legumes.

    PubMed

    Gross, R; Auslitz, J; Schramel, P; Payer, H D

    1987-01-01

    Several species of legumes and varieties of lupins were examined for their heavy metal content in the seeds. Atomic absorption spectrometry was the main analytical tool. Validity and reproducibility of the results was checked by analyzing the same materials at two different laboratories performing the same technique. Additionally, inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy was applied. In grains of Lupinus mutabilis which constitute a traditional food in Andean populations, the following contents of heavy metals were determined: 0.10-0.25 microgram/g Cd; 0.5-1.6 microgram/g Pb; 0.10-0.15 microgram/g Hg. Seeds of other legumes contained 0.05-0.35 microgram/g Cd; 0.1-0.2 microgram/g Pb; 0.01-0.04 microgram/g Hg. The high lead content of lupins is easily reduced to one tenth by traditional extraction with boiling water. The mercury content, too, is decreased by this technique. The high manganese content of 1 300-1,400 micrograms/g of Lupinus albus compared to other legumes (25-37 micrograms/g) seems to be characteristic for this species and may be of nutritional significance. The comparison of the heavy metal contents of legume seeds of different origin and variety indicates a complex pattern of environmental and genetic factors that contribute to the specific metal contents of individual harvests. On the level of varieties the environmental factors (climate, soil, geology, agricultural techniques) seem to exhibit more important influences on the specific accumulation of heavy metals than genetic factors. In contrast, on the level of species or genera, the accumulation of heavy metals seems to be dominated by genetic factors rather than by environmental influences.

  19. Lead and cadmium excretion in feces and urine of children from polluted townships near a lead-zinc mine in Kabwe, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Yabe, John; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Yohannes, Yared B; Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Kabalo, Abel Nketani; Ntapisha, John; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Umemura, Takashi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2018-07-01

    Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals that exist ubiquitously in the environment. Children in polluted areas are particularly vulnerable to metal exposure, where clinical signs and symptoms could be nonspecific. Absorbed metals are excreted primarily in urine and reflect exposure from all sources. We analyzed Pb and Cd concentrations in blood, feces and urine of children from polluted townships near a lead-zinc mine in Kabwe, Zambia, to determine concurrent childhood exposure to the metals. Moreover, the study determined the Pb and Cd relationships among urine, feces and blood as well as accessed the potential of urine and fecal analysis for biomonitoring of Pb and Cd exposure in children. Fecal Pb (up to 2252 mg/kg, dry weight) and urine Pb (up to 2914 μg/L) were extremely high. Concentrations of Cd in blood (Cd-B) of up to 7.7 μg/L, fecal (up to 4.49 mg/kg, dry weight) and urine (up to 18.1 μg/L) samples were elevated. metal levels were higher in younger children (0-3 years old) than older children (4-7). Positive correlations were recorded for Pb and Cd among blood, urine and fecal samples whereas negative correlations were recorded with age. These findings indicate children are exposed to both metals at their current home environment. Moreover, urine and feces could be useful for biomonitoring of metals due to their strong relationships with blood levels. There is need to conduct a clinical evaluation of the affected children to fully appreciate the health impact of these metal exposure. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Enzyme activity as an indicator of soil-rehabilitation processes at a zinc and lead ore mining and processing area.

    PubMed

    Ciarkowska, Krystyna; Sołek-Podwika, Katarzyna; Wieczorek, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The activities of soil enzymes in relation to the changes occurring in the soil on a degraded area in southern Poland after zinc and lead mining were analyzed. An evaluation of the usefulness of urease and invertase activities for estimating the progress of the rehabilitation processes in degraded soil was performed. The data show that the soil samples differed significantly in organic carbon (0.68-104.0 g kg(-1)) and total nitrogen (0.03-8.64 g kg(-1)) content in their surface horizons. All of the soil samples (apart from one covered with forest) had very high total concentrations of zinc (4050-10,884 mg kg(-1)), lead (959-6661 mg kg(-1)) and cadmium (24.4-174.3 mg kg(-1)) in their surface horizons, and similar concentrations in their deeper horizons. Nevertheless, the amounts of the soluble forms of the above-mentioned heavy metals were quite low and they accounted for only a small percentage of the total concentrations: 1.4% for Zn, 0.01% for Pb and 2.6% for Cd. Urease activities were ranked as follows: soil from flotation settler (0.88-1.78 μg N-NH4(+) 2h(-1) g(-1))

  1. Biomonitoring of Lead, Cadmium, Total Mercury, and Methylmercury Levels in Maternal Blood and in Umbilical Cord Blood at Birth in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Mi; Chung, Jin-Young; An, Hyun Sook; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Bae, Jong Woon; Han, Myoungseok; Cho, Yeon Jean; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2015-01-01

    With rising concerns of heavy metal exposure in pregnancy and early childhood, this study was conducted to assess the relationship between the lead, cadmium, mercury, and methylmercury blood levels in pregnancy and neonatal period. The study population included 104 mothers and their children pairs who completed both baseline maternal blood sampling at the second trimester and umbilical cord blood sampling at birth. The geometric mean maternal blood levels of lead, cadmium, total mercury, and methylmercury at the second trimester were 1.02 ± 1.39 µg/dL, 0.61 ± 1.51 µg/L, 2.97 ± 1.45 µg/L, and 2.39 ± 1.45 µg/L, respectively, and in the newborns, these levels at birth were 0.71 ± 1.42 µg/dL, 0.01 ± 5.31 µg/L, 4.44 ± 1.49 µg/L, and 3.67 ± 1.51 µg/L, respectively. The mean ratios of lead, cadmium, total mercury, and methylmercury levels in the newborns to those in the mothers were 0.72, 0.04, 1.76, and 1.81, respectively. The levels of most heavy metals in pregnant women and infants were higher in this study than in studies from industrialized western countries. The placenta appears to protect fetuses from cadmium; however, total mercury and methylmercury were able to cross the placenta and accumulate in fetuses. PMID:26516876

  2. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  3. Neurotoxicity of dental amalgam is mediated by zinc.

    PubMed

    Lobner, D; Asrari, M

    2003-03-01

    The use of dental amalgam is controversial largely because it contains mercury. We tested whether amalgam caused toxicity in neuronal cultures and whether that toxicity was caused by mercury. In this study, we used cortical cell cultures to show for the first time that amalgam causes nerve cell toxicity in culture. However, the toxicity was not blocked by the mercury chelator, 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate (DMPS), but was blocked by the metal chelator, calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaEDTA). DMPS was an effective mercury chelator in this system, since it blocked mercury toxicity. Of the components that comprise amalgam (mercury, zinc, tin, copper, and silver), only zinc neurotoxicity was blocked by CaEDTA. These results indicate that amalgam is toxic to nerve cells in culture by releasing zinc. While zinc is known to be neurotoxic, ingestion of zinc is not a major concern because zinc levels in the body are tightly regulated.

  4. Prenatal lead, cadmium and mercury exposure and associations with motor skills at age 7 years in a UK observational birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Caroline M; Emond, Alan M; Lingam, Raghu; Golding, Jean

    2018-08-01

    Lead and mercury are freely transferred across the placenta, while cadmium tends to accumulate in the placenta. Each contributes to adverse neurological outcomes for the child. Although prenatal heavy metal exposure has been linked with an array of neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood, its association with the development of motor skills in children has not been robustly studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury, measured as maternal blood concentrations during pregnancy, and motor skills, measured as subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC) at age 7 years in a large sample of mother-child pairs enrolled in a UK observational birth cohort study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, ALSPAC). Whole blood samples from pregnant women enrolled in ALSPAC were analysed for lead, cadmium and mercury. In a complete case analysis (n = 1558), associations between prenatal blood concentrations and child motor skills assessed by Movement ABC subtests of manual dexterity, ball skills and balance at 7 years were examined in adjusted regression models. Associations with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were also investigated. The mean prenatal blood levels were: lead 3.66 ± 1.55 μg/dl; cadmium 0.45 ± 0.54 μg/l; mercury 2.23 ± 1.14 μg/l. There was no evidence for any adverse associations of prenatal lead, cadmium or mercury exposure with motor skills measured at age 7 years with Movement ABC subtests in adjusted regression models. Further, there were no associations with probable DCD. There was no evidence to support a role of prenatal exposure to heavy metals at these levels on motor skills in the child at age 7 years measured using the Movement ABC. Early identification of symptoms of motor skills impairment is important, however, to enable investigation, assessment and treatment. Copyright

  5. Review of Lead-Zinc Mining Impact on Landscape in the Tri-State Mining District using Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, K. D.; Yeboah-Forson, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Tri-State lead and zinc mining district in SW Missouri, SE Kansas, and NE Oklahoma encompasses nearly 2,500 sq. miles of land and at its peak accounted for half of the US zinc (23,000,000 tons) production that surpassed one billion dollars in economic value. Once these lead and zinc rich ores were extracted, mining and milling sites were abandoned leaving behind a new landscape with numerous environmental challenges. Since 1970, most of the sites have been targeted for remediation and reclamation by federal and state agencies including the EPA. In order to capture the full extent of the impact of lead and zinc mining in the Tri-State area, numerous geoscientific approaches including data from small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) were employed to investigate the influence of mining in the study area. The study presented here is focused on observational assessment of the existing landscape using multiple commercial high-definitions data from UAVs to study different sites across areas of concern in the three states. Primary results (images) gathered and analyzed DEM and GIS data from abandoned mines showed the potential to provide a quick snapshot of successful or unsuccessful remediated areas. Although research and remediation of the Tri-State mining district are a continuous process, evidence from this geomorphic study suggest that UAVs can provide a quick overview of the remediated landscape or serve as a primary background tool for a more detail site-specific environmental study.

  6. Metabolic responses of clams, Ruditapes decussatus and Ruditapes philippinarum, to short-term exposure to lead and zinc.

    PubMed

    Aru, Violetta; Sarais, Giorgia; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia

    2016-06-15

    This study investigated the effects of 48h heavy metal exposure upon the metabolic profiles of Ruditapes decussatus and Ruditapes philippinarum using (1)H NMR metabolomics. Both species were exposed to increasing concentrations of lead nitrate (10, 40, 60 and 100μg/L) and zinc chloride (20, 50, 100 and 150μg/L), under laboratory conditions. ICP-OES analysis was further performed on the clams' samples in order to verify the occurrence of heavy metal bioaccumulation. With respect to the controls, the metabolic profiles of treated R. decussatus exhibited higher levels of organic osmolytes and lower contents of free amino acids. An opposite behavior was shown by R. philippinarum. In terms of heavy metal, the exposure effects were more evident in the case of Pb rather than Zn. These findings show that NMR-based metabolomics has the required sensitivity and specificity for the identification of metabolites that can act as sensitive indicators of contaminant-induced stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs

  8. Metal resistant rhizobia and ultrastructure of Anthyllis vulneraria nodules from zinc and lead contaminated tailing in Poland.

    PubMed

    Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Marzena; Ważny, Rafał

    2018-06-07

    This present paper studies the response of Anthyllis vulneraria-Rhizobium symbiosis to heavy metal stress. The symbiotic rhizobium bacteria isolated from root nodules of A. vulneraria from zinc and lead wastes were examined in this project. Light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to analyze the nodule anatomy and ultrastructure and conduct a comparison with nonmetal-treated nodules. 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of bacteria isolated from metal-treated nodules revealed the presence of Rhizobium metallidurans and Bradyrhizobium sp. In regard to heavy metal resistance/tolerance, a similar tolerance to Pb was shown by both strains, and a high tolerance to Zn and a lower tolerance to Cd and Cu by R. metallidurans, whereas a high tolerance to Cd and Cu and a lower tolerance to Zn by Bradyrhizobium were found. The nodules of Anthyllis from metal-polluted tailing sites were identified as the typical determinate type of nodules. Observed under TEM microscopy changes in nodules ultrastructure like: (1) wall thickening; (2) infection thread reduction; (3) vacuole shrinkage; (4) synthesis of phenolics in vacuoles; (5) various differentiation of bacteroids and (6) simultaneous symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi could be considered as a form of the A.vulneraria-Rhizobium symbiosis adaptation to metal stress.

  9. Shifts in microbial community composition and function in the acidification of a lead/zinc mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-Xing; Li, Jin-Tian; Chen, Ya-Ting; Huang, Li-Nan; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Hu, Min; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2013-09-01

    In an attempt to link the microbial community composition and function in mine tailings to the generation of acid mine drainage, we simultaneously explored the geochemistry and microbiology of six tailings collected from a lead/zinc mine, i.e. primary tailings (T1), slightly acidic tailings (T2), extremely acidic tailings (T3, T4 and T5) and orange-coloured oxidized tailings (T6). Geochemical results showed that the six tailings (from T1 to T6) likely represented sequential stages of the acidification process of the mine tailings. 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed a contrasting microbial composition between the six tailings: Proteobacteria-related sequences dominated T1-T3 with relative abundance ranging from 56 to 93%, whereas Ferroplasma-related sequences dominated T4-T6 with relative abundance ranging from 28 to 58%. Furthermore, metagenomic analysis of the microbial communities of T2 and T6 indicated that the genes encoding key enzymes for microbial carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation and sulfur oxidation in T2 were largely from Thiobacillus and Acidithiobacillus, Methylococcus capsulatus, and Thiobacillus denitrificans respectively; while those in T6 were mostly identified in Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum, Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum, and Acidithiobacillus respectively. The microbial communities in T2 and T6 harboured more genes suggesting diverse metabolic capacities for sulfur oxidation/heavy metal detoxification and tolerating low pH respectively. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Theoretical Studies of the Spin Hamiltonian Parameters and Local Distortions for Cu2+ in Alkaline Earth Lead Zinc Phosphate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo-Kun; Wu, Shao-Yi; Yuan, Zi-Yi; Liu, Zi-Xuan; Jiang, Shi-Xin; Liu, Zheng; Yao, Zi-Jian; Teng, Bao-Hua; Wu, Ming-He

    2016-08-01

    The spin Hamiltonian parameters and local structures are theoretically studied for Cu2+-doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate (RPPZ, R=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) glasses based on the high-order perturbation calculations for a tetragonally elongated octahedral 3d9 cluster. The relative elongation ratios are found to be ρ≈3.2%, 4.4%, 4.6%, and 3.3% for R=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively, because of the Jahn-Teller effect. The whole decreasing crystal-field strength Dq and orbital reduction factor k from Mg to Sr are ascribed to the weakening electrostatic coulombic interactions and the increasing probability of productivity of nonbridge oxygen (and hence increasing Cu2+-O2- electron cloud admixtures) under PbO addition, respectively, with increasing alkali earth ionic radius. The anomalies (the largest Dq and the next highest k among the systems) for R=Ba are attributed to the cross linkage of this large cation in the network. The overall increasing order (Mg≤Ba

  11. Acid production potentials of massive sulfide minerals and lead-zinc mine tailings: a medium-term study.

    PubMed

    Çelebi, Emin Ender; Öncel, Mehmet Salim; Kobya, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    Weathering of sulfide minerals is a principal source of acid generation. To determine acid-forming potentials of sulfide-bearing materials, two basic approaches named static and kinetic tests are available. Static tests are short-term, and easily undertaken within a few days and in a laboratory. In contrast, kinetic tests are long-term procedures and mostly carried out on site. In this study, experiments were conducted over a medium-term period of 2 months, not as short as static tests and also not as long as kinetic tests. As a result, pH and electrical conductivity oscillations as a function of time, acid-forming potentials and elemental contents of synthetically prepared rainwater leachates of massive sulfides and sulfide-bearing lead-zinc tailings from abandoned and currently used deposition areas have been determined. Although the lowest final pH of 2.70 was obtained in massive pyrite leachate, massive chalcopyrite leachate showed the highest titrable acidity of 1.764 g H 2 SO 4 /L. On the other hand, a composite of currently deposited mine tailings showed no acidic characteristic with a final pH of 7.77. The composite abandoned mine tailing leachate had a final pH of 6.70, close to the final pH of massive galena and sphalerite leachates, and produced a slight titrable acidity of 0.130 g H 2 SO 4 /L.

  12. Relative tolerance of a range of Australian native plant species and lettuce to copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Dane T; Ming, Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2010-10-01

    The tolerance of wild flora to heavy-metal exposure has received very little research. In this study, the tolerance of four native tree species, four native grass species, and lettuce to copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) was investigated in a root-elongation study using Petri dishes. The results of these studies show a diverse range of responses to Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb amongst the tested plant species. Toxicity among metals decreased in the following order: Cd ~ Cu > Pb > Zn. Metal concentrations resulting in a 50% reduction in growth (EC(50)) varied considerably, ranging from (microM) 30 (Dichanthium sericeum) to >2000 (Acacia spp.) for Cu; from 260 (Lactuca sativa) to 2000 (Acacia spp.) for Zn; from 27 (L. sativa) to 940 (Acacia holosericea) for Cd; and from 180 (L. sativa) to >1000 (Acacia spp.) for Pb. Sensitive native plant species identified included D. sericeum, Casuarina cunninghamiana, and Austrodanthonia caespitosa. However, L. sativa (lettuce) was also among the most sensitive to all four metals. Acacia species showed a high tolerance to metal exposure, suggesting that the Acacia genus shows potential for use in contaminated-site revegetation.

  13. Binding of iron, zinc, and lead ions from aqueous solution by shea butter (Butyrospermun Parkii) seed husks

    SciTech Connect

    Eromosele, I.C.; Otitolaye, O.O.

    1994-08-01

    Several workers have reported on the potential use of agricultural products as substrates for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. These studies demonstrated that considerable amounts of metal ions can be removed from aqueous solutions by cellulosic materials. The merit in the use of the latter is their relative abundance and cheapness compared to conventional materials for the removal of toxic metal ions from waste-waters. In some of the studies, chemical modification of cellulosic materials significantly enhanced their ion-binding properties, providing greater flexibility in their applications to a wide range of heavy metal ions. Shea butter plant (Butyrospermunmore » Parkii) normally grows in the wild within the guinea-savana zone of Nigeria. The seeds are a rich source of edible oils and the husks are usually discarded. The husk is thus available in abundance and, hence, there is reason to examine its ion-binding properties for its possible application in the removal of toxic metal ions from industrial waste-waters. This paper reports on preliminary studies of the sorption of iron, zinc and lead ions from aqueous solution by modified and unmodified shea butter seed husks. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  14. Phytoremediation potential of transplanted bare-root seedlings of trees for lead/zinc and copper mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang; Chen, Yi-Tai; Wang, Shu-Feng; Pan, Hong-Wei; Sun, Hai-Jing; Liu, Cai-Xia; Liu, Jian-Feng; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Selecting plant species that can overcome unfavorable conditions and increase the recovery of degraded mined lands remains a challenge. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using transplanted tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc and copper mine tailings. One-year-old bare-root of woody species (Rhus chinensis Mill, Quercus acutissima Carruth, Liquidambar formosana Hance, Vitex trifolia Linn. var. simplicifolia Cham, Lespedeza cuneata and Amorpha fruticosa Linn) were transplanted into pots with mine tailings and tested as potential metal-tolerant plants. Seedling survival, plant growth, root trait, nutrient uptake, and metal accumulation and translocation were assessed. The six species grew in both tailings and showed different tolerance level. A. fruticosa was highly tolerant of Zn, Pb and Cu, and grew normally in both tailings. Metal concentrations were higher in the roots than in the shoots of the six species. All of the species had low bioconcentration and translocation factor values. However, R. chinensis and L. formosana had significantly higher translocation factor values for Pb (0.88) and Zn (1.78) than the other species. The nitrogen-fixing species, A. fruticosa, had the highest tolerance and biomass production, implying that it has great potential in the phytoremediation of tailing areas in southern China.

  15. Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow

  16. The urban environmental gradient: Anthropogenic influences on the spatial and temporal distributions of lead and zinc in sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callender, Edward; Rice, Karen C.

    2000-01-01

    Urban settings are a focal point for environmental contamination due to emissions from industrial and municipal activities and the widespread use of motor vehicles. As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, streambed-sediment and dated reservoir-sediment samples were collected from the Chattahoochee River Basin and analyzed for total lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations. The sampling transect extends from northern Georgia, through Atlanta, to the Gulf of Mexico and reflects a steep gradient in population density from nearly 1000 people/km2 in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area to fewer than 50 people/km2 in rural areas of southern Georgia and northern Florida. Correlations among population density, traffic density, and total and anthropogenic Pb and Zn concentrations indicate that population density is strongly related to traffic density and is a predictor of Pb and Zn concentrations in the environment derived from anthropogenic activities. Differences in the distributions of total Pb and Zn concentrations along the urban−suburban−rural gradient from Atlanta to the Florida Panhandle are related to temporal and spatial processes. That is, with the removal of leaded gasoline starting in the late 1970s, peak Pb concentrations have decreased to the present. Conversely, increased vehicular usage has kept Zn concentrations elevated in runoff from population centers, which is reflected in the continued enrichment of Zn in aquatic sediments. Sediments from rural areas also contain elevated concentrations of Zn, possibly in response to substantial power plant emissions for the region, as well as vehicular traffic.

  17. Association of Dietary Intake and Biomarker Levels of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury among Asian Populations in the United States: NHANES 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Awata, Hiroshi; Linder, Stephen; Mitchell, Laura E.; Delclos, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have recently shown that biomarker levels of selected metals are higher in Asians than in other U.S. ethnic groups, with important differences within selected Asian subgroups. Much of this difference may be dietary in origin; however, this is not well established. Objective: We evaluated dietary intake of toxic metals as a source of increased biomarker levels of metals among U.S. Asians. Methods: We estimated daily food consumption and dietary intake of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury by combining 24-hr dietary intake recall data from the 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with data from the USDA Food Composition Intake Database and FDA Total Dietary Study. We analyzed associations between dietary metal intake and biomarker levels of the metals using linear regression. Further, estimated food consumption and metal intake levels were compared between Asians and other racial/ethnic groups (white, black, Mexican American, and other Hispanic) and within three Asian subgroups (Chinese, Indian Asian, and other Asians). Results: Significant associations (p < 0.05) were found between biomarker levels and estimated dietary metal intake for total and inorganic arsenic and mercury among Asians. Asians had the highest daily fish and rice consumption across the racial/ethnic groups. Fish was the major contributor to dietary mercury and total arsenic intake, whereas rice was the major contributor to inorganic arsenic dietary intake. Fish consumption across the Asian subgroups varied, with Asian Indians having lower fish consumption than the other Asian subgroups. Rice consumption was similar across the Asian subgroups. Conclusions: We confirmed that estimated dietary intake of arsenic (total and inorganic) and mercury is significantly associated with their corresponding biomarkers in U.S. Asians, using nationally representative data. In contrast, estimated dietary intake of cadmium and lead were not significantly associated

  18. Association of Dietary Intake and Biomarker Levels of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury among Asian Populations in the United States: NHANES 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Awata, Hiroshi; Linder, Stephen; Mitchell, Laura E; Delclos, George L

    2017-03-01

    We have recently shown that biomarker levels of selected metals are higher in Asians than in other U.S. ethnic groups, with important differences within selected Asian subgroups. Much of this difference may be dietary in origin; however, this is not well established. We evaluated dietary intake of toxic metals as a source of increased biomarker levels of metals among U.S. Asians. We estimated daily food consumption and dietary intake of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury by combining 24-hr dietary intake recall data from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with data from the USDA Food Composition Intake Database and FDA Total Dietary Study. We analyzed associations between dietary metal intake and biomarker levels of the metals using linear regression. Further, estimated food consumption and metal intake levels were compared between Asians and other racial/ethnic groups (white, black, Mexican American, and other Hispanic) and within three Asian subgroups (Chinese, Indian Asian, and other Asians). Significant associations ( p < 0.05) were found between biomarker levels and estimated dietary metal intake for total and inorganic arsenic and mercury among Asians. Asians had the highest daily fish and rice consumption across the racial/ethnic groups. Fish was the major contributor to dietary mercury and total arsenic intake, whereas rice was the major contributor to inorganic arsenic dietary intake. Fish consumption across the Asian subgroups varied, with Asian Indians having lower fish consumption than the other Asian subgroups. Rice consumption was similar across the Asian subgroups. We confirmed that estimated dietary intake of arsenic (total and inorganic) and mercury is significantly associated with their corresponding biomarkers in U.S. Asians, using nationally representative data. In contrast, estimated dietary intake of cadmium and lead were not significantly associated with their corresponding biomarker levels in U.S. Asians

  19. Human exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury through fish and seafood product consumption in Italy: a pilot evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pastorelli, A A; Baldini, M; Stacchini, P; Baldini, G; Morelli, S; Sagratella, E; Zaza, S; Ciardullo, S

    2012-01-01

    The presence of selected toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), was investigated in fish and seafood products, namely, blue mussel, carpet shell clam, European squid, veined squid, deep-water rose shrimp, red mullet, European seabass, gilthead seabream, Atlantic cod, European hake, Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish so as to assess their human exposure through diet. Metals were detected by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (Hg-AAS). Measurements of Cd, Pb and Hg were performed by means of analytical methods validated in compliance with UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025 [2005. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. Milano (Italy): UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione]. The exposure assessment was undertaken matching the levels of Cd, Pb and total Hg with consumption data related to fish and seafood products selected for this purpose. In order to establish human health implications, the estimated weekly intakes (EWIs) for Cd, Pb and Hg were compared with the standard tolerable weekly intakes (TWI) for Cd and provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Hg stipulated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The found metal concentrations were largely below the maximum levels (MLs) established at the European Union level with the exception of Cd. This metal exceeded the MLs in squid, red mullet, European hake and Atlantic cod. Squid and blue mussel showed the highest Pb concentrations which accounted for 60% and 10% of the MLs, respectively. Highest Hg levels were found in predatory fish. The concentrations of Hg in swordfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna and red mullet accounted for 50%, 30% and 30% of the MLs, respectively. The EWIs for Cd, Pb and Hg related to the consumption

  20. Association of lead, cadmium and mercury with paraoxonase 1 activity and malondialdehyde in a general population in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida Lopes, Ana Carolina Bertinde; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Souza-Nogueira, André de; Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Michelin, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Camargo, Alissana Ester Iakmiu; Peixe, Tiago Severo; Cabrera, Marcos Aparecido Sarria; Paoliello, Monica Maria Bastos

    2017-07-01

    Metal exposure is associated with increased oxidative stress (OS), which is considered an underlying mechanism of metal-induced toxicity. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a final product of lipid peroxidation, and it has been extensively used to evaluate metal-induced OS. Pro-oxidant effects produced by metals can be mitigated by paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an antioxidant enzyme known to prevent cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Among other factors, the Q192R polymorphism and the exposure to heavy metals have been known to alter PON1 activity. Here, we evaluated the association of blood lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) levels with PON1 activity, and with MDA concentrations in a randomly selected sample of Brazilian adults aged 40 years or older, living in an urban area in Southern Brazil. A total of 889 subjects were evaluated for blood Pb and Cd levels, and 832 were tested for Hg. Geometric mean of blood Pb, Cd and Hg was 1.93μg/dL, 0.06μg/L and 1.40μg/L, respectively. PON1 activity was significantly different among various genotypes: QQ (PON1=121.4U/mL), QR (PON1=87.5U/mL), and RR (PON1=55.2U/mL), p<0.001. PON1 genotypes were associated only with Cd blood levels. Those with QR genotype had Cd concentrations higher (0.07μg/L) than those with the RR genotype (0.04μg/L) with p=0.034. However, PON1 activity was not significantly associated with metal concentrations. Cluster analysis showed that men who reported to be current smokers and drinkers with higher blood Pb and Cd levels, had significantly lower PON1 activity than non-smokers or -drinkers, and women with lower Pb and Cd levels. RR genotype carriers had lower PON1 activity than those with the QR genotype, and had higher levels of Pb and Cd compared with other genotype carriers. For blood Hg, no association with PON1 activity or genotype was noted. We found low levels of Pb, Cd and Hg in environmentally exposed Brazilian adults. Cd concentrations were increased in subjects with QR genotype. Those with

  1. The mechanisms associated with the development of hypertension after exposure to lead, mercury species or their mixtures differs with the metal and the mixture ratio.

