Science.gov

Sample records for zinc leaf application

  1. Leaf-IT: An Android application for measuring leaf area.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Julian; Pillar, Giso; Kreft, Holger

    2017-11-01

    The use of plant functional traits has become increasingly popular in ecological studies because plant functional traits help to understand key ecological processes in plant species and communities. This also includes changes in diversity, inter- and intraspecific interactions, and relationships of species at different spatiotemporal scales. Leaf traits are among the most important traits as they describe key dimensions of a plant's life history strategy. Further, leaf area is a key parameter with relevance for other traits such as specific leaf area, which in turn correlates with leaf chemical composition, photosynthetic rate, leaf longevity, and carbon investment. Measuring leaf area usually involves the use of scanners and commercial software and can be difficult under field conditions. We present Leaf-IT, a new smartphone application for measuring leaf area and other trait-related areas. Leaf-IT is free, designed for scientific purposes, and runs on Android 4 or higher. We tested the precision and accuracy using objects with standardized area and compared the area measurements of real leaves with the well-established, commercial software WinFOLIA using the Altman-Bland method. Area measurements of standardized objects show that Leaf-IT measures area with high accuracy and precision. Area measurements with Leaf-IT of real leaves are comparable to those of WinFOLIA. Leaf-IT is an easy-to-use application running on a wide range of smartphones. That increases the portability and use of Leaf-IT and makes it possible to measure leaf area under field conditions typical for remote locations. Its high accuracy and precision are similar to WinFOLIA. Currently, its main limitation is margin detection of damaged leaves or complex leaf morphologies.

  2. Zinc deficiency in field-grown pecan trees: changes in leaf nutrient concentrations and structure.

    PubMed

    Ojeda-Barrios, Dámaris; Abadía, Javier; Lombardini, Leonardo; Abadía, Anunciación; Vázquez, Saúl

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a typical nutritional disorder in pecan trees [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] grown under field conditions in calcareous soils in North America, including northern Mexico and south-western United States. The aim of this study was to assess the morphological and nutritional changes in pecan leaves affected by Zn deficiency as well as the Zn distribution within leaves. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf chlorophyll concentrations, leaf area and trunk cross-sectional area. Zinc deficiency increased significantly the leaf concentrations of K and Ca, and decreased the leaf concentrations of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu. All nutrient values found in Zn-deficient leaves were within the sufficiency ranges, with the only exception of Zn, which was approximately 44, 11 and 9 µg g(-1) dry weight in Zn-sufficient, moderately and markedly Zn-deficient leaves, respectively. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf thickness, mainly due to a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, as well as to increases in stomatal density and size. The localisation of Zn was determined using the fluorophore Zinpyr-1 and ratio-imaging technique. Zinc was mainly localised in the palisade mesophyll area in Zn-sufficient leaves, whereas no signal could be obtained in Zn-deficient leaves. The effects of Zn deficiency on the leaf characteristics of pecan trees include not only decreases in leaf chlorophyll and Zn concentrations, but also a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, an increase in stomatal density and pore size and the practical disappearance of Zn leaf pools. These characteristics must be taken into account to design strategies to correct Zn deficiency in pecan tree in the field. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. High performance zinc anode for battery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, John E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved zinc anode for use in a high density rechargeable alkaline battery is disclosed. A process for making the zinc electrode comprises electrolytic loading of the zinc active material from a slightly acidic zinc nitrate solution into a substrate of nickel, copper or silver. The substrate comprises a sintered plaque having very fine pores, a high surface area, and 80-85 percent total initial porosity. The residual porosity after zinc loading is approximately 25-30%. The electrode of the present invention exhibits reduced zinc mobility, shape change and distortion, and demonstrates reduced dendrite buildup cycling of the battery. The disclosed battery is useful for applications requiring high energy density and multiple charge capability.

  4. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate. ...

  5. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate. ...

  6. Measurements of zinc absorption: application and interpretation in research designed to improve human zinc nutriture.

    PubMed

    Hambidge, K Michael; Miller, Leland V; Tran, Cuong D; Krebs, Nancy F

    2005-11-01

    The focus of this paper is on the application of measurements of zinc absorption in human research, especially studies designed to assess the efficacy of intervention strategies to prevent and manage zinc deficiency in populations. Emphasis is given to the measurement of quantities of zinc absorbed rather than restricting investigations to measurements of fractional absorption of zinc. This is especially important when determining absorption of zinc from the diet, whether it be the habitual diet or an intervention diet under evaluation. Moreover, measurements should encompass all meals for a minimum of one day with the exception of some pilot studies. Zinc absorption is primarily via an active saturable transport process into the enterocytes of the proximal small intestine. The relationship between quantity of zinc absorbed and the quantity ingested is best characterized by saturable binding models. When applied to human studies that have sufficient data to examine dose-response relationships, efficiency of absorption is high until approximately 50-60% maximal absorption is achieved, even with moderate phytate intakes. This also coincides approximately with the quantity of absorbed zinc necessary to meet physiologic requirements. Efficiency of absorption with intakes that exceed this level is low or very low. These observations have important practical implications for the design and interpretation of intervention studies to prevent zinc deficiency. They also suggest the potential utility of measurements of the quantity of zinc absorbed when evaluating the zinc status of populations.

  7. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  8. Biomedical Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Nayak, Tapas R.; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement over the last several decades. Zinc oxide (ZnO), which can exhibit a wide variety of nanostructures, possesses unique semiconducting, optical, and piezoelectric properties hence has been investigated for a wide variety of applications. One of the most important features of ZnO nanomaterials is low toxicity and biodegradability. Zn2+ is an indispensable trace element for adults (~10 mg of Zn2+ per day is recommended) and it is involved in various aspects of metabolism. Chemically, the surface of ZnO is rich in -OH groups, which can be readily functionalized by various surface decorating molecules. In this review article, we summarized the current status of the use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, such as biomedical imaging (which includes fluorescence, magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography, as well as dual-modality imaging), drug delivery, gene delivery, and biosensing of a wide array of molecules of interest. Research in biomedical applications of ZnO nanomaterials will continue to flourish over the next decade, and much research effort will be needed to develop biocompatible/biodegradable ZnO nanoplatforms for potential clinical translation. PMID:24206130

  9. Zinc oxide nanoparticles affect carbon and nitrogen mineralization of Phoenix dactylifera leaf litter in a sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Ismail, Iqbal M I; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; 1000mgkg -1 soil) on soil microbes and their associated soil functions such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) leaf litter (5gkg -1 soil) carbon and nitrogen mineralization in mesocosms containing sandy soil. Nanoparticles application in litter-amended soil significantly decreased the cultivable heterotrophic bacterial and fungal colony forming units (cfu) compared to only litter-amended soil. The decrease in cfu could be related to lower microbial biomass carbon in nanoparticles-litter amended soil. Likewise, ZnO NPs also reduced CO 2 emission by 10% in aforementioned treatment but this was higher than control (soil only). Labile Zn was only detected in the microbial biomass of nanoparticles-litter applied soil indicating that microorganisms consumed this element from freely available nutrients in the soil. In this treatment, dissolved organic carbon and mineral nitrogen were 25 and 34% lower respectively compared to litter-amended soil. Such toxic effects of nanoparticles on litter decomposition resulted in 130 and 122% lower carbon and nitrogen mineralization efficiency respectively. Hence, our results entail that ZnO NPs are toxic to soil microbes and affect their function i.e., carbon and nitrogen mineralization of applied litter thus confirming their toxicity to microbial associated soil functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfate production subcategory. 415.630 Section 415.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate. ...

  11. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfate production subcategory. 415.630 Section 415.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate. ...

  12. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfate production subcategory. 415.630 Section 415.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate. ...

  13. 40 CFR 471.80 - Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Forming Subcategory § 471.80 Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory. This... pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the process operations of the zinc forming subcategory. ...

  14. 40 CFR 421.80 - Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary zinc subcategory. 421.80 Section 421.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Zinc Subcategory § 421.80 Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the production of primary zinc by either...

  15. 40 CFR 421.80 - Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary zinc subcategory. 421.80 Section 421.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Zinc Subcategory § 421.80 Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the production of primary zinc by either...

  16. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride... of pollutants into treatment works which are publicly owned resulting from the production of zinc...

  17. 40 CFR 471.80 - Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Forming Subcategory § 471.80 Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory. This... pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the process operations of the zinc forming subcategory. ...

  18. Effects of sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron applications on sunflower yield and plant nutrient concentration

    SciT

    Hilton, B.R.; Zubriski, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron application did not affect the seed yield or oil percentage of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on both dryland and irrigated soils in North Dakota in 1981. Field averages indicated significant Zn, Mn, and B uptake by sunflower at the 12-leaf stage as a result of fertilization with these elements. Increased Zn uptake was also observed in the uppermost mature leaf at anthesis from zinc fertilization. Although sunflower yield from boron fertilization was not significantly different from the check, a trend was observed in which boron fertilization seemed to decrease sunflower yield. Sunflower yieldsmore » from the boron treatment were the lowest out of seven treatments in three out of four fields. Also, sunflower yield from the boron treatment was significantly lower than both iron and sulfur treatments when all fields were combined.« less

  19. 7 CFR 28.521 - Application of color and leaf grade standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application of color and leaf grade standards. 28.521... Explanatory Terms § 28.521 Application of color and leaf grade standards. American Pima cotton which in color... the color standard irrespective of the leaf content. American Pima cotton which in leaf is within the...

  20. 7 CFR 28.521 - Application of color and leaf grade standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of color and leaf grade standards. 28.521... Explanatory Terms § 28.521 Application of color and leaf grade standards. American Pima cotton which in color... the color standard irrespective of the leaf content. American Pima cotton which in leaf is within the...

  1. 7 CFR 28.521 - Application of color and leaf grade standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application of color and leaf grade standards. 28.521... Explanatory Terms § 28.521 Application of color and leaf grade standards. American Pima cotton which in color... the color standard irrespective of the leaf content. American Pima cotton which in leaf is within the...

  2. 7 CFR 28.521 - Application of color and leaf grade standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application of color and leaf grade standards. 28.521... Explanatory Terms § 28.521 Application of color and leaf grade standards. American Pima cotton which in color... the color standard irrespective of the leaf content. American Pima cotton which in leaf is within the...

  3. 7 CFR 28.521 - Application of color and leaf grade standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application of color and leaf grade standards. 28.521... Explanatory Terms § 28.521 Application of color and leaf grade standards. American Pima cotton which in color... the color standard irrespective of the leaf content. American Pima cotton which in leaf is within the...

  4. Limonia acidissima L. leaf mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles: A potent tool against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Taranath, Tarikere C; Patil, Bheemanagouda N

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles using Limonia acidissima L. and to test their efficacy against the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed with UV-visible spectrophotometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows the presence of bio-molecules involved in the stabilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The shape and size was confirmed with atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, and high resolution transmission electron microscope. These nanoparticles were tested for their effect on the growth of M. tuberculosis through the microplate alamar blue assay technique. The UV-visible data reveal that an absorbance peak at 374nm confirms formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles and they are spherical in shape with sizes between 12nm and 53nm. These nanoparticles control the growth of M. tuberculosis at 12.5μg/mL. Phytosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles is a green, eco-friendly technology because it is inexpensive and pollution free. In the present investigation, based on our results we conclude that the aqueous extract of leaves of L. acidissima can be used for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. These nanoparticles control the growth of M. tuberculosis and this was confirmed with the microplate alamar blue method. The potential of biogenic zinc oxide nanoparticles may be harnessed as a novel medicine ingredient to combat tuberculosis disease. Copyright © 2016 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  6. Zinc

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  7. Effect of Tamarindus indica leaf powder on plasma concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in fluorotic cows

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Pinaki; Patra, R. C.; Gupta, A. R.; Mishra, S. K.; Jena, D.; Satapathy, D.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The main objective of the study was to determine the deleterious effect of fluoride on plasma trace minerals of fluorotic cattle and to evaluate the effect of Tamarindus indica leaf powder toward correction of the same. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 cattle exhibiting chronic sign of fluorosis and 10 healthy cattle from nonfluorotic area were incorporated in this study. Fluorotic cattle were divided into three equal groups consisting of 10 cattle each. Group I from fluoride free area served as healthy control. The Group II received no treatment and served as disease control. Groups III and IV were supplemented with tamarind leaf powder at 15 g and 30 g/day with feed for 60 days. Plasma mineral status was evaluated after 60 days of treatment with double beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Statistical analysis of data revealed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in mean plasma copper (Cu) (0.344±0.007 ppm), zinc (Zn) (0.692±0.06 ppm), and iron (Fe) concentration (1.100±0.01 ppm) in fluorotic cattle in comparison to healthy cattle (0.58±0.010, 2.342±0.04, 1.406±0.04 ppm, respectively). Significant (p<0.05) increase in Cu, Zn, and Fe was recorded after supplementation of tamarind leaf powder to the fluorotic cattle. Conclusion: It was concluded that fluorotic cattle might be supplemented with T. indica leaf powder with feed for the correction of the decreased level of certain plasma minerals. PMID:27847422

  8. Effect of Tamarindus indica leaf powder on plasma concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in fluorotic cows.

    PubMed

    Samal, Pinaki; Patra, R C; Gupta, A R; Mishra, S K; Jena, D; Satapathy, D

    2016-10-01

    The main objective of the study was to determine the deleterious effect of fluoride on plasma trace minerals of fluorotic cattle and to evaluate the effect of Tamarindus indica leaf powder toward correction of the same. A total of 30 cattle exhibiting chronic sign of fluorosis and 10 healthy cattle from nonfluorotic area were incorporated in this study. Fluorotic cattle were divided into three equal groups consisting of 10 cattle each. Group I from fluoride free area served as healthy control. The Group II received no treatment and served as disease control. Groups III and IV were supplemented with tamarind leaf powder at 15 g and 30 g/day with feed for 60 days. Plasma mineral status was evaluated after 60 days of treatment with double beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis of data revealed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in mean plasma copper (Cu) (0.344±0.007 ppm), zinc (Zn) (0.692±0.06 ppm), and iron (Fe) concentration (1.100±0.01 ppm) in fluorotic cattle in comparison to healthy cattle (0.58±0.010, 2.342±0.04, 1.406±0.04 ppm, respectively). Significant (p<0.05) increase in Cu, Zn, and Fe was recorded after supplementation of tamarind leaf powder to the fluorotic cattle. It was concluded that fluorotic cattle might be supplemented with T. indica leaf powder with feed for the correction of the decreased level of certain plasma minerals.

  9. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Revolutionizing Agriculture: Synthesis and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Sidra; Arshad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the most innovative field of 21st century. Extensive research is going on for commercializing nanoproducts throughout the world. Due to their unique properties, nanoparticles have gained considerable importance compared to bulk counterparts. Among other metal nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles are very much important due to their utilization in gas sensors, biosensors, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems, and so forth. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) also have remarkable optical, physical, and antimicrobial properties and therefore have great potential to enhance agriculture. As far as method of formation is concerned, ZnO NPs can be synthesized by several chemical methods such as precipitation method, vapor transport method, and hydrothermal process. The biogenic synthesis of ZnO NPs by using different plant extracts is also common nowadays. This green synthesis is quite safe and ecofriendly compared to chemical synthesis. This paper elaborates the synthesis, properties, and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles. PMID:25436235

  10. Zinc Oxide—From Synthesis to Application: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kołodziejczak-Radzimska, Agnieszka; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide can be called a multifunctional material thanks to its unique physical and chemical properties. The first part of this paper presents the most important methods of preparation of ZnO divided into metallurgical and chemical methods. The mechanochemical process, controlled precipitation, sol-gel method, solvothermal and hydrothermal method, method using emulsion and microemulsion enviroment and other methods of obtaining zinc oxide were classified as chemical methods. In the next part of this review, the modification methods of ZnO were characterized. The modification with organic (carboxylic acid, silanes) and inroganic (metal oxides) compounds, and polymer matrices were mainly described. Finally, we present possible applications in various branches of industry: rubber, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, textile, electronic and electrotechnology, photocatalysis were introduced. This review provides useful information for specialist dealings with zinc oxide. PMID:28788596

  11. Zinc oxide nanoparticles for revolutionizing agriculture: synthesis and applications.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Sidra; Arshad, Muhammad; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the most innovative field of 21st century. Extensive research is going on for commercializing nanoproducts throughout the world. Due to their unique properties, nanoparticles have gained considerable importance compared to bulk counterparts. Among other metal nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles are very much important due to their utilization in gas sensors, biosensors, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems, and so forth. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) also have remarkable optical, physical, and antimicrobial properties and therefore have great potential to enhance agriculture. As far as method of formation is concerned, ZnO NPs can be synthesized by several chemical methods such as precipitation method, vapor transport method, and hydrothermal process. The biogenic synthesis of ZnO NPs by using different plant extracts is also common nowadays. This green synthesis is quite safe and ecofriendly compared to chemical synthesis. This paper elaborates the synthesis, properties, and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  12. 76 FR 13171 - Leaf River Energy Center LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-107-000] Leaf River Energy Center LLC; Notice of Application On February 25, 2011, Leaf River Energy Center LLC (Leaf River... Docket No. CP08-8-000 to authorize Leaf River to relocate and construct two of its certificated and not...

  13. 77 FR 19278 - Leaf River Energy Center LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-91-000] Leaf River Energy Center LLC; Notice of Application On March 20, 2012, Leaf River Energy Center LLC (Leaf River), 53... Docket No. CP08-8-000 as amended in Docket No. CP11-107-000, to authorize Leaf River to reallocate the...

  14. Zinc Detoxification Is Required for Full Virulence and Modification of the Host Leaf Ionome by Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Fernando; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for all forms of life because it is a structural or catalytic cofactor of many proteins, but it can have toxic effects at high concentrations; thus, microorganisms must tightly regulate its levels. Here, we evaluated the role of Zn homeostasis proteins in the virulence of the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevine, among other diseases. Two mutants of X. fastidiosa 'Temecula' affected in genes which regulate Zn homeostasis (zur) and Zn detoxification (czcD) were constructed. Both knockouts showed increased sensitivity to Zn at physiologically relevant concentrations and increased intracellular accumulation of this metal compared with the wild type. Increased Zn sensitivity was correlated with decreased growth in grapevine xylem sap, reduced twitching motility, and downregulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthetic genes. Tobacco plants inoculated with either knockout mutant showed reduced foliar symptoms and a much reduced (czcD) or absent (zur) modification of the leaf ionome (i.e., the mineral nutrient and trace element composition), as well as reduced bacterial populations. The results show that detoxification of Zn is crucial for the virulence of X. fastidiosa and verifies our previous findings that modification of the host leaf ionome correlates with bacterial virulence.

  15. 40 CFR 461.70 - Applicability; description of the zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Subcategory § 461.70 Applicability; description of the zinc subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  16. 40 CFR 461.70 - Applicability; description of the zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Subcategory § 461.70 Applicability; description of the zinc subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  17. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The provisions of this...

  18. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The provisions of this...

  19. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chloride production subcategory. 415.670 Section 415.670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride... chloride. ...

  20. 77 FR 62499 - Leaf River Energy Center LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-526-000] Leaf River Energy Center LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 24, 2012, Leaf River Energy Center LLC (Leaf River), 53 Riverside Avenue, Westport, Connecticut, 06880, filed an application in Docket No...

  1. Zinc and Wound Healing: A Review of Zinc Physiology and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Samuel; Sood, Aditya; Garnick, Mark S

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of the role of zinc in normal human physiology is constantly expanding, yet there are major gaps in our knowledge with regard to the function of zinc in wound healing. This review aims to provide the clinician with sufficient understanding of zinc biology and an up-to-date perspective on the role of zinc in wound healing. Zinc is an essential ion that is crucial for maintenance of normal physiology, and zinc deficiency has many manifestations ranging from delayed wound healing to immune dysfunction and impairment of multiple sensory systems. While consensus has been reached regarding the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency on wound healing, there is considerable discord in the literature on the optimal methods and true benefits of zinc supplementation.

  2. Zinc nitride thin films: basic properties and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo-Cubero, A.; Gómez-Castaño, M.; García Núñez, C.; Domínguez, M.; Vázquez, L.; Pau, J. L.