    PubMed

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2016-01-02

    Hypertension is considered to be the most important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Beside life-style risk factors, exposure to lead and mercury species are increasingly discussed as potential risk factors. Although there are a few previous studies, the underlying mechanism by which exposure to lead and mercury disturb blood pressure regulation is not currently understood. Potential mechanisms are oxidative stress production, kidney damage and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), all of which can interact to cause dysregulation of blood pressure. Male rats (Wistar) were exposed to lead, inorganic mercury, methylmercury or two mixtures of all three metals for four weeks through the drinking water. The two mixture ratios were based on ratios of known reference values or environmental exposure from the literature. To investigate the potential mechanism of actions, blood pressure was measured after four weeks and compared to plasma nitrotyrosine or reduced/oxidized glutathione levels in liver as markers for oxidative stress. Plasma renin and angiotensin II levels were used as markers for RAS activation. Finally, kidney function and injury were assessed via urinary and plasma creatinine levels, creatinine clearance and urinary kidney-injury molecule (KIM-1). While exposure to lead by itself increased oxidative stress and kidney damage along with blood pressure, inorganic mercury did not affect blood pressure or any end-point examined. Conversely, methylmercury instead increased RAS activation along with blood pressure. Surprisingly, when administered as mixtures, lead no longer increased oxidative stress or altered kidney function. Moreover, the mixture based on an environmental ratio no longer had an effect on blood pressure, while the reference value ratio still retained an increase in blood pressure. Based on our results, the prominent mechanism of action associated with the development of hypertension seems to be oxidative

  2. Intracellular zinc flux causes reactive oxygen species mediated mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cell death in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Anjali; Singh, Krishn Pratap; Mandal, Abhishek; Paswan, Ranjeet Kumar; Sinha, Preeti; Das, Pradeep; Ali, Vahab; Bimal, Sanjiva; Lal, Chandra Shekhar

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania parasite is a global threat to public health and one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Therefore, the discovery of novel drug targets and effective drug is a major challenge and an important goal. Leishmania is an obligate intracellular parasite that alternates between sand fly and human host. To survive and establish infections, Leishmania parasites scavenge and internalize nutrients from the host. Nevertheless, host cells presents mechanism like nutrient restriction to inhibit microbial growth and control infection. Zinc is crucial for cellular growth and disruption in its homeostasis hinders growth and survival in many cells. However, little is known about the role of zinc in Leishmania growth and survival. In this study, the effect of zinc on the growth and survival of L.donovani was analyzed by both Zinc-depletion and Zinc-supplementation using Zinc-specific chelator N, N, N', N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) and Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO4). Treatment of parasites with TPEN rather than ZnSO4 had significantly affected the growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The pre-treatment of promastigotes with TPEN resulted into reduced host-parasite interaction as indicated by decreased association index. Zn depletion resulted into flux in intracellular labile Zn pool and increased in ROS generation correlated with decreased intracellular total thiol and retention of plasma membrane integrity without phosphatidylserine exposure in TPEN treated promastigotes. We also observed that TPEN-induced Zn depletion resulted into collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential which is associated with increase in cytosolic calcium and cytochrome-c. DNA fragmentation analysis showed increased DNA fragments in Zn-depleted cells. In summary, intracellular Zn depletion in the L. donovani promastigotes led to ROS-mediated caspase-independent mitochondrial dysfunction resulting into apoptosis-like cell death. Therefore, cellular

  3. Modeling Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, M. H.; Killen, R. M.; M, N.; Sarantos, M.; Crider, D. H.; Vervak, R. J.

    2009-04-01

    redistributing volatiles over the surface. In addition, atomic calcium can be produced from the dissociation of Ca-bearing molecules, such as CaO, which can be formed in impact vapors. The primary loss processes are the escape of neutrals ejected with sufficient energy and photoionization. The former process is supplemented by radiation pressure which accelerates neutrals anti-sunward such that escaping neutrals form a tail pointing away from the sun. Because Mercury's heliocentric distance and radial velocity vary during its orbit, both loss processes are functions of Mercury's true anomaly. We also consider the spatial distribution of the surface source. Impact vaporization is roughly isotropic over the surface, although there may be a leading/trailing asymmetry in the impact rate due to Mercury's orbital motion. Sputtering is confined to regions where the solar wind can impact the surface, which is shielded somewhat by the internal magnetic field. The surface regions vulnerable depend on the solar wind conditions. References: Baumgardner et al., GRL, 35, L03201, 2008. Killen, R.M. et al., Space Sci. Rev. 132, 433-509, 2007. Killen, R.M. et al., Icarus, 173, 300-311, 2005. Potter et al., Meteoritics & Planetary Sci., 37, 1165, 2002.

  4. [Effects of Different Modifier Concentrations on Lead-Zinc Tolerance, Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms for Four Kinds of Woody Plants].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-hua; Zhang, Fu-yun; Wu, Xiao-fu; Liang, Xi; Yuan, Si-wen

    2015-10-01

    Four kinds of lead-zinc tolerant woody plants: Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia and Boehmeria were used as materials to estimate their enrichment and transferable capacity of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and analyze the subcellular distribution and chemical speciation of Zn and Ph in different parts of plants, under different modifier concentrations (CK group: 100% lead-zinc slag plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved one: 85% of lead-zinc slag ± 10% peat ± 5% bacterial manure plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved two: 75% lead-zinc slag ± 20% peat ± 5% bacterial manure ± a small amount of phosphate). Results showed that: (1) The content of Pb, Zn in matrix after planting four kinds of plants was lower than before, no significant difference between improved one and improved two of Nerium oleander and Boehmeria was found, but improved two was better than improved one of Paulownia, while improved one was better than improved two of Koelreuteria paniculata; Four plants had relatively low aboveground enrichment coefficient of Pb and Zn, but had a high transfer coefficient, showed that the appropriate modifier concentration was able to improve the Pb and Zn enrichment and transfer ability of plants. (2) In subcellular distribution, most of Pb and Zn were distributed in plant cell wall components and soluble components while the distribution in cell organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus component were less. Compared with CK group, two improved group made soluble components of the cell walls of Pb fixation and retention of zinc role in the enhancement. (3) As for the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in plants, the main chemical forms of Pb were hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and ethanol extractable forms, while other chemical form contents were few, the main chemical forms of Zn were different based on plant type. Compared with CK group, the proportion of the active Pb chemical form in different plant

  5. Redistribution of fractions of zinc, cadmium, nickel, copper, and lead in contaminated calcareous soils treated with EDTA.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mohsen; Khanlari, Zahra V

    2007-11-01

    Effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the fractionation of zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in contaminated calcareous soils was investigated. Soil samples containing variable levels of contamination, from 105.9 to 5803 mg/kg Zn, from 2.2 to 1361 mg/kg Cd, from 31 to 64.0 mg/kg Ni, from 24 to 84 mg/kg Cu, and from 109 to 24,850 mg/kg Pb, were subjected to EDTA treatment at different dosages of 0, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg. Metals in the incubated soils were fractionated after 5 months by a sequential extraction procedure, in which the metal fractions were experimentally defined as exchangeable (EXCH), carbonate (CARB), Mn oxide (MNO), Fe oxide (FEO), organic matter (OM), and residual (RES) fractions. In contaminated soils without EDTA addition, Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb were predominately present in the RES fraction, up to 60.0%, 32.3%, 41.1%, and 36.8%, respectively. In general, with the EDTA addition, the EXCH and CARB fractions of these metals increased dramatically while the OM fraction decreased. The Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb were distributed mostly in RES, OM, FEO, and CARB fractions in contaminated soils, but Cd was found predominately in the CARB, MNO, and RES fractions. The OM fraction decreased with increasing amounts of EDTA. In the contaminated soils, EDTA removed some Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni from MNO, FEO, and OM fractions and redistributed them into CARB and EXCH fractions. Based on the relative percent in the EXCH and CARB fractions, the order of solubility was Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn for contaminated soils, before adding of EDTA, and after adding of EDTA, the order of solubility was Pb > Cd > Zn > Ni > Cu. The risk of groundwater contamination will increase after applying EDTA and it needed to be used very carefully.

  6. Spectroscopic study of Pr3+ ions doped Zinc Lead Tungsten Tellurite glasses for visible photonic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ritu; Rao, A. S.; Deopa, Nisha; Venkateswarlu, M.; Jayasimhadri, M.; Haranath, D.; Prakash, G. Vijaya

    2018-04-01

    Zinc Lead Tungsten Tellurite (ZnPbWTe) glasses doped with different Pr3+ ion concentrations having the composition 5ZnO + 15PbO + 20WO3 + (60-x)TeO2 + xPr6O11 (where x = 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%) were prepared by using sudden quenching technique and characterized to understand their visible emission characteristic features using spectroscopic techniques such as absorption, excitation and emission. The Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory has been applied to the absorption spectral features with an aim to evaluate various radiative properties for the prominent fluorescent levels of Pr3+ions in the as-prepared glasses. The emission spectra recorded for the as-prepared glasses under 468 nm excitation show three prominent emission transitions 3P0→3H6, 3P0→3F2 and 3P1→3F4, of which 3P0→3F2 observed in visible red region (648 nm), is relatively more intense. The intensity of 3P0→3F2 emission transition in the titled glasses increases up to 1mol% of Pr3+ ions and beyond concentration quenching is observed. Branching ratios (βR) and emission cross-sections (σse) were estimated for 3P0→3F2 transition to understand the luminescence efficiency in visible red region (648 nm). The CIE chromaticity coordinates were also evaluated in order to understand the suitability of these glasses for visible red luminescence devices. From the emission cross-sections, quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates, it was concluded that 1mol% of Pr3+ ions in ZnPbWTe glasses are quite suitable for preparing visible reddish orange luminescent devices.

  7. Sulfidation treatment of molten incineration fly ashes with Na2S for zinc, lead and copper resource recovery.

    PubMed

    Kuchar, D; Fukuta, T; Onyango, M S; Matsuda, H

    2007-04-01

    The present study focuses on the conversion of heavy metals involved in molten incineration fly ashes to metal sulfides which could be thereafter separated by flotation. The sulfidation treatment was carried out for five molten incineration fly ashes (Fly ash-A to Fly ash-E) by contacting each fly ash with Na(2)S solution for a period of 10 min to 6h. The initial molar ratio of S(2-) to Me(2+) was adjusted to 1.20. The conversion of heavy metals to metal sulfides was evaluated by measuring the S(2-) residual concentrations using an ion selective electrode. The formation of metal sulfides was studied by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. In the case of Fly ash-A to Fly ash-D, more than 79% of heavy metals of zinc, lead and copper was converted to metal sulfides within the contacting period of 0.5h owing to a fast conversion of metal chlorides to metal sulfides. By contrast, the conversion of about 35% was achieved for Fly ash-E within the same contacting period, which was attributed to a high content of metal oxides. Further, the S(2-) to Me(2+) molar ratio was reduced to 1.00 to minimize Na(2)S consumption and the conversions obtained within the contacting period of 0.5h varied from 76% for Fly ash-D to 91% for Fly ash-C. Finally, soluble salts such as NaCl and KCl were removed during the sulfidation treatment, which brought about a significant enrichment in metals content by a factor varying from 1.5 for Fly ash-D to 4.9 for Fly ash-A.

  8. Cadmium, lead, and zinc mobility and plant uptake in a mine soil amended with sugarcane straw biochar.

    PubMed

    Puga, A P; Abreu, C A; Melo, L C A; Paz-Ferreiro, J; Beesley, L

    2015-11-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in unconsolidated soils can prove toxic to proximal environments, if measures are not taken to stabilize soils. One way to minimize the toxicity of metals in soils is the use of materials capable of immobilizing these contaminants by sorption. Biochar (BC) can retain large amounts of heavy metals due to, among other characteristics, its large surface area. In the current experiment, sugarcane-straw-derived biochar, produced at 700 °C, was applied to a heavy-metal-contaminated mine soil at 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0% (w/w). Jack bean and Mucuna aterrima were grown in pots containing a mine contaminated soil and soil mixed with BC. Pore water was sampled to assess the effects of biochar on zinc solubility, while soils were analyzed by DTPA extraction to confirm available metal concentrations. The application of BC decreased the available concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in the mine contaminated soil leading to a consistent reduction in the concentration of Zn in the pore water. Amendment with BC reduced plant uptake of Cd, Pb, and Zn with the jack bean uptaking higher amounts of Cd and Pb than M. aterrima. This study indicates that biochar application during mine soil remediation could reduce plant concentrations of heavy metals. Coupled with this, symptoms of heavy metal toxicity were absent only in plants growing in pots amended with biochar. The reduction in metal bioavailability and other modifications to the substrate induced by the application of biochar may be beneficial to the establishment of a green cover on top of mine soil to aid remediation and reduce risks.

  9. Deriving Freshwater Quality Criteria for Iron, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc for Protection of Aquatic Life in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M.; Nadzifah, Y.; Nur-Amalina, R.; Umirah, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn), two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail), Stenocypris major (ostracod), Chironomus javanus (midge larvae), Nais elinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole) to determine 96 h LC50 values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9 μg L−1, respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4 μg L−1 and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7 μg L−1, respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively. PMID:22919358

  10. Availability of arsenic, copper, lead, thallium, and zinc to various vegetables grown in slag-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Bunzl, K; Trautmannsheimer, M; Schramel, P; Reifenhäuser, W

    2001-01-01

    To anticipate a possible hazard resulting from the plant uptake of metals from slag-contaminated soils, it is useful to study whether vegetables exist that are able to mobilize a given metal in the slag to a larger proportion than in an uncontaminated control soil. For this purpose, we studied the soil to plant transfer of arsenic, copper, lead, thallium, and zinc by the vegetables bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. 'dwarf bean Modus'), kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.), mangold (Beta vulgaris var. macrorhiza ), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. 'American gathering brown'), carrot (Daucus carota L. 'Rotin', 'Sperlings's'), and celery [Apium graveiolus var. dulce (Mill.) Pers.] from a control soil (Ap horizon of a Entisol) and from a contaminated soil (1:1 soil-slag mixtures). Two types of slags were used: an iron-rich residue from pyrite (FeS2) roasting and a residue from coal firing. The metal concentrations in the slags, soils, and plants were used to calculate for each metal and soil-slag mixture the plant-soil fractional concentration ratio (CRfractional,slag), that is, the concentration ratio of the metal that results only from the slag in the soil. With the exception of TI, the resulting values obtained for this quantity for As, Cu, Pb, and Zn and for all vegetables were significantly smaller than the corresponding plant-soil concentration ratios (CRcontrol soil) for the uncontaminated soil. The results demonstrate quantitatively that the ability of a plant to accumulate a given metal as observed for a control soil might not exist for a soil-slag mixture, and vice versa.

  11. Assessment of lead, cadmium, and zinc contamination of roadside soils, surface films, and vegetables in Kampala City, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nabulo, Grace; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Diamond, Miriam

    2006-05-01

    The relationship between traffic density and trace metal concentrations in roadside soils, surface films, and a selected vegetable weed, Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex Thell., was determined in 11 farming sites along major highways around Kampala City in Uganda. Surface soil, atmospherically deposited surface films on windows, and leaves of Amaranthus dubius were sampled at known distances from the roads and analyzed for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Atmospherically deposited trace metal particulates were sampled using window glass as an inert, passive collector. Total trace metal concentrations in soils ranged from 30.0+/-2.3 to 64.6+/-11.7 mg/kg Pb, 78.4+/-18.4 to 265.6+/-63.2 mg/kg Zn, and 0.8+/-0.13 to 1.40+/-0.16 mg/kg Cd. Total trace metal levels in soil decreased rapidly with distance from the road. Total Pb decreased with distance up to 30 m from the road, where it reached a background soil concentration of 28 mg/kg dry weight. The study found background values of 50 and 1.4 mg/kg for Zn and Cd in roadside soils, respectively. Similarly, Pb concentration in Amaranthus dubius leaves decreased with increasing distance from the road edge. The dominant pathway for Pb contamination was from atmospheric deposition, which was consistent with Pb concentrations in surface films. The mean Pb concentrations in leaves of roadside crops were higher than those in their respective roots, with the highest leaf-to-root ratio observed in the Brassica oleraceae acephala group. The lowest Pb and Zn concentrations were found in the fruit compared to the leaves of the same crops. Leaves of roadside vegetables were therefore considered a potential source of heavy metal contamination to farmers and consumers in urban areas. It is recommended that leafy vegetables should be grown 30 m from roads in high-traffic, urban areas.

  12. Quantitative assessment of metal elements using moss species as biomonitors in downwind area of lead-zinc mine.

    PubMed

    Balabanova, Biljana; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Andonovska, Katerina Bačeva

    2017-02-23

    Distributions of a total of 21 elements were monitored in significantly lead-zinc polluted area using moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme and Camptothecium lutescens) used interchangeably, covering a denser sampling network. Interspecies comparison was conducted using Box-Cox transformed values, due to their skewed distribution. The median concentrations of trace elements in the both mosses examined decreased in the following order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu>Ni∼Cr∼As>Co>Cd>Hg. For almost all analyzed elements, H. cupressiforme revealed higher bio-accumulative abilities. For arsenic contents was obtained ER-value in favor of C. lutescens. The ER for the element contents according to the distance from the pollution source in selected areas was significantly enriched for the anthropogenic introduced elements As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. After Box-Cox transformation of the content values, T B was significantly different for As (4.82), Cd (3.84), Cu (2.95), Pb (4.38), and Zn (4.23). Multivariate factor analysis singled out four elemental associations: F1 (Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Li-Ni-V), F2 (Cd-Pb-Zn), F3 (Ca-Mg-Na-P) and F4 (Cu) with a total variance of 89%. Spatial distribution visualized the hazardously higher contents of "hot spots" of Cd > 1.30 mg/kg, Cu > 22 mg/kg, Pb > 130 mg/kg and Zn > 160 mg/kg. Therefore, main approach in moss biomonitoring should be based on data management of the element distribution by reducing the effect of extreme values (considering Box-Cox data transformation); the interspecies variation in sampling media does not deviate in relation to H. cupressiforme vs. C. lutescens.

  13. Stabilization of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in contaminated rice paddy soil using starfish: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Hwang, Inseong; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Ok, Yong Sik; Ji, Won Hyun; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2018-05-01

    Lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) contaminated rice paddy soil was stabilized using natural (NSF) and calcined starfish (CSF). Contaminated soil was treated with NSF in the range of 0-10 wt% and CSF in the range of 0-5 wt% and cured for 28 days. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test was used to evaluate effectiveness of starfish treatment. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses were conducted to investigate the mechanism responsible for effective immobilization of Pb and Zn. Experimental results suggest that NSF and CSF treatments effectively immobilize Pb and Zn in treated rice paddy soil. TCLP levels for Pb and Zn were reduced with increasing NSF and CSF dosage. Comparison of the two treatment methods reveals that CSF treatment is more effective than NSF treatment. Leachability of the two metals is reduced approximately 58% for Pb and 51% for Zn, upon 10 wt% NSF treatment. More pronounced leachability reductions, 93% for Pb and 76% for Zn, are achieved upon treatment with 5 wt% CSF. Sequential extraction results reveal that NSF and CSF treatments of contaminated soil generated decrease in exchangeable/weak acid Pb and Zn soluble fractions, and increase of residual Pb and Zn fractions. Results for the SEM-EDX sample treated with 5 wt% CSF indicate that effective Pb and Zn immobilization is most probably associated with calcium silicate hydrates (CSHs) and calcium aluminum hydrates (CAHs). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ecological characterization of streams, and fish-tissue analysis for mercury and lead at selected locations, Fort Gordon, Georgia, June 1999 to May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregory, M. Brian; Stamey, Timothy C.; Wellborn, John B.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Ga., documented the ecological condition of selected water-bodies on the Fort Gordon military installation from June 1999 to May 2000. This study includes stream-habitat assessments, aquatic invertebrate and fish-community surveys in selected stream reaches, and analyses of mercury and lead concentrations in largemouth bass (Micropterous salmoides) muscle tissue from three impoundments. Assessment surveys indicate lower habitat value scores in some streams draining the more developed areas on Fort Gordon. A small tributary to Butler Creek--which drains parking lots associated with military motor pools and other impervious surfaces--is characterized by moderate levels of bank erosion and excess sediment in the stream channel compared to reference sites. Four other stream reaches are more similar to reference streams in respect to habitat conditions. Invertebrate communities in streams draining these urbanized watersheds are inhabited by 13 to 16 taxa per reach; whereas, 23 and 33 taxa were collected from the two reference stream reaches. Measures of invertebrate abundance, taxa richness, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Tricoptera Index are lower in streams draining urbanized watersheds. Measures of community similarity also indicate differences between streams draining urbanized areas and reference streams. Streams draining developed areas on Fort Gordon are inhabited by 3 to 10 fish species and included more species regarded as tolerant of degraded water-quality conditions; whereas, the two reference stream reaches support 4 and 10 species, respectively, including one species considered intolerant of degraded water-quality conditions. Mercury was detected in all largemouth bass collected from three impoundments on Fort Gordon. Wet-weight mercury concentrations in fish tissue analyzed from all sites range from 0

  15. [Simultaneous determination of trace amounts of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper by the method of anodic voltammetry using factor experimental design].

    PubMed

    Koen, E

    1975-01-01

    Using the method of factor planning of the experiment, the author studies and demonstrates the influence exerted by the potential and time of electrolysis, and by the concentration of the background and elements on the heights of anodal peaks upon simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper microconcentrations. On the ground of statistical elaboration of the results, the optimal condition for polarographic determination through anodal voltamperometry are outlined. According to the cyclic voltametry method, the electrod processes reversibility for zinc, cadmium and lead, as well as the incomplete reversibility for copper are established; the number of electrons participating in the electrochemical reaction are found using the method of gas coulometry. The possibility of simultaneous determination of the four elements' ultramicroconcentrations after the method of voltamperometry with enrichment is proved. The standard deviation is in the range 3.02 to 4.9.

  16. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jinheon; Paek, Domyung

    2009-08-15

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72more » {mu}g/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.« less

  17. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium and Lead Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils at the Single-Cell Level by a Combination of Whole-Cell Biosensors and Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Hurdebise, Quentin; Tarayre, Cédric; Fischer, Christophe; Colinet, Gilles; Hiligsmann, Serge; Delvigne, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Zinc, lead and cadmium are metallic trace elements (MTEs) that are widespread in the environment and tend to accumulate in soils because of their low mobility and non-degradability. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the applicability of biosensors as tools able to provide data about the bioavailability of such MTEs in contaminated soils. Here, we tested the genetically-engineered strain Escherichia coli pPZntAgfp as a biosensor applicable to the detection of zinc, lead and cadmium by the biosynthesis of green fluorescent protein (GFP) accumulating inside the cells. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the fluorescence induced by the MTEs. A curvilinear response to zinc between 0 and 25 mg/L and another curvilinear response to cadmium between 0 and 1.5 mg/L were highlighted in liquid media, while lead did not produce exploitable results. The response relating to a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 was further investigated. In these conditions, E. coli pPZntAgfp responded to cadmium only. Several contaminated soils with a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 were analyzed with the biosensor, and the metallic concentrations were also measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Our results showed that E. coli pPZntAgfp could be used as a monitoring tool for contaminated soils being processed. PMID:25894939

  18. Biotransference and biomagnification of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead in a temperate seagrass ecosystem from Lake Macquarie Estuary, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Barwick, M; Maher, W

    2003-10-01

    In this study the biotransference of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead was measured in a contaminated seagrass ecosystem in Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia, to determine if biomagnification of these trace metals is occurring and if they reach concentrations that pose a threat to the resident organisms or human consumers. Selenium was found to biomagnify, exceeding maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption within carnivorous fish tissue, the highest trophic level examined. Selenium concentrations measured within carnivorous fish were also above those shown to elicit sub-lethal effects in freshwater fish. As comparisons are made to selenium concentrations known to effect freshwater fish, inferences must be made with caution. There was no evidence of copper, cadmium, zinc or lead biomagnification within the food web examined. Copper, cadmium, zinc and lead concentrations were below concentrations shown to elicit adverse responses in biota. Copper concentrations within crustaceans M. bennettae and P. palagicus were found to exceed maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption. It is likely that copper concentrations within these species were accumulated due to the essential nature of this trace metal for many species of molluscs and crustaceans. Arsenic showed some evidence of biomagnification. Total arsenic concentrations are similar to those found in other uncontaminated marine ecosystems, thus arsenic concentrations are unlikely to cause adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Inorganic arsenic concentrations are below maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption.

  19. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained <12% of the total variation. Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet

  20. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Agendas, and Minutes New Blood Lead Level Information Funding Information Lead in Drinking Water Lead-based Water Lines Washington, D.C. Blood Lead Level Tests Effect of Previously Missing Blood Lead Level (BPb) Surveillance ...

  1. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium and Selenium in Feathers of Shorebirds during Migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey: Comparing the 1990s and 2011/2012

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Tsipoura, Nellie; Niles, Lawrence J.; Gochfeld, Michael; Dey, Amanda; Mizrahi, David

    2015-01-01

    Understanding temporal changes in contaminant levels in coastal environments requires comparing levels of contaminants from the same species from different time periods, particularly if species are declining. Several species of shorebirds migrating through Delaware Bay have declined from the 1980s to the present. To evaluate some contaminants as cause for the declines, we examine levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and selenium in feathers of red knot (Calidris canutus, N = 46 individuals), semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla, N = 70) and sanderling (Calidris alba, N = 32) migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA, from 1991 to 1992 (N = 40), 1995 (N = 28), and 2011–2012 (N = 80) to determine if levels have changed. We found: (1) arsenic, chromium, and lead increased in red knot and decreased in semipalmated sandpiper; (2) cadmium decreased in semipalmated sandpipers; (3) mercury decreased in red knot and sanderlings; (4) selenium decreased in red knot and increased in semipalmated sandpipers. In 2011/2012 there were significant interspecific differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium. Except for selenium, the element levels were well below levels reported for feathers of other species. The levels in feathers in red knots, sanderling, and semipalmated sandpipers from Delaware Bay in 2011/2012 were well below levels in feathers that are associated with effect levels, except for selenium. Selenium levels ranged from 3.0 µg·g−1 dry weight to 5.8 µg·g−1 (semipalmated sandpiper), within the range known to cause adverse effects, suggesting the need for further examination of selenium levels in birds. The levels of all elements were well below those reported for other marine species, except for selenium, which was near levels suggesting possible toxic effects. PMID:29056651

  2. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, selenium, and zinc in fish from the Mississippi River Basin, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    Fish were collected in late 1995 from 34 National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations and 12 National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) stations in the Mississippi River basin (MRB), and in late 1996 from a reference site in West Virginia. The NCBP sites represented key points (dams, tributaries, etc.) in the largest rivers of the MRB. The NAWQA sites were typically on smaller rivers and were selected to represent dominant land uses in their watersheds. The West Virginia site, which is in an Eastern U.S. watershed adjacent to the MRB, was selected to document elemental concentrations in fish used for other aspects of a larger study and to provide additional contemporaneous data on background elemental concentrations. At each site four samples, each comprising (nominally) 10 adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio, `carp') or black bass (Micropterus spp., `bass') of the same sex, were collected. The whole fish were composited by station, species, and gender for analysis of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) by atomic absorption spectroscopy and for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) by inductively-coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Concentrations of most of the elements examined were lower in both carpand bass from the reference site, a small impoundment located in a rural area, than from the NCBP and NAWQA sites on rivers and larger impoundments. In contrast, there were few overall differences between NCBP sites NAWQA sites. The 1995 results generally confirmed the continued weathering and re-distribution of these elemental contaminants in the MRB; concentrations declined or were unchanged from 1984–1986 to 1995 at most NCBP sites, thus continuing two-decade trends. Exceptions were Se at Station 77 (Arkansas R. at John Martin Reservoir, CO), where concentrations have been elevated historically and increased slightly (to 3.8–4.7 μg g-1 in bass and carp); and Pb, Cd, and Zn at Station 67 (Allegheny R. at Natrona, PA), where

  3. Herbaspirillum robiniae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia in a lead-zinc mine.

    PubMed

    Fan, Miao-Chun; Guo, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhu, Ya-Min; Chen, Wei-Min; Lin, Yan-Bing; Wei, Ge-Hong

    2018-04-01

    A novel endophytic bacterium, designated strain HZ10 T , was isolated from root nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia growing in a lead-zinc mine in Mianxian County, Shaanxi Province, China. The bacterium was Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile, slightly curved- and rod-shaped, methyl red-negative, catalase-positive, and did not produce H2S. Strain HZ10 T grew at 4-45 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), pH 5-9 (optimum, pH 7-8) and 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acids were identified as C16 : 0, summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), and the quinone type was Q-8. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 64.9 mol% based on the whole genome sequence. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic relative to strain HZ10 T is Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum CPW301 T (98.72 % sequence identity). Genome relatedness of the type strains H. chlorophenolicum CPW301 T , Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 T and Herbaspirillum aquaticum IEH 4430 T , was quantified by using the average nucleotide identity (86.9-88.0 %) and a genome-to-genome distance analysis (26.6 %-29.3 %), with both strongly supporting the notion that strain HZ10 T belongs to the genus Herbaspirillum as a novel species. Based on the results from phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological analyses, strain HZ10 T represents a novel Herbaspirillum species, for which the name Herbaspirillum robiniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HZ10 T (=JCM 31754 T =CCTCC AB 2014352 T ).

  4. Maternal and neonatal scalp hair concentrations of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead: relationship to some lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Razagui, Ibrahim B-A; Ghribi, Ibrahim

    2005-07-01

    Postpartum scalp hair samples from 82 term-pregnancy mother/ neonate pairs were analyzed for their concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Maternal and neonatal Zn concentrations had geometric means (and 99% confidence intervals) of 122.5 microg/g (117.9--131.5 microg/g) and 146.9 microg (141.5--156.7 microg/g) respectively. Corresponding Cu values were 18.4 microg/g (17.6--23.8 microg/g) and 6.7 microg/g (6.3--7.6 microg/g). Those of Cd were 0.49 microg/g (0.47--0.69 microg/g) in the mothers and 0.57 microg/g (0.55--0.86 microg/g) in the neonates. For Pb, they were 7.95 microg/g (7.60--9.32 microg/g) and 4.56 microg/g (4.39--5.56 microg/g). Cigarette smoking, despite its relatively low prevalence (19.5%), was associated with lower Zn and higher Cd and Pb concentrations and in lower Zn/Cd and Zn/Pb molar concentration ratios. Smoking also altered interelemental relationships, particularly those of Zn with Cd and Pb and those between Cd and Pb. Smoking frequency appeared to show negative dose-response effects on maternal and neonatal Zn concentrations, Zn/Pb molar concentration ratios, and birth weight. Mothers with a history of oral contraceptive (OC) usage had significantly higher Cu concentrations and lower Zn/Cu molar concentration ratios than non users, with the highest Cu concentrations and lowest Zn/Cu values being associated with third-generation OCs. No similar effects were elicited in the respective neonatal Cu concentrations. Neither alcohol consumption nor prenatal supplementation with iron and/or folic acid had discernible effects on the maternal or neonatal elemental concentrations. The data from this study suggest that in a given population of term-pregnancy mothers and neonates, significant interindividual variations in hair trace element concentrations can occur, irrespective of commonality of general environment, and that lifestyle factors, including cigarette

  5. Assessment of lead, cadmium, and zinc contamination of roadside soils, surface films, and vegetables in Kampala City, Uganda

    SciTech Connect

    Nabulo, Grace; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Diamond, Miriam

    2006-05-15

    The relationship between traffic density and trace metal concentrations in roadside soils, surface films, and a selected vegetable weed, Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex Thell., was determined in 11 farming sites along major highways around Kampala City in Uganda. Surface soil, atmospherically deposited surface films on windows, and leaves of Amaranthus dubius were sampled at known distances from the roads and analyzed for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Atmospherically deposited trace metal particulates were sampled using window glass as an inert, passive collector. Total trace metal concentrations in soils ranged from 30.0{+-}2.3 to 64.6{+-}11.7more » mg/kg Pb, 78.4{+-}18.4 to 265.6{+-}63.2 mg/kg Zn, and 0.8{+-}0.13 to 1.40{+-}0.16 mg/kg Cd. Total trace metal levels in soil decreased rapidly with distance from the road. Total Pb decreased with distance up to 30 m from the road, where it reached a background soil concentration of 28 mg/kg dry weight. The study found background values of 50 and 1.4 mg/kg for Zn and Cd in roadside soils, respectively. Similarly, Pb concentration in Amaranthus dubius leaves decreased with increasing distance from the road edge. The dominant pathway for Pb contamination was from atmospheric deposition, which was consistent with Pb concentrations in surface films. The mean Pb concentrations in leaves of roadside crops were higher than those in their respective roots, with the highest leaf-to-root ratio observed in the Brassica oleraceae acephala group. The lowest Pb and Zn concentrations were found in the fruit compared to the leaves of the same crops. Leaves of roadside vegetables were therefore considered a potential source of heavy metal contamination to farmers and consumers in urban areas. It is recommended that leafy vegetables should be grown 30 m from roads in high-traffic, urban areas.« less

  6. Geology and geochemistry of the Reocín zinc-lead deposit, Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Northern Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velasco, Francisco; Herrero, Jose Miguel; Yusta, Inaki; Alonso, Jose Antonio; Seebold, Ignacio; Leach, David

    2003-01-01

    The Reoci??n Zn-Pb deposit, 30 km southwest of Santander, Spain, occurs within Lower Cretaceous dolomitized Urgonian limestones on the southern flank of the Santillana syncline. The Reoci??n deposit is one of the largest known strata-bound, carbonate-hosted, zinc-lead deposits in Europe. The total metal endowment of the deposit, including past production and remaining reserves, is 62 Mt of ore grading 8.7 percent Zn and 1.0 percent Pb. The epigenetic mineralization consists of sphalerite and galena, with lesser marcasite and trace pyrite with dolomite as gangue. Microprobe analyses of different generations of dolomite revealed nonstoichiometric compositions with various amounts of iron (up to 14 mol % of FeCO3). Replacement of host dolomite, open-space filling of fractures, and cementation of breccias derived from dissolution collapse are the principal types of ore occurrence. Detailed cross-section mapping indicates a stratigraphic and structural control on the deposit. A stratiform morphology is present in the western part of the orebody (Capa Sur), whereas mineralization in the eastern part is highly discordant but strata bound (Barrendera). Stratigraphic studies demonstrate that synsedimentary tectonic activity, related to the rifting of the North Atlantic (Bay of Biscay), was responsible for variation in sedimentation, presence of unconformities (including paleokarsts), local platform emergence and dolomitization along the N60 fault trend. In the Reoci??n area, two stages of dolomitization are recognized. The first stage is a pervasive dolomitization of the limestone country rocks that was controlled by faulting and locally affected the upper part of the Aptian and the complete Albian sequence. The second dolomitization event occurred after erosion and was controlled by karstic cavities. This later dolomitization was accompanied by ore deposition and, locally, filling of dolomite sands and clastic sediments in karstic cavities. The circulation of hydrothermal

  7. Highly effective removal of mercury and lead ions from wastewater by mercaptoamine-functionalised silica-coated magnetic nano-adsorbents: Behaviours and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Shuangyou; Li, Kai; Ning, Ping; Peng, Jinhui; Jin, Xu; Tang, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    A novel hybrid material was fabricated using mercaptoamine-functionalised silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MAF-SCMNPs) and was effective in the extraction and recovery of mercury and lead ions from wastewater. The properties of this new magnetic material were explored using various characterisation and analysis methods. Adsorbent amounts, pH levels and initial concentrations were optimised to improve removal efficiency. Additionally, kinetics, thermodynamics and adsorption isotherms were investigated to determine the mechanism by which the fabricated MAF-SCMNPs adsorb heavy metal ions. The results revealed that MAF-SCMNPs were acid-resistant. Sorption likely occurred by chelation through the amine group and ion exchange between heavy metal ions and thiol functional groups on the nanoadsorbent surface. The equilibrium was attained within 120 min, and the adsorption kinetics showed pseudo-second-order (R2 > 0.99). The mercury and lead adsorption isotherms were in agreement with the Freundlich model, displaying maximum adsorption capacities of 355 and 292 mg/g, respectively. The maximum adsorptions took place at pH 5-6 and 6-7 for Hg(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The maximum adsorptions were observed at 10 mg and 12 mg adsorbent quantities for Hg(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous within the temperature range of 298-318 K. This work demonstrates a unique magnetic nano-adsorbent for the removal of Hg(II) and Pb(II) from wastewater.

  8. Mercury poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the lungs Medicine to remove mercury and heavy metals from the body INORGANIC MERCURY For inorganic mercury ... chap 98. Theobald JL, Mycyk MB. Iron and heavy metals. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, ...

  9. Ultraviolet and infrared absorption spectra of Cr2O3 doped-sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate glasses and effects of gamma irradiation: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, M A; ElBatal, F H; Abdelghany, A M

    2013-10-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on spectral properties of Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses of three varieties, namely sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate have been investigated. Optical spectra of the undoped samples reveal strong UV absorption bands which are attributed to the presence of trace iron impurities in both the sodium and zinc phosphate glasses while the lead phosphate glass exhibits broad UV near visible bands due to combined absorption of both trace iron impurities and divalent lead ions. The effect of chromium oxide content has been investigated. The three different Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses reveal spectral visible bands varying in their position and intensity and splitting due to the different field strengths of the Na(+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+) cations, together with the way they are housed in the network and their effects on the polarisability of neighboring oxygens ligands. The effects of gamma irradiation on the optical spectral properties of the various glasses have been compared. The different effects for lead and zinc phosphate are related to the ability of Pb(2+), and Zn(2+) to form additional structural units causing stability of the network towards gamma irradiation. Also, the introduction of the transition metal chromium ions reveals some shielding behavior towards irradiation. Infrared absorption spectra of the three different base phosphate glasses show characteristic vibrations due to various phosphate groups depending on the type of glass and Cr2O3 is observed to slightly affect the IR spectra. Gamma irradiation causes minor variations in some of the intensities of the IR spectra but the main characteristic bands due to phosphate groups remain in their number and position. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou lead/zinc mine spill (Hunan, China).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyu; Probst, Anne; Liao, Bohan

    2005-03-01

    In 1985, the collapse of the tailing dam in Chenzhou lead/zinc mine (Hunan, southern China) led to the spread of mining waste spills on the farmland along the Dong River. After the accident, an urgent soil cleaning up was carried out in some places. Seventeen years later, cereal (rice, maize, and sorghum), pulses (soybean, Adzuki bean, mung bean and peanut), vegetables (ipomoea, capsicum, taro and string bean) and the rooted soils were sampled at four sites: (1) the mining area (SZY), (2) the area still covered with the mining tailing spills (GYB), (3) the cleaned area from mining tailing spills (JTC), and (4) a background site (REF). Metal concentrations in the crops and soils were analyzed to evaluate the long-term effects of the spilled waste on the soil and the potential human exposure through food chains. The results showed that the physical-chemical properties of the soils obviously changed due to the different farming styles used by each individual farmer. Leaching effects and plant extraction of metals from some soils were quite weak. Certain soils were still heavily polluted with As, Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. The contamination levels were in the order of GYB>SZY>JTC showing that the clean-up treatment was effective. The maximum allowable concentration (MAC) levels for Chinese agricultural soils were still highly exceeded, particularly for As and Cd (followed by Zn, Pb and Cu), with mean concentrations of 709 and 7.6 mg kg(-1), respectively. These concentrations exceed the MAC levels by 24 times for As and 13 times for Cd at GYB. Generally, the edible leaves or stems of crops were more heavily contaminated than seeds or fruits. Ipomoea was the most severely contaminated crop. The concentrations of Cd and Pb were 3.30 and 76.9 mg kg(-1) in ipomoea leaves at GYB, which exceeded the maximum permit levels (0.5 mg kg(-1) for Cd and 9 mg kg(-1) for Pb) by 6.6 and 8.5 times, respectively. Taro (+skin) could accumulate high concentrations of Zn and Cd in the edible stem

  11. Speciation of PM10 sources of airborne nonferrous metals within the 3-km zone of lead/zinc smelters.

    PubMed

    Batonneau, Yann; Bremard, Claude; Gengembre, Leon; Laureyns, Jacky; Le Maguer, Agnes; Le Maguer, Didier; Perdrix, Esperanza; Sobanska, Sophie

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the speciation of PM10 sources of airborne Pb, Zn, and Cd metals (PM10 is an aerosol standard of aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm.) in the atmosphere of a 3 km zone surrounding lead/zinc facilities in operation for a century. Many powdered samples were collected in stacks of working units (grilling, furnace, and refinery), outdoor storages (ores, recycled materials), surrounding waste slag (4 Mt), and polluted topsoils (3 km). PM10 samples were generated from the raw powders by using artificial resuspension and collection devices. The bulk PM10 multielemental analyses were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The proportions in mass of Pb (50%), Zn (40%), and Cd (1%) contents and associated metals (traces) reach the proportions of corresponding raw powdered samples of ores, recycled materials, and fumesize emissions of plants without specific enrichment. In contrast, Pb (8%) and Zn (15%) contents of PM10 of slag deposit were found to be markedly higher than those of raw dust, Pb (4%), and Zn (9%), respectively. In the same way, Pb (0.18%), Zn (0.20%), and Cd (0.004%) were enriched by 1.7, 2.1, and 2.3 times, respectively, in PM10 as compared with raw top-soil corresponding values. X-ray wavelength dispersive electron-microprobe (EM-WDS) microanalysis did not indicate well-defined phases or simple stoichiometries of all the PM10 samples atthe level of the spatial resolution (1 microm3). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that minor elements such as Cd, Hg, and C are more concentrated on the particle surface than in the bulk of PM10 generated by the smelting processes. (XPS) provided also the average speciation of the surface of PM10; Pb is mainly represented as PbSO4, Zn as ZnS, and Cd as CdS or CdSO4, and small amounts of coke were also detected. The speciation of bulk PM10 crystallized compounds was deduced from XRD diffractograms with a raw estimation of

  12. Effects of cell condition, pH, and temperature on lead, zinc, and copper sorption to Acidithiobacillus caldus strain BC13

    SciTech Connect

    John E. Aston; William A. Apel; Brady D. Lee

    2010-12-01

    This study describes the effects of cell condition, pH, and temperature on lead, zinc, and copper sorption to Acidithiobacillus caldus strain BC13 with a Langmuir model. Copper exhibited the highest loading capacity, 4.76 ± 0.28 mmol g-1, to viable cells at pH 5.5. The highest kL (binding-site affinity) observed was 61.2 ± 3.0 L mmol-1 to dehydrated cells at pH 4.0. The pHs that maximized loading capacities and binding-site affinities were generally between 4.0 and 5.5, where the sum of free-proton and complexed-metal concentrations was near a minimum. Of additional importance, lead, zinc, and copper sorbed to viable cells atmore » pH values as low as 1.5. Previous studies with other acidithiobacilli did not measure viable-cell sorption below pH 4.0. In separate experiments, desorption studies showed that far less copper was recovered from viable cells than any other metal or cell condition, suggesting that uptake may play an important role in copper sorption by At. caldus strain BC13. To reflect an applied system, the sorption of metal mixtures was also studied. In these experiments, lead, zinc, and copper sorption from a tertiary mixture were 40.2 ± 4.3%, 28.7 ± 3.8%, and 91.3 ± 3.0%, respectively, of that sorbed in single-metal systems.« less

  13. Assessment of metals pollution on agricultural soil surrounding a lead-zinc mining area in the Karst region of Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaolan; Li, Zhongyi; Yang, Weiwei; Pan, Liping; Gu, Minghua; Lee, DoKyoung

    2013-06-01

    Soil samples were collected on farmland in a lead-zinc mining area in the Karst region of Guangxi, China. The contamination of the soil by eight metals (Cd, Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, Ni) was determined. Among all these metals, Cd is the most serious pollutant in this area. Zn, Hg as well asPb can also be measured at high levels, which may affect the crop production. All other metals contributed marginally to the overall soil contamination. Besides the evaluation of single metals, the Nemerow synthetic index indicated that the soil is not suitable for agricultural use.

  14. Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in cultured oysters under two contrasting climatic conditions in coastal lagoons from SE Gulf of California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Osuna-Martínez, Carmen C; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Alonso-Rodríguez, Rosalba

    2011-09-01

    In order to determine the metal concentrations in cultured oysters from four coastal lagoons from SE Gulf of California, several individuals of Crassostrea gigas and C. corteziensis were collected and their cadmium, copper, lead and zinc levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The concentration of metals in oyster soft tissue was Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb. In two lagoons, Cd concentrations (10.1-13.5 μg g(-1) dw) exceeded the maximum level allowed according to the Official Mexican Standard (NOM-031-SSA1-1993), which is equivalent to the WHO recommended Cd levels in organisms used for human consumption.

  15. Remote sensing applied to geological mapping; comparative geomorphology and identification of mineral zones of zinc and lead in the region of Vazante, MG. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nascimento, F. S. D. (Principal Investigator); Nascimento, M. A. L. S. D.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results showed that the black and white aerial photographs and the color infrared transparencies were efficient for mapping of three lithological units of the Paraopeba formation and for mineralized zones identification, respectively. Multispectral transparencies of I2S made it easier to separate dolomites, which were the rocks conditioning zinc and lead mineralization. Statistical analysis of morphometric indexes obtained from black and white photographs and topographic charts showed significant difference among three lithological units of Paraopeba formation which can be defined as Crest, Hilly, and Karstic reliefs.

  16. Compilation of Mineral Resource Data for Mississippi Valley-Type and Clastic-Dominated Sediment-Hosted Lead-Zinc Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Leach, David L.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Pisarevsky, Sergei A.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains a global compilation of the mineral resource data for sediment-hosted lead-zinc (SH Pb-Zn) deposits. Sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits are historically the most significant sources of lead and zinc, and are mined throughout the world. The most important SH Pb-Zn deposits are hosted in clastic-dominated sedimentary rock sequences (CD Pb-Zn) that are traditionally called sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits, and those in carbonate-dominated sequences that are known as Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) Pb-Zn deposits. In this report, we do not include sandstone-Pb, sandstone-hosted Pb, or Pb-Zn vein districts such as those in Freiberg, Germany, or Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, because these deposits probably represent different deposit types (Leach and others, 2005). We do not include fracture-controlled deposits in which fluorite is dominant and barite typically abundant (for example, Central Kentucky; Hansonburg, N. Mex.) or the stratabound fluorite-rich, but also lead- and zinc-bearing deposits, such as those in southern Illinois, which are considered a genetic variant of carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits (Leach and Sangster, 1993). This report updates the Pb, Zn, copper (Cu), and silver (Ag) grade and tonnage data in Leach and others (2005), which itself was based on efforts in the Canadian Geological Survey World Minerals Geoscience Database Project (contributions of D.F. Sangster to Sinclair and others, 1999). New geological or geochronological data, classifications of the tectonic environment in which the deposits formed, and key references to the geology of the deposits are presented in our report. Data for 121 CD deposits, 113 MVT deposits, and 6 unclassified deposits that were previously classified as either SEDEX or MVT in the Leach and others (2005) compilation, are given in appendix table A1. In some cases, mineral resource data were available only for total district resources, but not for individual mines within the district. For these

  17. A macroinvertebrate assessment of Ozark streams located in lead-zinc mining areas of the Viburnum Trend in southeastern Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poulton, Barry C.; Allert, Ann L.; Besser, John M.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Fairchild, James F.

    2010-01-01

    The Viburnum Trend lead-zinc mining subdistrict is located in the southeast Missouri portion of the Ozark Plateau. In 2003 and 2004, we assessed the ecological effects of mining in several watersheds in the region. We included macroinvertebrate surveys, habitat assessments, and analysis of metals in sediment, pore water, and aquatic biota. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at 21 sites to determine aquatic life impairment status (full, partial, or nonsupport) and relative biotic condition scores. Macroinvertebrate biotic condition scores were significantly correlated with cadmium, nickel, lead, zinc, and specific conductance in 2003 (r = -0.61 to -0.68) and with cadmium, lead, and pore water toxic units in 2004 (r = -0.55 to -0.57). Reference sites were fully supporting of aquatic life and had the lowest metals concentrations and among the highest biotic condition scores in both years. Sites directly downstream from mining and related activities were partially supporting, with biotic condition scores 10% to 58% lower than reference sites. Sites located greater distances downstream from mining activities had intermediate scores and concentrations of metals. Results indicate that elevated concentrations of metals originating from mining activities were the underlying cause of aquatic life impairment in several of the streams studied. There was general concurrence among the adversely affected sites in how the various indicators responded to mining activities during the overall study.

  18. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in the central nervous system of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, by mercury, cadmium, and lead

    SciTech Connect

    Devi, M.; Fingerman, M.

    The toxicological, physiological and biochemical responses of aquatic crustaceans to heavy metals have been reported by several investigators. Levels of glucose, lactic acid, sodium, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in the blood of the crab Scylla serrata increased, while glycogen levels in hepatopancreas and muscle decreased after a four-week exposure to mercuric chloride. In fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, enzyme activity was observed to decrease in the hepatopancreas but increased in abdominal muscle after 48 hr cadmium exposure. In the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, exposed for 96 hr to cadmium, glutahione (GSH) level and GSH S-transferase activity deceased inmore » the midgut. In crayfish Astacus astacus exposed to sublethal concentrations of lead and cadmium, oxidative enzyme (succine dehydrogenase and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase) activities in gills and hepatopancrease decreased. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition by organophosphates and organocarbamates in various crustaceans has bee reported. In vivo cadmium exposure caused increases in esterase activities, but mercury exposure decreases these activities in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp Callianassa tyrrhena. The freshwater crab, Barytelphusa guerini, exposed to 0.6 ppm cadmium showed reduced oxygen consumption throughout the experiment whereas AChE activity increased after 4 days but decreased after 15 days. The authors wanted to determine the effects of cadmium, lead and mercury on AChE activity in central nervous tissue of Procambarus clarkii. This enzyme has the potential for serving both as a biochemical indicator of toxic stress and a sensitive parameter for testing water for the presence of toxicants. These three biologically silent metals have, according to Schweinsberg and Karsa great toxicological significance to humans because their use is widespread. 14 refs., 4 figs.« less

  19. Domain-specific effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs, mercury, and lead on infant cognition: results from the Environmental Contaminants and Child Development Study in Nunavik.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Olivier; Muckle, Gina; Jacobson, Joseph L; Carter, R Colin; Kaplan-Estrin, Melissa; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2014-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), methylmercury (MeHg), and lead (Pb) are environmental contaminants known for their adverse effects on cognitive development. In this study we examined the effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs, MeHg, and Pb on cognitive development in a sample of Inuit infants from Arctic Québec. Mothers were recruited at local prenatal clinics. PCBs, mercury (Hg), Pb, and two seafood nutrients-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and selenium (Se)-were measured in umbilical cord blood. Infants (n = 94) were assessed at 6.5 and 11 months of age on the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII), A-not-B test, and Bayley Scales of Infant Development-2nd Edition (BSID-II). Multiple regression analyses revealed that higher prenatal PCB exposure was associated with decreased FTII novelty preference, indicating impaired visual recognition memory. Prenatal Hg was associated with poorer performance on A-not-B, which depends on working memory and is believed to be a precursor of executive function. Prenatal Pb was related to longer FTII fixation durations, indicating slower speed of information processing. PCBs, MeHg, and Pb each showed specific and distinct patterns of adverse associations with the outcomes measured during infancy. By contrast, none of these exposures was associated with performance on the BSID-II, a global developmental measure. The more focused, narrow band measures of cognitive function that appeared to be sensitive to these exposures also provide early indications of long-term impairment in specific domains that would otherwise not likely be evident until school age. Boucher O, Muckle G, Jacobson JL, Carter RC, Kaplan-Estrin M, Ayotte P, Dewailly É, Jacobson SW. 2014. Domain-specific effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs, mercury, and lead on infant cognition: results from the Environmental Contaminants and Child Development Study in Nunavik. Environ Health Perspect 122:310-316; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206323.

  20. Bioconcentration patterns of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead in selected fish species from the Fox River, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Vinikour, W.S.; Goldstein, R.M.; Anderson, R.V.

    1980-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine if bioconcentration patterns were similar between four common essential and nonessential trace elements. The whole body concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb were related to the whole body dry weights of blue-gill (Lepomis macrochirus), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), black bullhead (Ictalurus melas), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Zinc, Cu, Cd, and Pb were selected because most studies of heavy metal concentrations in fish have examined one or more of these elements. These metals are often closely associated with each other as natural impurities or as alloys. Zinc and Cu are essential components ofmore » metallo-enzymes. Cadmium and Pb have not been shown to have essential functions in fishes, but rather inhibit biological systems and competitively interfere with Zn and Cu. The fish species were chosen on the basis of their importance as recreational and food species and their frequent use in both field and laboratory studies. Patterns of metal bioconcentrations with fish size were determined by simple linear regression.« less

  1. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  2. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper and Silver Using a Carbon Paste Electrode and a Screen Printed Electrode Modified with Chromium(III) Oxide.

    PubMed

    Koudelkova, Zuzana; Syrovy, Tomas; Ambrozova, Pavlina; Moravec, Zdenek; Kubac, Lubomir; Hynek, David; Richtera, Lukas; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-08-09

    In this study, the preparation and electrochemical application of a chromium(III) oxide modified carbon paste electrode (Cr-CPE) and a screen printed electrode (SPE), made from the same material and optimized for the simple, cheap and sensitive simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and the detection of silver ions, is described. The limits of detection and quantification were 25 and 80 µg·L -1 for Zn(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Cd(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Pb(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Cu(II), and 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Ag(I), respectively. Furthermore, this promising modification was transferred to the screen-printed electrode. The limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, copper and lead on the screen printed electrodes were found to be 350 µg·L -1 for Zn(II), 25 µg·L -1 for Cd(II), 3 µg·L -1 for Pb(II) and 3 µg·L -1 for Cu(II). Practical usability for the simultaneous detection of these heavy metal ions by the Cr-CPE was also demonstrated in the analyses of wastewaters.

  3. Occurrence of silver minerals in a silver-rich pocket in the massive sulfide zinc-lead ores in the Edwards mine, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Serviss, C.R.; Grout, C.M.; Hagni, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Ore microscopic examination of uncommon silver-rich ores from the Edwards mine has detected three silver minerals, native silver, freibergite, and argentite, that were previously unreported in the literature from the Balmat-Edwards district. The zinc-lead ore deposits of the Balmat-Edwards District in northern New York are composed of very coarse-grained massive sulfides, principally sphalerite, galena, and pyrite. The typical ores contain small amounts of silver in solid solution galena. Galena concentrates produced from those ores have contained an average of 15 ounces of silver per ton of 60% lead concentrates. In contrast to the typical ore a silver-rich pocket, that measuredmore » three feet by three feet on the vertical mine face and was the subject of this study, contained nearly 1% silver in a zinc ore. Ore microscopic study shows that this ore is especially characterized by abundant, relatively fine-grained chalcopyrite with anhedral pyrite inclusions. Fine-grained sphalerite, native silver, argentite, freibergite and arsenopyrite occur in association with the chalcopyrite and as fracture-fillings in gangue minerals. Geochemically anomalous amounts of tin, barium, chromium, and nickel also are present in the silver-rich pocket. The silver-rich pocket may mark the locus of an early feeder vent or alternatively it may record a hydrothermal event that was superimposed upon the event responsible for the metamorphic ore textures.« less

  4. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper and Silver Using a Carbon Paste Electrode and a Screen Printed Electrode Modified with Chromium(III) Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Koudelkova, Zuzana; Syrovy, Tomas; Ambrozova, Pavlina; Moravec, Zdenek; Kubac, Lubomir; Hynek, David; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the preparation and electrochemical application of a chromium(III) oxide modified carbon paste electrode (Cr-CPE) and a screen printed electrode (SPE), made from the same material and optimized for the simple, cheap and sensitive simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and the detection of silver ions, is described. The limits of detection and quantification were 25 and 80 µg·L−1 for Zn(II), 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Cd(II), 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Pb(II), 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Cu(II), and 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Ag(I), respectively. Furthermore, this promising modification was transferred to the screen-printed electrode. The limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, copper and lead on the screen printed electrodes were found to be 350 µg·L−1 for Zn(II), 25 µg·L−1 for Cd(II), 3 µg·L−1 for Pb(II) and 3 µg·L−1 for Cu(II). Practical usability for the simultaneous detection of these heavy metal ions by the Cr-CPE was also demonstrated in the analyses of wastewaters. PMID:28792450

  5. Mercury Poisoning from an Unsuspected Source

    PubMed Central

    Tamir, M.; Bornstein, B.; Behar, M.; Chwat, M.