    2017-02-01

    Zinc nitride films can be deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering using a Zn target at substrate temperatures lower than 250°C. This low deposition temperature makes the material compatible with flexible substrates. The asgrown layers present a black color, polycrystalline structures, large conductivities, and large visible light absorption. Different studies have reported about the severe oxidation of the layers in ambient conditions. Different compositional, structural and optical characterization techniques have shown that the films turn into ZnO polycrystalline layers, showing visible transparency and semi-insulating properties after total transformation. The oxidation rate is fairly constant as a function of time and depends on environmental parameters such as relative humidity or temperature. Taking advantage of those properties, potential applications of zinc nitride films in environmental sensing have been studied in the recent years. This work reviews the state-of-the-art of the zinc nitride technology and the development of several devices such as humidity indicators, thin film (photo)transistors and sweat monitoring sensors.

  3. Biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf extract of Calotropis gigantea: characterization and its evaluation on tree seedling growth in nursery stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Sadhan Kumar; Malodia, Lalit

    2017-11-01

    Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out using Calotropis leaf extract with zinc acetate salt in the presence of 2 M NaOH. The combination of 200 mM zinc acetate salt and 15 ml of leaf extract was ideal for the synthesis of less than 20 nm size of highly monodisperse crystalline nanoparticles. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized through UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDX (energy dispersive X-ray), and AFM (atomic force microscopy). Effects of biogenic zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on growth and development of tree seedlings in nursery stage were studied in open-air trenches. The UV-Vis absorption maxima showed peak near 350 nm, which is characteristic of ZnO nanoparticles. DLS data showed that single peak is at 11 nm (100%) and Polydispersity Index is 0.245. XRD analysis showed that these are highly crystalline ZnO nanoparticles having an average size of 10 nm. FTIR spectra were recorded to identify the biomolecules involved in the synthesis process, which showed absorption bands at 4307, 3390, 2825, 871, 439, and 420 cm-1. SEM images showed that the particles were spherical in nature. The presence of zinc and oxygen was confirmed by EDX and the atomic % of zinc and oxygen were 33.31 and 68.69, respectively. 2D and 3D images of ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by AFM studies, which indicated that these are monodisperse having size ranges between 1.5 and 8.5 nm. Significant enhancement of growth was observed in Neem ( Azadirachta indica), Karanj ( Pongamia pinnata), and Milkwood-pine ( Alstonia scholaris) seedlings in foliar spraying ZnO nanoparticles to nursery stage of tree seedlings. Out of the three treated saplings, Alstonia scholaris showed maximum height development.

  4. Palmate-like pentafoliata1 encodes a novel Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factor essential for compound leaf morphogenesis in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As the primary site for photosynthetic carbon fixation and the interface between plants and the environment, plant leaves play a key role in plant growth, biomass production and survival, and global carbon and oxygen cycles. Leaves can be simple with a single blade or compound with multiple units of blades known as leaflets. In a palmate-type compound leaf, leaflets are clustered at the tip of the leaf. In a pinnate-type compound leaf, on the other hand, leaflets are placed on a rachis in distance from each other. Higher orders of complexities such as bipinnate compound leaves of the “sensitive” plant, Mimosa pudica, also occur in nature. However, how different leaf morphologies are determined is still poorly understood. Medicago truncatula is a model legume closely related to alfalfa and soybean with trifoliate compound leaves. Recently, we have shown that Palmate-like Pentafoliata1 (PALM1) encodes a putative Cys(2) His(2) zinc finger transcription factor essential for compound leaf morphogenesis in M. truncatula. Here, we present our phylogenetic relationship analysis of PALM1 homologs from different species and demonstrate that PALM1 has transcriptional activity in the transactivation assay in yeast. PMID:20724826

  5. Green Approach for Fabrication and Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in everyday applications. This study aims to fabricate ZnO-NPs using grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel extract with particle size ranging from 12 to 72 nm. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, TEM, DLS, and FTIR analysis. They show the significant photocatalytic degradation efficiency (>56%, 10 mg/L, 6 h) against methylene blue and antioxidant efficacy (≥80% for 1.2 mM) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green ZnO-NPs could be used effectively in environmental safety applications and also can address future medical concerns. PMID:25374484

  6. Green approach for fabrication and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in everyday applications. This study aims to fabricate ZnO-NPs using grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel extract with particle size ranging from 12 to 72 nm. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, TEM, DLS, and FTIR analysis. They show the significant photocatalytic degradation efficiency (>56%, 10 mg/L, 6 h) against methylene blue and antioxidant efficacy (≥80% for 1.2 mM) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green ZnO-NPs could be used effectively in environmental safety applications and also can address future medical concerns.

  7. 40 CFR 461.70 - Applicability; description of the zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc subcategory. 461.70 Section 461.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Subcategory § 461.70 Applicability; description...

  8. 40 CFR 421.80 - Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory. 421.80 Section 421.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Zinc Subcategory § 421.80 Applicability...

  9. 40 CFR 461.70 - Applicability; description of the zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc subcategory. 461.70 Section 461.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Subcategory § 461.70 Applicability; description...

  10. 40 CFR 421.80 - Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory. 421.80 Section 421.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Zinc Subcategory § 421.80 Applicability:...

  11. 40 CFR 461.70 - Applicability; description of the zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc subcategory. 461.70 Section 461.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Subcategory § 461.70 Applicability; description...

  12. 40 CFR 421.80 - Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory. 421.80 Section 421.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Zinc Subcategory § 421.80 Applicability:...

  13. Zinc impregnated cellulose nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Attarad; Ambreen, Sidra; Maqbool, Qaisar; Naz, Sania; Shams, Muhammad Fahad; Ahmad, Madiha; Phull, Abdul Rehman; Zia, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Nanocomposite materials have broad applicability due to synergistic effect of combined components. In present investigation, cellulose isolated from citrus peel waste is used as a supporting material; impregnation of zinc oxide nanoparticles via co-precipitation method. The characterization of nano composite is carried out through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) resulting less than 10 μm cellulose fiber and approx. 50 nm ZnO NPs. Zinc oxide impregnated cellulose (ZnO-Cel) exhibited significant bacterial devastation property when compared to ZnO NPs or Cellulose via disc diffusion and colony forming unit methods. In addition, the ZnO-Cel exhibited significant total antioxidant, and minor DPPH free radical scavenging and total reducing power activities. The nano composite also showed time dependent increase in photocatalytic by effectively degrading methylene blue dye up to 69.5% under sunlight irradiation within 90 min. The results suggest effective utilization of cellulose obtained from citrus waste and synthesis of pharmacologically important nano-composites that can be exploited in wound dressing; defence against microbial attack and healing due to antioxidative property, furthermore can also be used for waste water treatment.

  14. Matching shapes with self-intersections: application to leaf classification.

    PubMed

    Mokhtarian, Farzin; Abbasi, Sadegh

    2004-05-01

    We address the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) shape representation and matching in presence of self-intersection for large image databases. This may occur when part of an object is hidden behind another part and results in a darker section in the gray level image of the object. The boundary contour of the object must include the boundary of this part which is entirely inside the outline of the object. The Curvature Scale Space (CSS) image of a shape is a multiscale organization of its inflection points as it is smoothed. The CSS-based shape representation method has been selected for MPEG-7 standardization. We study the effects of contour self-intersection on the Curvature Scale Space image. When there is no self-intersection, the CSS image contains several arch shape contours, each related to a concavity or a convexity of the shape. Self intersections create contours with minima as well as maxima in the CSS image. An efficient shape representation method has been introduced in this paper which describes a shape using the maxima as well as the minima of its CSS contours. This is a natural generalization of the conventional method which only includes the maxima of the CSS image contours. The conventional matching algorithm has also been modified to accommodate the new information about the minima. The method has been successfully used in a real world application to find, for an unknown leaf, similar classes from a database of classified leaf images representing different varieties of chrysanthemum. For many classes of leaves, self-intersection is inevitable during the scanning of the image. Therefore the original contributions of this paper is the generalization of the Curvature Scale Space representation to the class of 2-D contours with self-intersection, and its application to the classification of Chrysanthemum leaves.

  15. Eco-friendly approach towards green synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals and its potential applications.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Yi, Young-Joo; Cho, Min; Jang, Jum-Suk; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated a novel green route for synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals using Prunus × yedoensis Matsumura leaf extract as a reducing agent without using any surfactant or external energy. Standard characterization studies were carried out to confirm the obtained product using UV-Vis spectra, SEM-EDS, FTIR, TEM, and XRD. In addition, the synthesized ZnO nanocrystals were coated onto fabric and leather samples to study their bacteriostatic effect against odor-causing bacteria Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Zinc oxide nanocrystal-coated fabric and leather showed good activity against both bacteria.

  16. Control of dissected leaf morphology by a Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factor in the model legume Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianbin; Ge, Liangfa; Wang, Hongliang; Berbel, Ana; Liu, Yu; Chen, Yuhui; Li, Guangming; Tadege, Million; Wen, Jiangqi; Cosson, Viviane; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Ratet, Pascal; Madueño, Francisco; Bai, Guihua; Chen, Rujin

    2010-01-01

    Plant leaves are diverse in their morphology, reflecting to a large degree the plant diversity in the natural environment. How different leaf morphology is determined is not yet understood. The leguminous plant Medicago truncatula exhibits dissected leaves with three leaflets at the tip. We show that development of the trifoliate leaves is determined by the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factor PALM1. Loss-of-function mutants of PALM1 develop dissected leaves with five leaflets clustered at the tip. We demonstrate that PALM1 binds a specific promoter sequence and down-regulates the expression of the M. truncatula LEAFY/UNIFOLIATA orthologue SINGLE LEAFLET1 (SGL1), encoding an indeterminacy factor necessary for leaflet initiation. Our data indicate that SGL1 is required for leaflet proliferation in the palm1 mutant. Interestingly, ectopic expression of PALM1 effectively suppresses the lobed leaf phenotype from overexpression of a class 1 KNOTTED1-like homeobox protein in Arabidopsis plants. Taken together, our results show that PALM1 acts as a determinacy factor, regulates the spatial-temporal expression of SGL1 during leaf morphogenesis and together with the LEAFY/UNIFOLIATA orthologue plays an important role in orchestrating the compound leaf morphology in M. truncatula. PMID:20498057

  17. 40 CFR 471.80 - Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory. 471.80 Section 471.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Forming Subcategor...

  18. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415.670 Section 415.670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production...

  19. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. 464.40 Section 464.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40...

  20. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415.670 Section 415.670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production...

  1. 40 CFR 471.80 - Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory. 471.80 Section 471.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Forming Subcategor...

  2. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. 464.40 Section 464.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40...

  3. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. 464.40 Section 464.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40...

  4. 40 CFR 471.80 - Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc forming subcategory. 471.80 Section 471.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Forming Subcategor...

  5. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415.670 Section 415.670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production...

  6. Uniqueness of Zinc as a Bioelement: Principles and Applications in Bioinorganic Chemistry--III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

    1988-01-01

    Attempts to delineate certain basic principles and applications of bioinorganic chemistry to oxidation-reduction reactions. Examines why zinc(II) is so uniquely suited to enzymated reactions of the acid-base type. Suggests the answer may be in the natural abundance and the basic physicochemical properties of zinc(II). (MVL)

  7. Zinc oxide piezoelectric nano-generators for low frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nour, E. S.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2017-06-01

    Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanogenerators (NGs) have been fabricated for low frequency (<100 Hz) energy harvesting applications. Different types of NGs based on ZnO nanostructures have been carefully developed, and studied for testing under different kinds of low frequency mechanical deformations. Well aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) possessing high piezoelectric coefficient were synthesized on flexible substrates using the low temperature hydrothermal route. These ZnO NWs were then used in different configurations to demonstrate different low frequency energy harvesting devices. Using piezoelectric ZnO NWs, we started with the fabrication of a sandwiched NG for a handwriting enabled energy harvesting device based on a thin silver layer coated paper substrate. Such device configurations can be used for the development of electronic programmable smart paper. Further, we developed this NG to work as a triggered sensor for a wireless system using footstep pressure. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using a ZnO NWs piezoelectric NG as a low-frequency self- powered sensor, with potential applications in wireless sensor networks. After that, we investigated and fabricated a sensor on a PEDOT: PSS plastic substrate using a one-sided growth and double-sided growth technique. For the first growth technique, the fabricated NG has been used as a sensor for an acceleration system; while the fabricated NG by the second technique works as an anisotropic direction sensor. This fabricated configuration showed stability for sensing and can be used in surveillance, security, and auto-Mobil applications. In addition to that, we investigated the fabrication of a sandwiched NG on plastic substrates. Finally, we demonstrated that doping ZnO NWs with extrinsic elements (such as Ag) will lead to the reduction of the piezoelectric effect due to the loss of crystal symmetry. A brief summary into future opportunities and challenges is also presented.

  8. Patterns in leaf morphological traits of Chinese woody plants and the application for paleoclimate reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaoqi; Wang, Zhiheng

    2017-04-01

    Leaf morphological traits (LMTs) directly influence carbon-uptake and water-loss of plants in different habitats, and hence can be sensitive indicators of plant interaction with climate. The relationships between community-aggregated LMTs and their surrounding climate have been used to reconstruct paleoclimate. However, the uncertainties in its application remain poorly explored. Using distribution maps and LMTs data (leaf margin states, leaf length, leaf width, and length-width product/ratio) of 10480 Chinese woody dicots and dated family-level phylogenies, we demonstrated the variations of LMTs in geographical patterns, and analyzed their relationships with climate across different life-forms (evergreen and deciduous; trees, shrubs and lianas) and species quartiles with different family-ages. Results showed that from southern to northern China, leaves became shorter and narrower, while leaf length-width ratio increased and toothed-margin percentage decreased. Our results revealed great uncertainties in leaf margin-temperature relationships induced by life-form, precipitation and evolutionary history, and suggested that the widely-used method, leaf margin analysis, should be applied cautiously on paleotemperature reconstruction. Differently, mean leaf size responded tightly to spatial variations in annual evapotranspiration (AET) and primary productivity (GPP and NPP), and these relationships remained constant across different life-forms and evolutionary history, suggesting that leaf size could be a useful surrogate for paleo primary productivity.

  9. Silicon-zinc-glycerol hydrogel, a potential immunotropic agent for topical application.

    PubMed

    Khonina, Tat'yana G; Ivanenko, Maria V; Chupakhin, Oleg N; Safronov, Alexander P; Bogdanova, Ekaterina A; Karabanalov, Maxim S; Permikin, Vasily V; Larionov, Leonid P; Drozdova, Lyudmila I

    2017-09-30

    Nanoparticles synthesized using sol-gel method are promising agents for biomedical applications, in particular for the therapy and diagnosis of various diseases. Using silicon and zinc glycerolates as biocompatible precursors we synthesized by the sol-gel method a new bioactive silicon-zinc-containing glycerohydrogel combining the positive pharmacological properties of the precursors. In the present work the structural features of silicon-zinc-containing glycerohydrogel and its immunotropic properties were studied. The advanced physical methods, including XRD, TEM, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering, were used for studying the structural features of the gel. Hydrolysis of zinc monoglycerolate was investigated under gelation conditions. Evaluation of the efficiency of silicon-zinc-containing glycerohydrogel in providing immune functions was carried out using a model of the complicated wound process behind immunosuppression induced by hydrocortisone administration in the Wistar rats. It has been shown that zinc monoglycerolate exists in the state of amorphous nanoparticles in the cells of 3D-network formed due to incomplete hydrolysis of silicon glycerolates and subsequent silanol condensation. Zinc monoglycerolate is not hydrolyzed and does not enter 3D-network of the gel with the formation of Zn-O-Si groups, but it forms a separate phase. Immunotropic action of silicon-zinc-containing glycerohydrogel was revealed by the histology and immunohistochemistry methods. Amorphous nanoparticles of zinc monoglycerolate, water-soluble silicon glycerolates, and products of their hydrolytic transformations, which are present in a aqueous-glycerol medium, are in the first place responsible for the pharmacological activity of hydrogel. The results obtained allow us to consider silicon-zinc-containing glycerohydrogel as a promising immunotropic agent for topical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt. GGGGGG, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt. GGGGGG, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc...

  12. Zinc compartmentation in root, transport into xylem, and absorption into leaf cells in the hyperaccumulating species of Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoe; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Juncheng; He, Zhenli; Lu, Lingli; Meng, Fanhua

    2006-06-01

    Sedum alfredii Hance can accumulate Zn in shoots over 2%. Leaf and stem Zn concentrations of the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) were 24- and 28-fold higher, respectively, than those of the nonhyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE), whereas 1.4-fold more Zn was accumulated in the roots of the NHE. Approximately 2.7-fold more Zn was stored in the root vacuoles of the NHE, and thus became unavailable for loading into the xylem and subsequent translocation to shoot. Long-term efflux of absorbed 65Zn indicated that 65Zn activity was 6.8-fold higher in shoots but 3.7-fold lower in roots of the HE. At lower Zn levels (10 and 100 microM), there were no significant differences in 65Zn uptake by leaf sections and intact leaf protoplasts between the two ecotypes except that 1.5-fold more 65Zn was accumulated in leaf sections of the HE than in those of the NHE after exposure to 100 microM for 48 h. At 1,000 microM Zn, however, approximately 2.1-fold more Zn was taken up by the HE leaf sections and 1.5-fold more 65Zn taken up by the HE protoplasts as compared to the NHE at exposure times >16 h and >10 min, respectively. Treatments with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or ruptured protoplasts strongly inhibited 65Zn uptake into leaf protoplasts for both ecotypes. Citric acid and Val concentrations in leaves and stems significantly increased for the HE, but decreased or had minimal changes for the NHE in response to raised Zn levels. These results indicate that altered Zn transport across tonoplast in the root and stimulated Zn uptake in the leaf cells are the major mechanisms involved in the strong Zn hyperaccumulation observed in S. alfredii H.

  13. Influence of foliar fertilization on walnut foliar zinc levels and nut production in black walnut

    William R. Reid; Andrew L. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The impact of foliar zinc fertilizer application on nut-bearing black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) trees was studied. Foliar sprays were applied three times per season on two cultivars during four growing seasons by wetting the foliage of the entire crown using a tank mix containing 500 ppm zinc, starting at leaf burst and continuing at 2 week intervals...

  14. Application of zinc oxide quantum dots in food safety

    Zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) are nanoparticles of purified powdered ZnO. The ZnO QDs were directly added into liquid foods or coated on the surface of glass jars using polylactic acid (PLA) as a carrier. The antimicrobial activities of ZnO QDs against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteriti...

  15. Leaf venation: structure, function, development, evolution, ecology and applications in the past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Sack, Lawren; Scoffoni, Christine

    2013-06-01

    The design and function of leaf venation are important to plant performance, with key implications for the distribution and productivity of ecosystems, and applications in paleobiology, agriculture and technology. We synthesize classical concepts and the recent literature on a wide range of aspects of leaf venation. We describe 10 major structural features that contribute to multiple key functions, and scale up to leaf and plant performance. We describe the development and plasticity of leaf venation and its adaptation across environments globally, and a new global data compilation indicating trends relating vein length per unit area to climate, growth form and habitat worldwide. We synthesize the evolution of vein traits in the major plant lineages throughout paleohistory, highlighting the multiple origins of individual traits. We summarize the strikingly diverse current applications of leaf vein research in multiple fields of science and industry. A unified core understanding will enable an increasing range of plant biologists to incorporate leaf venation into their research. © 2013 The Authors New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Zinc oxide doped graphene oxide films for gas sensing applications

    SciT

    Chetna,, E-mail: chetna2288@gmail.com; Kumar, Shani; Chaudhary, S.