    1964-01-01

    In the manufacture of zinc oxide the raw material normally used in zinc metal plates. In a factory in which old aeroplane batteries containing zinc mercury amalgam were substituted, it was not realized that mercury vapour was being produced. Of 25 workers exposed, seven developed serious chronic mercury poisoning and were admitted to hospital. The clinical findings in the affected workers are described. They were first treated with penicillamine D, but in all but one case this had to be stopped because of rashes. Little improvement followed a switch to B.A.L. It is suggested that if penicillamine D is used in the treatment of mercury poisoning, steroid cover should be given from the start. PMID:14249900

  6. Bioaccumulation of lead, copper, iron, and zinc by fish in a transect of the Santa Catarina River in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Changes have been observed in the ichthyic species community, upriver in the San Juan River in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A disappearance of Notropis amabilis, Notropis stramineus, Dionda episcopa and Campostoma anomalum and an increased mortality of Astyanax mexicanus, Lepomis macrochirus and Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum have been found. These changes were probably due to industrial and domestic discharges which produced high levels of lead, copper, iron and detergents in the water. The investigation reported here was done in order to detect the possible presence of lead, copper, iron and zinc in the river waters and also, to determine a probable bioaccumulation ofmore » these metals in fish species of the Santa Catarina River in the state of Nuevo Leon in northeastern Mexico, since this river transports domestic and industrial wastes of urban and suburban zones.« less

  7. Duration of mineralization and fluid-flow history of the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, E.L.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of fluid inclusions in sphalerite and biomarkers from the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc district show homogenization temperatures to be primarily between 90 and 150??C, yet show relatively low levels of thermal maturity. Numerical calculations are used to simulate fluid and heat flow through fracture-controlled ore zones and heat transfer to the adjacent rocks. Combining a best-fit path through fluid-inclusion data with measured thermal alteration of biomarkers, the time interval during which mineralizing fluids circulated through the Upper Mississippi Valley district was calculated to be on the order of 200 ka. Cambrian and Ordovician aquifers underlying the district, principally the St. Peter and Mt. Simon Sandstones, were the source of the mineralizing fluid. The duration of mineralization thus reflects the fluid-flow history of these regional aquifers. -from Authors

  8. Lead.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, David C

    2004-04-01

    Children differ from adults in the relative importance of lead sources and pathways, lead metabolism, and the toxicities expressed. The central nervous system effects of lead on children seem not to be reversible. Periods of enhanced vulnerability within childhood have not consistently been identified. The period of greatest vulnerability might be endpoint specific, perhaps accounting for the failure to identify a coherent "behavioral signature" for lead toxicity. The bases for the substantial individual variability in vulnerability to lead are uncertain, although they might include genetic polymorphisms and contextual factors. The current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention screening guideline of 10 micro g/dL is a risk management tool and should not be interpreted as a threshold for toxicity. No threshold has been identified, and some data are consistent with effects well below 10. Historically, most studies have concentrated on neurocognitive effects of lead, but higher exposures have recently been associated with morbidities such as antisocial behavior and delinquency. Studies of lead toxicity in experimental animal models are critical to the interpretation of nonexperimental human studies, particularly in addressing the likelihood that associations observed in the latter studies can be attributed to residual confounding. Animal models are also helpful in investigating the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of the functional deficits observed in lead-exposed humans. Studies of adults who have been exposed to lead are of limited use in understanding childhood lead toxicity because developmental and acquired lead exposure differ in terms of the maturity of the organs affected, the presumed mechanisms of toxicity, and the forms in which toxicities are expressed.

  9. Concentrations of mercury and other trace elements in walleye, smallmouth bass, and rainbow trout in Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake and the upper Columbia River, Washington, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, M.D.; Cox, S.E.; Dean, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Three species of sportfish--walleye, smallmouth bass, and rainbow trout--were collected from Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake and the upstream reach of the Columbia River within the state of Washington, to determine the concentrations of mercury and other selected trace elements in fish tissue. Concentrations of total mercury in walleye fillets ranged from 0.11 to 0.44 milligram per kilogram, with the higher concentrations in the larger fish. Fillets of smallmouth bass and rainbow trout also contained mercury, but generally at lower concentrations. Other selected trace elements were found in fillet samples, but the concentrations were generally low depending on species and the specific trace element. The trace elements cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc were found in liver tissue of these same species with zinc consistently present in the highest concentration.

  10. Diel cycles in dissolved barium, lead, iron, vanadium, and nitrite in a stream draining a former zinc smelter site near Hegeler, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, R.T.; Groschen, G.E.; Cygan, G.; Dupre, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Diel variations in the concentrations of a number of constituents have the potential to substantially affect the appropriate sampling regimen in acidic streams. Samples taken once during the course of the day cannot adequately reflect diel variations in water quality and may result in an inaccurate understanding of biogeochemical processes, ecological conditions, and of the threat posed by the water to human health and the associated wildlife. Surface water and groundwater affected by acid drainage were sampled every 60 to 90. min over a 48-hour period at a former zinc smelter known as the Hegeler Zinc Superfund Site, near Hegeler, Illinois. Diel variations related to water quality in the aquifer were not observed in groundwater. Diel variations were observed in the temperature, pH, and concentration of dissolved oxygen, nitrite, barium, iron, lead, vanadium, and possibly uranium in surface water. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, barium, lead, and uranium generally attained maximum values during the afternoon and minimum values during the night. Iron, vanadium, and pH generally attained minimum values during the afternoon and maximum values during the night. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen were affected by the intensity of photosynthetic activity and respiration, which are dependent upon insolation. Nitrite, an intermediary in many nitrogen reactions, may have been formed by the oxidation of ammonium by dissolved oxygen and converted to other nitrogen species as part of the decomposition of organic matter. The timing of the pH cycles was distinctly different from the cycles found in Midwestern alkaline streams and likely was the result of the photoreduction of Fe3+ to Fe 2+ and variations in the intensity of precipitation of hydrous ferric oxide minerals. Diel cycles of iron and vanadium also were primarily the result of variations in the intensity of precipitation of hydrous ferric oxide minerals. The diel variation in the concentrations of lead, uranium

  11. Effect of zinc and lead on the physiological and biochemical properties of aquatic plant Lemna minor: its potential role in phytoremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasri, M. A.; Suthindhiran, K.

    2017-06-01

    Plants have gained importance in situ bioremediation of heavy metals. In the present study, different concentrations of zinc (Zn2+) (0.5, 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/l) and lead (Pb2+) (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 mg/l) were used to evaluate metal tolerance level of Lemna minor. L.minor were exposed to metals for 4 days and tested for its dry to fresh weight ratio (DW/FW), photosynthetic pigments production and protein content. The oxidative damage was detected by measuring catalase activity. L.minor showed tolerance against Zn2+ and Pb2+ at a concentration of 10 and 4 mg/l, respectively. Among the metals, Pb2+ showed a significant toxicity at 8 mg/l. High concentration (20 mg/l of Zn2+ and 8 mg/l of Pb2+) of the metals displayed a considerable negative effect on soluble proteins (13 fold decrease with Zn2+ and 4 fold decrease with Pb2+) and photosynthetic pigments (twofold decrease with Zn2+ and onefold decrease with Pb2+) and lead to a consequent reduction in number of fronds. Further, the catalase was greatly increased (twofold decrease with Zn2+ and sixfold decrease with Pb2+) under metal stress. The results indicate that L.minor withstands Zn2+ and Pb2+ toxicity up to the concentration of 10 and 4 mg/l, respectively. Hence, the metal tolerant property of this plant shall be exploited for bioremediation of Zinc and Lead in polluted water. Further, the detailed and wide range of heavy metal toxicity studies should be done to reveal the possible use of this plant on large scale bioremediation purpose.

  12. Mercury and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  13. Cadmium, lead and mercury concentrations and their influence on morphological parameters in blood donors from different age groups from southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Janicka, Monika; Binkowski, Łukasz J; Błaszczyk, Martyna; Paluch, Joanna; Wojtaś, Włodzimierz; Massanyi, Peter; Stawarz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Due to industrial development, environmental contamination with metals increases which leads to higher human exposure via air, water and food. In order to evaluate the level of the present exposition, the concentrations of metals can be measured in such biological materials as human blood. In this study, we assessed the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in blood samples from male blood donors from southern Poland (Europe) born in 1994 (n=30) and between 1947 and 1955 (n=30). Higher levels of Pb were seen in the group of older men (4.48 vs 2.48μg/L), whereas the Hg levels were lower (1.78 vs 4.28μg/L). Cd concentrations did not differ between age groups (0.56μg/L). The levels of Cd and Pb in older donors were significantly correlated (Spearman R 0.5135). We also observed a positive correlation between the number of red blood cells (RBC) and Hg concentrations in the older group (Spearman R 0.4271). Additionally, we noted numerous correlations among morphological parameters. Based on our results, we can state that metals influence the blood morphology and their concentrations in blood vary among age groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The Response of a 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Fragment Amplified Community to Lead, Zinc, and Copper Pollution in a Shanghai Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Kou, Shumeng; Vincent, Gilles; Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Pitre, Frederic E; Labrecque, Michel; Brereton, Nicholas J B

    2018-01-01

    Industrial and agricultural activities have caused extensive metal contamination of land throughout China and across the globe. The pervasive nature of metal pollution can be harmful to human health and can potentially cause substantial negative impact to the biosphere. To investigate the impact of anthropogenic metal pollution found in high concentrations in industrial, agricultural, and urban environments, 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to track change in the amplified microbial community after metal contamination in a large-scale field experiment in Shanghai. A total of 1,566 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified from 448,108 sequences gathered from 20 plots treated as controls or with lead, zinc, copper, or all three metals. Constrained Analysis of Principal Coordinates ordination did not separate control and lead treatment but could separate control/lead, zinc, copper, and three metal treatment. DESeq2 was applied to identify 93 significantly differentially abundant OTUs varying in 211 pairwise instances between the treatments. Differentially abundant OTUs representing genera or species belonging to the phyla Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Latescibacteria, and Planctomycetes were almost universally reduced in abundance due to zinc, copper, or three metal treatment; with three metal treatment abolishing the detection of some OTUs, such as Leptolyngbya , Desmonostoc muscorum , and Microcoleus steenstrupii . The greatest increases due to metal treatment were observed in Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Chlamydiae, Nitrospirae, and Proteobacteria (α, β, δ, and γ); the most (relative) abundant being uncharacterized species within the genera Methylobacillus , Solirubrobacter , and Ohtaekwangia . Three metal treatment alone resulted in identification of 22 OTUs (genera or species) which were not detected in control soil, notably including Yonghaparkia alkaliphila , Pedobacter steynii , Pseudolabrys taiwanensis , Methylophilus

  15. The Response of a 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Fragment Amplified Community to Lead, Zinc, and Copper Pollution in a Shanghai Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Shumeng; Vincent, Gilles; Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Pitre, Frederic E.; Labrecque, Michel; Brereton, Nicholas J. B.

    2018-01-01

    Industrial and agricultural activities have caused extensive metal contamination of land throughout China and across the globe. The pervasive nature of metal pollution can be harmful to human health and can potentially cause substantial negative impact to the biosphere. To investigate the impact of anthropogenic metal pollution found in high concentrations in industrial, agricultural, and urban environments, 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to track change in the amplified microbial community after metal contamination in a large-scale field experiment in Shanghai. A total of 1,566 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified from 448,108 sequences gathered from 20 plots treated as controls or with lead, zinc, copper, or all three metals. Constrained Analysis of Principal Coordinates ordination did not separate control and lead treatment but could separate control/lead, zinc, copper, and three metal treatment. DESeq2 was applied to identify 93 significantly differentially abundant OTUs varying in 211 pairwise instances between the treatments. Differentially abundant OTUs representing genera or species belonging to the phyla Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Latescibacteria, and Planctomycetes were almost universally reduced in abundance due to zinc, copper, or three metal treatment; with three metal treatment abolishing the detection of some OTUs, such as Leptolyngbya, Desmonostoc muscorum, and Microcoleus steenstrupii. The greatest increases due to metal treatment were observed in Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Chlamydiae, Nitrospirae, and Proteobacteria (α, β, δ, and γ); the most (relative) abundant being uncharacterized species within the genera Methylobacillus, Solirubrobacter, and Ohtaekwangia. Three metal treatment alone resulted in identification of 22 OTUs (genera or species) which were not detected in control soil, notably including Yonghaparkia alkaliphila, Pedobacter steynii, Pseudolabrys taiwanensis, Methylophilus

  16. Zinc and lead poisoning in wild birds in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Dalgam, J.; Dudding, S.; French, J.B.; Mateo, R.; Miesner, J.; Sileo, L.; Spann, J.

    2004-01-01

    contaminated with Pb, Cd, and Zn from mining, milling and smelting. Metals have been dispersed heterogeneously throughout the District in the form of milled mine waste ('chat'), as flotation tailings and from smelters as aerial deposition or slag. This study was conducted to determine if the habitat has been contaminated to the extent that the assessment populations of wild birds are exposed to toxic concentrations of metals. American robins (Turdus migratorius), northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), and waterfowl had increased Pb tissue concentrations (p < 0.05) compared with Pb tissue concentrations from reference birds, and the exposure of songbirds to Pb was comparable with that of birds observed at other sites severely contaminated with Pb. Mean activities of the Pb-sensitive enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) were decreased by >50% in red blood cells in these birds (p < 0.05). Several birds had tissue concentrations of Pb that have been associated with impaired biological functions and external signs of poisoning. Cadmium was increased in kidneys of songbirds (p < 0.05), but no proximal tubule cell necrosis associated with Cd poisoning was observed. Zinc concentrations in liver and kidney of waterfowl were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than reference values. The increased environmental concentrations of Zn associated with mining in the District accounted for the pancreatitis previously observed in five waterfowl from the District. The District is the first site at which free-flying wild birds have been found to be suffering severe effects of Zn poisoning.

  17. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  18. Epigenetic lead, zinc, silver, antimony, tin, and gold veins in Boulder Basin, Blaine and Custer counties, Idaho; potential for economic tin mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratchford, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    Boulder Basin is in a northwest-trending belt of allochthonous Paleozoic rocks in the Boulder Mountains of central Idaho. Regional Tertiary extension resulted in widespread normal faulting and coeval emplacement of shallow-level intrusions and extrusive rocks of the Challis Volcanic Group. Epigenetic lead-zinc-silver-antimony-tin-gold vein deposits formed during Tertiary extension and are hosted within Paleozoic strata. The major orebodies are in the lower plate of the Boulder Basin thrust fault, in massive quartzite of the Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Wood River Formation. Anomalous concentrations of tin are present in the base-metal mineral assemblage of the Boulder Basin ore deposits. The tin-bearing veins in Boulder Basin are strikingly similar to Bolivian tin deposits. The deposit model for Bolivian tin deposits identifies buried tin porphyry below the tin-bearing vein system.

  19. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc determination in precipitation: A comparison of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Benefiel, M.A.; Claassen, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Selected trace element analysis for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in precipitation samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP) and by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization (AAGF) have been evaluated. This task was conducted in conjunction with a longterm study of precipitation chemistry at high altitude sites located in remote areas of the southwestern United States. Coefficients of variation and recovery values were determined for a standard reference water sample for all metals examined for both techniques. At concentration levels less than 10 micrograms per liter AAGF analyses exhibited better precision and accuracy than ICP. Both methods appear to offer the potential for cost-effective analysis of trace metal ions in precipitation. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  20. A reconnaissance for signs of a Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc mineralizing system on the eastern flank of the Rutbah Uplift, Anbar Province, Iraq

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Timothy S.; Mustafa, Mazin; Bennet, Thair

    2014-01-01

    Reconnaissance field visits and rock sampling were conducted at eight geologically selected locations within Mesozoic rocks on the eastern flank of the Rutbah Uplift, Anbar Province, western Iraq, in an attempt to determine if these rocks have been affected by a Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) lead-zinc mineralizing system. Samples subsequently were studied by carbonate mineral staining, transmitted and reflected light petrology, and scanning electron microscopy with semi-quantitative energy dispersive elemental analyses. Single samples were studied by each, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses of trace elements and fluid inclusion microthermometry. Permissive evidence indicates that there has been a MVT system present, but none of the evidence is considered definitive.

  1. Planet Mercury

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-06-12

    The first image of Mercury acquired by NASA's Mariner 10 in 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments. This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth. Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00437

  2. Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments.

    This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth.

    Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  3. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Plant Biomass and the Rhizosphere Microbial Community Structure of Mesquite Grown in Acidic Lead/Zinc Mine Tailings

    PubMed Central

    Solís-Domínguez, Fernando A.; Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M.

    2011-01-01

    Mine tailings in arid and semi-arid environments are barren of vegetation and subject to eolian dispersion and water erosion. Revegetation is a cost-effective strategy to reduce erosion processes and has wide public acceptance. A major cost of revegetation is the addition of amendments, such as compost, to allow plant establishment. In this paper we explore whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can help support plant growth in tailings at a reduced compost concentration. A greenhouse experiment was performed to determine the effects of three AMF inocula on biomass, shoot accumulation of heavy metals, and changes in the rhizosphere microbial community structure of the native plant Prosopis juliflora (mesquite). Plants were grown in an acidic lead/zinc mine tailings amended with 10% (w/w) compost amendment, which is slightly sub-optimal for plant growth in these tailings. After two months, AMF-inoculated plants showed increased dry biomass and root length (p < 0.05) and effective AMF colonization compared to controls grown in uninoculated compost-amended tailings. Mesquite shoot tissue lead and zinc concentrations did not exceed domestic animal toxicity limits regardless of whether AMF inoculation was used. The rhizosphere microbial community structure was assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of the small subunit RNA gene for bacteria and fungi. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of DGGE profiles showed that the rhizosphere fungal community structure at the end of the experiment was significantly different from the community structure in the tailings, compost, and AMF inocula prior to planting. Further, CCA showed that AMF inoculation significantly influenced the development of both the fungal and bacterial rhizosphere community structures after two months. The changes observed in the rhizosphere microbial community structure may be either a direct effect of the AMF inocula, caused by changes in plant physiology induced by

  4. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the abandoned Valzinco (lead-zinc) and Mitchell (gold) mine sites prior to reclamation, Spotsylvania County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Adam N.; Seal, Robert R.; Meier, Allen L.; Briggs, Paul L.; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2006-01-01

    The Virginia gold-pyrite belt, part of the central Virginia volcanic-plutonic belt, hosts numerous abandoned metal mines. The belt extends from about 50 km south of Washington, D.C., for approximately 175 km to the southwest into central Virginia. The rocks that comprise the belt include metamorphosed volcanic and clastic (noncarbonate) sedimentary rocks that were originally deposited during the Ordovician). Deposits that were mined can be classified into three broad categories: 1. volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits, 2. low-sulfide quartz-gold vein deposits, 3. gold placer deposits, which result from weathering of the vein deposits The massive sulfide deposits were historically mined for iron and pyrite (sulfur), zinc, lead, and copper but also yielded byproduct gold and silver. The most intensely mineralized and mined section of the belt is southwest of Fredericksburg, in the Mineral district of Louisa and Spotsylvania counties. The Valzinco Piatak lead-zinc mine and the Mitchell gold prospect are abandoned sites in Spotsylvania County. As a result of environmental impacts associated with historic mining, both sites were prioritized for reclamation under the Virginia Orphaned Land Program administered by the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy (VDMME). This report summarizes geochemical data for all solid sample media, along with mineralogical data, and results of weathering experiments on Valzinco tailings and field experiments on sediment accumulation in Knights Branch. These data provide a framework for evaluating water-rock interactionsand geoenvironmental signatures of long-abandoned mines developed in massive sulfide deposits and low-sulfide gold-quartz vein deposits in the humid temperate ecosystem domain in the eastern United States.

  5. Zinc and lead poisoning in wild birds in the tri-state mining district (Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri).

    PubMed

    Beyer, W N; Dalgarn, J; Dudding, S; French, J B; Mateo, R; Miesner, J; Sileo, L; Spann, J

    2005-01-01

    The Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri) is contaminated with Pb, Cd, and Zn from mining, milling and smelting. Metals have been dispersed heterogeneously throughout the District in the form of milled mine waste ("chat"), as flotation tailings and from smelters as aerial deposition or slag. This study was conducted to determine if the habitat has been contaminated to the extent that the assessment populations of wild birds are exposed to toxic concentrations of metals. American robins (Turdus migratorius), northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), and waterfowl had increased Pb tissue concentrations (p < 0.05) compared with Pb tissue concentrations from reference birds, and the exposure of songbirds to Pb was comparable with that of birds observed at other sites severely contaminated with Pb. Mean activities of the Pb-sensitive enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) were decreased by >50% in red blood cells in these birds (p < 0.05). Several birds had tissue concentrations of Pb that have been associated with impaired biological functions and external signs of poisoning. Cadmium was increased in kidneys of songbirds (p < 0.05), but no proximal tubule cell necrosis associated with Cd poisoning was observed. Zinc concentrations in liver and kidney of waterfowl were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than reference values. The increased environmental concentrations of Zn associated with mining in the District accounted for the pancreatitis previously observed in five waterfowl from the District. The District is the first site at which free-flying wild birds have been found to be suffering severe effects of Zn poisoning.

  6. Brain infection with Staphylococcus aureus leads to high extracellular levels of glutamate, aspartate, γ-aminobutyric acid, and zinc.

    PubMed

    Hassel, Bjørnar; Dahlberg, Daniel; Mariussen, Espen; Goverud, Ingeborg Løstegaard; Antal, Ellen-Ann; Tønjum, Tone; Maehlen, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcal brain infections may cause mental deterioration and epileptic seizures, suggesting interference with normal neurotransmission in the brain. We injected Staphylococcus aureus into rat striatum and found an initial 76% reduction in the extracellular level of glutamate as detected by microdialysis at 2 hr after staphylococcal infection. At 8 hr after staphylococcal infection, however, the extracellular level of glutamate had increased 12-fold, and at 20 hr it had increased >30-fold. The extracellular level of aspartate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) also increased greatly. Extracellular Zn(2+) , which was estimated at ∼2.6 µmol/liter in the control situation, was increased by 330% 1-2.5 hr after staphylococcal infection and by 100% at 8 and 20 hr. The increase in extracellular glutamate, aspartate, and GABA appeared to reflect the degree of tissue damage. The area of tissue damage greatly exceeded the area of staphylococcal infiltration, pointing to soluble factors being responsible for cell death. However, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 ameliorated neither tissue damage nor the increase in extracellular neuroactive amino acids, suggesting the presence of neurotoxic factors other than glutamate and aspartate. In vitro staphylococci incubated with glutamine and glucose formed glutamate, so bacteria could be an additional source of infection-related glutamate. We conclude that the dramatic increase in the extracellular concentration of neuroactive amino acids and zinc could interfere with neurotransmission in the surrounding brain tissue, contributing to mental deterioration and a predisposition to epileptic seizures, which are often seen in brain abscess patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, Jr., one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MA-9 mission, boosted by the Mercury-Atlas launch vehicle, was the last flight of the Mercury Project. The Faith 7 spacecraft orbited the Earth 22 times in 1-1/2 days.

  8. Findings of and treatment for high levels of mercury and lead toxicity in ground zero rescue and recovery workers and lower Manhattan residents.

    PubMed

    Kokayi, Kamau; Altman, Claire Haaga; Callely, Robert W; Harrison, Arlene

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the Olive Leaf Wholeness Center conducted a demonstration project that provided health assessment, testing, and treatment to 160 uniformed service personnel and residents of Lower Manhattan who were exposed to the air at Ground Zero following September 11, 2001, for extended periods of time. The program, known as Project Olive ReLeaf, found that most individuals had eight or more serious health complaints, including severe respiratory problems, digestive problems, skin rashes, sleeplessness, anxiety, depression, weight gains, elevated blood pressure, lethargy, and recurrent headaches. Heavy metal toxicity was suspected as a causal factor for many of these symptoms. Of those tested for heavy metal toxicity, using a challenge urine test, 85% had excessively high levels of lead and mercury. Chelation treatment using dimercaptuosuccinic acid (DMSA), a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved sulfur compound, was the primary treatment prescribed. After three to four months of treatment, the first cohort of 100 individuals reported significant (greater than 60%) improvement in all symptoms. (This demonstration program was developed based on the results of an earlier pilot in 2003 for 25 emergency service officers of the New York City Police Department.) In addition, adjunctive therapies to assist with the detoxification process and build the immune system were offered. A small grant has been received to conduct follow-up tests on a sample of those treated with DMSA.

  9. Simultaneous detection and determination of mercury (II) and lead (II) ions through the achievement of novel functional nucleic acid-based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Khoshbin, Zahra; Housaindokht, Mohammad Reza; Verdian, Asma; Bozorgmehr, Mohammad Reza

    2018-09-30

    The serious threats of mercury (Hg 2+ ) and lead (Pb 2+ ) ions for the public health makes it important to achieve the detection methods of the ions with high affinity and specificity. Metal ions usually coexist in some environment and foodstuff or clinical samples. Therefore, it is very necessary to develop a fast and simple method for simultaneous monitoring the amount of metal ions, especially when Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ coexist. DNAzyme-based biosensors and aptasensors have been highly regarded for this purpose as two main groups of the functional nucleic acid (FNA)-based biosensors. In this review, we summarize the recent achievements of functional nucleic acid-based biosensors for the simultaneous detection of Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ ions in two main optical and electrochemical groups. The tremendous interest in utilizing the various nanomaterials is also highlighted in the fabrication of the FNA-based biosensors. Finally, some results are presented based on the advantages and disadvantages of the studied FNA-based biosensors to compare their validation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  11. Design and development of amperometric biosensor for the detection of lead and mercury ions in water matrix-a permeability approach.

    PubMed

    Gumpu, Manju Bhargavi; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2017-07-01

    Intake of water contaminated with lead (Pb 2+ ) and mercury (Hg 2+ ) ions leads to various toxic effects and health issues. In this context, an amperometric urease inhibition-based biosensor was developed to detect Pb 2+ and Hg 2+ ions in water matrix. The modified Pt/CeO 2 /urease electrode was fabricated by immobilizing CeO 2 nanoparticles and urease using a semi-permeable adsorption layer of nafion. With urea as a substrate, urease catalytic activity was examined through cyclic voltammetry. Further, maximum amperometric inhibitive response of the modified Pt/CeO 2 /urease electrode was observed in the presence of Pb 2+ and Hg 2+ ions due to the urease inhibition at specific potentials of -0.03 and 0 V, respectively. The developed sensor exhibited a detection limit of 0.019 ± 0.001 μM with a sensitivity of 89.2 × 10 -3  μA μM -1 for Pb 2+ ions. A detection limit of 0.018 ± 0.003 with a sensitivity of 94.1 × 10 -3  μA μM -1 was achieved in detecting Hg 2+ ions. The developed biosensor showed a fast response time (<1 s) with a linear range of 0.5-2.2 and 0.02-0.8 μM for Pb 2+ and Hg 2+ ions, respectively. The modified electrode offered a good stability for 20 days with a good repeatability and reproducibility. The developed sensor was used to detect Pb 2+ and Hg 2+ ions contaminating Cauvery river water and the observed results were in good co-ordination with atomic absorption spectroscopic data.

  12. Legacy sediment, lead, and zinc storage in channel and floodplain deposits of the Big River, Old Lead Belt Mining District, Missouri, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlowsky, Robert T.; Lecce, Scott A.; Owen, Marc R.; Martin, Derek J.

    2017-12-01

    The Old Lead Belt of southeastern Missouri was one of the leading producers of Pb ore for more than a century (1869-1972). Large quantities of contaminated mine waste have been, and continue to be, supplied to local streams. This study assessed the magnitude and spatial distribution of mining-contaminated legacy sediment stored in channel and floodplain deposits of the Big River in the Ozark Highlands of southeastern Missouri. Although metal concentrations decline downstream from the mine sources, the channel and floodplain sediments are contaminated above background levels with Pb and Zn along its entire 171-km length below the mine sources. Mean concentrations in floodplain cores > 2000 mg kg- 1 for Pb and > 1000 mg kg- 1 for Zn extend 40-50 km downstream from the mining area in association with the supply of fine tailings particles that were easily dispersed downstream in the suspended load. Mean concentrations in channel bed and bar sediments ranging from 1400 to 1700 mg kg- 1 for Pb extend 30 km below the mines, while Zn concentrations of 1000-3000 mg kg- 1 extend 20 km downstream. Coarse dolomite fragments in the 2-16 mm channel sediment fraction provide significant storage of Pb and Zn, representing 13-20% of the bulk sediment storage mass in the channel and can contain concentrations of > 4000 mg kg- 1 for Pb and > 1000 mg kg- 1 for Zn. These coarse tailings have been transported a maximum distance of only about 30 km from the source over a period of 120 years for an average of about 250 m/y. About 37% of the Pb and 9% of the Zn that was originally released to the watershed in tailings wastes is still stored in the Big River. A total of 157 million Mg of contaminated sediment is stored along the Big River, with 92% of it located in floodplain deposits that are typically contaminated to depths of 1.5-3.5 m. These contaminated sediments store a total of 188,549 Mg of Pb and 34,299 Mg of Zn, of which 98% of the Pb and 95% of the Zn are stored in floodplain

  13. Mercury, lead and cadmium in human milk in relation to diet, lifestyle habits and sociodemographic variables in Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Fernández, Mario Antonio; Pérez-Meixeira, Ana María; Gil, Elisa; de Paz, Concha; Iriso, Andrés; Sanz, Juan Carlos; Astray, Jenaro; Cisneros, Margot; de Santos, Amparo; Asensio, Angel; García-Sagredo, José Miguel; García, José Frutos; Vioque, Jesus; Pollán, Marina; López-Abente, Gonzalo; González, Maria José; Martínez, Mercedes; Bohigas, Pedro Arias; Pastor, Roberto; Aragonés, Nuria

    2011-09-01

    Although breastfeeding is the ideal way of nurturing infants, it can be a source of exposure to toxicants. This study reports the concentration of Hg, Pb and Cd in breast milk from a sample of women drawn from the general population of the Madrid Region, and explores the association between metal levels and socio-demographic factors, lifestyle habits, diet and environmental exposures, including tobacco smoke, exposure at home and occupational exposures. Breast milk was obtained from 100 women (20 mL) at around the third week postpartum. Pb, Cd and Hg levels were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Metal levels were log-transformed due to non-normal distribution. Their association with the variables collected by questionnaire was assessed using linear regression models. Separate models were fitted for Hg, Pb and Cd, using univariate linear regression in a first step. Secondly, multivariate linear regression models were adjusted introducing potential confounders specific for each metal. Finally, a test for trend was performed in order to evaluate possible dose-response relationships between metal levels and changes in variables categories. Geometric mean Hg, Pb and Cd content in milk were 0.53 μg L(-1), 15.56 μg L(-1), and 1.31 μg L(-1), respectively. Decreases in Hg levels in older women and in those with a previous history of pregnancies and lactations suggested clearance of this metal over lifetime, though differences were not statistically significant, probably due to limited sample size. Lead concentrations increased with greater exposure to motor vehicle traffic and higher potato consumption. Increased Cd levels were associated with type of lactation and tended to increase with tobacco smoking. Surveillance for the presence of heavy metals in human milk is needed. Smoking and dietary habits are the main factors linked to heavy metal levels in breast milk. Our results reinforce the need to strengthen national food safety programs and to further

  14. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Cobalt, Arsenic and Selenium in the Blood of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Suriname, South America: Age-related Differences in Wintering Site and Comparisons with a Stopover Site in New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Mizrahi, David; Tsipoura, Nellie; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael

    2018-05-09

    It is essential to understand contaminant exposure and to compare levels of contaminants in organisms at different ages to determine if there is bioaccumulation, and to compare levels encountered in different geographical areas. In this paper, we report levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt, arsenic and selenium in the blood of semipalmated sandpipers ( Calidris pusilla ) wintering in Suriname as a function of age, and compare them to blood levels in northbound migrants at a stopover in Delaware Bay, New Jersey. We found (1) young birds had higher levels of cadmium, cobalt, and lead than adults (after second year birds); (2) there were no age-related differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium; (3) only four of the possible 16 inter-metal correlations were significant, at the 0.05 level; (4) the highest correlation was between cadmium and lead (Kendall tau = 0.37); and (5) the adult sandpipers had significantly higher levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium in Suriname than in New Jersey, while the New Jersey birds had significantly higher levels of arsenic. Suriname samples were obtained in April, after both age classes had spent the winter in Suriname, which suggests that sandpipers are accumulating higher levels of trace elements in Suriname than in Delaware Bay. The levels of selenium may be within a range of concern for adverse effects, but little is known about adverse effect levels of trace elements in the blood of wild birds.

  15. Environmental hazard of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in metal-contaminated soils remediated by sulfosuccinamate formulation.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Hernández-Soriano, Maria; Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, M Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Accumulation of metals in soil at elevated concentrations causes risks to the environmental quality and human health for more than one hundred million people globally. The rate of metal release and the alteration of metal distribution in soil phases after soil washing with a sulfosuccinamate surfactant solution (Aerosol 22) were evaluated for four contaminated soils. Furthermore, a sequential extraction scheme was carried out using selective extractants (HAcO, NH(2)OH·HCl, H(2)O(2) + NH(4)AcO) to evaluate which metal species are extracted by A22 and the alteration in metal distribution upon surfactant-washing. Efficiency of A22 to remove metals varied among soils. The washing treatment released up to 50% of Cd, 40% of Cu, 20% of Pb and 12% of Zn, mainly from the soluble and reducible soil fractions, therefore, greatly reducing the fraction of metals readily available in soil. Metal speciation analysis for the solutions collected upon soil washing with Aerosol 22 further confirmed these results. Copper and lead in solution were mostly present as soluble complexes, while Cd and Zn were present as free ions. Besides, redistribution of metals in soil was observed upon washing. The ratios of Zn strongly retained in the soil matrix and Cd complexed with organic ligands increased. Lead was mobilized to more weakly retained forms, which indicates a high bioavailability of the remaining Pb in soil after washing. Comprehensive knowledge on chemical forms of metals present in soil allows a feasible assessment of the environmental impact of metals for a given scenario, as well as possible alteration of environmental conditions, and a valuable prediction for potential leaching and groundwater contamination.

  16. Effects of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury co-exposure on children's intelligence quotient in an industrialized area of southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shangxia; Lin, Lifeng; Zeng, Fan; Zhang, Jianpeng; Dong, Guanghui; Yang, Boyi; Jing, You; Chen, Shejun; Zhang, Gan; Yu, Zhiqiang; Sheng, Guoying; Ma, Huimin

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to metal(loid)s can lead to adverse effects on nervous system in children. However, little is known about the possible interaction effects of simultaneous exposure to multiple metal(loid)s on children's intelligence. In addition, relationship between blood lead concentrations (<100 μg/L) and the intelligence of children over 5 years needs further epidemiological evidence. We recruited 530 children aged 9-11 years, including 266 living in a town near an industrialized area and 264 from another town in the same city in South China as a reference. The levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in blood (BPb, BCd, BAs, BHg) and urine (UPb, UCd, UAs, UHg) were assessed, as well as children's intelligence quotient (IQ). A significant decrease in IQ scores was identified in children from the industrialized town (p < .05), who had statistically higher geometric mean concentrations of BPb, BCd, UPb, UCd and UHg (65.89, 1.93, 4.04, 1.43 and 0.37 μg/L, respectively) compared with children from the reference town (37.21, 1.07, 2.14, 1.02 and 0.30 μg/L, respectively, p < .05). After adjusting confounders, only BPb had a significant negative association with IQ (B = -0.10, 95% confidence interval: -0.15 to -0.05, p < .001), which indicated that IQ decreased 0.10 points when BPb increased 1 μg/L. Significant negative interactions between BAs and BHg, positive interaction between UPb and UCd on IQ were observed (p < .10), and BPb <100 μg/L still negatively affected IQ (p < .05). Our findings suggest that although only BPb causes a decline in children's IQ when simultaneously exposed to these four metal(loid)s at relatively low levels, interactions between metal(loid)s on children's IQ should be paid special attention, and the reference standard in China of 100 μg/L BPb for children above 5 years old should be revised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple environmental chemical exposures to lead, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls among childbearing-aged women (NHANES 1999-2004): Body burden and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Marcella Remer; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-02-01

    Lead, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are neurotoxicants with intergenerational health consequences from maternal body burden and gestational exposures. Little is known about multiple chemical exposures among childbearing-aged women. To determine the percentage of women aged 16-49 of diverse races and ethnicities whose body burdens for all three xenobiotics were at or above the median; to identify mixed exposures; and to describe those women disproportionately burdened by two or more of these chemicals based on susceptibility- and exposure-related attributes, socioeconomic factors and race-ethnicity. Secondary data analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004). The best-fit logistic regression model without interactions contained 12 variables. Four risk factors associated with body burden were notable (P≤0.05). An exponential relationship was demonstrated with increasing age. Any fish consumption in past 30 days more than doubled the odds. Heavy alcohol consumption increased the relative risk. History of breastfeeding reduced this risk. These women were more likely to have two xenobiotics at or above the median than one. More than one-fifth of these childbearing-aged women had three xenobiotic levels at or above the median. These findings are among the first description of US childbearing-aged women's body burden and risk factors for multiple chemical exposures. This study supports increasing age, any fish consumption and heavy alcohol consumption as significant risk factors for body burden. History of breastfeeding lowered the body burden. Limited evidence was found of increased risk among minority women independent of other risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. "Wave" signal-smoothing and mercury-removing device for laser ablation quadrupole and multiple collector ICPMS analysis: application to lead isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yongsheng; Gao, Shan; Li, Ming; Zong, Keqing; Chen, Haihong; Hu, Shenghong

    2015-01-20

    A novel "wave" signal-smoothing and mercury-removing device has been developed for laser ablation quadrupole and multiple collector ICPMS analysis. With the wave stabilizer that has been developed, the signal stability was improved by a factor of 6.6-10 and no oscillation of the signal intensity was observed at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Another advantage of the wave stabilizer is that the signal decay time is similar to that without the signal-smoothing device (increased by only 1-2 s for a signal decay of approximately 4 orders of magnitude). Most of the normalized elemental signals (relative to those without the stabilizer) lie within the range of 0.95-1.0 with the wave stabilizer. Thus, the wave stabilizer device does not significantly affect the aerosol transport efficiency. These findings indicate that this device is well-suited for routine optimization of ICPMS, as well as low repetition rate laser ablation analysis, which provides smaller elemental fractionation and better spatial resolution. With the wave signal-smoothing and mercury-removing device, the mercury gas background is reduced by 1 order of magnitude. More importantly, the (202)Hg signal intensity produced in the sulfide standard MASS-1 by laser ablation is reduced from 256 to 0.7 mV by the use of the wave signal-smoothing and mercury-removing device. This result suggests that the mercury is almost completely removed from the sample aerosol particles produced by laser ablation with the operation of the wave mercury-removing device. The wave mercury-removing device that we have designed is very important for Pb isotope ratio and accessory mineral U-Pb dating analysis, where removal of the mercury from the background gas and sample aerosol particles is highly desired. The wave signal-smoothing and mercury-removing device was applied successfully to the determination of the (206)Pb/(204)Pb isotope ratio in samples with low Pb content and/or high Hg content.

  19. Batch sorption dynamics and equilibrium for the removal of lead ions from aqueous phase using activated carbon developed from coffee residue activated with zinc chloride.

    PubMed

    Boudrahem, F; Aissani-Benissad, F; Aït-Amar, H

    2009-07-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are good precursors for the production of activated carbon. In this work, coffee residue has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon by the method of chemical activation with zinc chloride for the sorption of Pb(II) from dilute aqueous solutions. The influence of impregnation ratio (ZnCl2/coffee residue) on the physical and chemical properties of the prepared carbons was studied in order to optimize this parameter. The optimum experimental condition for preparing predominantly microporous activated carbons with high pore surface area (890 m2/g) and micropore volume (0.772 cm3/g) is an impregnation ratio of 100%. The developed activated carbon shows substantial capability to sorb lead(II) ions from aqueous solutions and for relative impregnation ratios of 75 and 100%, the maximum uptake is practically the same. Thus, 75% represents the optimal impregnation ratio. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of the main parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of Pb(II), solution pH, ionic strength and temperature. The maximum uptake of lead(II) at 25 degrees C was about 63 mg/g of adsorbent at pH 5.8, initial Pb(II) concentration of 10 mg/L, agitation speed of 200 rpm and ionic strength of 0.005 M. The kinetic data were fitted to the models of pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order, and follow closely the pseudo-second order model. Equilibrium sorption isotherms of Pb(II) were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The Freundlich model gives a better fit than the others. Results from this study suggest that activated carbon produced from coffee residue is an effective adsorbent for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions and that ZnCl2 is a suitable activating agent for the preparation of high-porosity carbons.

  20. The Balmat-Edwards zinc-lead deposits-synsedimentary ore from Mississippi valley-type fluids.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whelan, J.F.; Rye, R.O.; Delorraine, W.

    1984-01-01

    The Balmat-Edwards Zn-Pb district in New York is in Mid-Proterozoic Grenville marbles. Tabular to podiform, generally conformable massive sphalerite-galena orebodies occur at various horizons in the approx 1 km-thick marbles. Metamorphism obscured or obliterated most primary characteristics, whose reconstruction is attempted through detailed S, C, and O isotope studies of the Fowler orebody, and trace element and S isotope studies of sphalerite concentrates and composite ore samples from 22 orebodies. Sulphur isotope data reflect equilibration at near peak metamorphism with some indication of re-equilibration during retrograde metamorphism. The carbon and oxygen isotope composition of gangue carbonates suggests derivation from the host marbles. The oxygen isotope composition of gangue quartz is compatible with a chert origin or metamorphism-equilibration with other minerals. Sulphur and lead isotopes and sulphide mineralogy suggests that the ore fluids were evolved basin brines, chemically like those responsible for Mississippi Valley-type deposits. The large stratigraphic span (> 600 m) of the Balmat orebodies may be due to basin dewatering of million-year intervals. Stratigraphically increasing 34S values of evaporite-anhydrite are postulated to record hydrothermal events and to imply bacterial sulphate reduction on an unusually large scale. Such a stratigraphic increase may be a general exploration guide where sediment-hosted exhalative deposits or Mississippi Valley-type deposits occur.-G.J.N.

  1. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    Ham, a three-year-old chimpanzee, in the spacesuit he would wear for the second Mercury- Redstone (MR-2) suborbital test flight in January, 1961. NASA used chimpanzees and other primates to test the Mercury capsule before launching the fisrt American astronaut, Alan Shepard, in May 1961. The Mercury capsule rode atop a modified Redstone rocket, developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the German Rocket Team in Huntsville, Alabama.

  2. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency's (ABMA) Development Operations Division, poses with the original Mercury astronauts in ABMA's Fabrication Laboratory during a 1959 visit. Inspecting Mercury-Redstone hardware are from left to right, Alan Shepard, Donald Deke Slayton, Virgil Gus Grissom, von Braun, Gordon Cooper, Wally Schirra, John Glenn, and Scott Carpenter. Project Mercury officially began October 7, 1958 as the United States' first manned space program.

  3. Precipitation of lead-zinc ores in the Mississippi Valley-type deposit at Treves, Cevennes region of southern France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, D.; Macquar, J.-C.; Lagneau, V.; Leventhal, J.; Emsbo, P.; Premo, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Trèves zinc–lead deposit is one of several Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits in the Cévennes region of southern France. Fluid inclusion studies show that the ore was deposited at temperatures between approximately 80 and 150°C from a brine that derived its salinity mainly from the evaporation of seawater past halite saturation. Lead isotope studies suggest that the metals were extracted from local basement rocks. Sulfur isotope data and studies of organic matter indicate that the reduced sulfur in the ores was derived from the reduction of Mesozoic marine sulfate by thermochemical sulfate reduction or bacterially mediated processes at a different time or place from ore deposition. The large range of δ34S values determined for the minerals in the deposit (12.2–19.2‰ for barite, 3.8–13.8‰ for sphalerite and galena, and 8.7 to −21.2‰ for pyrite), are best explained by the mixing of fluids containing different sources of sulfur. Geochemical reaction path calculations, based on quantitative fluid inclusion data and constrained by field observations, were used to evaluate possible precipitation mechanisms. The most important precipitation mechanism was probably the mixing of fluids containing different metal and reduced sulfur contents. Cooling, dilution, and changes in pH of the ore fluid probably played a minor role in the precipitation of ores. The optimum results that produced the most metal sulfide deposition with the least amount of fluid was the mixing of a fluid containing low amounts of reduced sulfur with a sulfur-rich, metal poor fluid. In this scenario, large amounts of sphalerite and galena are precipitated, together with smaller quantities of pyrite precipitated and dolomite dissolved. The relative amounts of metal precipitated and dolomite dissolved in this scenario agree with field observations that show only minor dolomite dissolution during ore deposition. The modeling results demonstrate the important control of the reduced

  4. Biochar application to a contaminated soil reduces the availability and plant uptake of zinc, lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Puga, A P; Abreu, C A; Melo, L C A; Beesley, L

    2015-08-15

    Heavy metals in soil are naturally occurring but may be enhanced by anthropogenic activities such as mining. Bio-accumulation of heavy metals in the food chain, following their uptake to plants can increase the ecotoxicological risks associated with remediation of contaminated soils using plants. In the current experiment sugar cane straw-derived biochar (BC), produced at 700 °C, was applied to a heavy metal contaminated mine soil at 1.5%, 3.0% and 5.0% (w/w). Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and Mucuna aterrima were grown in pots containing soil and biochar mixtures, and control pots without biochar. Pore water was sampled from each pot to confirm the effects of biochar on metal solubility, whilst soils were analyzed by DTPA extraction to confirm available metal concentrations. Leaves were sampled for SEM analysis to detect possible morphological and anatomical changes. The application of BC decreased the available concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in 56, 50 and 54% respectively, in the mine contaminated soil leading to a consistent reduction in the concentration of Zn in the pore water (1st collect: 99 to 39 μg L(-1), 2nd: 97 to 57 μg L(-1) and 3rd: 71 to 12 μg L(-1)). The application of BC reduced the uptake of Cd, Pb and Zn by plants with the jack bean translocating high proportions of metals (especially Cd) to shoots. Metals were also taken up by Mucuna aterrima but translocation to shoot was more limited than for jack bean. There were no differences in the internal structures of leaves observed by scanning electron microscopy. This study indicates that biochar application during mine soil remediation reduce plant concentrations of potential toxic metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization and metal availability of copper, lead, antimony and zinc contamination at four Canadian small arms firing ranges.

    PubMed

    Laporte-Saumure, Mathieu; Martel, Richard; Mercier, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Backstop soils of four small-arms firing ranges (SAFRs) of the Canadian Force Bases (CFBs) were characterized in terms of their total soil Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn concentrations, grain size distribution, mineralogy, chemical properties, vertical in-depth contamination distribution (for one CFB), and scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS) characterization. Metal availability from the soils was evaluated with three leaching tests: the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), representing a landfill leachate; the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), representing field conditions; and the gastric juice simulation test (GJST), representing the leachate of the human stomach during the digestive process and, therefore, the potential metal transfer to humans in the case of soil ingestion. Metal analyses of soils and leaching test extracts were conducted with an Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) instrument. Total soil results showed maximal concentrations of 27,100 mg/kg for Pb, 7720 mg/kg for Cu, 1080 mg/kg for Zn, and 570 mg/kg for Sb. The SEM-EDS analysis showed significant amounts of lead carbonates, which resulted from the alteration of the initial metallic Pb particles. Metal availability evaluation with the leaching tests showed that TCLP Pb and Sb thresholds were exceeded. For the SPLP and the GJST, the drinking water thresholds of the Ministère du Développement Durable, de l'Environnement et des Pares (MDDEP) of Quebec were exceeded by Pb and Sb. The metal availability assessment showed that SAFR backstop soils may pose a potential risk to the environment, groundwater and humans, and affect the management of such soils in order to minimize potential metal dispersion in the environment.

  6. Potential for phytoextraction of copper, lead, and zinc by rice (Oryza sativa L.), soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), and maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masaharu; Ae, Noriharu

    2009-03-15

    Phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators has been proposed for decreasing toxic-metal concentrations of contaminated soils. However, hyperaccumulators have several shortcomings to introduce these species into Asian Monsoon's agricultural fields contaminated with low to moderate toxic-metals. To evaluate the phytoextraction potential, maize (Gold Dent), soybean (Enrei and Suzuyutaka), and rice (Nipponbare and Milyang 23) were pot-grown under aerobic soil conditions for 60d on the Andosol or Fluvisol with low to moderate copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contamination. After 2 months cultivation, the Gold Dent maize and Milyang 23 rice shoots took up 20.2-29.5% and 18.5-20.2% of the 0.1molL(-1) HCl-extractable Cu, 10.0-37.3% and 8.5-34.3% of the DTPA-extractable Cu, and 2.4-6.5% and 2.1-5.9% of the total Cu, respectively, in the two soils. Suzuyutaka soybean shoot took up 23.0-29.4% of the 0.1molL(-1) HCl-extractable Zn, 35.1-52.6% of the DTPA-extractable Zn, and 3.8-5.3% of the total Zn in the two soils. Therefore, there is a great potential for Cu phytoextraction by the Gold Dent maize and the Milyang 23 rice and for Zn phytoextraction by the Suzuyutaka soybean from paddy soils with low to moderate contamination under aerobic soil conditions.

  7. Selective sorption of lead, cadmium and zinc ions by a polymeric cation exchanger containing nano-Zr(HPO3S)2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingrui; Pan, Bingcai; Pan, Bingjun; Zhang, Weiming; Jia, Kun; Zhang, Quanxing

    2008-06-01

    A novel polymeric hybrid sorbent, namely ZrPS-001, was fabricated for enhanced sorption of heavy metal ions by impregnating Zr(HPO3S)2 (i.e., ZrPS) nanoparticles within a porous polymeric cation exchanger D-001. The immobilized negatively charged groups bound to the polymeric matrix D-001 would result in preconcentration and permeation enhancement of target metal ions prior to sequestration, and ZrPS nanoparticles are expected to sequester heavy metals selectively through an ion-exchange process. Highly effective sequestration of lead, cadmium, and zinc ions from aqueous solution can be achieved by ZrPS-001 even in the presence of competing calcium ion at concentration several orders of magnitude greater than the target species. The exhausted ZrPS-001 beads are amenable to regeneration with 6 M HCI solution for repeated use without any significant capacity loss. Fixed-bed column treatment of simulated waters containing heavy metals at high or trace levels was also performed. The content of heavy metals in treated effluent approached or met the WHO drinking water standard.

  8. Geochemical distribution of arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc in river sediments affected by tailings in Zimapán, a historical polymetalic mining zone of México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, Erik; Armienta, María Aurora; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra; Ceniceros, Nora

    2009-10-01

    In the historical mining zone of Zimapán, México, unprotected tailings deposits are supplying contaminants to the local fluvial system. This research was conducted to assess the environmental hazard of these wastes and river sediments by determining the input, transport and seasonal variability of arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc, and their speciation by an operationally defined scheme of decreasing lability: F1, fraction soluble in deionized water; F2, associated to carbonates; F3, oxides and hydroxides of iron; F4, sulfides and organic matter; F5, residual. Higher total concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn were present in sediments in the dry season regarding the rainy season. In the dry season, As and Pb were principally associated with the more stable F3 and F5 fractions, whereas Cd was in F2 and F5, and Zn in F3, F2 and F5. In the rainy season the association was mainly F3 for As, while F2 and F3 contained most Cd, Pb and Zn. This fractionation indicates that the environmental hazard of Cd, Pb and Zn enhances upon a pH decrease due to their proportion in the carbonatic fraction, and shows a mobility increase during the rainy season.

  9. Applying carbon dioxide, plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium and EDTA can enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of ryegrass in a soil polluted with zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junkang; Feng, Renwei; Ding, Yongzhen; Wang, Ruigang

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the use of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia sp. D54 (PGPR) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to enhance the phytoextraction efficiency of ryegrass in response to multiple heavy metal (or metalloid)-polluted soil containing zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). All of the single or combined CO2, PGPR and EDTA treatments promoted ryegrass growth. The stimulation of ryegrass growth by CO2 and PGPR could primarily be attributed to the regulation of photosynthesis rather than decreased levels of Zn, As and Cd in the shoots. Most treatments seemed to reduce the Zn, As and Cd contents in the shoots, which might be associated with enhanced shoot biomass, thus causing a "dilution effect" regarding their levels. The combined treatments seemed to perform better than single treatments in removing Zn, As, Cd and Pb from soil, judging from the larger biomass and relatively higher total amounts (TAs) of Zn, As, Cd and Pb in both the shoots and roots. Therefore, we suggest that the CO2 plus PGPR treatment will be suitable for removing Zn, As, Cd and Pb from heavy metal (or metalloid)-polluted soils using ryegrass as a phytoremediation material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploratory drilling in the Prairie du Chien group of the Wisconsin zinc-lead districts by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1949-1950

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heyl, Allen Van; Lyons, Erwin J.; Agnew, Allen F.

    1951-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey explored the Prairie du Chien group in the main productive area of the Wisconsin zinc-lead district during 1949-50. Eight properties--Crow Branch diggings, Leix, Harris, Spitzbarth, Kennedy, James, Raisbeck and Vinegar Hill Roaster--were explored using both diamond and churn drills. Twenty holes were drilled that totaled 8,582 feet in depth. The objectives of the exploration were to determine if the Prairie du Chien and other formations below the principal ore-bearing strata (Galena, Decorah, and Platteville formations) of the district are favorable for ore deposits, and to determine the type of ore deposits, if present. Lean deposits of sphalerite, marcasite, and pyrite were found in the Prairie du Chien on five properties--Crow Branch, Leix, Harris, Spitzbarth, and Vinegar Hill 1%ouster-and also in the Franconia sandstone on the Leix property. In the drilled area the sulfides in the Prairie du Chien group occur in certain more brittle or soluble dolomite beds that contain cavities formed by brecciation or solution.

  11. Long-term response of an arctic fiord system to lead-zinc mining and submarine disposal of mine waste (Maarmorilik, West Greenland).

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Jens; Asmund, Gert; Johansen, Poul; Rigét, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Contamination by lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) was studied in seawater, sediments, seaweeds and blue mussels near the former Black Angel Pb-Zn Mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland. The mine operated during the period 1973-90 when mine waste (tailings and later waste rock) was discharged directly into the sea. Metal concentrations peaked during the mining period and Pb and Zn in seawater within the discharge area were measured up to 440 and 790 μg L⁻¹, respectively. Pb in fiord sediments, seaweeds and blue mussels just outside the discharge area were measured in concentrations up to 190, 84 and 2650 and Zn up to 300, 360 and 1190 μg g⁻¹ dry wt., respectively. Within the discharge area, seawater metal concentrations (especially Pb) decreased abruptly after mine closure. Metals concentrations in sediments and biota, however, decreased more slowly and two decades after mine closure seaweeds and blue mussels were still contaminated 12 km from the mine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper from industrial wastewater by carbon developed from walnut, hazelnut, almond, pistachio shell, and apricot stone.

    PubMed

    Kazemipour, Maryam; Ansari, Mehdi; Tajrobehkar, Shabnam; Majdzadeh, Majdeh; Kermani, Hamed Reihani

    2008-01-31

    In this work, adsorption of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) that exist in industrial wastewater onto the carbon produced from nutshells of walnut, hazelnut, pistachio, almond, and apricot stone has been investigated. All the agricultural shell or stone used were ground, sieved to a defined size range, and carbonized in an oven. Time and temperature of heating were optimized at 15 min and 800 degrees C, respectively, to reach maximum removal efficiency. Removal efficiency was optimized regarding to the initial pH, flow rate, and dose of adsorbent. The maximum removal occurred at pH 6-10, flow rate of 3 mL/min, and 0.1g of the adsorbent. Capacity of carbon sources for removing cations will be considerably decreased in the following times of passing through them. Results showed that the cations studied significantly can be removed by the carbon sources. Efficiency of carbon to remove the cations from real wastewater produced by copper industries was also studied. Finding showed that not only these cations can be removed considerably by the carbon sources noted above, but also removing efficiency are much more in the real samples. These results were in adoption to those obtained by standard mixture synthetic wastewater.

  13. Application of Chitosan-Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Lead Extraction From Water Samples by Combining Ant Colony Optimization with Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajeh, M.; Pourkarami, A.; Arefnejad, E.; Bohlooli, M.; Khatibi, A.; Ghaffari-Moghaddam, M.; Zareian-Jahromi, S.

    2017-09-01

    Chitosan-zinc oxide nanoparticles (CZPs) were developed for solid-phase extraction. Combined artificial neural network-ant colony optimization (ANN-ACO) was used for the simultaneous preconcentration and determination of lead (Pb2+) ions in water samples prior to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). The solution pH, mass of adsorbent CZPs, amount of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN), which was used as a complexing agent, eluent volume, eluent concentration, and flow rates of sample and eluent were used as input parameters of the ANN model, and the percentage of extracted Pb2+ ions was used as the output variable of the model. A multilayer perception network with a back-propagation learning algorithm was used to fit the experimental data. The optimum conditions were obtained based on the ACO. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection for Pb2+ ions was found to be 0.078 μg/L. This procedure was also successfully used to determine the amounts of Pb2+ ions in various natural water samples.