    Graphene Oxide (GO) is analogous to graphene, but presence of many functional groups makes its physical and chemical properties essentially different from those of graphene. GO is found to be a promising material for low cost fabrication of highly versatile and environment friendly gas sensors. Selectivity, reversibility and sensitivity of GO based gas sensor have been improved by hybridization with Zinc Oxide nanoparticles. The device is fabricated by spin coating of deionized water dispersed GO flakes (synthesized using traditional hummer’s method) doped with Zinc Oxide on standard glass substrate. Since GO is an insulator and functional groups on GO nanosheetsmore » play vital role in adsorbing gas molecules, it is being used as an adsorber. Additionally, on being exposed to certain gases the electric and optical characteristics of GO material exhibit an alteration in behavior. For the conductivity, we use Zinc Oxide, as it displays a high sensitivity towards conduction. The effects of the compositions, structural defects and morphologies of graphene based sensing layers and the configurations of sensing devices on the performances of gas sensors were investigated by Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Keithley Sourcemeter.« less

  17. Functional zinc oxide nanostructures for electronic and energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Abhishek

    vacuum levels. We found that there exists a minimum Eth as we scale the threshold field with pressure. This behavior is explained by referring to Paschen's law.(4) We have studied the application of ZnO nanostructures for solar energy harvesting. First, as-grown and (CdSe) ZnS QDs decorated ZnO NBs and ZnONWs were tested for photocurrent generation. All these nanostructures offered fast response time to solar radiation. The decoration of QDs decreases the stable current level produced by ZnONWs but increases that generated by NBs. It is possible that NBs offer more stable surfaces for the attachment of QDs. In addition, our results suggests that performance degradation of solar cells made by growing ZnO NWs on ITO is due to the increase in resistance of ITO after the high temperature growth process. Hydrogen annealing also improve the efficiency of the solar cells by decreasing the resistance of ITO. Due to the issues on ITO, we use Ni foil as the growth substrates. Performance of solar cells made by growing ZnO NWs on Ni foils degraded after Hydrogen annealing at both low (300°C) and high (600°C) temperatures since annealing passivates native defects in ZnONWs and thus reduce the absorption of visible spectra from our solar simulator. Decoration of QDs improves the efficiency of such solar cells by increasing absorption of light in the visible region. Using a better electrolyte than phosphate buffer solution (PBS) such as KI also improves the solar cell efficiency. (5) Finally, we have attempted p-type doping of ZnO NWs using various growth precursors including phosphorus pentoxide, sodium fluoride, and zinc fluoride. We have also attempted to create p-type carriers via introducing interstitial fluorine by annealing ZnO nanostructures in diluted fluorine gas. In brief, we are unable to reproduce the growth of reported p-type ZnO nanostructures. However; we have identified the window of temperature and duration of post-growth annealing of ZnO NWs in dilute fluorine gas

  18. Fatigue properties of die cast zinc alloys for automotive lock applications

    SciT

    Schrems, Karol K.; Dogan, Omer N.; Goodwin, F.E.

    2004-06-01

    During the 1970’s many automotive lock systems were converted from zinc die casting alloys to engineering plastics for reasons of weight and cost. Recent increases in requirements for precision and security have caused automotive and other lock designers to reconsider zinc alloy die-castings for these applications. To enable this, there is a need for mechanical property data comparable to that of the plastics materials used in these applications. In this work, rotary bending fatigue tests were performed on Alloys 3, 5, ZA-8 and AcuZinc 5 using an R.R. Moore fatigue machine. Testing was performed at 30 Hz and was stoppedmore » at 1x107 cycles. The fatigue limit results were compared to data reported in the literature for higher number of cycles and faster rotations.« less

  19. Effect of soil and foliar application of zinc on grain zinc and cadmium concentration of wheat genotypes differing in Zn-efficiency

    A two-year field experiment was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of soil and foliar applications of zinc sulfate and soil application of waste rubber ash to increase Zn and decrease cadmium (Cd) concentration in grain of 10 wheat genotypes with different Zn-efficiency. Foliar spray of zi...

  20. RETRACTED: Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elumalai, K.; Velmurugan, S.; Ravi, S.; Kathiravan, V.; Ashokkumar, S.

    2015-05-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor. The article contains the same image in two panels (Fig. 8A and B) which was previously published in "Facile, eco-friendly and template free photosynthesis of cauliflower like ZnO nanoparticles using leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (L.) and its biological evolution of antibacterial and antifungal activities" by K. Elumalai et al. in Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 136 (2015) 1052-1057, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2014.09.129 despite being attributed to different nanoparticles. Furthermore, Figures 9C, D and E are the same, despite being indicated as analysis of different microorganisms. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this scientific misbehavior and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  1. Phytofabrication of bioinspired zinc oxide nanocrystals for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Jang, Jum-Suk; Yi, Young-Joo; Han, Sang-Sub; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Kwang-Min; Cho, Min; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated a novel green route for synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using the extract of young cones of Pinus densiflora as a reducing agent. Standard characterization studies were carried out to confirm the obtained product using UV-Vis spectra, SEM-EDS, FTIR, and XRD. TEM images showed that various shapes of ZnO NPs were synthesized, including hexagonal (wurtzite), triangular, spherical, and oval-shaped particles, with average sizes between 10 and 100 nm. The synthesized ZnO NPs blended with the young pine cone extract have very good activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens, similar to that of commercial ZnO NPs.

  2. Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its control of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm and blood sucking mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Vinoj, G; Malaikozhundan, B; Shanthi, S; Vaseeharan, B

    2015-02-25

    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles were biologically synthesized using the leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Pam-ZnO NPs). The synthesized Pam-ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, TEM and XRD analysis. TEM analysis of Pam-ZnO NPs showed the average size of about 20-50 nm. Pam-ZnO NPs control the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms (MRSA ATCC 33591) at the concentration of 8-10 μg/ml. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) images revealed that Pam-ZnO NPs strongly inhibited the biofilm forming ability of S. aureus. In addition, Pam-ZnO NPs showed 100% mortality of fourth instar mosquito larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus at the concentration of 8 and 10 μg/ml. The histopathological studies of Pam-ZnO NPs treated A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus larvae revealed the presence of damaged cells and tissues in the mid-gut. The damaged tissues suffered major changes including rupture and disintegration of epithelial layer and cellular vacuolization. The present study conclude that Pam-ZnO NPs showed effective control of S. aureus biofilms and mosquito larvae by damaging the mid gut cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its control of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm and blood sucking mosquito larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Vinoj, G.; Malaikozhundan, B.; Shanthi, S.; Vaseeharan, B.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles were biologically synthesized using the leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Pam-ZnO NPs). The synthesized Pam-ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, TEM and XRD analysis. TEM analysis of Pam-ZnO NPs showed the average size of about 20-50 nm. Pam-ZnO NPs control the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms (MRSA ATCC 33591) at the concentration of 8-10 μg/ml. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) images revealed that Pam-ZnO NPs strongly inhibited the biofilm forming ability of S. aureus. In addition, Pam-ZnO NPs showed 100% mortality of fourth instar mosquito larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus at the concentration of 8 and 10 μg/ml. The histopathological studies of Pam-ZnO NPs treated A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus larvae revealed the presence of damaged cells and tissues in the mid-gut. The damaged tissues suffered major changes including rupture and disintegration of epithelial layer and cellular vacuolization. The present study conclude that Pam-ZnO NPs showed effective control of S. aureus biofilms and mosquito larvae by damaging the mid gut cells.

  4. Green Synthesis of Formulated Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Chemical Protection of Skin Care and Related Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppolu, Ramya

    Nanomaterials have diversified applications based on the unique properties. These nanoparticles and functionalized nanocomposites have been studied in the health care filed. Nanoparticles are mostly used in sunscreens which are a part of human life. These sunscreens consist of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. Due to the higher band crevices, they help the skin to protect from ultraviolet rays, for instance, ultraviolet B and ultraviolet A. A series of nanostructured zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by cost-effective chemical and bioinspired methods and variables were optimized. Highly stable and spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles were formulated by aloe vera ( Aloe barbadensis) plant extract and avocado (Persea americana Mill) fruit extract. The state-of-the-art instrumentation was used to characterize the morphology, elemental composition, and particle size distribution. X-ray diffraction data indicated highly crystalline and ultrafine nanoparticles were obtained from the colloidal methods. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed the chemical state of zinc, carbon, and oxygen atoms were well-indexed and are used as fingerprint identification of the elements. Transmission electron microscopy images show the shape of particles were cubic and fiber shape contingent upon the protecting operators and heat treatment conditions. The toxicity studies of zinc oxide nanoparticles were found to cause an increase in nitric oxide, which is protecting against further oxidative stress and appears to be nontoxic.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide-neem oil-chitosan bionanocomposite for food packaging application.

    PubMed

    Sanuja, S; Agalya, A; Umapathy, M J

    2015-03-01

    Nano zinc oxide at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5%) and neem essential oil were incorporated into the chitosan polymer by solution cast method to enhance the properties of the bionanocomposite film. The functional groups, crystalline particle size, thermal stability and morphology were determined using FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM, respectively. The results showed that 0.5% nano zinc oxide incorporated composite film have improved tensile strength, elongation, film thickness, film transparency and decreased water solubility, swelling and barrier properties due to the presence of neem oil and nano zinc oxide in the polymer matrix. Further antibacterial activity by well diffusion assay method was followed against Escherichia coli which were found to have good inhibition effect. In addition to this food quality application were carried against carrot and compared with the commercial film. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A critical examination of the possible application of zinc stable isotope ratios in bivalve mollusks and suspended particulate matter to trace zinc pollution in a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Daniel; Machado, Wilson; Weiss, Dominik; Mulholland, Daniel S; Boaventura, Geraldo R; Viers, Jerome; Garnier, Jeremie; Dantas, Elton L; Babinski, Marly

    2017-07-01

    The application of zinc (Zn) isotopes in bivalve tissues to identify zinc sources in estuaries was critically assessed. We determined the zinc isotope composition of mollusks (Crassostrea brasiliana and Perna perna) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in a tropical estuary (Sepetiba Bay, Brazil) historically impacted by metallurgical activities. The zinc isotope systematics of the SPM was in line with mixing of zinc derived from fluvial material and from metallurgical activities. In contrast, source mixing alone cannot account for the isotope ratios observed in the bivalves, which are significantly lighter in the contaminated metallurgical zone (δ 66 Zn JMC  = +0.49 ± 0.06‰, 2σ, n = 3) compared to sampling locations outside (δ 66 Zn JMC  = +0.83 ± 0.10‰, 2σ, n = 22). This observation suggests that additional factors such as speciation, bioavailability and bioaccumulation pathways (via solution or particulate matter) influence the zinc isotope composition of bivalves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and formulation of Moringa oleifera standardised leaf extract film dressing for wound healing application.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chai-Yee; Jalil, Juriyati; Ng, Pei Yuen; Ng, Shiow-Fern

    2018-02-15

    M.oleifera is a medicinal plant traditionally used for skin sores, sore throat and eye infections. Recently, the wound healing property of the leaves of M. oleifera was has been well demonstrated experimentally in both in vivo and in vitro models. However, there is a lack of research which focuses on formulating M.oleifera into a functional wound dressing. In this study, the M.oleifera leaf standardized aqueous extract with highest potency in vitro migration was formulated into a film for wound healing application. Firstly, M. oleifera leaf were extracted in various solvents (aqueous, 50%, 70% and 100% ethanolic extracts) and standardized by reference standards using UHPLC technique. The extracts were then tested for cell migration and proliferation using HDF and HEK cell lines. M. oleifera leaf aqueous extract was then incorporated into alginate-pectin (SA-PC) based film dressing. The film dressings were characterized for the physicochemical properties and the bioactives release from the M. oleifera leaf extract loaded film dressing was also investigated using Franz diffusion cells. All extracts were found to contain vicenin-2, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, rosmarinic acid and rutin. Among all M. oleifera extracts, aqueous standardized leaf extracts showed the highest human dermal fibroblast and human keratinocytes cells proliferation and migration properties. Among the film formulations, SA-PC (3% w/v) composite film dressing containing M. oleifera aqueous leaf extract was found to possess optimal physicochemical properties as wound dressing. A potentially applicable wound dressing formulated as an alginate-pectin film containing aqueous extracts of M. oleifera has been developed. The dressing would be suitable for wounds with moderate exudates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Zinc oxide nanostructured layers for gas sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricato, A. P.; Cretí, A.; Luches, A.; Lomascolo, M.; Martino, M.; Rella, R.; Valerini, D.

    2011-03-01

    Various kinds of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures, such as columns, pencils, hexagonal pyramids, hexagonal hierarchical structures, as well as smooth and rough films, were grown by pulsed laser deposition using KrF and ArF excimer lasers, without use of any catalyst. ZnO films were deposited at substrate temperatures from 500 to 700°C and oxygen background pressures of 1, 5, 50, and 100 Pa. Quite different morphologies of the deposited films were observed using scanning electron microscopy when different laser wavelengths (248 or 193 nm) were used to ablate the bulk ZnO target. Photoluminescence studies were performed at different temperatures (down to 7 K). The gas sensing properties of the different nanostructures were tested against low concentrations of NO2. The variation in the photoluminescence emission of the films when exposed to NO2 was used as transduction mechanism to reveal the presence of the gas. The nanostructured films with higher surface-to-volume ratio and higher total surface available for gas adsorption presented higher responses, detecting NO2 concentrations down to 3 ppm at room temperature.

  9. Application of edible coating from cassava peel – bay leaf on avocado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, M. N.; Karlina, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Cakrawati, D.

    2018-05-01

    Avocados have a fairly short shelf life and are included in climacteric fruits. Edible coating application is one alternative to maintain the shelf life of avocado. Cassava peel starch is potential to be used as raw material for edible coating making. Addition of bay leaf extract containing antioxidants can increase the functional value of edible coating. The purpose of this study is to know the shrinkage of weight, acid number, color change and respiration rate of avocado coated with edible coating from cassava peel starch with an addition of bay leaf extract. The study consisted of making cassava peel starch, bay leaf extraction, edible coating making, edible coating application on avocado, and analysis of avocado characteristics during storage at room temperature. The results showed that addition of bay leaf extract on cassava peel starch edible coating applied to avocado, an effect on characteristics of avocado. Avocado applied edible coating and stored at room temperatures had lower weight loss than avocado without edible coating, lower acid number, tend to be more able to maintain color rather than avocado without edible coating.

  10. Highly Reversible Zinc-ion Intercalation with Chevrel Phase Mo6S8 Nanocubes and Applications for Advanced Zinc-ion Batteries

    SciT

    Cheng, Yingwen; Luo, Langli; Zhong, Li

    We demonstrate the application of the Chevrel phase Mo6S8 nanocubes as the anode material for rechargeable Zn-ion batteries. Mo6S8 can host Zn2+ ions reversibility both in aqueous and nonaqueous electrolytes with specific capacities around 90 mAh/g and exhibited remarkable intercalation kinetics as well as stability. Furthermore, we assembled full cells by integrating Mo6S8 anode with zinc-polyiodide (I-/I3-) based catholytes, and demonstrated that such fuel cells was also able to deliver outstanding rate performance and cyclic stability. This first demonstration of zinc intercalating anode could inspire the design of advanced Zn ion batteries.

  11. Control of Dissected Leaf Morphology by a Cys(2)His(2) Zinc Finger Transcription Factor in the Model Legume Medicago Truncatula

    Different plants may have different leaf types. Diversity in leaf types contributes to a large degree of plant diversity in the natural environment. How different leaf morphology is determined is not yet understood. The leguminous plant Medicago truncatula exhibits dissected leaves with three leafl...

  12. Zinc sulfide quantum dots for photocatalytic and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Alexander A.; Leonov, Andrei A.; Zhuikova, Elena I.; Postnova, Irina V.; Voznesenskiy, Sergey S.

    2017-09-01

    Herein, we report the photocatalytic and sensing applications of pure and Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots. The quantum dots were prepared by a chemical precipitation in an aqueous solution in the presence of glutathione as a stabilizing agent. The synthesized quantum dots were used as effective photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue dye. Interestingly, fully degradation of methylene blue dye was achieved in 5 min using pure ZnS quantum dots. Further, the synthesized quantum dots were used as efficient sensing element for methane fluorescent sensor. Interfering studies confirmed that the developed sensor possesses very good sensitivity and selectivity towards methane.

  13. Compartmentation of metals in foliage of Populus tremula grown on soils with mixed contamination. II. Zinc binding inside leaf cell organelles.

    PubMed

    Vollenweider, Pierre; Bernasconi, Petra; Gautschi, Hans-Peter; Menard, Terry; Frey, Beat; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S

    2011-01-01

    The phytoextraction potential of plants for removing heavy metals from polluted soils is determined by their capacity to store contaminants in aboveground organs and complex them safely. In this study, the metal compartmentation, elemental composition of zinc deposits and zinc complexation within leaves from poplars grown on soil with mixed metal contamination was analysed combining several histochemical and microanalytical approaches. Zinc was the only heavy metal detected and was stored in several organelles in the form of globoid deposits showing β-metachromasy. It was associated to oxygen anions and different cations, noteworthy phosphorous. The deposit structure, elemental composition and element ratios indicated that zinc was chelated by phytic acid ligands. Maturation processes in vacuolar vs. cytoplasmic deposits were suggested by differences in size and amounts of complexed zinc. Hence, zinc complexation by phytate contributed to metal detoxification and accumulation in foliage but could not prevent toxicity reactions therein. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  15. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  16. Biological applications of zinc imidazole framework through protein encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Bansal, Vasudha; Paul, A. K.; Bharadwaj, Lalit M.; Deep, Akash; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-10-01

    The robustness of biomolecules is always a significant challenge in the application of biostorage in biotechnology or pharmaceutical research. To learn more about biostorage in porous materials, we investigated the feasibility of using zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) with respect to protein encapsulation. Here, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was selected as a model protein for encapsulation with the synthesis of ZIF-8 using water as a media. ZIF-8 exhibited excellent protein adsorption capacity through successive adsorption of free BSA with the formation of hollow crystals. The loading of protein in ZIF-8 crystals is affected by the molecular weight due to diffusion-limited permeation inside the crystals and also by the affinity of the protein to the pendent group on the ZIF-8 surface. The polar nature of BSA not only supported adsorption on the solid surface, but also enhanced the affinity of crystal spheres through weak coordination interactions with the ZIF-8 framework. The novel approach tested in this study was therefore successful in achieving protein encapsulation with porous, biocompatible, and decomposable microcrystalline ZIF-8. The presence of both BSA and FITC-BSA in ZIF-8 was confirmed consistently by spectroscopy as well as optical and electron microscopy.

  17. One-dimensional zinc oxide nanomaterials synthesis and photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weintraub, Benjamin A.

    As humanly engineered materials systems approach the atomic scale, top-down manufacturing approaches breakdown and following nature's example, bottom-up or self-assembly methods have the potential to emerge as the dominant paradigm. Synthesis of one-dimensional nanomaterials takes advantage of such self-assembly manufacturing techniques, but until now most efforts have relied on high temperature vapor phase schemes which are limited in scalability and compatibility with organic materials. The solution-phase approach is an attractive low temperature alternative to overcome these shortcomings. To this end, this thesis is a study of the rationale solution-phase synthesis of ZnO nanowires and applications in photovoltaics. The following thesis goals have been achieved: rationale synthesis of a single ZnO nanowire on a polymer substrate without seeding, design of a wafer-scale technique to control ZnO nanowire array density using layer-by-layer polymers, determination of optimal nanowire field emitter density to maximize the field enhancement factor, design of bridged nanowires across metal electrodes to order to circumvent post-synthesis manipulation steps, electrical characterization of bridged nanowires, rationale solution-phase synthesis of long ZnO nanowires on optical fibers, fabrication of ZnO nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells on optical fibers, electrical and optical characterization of solar cell devices, comparison studies of 2-D versus 3-D nanowire dye-sensitized solar cell devices, and achievement of 6-fold solar cell power conversion efficiency enhancement using a 3-D approach. The thesis results have implications in nanomanufacturing scale-up and next generation photovoltaics.