  14. Food survey: levels and potential health risks of chromium, lead, zinc and copper content in fruits and vegetables consumed in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Cherfi, Abdelhamid; Abdoun, Samira; Gaci, Ouardia

    2014-08-01

    A food survey was carried out with the aim to investigate the levels of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) in various fruits and vegetables sold in Algeria. Concentrations (mg/kgdry wt.) in selected foodstuffs were detected within the following ranges: 4-29.49, 11.17-49, 12.33-39.33 and 3-16.33 for Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr respectively. The food ingestion rate of the selected items was investigated by self-administered questionnaires which were filled by a total of 843 people randomly recruited at the exit of markets. The potential health risk for consumers was investigated by estimating the daily intake (EDI) and the target hazard quotient (THQ) for each heavy metal. For all foodstuffs, the EDI and the THQ were below the threshold values for Cu, Zn and Cr while they exceeded the thresholds for Pb (EDI: 15.66μgPb/kg body weight/day; THQ: 4.37), indicating an obvious health risk over a life time of exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Millennial-Scale Record of Mercury and Lead Contamination in Peatlands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexler, J. Z.; Alpers, C. N.; Neymark, L. A.; Paces, J. B.; Fuller, C.

    2015-12-01

    Peat cores from two micro-tidal marshes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California (the landward end of the San Francisco Estuary) were used to track the onset of anthropogenic pollution on the west coast of the United States. Cores were sectioned into 2-cm depth intervals and analyzed for lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and titanium (Ti) concentrations and Pb isotope compositions. Peat profiles were dated using radiocarbon, 210Pb, and 137Cs. Pre-anthropogenic concentrations of Pb and Hg in peat ranged from 0.60 to 13.0 μg g-1and from 6.9 to 71 ng g-1, respectively. For much of the past 6,000+ years, the Delta was free from anthropogenic pollution; however, beginning in ~1425 CE, Hg and Pb concentrations, Pb/Ti ratios, Pb enrichment factors (EFs), and HgEFs all increased. Pb isotope compositions of the peat suggest that this uptick was likely caused by mining and smelting activities originating in Asia. The next increases in Pb and Hg contamination occurred during the California Gold Rush (beginning ~1850 CE), when concentrations reached their highest levels (74 μg g-1 Pb, 990 ng g-1 Hg; PbEF = 12 and HgEF = 28). Pb concentrations increased again beginning in the ~1920s with the incorporation of Pb additives in gasoline. The phase-out of lead additives in the late 1980s was reflected in Pb isotope ratios and reductions in Pb concentrations in the surface layers of the peat. The rise and fall of Hg contamination was also tracked by the peat archive, with the highest Hg concentrations occurring just before 1963 CE and then decreasing during the post-1963 period. Overall the results show that the Delta was a pristine region for most of its ~6,700-year existence; however, since ~1425 CE, it has received Pb and Hg contamination from both global and regional sources. This study demonstrates that micro-tidal peatlands can be a highly useful archive for establishing the onset of anthropogenic contamination and chronicling the transition from a pristine to a polluted

  16. [Mercury (and...) through the centuries].

    PubMed

    Kłys, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Mercury has a long history, fascinating in its many aspects. Through the centuries--from ancient times to the present day--the metal in its various forms, also known under the name "quicksilver", accompanied the man and was used for diversified purposes. Today, mercury is employed in manufacturing thermometers, barometers, vacuum pumps and explosives. It is also used in silver and gold mining processes. Mercury compounds play a significant role in dentistry, pharmaceutical industry and crop protection. The contemporary use of mercury markedly decreases, but historically speaking, the archives abound in materials that document facts and events occurring over generations and the immense intellectual effort aiming at discovering the true properties and mechanisms of mercury activity. Mercury toxicity, manifested in destruction of biological membranes and binding of the element with proteins, what disturbs biochemical processes occurring in the body, was discovered only after many centuries of the metal exerting its effect on the lives of individuals and communities. For centuries, mercury was present in the work of alchemists, who searched for the universal essence or quintessence and the so-called philosopher's stone. In the early modern era, between the 16th and 19th centuries, mercury was used to manufacture mirrors. Mercury compounds were employed as a medication against syphilis, which plagued mankind for more than four hundred years--from the Middle Ages till mid 20th century, when the discovery of penicillin became the turning point. This extremely toxic therapy resulted in much suffering, individual tragedies, chronic poisonings leading to fatalities and dramatic sudden deaths. In the last fifty years, there even occurred attempts of mentally imbalanced individuals at injecting themselves with metallic mercury, also as a performance-enhancing drug. Instances of mass mercury poisoning occurred many times in the past in consequence of eating food products

  17. Leaching of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc from two slag dumps with different environmental exposure periods under dynamic acidic condition.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhisheng; Liu, Taoze; Yang, Yuangen; Jackson, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, zinc smelting activities in Guizhou, China have produced numerous slag dumps, which are often dispersed on roadsides and hill slopes throughout the region. During periods of acid rain, these exposed slags release heavy metals into surface water bodies. A column leaching study was designed to test the potential release of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) under simulated acid rain events. Two slags with varying environmental exposure periods were packed in columns and subjected to leaching solutions of pH 3.5, 5.5, or DI H2O at intervals of 1, 7, 14, 28, 56d. Pulse concentrations of Cd in leachate were found above 5μg/L, Cr, Pb, and Zn >10μg/L, whereas, Cu reached 10μg/L. After five leaching events, the leachability (percentage of cumulative heavy metal leached after five leaching events as in its respective total concentration in slags) of Cd was 0.05 percent and 0.035 percent from the old and young slag, respectively. Cr (0.035 percent and 0.05 percent) was greater than Cu (0.002 percent and 0.005 percent) and Zn (0.006 percent and 0.003 percent), while the lowest leachability was observed for Pb (0.0005 percent and 0.0002 percent) from the old and young slags, respectively. Reaction rates (release amount of heavy metals in certain period of leaching) of heavy metals in the leachates demonstrated the sequence of Zn>Cr>Cd, Cu>Pb. Leaching release of heavy metals was jointly affected by the pH of leaching solution and mineral composition of slags (including chemical forms of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Environmental exposure period of slags, resulting in the alteration of minerals, could affect the release process of heavy metals in leaching as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Levels of arsenic, mercury, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc and manganese in serum and whole blood of resident adults from mining and non-mining communities in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam

    2016-08-01

    Human beings working or living near an industrial site where toxic chemicals such as As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and or their compounds are used or indiscriminately discharged into the environment, are constantly exposed to such chemicals via ingestion (drinking or eating), dermal contact or inhalation (breathing). However, in developing countries such as Ghana, limited data on levels of the aforementioned chemicals in whole blood and serum of human beings as a result of exposure to the aforementioned chemicals from mining communities and non-mining communities is preventing effective policy formulation to protect human health. Hence, this study was undertaken to measure the levels of the aforementioned toxic chemicals in whole blood and serum of 300 resident adults from mining (Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality Assembly (TNMA) and Prestea Huni Valley District (PHVD)) and non-mining (Cape Coast Metropolis) communities in Ghana, using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Blood samples were taken from 200 resident adults (105 males and 95 females) from mining and 100 resident adults (60 males and 40 males) from non-mining communities in the study area following the completion of an informed consent and the issuance of ethical clearance by the Ghana Health Service Ethical Committee. The mean concentrations for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in whole blood of residents from mining communities were as follows: 38 ± 320 μg/L, 63 ± 0.23 μg/L, 303 ± 117 μg/L, 3300 ± 953, 195 ± 90 μg/L, 28 ± 14 μg/L and 1405 ± 458 μg/L, respectively; while the levels of measured toxic chemicals in the serum of resident adults from mining communities were as follows: 65 ± 14 μg/L, 358 ± 22 μg/l, 134 ± 12 μg/L, 3590 ± 254 μg/L, 401 ± 113 μg/L, 58 ± 5.8 μg/L and 49 ± 31 μg/L, respectively, for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn and were found to have exceeded the permissible WHO guideline values.

  19. Impact of soil properties on critical concentrations of cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, and mercury in soil and soil solution in view of ecotoxicological effects.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Wim; Lofts, Steve; Tipping, Ed; Meili, Markus; Groenenberg, Jan E; Schütze, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment for metals in terrestrial ecosystems, including assessments of critical loads, requires appropriate critical limits for metal concentrations in soil and soil solution. This chapter presents an overview of methodologies used to derive critical (i) reactive and total metal concentrations in soils and (ii) free metal ion and total metal concentrations in soil solution for Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Hg, taking into account the effect of soil properties related to ecotoxicological effects. Most emphasis is given to the derivation of critical free and total metal concentrations in soil solution, using available NOEC soil data and transfer functions relating solid-phase and dissolved metal concentrations. This approach is based on the assumption that impacts on test organisms (plants, microorganisms, and soil invertebrates) are mainly related to the soil solution concentration (activity) and not to the soil solid-phase content. Critical Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Hg concentrations in soil solution vary with pH and DOC level. The results obtained are generally comparable to those derived for surface waters based on impacts to aquatic organisms. Critical soil metal concentrations, related to the derived soil solution limits, can be described as a function of pH and organic matter and clay content, and varying about one order of magnitude between different soil types.

  20. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut John H. Glenn, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MA-6 mission, boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, was the first manned orbital launch by the United States, and carried Astronaut Glenn aboard the Friendship 7 spacecraft to orbit the Earth.

  1. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-16

    The recovery operation of the Faith 7 spacecraft after the completion of the 1-1/2 day orbital flight (MA-9 mission) with Astronaut Gordon Cooper. Navy frogmen attach the flotation collar to the spacecraft. The MA-9 mission was the last flight of the Mercury Project and launched on May 15, 1963 boosted by The Mercury-Atlas launch vehicle.

  2. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-02-20

    Astronaut John Glenn enters the Mercury spacecraft, Friendship 7, prior to the launch of MA-6 on February 20, 1961 and became the first American who orbited the Earth. The MA-6 mission was the first manned orbital flight boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile), lasted for five hours, and orbited the Earth three times.

  3. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-03-24

    The Mercury-Redstone Booster Development vehicle (MR-BD) lifts off from Cape Canaveral March 24, 1961. This test flight evaluated changes incorporated in the booster designed to reduce vehicle oscillations and vibrations. The Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle was developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team in Huntsville, Alabama.

  4. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut Walter M. "Wally" Schirra, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MA-8 (Mercury-Atlas) mission with Sigma 7 spacecraft was the third marned orbital flight by the United States, and made the six orbits in 9-1/4 hours.

  5. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MR-4 mission, boosted by the Mercury-Redstone vehicle, made the second marned suborbital flight. The capsule, Liberty Bell 7, sank into the sea after the splashdown.

  6. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-09-09

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The Freedom 7 spacecraft boosted by Mercury-Redstone vehicle for the MR-3 mission made the first marned suborbital flight and Astronaut Shepard became the first American in space.

  7. Mercury Exposure: Protein Biomarkers of Mercury Exposure in Jaraqui Fish from the Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Braga, Camila Pereira; de Oliveira, Grasieli; Padilha, Cilene do Carmo Federici; de Moraes, Paula Martin; Zara, Luiz Fabricio; Leite, Aline de Lima; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães

    2018-05-01

    This study presents data on the extraction and characterization of proteins associated with mercury in the muscle and liver tissues of jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp.) from the Madeira River in the Brazilian Amazon. Protein fractionation was carried out by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Mercury determination in tissues, pellets, and protein spots was performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Proteins in the spots that showed mercury were characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The highest mercury concentrations were found in liver tissues and pellets (426 ± 6 and 277 ± 4 μg kg -1 ), followed by muscle tissues and pellets (132 ± 4 and 86 ± 1 μg kg -1 , respectively). Mercury quantification in the protein spots allowed us to propose stoichiometric ratios in the range of 1-4 mercury atoms per molecule of protein in the protein spots. The proteins characterized in the analysis by ESI-MS/MS were keratin, type II cytoskeletal 8, parvalbumin beta, parvalbumin-2, ubiquitin-40S ribosomal S27a, 39S ribosomal protein L36 mitochondrial, hemoglobin subunit beta, and hemoglobin subunit beta-A/B. The results suggest that proteins such as ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a, which have specific domains, possibly zinc finger, can be used as biomarkers of mercury, whereas mercury and zinc present characteristics of soft acids.

  8. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  9. Blood mercury, lead and cadmium levels and determinants of exposure among newcomer South and East Asian women of reproductive age living in Vancouver, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dix-Cooper, Linda; Kosatsky, Tom

    2018-04-01

    Biomarkers of the reproductive and neuro-developmental toxicants mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) have been found at higher concentrations in women born outside Canada than in Canadian-born women. We measured blood Hg, Pb and Cd in women ages 19 to 45years living in greater Vancouver (Canada) within five years of their arrival from South Asia (India) or East Asia (mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan) and related their biomarker concentration levels with exposures and behaviors since their coming to Canada. Participants were recruited through advertisements in relevant ethnic media, locations and groups. Concentrations of blood Hg, Pb and Cd were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-Q-MS) and compared with population values. Biomarker concentrations were regressed against exposures and behaviors assessed by culturally-relevant questionnaire. The study recruited 53 South and 111 East Asian women. Median (95th percentile) blood Pb in South Asians was 1.15 (2.71) μg/dL compared with 1.01 (1.81) μg/dL in East Asians. On the other hand, blood Hg at 2.5 (7.3) μg/L was higher in East Asians compared to 0.20 (0.83) μg/L in South Asians. Blood Cd was also higher in the East Asian group: East 0.53 (1.1) μg/L; South 0.27 (0.82) μg/L. Higher blood Hg was associated with seafood consumption, dental amalgams and traditional remedies; blood Pb with home renovations, sucking on metal jewelry, and cosmetics. Blood Pb and Cd concentrations were inversely associated with dairy consumption. Asian women recently arrived in Vancouver had higher blood Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations than same-age Canadian women measured in a national survey. Among South Asian newcomer women of reproductive age, exposure to Cd may continue after arrival. Local exposures to Hg occur through seafood and potentially through ingestion of imported traditional remedies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Blood concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury and their association with biomarkers of DNA oxidative damage in preschool children living in an e-waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xijin; Liao, Weitang; Lin, Yucong; Dai, Yifeng; Shi, Zhihua; Huo, Xia

    2017-06-16

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced DNA damage occurs in heavy metal exposure, but the simultaneous effect on DNA repair is unknown. We investigated the influence of co-exposure of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) on 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and human repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) mRNA levels in exposed children to evaluate the imbalance of DNA damage and repair. Children within the age range of 3-6 years from a primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling town were chosen as participants to represent a heavy metal-exposed population. 8-OHdG in the children's urine was assessed for heavy metal-induced oxidative effects, and the hOGG1 mRNA level in their blood represented the DNA repair ability of the children. Among the children surveyed, 88.14% (104/118) had a blood Pb level >5 μg/dL, 22.03% (26/118) had a blood Cd level >1 μg/dL, and 62.11% (59/95) had a blood Hg level >10 μg/dL. Having an e-waste workshop near the house was a risk factor contributing to high blood Pb (r s  = 0.273, p < 0.01), while Cd and Hg exposure could have come from other contaminant sources. Preschool children of fathers who had a college or university education had significantly lower 8-OHdG levels (median 242.76 ng/g creatinine, range 154.62-407.79 ng/g creatinine) than did children of fathers who had less education (p = 0.035). However, we did not observe a significant difference in the mRNA expression levels of hOGG1 between the different variables. Compared with children having low lead exposure (quartile 1), the children with high Pb exposure (quartiles 2, 3, and 4) had significantly higher 8-OHdG levels (β Q2  = 0.362, 95% CI 0.111-0.542; β Q3  = 0.347, 95% CI 0.103-0.531; β Q4  = 0.314, 95% CI 0.087-0.557). Associations between blood Hg levels and 8-OHdG were less apparent. Compared with low levels of blood Hg (quartile 1), elevated blood Hg levels (quartile 2) were associated with higher 8-OHdG levels (β Q2  = 0

  11. Data Base for a National Mineral-Resource Assessment of Undiscovered Deposits of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc in the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, S.D.; Cox, D.P.; McCammon, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    For this assessment, the conterminous United States was divided into 12 regions Adirondack Mountains, Central and Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado Plateau, East Central, Great Basin, Great Plains, Lake Superior, Northern Appalachians, Northern Rocky Mountains, Pacific Coast, Southern Appalachians, and Southern Basin and Range. The assessment, which was conducted by regional assessment teams of scientists from the USGS, was based on the concepts of permissive tracts and deposit models. Permissive tracts are discrete areas of the United States for which estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits of a particular deposit type were made. A permissive tract is defined by its geographic boundaries such that the probability of deposits of the type delineated occurring outside the boundary is neglible. Deposit models, which are based on a compilation of worldwide literature and on observation, are sets of data in a convenient form that describe a group of deposits which have similar characteristics and that contain information on the common geologic attributes of the deposits and the environments in which they are found. Within each region, the assessment teams delineated permissive tracts for those deposit models that were judged to be appropriate and, when the amount of information warranted, estimated the number of undiscovered deposits. A total of 46 deposit models were used to assess 236 separate permissive tracts. Estimates of undiscovered deposits were limited to a depth of 1 km beneath the surface of the Earth. The estimates of the number of undiscovered deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc were expressed in the form of a probability distribution. Commonly, the number of undiscovered deposits was estimated at the 90th, 50th, and 10th percentiles. A Monte Carlo simulation computer program was used to combine the probability distribution of the number of undiscovered deposits with the grade and tonnage data sets associated with each deposit model to

  12. Synchrotron-based X-Ray Spectroscopy Studies for Redox-based Remediation of Lead, Zinc, and Cadmium in Mine Waste Materials.

    PubMed

    Karna, Ranju R; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Newville, Matthew; Sun, ChengJun; Ma, Qing

    2016-11-01

    Several studies have examined the effect of submergence on the mobility of metals present in mine waste materials. This study examines the effect of organic carbon (OC) and sulfur (S) additions and submergence time on redox-induced biogeochemical transformations of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) present in mine waste materials collected from the Tri-State mining district located in southeastern Kansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma. A completely randomized design, with a two-way treatment structure, was used for conducting a series of column experiments. Two replicates were used for each treatment combination. Effluent samples were collected at several time points, and soil samples were collected at the end of each column experiment. Because these samples are highly heterogeneous, we used a variety of synchrotron-based techniques to identify Pb, Zn, and Cd speciation at both micro- and bulk-scale. Spectroscopic analysis results from the study revealed that the addition of OC, with and without S, promoted metal-sulfide formation, whereas metal carbonates dominated in the nonamended flooded materials and in mine waste materials only amended with S. Therefore, the synergistic effect of OC and S may be more promising for managing mine waste materials disposed of in flooded subsidence mine pits instead of individual S or OC treatments. The mechanistic understanding gained in this study is also relevant for remediation of waste materials using natural or constructed wetland systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Correlation between the distribution of lignin and pectin and distribution of sorbed metal ions (lead and zinc) on coir (Cocos nucifera L.).

    PubMed

    Conrad, Kathrine

    2008-11-01

    Plant fibres are capacious for sorption of metal ions, and can be used in water cleaning. Knowledge about the sorption will help in selection of the fibre and optimisation of its chemical modification, if any. The aim of this paper is to investigate the connection, if any, between the distribution of lignin and pectin and the loading of Pb and Zn on coir (mesocarp fibres from Cocos nucifera L.). The coir consisted mainly of xylem and a fibre sheath. The lignin was evenly distributed in the cell walls of the fibre sheath, but in the xylem, there was no detectable content in the compound middle lamella, and a smaller content of lignin in the secondary walls than in the walls of the fibre sheath. The only detectable content of pectin in the fibre sheath walls was in the middle lamella, cell corners and extracellular matrix, while in the xylem, the pectin was almost evenly distributed in the wall, with a higher concentration in the middle lamella and cell corners. All cell walls facing the lacuna had a high content of pectin. The metal ions were mainly loaded on the xylem and cell walls facing the lacuna, maybe with an additional trend to be loaded on the large fibres. Lead was distributed on and across the whole secondary wall. Zinc was loaded on the secondary walls, but there was no information about the distribution across the wall. If there is a simple correlation between the loading of metal ions and the distribution of lignin or pectin, these investigations point at no correlation with lignin and a positive correlation with pectin. It has to be stressed that these conclusions are made on limited material and are therefore preliminary in nature.

  14. Aluminum, iron, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, magnesium, strontium, and calcium content in bone of end-stage renal failure patients.

    PubMed

    D'Haese, P C; Couttenye, M M; Lamberts, L V; Elseviers, M M; Goodman, W G; Schrooten, I; Cabrera, W E; De Broe, M E

    1999-09-01

    Little is known about trace metal alterations in the bones of dialysis patients or whether particular types of renal osteodystrophy are associated with either increased or decreased skeletal concentrations of trace elements. Because these patients are at risk for alterations of trace elements as well as for morbidity from skeletal disorders, we measured trace elements in bone of patients with end-stage renal disease. We analyzed bone biopsies of 100 end-stage renal failure patients enrolled in a hemodialysis program. The trace metal contents of bone biopsies with histological features of either osteomalacia, adynamic bone disease, mixed lesion, normal histology, or hyperparathyroidism were compared with each other and with the trace metal contents of bone of subjects with normal renal function. Trace metals were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations of aluminum, chromium, and cadmium were increased in bone of end-stage renal failure patients. Comparing the trace metal/calcium ratio, significantly higher values were found for the bone chromium/calcium, aluminum/calcium, zinc/calcium, magnesium/calcium, and strontium/calcium ratios. Among types of renal osteodystrophy, increased bone aluminum, lead, and strontium concentrations and strontium/calcium and aluminum/calcium ratios were found in dialysis patients with osteomalacia vs the other types of renal osteodystrophy considered as one group. Moreover, the concentrations of several trace elements in bone were significantly correlated with each other. Bone aluminum was correlated with the time on dialysis, whereas bone iron, aluminum, magnesium, and strontium tended to be associated with patient age. Bone trace metal concentrations did not depend on vitamin D intake nor on the patients' gender. The concentration of several trace elements in bone of end-stage renal failure patients is disturbed, and some of the trace metals under study might share pathways of absorption, distribution, and

  15. [Spectral characteristics and implications of quartz from Heliao lead-zinc polymetallic ore district in the south of Qinzhou-Hangzhou joint belt].

    PubMed

    Lü, Wen-Chao; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Zhou, Yong-Zhang; Li, Hong-Zhong; Zeng, Xiang-Qing; Chen, Qing; Liang, Jin; Zeng, Chang-Yu

    2013-05-01

    The XRD, FTIR and Raman spectrum were employed to study the characters of quartz from three types of rock samples, which are mineralized rock sample, near ore body rock sample and far away from ore body rock sample in Heliao lead-zinc polymetallic ore district. The research shows that the quartz in the mineralized rock and far away from ore body rock is pure, while the quartz in near ore body rock contains a small amount of impurities. But such small amounts of impurities did not cause apparent change in the quartz lattice parameters. From far away from ore body rock-->near ore body rock-->mineralized rock, the crystallinity and order degree of quartz are higher and higher. And the quartz in the mineralized rock has a trend to change into low symmetry quartz. It's a unique to mineralized rock that the quartz's absorption peak at 1 050 cm(-1) was split into two strongest ones. It can be used as the signs of whether exists mineralization. The cause for the quartz microstructure changes may be related to the activities of late mineralized hydrothermal fluids. Late hydrothermal influence was very weak to the quartz far away from ore body rock. And through the impact of the multi-stage hydrothermal effect, the quartz in mineralized rock may be purified by recrystallization and structural adjustment. However the quartz in near ore body rock didn't have enough hydrothermal influence, so it's not pure. Genealogy research technology is a useful technique for in-depth exploration of study area mineralization process and metallogenic regularity.

  16. Effects of biochars on the bioaccessibility of phenanthrene/pyrene/zinc/lead and microbial community structure in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ni; Shi, Renyong; Liu, Zongtang; Bian, Yongrong; Wang, Fang; Song, Yang; Jiang, Xin

    2018-01-01

    The immobilization of co-contaminants of organic and inorganic pollutants by biochar is an efficient remediation strategy. However, the effect of biochar amendments on the bioaccessibility of the co-contaminants in dry versus flooded soils has rarely been compared. In batch experiments, bamboo-derived biochar (BB) had a higher sorption capacity for phenanthrene (Phe)/pyrene (Pyr)/zinc (Zn) than corn straw-derived biochar (CB), while CB had a higher sorption capacity for lead (Pb) than BB. After 150days of incubation, the amendments of 2% CB, 0.5% BB and 2% BB effectively suppressed the dissipation and reduced the bioaccessibility of Phe/Pyr by 15.65%/18.02%, 17.07%/18.31% and 25.43%/27.11%, respectively, in the aerobic soils. This effectiveness was more significant than that in the anaerobic soils. The accessible Zn/Pb concentrations were also significantly lower in the aerobic soils than in the anaerobic soils, regardless of treatments. The Gram-negative bacterial biomass and the Shannon-Weaver index in the aerobic soil amended with 2% CB were the highest. The soil microbial community structure was jointly affected by changes in the bioaccessibility of the co-contaminants and the soil physiochemical properties caused by biochar amendments under the two conditions. Therefore, dry land farming may be more reliable than paddy soil cultivation at reducing the bioaccessibility of Phe/Pyr/Zn/Pb and enhancing the soil microbial diversity in the short term. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  18. Terminator View of Mercury

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-02

    Date acquired: May 05, 2014 Today's color image features both Mercury's terminator and limb. The terminator is the striking separation of night and day on Mercury. It is seen in this image with the change from dark, on the left of the image, to light. Mercury's limb is also captured, as we can see the edge between sunlit Mercury and space. The MESSENGER spacecraft is the first ever to orbit the planet Mercury, and the spacecraft's seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation are unraveling the history and evolution of the Solar System's innermost planet. During the first two years of orbital operations, MESSENGER acquired over 150,000 images and extensive other data sets. MESSENGER is capable of continuing orbital operations until early 2015. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  19. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-31

    A three-year-old chimpanzee, named Ham, in the biopack couch for the MR-2 suborbital test flight. On January 31, 1961, a Mercury-Redstone launch from Cape Canaveral carried the chimpanzee "Ham" over 640 kilometers down range in an arching trajectory that reached a peak of 254 kilometers above the Earth. The mission was successful and Ham performed his lever-pulling task well in response to the flashing light. NASA used chimpanzees and other primates to test the Mercury Capsule before launching the first American astronaut Alan Shepard in May 1961. The successful flight and recovery confirmed the soundness of the Mercury-Redstone systems.

  20. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    A three-year-old chimpanzee, named Ham, in the biopack couch for the MR-2 suborbital test flight. On January 31, 1961, a Mercury-Redstone launch from Cape Canaveral carried the chimpanzee "Ham" over 640 kilometers down range in an arching trajectory that reached a peak of 254 kilometers above the Earth. The mission was successful and Ham performed his lever-pulling task well in response to the flashing light. NASA used chimpanzees and other primates to test the Mercury Capsule before launching the first American astronaut Alan Shepard in May 1961. The successful flight and recovery confirmed the soundness of the Mercury-Redstone systems.

  1. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Byung-Kook, E-mail: bklee@sch.ac.kr

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium andmore » mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.« less

  2. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    Dr. von Braun addresses a crowd celebrating in front of the Madison County Alabama Courthouse following the successful launch of Astronaut Alan Shepard (America's first astronaut in space) into space on a Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle, Freedom 7. Shepard's Mercury Spacecraft, was launched from Cape Canaveral. He reached a speed of 5200 mph. His flight lasted 15-1/2 minutes. May 5, 1961 (Photo: Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  3. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie; James, John T.; McCoy, Torin; Garcia, Hector

    2010-01-01

    Many lamps used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury, which is efficiently absorbed through the lungs as a vapor. The liquid metal vaporizes slowly at room temperature, but may be completely vaporized when lamps are operating. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, we considered short-term and long-term exposures. Using an existing study, we estimated mercury vapor releases from lamps that are not in operation during missions lasting less than or equal to 30 days; whereas we conservatively assumed complete vaporization from lamps that are operating or being used during missions lasing more than 30 days. Based on mercury toxicity, the Johnson Space Center's Toxicology Group recommends stringent safety controls and verifications for any hardware containing elemental mercury that could yield airborne mercury vapor concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/m3 in the total spacecraft atmosphere for exposures lasting less than or equal to 30 days, or concentrations greater than 0.01 mg/m3 for exposures lasting more than 30 days.

  4. Determination of acid forming potential of massive sulfide minerals and the tailings situated in lead/zinc mining district of Balya (NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelebi, E. Ender; Öncel, M. Salim

    2016-12-01

    Weathering of sulfide minerals is a major source of acid production in nature and especially in mining territories. Pyrite is not the only principal mineral that generates acid drainage: other sulfide minerals (sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, etc.) may also be responsible for acid production. In addition to massive sulfide minerals, sulfide-bearing mine tailings may also produce acid drainage due to oxidation and hydrolysis reactions in waste dumps. The lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mining region in Balya and Balıkesir, in Turkey, has operated mines intensively since the 1860s; so that characterization of the sulfide minerals and tailings situated and formed around the mining site is of great importance to secure a sustainable environment. For this purpose, acid production and neutralization potentials of massive sulfide ores of the region, and in the Pb/Zn process facility mine tailings from ten different points of tailings dam, have been determined by applied conventional Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) and Net Acid Generation (NAG) static tests after chemical and mineralogical analysis. The NAG pH and net acid production potential (NAPP) values were compared on a chart in order to classify the samples as either acid generating or non-acid generating. According to the comparisons, the sulfide minerals were classified as potentially acid forming (PAF). Massive pyrite had the highest NAPP and NAG pH value of 1966.6 kg H2SO4/ton and 1.91, respectively and the galena had the lowest NAPP value of 558.9 kg H2SO4/ton. However, the sphalerite NAG leachate pH value of 4.30 was the highest in sulfide minerals so that the sphalerite plotted near the uncertainty reference border in the PAF zone. In the mine tailings, NAPP values of 105.9 kg H2SO4/ton on average and the NAG pH values of over 7.5 were determined. In addition to these tests, water leaching (agitation test) was carried out on tailings in order to generate more information. The tailings did not generate acidic leachates as

  5. Biochemical effects of lead, zinc, and cadmium from mining on fish in the Tri-States district of northeastern Oklahoma, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the exposure of fish from the Spring and Neosho Rivers in northeast Oklahoma, USA, to lead, zinc, and cadmium from historical mining in the Tri-States Mining District (TSMD). Fish (n = 74) representing six species were collected in October 2001 from six sites on the Spring and Neosho Rivers influenced to differing degrees by mining. Additional samples were obtained from the Big River, a heavily contaminated stream in eastern Missouri, USA, and from reference sites. Blood from each fish was analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, and hemoglobin (Hb). Blood also was analyzed for ??-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity. The activity of ALA-D, an enzyme involved in heme synthesis, is inhibited by Pb. Concentrations of Fe and Hb were highly correlated (r = 0.89, p < 0.01) across all species and locations and typically were greater in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) than in other taxa. Concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd typically were greatest in fish from sites most heavily affected by mining and lowest in reference samples. The activity of ALA-D, but not concentrations of Hb or Fe, also differed significantly (p < 0.01) among sites and species. Enzyme activity was lowest in fish from mining-contaminated sites and greatest in reference fish, and was correlated negatively with Pb in most species. Statistically significant (p < 0.01) linear regression models that included negative terms for blood Pb explained as much as 68% of the total variation in ALA-D activity, but differences among taxa were highly evident. Positive correlations with Zn were documented in the combined data for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), as has been reported for other taxa, but not in bass (Micropterus spp.) or carp. In channel catfish, ALA-D activity appeared to be more sensitive to blood Pb than in the other species investigated (i.e., threshold concentrations for inhibition were lower). Such among-species differences are consistent

  6. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in fish from mining-influenced waters of northeastern Oklahoma: Sampling of blood, carcass, and liver for aquatic biomonitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, W.G.; Schmitt, C.J.; May, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    The Tri-States Mining District (TSMD) of Missouri (MO), Kansas (KS), and Oklahoma (OK), USA, was mined for lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) for more than a century. Mining ceased more than 30 years ago, but wastes remain widely distributed in the region, and there is evidence of surface- and groundwater contamination in the Spring River-Neosho River (SR-NR) system of northeastern OK. In October 2001, we collected a total of 74 fish from six locations in the SR-NR system that included common carp (Cyprinus carpio), channel- and flathead catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth- and spotted bass (Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus punctulatus), and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis). We obtained additional fish from locations in MO that included three reference sites and one site that served as a "positive control" (heavily contaminated by Pb). Blood, carcass (headed, eviscerated, and scaled) and liver (carp only) samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), Pb, and Zn. Our objectives were to assess the degree to which fish from the OK portion of the SR-NR system are contaminated by these elements and to evaluate fish blood sampling for biomonitoring. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in carp and catfish from OK sites were elevated and Pb concentrations of some approached those of the highly contaminated site in MO, but concentrations in bass and crappie were relatively low. For Zn, correlations were weak among concentrations in the three tissues and none of the samples appeared to reflect site contamination. Variability was high for Cd in all three tissues of carp; differences between sites were statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for blood even though mean liver concentrations were at least 100-fold greater than those in blood. Blood concentrations of Cd and Pb were positively correlated (r 2 = 0.49 to 0.84) with the concentration of the same element in carp and catfish carcasses or in carp livers, and the corresponding multiple regression models were

  7. In vivo toxicity of copper oxide, lead oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles acting in different combinations and its attenuation with a complex of innocuous bio-protectors.

    PubMed

    Minigalieva, Ilzira A; Katsnelson, Boris A; Panov, Vladimir G; Privalova, Larisa I; Varaksin, Anatoly N; Gurvich, Vladimir B; Sutunkova, Marina P; Shur, Vladimir Ya; Shishkina, Ekaterina V; Valamina, Irene E; Zubarev, Ilya V; Makeyev, Oleg H; Meshtcheryakova, Ekaterina Y; Klinova, Svetlana V

    2017-04-01

    Stable suspensions of metal oxide nanoparticles (Me-NPs) obtained by laser ablation of 99.99% pure copper, zinc or lead under a layer of deionized water were used separately, in three binary combinations and a triple combination in two independent experiments on rats. In one of the experiments the rats were instilled with Me-NPs intratracheally (i.t.) (for performing a broncho-alveolar lavage in 24h to estimate the cytological and biochemical indices of the response of the lower airways), while in the other, Me-NPs were repeatedly injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) 18 times during 6 weeks (for estimating the accumulation of corresponding metals in the blood and their excretion with urine and feces and for assessing subchronic intoxication by a large number of functional and morphological indices). Mathematical description of the results from both experiments with the help of the Response Surface Methodology has shown that, as well as in the case of any other binary toxic combinations previously investigated by us, the response of the organism to a simultaneous exposure to any two of the Me-NPs under study is characterized by complex interactions between all possible types of combined toxicity (additivity, subadditivity or superadditivity of unidirectional action and different variants of opposite effects) depending on which effect it is estimated for as well as on the levels of the effect and dose. With any third Me-NP species acting in the background, the type of combined toxicity displayed by the other two may change significantly (as in the earlier described case of a triple combination of soluble metal salts). It is shown that various harmful effects produced by CuO-NP+ZnO-NP+PbO-NP combination may be substantially attenuated by giving rats per os a complex of innocuous bioactive substances theoretically expected to provide a protective integral and/or metal-specific effect during one month before i.t. instillation or during the entire period of i.p. injections

  8. Sensitivity of early life stages of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) to acute and chronic toxicity of lead, cadmium, and zinc in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Hardesty, D.K.; May, T.W.; Augspurger, T.; Roberts, A.D.; Van Genderen, E.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity of lead, cadmium, or zinc to early life stages of freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea; Neosho mucket, L. rafinesqueana) was evaluated in 48-h exposures with mussel larvae (glochidia), in 96-h exposures with newly transformed (5-d-old) and two- or six-month-old juvenile mussels, or in 28-d exposures with two- or four-month-old mussels in reconstituted soft water. The 24-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) for fatmucket glochidia (>299??g Pb/L, >227??g Cd/L, 2,685??g Zn/L) and 96-h EC50s for two- or six-month-old fatmucket (>426??g Pb/L, 199??g Cd/L, 1,700??g Zn/L) were much higher than 96-h EC50s for newly transformed fatmucket (142 and 298??g Pb/L, 16??g Cd/L, 151 and 175??g Zn/L) and Neosho mucket (188??g Pb/L, 20??g Cd/L, 145??g Zn/L). Chronic values for fatmucket were 10??g Pb/L, 6.0??g Cd/L, and 63 and 68??g Zn/L. When mussel data from the present study and the literature were included in updated databases for deriving U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria, mussel genus mean acute values were in the lower percentiles of the sensitivity distribution of all freshwater species for Pb (the 26th percentile), Cd (the 15th to 29th percentile), or Zn (the 12th to 21st percentile). The mussel (Lampsilis) genus mean chronic value was the lowest value ever reported for Pb (the 9th percentile) but was near the middle of the sensitivity distribution for Cd (the 61st percentile) or Zn (the 44th percentile). These results indicate that mussels were relatively sensitive to the acute toxicity of these three metals and to the chronic toxicity of Pb, but were moderately sensitive to the chronic toxicity of Cd or Zn compared to other freshwater species. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  9. Sensitivity of early life stages of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) to acute and chronic toxicity of lead, cadmium, and zinc in water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Ivey, Christopher D; Hardesty, Douglas K; May, Thomas W; Augspurger, Tom; Roberts, Andy D; van Genderen, Eric; Barnhart, M Chris

    2010-09-01

    Toxicity of lead, cadmium, or zinc to early life stages of freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea; Neosho mucket, L. rafinesqueana) was evaluated in 48-h exposures with mussel larvae (glochidia), in 96-h exposures with newly transformed (5-d-old) and two- or six-month-old juvenile mussels, or in 28-d exposures with two- or four-month-old mussels in reconstituted soft water. The 24-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) for fatmucket glochidia (>299 microg Pb/L, >227 microg Cd/L, 2,685 microg Zn/L) and 96-h EC50s for two- or six-month-old fatmucket (>426 microg Pb/L, 199 microg Cd/L, 1,700 microg Zn/L) were much higher than 96-h EC50s for newly transformed fatmucket (142 and 298 microg Pb/L, 16 microg Cd/L, 151 and 175 microg Zn/L) and Neosho mucket (188 microg Pb/L, 20 microg Cd/L, 145 microg Zn/L). Chronic values for fatmucket were 10 microg Pb/L, 6.0 microg Cd/L, and 63 and 68 microg Zn/L. When mussel data from the present study and the literature were included in updated databases for deriving U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria, mussel genus mean acute values were in the lower percentiles of the sensitivity distribution of all freshwater species for Pb (the 26th percentile), Cd (the 15th to 29th percentile), or Zn (the 12th to 21st percentile). The mussel (Lampsilis) genus mean chronic value was the lowest value ever reported for Pb (the 9th percentile) but was near the middle of the sensitivity distribution for Cd (the 61st percentile) or Zn (the 44th percentile). These results indicate that mussels were relatively sensitive to the acute toxicity of these three metals and to the chronic toxicity of Pb, but were moderately sensitive to the chronic toxicity of Cd or Zn compared to other freshwater species. Copyright 2010 SETAC.

  10. Endoscopic management of massive mercury ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Zag, Levente; Berkes, Gábor; Takács, Irma F; Szepes, Attila; Szabó, István

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Ingestion of a massive amount of metallic mercury was thought to be harmless until the last century. After that, in a number of cases, mercury ingestion has been associated with appendicitis, impaired liver function, memory deficits, aspiration leading to pneumonitis and acute renal failure. Treatment includes gastric lavage, giving laxatives and chelating agents, but rapid removal of metallic mercury with gastroscopy has not been used. Patient concerns: An 18-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department after drinking 1000 g of metallic mercury as a suicide attempt. Diagnosis: Except from mild umbilical tenderness, he had no other symptoms. Radiography showed a metallic density in the area of the stomach. Intervention: Gastroscopy was performed to remove the mercury. One large pool and several small droplets of mercury were removed from the stomach. Outcomes: Blood and urine mercury levels of the patient remained low during hospitalization. No symptoms of mercury intoxication developed during the follow-up period. Lessons: Massive mercury ingestion may cause several symptoms, which can be prevented with prompt treatment. We used endoscopy to remove the mercury, which shortened the exposure time and minimized the risk of aspiration. This is the first case where endoscopy was used for the management of mercury ingestion. PMID:28562544

  11. Environmental Mercury and Its Toxic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Kevin M.; Walker, Ernest M.; Wu, Miaozong; Gillette, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Mercury exists naturally and as a man-made contaminant. The release of processed mercury can lead to a progressive increase in the amount of atmospheric mercury, which enters the atmospheric-soil-water distribution cycles where it can remain in circulation for years. Mercury poisoning is the result of exposure to mercury or mercury compounds resulting in various toxic effects depend on its chemical form and route of exposure. The major route of human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) is largely through eating contaminated fish, seafood, and wildlife which have been exposed to mercury through ingestion of contaminated lower organisms. MeHg toxicity is associated with nervous system damage in adults and impaired neurological development in infants and children. Ingested mercury may undergo bioaccumulation leading to progressive increases in body burdens. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of individual organ systems associated with mercury poisoning. Mercury has profound cellular, cardiovascular, hematological, pulmonary, renal, immunological, neurological, endocrine, reproductive, and embryonic toxicological effects. PMID:24744824

  12. Zinc Signal in Brain Diseases.

    PubMed

    Portbury, Stuart D; Adlard, Paul A

    2017-11-23

    The divalent cation zinc is an integral requirement for optimal cellular processes, whereby it contributes to the function of over 300 enzymes, regulates intracellular signal transduction, and contributes to efficient synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Given the critical role of zinc in a breadth of cellular processes, its cellular distribution and local tissue level concentrations remain tightly regulated via a series of proteins, primarily including zinc transporter and zinc import proteins. A loss of function of these regulatory pathways, or dietary alterations that result in a change in zinc homeostasis in the brain, can all lead to a myriad of pathological conditions with both acute and chronic effects on function. This review aims to highlight the role of zinc signaling in the central nervous system, where it may precipitate or potentiate diverse issues such as age-related cognitive decline, depression, Alzheimer's disease or negative outcomes following brain injury.

  13. Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

  14. Mercury and other Mining-Related Contaminants in Ospreys along the Upper Clark Fork River, MT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, H.; Domenech, R.; Greene, E.; Staats, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) are widely recognized as bio-indicators of the health of aquatic ecosystems. Until the time of fledging, nestlings feed exclusively on fish caught within a few kilometers of the nest. Therefore, tissues of these young birds may reflect the level of contamination of local fish and more generally, the contamination status of the aquatic ecosystem they inhabit. Nests can often be accessed with a boom truck and obtaining small blood samples from the flightless chicks is fairly noninvasive. Ospreys are nesting along the Upper Clark Fork River, Montana, which is heavily contaminated with wastes left from a century of copper and precious metals mining. We have been monitoring the levels of priority pollutants (arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, mercury and selenium) in Osprey chicks along a 250 km section of the river for four years. Objectives are to establish current contaminant status, pinpoint pollution hotspots, and assess the success of restoration efforts. Our results suggest that of highest concern may be the bioaccumulation of mercury with blood levels of up to 0.7 mg/L in the growing chicks. These concentrations are expected to increase many fold upon fledging as feather growth stops, which acts as the major sink for mercury. Interestingly, we found mercury levels increased in downstream direction, in contrast to concentrations of other pollutants. Reasons may be the different origin of mercury versus other contaminants and the distribution of wetlands where mercury can be transformed into highly bioavailable methylmercury. Blood levels of selenium are also elevated throughout the Upper Clark Fork River drainage. We discuss the implications for restoration and remediation of the Clark Fork River.

  15. [Improvement in zinc nutrition due to zinc transporter-targeting strategy].

    PubMed

    Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-01

    Adequate intake of zinc from the daily diet is indispensable to maintain health. However, the dietary zinc content often fails to fulfill the recommended daily intake, leading to zinc deficiency and also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, particularly in elderly individuals. Therefore, increased attention is required to overcome zinc deficiency and it is important to improve zinc nutrition in daily life. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for zinc absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding zinc deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient zinc absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing zinc deficiency and improving human health.

  16. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden.

    PubMed

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej

    2009-12-01

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less.

  17. Enhanced Color Mercury Map

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    This colorful view of Mercury was produced by using images from the color base map imaging campaign during MESSENGER's primary mission. These colors are not what Mercury would look like to the human eye, but rather the colors enhance the chemical, mineralogical, and physical differences between the rocks that make up Mercury's surface. This specific color combination places the second principle component in the red channel, the first principle component in the green channel, and the ratio of the 430 nm/1000 nm filters in the blue channel. The MESSENGER spacecraft is the first ever to orbit the planet Mercury, and the spacecraft's seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation are unraveling the history and evolution of the Solar System's innermost planet. During the first two years of orbital operations, MESSENGER acquired over 150,000 images and extensive other data sets. MESSENGER is capable of continuing orbital operations until early 2015. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  18. Au 2PbP 2, Au 2TlP 2, and Au 2HgP 2: Ternary Gold Polyphosphides with Lead, Thallium, and Mercury in the Oxidation State Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschen, Marcus; Jeitschko, Wolfgang

    2002-05-01

    The polyphosphide Au2PbP2 was prepared by reaction of the elemental components using liquid lead as a reaction medium. Well-developed crystals were obtained after dissolving the matrix in hydrochloric acid. Their crystal structure was determined from four-circle X-ray diffractometer data: Cmcm, a=323.6(1) pm, b=1137.1(2) pm, c=1121.8(1) pm, Z=4, R=0.023 for 478 structure factors and 20 variable parameters. The structure contains zigzag chains of phosphorus atoms with a typical single-bond distance of 219.4(2) pm. The two different kinds of gold atoms are both in linear phosphorus coordination with typical single-bond distances of 232.6(2) and 234.2(2) pm, and the lead atoms have only metal neighbors (7 Au and 2 Pb). Accordingly, chemical bonding of the compound may be expressed by the formula (Au+1)2Pb±0(P-1)2. The corresponding thallium and mercury polyphosphides Au2TlP2 (a=324.1(1) pm, b=1136.1(1) pm, c=1122.1(1) pm) and Au2HgP2 (a=322.1(1) pm, b=1131.4(2) pm, c=1122.6(1) pm) were found to be almost isotypic with Au2PbP2. Their crystal structures were refined from single-crystal X-ray data to R=0.036 (682 F values, 25 variables) and R=0.026 (539 F values, 35 variables), respectively. The structure of these compounds may also be described as consisting of a three-dimensional network of condensed 8- and 10-membered Au2P6 and Au4P6 rings forming parallel channels, which are filled by the lead, thallium, and mercury atoms. The lead atoms are well localized in these channels, while the thallium and even more the mercury atoms occupy additional positions within these channels. Freshly prepared samples of Au2HgP2 show reproducibly slightly different axial ratios and larger cell volumes (ΔV=0.5%) than those after exposure of the samples to air for several days.

  19. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli. PMID:28629136

  20. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-06-17

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  1. Fluid inclusions and biomarkers in the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district; implications for the fluid-flow and thermal history of the Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, E. Lanier; Goldhaber, Martin B.

    1996-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district is hosted by Ordovician carbonate rocks at the northern margin of the Illinois Basin. Fluid inclusion temperature measurements on Early Permian sphalerite ore from the district are predominantly between 90?C and I50?C. These temperatures are greater than can be explained by their reconstructed burial depth, which was a maximum of approximately 1 km at the time of mineralization. In contrast to the temperatures of mineral formation derived from fluid inclusions, biomarker maturities in the Upper Mississippi Valley district give an estimate of total thermal exposure integrated over time. Temperatures from fluid inclusions trapped during ore genesis with biomarker maturities were combined to construct an estimate of the district's overall thermal history and, by inference, the late Paleozoic thermal and hydrologic history of the Illinois Basin. Circulation of groundwater through regional aquifers, given sufficient flow rates, can redistribute heat from deep in a sedimentary basin to its shallower margins. Evidence for regional-scale circulation of fluids is provided by paleomagnetic studies, regionally correlated zoned dolomite, fluid inclusions, and thermal maturity of organic matter. Evidence for igneous acti vity contemporaneous with mineralization in the vicinity of the Upper Mississippi Valley district is absent. Regional fluid and heat circulation is the most likely explanation for the elevated fluid inclusion temperatures (relative to maximum estimated burial depth) in the Upper Mississippi Valley district. One plausible driving mechanism and flow path for the ore-forming fluids is groundwater recharge in the late Paleozoic Appalachian-Ouachita mountain belt and northward flow through the Reelfoot rift and the proto- Illinois Basin to the Upper Mississippi Valley district. Warm fluid flowing laterally through Cambrian and Ordovician aquifers would then move vertically upward through the fractures that control

  2. Comparison of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and comparison with common eider (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There is an abundance of field data for levels of metals from a range of places, but relatively few from the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from common eiders (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there are no trophic levels relationships for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium among these five species of birds breeding in the marine environment of the Aleutians. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels. As predicted bald eagles had the highest levels of arsenic, chromium, lead, and manganese, but puffins had the highest levels of selenium, and pigeon guillemot had higher levels of mercury than eagles (although the differences were not significant). Common eiders, at the lowest trophic level had the lowest levels of some metals (chromium, mercury and selenium). However, eiders had higher levels than all other species (except eagles) for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese. Levels of lead were higher in breast than in wing feathers of bald eagles. Except for lead, there were no significant differences in metal levels in feathers of bald eagles nesting on Adak and Amchitka Island; lead was higher on Adak than Amchitka. Eagle chicks tended to have lower levels of manganese than older eagles. PMID:18521716

  3. Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ananda S

    2008-01-01

    pathway, decreases NF-kappaB activation, leading to decreased gene expression and generation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1beta, and IL-8. We have reported recently that in both young adults and elderly subjects, zinc supplementation decreased oxidative stress markers and generation of inflammatory cytokines.

  4. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-02-20

    The launch of the MA-6, Friendship 7, on February 20, 1962. Boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM), Friendship 7 was the first U.S. marned orbital flight and carried Astronaut John H. Glenn into orbit. Astronaut Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth.

  5. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-16

    Astronaut Gordon Cooper leaves the Faith 7 (MA-9) spacecraft after a successful recovery operation. The MA-9 mission, the last flight of the Mercury Project, was launched on May 15, 1963, orbited the Earth 22 times, and lasted for 1-1/2 days.

  6. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-15

    Astronaut Gordon Cooper leaves the Faith 7 (MA-9) spacecraft after a successful recovery operation. The MA-9 mission, the last flight of the Mercury Project, was launched on May 15, 1963, orbited the Earth 22 times, and lasted for 1-1/2 days.

  7. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-02-20

    Astronaut John Glenn in the Friendship 7 capsule during the first manned orbital flight, the MA-6 mission. Boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas (intercontinental ballistic missile), the MA-6 mission lasted for 5 hours and orbited the Earth three times.

  8. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1960-01-21

    The launch of the Little Joe booster for the LJ1B mission on the launch pad from the wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia, on January 21, 1960. This mission achieved the suborbital Mercury capsule test, testing of the escape system, and biomedical tests by using a monkey, named Miss Sam.

  9. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1960-01-21

    The Little Joe launch vehicle for the LJ1 mission on the launch pad at the wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia, on January 21, 1960. This mission achieved the suborbital Mercury cupsule test, testing of the escape system, and biomedical tests by using a monkey, named Miss Sam.

  10. Mercury, elemental

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mercury , elemental ; CASRN 7439 - 97 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  11. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-07-21

    A U.S. Marine helicopter attempts to retrieve the sinking capsule, Liberty Bell 7, of the MR-4 mission. The attempt failed and the capsule sank. The MR-4 mission marned by Astronaut Virgil Grissom was the second manned orbital flight boosted by the Mercury-Redstone vehicle. The Recovery ship is in the background.

  12. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-09-01

    An Atlas launch vehicle carrying the Big Joe capsule leaves its launching pad on a 2,000-mile ballistic flight to the altitude of 100 miles. The Big Joe capsule is a boilerplate model of the marned orbital capsule under NASA's Project Mercury. The capsule was recovered and studied for the effect of re-entry heat and other flight stresses.

  13. Mercury's Messenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  14. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The original seven astronauts for the Mercury Project pose in front of an Air Force Jet. From left to right: Scott Carpenter, L. Gordon Cooper, John H. Glenn, Virgil I. Gus Grissom, Walter M. Wally Schirra, Alan B. Shepard, and Donald K. Deke Slayton.

  15. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    The group portrait of the original seven astronauts for the Mercury Project. NASA selected its first seven astronauts on April 27, 1959. Left to right at front: Walter M. Wally Schirra, Donald K. Deke Slayton, John H. Glenn, Jr., and Scott Carpenter. Left to right at rear: Alan B. Shepard, Virgil I. Gus Grissom, and L. Gordon Cooper, Jr.

  16. Mercury Report-Children's exposure to elemental mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov . Mercury Background Mercury Report Additional Resources Mercury Report - Children's Exposure to Elemental Mercury Recommend on Facebook ... I limit exposure to mercury? Why was the report written? Children attending a daycare in New Jersey ...

  17. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  18. Mercury cycling in peatland watersheds. Chapter 11.

    Treesearch

    Randall K. Kolka; Carl P.J. Mitchell; Jeffrey D. Jeremiason; Neal A. Hines; David F. Grigal; Daniel R. Engstrom; Jill K. Coleman-Wasik; Edward A. Nater; Edward B. Swain; Bruce A. Monson; Jacob A. Fleck; Brian Johnson; James E. Almendinger; Brian A. Branfireun; Patrick L. Brezonik; James B. Cotner

    2011-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is of great environmental concern due to its transformation into the toxic methylmercury (MeHg) form that bioaccumulates within the food chain and causes health concerns for both humans and wildlife (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2002). Mercury can affect neurological development in fetuses and young children. In adults, exposure to Hg can lead to...

  19. Indicators: Sediment Mercury

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sediment mercury is mercury that has become embedded into the bottom substrates of aquatic ecosystems. Mercury is a common pollutant of aquatic ecosystems and it can have a substantial impact on both human and wildlife health.

  20. [Evaluation of human health risk for a population from Cali, Colombia, by exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury, 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid and diuron associated with water and food consumption].

    PubMed

    Echeverry, Ghisliane; Zapata, Andrés Mauricio; Páez, Martha Isabel; Méndez, Fabián; Peña, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to pollutants such as pesticides and heavy metals has been linked to health problems. Several studies have revealed the presence of these contaminants in Cali; however, there is no information available about the main routes of exposure and risk of these contaminants. To estimate the risk associated with the intake of cadmium, lead and mercury, and pesticides 2,4-D and diuron through the consumption of water and food in a population in Cali. Population and environmental data were obtained, and a risk assessment was performed using United States Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. The concentrations of the evaluated pollutants were below permissible levels as established by the Colombian Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial (3 µg/L -1 of cadmium; 10 µg/L -1 of lead; 1 µg/L -1 of mercury; 1 µg/L -1 of 2,4 D; 1 µg/L -1 of diuron). Salema butterfish ( Peprilus snyderi ) samples contained levels of cadmium between 20 and 80 µg/kg -1 , which are below the permissible limit set by the World Health Organization (100 µg/kg -1 ). The results of the risk assessment indicated that the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic attributable risk to population health from the intake of food contaminants was below the maximum level permitted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. It is believed that the findings in previous studies on pollutants may have been due to specific contamination events; therefore, monitoring and early warning about water intake is recommended. Furthermore, the report of cadmium being found in fish consumed as food suggests the need for quality control by regulators.

  1. Toward a Unified Understanding of Mercury and Methylated Mercury from the World's Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, M. K.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Landing, W. M.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    -profile concentration maxima, however, the depth of the maxima are more varied than the total mercury profiles (150 - 700m). Also, our observed distribution of methylated mercury highly correlated with organic carbon remineralization rates (OCRR) in the North Pacific and Indian Oceans. Interestingly, we find the highest methylated mercury concentrations in the Southern Ocean, suggesting the possibility of unique mechanisms for methylmercury production, preservation, and degradation in polar ecosystems such as cold water temperatures, extended periods of sea ice cover, and annual atmospheric mercury depletion events. We are using these data to better link oceanic production of bioaccumulative mercury to models for atmospheric and oceanic transport and bioaccumulation. This will ultimately lead to a better understanding of mercury levels in consumable fish and shell fish.

  2. On the Edge of Mercury

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-04

    In this image, Mercury's horizon cuts a striking edge against the stark blackness of space. On the right, sunlight harshly brings the landscape into relief while on the left, the surface is shrouded in the darkness of night. This image was acquired as part of MDIS's limb imaging campaign. Once per week, MDIS captures images of Mercury's limb, with an emphasis on imaging the southern hemisphere limb. These limb images provide information about Mercury's shape and complement measurements of topography made by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) of Mercury's northern hemisphere. The MESSENGER spacecraft is the first ever to orbit the planet Mercury, and the spacecraft's seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation are unraveling the history and evolution of the Solar System's innermost planet. In the mission's more than three years of orbital operations, MESSENGER has acquired over 250,000 images and extensive other data sets. MESSENGER is capable of continuing orbital operations until early 2015. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  3. Mercury and autism: accelerating evidence?