  18. A rapid, generally applicable method to engineer zinc fingers illustrated by targeting the HIV-1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Isalan, M; Klug, A; Choo, Y

    2001-07-01

    DNA-binding domains with predetermined sequence specificity are engineered by selection of zinc finger modules using phage display, allowing the construction of customized transcription factors. Despite remarkable progress in this field, the available protein-engineering methods are deficient in many respects, thus hampering the applicability of the technique. Here we present a rapid and convenient method that can be used to design zinc finger proteins against a variety of DNA-binding sites. This is based on a pair of pre-made zinc finger phage-display libraries, which are used in parallel to select two DNA-binding domains each of which recognizes given 5 base pair sequences, and whose products are recombined to produce a single protein that recognizes a composite (9 base pair) site of predefined sequence. Engineering using this system can be completed in less than two weeks and yields proteins that bind sequence-specifically to DNA with Kd values in the nanomolar range. To illustrate the technique, we have selected seven different proteins to bind various regions of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) promoter.

  19. Status of nickel/zinc and nickel/iron battery technology for electric vehicle applications

    SciT

    Yao, N.P.; Christianson, C.C.; Elliott, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Significant progress in nickel/zinc and nickel/iron technology has been made towards achieving the battery technical performance goals necessary for widespread use of these battery systems in electric vehicle applications. This progress is reviewed. Nickel/zinc module test data have shown a specific energy of nearly 70 Whr/kg and a specific power of 130 W/kg. However, cycle life improvements are still needed (presently demonstrated capability of 120 cycles) and are expected to be demonstrated during 1980. Nickel/iron modules have demonstrated a specific energy of nearly 50 Wh/kg and a specific power of 100 W/kg. Indications are that improved performance in these areasmore » can be shown during 1980. Nickel/iron modules cycle lives of 300 have been achieved during early 1980 and testing continues. Energy efficiency has been improved from less than 50% to over 65%. Cost reduction (both initial and operating) continues to receive major emphasis at developers of both nickel/zinc and nickel/iron batteries in order to achieve the lowest possible life cycle cost to the battery user.« less

  20. Tb3+ and Eu3+ doped zinc phosphate glasses for solid state lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Kaushal; Vishwakarma, Amit K.; Jayasimhadri, M.; Haranath, D.; Jang, Kiwan

    2018-04-01

    Tb3+ and Eu3+ doped zinc phosphate (ZP) glasses were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique and their photoluminescence properties were investigated in detail. For, Tb3+ doped glasses the intense emission was at 545 nm corresponding to 5D4→7F5 transition under 377 nm n-UV excitation. The optimized concentration for Tb3+ doped zinc phosphate glass was 3 mol% and above this concentration quenching takes place. The Eu3+ doped zinc phosphate glass revealed intense emission at 613 nm attributed to the 5D0→7F2 transition under intense 392 nm n-UV excitation. The concentration quenching phenomenon was not observed in the Eu3+ doped ZP glasses. The CIE chromaticity coordinates for 3 mol% Tb3+ and 5 mol% Eu3+ doped ZP glasses were found to (0.283, 0.615) and (0.652, 0.331) lying in the green and red regions, respectively. The above mentioned results indicate that the prepared glass are suitable for application in the field of lighting and display devices.

  1. Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) System Concept Applications at Solar System Bodies With an Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Greg; Polidan, Ronald; Ross, Floyd; Sokol, Daniel; Warwick, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Northrop Grumman and L’Garde have continued the development of a hypersonic entry, semi-buoyant, maneuverable platform capable of performing long-duration (months to a year) in situ and remote measurements at any solar system body that possesses an atmosphere.The Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) family of vehicles achieves this capability by using a semi-buoyant, ultra-low ballistic coefficient vehicle whose lifting entry allows it to enter the atmosphere without an aeroshell. The mass savings realized by eliminating the heavy aeroshell allows significantly more payload to be accommodated by the platform for additional science collection and return.In this presentation, we discuss the application of the LEAF system at various solar system bodies: Venus, Titan, Mars, and Earth. We present the key differences in platform design as well as operational differences required by the various target environments. The Venus implementation includes propulsive capability to reach higher altitudes during the day and achieves full buoyancy in the mid-cloud layer of Venus’ atmosphere at night.Titan also offers an attractive operating environment, allowing LEAF designs that can target low or medium altitude operations, also with propulsive capabilities to roam within each altitude regime. The Mars version is a glider that descends gradually, allowing targeted delivery of payloads to the surface or high resolution surface imaging. Finally, an Earth version could remain in orbit in a stowed state until activated, allowing rapid response type deployments to any region of the globe.

  2. Current and Future Clinical Applications of Zinc Transporter-8 in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Bo; Huang, Gan; Zhou, Zhi-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8) in the improvement of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) diagnosis and prediction, and to explore whether ZnT8 is a potential therapeutic target in T1DM. Data Sources: A search was conducted within the medical database PubMed for relevant articles published from 2001 to 2015. The search terms are as follows: “ZnT8,” “type 1 diabetes,” “latent autoimmune diabetes in adults,” “type 2 diabetes,” “islet autoantibodies,” “zinc supplement,” “T cells,” “β cell,” “immune therapy.” We also searched the reference lists of selected articles. Study Selection: English-language original articles and critical reviews concerning ZnT8 and the clinical applications of islet autoantibodies in diabetes were reviewed. Results: The basic function of ZnT8 is maintaining intracellular zinc homeostasis, which modulates the process of insulin biosynthesis, storage, and secretion. Autoantibodies against ZnT8 (ZnT8A) and ZnT8-specific T cells are the reliable biomarkers for the identification, stratification, and characterization of T1DM. Additionally, the results from the animal models and clinical trials have shown that ZnT8 is a diabetogenic antigen, suggesting the possibility of ZnT8-specific immunotherapy as an alternative for T1DM therapy. Conclusions: ZnT8 is a novel islet autoantigen with a widely potential for clinical applications in T1DM. However, before the large-scale clinical applications, there are still many problems to be solved. PMID:26315089

  3. Cadmium and zinc in soil solution extracts following the application of phosphate fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Raphaël; Grant, Cynthia; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the solubility of cadmium and zinc in soils after the application of phosphate fertilizers containing those two metals. The solubility of cadmium and zinc was assessed by measuring their concentration in soil water extracts. Three monoammonium phosphate fertilizers containing various amounts of metals were applied on cultivated fields for 3 years at three different rates. In order to investigate the effects of long-term applications of fertilizers on the solubility of Cd and Zn, a similar design was used to apply contaminated fertilizers to soils in a laboratory experiment using a single fertilizer addition equivalent to 15 years of application. Phosphate fertilizers increased the concentration of Cd in soil extracts compared to control in 87% and 80% of the treatments in field and laboratory experiments respectively. Both increasing the rate of application and using fertilizer containing more Cd lead to higher Cd concentrations in extracts for the field and the laboratory experiments. The addition of the equivalent of 15 years of fertilizer application in the laboratory results in higher Cd concentration in extracts compared to the field experiment. For Zn, the fertilizer treatments enhanced the metal solution concentration in 83% of field treatments, but no significant correlations could be found between Zn inputs and its concentration in solution. In the laboratory, fertilizer additions increase the Zn concentrations in 53% of the treatments and decrease it in most of the other treatments. The decrease in Zn concentrations in the laboratory trial is attributed to the higher phosphate concentrations in the soil solution; which is presumed to have contributed to the precipitation of Zn-phosphates. For both trials, the metal concentrations in soil extracts cannot be related to the Zn concentration in the fertilizer or the rate of application. The high Zn to Cd ratio is presumably responsible for the Cd increase in the soil extracts due to

  4. Laurus nobilis leaf extract mediated green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles: Characterization and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Sekar; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Shobiya, Malaikkarasu

    2016-12-01

    The present study reports the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Laurus nobilis (Ln-ZnO NPs) by co-precipitation method. The synthesized Ln-ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, SEM and EDX. Ln-ZnO NPs were crystalline in nature, flower like and have hexagonal wurtzite structure with a mean particle size of 47.27nm. The antibacterial activity of Ln-ZnO NPs was greater against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria than Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. The zone of inhibition against S. aureus was 11.4, 12.6 and 14.2mm at 25, 50 and 75μgmL -1 . The zone of inhibition against P. aeruginosa was 9.8, 10.2 and 11.3mm at 25, 50 and 75μgmL -1 . The light and confocal laser scanning microscopic images evidenced that Ln-ZnO NPs effectively inhibited the biofilm growth of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa at 75μgmL -1 . The cytotoxicity studies revealed that Ln-ZnO NPs showed no effect on normal murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells. On the other hand, Ln-ZnO NPs were effective in inhibiting the viability of human A549 lung cancer cells at higher concentrations of 80μgmL -1 . The morphological changes in the Ln-ZnO NPs treated A549 lung cancer cells were observed under phase contrast microscope. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineering and Application of Zinc Finger Proteins and TALEs for Biomedical Research.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon-Soo; Kini, Anu Ganesh

    2017-08-01

    Engineered DNA-binding domains provide a powerful technology for numerous biomedical studies due to their ability to recognize specific DNA sequences. Zinc fingers (ZF) are one of the most common DNA-binding domains and have been extensively studied for a variety of applications, such as gene regulation, genome engineering and diagnostics. Another novel DNA-binding domain known as a transcriptional activator-like effector (TALE) has been more recently discovered, which has a previously undescribed DNA-binding mode. Due to their modular architecture and flexibility, TALEs have been rapidly developed into artificial gene targeting reagents. Here, we describe the methods used to design these DNA-binding proteins and their key applications in biomedical research.

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIE...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIE...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIE...

  9. Investigation of novel zinc molybdate-graphene nanocomposite for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, B. Joji; Vickraman, P.; Justin, A. Simon

    2018-06-01

    Novel zinc molybdate-graphene nanocomposite is prepared for the first time in a fast, facile and eco-friendly microwave synthesis route as an electrode material for electrochemical supercapacitors. The as-prepared sample is investigated by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, Raman, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope techniques. The studies have confirmed the formation of ZnMoO4 and its composite with graphene. The synthesized materials are subjected to electrochemical characterization studies in 2M KOH electrolyte solution which prove that ZnMoO4-graphene as an effective electrode material for supercapacitor applications. ZnMoO4 in its composite behavior has exhibited a specific capacitance of 272.93 F g- 1 at 0.5 A g- 1 with good cyclic stability for 1000 cycles.

  10. Experiments and Monte Carlo modeling of a higher resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride detector for safeguards applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borella, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre is engaged in R&D activity in the field of Non Destructive Analysis on nuclear materials, with focus on spent fuel characterization. A 500 mm3 Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) with enhanced resolution was recently purchased. With a full width at half maximum of 1.3% at 662 keV, the detector is very promising in view of its use for applications such as determination of uranium enrichment and plutonium isotopic composition, as well as measurement on spent fuel. In this paper, I report about the work done with such a detector in terms of its characterization. The detector energy calibration, peak shape and efficiency were determined from experimental data. The data included measurements with calibrated sources, both in a bare and in a shielded environment. In addition, Monte Carlo calculations with the MCNPX code were carried out and benchmarked with experiments.

  11. Synthesis of ALD zinc oxide and thin film materials optimization for UV photodetector applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapily, Kandabara Nouhoum

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a direct, wide bandgap semiconductor material. It is thermodynamically stable in the wurtzite structure at ambient temperature conditions. ZnO has very interesting optical and electrical properties and is a suitable candidate for numerous optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, LEDs and UV-photodetectors. ZnO is a naturally n-type semiconductor. Due to the lack of reproducible p-type ZnO, achieving good homojunction ZnO-based photodiodes such as UV-photodetectors remains a challenge. Meanwhile, heterojunction structures of ZnO with p-type substrates such as SiC, GaN, NiO, AlGaN, Si etc. are used; however, those heterojunction diodes suffer from low efficiencies. ZnO is an n-type material with numerous intrinsic defect levels responsible for the electrical and optical behaviors. Presently, there is no clear consensus about the origin of those defects. In this work, ZnO was synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is a novel deposition technique suitable for nanotechnology engineering that provides unique features such as precise control of ZnO thin film with atomic resolution, high uniformity, good conformity and high aspect ratio. Using this novel deposition technique, the ALD ZnO deposition process was developed and optimized using diethyl zinc as the precursor for zinc and water vapor as the oxygen source. In order to optimize the film quality for use in electronic applications, the physical, mechanical and electrical properties were investigated. The structural and mechanical properties of the ALD ZnO thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), spectroscopic Ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, UV-VIS absorption and nanoindentation. The electrical characterizations were performed using C-V, I-V, DLTS, Hall Effect, and four-point probe. The intrinsic defects responsible

  12. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice.

    PubMed

    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E L; Struik, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Two solution culture experiments using (70)Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg(-1) dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement.

  13. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    PubMed Central

    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E. L.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Methods: Two solution culture experiments using 70Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. Results: A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg−1 dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. Conclusions: In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement. PMID:24478788

  14. Characterizing and simulation the scintillation properties of zinc oxide nanowires in AAO membrane for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfandi, F.; Saramad, S.; Rezaei Shahmirzadi, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a new method is proposed for extracting some X-ray detection properties of ZnO nanowires electrodeposited on Anodized Aluminum Oxide (AAO) nanoporous template. The results show that the detection efficiency for 12μm thickness of zinc oxide nano scintillator at an energy of 9.8 keV, near the K-edge of ZnO (9.65 keV), is 24%. The X-rays that interact with AAO can also generate electrons that reach the nano scintillator. The scintillation events of these electrons are seen as a low energy tail in the spectrum. In addition, it is found that all the X-rays that are absorbed in 300 nm thickness of the gold layer on the top of the zinc oxide nanowires can participate in the scintillation process with an efficiency of 6%. Hence, the scintillation detection efficiency of the whole detector for 9.8 keV X-ray energy is 30%. The simulation results from Geant4 and the experimental detected photons per MeV energy deposition are also used to extract the light yield of the zinc oxide nano scintillator. The results show that the light yield of the zinc oxide nanowires deposited by the electrochemical method is approximately the same as for single crystal zinc oxide scintillator (9000). Much better spatial resolution of this nano scintillator in comparison to the bulk ones is an advantage which candidates this nano scintillator for medical imaging applications.

  15. Reducing anti-nutritional factor and enhancing yield with advancing time of planting and zinc application in grasspea in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Ashutosh; Fikre, Asnake; El-Moneim, Ali M Abd; Nakkoul, Hani; Singh, Murari

    2018-01-01

    Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is an important pulse crop for food, feed and sustainable crop production systems in Ethiopia. Despite its advantages in nutrition and adaptability to harsh climate and low fertile soil, it contains a neurotoxin, β-N-oxalyl-α,β-diamiono propionic acid (β-ODAP), which paralyses the lower limbs and is affected by genotypic and agronomic factors. To determine the effect of zinc application and planting date on yield and β-ODAP content of two genotypes, experiments were conducted in two regions of Ethiopia. The main effects of variety, sowing date and zinc and their interactions were significant (P < 0.001) for β-ODAP and seed yield, which had a linear relationship with zinc. For the improved grasspea variety, an application of 20 kg ha -1 zinc showed a reduction of β-ODAP from 0.15% to 0.088% at Debre Zeit and 0.14% to 0.08% at Sheno and increased its yield from 841 kg ha -1 to 2260 kg ha -1 at Debre Zeit and from 715 to 1835 kg ha -1 at Sheno. Early sowing showed a reduction in ODAP content in relation to the late sowing. An application of Zn beyond even 20 kg ha -1 with an early sowing is recommended for the improved variety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Morphological Control of Metal Oxide-Doped Zinc Oxide and Application to Cosmetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Takehiro; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio; Tanaka, Takumi

    2012-06-01

    Zinc oxide shows excellent transparency and ultraviolet radiation shielding ability, and is used for various cosmetics.1-3 However, it possesses high catalytic activity and lower dispersibility. Therefore, spherical particles of zinc oxide have been synthesized by soft solution reaction using zinc nitrate, ethylene glycol, sodium hydroxide and triethanolamine as starting materials. After dissolving these compounds in water, the solution was heated at 90°C for 1 h to form almost mono-dispersed spherical zinc oxide particles. The particle size changed depending on zinc ion concentration, ethylene glycol concentration and so on. Furthermore, with doping some metal ions, the phtocatalytic activity could be decreased. The obtained monodispersed metal ion-doped spherical zinc oxides showed excellent UV shielding ability and low photocatalytic activity. Therefore, they are expected to be used as cosmetics ingredients.

  17. Spectrophotometric studies and applications for the determination of Ni2+ in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xiaoping; Li, Helin; Zhao, Wenzhen; Li, Dejun

    The absorption properties of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte were studied by visible spectrophotometer. The results show that the relationship between the absorbance of the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte and Ni2+ concentration in the electrolyte obeys Beer's law at 660 nm. In addition, other components except Ni2+ in the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte such as zinc chloride, ammonium chloride, potassium chloride and boric acid have no obvious effect on the absorbance of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Based on these properties, a new method is developed to determine Ni2+ concentration in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Comparing with other methods, this method is simple, direct and accurate. Moreover, the whole testing process does not consume any reagent and dilution, and after testing, the electrolyte samples can be reused without any pollution to the environment.

  18. Application of zinc isotope tracer technology in tracing soil heavy metal pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Yang, Jianqiang; Liu, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Recent years the soil heavy metal pollution has become increasingly serious, especially the zinc pollution. Due to the complexity of this problem, in order to prevent and treat the soil pollution, it's crucial to accurately and quickly find out the pollution sources and control them. With the development of stable isotope tracer technology, it's able to determine the composition of zinc isotope. Based on the theory of zinc isotope tracer technique, and by means of doing some latest domestic and overseas literature research about the zinc isotope multi-receiving cups of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) testing technology, this paper summarized the latest research results about the pollution tracer of zinc isotope, and according to the deficiencies and existing problems of previous research, made outlooks of zinc isotope fractionation mechanism, repository establishment and tracer multiple solutions.

  19. Toward extending terrestrial laser scanning applications in forestry: a case study of broad- and needle-leaf tree classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; Jiang, Miao

    2017-01-01

    Tree species information is essential for forest research and management purposes, which in turn require approaches for accurate and precise classification of tree species. One such remote sensing technology, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), has proved to be capable of characterizing detailed tree structures, such as tree stem geometry. Can TLS further differentiate between broad- and needle-leaves? If the answer is positive, TLS data can be used for classification of taxonomic tree groups by directly examining their differences in leaf morphology. An analysis was proposed to assess TLS-represented broad- and needle-leaf structures, followed by a Bayes classifier to perform the classification. Tests indicated that the proposed method can basically implement the task, with an overall accuracy of 77.78%. This study indicates a way of implementing the classification of the two major broad- and needle-leaf taxonomies measured by TLS in accordance to their literal definitions, and manifests the potential of extending TLS applications in forestry.

  20. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Selective Destruction of Tumor Cells and Potential for Drug Delivery Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, John W.; Martinez, Ezequiel; Louka, Panagiota; Wingett, Denise G.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Metal oxide nanoparticles, including zinc oxide, are versatile platforms for biomedical applications and therapeutic intervention. There is an urgent need to develop new classes of anticancer agents, and recent studies demonstrate that ZnO nanomaterials hold considerable promise. Areas covered in this review This review analyzes the biomedical applications of metal oxide and ZnO nanomaterials under development at the experimental, preclinical, and clinical levels. A discussion regarding the advantages, approaches, and limitations surrounding the use of metal oxide nanoparticles for cancer applications and drug delivery is presented. The scope of this article is focused on ZnO, and other metal oxide nanomaterial systems, and their proposed mechanisms of cytotoxic action, as well as current approaches to improve their targeting and cytotoxicity against cancer cells. Take home message Through a better understanding of the mechanisms of action and cellular consequences resulting from nanoparticles interactions with cells, the inherent toxicity and selectivity of ZnO nanoparticles against cancer may be further improved to make them attractive new anti-cancer agents. PMID:20716019

  1. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications.

    PubMed

    Hilty, F M; Teleki, A; Krumeich, F; Büchel, R; Hurrell, R F; Pratsinis, S E; Zimmermann, M B

    2009-11-25

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe2O4) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

  2. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  3. Zinc oxide nanostructure-modified textile and its application to biosensing, photocatalysis, and as antibacterial material.

    PubMed

    Hatamie, Amir; Khan, Azam; Golabi, Mohsen; Turner, Anthony P F; Beni, Valerio; Mak, Wing Cheung; Sadollahkhani, Azar; Alnoor, Hatim; Zargar, Behrooz; Bano, Sumaira; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2015-10-06

    Recently, one-dimensional nanostructures with different morphologies (such as nanowires, nanorods (NRs), and nanotubes) have become the focus of intensive research, because of their unique properties with potential applications. Among them, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials has been found to be highly attractive, because of the remarkable potential for applications in many different areas such as solar cells, sensors, piezoelectric devices, photodiode devices, sun screens, antireflection coatings, and photocatalysis. Here, we present an innovative approach to create a new modified textile by direct in situ growth of vertically aligned one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NRs onto textile surfaces, which can serve with potential for biosensing, photocatalysis, and antibacterial applications. ZnO NRs were grown by using a simple aqueous chemical growth method. Results from analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the ZnO NRs were dispersed over the entire surface of the textile. We have demonstrated the following applications of these multifunctional textiles: (1) as a flexible working electrode for the detection of aldicarb (ALD) pesticide, (2) as a photocatalyst for the degradation of organic molecules (i.e., Methylene Blue and Congo Red), and (3) as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli. The ZnO-based textile exhibited excellent photocatalytic and antibacterial activities, and it showed a promising sensing response. The combination of sensing, photocatalysis, and antibacterial properties provided by the ZnO NRs brings us closer to the concept of smart textiles for wearable sensing without a deodorant and antibacterial control. Perhaps the best known of the products that is available in markets for such purposes are textiles with silver nanoparticles. Our modified textile is thus providing acceptable antibacterial properties, compared to available commercial modified textiles.

  4. Comparison of soil and foliar zinc application for enhancing grain zinc content of wheat when grown on potentially zinc-deficient calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ai-qing; Tian, Xiao-hong; Cao, Yu-xian; Lu, Xin-chun; Liu, Ting

    2014-08-01

    The concentration of Zn and phytic acid in wheat grain has important implications for human health. We conducted field and greenhouse experiments to compare the efficacy of soil and foliar Zn fertilisation in improving grain Zn concentration and bioavailability in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain grown on potentially Zn-deficient calcareous soil. Results from the 2-year field experiment indicated that soil Zn application increased soil DTPA-Zn by an average of 174%, but had no significant effect on grain Zn concentration. In contrast, foliar Zn application increased grain Zn concentration by an average of 61%, and Zn bioavailability by an average of 36%. Soil DTPA-Zn concentrations varied depending on wheat cultivars. There were also significant differences in grain phytic acid concentration among the cultivars. A laboratory experiment indicated that Zn (from ZnSO4 ) had a low diffusion coefficient in this calcareous soil. Compared to soil Zn application, foliar Zn application is more effective in improving grain Zn content of wheat grown in potentially Zn-deficient calcareous soils. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Green leaf volatiles: biosynthesis, biological functions and their applications in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    ul Hassan, Muhammad Naeem; Zainal, Zamri; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2015-08-01

    Plants have evolved numerous constitutive and inducible defence mechanisms to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. These stresses induce the expression of various genes to activate defence-related pathways that result in the release of defence chemicals. One of these defence mechanisms is the oxylipin pathway, which produces jasmonates, divinylethers and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) through the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). GLVs have recently emerged as key players in plant defence, plant-plant interactions and plant-insect interactions. Some GLVs inhibit the growth and propagation of plant pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. In certain cases, GLVs released from plants under herbivore attack can serve as aerial messengers to neighbouring plants and to attract parasitic or parasitoid enemies of the herbivores. The plants that perceive these volatile signals are primed and can then adapt in preparation for the upcoming challenges. Due to their 'green note' odour, GLVs impart aromas and flavours to many natural foods, such as vegetables and fruits, and therefore, they can be exploited in industrial biotechnology. The aim of this study was to review the progress and recent developments in research on the oxylipin pathway, with a specific focus on the biosynthesis and biological functions of GLVs and their applications in industrial biotechnology. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The ANGULATA7 gene encodes a DnaJ-like zinc finger-domain protein involved in chloroplast function and leaf development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Nortes, Tamara; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Ponce, María Rosa; Candela, Héctor; Micol, José Luis

    2017-03-01

    The characterization of mutants with altered leaf shape and pigmentation has previously allowed the identification of nuclear genes that encode plastid-localized proteins that perform essential functions in leaf growth and development. A large-scale screen previously allowed us to isolate ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutants with small rosettes and pale green leaves with prominent marginal teeth, which were assigned to a phenotypic class that we dubbed Angulata. The molecular characterization of the 12 genes assigned to this phenotypic class should help us to advance our understanding of the still poorly understood relationship between chloroplast biogenesis and leaf morphogenesis. In this article, we report the phenotypic and molecular characterization of the angulata7-1 (anu7-1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which we found to be a hypomorphic allele of the EMB2737 gene, which was previously known only for its embryonic-lethal mutations. ANU7 encodes a plant-specific protein that contains a domain similar to the central cysteine-rich domain of DnaJ proteins. The observed genetic interaction of anu7-1 with a loss-of-function allele of GENOMES UNCOUPLED1 suggests that the anu7-1 mutation triggers a retrograde signal that leads to changes in the expression of many genes that normally function in the chloroplasts. Many such genes are expressed at higher levels in anu7-1 rosettes, with a significant overrepresentation of those required for the expression of plastid genome genes. Like in other mutants with altered expression of plastid-encoded genes, we found that anu7-1 exhibits defects in the arrangement of thylakoidal membranes, which appear locally unappressed. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The discovery of zinc fingers and their development for practical applications in gene regulation and genome manipulation.

    PubMed

    Klug, Aaron

    2010-02-01

    power of the method was published in 1994 when a three-finger protein was constructed to block the expression of a human oncogene transformed into a mouse cell line. The same paper also described how a reporter gene was activated by targeting an inserted 9-base pair (bp) sequence, which acts as the promoter. Thus, by fusing zinc finger peptides to repression or activation domains, genes can be selectively switched off or on. It was also suggested that, by combining zinc fingers with other effector or functional domains, e.g. from nucleases or integrases, to form chimaeric proteins, genomes could be manipulated or modified. Several applications of such engineered ZFPs are described here, including some of therapeutic importance, and also their adaptation for breeding improved crop plants.

  8. Phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites Australis: leaf-type-dependent responses.

    PubMed

    Song, Uhram; Lee, Sunryung

    2016-05-01

    The phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites australis were investigated using mesocosms. The percentage of dissolved Zn in the ZnO NP treatment solutions was measured along with plant shoot growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, chlorophyll content, and Zn content. The dissolution rate of ZnO NPs in Hoagland solution was inversely related to the concentration. The submerged aquatic plant H. verticillata, growth was reduced during the early stages of the experiment when exposed to the highest ZnO NP concentration (1000 mg/L), whereas the emerged aquatic plant P. australis began to show significantly reduced growth after a few weeks. The measurements of chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and Zn accumulation showed that P. australis was adversely affected by NPs and absorbed more Zn than H. verticillata. The results indicated that physiological differences among aquatic plants, such as whether they use leaves or roots for nutrient and water uptake, led to differences in nanoparticle toxicity. Overall, High ZnO NP concentrations caused significant phytotoxicity on aquatic plants, and low concentrations caused unpredictable phytotoxicity. Therefore, the use and disposal of zinc oxide nanoparticles should be carefully monitored.

  9. Evaluation of zinc oxide nano-microtetrapods for biomolecule sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Yichen; Karlsson, Mikael; Wang, Qin; Toprak, Muhammet S.

    2015-12-01

    Zinc oxide tetrapods (ZnO-Ts) were synthesized by flame transport synthesis using Zn microparticles. This work herein reports a systematical study on the structural, optical and electrochemical properties of the ZnO-Ts. The morphology of the ZnO-Ts was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as joint structures of four nano-microstructured legs, of which the diameter of each leg is 0.7-2.2 μm in average from the tip to the stem. The ZnO-Ts were dispersed in glucose solution to study the luminescence as well as photocatalytic activity in a mimicked biological environment. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity in the ultraviolet (UV) region quenches with linear dependence to increased glucose concentration up to 4 mM. The ZnO-Ts were also attached with glucose oxidase (GOx) and over coated with a thin film of Nafion to form active layers for electrochemical glucose sensing. The attachment of GOx and coating of Nafion were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Furthermore, the current response of the active layers based on ZnO-Ts was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in various glucose concentrations. Stable current response of glucose was detected with linear dependence to glucose concentration up to 12 mM, which confirms the potential of ZnO-Ts for biomolecule sensing applications.

  10. Aligned carbon nanotube/zinc oxide nanowire hybrids as high performance electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Asadi, Ahmed S.; Henley, Luke Alexander; Wasala, Milinda; Muchharla, Baleeswaraiah; Perea-Lopez, Nestor; Carozo, Victor; Lin, Zhong; Terrones, Mauricio; Mondal, Kanchan; Kordas, Krisztian; Talapatra, Saikat

    2017-03-01

    Carbon nanotube/metal oxide based hybrids are envisioned as high performance electrochemical energy storage electrodes since these systems can provide improved performances utilizing an electric double layer coupled with fast faradaic pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanisms. In this work, we show that high performance supercapacitor electrodes with a specific capacitance of ˜192 F/g along with a maximum energy density of ˜3.8 W h/kg and a power density of ˜ 28 kW/kg can be achieved by synthesizing zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) directly on top of aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). In comparison to pristine MWCNTs, these constitute a 12-fold of increase in specific capacitance as well as corresponding power and energy density values. These electrodes also possess high cycling stability and were able to retain ˜99% of their specific capacitance value over 2000 charging discharging cycles. These findings indicate potential use of a MWCNT/ZnO NW hybrid material for future electrochemical energy storage applications.

  11. Structural morphology of zinc oxide structures with antibacterial application of calamine lotion

    SciT

    Ann, Ling Chuo; Mahmud, Shahrom; Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd

    In this study, we report the structural morphology of a zinc oxide (ZnO) sample and antibacterial application of the ZnO structures in calamine lotion. Antibacterial activities of the calamine lotion towards Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. The structural morphology of ZnO sample was studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The morphologies of the ZnO structure consisted of many rod and spherical structures. The particle sizes of the sample ranged from 40 nm to 150 nm. A calamine lotion was prepared through mixing the ZnO structures with other constituents in suitable proportion. Themore » energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed the presence of large amount of ZnO structures whiles the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed a good crystalline property of ZnO in the calamine lotion mixture. The morphological structures of ZnO were found to remain unchanged in the calamine lotion mixture through FESEM imaging. In the antibacterial test, prepared calamine lotion exhibited a remarkable bacterial inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa after 24 h of treatment. The bactericidal capability of calamine lotion was largely due to the presence of ZnO structures which induce high toxicity and killing effect on the bacteria.« less

  12. Structural morphology of zinc oxide structures with antibacterial application of calamine lotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ann, Ling Chuo; Mahmud, Shahrom; Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Sirelkhatim, Amna; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Hasan, Habsah; Seeni, Azman; Rahman, Rosliza Abdul

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we report the structural morphology of a zinc oxide (ZnO) sample and antibacterial application of the ZnO structures in calamine lotion. Antibacterial activities of the calamine lotion towards Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. The structural morphology of ZnO sample was studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The morphologies of the ZnO structure consisted of many rod and spherical structures. The particle sizes of the sample ranged from 40 nm to 150 nm. A calamine lotion was prepared through mixing the ZnO structures with other constituents in suitable proportion. The energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed the presence of large amount of ZnO structures whiles the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed a good crystalline property of ZnO in the calamine lotion mixture. The morphological structures of ZnO were found to remain unchanged in the calamine lotion mixture through FESEM imaging. In the antibacterial test, prepared calamine lotion exhibited a remarkable bacterial inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa after 24 h of treatment. The bactericidal capability of calamine lotion was largely due to the presence of ZnO structures which induce high toxicity and killing effect on the bacteria.

  13. Synthesis and binding properties of arylethyne-linked porphyrin-zinc complexes for organic electronics applications.

    PubMed

    Reainthippayasakul, W; Paosawatyanyong, B; Bhanthumnavin, W

    2013-05-01

    Conjugated meso-alkynyl 5,15-dimesitylporphyrin metal complexes have been synthesized by Sonogashira coupling reaction in good yields. Alkynyl groups were chosen as a link at the meso positions in order to extend the pi-conjugated length of porphyrin rings. These synthesized porphyrin derivatives were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Moreover, UV-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy were also used to investigate their photophysical properties. It has been demonstrated that central metal ions as well as meso substituents on porphyrin rings affected the electronic absorption and emission spectra of the compounds. Spectroscopic results revealed that alkyne-linked porphyrin metal complexes showed higher pi-conjugation compared with porphyrin building blocks resulting in red shifts in both absorption and emission spectra. Coordination properties of synthesized porphyrins were preliminarily investigated by UV-visible absorption and fluorescence emission spectroscopic titration with pyridine as axial ligand. The formation of porphyrin-pyridine complexes resulted in significant red shifts in absorption spectra and decrease of fluorescence intensity in emission spectra. Moreover, the 1H NMR titration experiments suggested that central metal ions play an important role to coordinate with pyridine and the coordination of porphyrin zinc(II) complex with pyridine occur in a 1:1 ratio. From these spectroscopic results, alkyne-linked porphyrin metal complexes offer potential applications as materials for optical organic nanosensors.

  14. Parametrization of DFTB3/3OB for Magnesium and Zinc for Chemical and Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the parametrization of the approximate density functional theory, DFTB3, for magnesium and zinc for chemical and biological applications. The parametrization strategy follows that established in previous work that parametrized several key main group elements (O, N, C, H, P, and S). This 3OB set of parameters can thus be used to study many chemical and biochemical systems. The parameters are benchmarked using both gas-phase and condensed-phase systems. The gas-phase results are compared to DFT (mostly B3LYP), ab initio (MP2 and G3B3), and PM6, as well as to a previous DFTB parametrization (MIO). The results indicate that DFTB3/3OB is particularly successful at predicting structures, including rather complex dinuclear metalloenzyme active sites, while being semiquantitative (with a typical mean absolute deviation (MAD) of ∼3–5 kcal/mol) for energetics. Single-point calculations with high-level quantum mechanics (QM) methods generally lead to very satisfying (a typical MAD of ∼1 kcal/mol) energetic properties. DFTB3/MM simulations for solution and two enzyme systems also lead to encouraging structural and energetic properties in comparison to available experimental data. The remaining limitations of DFTB3, such as the treatment of interaction between metal ions and highly charged/polarizable ligands, are also discussed. PMID:25178644

  15. Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate: Global patterns and paleoclimatic applications

    Peppe, D.J.; Royer, D.L.; Cariglino, B.; Oliver, S.Y.; Newman, S.; Leight, E.; Enikolopov, G.; Fernandez-Burgos, M.; Herrera, F.; Adams, J.M.; Correa, E.; Currano, E.D.; Erickson, J.M.; Hinojosa, L.F.; Hoganson, J.W.; Iglesias, A.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Johnson, K.R.; Jordan, G.J.; Kraft, N.J.B.; Lovelock, E.C.; Lusk, C.H.; Niinemets, U.; Penuelas, J.; Rapson, G.; Wing, S.L.; Wright, I.J.

    2011-01-01

    Paleobotanists have long used models based on leaf size and shape to reconstruct paleoclimate. However, most models incorporate a single variable or use traits that are not physiologically or functionally linked to climate, limiting their predictive power. Further, they often underestimate paleotemperature relative to other proxies. Here we quantify leaf-climate correlations from 92 globally distributed, climatically diverse sites, and explore potential confounding factors. Multiple linear regression models for mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) are developed and applied to nine well-studied fossil floras. We find that leaves in cold climates typically have larger, more numerous teeth, and are more highly dissected. Leaf habit (deciduous vs evergreen), local water availability, and phylogenetic history all affect these relationships. Leaves in wet climates are larger and have fewer, smaller teeth. Our multivariate MAT and MAP models offer moderate improvements in precision over univariate approaches (??4.0 vs 4.8??C for MAT) and strong improvements in accuracy. For example, our provisional MAT estimates for most North American fossil floras are considerably warmer and in better agreement with independent paleoclimate evidence. Our study demonstrates that the inclusion of additional leaf traits that are functionally linked to climate improves paleoclimate reconstructions. This work also illustrates the need for better understanding of the impact of phylogeny and leaf habit on leaf-climate relationships. ?? 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist ?? 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvakkumar, R.; Suresh, J.; Saravanakumar, B.; Joseph Nathanael, A.; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V.

    2015-02-01

    A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ∼40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment.

  17. Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Saravanakumar, B; Joseph Nathanael, A; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V

    2015-02-25

    A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ∼40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A better way of representing stem area index in two-big-leaf models: the application and impact on canopy integration of leaf nitrogen content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Butler, E. E.; Wythers, K. R.; Kattge, J.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Atkin, O. K.; Flores-Moreno, H.; Reich, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    In order to better estimate the carbon budget of the globe, accurately simulating gross primary productivity (GPP) in earth system models is critical. When upscaling leaf level photosynthesis to the canopy, climate models uses different big-leaf schemes. About half of the state-of-the-art earth system models use a "two-big-leaf" scheme that partitions canopies into direct and diffusively illuminated fractions to reduce high bias of GPP simulated by one-big-leaf models. Some two-big-leaf models, such as ACME (identical in this respect to CLM 4.5) add leaf area index (LAI) and stem area index (SAI) together when calculating canopy radiation transfer. This treatment, however, will result in higher fraction of sunlit leaves. It will also lead to an artificial overestimation of canopy nitrogen content. Here we introduce a new algorithm of simulating SAI in a two-big-leaf model. The new algorithm reduced the sunlit leave fraction of the canopy and conserved the nitrogen content from leaf to canopy level. The lower fraction of sunlit leaves reduced global GPP especially in tropical area. Compared to the default model, for the past 100 years (1909-2009), the averaged global annual GPP is lowered by 4.11 PgC year-1 using this new algorithm.

  19. Zinc speciation in proximity to phosphate application points in a lead/zinc smelter-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lucas R; Pierzynski, Gary M; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Scheckel, Kirk G; Newville, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The use of P to immobilize Pb in contaminated soils has been well documented. However, the influence of P on Zn speciation in soils has not been extensively examined, and these two metals often occur as co-contaminants. We hypothesized that additions of P to a Pb/Zn-contaminated soil would induce Zn phosphate mineral formation and fluid P sources would be more effective than granular P amendments. A combination of different synchrotron-based techniques, namely, spatially resolved micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), micro-extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ-EXAFS), and micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD), were used to speciate Zn at two incubation times in the proximity of application points (0 to 4 mm) for fluid and granular P amendments in a Pb/Zn smelter-contaminated soil. Phosphate rock (PR), triple super phosphate (TSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and fluid ammonium polyphosphate induced Zn phosphate formation. Ammonium polyphosphate was more effective at greater distances (up to 3.7 mm) from the point of P application. Phosphoric acid increased the presence of soluble Zn species because of increased acidity. Soluble Zn has implications with respect to Zn bioavailability, which may negatively impact vegetation and other sensitive organisms. Although additions of P immobilize Pb, this practice needs close monitoring due to potential increases in Zn solubility in a Pb/Zn smelter-contaminated soil. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Synthesis of zinc chlorophyll materials for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erten-Ela, Sule; Vakuliuk, Olena; Tarnowska, Anna; Ocakoglu, Kasim; Gryko, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    To design sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a series of zinc chlorins with different substituents were synthesized. Novel zinc methyl 3-devinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-20-phenylacetylenylpyropheophorbide-a (ZnChl-1), zinc methyl 20-bromo-3-devinyl-3-hydroxymethylpyropheophorbide-a (ZnChl-2), zinc methyl 3-devinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-pyropheophorbide-a (ZnChl-3), zinc propyl 3-devinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-pyropheophorbide-a (ZnChl-4) were synthesized and their photovoltaic performances were evaluated in dye-sensitized solar cells. Photoelectrodes with a 7 μm thick nanoporous layer and a 5 μm thick light-scattering layer were used to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells. The best efficiency was obtained with ZnChl-2 sensitizer. ZnChl-2 gave a Jsc of 3.5 mA/cm2, Voc of 412 mV, FF of 0.56 and an overall conversion efficiency of 0.81 at full sun (1000 W m-2).