    PubMed

    Mutter, Joachim; Naumann, Johannes; Schneider, Rainer; Walach, Harald; Haley, Boyd

    2005-10-01

    The causes of autism and neurodevelopmental disorders are unknown. Genetic and environmental risk factors seem to be involved. Because of an observed increase in autism in the last decades, which parallels cumulative mercury exposure, it was proposed that autism may be in part caused by mercury. We review the evidence for this proposal. Several epidemiological studies failed to find a correlation between mercury exposure through thimerosal, a preservative used in vaccines, and the risk of autism. Recently, it was found that autistic children had a higher mercury exposure during pregnancy due to maternal dental amalgam and thimerosal-containing immunoglobulin shots. It was hypothesized that children with autism have a decreased detoxification capacity due to genetic polymorphism. In vitro, mercury and thimerosal in levels found several days after vaccination inhibit methionine synthetase (MS) by 50%. Normal function of MS is crucial in biochemical steps necessary for brain development, attention and production of glutathione, an important antioxidative and detoxifying agent. Repetitive doses of thimerosal leads to neurobehavioral deteriorations in autoimmune susceptible mice, increased oxidative stress and decreased intracellular levels of glutathione in vitro. Subsequently, autistic children have significantly decreased level of reduced glutathione. Promising treatments of autism involve detoxification of mercury, and supplementation of deficient metabolites.

  4. Isotope effect of mercury diffusion in air

    PubMed Central

    Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Esser, Bradley K.; Williams, Ross W.; Hunt, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and reducing impacts from mercury sources in the environment remains a considerable challenge and requires process based models to quantify mercury stocks and flows. The stable isotope composition of mercury in environmental samples can help address this challenge by serving as a tracer of specific sources and processes. Mercury isotope variations are small and result only from isotope fractionation during transport, equilibrium, and transformation processes. Because these processes occur in both industrial and environmental settings, knowledge of their associated isotope effects is required to interpret mercury isotope data. To improve the mechanistic modeling of mercury isotope effects during gas phase diffusion, an experimental program tested the applicability of kinetic gas theory. Gas-phase elemental mercury diffusion through small bore needles from finite sources demonstrated mass dependent diffusivities leading to isotope fractionation described by a Rayleigh distillation model. The measured relative atomic diffusivities among mercury isotopes in air are large and in agreement with kinetic gas theory. Mercury diffusion in air offers a reasonable explanation of recent field results reported in the literature. PMID:24364380

  5. Isotope effect of mercury diffusion in air.

    PubMed

    Koster van Groos, Paul G; Esser, Bradley K; Williams, Ross W; Hunt, James R

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and reducing impacts from mercury sources in the environment remains a considerable challenge and requires process based models to quantify mercury stocks and flows. The stable isotope composition of mercury in environmental samples can help address this challenge by serving as a tracer of specific sources and processes. Mercury isotope variations are small and result only from isotope fractionation during transport, equilibrium, and transformation processes. Because these processes occur in both industrial and environmental settings, knowledge of their associated isotope effects is required to interpret mercury isotope data. To improve the mechanistic modeling of mercury isotope effects during gas phase diffusion, an experimental program tested the applicability of kinetic gas theory. Gas-phase elemental mercury diffusion through small bore needles from finite sources demonstrated mass dependent diffusivities leading to isotope fractionation described by a Rayleigh distillation model. The measured relative atomic diffusivities among mercury isotopes in air are large and in agreement with kinetic gas theory. Mercury diffusion in air offers a reasonable explanation of recent field results reported in the literature.

  6. Structural and Thermodynamic Consequences of the Replacement of Zinc with Environmental Metals on ERα-DNA Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Deegan, Brian J.; Bona, Anna M.; Bhat, Vikas; Mikles, David C.; McDonald, Caleb B.; Seldeen, Kenneth L.; Farooq, Amjad

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) acts as a transcription factor by virtue of the ability of its DNA-binding (DB) domain, comprised of a tandem pair of zinc fingers, to recognize the estrogen response element (ERE) within the promoters of target genes. Herein, using an array of biophysical methods, we probe structural consequences of the replacement of zinc within the DB domain of ERα with various environmental metals and their effects on the thermodynamics of binding to DNA. Our data reveal that while the DB domain reconstituted with divalent ions of zinc, cadmium, mercury and cobalt binds to DNA with affinities in the nanomolar range, divalent ions of barium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and tin are unable to regenerate DB domain with DNA-binding potential though they can compete with zinc for coordinating the cysteine ligands within the zinc fingers. We also show that the metal-free DB domain is a homodimer in solution and that the binding of various metals only results in subtle secondary and tertiary structural changes, implying that metal-coordination may only be essential for DNA-binding. Collectively, our findings provide mechanistic insights into how environmental metals may modulate the physiological function of a key nuclear receptor involved in mediating a plethora of cellular functions central to human health and disease. PMID:22038807

  7. From Orbit, Looking toward Mercury's Horizon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA image acquired: March 29, 2011 MESSENGER acquired this image of Mercury's horizon as the spacecraft was moving northward along the first orbit during which MDIS was turned on. Bright rays from Hokusai can be seen running north to south in the image. MDIS frequently acquired images that contained Mercury's horizon during the mission's three Mercury flybys. (Visit these links to see examples of horizon images from Mercury flyby 1, Mercury flyby 2, and Mercury flyby 3.) However, now that MESSENGER is in orbit about Mercury, views of Mercury's horizon in the images will be much less common. The field of view for MDIS will generally be filled with Mercury's surface as the instrument maps out the planet's geology in high resolution, stereo, and color. Occasionally, in order to obtain images of a certain portion of Mercury's surface, the horizon will also be visible. On March 17, 2011 (March 18, 2011, UTC), MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury. The mission is currently in its commissioning phase, during which spacecraft and instrument performance are verified through a series of specially designed checkout activities. In the course of the one-year primary mission, the spacecraft's seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation will unravel the history and evolution of the Solar System's innermost planet. Visit the Why Mercury? section of this website to learn more about the science questions that the MESSENGER mission has set out to answer. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  8. Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Among the major discoveries made by the Mariner 10 mission to the inner planets was the existence of an intrinsic magnetic field at Mercury with a dipole moment of approx. 300 nT R(sup 3, sub M). This magnetic field is sufficient to stand off the solar wind at an altitude of about 1 R(sub M) (i.e. approx. 2439 km). Hence, Mercury possesses a 'magnetosphere' from which the so]ar wind plasma is largely excluded and within which the motion of charged particles is controlled by the planetary magnetic field. Despite its small size relative to the magnetospheres of the other planets, a Mercury orbiter mission is a high priority for the space physics community. The primary reason for this great interest is that Mercury unlike all the other planets visited thus far, lacks a significant atmosphere; only a vestigial exosphere is present. This results in a unique situation where the magnetosphere interacts directly with the outer layer of the planetary crust (i.e. the regolith). At all of the other planets the topmost regions of their atmospheres become ionized by solar radiation to form ionospheres. These planetary ionospheres then couple to electrodynamically to their magnetospheres or, in the case of the weakly magnetized Venus and Mars, directly to the solar wind. This magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is mediated largely through field-aligned currents (FACs) flowing along the magnetic field lines linking the magnetosphere and the high-latitude ionosphere. Mercury is unique in that it is expected that FACS will be very short lived due to the low electrical conductivity of the regolith. Furthermore, at the earth it has been shown that the outflow of neutral atmospheric species to great altitudes is an important source of magnetospheric plasma (following ionization) whose composition may influence subsequent magnetotail dynamics. However, the dominant source of plasma for most of the terrestrial magnetosphere is the 'leakage'of solar wind across the magnetopause and more

  9. Evidence of transboundary mercury and other pollutants in the Puyango-Tumbes River basin, Ecuador-Peru.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Bruce G; Veiga, Marcello M; Kaplan, Robert J; Adler Miserendino, Rebecca; Schudel, Gary; Bergquist, Bridget A; Guimarães, Jean R D; Sobral, Luis G S; Gonzalez-Mueller, Carolina

    2018-04-25

    In Portovelo in southern Ecuador, 87 gold processing centers along the Puyango-Tumbes River produce an estimated 6 tonnes of gold per annum using a combination of mercury amalgamation and/or cyanidation and processing poly-metallic ores. We analysed total Hg, Hg isotopes, total arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in water and sediment along the Puyango in 2012-2014. The highest total mercury (THg) concentrations in sediments were found within a 40 km stretch downriver from the processing plants, with levels varying between 0.78-30.8 mg kg-1 during the dry season and 1.80-70.7 mg kg-1 during the wet season, with most concentrations above the CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) Probable Effect Level (PEL) of 0.5 mg kg-1. Data from mercury isotopic analyses support the conclusion that mercury use during gold processing in Portovelo is the source of Hg pollution found downstream in the Tumbes Delta in Peru, 160 km away. The majority of the water and sediment samples collected from the Puyango-Tumbes River had elevated concentrations of, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc exceeding the CCME thresholds for the Protection of Aquatic Life. At monitoring points immediately below the processing plants, total dissolved concentrations of these metals exceeded the thresholds by 156-3567 times in surface waters and by 19-740 times in sediment. The results illustrate a significant transboundary pollution problem involving Hg and other toxic metals, amplified by the fact that the Puyango-Tumbes River is the only available water source in the semi-arid region of northern Peru.

  10. Source identification and mass balance studies of mercury in Lake An-dong, S. Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Byeon, M.; Yoon, J.; Park, J.; Lee, M.; Huh, I.; Na, E.; Chung, D.; Shin, S.; Kim, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In this study, mercury and methylmercury were measured in atmospheric, tributary, open-lake water column, sediment, planktons and fish samples in the catchments area of Lake An-dong, S. Korea. Lake An-dong, an artificial freshwater lake is located on the upstream of River Nak-dong. It has 51.5 km2 of open surface water and 1.33 year of hydraulic residence time. It is a source of drinking water for 0.3 million S. Koreans. Recently, the possibilities of its mercury contamination became an issue since current studies showed that the lake had much higher mercury level in sediment and certain freshwater fish species than any other lakes in S. Korea. This catchments area has the possibilities of historical mercury pollution by the location of more than 50 abandoned gold mines and Young-poong zinc smelter. The objective of this study was to develop a mercury mass balance and identify possible mercury sources in the lake. The results of this study are thus expected to offer valuable insights for the sources of mercury loading through the watershed. In order to estimate the mercury flux, TGM, RGM and particulate mercury were measured using TEKRAN 2537 at the five sites surrounding Lake An-dong from May, 2009 with wet and dry deposition. The fate and transport of mercury in water body were predicted by using EFDC (Environmental Dynamic Fluid Code) and Mercury module in WASP7 (Water quality analysis program) after subsequent distribution into water body, sediments, followed by bioaccumulation and ultimate uptake by humans. The mercury mass balance in Young-poong zinc smelter was also pre-estimated by measuring mercury content in zinc ores, emission gases, sludge, wastewater and products.

  11. Mercury contamination extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  12. MERCURY RESEARCH STRATEGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's ORD is pleased to announce the availability of its Mercury Research Strategy. This strategy guides ORD's mercury research program and covers the FY2001-2005 time frame. ORD will use it to prepare a multi-year mercury research implementation plan in 2001. The Mercury R...

  13. Mercury recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Matos, Grecia R.

    2005-01-01

    mercury is estimated because it is a low-volume commodity and its production, use, and disposal is difficult to track. The prices and volumes of each category of mercury-containing material may change dramatically from year to year. For example, the average price of mercury was approximately $150 per flask from 2000 until 2003 and then rose sharply to $650 per flask in fall 2004 and approximately $850 per flask in spring 2005. Since 1927, the common unit for measuring and pricing mercury has been the flask in order to conform to the system used at Almaden, Spain (Meyers, 1951). One flask weighs 34.5 kilograms, and 29 flasks of mercury are contained in a metric ton. In the United States, the chlorine-caustic soda industry, which is the leading end-user of elemental mercury, recycles most of its mercury in-plant as home scrap. Annual purchases of replacement mercury by the chlorine-caustic soda industry indicate that some mercury may be lost through evaporation to the environment, put into a landfill as industrial waste, or trapped within pipes in the plant. Impending closure of domestic and foreign mercury-cell chlorine-caustic soda plants and the shift to nonmercury technology for chlorine-caustic soda production could ultimately result in a significant volume of elemental mercury for recycling, sale, or storage. Globally, mercury is widely used in artisanal, or small-scale, gold mining. Most of that mercury is lost to the environment and is not recycled. The recycling rate for mercury was not available owing to insufficient data in 2000, and the efficiency of mercury recycling was estimated to be 62 percent.

  14. False Color View of Mercury

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    This colorful view of Mercury was produced by using images from the color base map imaging campaign during MESSENGER's primary mission. These colors are not what Mercury would look like to the human eye, but rather the colors enhance the chemical, mineralogical, and physical differences between the rocks that make up Mercury's surface. To watch a movie of this colorful view of Mercury as a spinning globe go here: www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/8497927473 Young crater rays, extending radially from fresh impact craters, appear light blue or white. Medium- and dark-blue areas are a geologic unit of Mercury's crust known as the "low-reflectance material", thought to be rich in a dark, opaque mineral. Tan areas are plains formed by eruption of highly fluid lavas. The giant Caloris basin is the large circular tan feature located just to the upper right of center of the image. The MESSENGER spacecraft is the first ever to orbit the planet Mercury, and the spacecraft's seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation are unraveling the history and evolution of the Solar System's innermost planet. Visit the Why Mercury? section of this website to learn more about the key science questions that the MESSENGER mission is addressing. During the one-year primary mission, MESSENGER acquired 88,746 images and extensive other data sets. MESSENGER is now in a yearlong extended mission, during which plans call for the acquisition of more than 80,000 additional images to support MESSENGER's science goals. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on

  15. EDITORIAL: Mercury-free discharges for lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverlag, M.

    2007-07-01

    This special Cluster of articles in Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics covers the subject of mercury-free discharges that are being investigated by different light source researchers, as an alternative to existing mercury-containing lamps. The main driving force to move away from mercury-containing discharge light sources is connected to the environmentally unfriendly nature of mercury. After inhalation or direct contact, severe mercury exposure can lead to damage to human brain cells, the kidneys, the liver and the nervous system. For this reason, the use of mercury in products is becoming more and more restricted by different governmental bodies. In the lighting industry, however, many products still make use of mercury, for different reasons. The main reason is that mercury-containing products are, in most cases, more efficient than mercury-free products. For a realistic comparison of the environmental impact, the mercury-contamination due to electricity production must be taken into account, which depends on the type of fuel being used. For an average European fuel-mix, the amount of mercury that is released into the environment is around 29 μg kWh-1. This means that a typical 30 W TL lamp during a lifetime of 20,000 hours will release a total of about 20 mg mercury due to electricity production, which exceeds the total mercury dose in the lamp (more and more of which is being recycled) by a factor of 5-10 for a modern TL lamp. This illustrates that, quite apart from other environmental arguments like increased CO2 production, mercury-free alternatives that use more energy can in fact be detrimental for the total mercury pollution over the lifetime of the lamp. For this reason, the lighting industry has concentrated on lowering the mercury content in lamps as long as no efficient alternatives exist. Nevertheless, new initiatives for HID lamps and fluorescent lamps with more or less equal efficiency are underway, and a number of them are described in this

  16. Volcanism on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothery, David A.

    2017-12-01

    Mercury has no recognized tracts of intact primary crust analogous to lunar highland crust, probably because Mercury's iron-poor magma ocean was insufficiently dense to enable crystallized silicates to float. Its surface is accepted to consist mostly of multiple generations of lavas, rather like terrestrial "large igneous provinces" or LIPs, emplaced in greatest volumes prior to about 3.5 Ga. Subsequently, erupted volumes decreased, and became largely confined to impact craters. Plains younger than about 3.7 Ga are scarred by so few impact craters that they are mapped as "smooth plains." Older plains are termed "intercrater plains." There is no consensus on whether plains with characteristics intermediate between smooth and intercrater plains can be consistently mapped (as "intermediate plains"). The volcanic nature of Mercury's smooth plains was ambiguous on images returned by the first mission to Mercury, Mariner 10 (three flybys in 1974–1975. Better imaging by MESSENGER (in orbit 2011–2015) removed doubt by documenting innumerable ghost craters and wrinkle ridges. Vents are obscure, as is normal in LIPs, but there are good examples of streamlined islands showing the passage of fast-flowing, low-viscosity lava. The causes of mantle partial melting necessary to supply Mercury's eruptions are unclear, but secular cooling of a small, one-plate planet is expected to lead to the decrease in volcanic activity that we observe. Factors include loss of primordial heat and declining rate of radiogenic heat production, and closure of pathways by planetary thermal contraction. Lava compositions resemble komatiites but with low iron content. Regional variations may reflect lateral and vertical heterogeneities in the mantle, or different degrees of partial melting. The cessation of effusive volcanism on Mercury is hard to date because the youngest areas are small. However, it probably continued until about 1 Ga. That was not the end of volcanism on the planet. MESSENGER

  17. Aerospect operations criteria for Mercury thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, S.

    1979-01-01

    The hazards anticipated from a large scale mercury spill during a possible failure in the preflight and early flight stages of the Space Shuttle were studied. Toxicity thresholds were investigated as well as other consequences of mercury interacting with the environment. Three sites of mercury spill were investigated: land, water, and atmosphere. A laboratory study of interactions between mercury vapor and ozone in a low pressure, high ultraviolet radiation environment approximated the conditions of a mercury vapor release in the ozone layer region of the stratosphere. Clear evidence of an interaction leading to the destruction of ozone by conversion to oxygen was obtained. The impact of a spill on the Earth's environment and methods of early detection of a developing hazard wave of primary concern in the study.

  18. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  19. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  20. Zinc lozenges and the common cold: a meta-analysis comparing zinc acetate and zinc gluconate, and the role of zinc dosage.

    PubMed

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of zinc acetate lozenges with zinc gluconate lozenges in common cold treatment and to examine the dose-dependency of the effect. Meta-analysis. Placebo-controlled zinc lozenge trials, in which the zinc dose was > 75 mg/day. The pooled effect of zinc lozenges on common cold duration was calculated by using inverse-variance random-effects method. Seven randomised trials with 575 participants with naturally acquired common colds. Duration of the common cold. The mean common cold duration was 33% (95% CI 21% to 45%) shorter for the zinc groups of the seven included trials. Three trials that used lozenges composed of zinc acetate found that colds were shortened by 40% and four trials that used zinc gluconate by 28%. The difference between the two salts was not significant: 12 percentage points (95% CI: -12 to + 36). Five trials used zinc doses of 80-92 mg/day, common cold duration was reduced by 33%, and two trials used zinc doses of 192-207 mg/day and found an effect of 35%. The difference between the high-dose and low-dose zinc trials was not significant: 2 percentage points (95% CI: -29 to + 32). Properly composed zinc gluconate lozenges may be as effective as zinc acetate lozenges. There is no evidence that zinc doses over 100 mg/day might lead to greater efficacy in the treatment of the common cold. Common cold patients may be encouraged to try zinc lozenges for treating their colds. The optimal lozenge composition and dosage scheme need to be investigated further.

  1. Changes in lead and zinc lability during weathering-induced acidification of desert mine tailings: Coupling chemical and micro-scale analyses.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sarah M; White, Scott A; Thompson, Thomas L; Maier, Raina M; Chorover, Jon

    2009-12-01

    Desert mine tailings may accumulate toxic metals in the near surface centimeters because of low water through-flux rates. Along with other constraints, metal toxicity precludes natural plant colonization even over decadal time scales. Since unconsolidated particles can be subjected to transport by wind and water erosion, potentially resulting in direct human and ecosystem exposure, there is a need to know how the lability and form of metals change in the tailings weathering environment. A combination of chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction, micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy were employed to study Pb and Zn contamination in surficial arid mine tailings from the Arizona Klondyke State Superfund Site. Initial site characterization indicated a wide range in pH (2.5 to 8.0) in the surficial tailings pile. Ligand-promoted (DTPA) extractions, used to assess plant-available metal pools, showed decreasing available Zn and Mn with progressive tailings acidification. Aluminum shows the inverse trend, and Pb and Fe show more complex pH dependence. Since the tailings derive from a common source and parent mineralogy, it is presumed that variations in pH and "bioavailable" metal concentrations result from associated variation in particle-scale geochemistry. Four sub-samples, ranging in pH from 2.6 to 5.4, were subjected to further characterization to elucidate micro-scale controls on metal mobility. With acidification, total Pb (ranging from 5 - 13 g kg(-1)) was increasingly associated with Fe and S in plumbojarosite aggregates. For Zn, both total (0.4 - 6 g kg(-1)) and labile fractions decreased with decreasing pH. Zinc was found to be primarily associated with the secondary Mn phases manjiroite and chalcophanite. The results suggest that progressive tailings acidification diminishes the overall lability of the total Pb and Zn pools.

  2. Changes in lead and zinc lability during weathering-induced acidification of desert mine tailings: Coupling chemical and micro-scale analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Sarah M.; White, Scott A.; Thompson, Thomas L.; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Desert mine tailings may accumulate toxic metals in the near surface centimeters because of low water through-flux rates. Along with other constraints, metal toxicity precludes natural plant colonization even over decadal time scales. Since unconsolidated particles can be subjected to transport by wind and water erosion, potentially resulting in direct human and ecosystem exposure, there is a need to know how the lability and form of metals change in the tailings weathering environment. A combination of chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction, micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy were employed to study Pb and Zn contamination in surficial arid mine tailings from the Arizona Klondyke State Superfund Site. Initial site characterization indicated a wide range in pH (2.5 to 8.0) in the surficial tailings pile. Ligand-promoted (DTPA) extractions, used to assess plant-available metal pools, showed decreasing available Zn and Mn with progressive tailings acidification. Aluminum shows the inverse trend, and Pb and Fe show more complex pH dependence. Since the tailings derive from a common source and parent mineralogy, it is presumed that variations in pH and “bioavailable” metal concentrations result from associated variation in particle-scale geochemistry. Four sub-samples, ranging in pH from 2.6 to 5.4, were subjected to further characterization to elucidate micro-scale controls on metal mobility. With acidification, total Pb (ranging from 5 – 13 g kg−1) was increasingly associated with Fe and S in plumbojarosite aggregates. For Zn, both total (0.4 – 6 g kg−1) and labile fractions decreased with decreasing pH. Zinc was found to be primarily associated with the secondary Mn phases manjiroite and chalcophanite. The results suggest that progressive tailings acidification diminishes the overall lability of the total Pb and Zn pools. PMID:20161492

  3. The zinc paradigm for metalloneurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Barr, Chelsea A; Burdette, Shawn C

    2017-05-09

    Neurotransmission and sensory perception are shaped through metal ion-protein interactions in various brain regions. The term "metalloneurochemistry" defines the unique field of bioinorganic chemistry focusing on these processes, and zinc has been the leading target of metalloneurochemists in the almost 15 years since the definition was introduced. Zinc in the hippocampus interacts with receptors that dictate ion flow and neurotransmitter release. Understanding the intricacies of these interactions is crucial to uncovering the role that zinc plays in learning and memory. Based on receptor similarities and zinc-enriched neurons (ZENs) in areas of the brain responsible for sensory perception, such as the olfactory bulb (OB), and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), zinc participates in odor and sound perception. Development and improvement of methods which allow for precise detection and immediate manipulation of zinc ions in neuronal cells and in brain slices will be critical in uncovering the synaptic action of zinc and, more broadly, the bioinorganic chemistry of cognition. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Acidic leaching of potentially toxic metals cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc from two Zn smelting slag materials incubated in an acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taoze; Li, Feili; Jin, Zhisheng; Yang, Yuangen

    2018-07-01

    A column leaching study, coupled with acid deposition simulation, was conducted to investigate the leaching of potentially toxic metals (PTM) from zinc smelting slag materials (SSM) after being incubated in an acid Alfisol for 120 days at room temperature. Two SSMs (SSM-A: acidic, 10 yrs exposure with moderate high PTM concentrations versus SSM-B: alkaline, 2 yrs exposure with extremely high PTM concentrations), were used for the incubation at 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 wt% amendment ratios in triplicate. Five leaching events were conducted at day 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28, and the leaching of PTMs mainly occurred in the first three leaching events, with the highest PTM concentrations in leachate measured from 5 wt% SSM amendments. After leaching, 2.5, 12, 5.5, 14, 11, and 9 wt% of M3 extractable Pb, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, and Ni could be released from 5 wt% SSM-A amended soils, being respectively 25, 12, 4, 2, 2, and 2 times more than those from 5 wt% SSM-B amended soils. In the leachates, the concentrations of PTMs were mostly affected by leachant pH and were closely correlated to the concentrations of Fe, Al, Ca, Mg and P with Cd, Pb, and Zn showing the most environmental concern. Visual MINTEQ 3.1 modeling suggested metallic ions and sulfate forms as the common chemical species of PTMs in the leachates; whereas, organic bound species showed importance for Cd, Pb, Cu, and Ni, and CdCl + was observed for Cd. Aluminum hydroxy, phosphate, and sulfate minerals prevailed as the saturated minerals, followed by chloropyromorphite (Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl) and plumbogummite (PbAl 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (OH) 5 ·H 2 O) in the leachates. This study suggested that incubation of SSMs in acidic soil for a long term can enhance the release of PTMs as the forms of metallic ions and sulfate when subjected to acid deposition leaching. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of Blood Concentrations of Zinc, Germanium, and Lead and Relevant Environmental Factors in a Population Sample from Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Long; Xu, Guang; Shao, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hu; Pan, Xing-Fu; Li, Jin-Ye

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements, including zinc (Zn) and germanium (Ge), are essential for health; deficiency or excess levels of trace elements results is harmful. As a result of industrial and agricultural production, Pb widely exists in people’s living environment. It is absorbed mainly through the respiratory and digestive tracts, producing systemic harm. Reference values for a normal, healthy population are necessary for health assessment, prevention and treatment of related diseases, and evaluation of occupational exposures. Reference ranges for the Chinese population have not been established. From March 2009 to February 2010; we collected data and blood samples (n = 1302) from residents aged 6–60 years living in Shandong Province, China. We measured blood concentrations of Zn, Ge, and Pb using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine reference ranges. Results were stratified by factors likely to affect the concentrations of these trace elements: sex, use of cosmetics or hair dye, age, alcohol intake, smoking habits, and consumption of fried food. The overall geometric mean (GM) concentrations (95% confidence interval) were 3.14 (3.08–3.20) mg/L for Zn, 19.9 (19.3–20.6) μg/L for Ge, and 24.1 (23.2–25.1) μg/L for Pb. Blood Zn concentrations were higher in women than in men (p < 0.001), while the opposite was found for Pb (p < 0.001) and sex did not influence Ge (p = 0.095). Alcohol use was associated with higher blood concentrations of Zn (p = 0.002), Ge (p = 0.002), and Pb (p = 0.001). The GM concentration of Zn was highest in 20–30-year-olds (p < 0.001), while Pb concentrations were highest in 12–16-year-olds (p < 0.001). Use of hair dye was associated with lower blood concentrations of Ge (p < 0.05). GM blood concentrations of Pb differed significantly between those who consumed fried foods 1–2 times/month (18.7 μg/L), 1–2 times/week (20.9 μg/L), and every day (28.5 μg/L; p < 0.001). Blood Pb concentrations were higher in subjects

  6. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1958-06-24

    Testing of Mercury Capsule Shape A by the Hydrodynamics Division of Langley. Joseph Shortal wrote (vol. 3, p. 19): The Hydrodynamics Division provided assistance in determining landing loads. In this connection, after PARD engineers had unofficially approached that division to make some water impact tests with the boilerplate capsule, J.B. Parkinson, Hydrodynamics Chief visited Shortal to find out if the request had his support. Finding out that it did, Parkinson said, Its your capsule. If you want us to drop it in the water, we will do it. From Shortal (Vol. 3, p. 16): The basic design of the capsule was made by M.A. Faget and his coworkers at PARD during the winter of 1957-1958. It was natural, then, that extensive use was made of the facilities at Wallops during the development of the spacecraft. The tests at Wallops consisted of 26 full-size capsules, either launched from the ground by rocket power or dropped from airplanes at high altitude and 28 scaled models, either rocket boosted or released from balloons. Emphasis in the Wallops program was on dynamic stability and aerodynamic heating of the capsule, and effectiveness of the pilot-escape and parachute-recovery systems. The biggest part of the Wallops program was the series of full-size capsules, rocket launched with the Little Joe booster, developed especially for Mercury. -- Published in Joseph A. Shortal, History of Wallops Station: Origins and Activities Through 1949, (Wallops Island, VA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Wallops Station, nd), Comment Edition.