  1. Applicability of non-destructive substitutes for leaf area in different stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) focusing on traditional forest crown measures.

    PubMed

    Laubhann, Daniel; Eckmüllner, Otto; Sterba, Hubert

    2010-09-30

    Since individual tree leaf area is an important measure for productivity as well as for site occupancy, it is of high interest in many studies about forest growth. The exact determination of leaf area is nearly impossible. Thus, a common way to get information about leaf area is to use substitutes. These substitutes are often variables which are collected in a destructive way which is not feasible for long term studies. Therefore, this study aimed at testing the applicability of using substitutes for leaf area which could be collected in a non-destructive way, namely crown surface area and crown projection area. In 8 stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), divided into three age classes and two thinning treatments, a total of 156 trees were felled in order to test the relationship between leaf area and crown surface area and crown projection area, respectively. Individual tree leaf area of the felled sample trees was estimated by 3P-branch sampling with an accuracy of ±10%. Crown projection area and crown surface area were compared with other, more commonly used, but destructive predictors of leaf area, namely sapwood area at different heights on the bole. Our investigations confirmed findings of several studies that sapwood area is the most precise measure for leaf area because of the high correlation between sapwood area and the leaf area. But behind sapwood area at crown base and sapwood area at three tenth of the tree height the predictive ability of crown surface area was ranked third and even better than that of sapwood area at breast height (R(2) = 0.656 compared with 0.600). Within the stands leaf area is proportional to crown surface area. Using the pooled data of all stands a mixed model approach showed that additionally to crown surface area dominant height and diameter at breast height (dbh) improved the leaf area estimates. Thus, taking dominant height and dbh into account, crown surface area can be recommended for estimating the leaf area

  2. Applicability of non-destructive substitutes for leaf area in different stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) focusing on traditional forest crown measures

    PubMed Central

    Laubhann, Daniel; Eckmüllner, Otto; Sterba, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Since individual tree leaf area is an important measure for productivity as well as for site occupancy, it is of high interest in many studies about forest growth. The exact determination of leaf area is nearly impossible. Thus, a common way to get information about leaf area is to use substitutes. These substitutes are often variables which are collected in a destructive way which is not feasible for long term studies. Therefore, this study aimed at testing the applicability of using substitutes for leaf area which could be collected in a non-destructive way, namely crown surface area and crown projection area. In 8 stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), divided into three age classes and two thinning treatments, a total of 156 trees were felled in order to test the relationship between leaf area and crown surface area and crown projection area, respectively. Individual tree leaf area of the felled sample trees was estimated by 3P-branch sampling with an accuracy of ±10%. Crown projection area and crown surface area were compared with other, more commonly used, but destructive predictors of leaf area, namely sapwood area at different heights on the bole. Our investigations confirmed findings of several studies that sapwood area is the most precise measure for leaf area because of the high correlation between sapwood area and the leaf area. But behind sapwood area at crown base and sapwood area at three tenth of the tree height the predictive ability of crown surface area was ranked third and even better than that of sapwood area at breast height (R2 = 0.656 compared with 0.600). Within the stands leaf area is proportional to crown surface area. Using the pooled data of all stands a mixed model approach showed that additionally to crown surface area dominant height and diameter at breast height (dbh) improved the leaf area estimates. Thus, taking dominant height and dbh into account, crown surface area can be recommended for estimating the leaf area of

  3. Synthesis of platinum nanoparticles using dried Anacardium occidentale leaf and its catalytic and thermal applications.

    PubMed

    Sheny, D S; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    An environment friendly approach for the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) using dried leaf powder of Anacardium occidentale is reported. The formation of Pt NPs is monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. FTIR spectra reveal that proteins are bound to Pt nanoparticles. TEM images show irregular rod shaped particles which are crystalline. The quantity of leaf powder plays a vital role in determining the size of particles. Synthesized NPs exhibit good catalytic activity in the reduction of aromatic nitrocompound. The effective thermal conductivity of synthesized Pt/water nanofluid has been measured and found to be enhanced to a good extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrodeposited Zinc-Nickel as an Alternative to Cadmium Plating for Aerospace Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, V. C.

    1991-01-01

    Corrosion evaluation studies were conducted on 4130 alloy steel samples coated with electrodeposited zinc-nickel and samples coated with electrodeposited cadmium. The zinc nickel was deposited by the selection electrochemical metallizing process. These coated samples were exposed to a 5-percent salt fog environment at 35 plus or minus 2 C for a period ranging from 96 to 240 hours. An evaluation of the effect of dichromate coatings on the performance of each plating was conducted. The protection afforded by platings with a dichromate seal was compared to platings without the seal. During the later stages of testing, deposit adhesion and the potential for hydrogen entrapment were also evaluated.

  5. Applications of Nanomaterials Based on Magnetite and Mesoporous Silica on the Selective Detection of Zinc Ion in Live Cell Imaging.

    PubMed

    Erami, Roghayeh Sadeghi; Ovejero, Karina; Meghdadi, Soraia; Filice, Marco; Amirnasr, Mehdi; Rodríguez-Diéguez, Antonio; De La Orden, María Ulagares; Gómez-Ruiz, Santiago

    2018-06-14

    Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (FMNPs) and functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (FMSNs) were synthesized by the conjugation of magnetite and mesoporous silica with the small and fluorogenic benzothiazole ligand, that is, 2(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole ( hpbtz ). The synthesized fluorescent nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, XRF, 13 C CP MAS NMR, BET, and TEM. The photophysical behavior of FMNPs and FMSNs in ethanol was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy. The modification of magnetite and silica scaffolds with the highly fluorescent benzothiazole ligand enabled the nanoparticles to be used as selective and sensitive optical probes for zinc ion detection. Moreover, the presence of hpbtz in FMNPs and FMSNs induced efficient cell viability and zinc ion uptake, with desirable signaling in the normal human kidney epithelial (Hek293) cell line. The significant viability of FMNPs and FMSNs (80% and 92%, respectively) indicates a potential applicability of these nanoparticles as in vitro imaging agents. The calculated limit of detections (LODs) were found to be 2.53 × 10 −6 and 2.55 × 10 −6 M for Fe₃O₄-H@hpbtz and MSN-Et₃N-IPTMS-hpbtz-f1, respectively. FMSNs showed more pronounced zinc signaling relative to FMNPs, as a result of the more efficient penetration into the cells.

  6. Unique spatiotemporal biomolecular emission profiles on single zinc oxide nanorods and applications in ultrasensitive biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpreet

    There has been longstanding interest in improving the optical detection capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy to achieve ultrahigh resolution and sensitivity in chemical and biological sensing applications. To promote these efforts, I present my work characterizing and developing zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) as advanced optical detection platforms that can enable enhanced intensity and stability of adsorbed fluorophore-coupled biomolecules. First, I present my unique findings profiling the temporal and spatial characteristics of biomolecular fluorescence on individual ZnO NRs in which I've identified highly localized, non-linear optical phenomena of fluorescence intensification on nanorod ends (FINE) and enhanced photostability. Using combined experimental and computational strategies, I elucidate the fundamental physicochemical origins of these optical phenomena by systematically decoupling various biomolecular, chemical, and nanomaterial factors. On the biomolecular side, I evaluate the roles of fluorophores with varying spectroscopic properties and concentrations as well as facet-selective biomolecular adsorption on the unique spatiotemporal optical responses on single ZnO NRs. From the chemical/nanomaterial context, I profile the biomolecular emission behaviors on single ZnO NRs as a function of varying NR physical dimensions, NR orientations, and positions along the NR long axis I also present the results of employing finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulations to corroborate my multifold experimental findings. The FDTD results further clarify the passive waveguiding capacity of the ZnO NRs to couple the radiation of surface-adsorpbed emitters and form evanescent waves that propagate to the NR ends before final emission into the far-field, confirming the experimental manifestation of FINE.. I also present an application exploiting the optical enhancement enabled by ZnO NRs in which I've engineered and validated a novel biosensing assay for the

  7. Evaluation of cycloate followed by two-leaf stage phenmedipham application in fresh market spinach

    Fresh market spinach has one primary herbicide, cycloate, which does not control all weeds. Previous studies demonstrated that cycloate PRE followed by (fb) phenmedipham at the four-leaf spinach stage is a safe and effective treatment. However, this treatment is not useful for the main growing seaso...

  8. LAI-2000 Accuracy, Precision, and Application to Visual Estimation of Leaf Area Index of Loblolly Pine

    Jason A. Gatch; Timothy B. Harrington; James P. Castleberry

    2002-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter of forest stand productivity that has been used to diagnose stand vigor and potential fertilizer response of southern pines. The LAI-2000 was tested for its ability to provide accurate and precise estimates of LAI of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). To test instrument accuracy, regression was used to...

  9. Leaf area index uncertainty estimates for model-data fusion applications

    Andrew D. Richardson; D. Bryan Dail; D.Y. Hollinger

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of data uncertainties are required to integrate different observational data streams as model constraints using model-data fusion. We describe an approach with which random and systematic uncertainties in optical measurements of leaf area index [LAI] can be quantified. We use data from a measurement campaign at the spruce-dominated Howland Forest AmeriFlux...

  10. Ternary and coupled binary zinc tin oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and potential application in photocatalytic processes

    SciT

    Ivetić, T.B., E-mail: tamara.ivetic@df.uns.ac.rs; Finčur, N.L.; Đačanin, Lj. R.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO) powders. • Photocatalytic degradation of alprazolam in the presence of ZTO water suspensions. • Coupled binary ZTO exhibits enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to ternary ZTO. - Abstract: In this paper, ternary and coupled binary zinc tin oxide nanocrystalline powders were prepared via simple solid-state mechanochemical method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman and reflectance spectroscopy were used to study the structure and optical properties of the obtained powder samples. The thermal behavior of zinc tin oxide system was examined through simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetric analysis. The efficiencies of ternary (Zn{sub 2}SnO{submore » 4} and ZnSnO{sub 3}) and coupled binary (ZnO/SnO{sub 2}) zinc tin oxide water suspensions in the photocatalytic degradation of alprazolam, short-acting anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs, under UV irradiation were determined and compared with the efficiency of pure ZnO and SnO{sub 2}.« less

  11. Aerosol-jet printing of nanowire networks of zinc octaethylporphyrin and its application in flexible photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Xia; Lin, Jian; Gu, Wei-Bing; Liu, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Hao-Di; Pan, Ge-Bo

    2013-03-25

    Nanowire networks of zinc octaethylporphyrin (ZnOEP) were printed using an aerosol-jet printer on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) flexible substrate. The prototype photodetector based on the as-printed network exhibited high photosensitivity, fast photoresponse, and excellent mechanical stability.

  12. Effects of cadmium and zinc on ozone-induced phytotoxicity in cress and lettuce

    SciT

    Czuba, M.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1973-01-01

    Cadmium or zinc solutions were applied to the foliage or roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) and cress (Lepidium sativum L. cv. Fine Curled) at concentrations of 100 parts per million (ppm) every four days for several weeks. Four weeks after sowing, plants were fumigated with 35 parts per hundred million (pphm) ozone, for 6 hours. Cress plants which had received root application of cadmium showed markedly increased ozone-induced phytotoxicity in terms of visible leaf damage and pigment degradation; in lettuce only pigment degradation was evident. There was less effect of zinc or foliar-applied cadmium on ozonemore » phytotoxicity.« less

  13. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  14. Synthesis of (cinnamate-zinc layered hydroxide) intercalation compound for sunscreen application

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH) intercalated with cinnamate, an anionic form of cinnamic acid (CA), an efficient UVA and UVB absorber, have been synthesized by direct method using zinc oxide (ZnO) and cinnamic acid as the precursor. Results The resulting obtained intercalation compound, ZCA, showed a basal spacing of 23.9 Å as a result of cinnamate intercalated in a bilayer arrangement between the interlayer spaces of ZLH with estimated percentage loading of cinnamate of about 40.4 % w/w. The UV–vis absorption spectrum of the intercalation compound showed excellent UVA and UVB absorption ability. Retention of cinnamate in ZLH interlayers was tested against media usually came across with sunscreen usage to show low release over an extended period of time. MTT assay of the intercalation compound on human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells showed cytotoxicity of ZCA to be concentration dependent and is overall less toxic than its precursor, ZnO. Conclusions (Cinnamate-zinc layered hydroxide) intercalation compound is suitable to be used as a safe and effective sunscreen with long UV protection effect. PMID:23383738

  15. Deciphering the route to cyclic monoterpenes in Chrysomelina leaf beetles: source of new biocatalysts for industrial application?

    PubMed

    Burse, Antje; Boland, Wilhelm

    2017-09-26

    The drastic growth of the population on our planet requires the efficient and sustainable use of our natural resources. Enzymes are indispensable tools for a wide range of industries producing food, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, or biofuels. Because insects constitute one of the most species-rich classes of organisms colonizing almost every ecological niche on earth, they have developed extraordinary metabolic abilities to survive in various and sometimes extreme habitats. Despite this metabolic diversity, insect enzymes have only recently generated interest in industrial applications because only a few metabolic pathways have been sufficiently characterized. Here, we address the biosynthetic route to iridoids (cyclic monoterpenes), a group of secondary metabolites used by some members of the leaf beetle subtribe Chrysomelina as defensive compounds against their enemies. The ability to produce iridoids de novo has also convergently evolved in plants. From plant sources, numerous pharmacologically relevant structures have already been described. In addition, in plants, iridoids serve as building blocks for monoterpenoid indole alkaloids with broad therapeutic applications. As the commercial synthesis of iridoid-based drugs often relies on a semisynthetic approach involving biocatalysts, the discovery of enzymes from the insect iridoid route can account for a valuable resource and economic alternative to the previously used enzymes from the metabolism of plants. Hence, this review illustrates the recent discoveries made on the steps of the iridoid pathway in Chrysomelina leaf beetles. The findings are also placed in the context of the studied counterparts in plants and are further discussed regarding their use in technological approaches.

  16. Application of Composite Materials to Truck Components: Leaf Springs and Propeller Shafts for 5-Ton Trucks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Fiberglass-Epoxy Resin Matrix Composites 2(L ABSTRACT (Caautlrue am reverse de bf IHI wee•a’y d Identify by block number) The objective of the program was to...Army truck are designed using resin matrix composite materials. Both design studies and prototype fabrication and testing are included in the program...For the leaf springs (both front and rear) a hybrid design using steel DD FOR 143 ED#T1ON OF I NOV65 IS OBSOLETE SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE

  17. Skin and Eye Irritation Assessment of Oil Palm ( Elaeis guineensis) Leaf Extract for Topical Application.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Nor Zuliana; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Azizul Hasan, Zafarizal Aldrin; Idris, Zainab

    2018-01-01

    Many types of phytochemicals have been found to be present in oil palm leaf and could potentially be used as functional ingredients for skincare product. However, as of today, there is no published report on hazard identification and safety assessment of oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis) leaf extract (OPLE), particularly on skin and eye irritation. In this study, potential hazard of OPLE on skin and eye irritation was evaluated as an initial step to the safety assessment of OPLE. In vitro cell viability study of OPLE on normal human dermal fibroblasts showed that OPLE was nontoxic to the cells with percentage viability more than 90% after 24 and 48 hours of incubation. Skin irritation potential of OPLE was evaluated using in vitro SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) model (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] Test Guideline 439, 2015), while eye irritation potential was evaluated using in vitro SkinEthic Human corneal epithelium (HCE) model (OECD test guideline 492, 2017). Hazard identification results showed that OPLE at 1%, 5%, and 10% (wt/wt) was classified as nonirritant to the skin and eye where mean tissue viabilities of SkinEthic RHE and SkinEthic HCE were more than 50% and 60%, respectively. Therefore, we recommend a further safety assessment, such as human patch testing, to confirm the nonirritant of OPLE.

  18. Leaf-GP: an open and automated software application for measuring growth phenotypes for arabidopsis and wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji; Applegate, Christopher; Alonso, Albor Dobon; Reynolds, Daniel; Orford, Simon; Mackiewicz, Michal; Griffiths, Simon; Penfield, Steven; Pullen, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Plants demonstrate dynamic growth phenotypes that are determined by genetic and environmental factors. Phenotypic analysis of growth features over time is a key approach to understand how plants interact with environmental change as well as respond to different treatments. Although the importance of measuring dynamic growth traits is widely recognised, available open software tools are limited in terms of batch image processing, multiple traits analyses, software usability and cross-referencing results between experiments, making automated phenotypic analysis problematic. Here, we present Leaf-GP (Growth Phenotypes), an easy-to-use and open software application that can be executed on different computing platforms. To facilitate diverse scientific communities, we provide three software versions, including a graphic user interface (GUI) for personal computer (PC) users, a command-line interface for high-performance computer (HPC) users, and a well-commented interactive Jupyter Notebook (also known as the iPython Notebook) for computational biologists and computer scientists. The software is capable of extracting multiple growth traits automatically from large image datasets. We have utilised it in Arabidopsis thaliana and wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) growth studies at the Norwich Research Park (NRP, UK). By quantifying a number of growth phenotypes over time, we have identified diverse plant growth patterns between different genotypes under several experimental conditions. As Leaf-GP has been evaluated with noisy image series acquired by different imaging devices (e.g. smartphones and digital cameras) and still produced reliable biological outputs, we therefore believe that our automated analysis workflow and customised computer vision based feature extraction software implementation can facilitate a broader plant research community for their growth and development studies. Furthermore, because we implemented Leaf-GP based on open Python-based computer vision, image

  19. Development of Zinc Tin Nitride for Application as an Earth Abundant Photovoltaic Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioretti, Angela N.

    In recent years, many new potential absorber materials based on earth-abundant and non-toxic elements have been predicted. These materials, often made in thin film form and known to absorb light 10-1000 times more e ciently than crystalline silicon, could lower module cost and enable broader solar deployment. One such material is zinc tin nitride (ZnSnN 2), a II-IV-nitride analog of the III-nitride materials, which was identified as a suitable solar absorber due to its direct bandgap, large absorption coefficient, and disorder-driven bandgap tunability. Despite these desirable properties, initial attempts at synthesis resulted in degenerate n-type carrier density. Computational work on the point defect formation energies for this material revealed three donor defects were likely the cause; specifically SnZn antisites, VN sites, and ON substitutions. Given this framework, a defect-driven hypothesis was proposed as a starting point for the present work: if each donor defect could be addressed by tuning deposition parameters, n-type degeneracy may be defeated. By using combinatorial co- sputtering to grow compositionally-graded thin film samples, n-type carrier density was reduced by two orders of magnitude compared to state-of-the-art. This reduction in carrier density was observed for zinc-rich samples, which supported the defect-driven hypothesis initially proposed. These results and their implications are the topic of Chapter 2. Further carrier density control in zinc-rich ZTN was achieved via hydrogen incorporation and post-growth annealing. This strategy was hypothesized to operate by passivating acceptor defects to avoid self-compensation, which were then activated by hydrogen drive- out upon annealing. Carrier density was reduced another order of magnitude using this technique, which is presented in Chapter 3. After defeating n-type degeneracy, a deeper understanding of the electronic structure was pursued. Photoluminescence (PL) was used to study electronic

  20. Zinc oxide films chemically grown onto rigid and flexible substrates for TFT applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchea, M.; Kornilios, N.; Koudoumas, E.

    2010-10-01

    This contribution presents some preliminary results regarding the use of a chemical route for the growth of good quality ZnO thin films that can be used for the fabrication of thin film transistors (TFTs). The films were grown at rather low temperature (60 °C) on glass and PET substrates using non-aqueous (zinc acetate dihydrate in methanol) precursor solution and their surface morphology, crystalline structure, optical transmittance and electrical characteristics were studied. The study indicated that good quality films with desirable ZnO structure onto rigid and flexible substrates can be obtained, using a simple, cheap, low temperature chemical growth method.

  1. Electrical Study of Trapped Charges in Copper-Doped Zinc Oxide Films by Scanning Probe Microscopy for Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ting; Zhang, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    Charge trapping properties of electrons and holes in copper-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Cu) films have been studied by scanning probe microscopy. We investigated the surface potential dependence on the voltage and duration applied to the copper-doped ZnO films by Kelvin probe force microscopy. It is found that the Fermi Level of the 8 at.% Cu-doped ZnO films shifted by 0.53 eV comparing to undoped ZnO films. This shift indicates significant change in the electronic structure and energy balance in Cu-doped ZnO films. The Fermi Level (work function) of zinc oxide films can be tuned by Cu doping, which are important for developing this functional material. In addition, Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements demonstrate that the nature of contact at Pt-coated tip/ZnO:Cu interface is changed from Schottky contact to Ohmic contact by increasing sufficient amount of Cu ions. The charge trapping property of the ZnO films enhance greatly by Cu doping (~10 at.%). The improved stable bipolar charge trapping properties indicate that copper-doped ZnO films are promising for nonvolatile memory applications. PMID:28135335

  2. Synthesis of supported silver nano-spheres on zinc oxide nanorods for visible light photocatalytic applications

    SciT

    Saoud, Khaled; Alsoubaihi, Rola; Bensalah, Nasr

    Highlights: • Synthesis of supported Ag NPs on ZnO nanorods using open vessel microwave reactor. • Use of the Ag/ZnO NPs as an efficient visible light photocatalyst. • Complete degradation of methylene blue in 1 h with 0.5 g/L Ag/ZnO NPs. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of silver (Ag) nano-spheres (NS) supported on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods through two step mechanism, using open vessel microwave reactor. Direct reduction of ZnO from zinc nitrates was followed by deposition precipitation of the silver on the ZnO nanorods. The supported Ag/ZnO nanoparticles were then characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, photoluminescencemore » and UV–vis spectroscopy. The visible light photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO system was investigated using a test contaminant, methylene blue (MB). Almost complete removal of MB in about 60 min for doses higher than 0.5 g/L of the Ag/ZnO photocatalyst was achieved. This significant improvement in the photocatalytic efficiency of Ag/ZnO photocatalyst under visible light irradiation can be attributed to the presence of Ag nanoparticles on the ZnO nanoparticles which greatly enhances absorption in the visible range of solar spectrum enabled by surface plasmon resonance effect from Ag nanoparticles.« less

  3. Chromium and Ruthenium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films for Propane Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Pozos, Heberto; González-Vidal, José Luis; Torres, Gonzalo Alberto; Rodríguez-Baez, Jorge; Maldonado, Arturo; de la Luz Olvera, María; Acosta, Dwight Roberto; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Castañeda, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Chromium and ruthenium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Cr) and (ZnO:Ru) thin solid films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the sol-gel dip-coating method. A 0.6 M solution of zinc acetate dihydrate dissolved in 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine was used as basic solution. Chromium (III) acetylacetonate and Ruthenium (III) trichloride were used as doping sources. The Ru incorporation and its distribution profile into the films were proved by the SIMS technique. The morphology and structure of the films were studied by SEM microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements, respectively. The SEM images show porous surfaces covered by small grains with different grain size, depending on the doping element, and the immersions number into the doping solutions. The sensing properties of ZnO:Cr and ZnO:Ru films in a propane (C3H8) atmosphere, as a function of the immersions number in the doping solution, have been studied in the present work. The highest sensitivity values were obtained for films doped from five immersions, 5.8 and 900, for ZnO:Cr and ZnO:Ru films, respectively. In order to evidence the catalytic effect of the chromium (Cr) and ruthenium (Ru), the sensing characteristics of undoped ZnO films are reported as well. PMID:23482091

  4. Nanocarrier-mediated foliar zinc fertilization influences expression of metal homeostasis related genes in flag leaves and enhances gluten content in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Paresh; Dapkekar, Ashwin; Oak, Manoj; Paknikar, Kishore; Rajwade, Jyutika

    2018-01-01

    Wheat is the staple food for most of the world's population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP) post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear. Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two durum wheat cultivars (MACS 3125 and UC1114, containing the Gpc-B1 gene), and expression levels of several metal-related genes were analyzed during early senescence. Zn-CNP application indeed caused changes in gene expression as revealed by qPCR data on representative genes involved in metal homeostasis, phloem transporters, and leaf senescence. Furthermore, zinc-regulated transporters and iron (Fe)-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) family [ZIP1, ZIP7, ZIP15], CA (carbonic anhydrase), and DMAS (2'-deoxymugineic acid synthase) in flag leaves exhibited significant correlation with zinc content in the seeds. The analysis of grain endosperm proteins showed enhancement of gamma gliadins while other gluten subunits decreased. Gene expression within ZIP family members varied with the type of cultivar mostly attributed to the Gpc-B1, concentration of external zinc ions as well as the type of tissue analyzed. Correlation analysis revealed the involvement of the selected genes in zinc enhancement. At the molecular level, uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP nanocarrier was comparable to the uptake of zinc via common zinc fertilizers i.e. ZnSO4.

  5. Application of 3D triangulations of airborne laser scanning data to estimate boreal forest leaf area index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majasalmi, Titta; Korhonen, Lauri; Korpela, Ilkka; Vauhkonen, Jari

    2017-07-01

    We propose 3D triangulations of airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point clouds as a new approach to derive 3D canopy structures and to estimate forest canopy effective LAI (LAIe). Computational geometry and topological connectivity were employed to filter the triangulations to yield a quasi-optimal relationship with the field measured LAIe. The optimal filtering parameters were predicted based on ALS height metrics, emulating the production of maps of LAIe and canopy volume for large areas. The LAIe from triangulations was validated with field measured LAIe and compared with a reference LAIe calculated from ALS data using logarithmic model based on Beer's law. Canopy transmittance was estimated using All Echo Cover Index (ACI), and the mean projection of unit foliage area (β) was obtained using no-intercept regression with field measured LAIe. We investigated the influence species and season on the triangulated LAIe and demonstrated the relationship between triangulated LAIe and canopy volume. Our data is from 115 forest plots located at the southern boreal forest area in Finland and for each plot three different ALS datasets were available to apply the triangulations. The triangulation approach was found applicable for both leaf-on and leaf-off datasets after initial calibration. Results showed the Root Mean Square Errors (RMSEs) between LAIe from triangulations and field measured values agreed the most using the highest pulse density data (RMSE = 0.63, the coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.53). Yet, the LAIe calculated using ACI-index agreed better with the field measured LAIe (RMSE = 0.53 and R2 = 0.70). The best models to predict the optimal alpha value contained the ACI-index, which indicates that within-crown transmittance is accounted by the triangulation approach. The cover indices may be recommended for retrieving LAIe only, but for applications which require more sophisticated information on canopy shape and volume, such as radiative transfer models, the

  6. On the effect of Ti on the stability of amorphous indium zinc oxide used in thin film transistor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunghwan; Paine, David C.

    2011-06-01

    In2O3-based amorphous oxide channel materials are of increasing interest for thin film transisitor applications due, in part, to the remarkable stability of this class of materials amorphous structure and electronic properties. We report that this stability is degraded in the presence of Ti, which is widely used as a contact and/or adhesion layer. A cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy analysis, supported by glancing incident angle x-ray and selected area diffraction examination, shows that amorphous indium zinc oxide in contact with Ti undergoes crystallization to the bixbyite phase and reacts to form the rutile phase of TiO2 at a temperature of 200 °C. A basic thermodynamic analysis is presented and forms the basis of a model that describes both the crystallization and the resistivity decrease.

  7. Rapid curing of solution-processed zinc oxide films by pulse-light annealing for thin-film transistor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Jaehoon; Hwang, Jaeeun; Kim, Hong Doo; Ryu, Jin Hwa; Lee, Kang Bok; Baek, Kyu Ha; Do, Lee-Mi; Choi, Jong Sun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a pulse-light annealing method is proposed for the rapid fabrication of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) thinfilm transistors (TFTs). Transistors that were fabricated by the pulse-light annealing method, with the annealing being carried out at 90℃ for 15 s, exhibited a mobility of 0.05 cm2/Vs and an on/off current ratio of 106. Such electrical properties are quite close to those of devices that are thermally annealed at 165℃ for 40 min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of ZnO films showed that the activation energy required to form a Zn-O bond is entirely supplied within 15 s of pulse-light exposure. We conclude that the pulse-light annealing method is viable for rapidly curing solution-processable oxide semiconductors for TFT applications.

  8. Template-Assisted Hydrothermal Growth of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanowires for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Applications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A flexible and robust piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) based on a polymer-ceramic nanocomposite structure has been successfully fabricated via a cost-effective and scalable template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method. Vertically aligned arrays of dense and uniform zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) with high aspect ratio (diameter ∼250 nm, length ∼12 μm) were grown within nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) templates. The energy conversion efficiency was found to be ∼4.2%, which is comparable to previously reported values for ZnO NWs. The resulting NG is found to have excellent fatigue performance, being relatively immune to detrimental environmental factors and mechanical failure, as the constituent ZnO NWs remain embedded and protected inside the polymer matrix. PMID:27172933

  9. Application of granulated lead-zinc slag in concrete as an opportunity to save natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwaeli, Mohamed

    2013-02-01

    The last decades marked a period of growth and prosperity in construction industry which involves the use of natural resources. This growth is jeopardized by the lack of natural resources that are available. On the other hand there has been rapid increase in the industrial waste production. Most of the waste do not find any effective use and cause a waste disposal crisis, thereby contributing to health and environmental problems. Recycling of industrial waste as aggregate is thus a logical option to manage this problem. The paper reports on some experimental results obtained from the production of concretes containing granulated slag of lead and zinc industry as sand replacement mixed in different proportions. Granulated slag is substituted for raw sand, partly or totally. Ratios of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight of sand are used. The effects of granulated lead-zinc slag (GLZS) as sand replacement material on the compressive strength and gamma radiation attenuation properties of concrete are investigated and analyzed. Then, these properties are compared with those of ordinary concrete. The results showed that replacement material have some effects on the compressive strength and gamma radiation properties of the concrete. The experimental results indicate that, the concrete mixed with GLZS as a sand replacement have better strength. Concerning the absorption properties for gamma radiation the data show that the addition of GLZS resulted in an increase of the attenuation of gamma radiation. Consequently, these concretes could be used for construction of shields protecting personnel who work in laboratories where radiation is used. Additionally, the thickness of the concrete with GLZS was calculated and compared with ordinary concrete.

  10. Leaf Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    Leaf activities can provide a means of using basic concepts of outdoor education to learn in elementary level subject areas. Equipment needed includes leaves, a clipboard with paper, and a pencil. A bag of leaves may be brought into the classroom if weather conditions or time do not permit going outdoors. Each student should pick a leaf, examine…

  11. Zinc Oxide Grown by CVD Process as Transparent Contact for Thin Film Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faÿ, S.; Shah, A.

    Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO films (MOCVD) [1] started to be comprehensively investigated in the 1980s, when thin film industries were looking for ZnO deposition processes especially useful for large-scale coatings at high growth rates. Later on, when TCO for thin film solar cells started to be developed, another advantage of growing TCO films by the CVD process has been highlighted: the surface roughness. Indeed, a large number of studies on CVD ZnO revealed that an as-grown rough surface cn be obtained with this deposition process [2-4]. A rough surface induces a light scattering effect, which can significantly improve light trapping (and therefore current photo-generation) within thin film silicon solar cells. The CVD process, indeed, directly leads to as-grown rough ZnO films without any post-etching step (the latter is often introduced to obtain a rough surface, when working with as-deposited flat sputtered ZnO). This fact could turn out to be a significant advantage when upscaling the manufacturing process for actual commercial production of thin film solar modules. The zinc and oxygen sources for CVD growth of ZnO films are given in Table 6.1.

  12. Facile Synthesis of Self-Assembled Flower-Like Mesoporous Zinc Oxide Nanoflakes for Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saranya, P. E.; Selladurai, S.

    Flower-shaped self-assembled zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via a temperature-controlled hydrothermal method. The crystallinity and phase formation of the compound were determined from powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) result. Surface morphology investigations reveal the self-assembled ZnO nanoflakes to form a spherical flower-like structure. In addition, the particle size was determined from high-resolution transmission electron microscope measurement as 18nm which is in accord with XRD and UV results. X-ray photo electron spectroscopy studies reveal the chemical composition and oxidation state of the ZnO nanoparticle. The specific surface area was calculated, and mesoporous nature was confirmed using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. Results support the superior interaction between the electrode and electrolyte ions through surface pores. Capacitive performance of the ZnO electrode material was determined using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge studies, and a maximum specific capacitance of 322F/g was obtained at 5mV/sec. Electrochemical impedance spectrum reveals the materials fast charge transfer kinetics.

  13. Characterization of Pixelated Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Detectors for Astrophysical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Sharma, Dharma; Ramsey, Brian; Seller, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Comparisons of charge sharing and charge loss measurements between two pixelated Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe) detectors are discussed. These properties along with the detector geometry help to define the limiting energy resolution and spatial resolution of the detector in question. The first detector consists of a 1-mm-thick piece of CdZnTe sputtered with a 4x4 array of pixels with pixel pitch of 750 microns (inter-pixel gap is 100 microns). Signal readout is via discrete ultra-low-noise preamplifiers, one for each of the 16 pixels. The second detector consists of a 2-mm-thick piece of CdZnTe sputtered with a 16x16 array of pixels with a pixel pitch of 300 microns (inter-pixel gap is 50 microns). This crystal is bonded to a custom-built readout chip (ASIC) providing all front-end electronics to each of the 256 independent pixels. These detectors act as precursors to that which will be used at the focal plane of the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) telescope currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. With a telescope focal length of 6 meters, the detector needs to have a spatial resolution of around 200 microns in order to take full advantage of the HERO angular resolution. We discuss to what degree charge sharing will degrade energy resolution but will improve our spatial resolution through position interpolation.

  14. Sol–gel synthesized zinc oxide nanorods and their structural and optical investigation for optoelectronic application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with hexagonal wurtzite structures were synthesized using an easy and low-cost bottom-up hydrothermal growth technique. ZnO thin films were prepared with the use of four different solvents, namely, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and 2-methoxyethanol, and then used as seed layer templates for the subsequent growth of the ZnO NRs. The influences of the different solvents on the structural and optical properties were investigated through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. The obtained X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the synthesized ZnO NRs were single crystals and exhibited a preferred orientation along the (002) plane. In addition, the calculated results from the specific models of the refractive index are consistent with the experimental data. The ZnO NRs that grew from the 2-methoxyethanol seeded layer exhibited the smallest grain size (39.18 nm), largest diffracted intensities on the (002) plane, and highest bandgap (3.21 eV). PMID:25221458

  15. Luminescence properties of Dy3+ doped lithium zinc borosilicate glasses for photonic applications.

    PubMed

    Jaidass, N; Krishna Moorthi, C; Mohan Babu, A; Reddi Babu, M

    2018-03-01

    Different concentrations of Dy 3+ ions doped lithium zinc borosilicate glasses of chemical composition (30-x) B 2 O 3 - 25 SiO 2 -10 Al 2 O 3 -30 LiF - 5 ZnO - x Dy 2 O 3 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol%) were prepared by the melt quenching technique. The prepared glasses were investigated through X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay measurements. Intensities of absorption bands expressed in terms of oscillator strengths (f) were used to determine the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters Ω λ (λ = 2, 4 and 6). The evaluated J-O parameters were used to determine the radiative parameters such as transition probabilities (A R ), total transition probability rate (A T ), radiative lifetime (τ R ) and branching ratios (β R ) for the excited 4 F 9/2 level of Dy 3+ ions. The chromaticity coordinates determined from the emission spectra were found to be located in the white light region of CIE chromaticity diagram.

  16. Zinc oxide nanoleaves: A scalable disperser-assisted sonochemical approach for synthesis and an antibacterial application.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anadi; Srivastava, Rohit

    2018-03-01

    Current study reports a new and highly scalable method for the synthesis of novel structure Zinc oxide nanoleaves (ZnO-NLs) using disperser-assisted sonochemical approach. The synthesis was carried out in different batches from 50mL to 1L to ensure the scalability of the method which produced almost similar results. The use of high speed (9000rpm) mechanical dispersion while bath sonication (200W, 33kHz) yield 4.4g of ZnO-NLs powder in 1L batch reaction within 2h (>96% yield). The ZnO-NLs shows an excellent thermal stability even at a higher temperature (900°C) and high surface area. The high antibacterial activity of ZnO-NLs against diseases causing Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus shows a reduction in CFU, morphological changes like eight times reduction in cell size, cell burst, and cellular leakage at 200µg/mL concentration. This study provides an efficient, cost-effective and an environmental friendly approach for the synthesis of ZnO-NLs at industrial scale as well as new technique to increase the efficiency of the existing sonochemical method. We envisage that this method can be applied to various fields where ZnO is significantly consumed like rubber manufacturing, ceramic industry and medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles on graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid for glucose biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Kuo-Yuan; Subramani, Boopathi

    2014-12-15

    Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporated graphene-carbon nanotubes hybrid (GR-CNT-ZnO) through a simple, one-pot method is demonstrated. The as-synthesized GR-CNT-ZnO composite is applied to fabricate an enzyme based glucose biosensor. The GOx immobilized on GR-CNT-ZnO composite exhibits well-defined redox peaks with a peak potential separation (ΔEp) of about 26 mV with enhanced peak currents, indicating a fast electron transfer at the modified electrode surface. The cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed that the modified film has high electrocatalytic ability towards glucose detection in the presence of oxygen. The proposed sensor has a wide linear detection range from 10 μM to 6.5 mM of glucose with a limit of detection (LOD) of 4.5 (±0.08) μM. In addition, the sensor possessed appreciable repeatability, reproducibility and remarkable stability for the sensitive determination of glucose. The practicality of this sensor has been demonstrated in human serum samples, with results being in good agreement with those determined using a standard photometric method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermal Cycling Behavior of Zinc Antimonide Thin Films for High Temperature Thermoelectric Power Generation Applications.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyung Cheoul; Woo, Chang-Su; Han, Seungwoo

    2015-08-19

    The zinc antimonide compound ZnxSby is one of the most efficient thermoelectric materials known at high temperatures due to its exceptional low thermal conductivity. For this reason, it continues to be the focus of active research, especially regarding its glass-like atomic structure. However, before practical use in actual surroundings, such as near a vehicle manifold, it is imperative to analyze the thermal reliability of these materials. Herein, we present the thermal cycling behavior of ZnxSby thin films in nitrogen (N2) purged or ambient atmosphere. ZnxSby thin films were prepared by cosputtering and reached a power factor of 1.39 mW m(-1) K(-2) at 321 °C. We found maximum power factor values gradually decreased in N2 atmosphere due to increasing resistivity with repeated cycling, whereas the specimen in air kept its performance. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy observations revealed that fluidity of Zn atoms leads to nanoprecipitates, porous morphologies, and even growth of a coating layer or fiber structures on the surface of ZnxSby after repetitive heating and cooling cycles. With this in mind, our results indicate that proper encapsulation of the ZnxSby surface would reduce these unwanted side reactions and the resulting degradation of thermoelectric performance.

  19. Biocomposite Plasma-Sprayed Coatings Based on Zinc-Substituted Hydroxyapatite: Structure, Properties, and Prospects of Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyasnikova, A. V.; Markelova, O. A.; Lyasnikov, V. N.; Dudareva, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    The method of synthesis of a zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite powder is presented, and the technology of creating coatings by its spraying is described. The results of studies on the morphological, physical, and chemical parameters of a zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coating by using X-ray analysis, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, optical microscopy, SEM, and other methods are given.

  20. Project LEAF

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project LEAF has a goal of educating farmworkers about how to reduce pesticide exposure to their families from pesticide residues they may be inadvertently taking home on their clothing, etc. Find outreach materials.

  1. Low Temperature Annealed Zinc Oxide Nanostructured Thin Film-Based Transducers: Characterization for Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Haarindraprasad, R.; Hashim, U.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Kashif, Mohd; Veeradasan, P.; Balakrishnan, S. R.; Foo, K. L.; Poopalan, P.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of sensing surfaces highly relies on nanostructures to enhance their sensitivity and specificity. Herein, nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of various thicknesses were coated on glass and p-type silicon substrates using a sol-gel spin-coating technique. The deposited films were characterized for morphological, structural, and optoelectronic properties by high-resolution measurements. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the deposited films have a c-axis orientation and display peaks that refer to ZnO, which exhibits a hexagonal structure with a preferable plane orientation (002). The thicknesses of ZnO thin films prepared using 1, 3, 5, and 7 cycles were measured to be 40, 60, 100, and 200 nm, respectively. The increment in grain size of the thin film from 21 to 52 nm was noticed, when its thickness was increased from 40 to 200 nm, whereas the band gap value decreased from 3.282 to 3.268 eV. Band gap value of ZnO thin film with thickness of 200 nm at pH ranging from 2 to 10 reduces from 3.263eV to 3.200 eV. Furthermore, to evaluate the transducing capacity of the ZnO nanostructure, the refractive index, optoelectric constant, and bulk modulus were analyzed and correlated. The highest thickness (200 nm) of ZnO film, embedded with an interdigitated electrode that behaves as a pH-sensing electrode, could sense pH variations in the range of 2-10. It showed a highly sensitive response of 444 μAmM-1cm-2 with a linear regression of R2 =0.9304. The measured sensitivity of the developed device for pH per unit is 3.72μA/pH. PMID:26167853

  2. Effects of the Topical Application of Hydroalcoholic Leaf Extract of Oncidium flexuosum Sims. (Orchidaceae) and Microcurrent on the Healing of Wounds Surgically Induced in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Gaspi, Fernanda Oliveira de G.; Foglio, Mary Ann; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Santos, Gláucia Maria T.; Testa, Milene; Passarini, José Roberto; de Moraes, Cristiano Pedroso; Esquisatto, Marcelo A. Marreto; Mendonça, Josué S.; Mendonça, Fernanda A. Sampaio

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the wound healing activity of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Oncidium flexuosum Sims. (Orchidaceae), an important native plant of Brazil, combined or not with microcurrent stimulation. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of nine animals: control (C), topical application of the extract (OF), treated with a microcurrent (10 μA/2 min) (MC), and topical application of the extract plus microcurrent (OF + MC). Tissue samples were obtained 2, 6, and 10 days after injury and submitted to structural and morphometric analysis. The simultaneous application of OF + MC was found to be highly effective in terms of the parameters analyzed (P < .05), with positive effects on the area of newly formed tissue, number of fibroblasts, number of newly formed blood vessels, and epithelial thickness. Morphometric data confirmed the structural findings. The O. flexuosum leaf extract contains active compounds that speed the healing process, especially when applied simultaneously with microcurrent stimulation. PMID:21716707

  3. Title: Potassium application regulates nitrogen metabolism and osmotic adjustment in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) functional leaf under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Rizwan; Zhao, Wenqing; Abid, Muhammad; Dong, Haoran; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the role of potassium (K) in maintaining nitrogen metabolism and osmotic adjustment development of cotton functional leaves to sustain growth under soil drought and rewatering conditions, the plants of two cotton cultivars Siza 3 (low-K sensitive) and Simian 3 (low-K tolerant), were grown under three different K rates (K0, K1, and K2; 0, 150, and 300kgK 2 Oha -1 , respectively) and exposed to drought stress with 40±5% soil relative water content (SRWC). The drought stress was applied at flowering stage by withholding water for eight days followed by rewatering to a well-watered level (75±5% SRWC). The results showed that drought-stressed plants of both cultivars showed a decrease in leaf relative water content (RWC) and osmotic potential in the functional leaves and developed osmotic adjustment with an increase in the contents of free amino acids, soluble sugars, inorganic K, and nitrate as compared to well-watered plants. In drought-stressed plants, nitrogen-metabolizing enzyme activities of nitrogen reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) were diminished significantly (P≤0.05) along with decreased chlorophyll content and soluble proteins. However, drought-stressed plants under K application not only exhibited higher osmotic adjustment with greater accumulation of osmolytes but also regulated nitrogen metabolism by maintaining higher enzyme activities, soluble proteins, and chlorophyll content in functional leaves as compared to the plants without K application. Siza 3 showed better stability in enzyme activities and resulted in 89% higher seed cotton yield under K2 as compared to K0 in drought-stressed plants, whereas this increase was 53% in the case of Simian 3. The results of the study suggested that K application enhances cotton plants' potential for sustaining high nitrogen-metabolizing enzyme activities and related components to supplement osmotic adjustment under soil drought conditions. Copyright © 2017

  4. Pathogenesis-related protein expression in the apoplast of wheat leaves protected against leaf rust following application of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari; Wilson, Neil L; Guest, David; Roberts, Thomas H

    2014-09-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major disease of wheat. We tested aqueous leaf extracts of Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae), Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae), and Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) for their ability to protect wheat from leaf rust. Extracts from all three species inhibited P. triticina urediniospore germination in vitro. Plants sprayed with extracts before inoculation developed significantly lower levels of disease incidence (number of plants infected) than unsprayed, inoculated controls. Sprays combining 0.6% leaf extracts and 2 mM salicylic acid with the fungicide Amistar Xtra at 0.05% (azoxystrobin at 10 μg/liter + cyproconazole at 4 μg/liter) reduced disease incidence significantly more effectively than sprays of fungicide at 0.1% alone. Extracts of J. mimosifolia were most active, either alone (1.2%) or in lower doses (0.6%) in combination with 0.05% Amistar Xtra. Leaf extracts combined with fungicide strongly stimulated defense-related gene expression and the subsequent accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in the apoplast of inoculated wheat leaves. The level of protection afforded was significantly correlated with the ability of extracts to increase PR protein expression. We conclude that pretreatment of wheat leaves with spray formulations containing previously untested plant leaf extracts enhances protection against leaf rust provided by fungicide sprays, offering an alternative disease management strategy.

  5. [Effects of nitrogen application on canopy vertical structure, grain-leaf ratio and economic benefit of winter wheat under drip irrigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Xu, Wen Xiu; Li, Lan Hai; Wu, Ni Ping; Wu, Pei Jie; Cheng, Xue Feng

    2016-08-01

    To optimize the fertilization rate of winter wheat under drip irrigation in Xinjiang region, a field investigation was carried out to assess effects of nitrogen (N) applications on canopy vertical structure, grain-leaf ratio, yield and economic benefit of winter wheat. Four rates of nitrogen application, 0 kg·hm -2 (N 0 ), 104 kg·hm -2 (N 1 ), 173 kg·hm -2 (N 2 ) and 242 kg·hm -2 (N 3 ) were set in a randomized block experimental design. Meantime, leaf and stem morphological characters, canopy temperature and humidity in flowering stage, grain-leaf area ratio, yield and yield components, economic benefits of winter wheat were observed under different treatments. The results showed that the leaf length and width at different positions of wheat under the nitrogen fertilization treatments were significantly higher than that without nitrogen fertilization (P<0.05), and plant height ranged from 65.57 to 81.58 cm. With an increasing rate of nitrogen fertilization, both leafarea index and stem diameter presented a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, and reached the maximum under N 2 treatment, which was 5.48 and 0.49 cm, respectively. Diurnal variation of canopy temperature and humidity were "convex" and "concave" shape, followed an order of N 0 >N 1 >N 2 >N 3 in temperature, but reversely in canopy humidity. The duration of high temperature higher than 35 ℃ were shorten 1 hour to 3.5 hours as the nitrogen application level increased, and there was significant difference between N 1 and N 3 on grain-leaf ratio. Yield and economic be-nefit decreased initially and then increased with increasing nitrogen application. Yield and economic benefit of treatment N 2 were 32.8% and 77.7% higher than those of treatment N 0 , 12.6% and 5.4% higher than those of treatment N 1 , and 5.2% and 4.2% higher than those of treatment N 3 , respectively. These results indicated that nitrogen application at about 173 kg·hm -2 could be recommended as the optimum rate for winter

  6. Effects of nitrogen combined with zinc application on glutamate, glutamine, aspartate and asparagine accumulation in two winter wheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhaojun; Wang, Jia; Rengel, Zed; Liu, Hongen; Gao, Wei; Zhao, Peng

    2018-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency remarkably depresses the protein concentration in the grain of winter wheat. Cultivar 'Pingan 8' showed lower Zn concentrations in the grain than did cultivar 'Yangao 006' after nitrogen (N) combined with Zn application. However, little is known about how amino acids are influenced by Zn combined with N application or about the differences in amino acid accumulation between the two winter wheat cultivars. A pot experiment was conducted to characterize amino acid accumulation in the low Zn-accumulating cultivar 'Pingan 8' and the high Zn-accumulating cultivar 'Yangao 006' at various growth stages (seedling, jointing, grain filling and maturity) as influenced by N and Zn supply. The N (N 0.2 ) combined with Zn (Zn 10 ) application significantly increased grain yields and the concentrations of N, Zn and crude protein in the grain of both wheat cultivars. N combined with Zn application significantly increased the concentrations of glutamate (Glu) and asparagine (Asn) but decreased the concentrations of glutamine (Gln) and aspartate (Asp) in cultivar 'Yangao 006'; the N combined with Zn application decreased the concentrations of Glu and Gln but increased the concentrations of Asp and Asn in cultivar 'Pingan 8' at the jointing, grain filling and mature stages. Correlation analysis results showed that there were significant relationships between grain yields, spike number, grain number and Zn, N, crude protein, Glu, Gln, Asp and Asn concentrations in the shoots and grain of winter wheat at different growth stages. These results demonstrate that N combined with Zn application enhanced protein synthesis by altering amino acid accumulation in both winter wheat cultivars. Cultivar 'Pingan 8' had lower Gln, Asp and Asn concentrations and higher Glu concentrations than did cultivar 'Yangao 006' after the N 0.05 treatment but had higher Glu, Gln, Asp, and Asn concentrations and lower Glu concentrations than did cultivar 'Yangao 006' after the N 0

  7. Optical spectroscopy and luminescence properties of Ho3+ doped zinc fluorophosphate (ZFP) glasses for green luminescent device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy Prasad, V.; Damodaraiah, S.; Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2018-04-01

    Ho3+ doped zinc fluorophosphate (ZFP) glasses with molar chemical compositions, (60-x) NH4H2PO4+20ZnO+10BaF2+10NaF+xHo2O3 (where x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mol%) were prepared by melt quenching technique. These glasses were characterized through physical, structural, optical, excitation, luminescence and decay curve analysis. From the absorption spectra, spectral intensities (fexp and fcal), Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6), radiative transition probabilities (AT), radiative lifetimes (τR) and branching ratios (βR) were evaluated for all Ho3+ doped ZFP glass matrices. From the photoluminescence spectra, peak stimulated emission cross-sections (σP) were calculated for all Ho3+ doped ZFP glasses. The Ho3+ doped ZFP glasses show strong green emission at 545 nm and red emission at 656 nm under excitation, 450 nm. The measured lifetimes (τmeas) of (5S2)5F4 level of Ho3+ doped ZFP glasses were obtained from decay profiles. The CIE color coordinates of Ho3+ doped ZFP glasses were calculated from emission spectra and 1.0 mol% of Ho3+ doped ZFP glass matrix gives green emission. Hence, these results confirm that the Ho3+ doped ZFP glasses could be considered as a promising candidate for visible green laser applications.

  8. Fabrication of Zinc Oxide-Based Thin-Film Transistors by Radio Frequency Sputtering for Ultraviolet Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ming-Hung; Chang, Sheng-Po; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Li, Chih-Wei; Li, Jyun-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chien

    2018-05-01

    In this study, zinc indium tin oxide thin-film transistors (ZITO TFTs) were fabricated by the radio frequency (RF) sputtering deposition method. Adding indium cations to ZnO by co-sputtering allows the development of ZITO TFTs with improved performance. Material characterization revealed that ZITO TFTs have a threshold voltage of 0.9 V, a subthreshold swing of 0.294 V/decade, a field-effect mobility of 5.32 cm2/Vs, and an on-off ratio of 4.7 × 105. Furthermore, an investigation of the photosensitivity of the fabricated devices was conducted by an illumination test. The responsivity of ZITO TFTs was 26 mA/W, with 330-nm illumination and a gate bias of -1 V. The UV-to-visible rejection ratio for ZITO TFTs was 2706. ZITO TFTs were observed to have greater UV light sensitivity than that of ZnO TFTs. We believe that these results suggest a significant step toward achieving high photosensitivity. In addition, the ZITO semiconductor system could be a promising candidate for use in high performance transparent TFTs, as well as further sensing applications.

  9. History of Zinc in Agriculture12

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Forrest H.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

  10. Copper and zinc runoff from land application of composted poultry litter

    Regions with long-term animal manure applications based upon nitrogen (N) requirements have concerns for elevated nutrient levels. Most attention has focused on phosphorus (P), but concern of heavy metal accumulation has received attention due to perceived environmental concerns. Some nutrient-dense...

  11. Bulk growth and surface characterization of epitaxy ready cadmium zinc telluride substrates for use in IR imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, J. P.; Martinez, B.; Betz, T. E. M.; Mackenzie, J.; Kumar, F. J.; Burgess, L.

    2017-02-01

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (Cd1-xZnxTe or CZT) is a compound semiconductor substrate material that has been used for infrared detector (IR) applications for many years. CZT is a perfect substrate for the epitaxial growth of Mercury Cadmium Telluride (Hg1-xCdxTe or MCT) epitaxial layers and remains the material of choice for many high performance IR detectors and focal plane arrays that are used to detect across wide IR spectral bands. Critical to the fabrication of high performance MCT IR detectors is a high quality starting CZT substrate, this being a key determinant of epitaxial layer crystallinity, defectivity and ultimately device electro-optical performance. In this work we report on a new source of substrates suitable for IR detector applications, grown using the Travelling Heater Method (THM). This proven method of crystal growth has been used to manufacture high quality IR specification CZT substrates where industry requirements for IR transmission, dislocations, tellurium precipitates and copper impurity levels have been met. Results will be presented for the chemo-mechanical (CMP) polishing of CZT substrates using production tool sets that are identical to those that are used to produce epitaxy-ready surface finishes on related IR compound semiconductor materials such as GaSb and InSb. We will also discuss the requirements to scale CZT substrate manufacture and how with a new III-V like approach to both CZT crystal growth and substrate polishing, we can move towards a more standardized product and one that can ultimately deliver a standard round CZT substrate, as is the case for competing IR materials such as GaSb, InSb and InP.

  12. The effectiveness of cabbage leaf application (treatment) on pain and hardness in breast engorgement and its effect on the duration of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Boi, Boh; Koh, Serena; Gail, Desley

    Breast engorgement is a condition that affects breastfeeding mothers early in the postpartum. The discomfort and tenderness as a result of the engorgement is a major contributing factor to the early cessation of breastfeeding. Many treatments for breast engorgement have been attempted and explored. To examine the effectiveness of cabbage leaf treatment on pain and hardness of the engorged breasts of post-partum women and its influence on the duration of breastfeeding in women with breast engorgement. Postpartum lactating mothers 13 to 50 years of age and of any parity in the first two weeks postpartum with breast engorgement.Cabbage leaf treatment on breast engorgement in reducing pain, hardness and increasing the duration of breastfeeding.Primary outcomes: engorgement, severity of the distention, hardness to touch and pain associated with breast engorgement. Secondary outcome: duration of breastfeeding.Quantitative studies including RCTs, quasi-randomized trials and quasi-experimental studies. Studies in English language from inception of the relevant databases to 2010 were considered for inclusion in this review.The databases searched included: CINAHL, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EMBASE, Web of Science, Science Direct. The search for unpublished studies included: Google Scholar, Mednar, Proquest. Studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity using standardised critical appraisal tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted using the standardised data extraction tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. The results were presented in narrative format as the meta-analysis was not appropriate because study methods were heterogeneous. Four studies were included in this review: one RCT and two quasi-randomised studies and one quasi-experimental study. In one RCT after the first cabbage leaf application, fewer mothers were reporting breast engorgement through their second to fourth assessments as compared to the control group. On the

  13. Facile fabrication of dual emissive nanospheres via the self-assembling of CdSe@CdS and zinc phthalocyanine and their application for silver ion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuning; Liu, Chenchen; Luan, Xinying; Yao, Rui; Feng, Yakai

    2017-09-01

    The far-red/near infrared photoluminescence of zinc phthalocyanines would be strongly quenched once they are aggregated, which will obviously hinder their wide applications in environmental, energy related and biomedical fields. Herein, the ultra-small sized semiconductor quantum dots with core-shell structures (CdSe@CdS) have been firstly synthesized and then assembled with a dendritic zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) in the H2O/DMF mixed solvent to obtain monodispersed nanospheres. Finally, it was found that the resultant ethanolic colloids can be employed as a sensitive and specific fluorescent nanoprobe for silver ions discrimination with a limit of detection (LOD) approaching to 10-8 mol/L.

  14. Single pot synthesized gold nanoparticles using Hippophae rhamnoides leaf and berry extract showed shape-dependent differential nanobiotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhavana; Deswal, Renu

    2018-04-04

    A facile one-pot green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with different geometries was achieved using an underutilized Himalayan bioresource Hippophae rhamnoides. Aqueous leaf (LE) and berry extracts (BE) showed rapid synthesis of monodispersed spherical LEAuNPs (27 ± 3.2 nm) and anisotropic BEAuNPs (55 ± 4.5 nm) within 2 and 15 min, respectively. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed involvement of polyphenolics/flavonoids in AuNPs reduction. LE AuNPs (IC 50 49 µg) exhibited higher antioxidant potential than BE AuNPs (IC 50 57 µg). Both BE nanotriangles and LE nanospheres exhibited cytotoxicity against Jurkat cell lines. These nanocatalysts also exhibited effective (80-99%) reductive degradation of structurally different carcinogenic azo dyes. Kinetic studies revealed that BE nanotriangles exhibited higher catalytic efficiency (14-67%) than LE nanospheres suggesting shape-dependent regulation of biological activities. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed conversion of toxic methyl orange dye to non-toxic intermediates. Probable degradation mechanism involving adsorption and catalytic reduction of azo bonds was proposed. The present synthesis protocol provided a facile and energy saving procedure for rapid synthesis of highly stable nanoparticles with significant antioxidant and anticancer potential. This is the first report of H. rhamnoides-mediated green synthesis of multipurpose AuNPs as antioxidant, anticancer and nanocatalytic agents for treatment of dye contaminated waste water and future therapeutic applications.

  15. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  16. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Gangwal, Santosh K.; Jain, Suresh C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  17. Green Microwave-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles with Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad: Characterization and Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Susan; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Mahdavi Shahri, Mahnaz

    2017-02-16

    In this paper, a green microwave-assisted combustion approach to synthesize ZnO-NPs using zinc nitrate and Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad (fruit, seed and pulp) extracts as bio-fuels is reported. The structure, optical, and colloidal properties of the synthesized ZnO-NP samples were studied. Results illustrate that the morphology and particle size of the ZnO samples are different and depend on the bio-fuel. The XRD results revealed that hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-NPs with mean particle size of 27-85 nm were produced by different bio-fuels. The optical band gap was increased from 3.25 to 3.40 eV with the decreasing of particle size. FTIR results showed some differences in the surface structures of the as-synthesized ZnO-NP samples. This led to differences in the zeta potential, hydrodynamic size, and more significantly, antioxidant activity through scavenging of 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals. In in vitro cytotoxicity studies on 3T3 cells, a dose dependent toxicity with non-toxic effect of concentration below 0.26 mg/mL was shown for ZnO-NP samples. Furthermore, the as-synthesized ZnO-NPs inhibited the growth of medically significant pathogenic gram-positive ( Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aurous ) and gram-negative ( Peseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli ) bacteria. This study provides a simple, green and efficient approach to produce ZnO nanoparticles for various applications.

  18. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  19. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  20. Mechanochemistry of Chitosan-Coated Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) Nanocrystals for Bio-imaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Bujňáková, Zdenka; Dutková, Erika; Kello, Martin; Mojžiš, Ján; Baláž, Matej; Baláž, Peter; Shpotyuk, Oleh

    2017-12-01

    The ZnS nanocrystals were prepared in chitosan solution (0.1 wt.%) using a wet ultra-fine milling. The obtained suspension was stable and reached high value of zeta potential (+57 mV). The changes in FTIR spectrum confirmed the successful surface coating of ZnS nanoparticles by chitosan. The prepared ZnS nanocrystals possessed interesting optical properties verified in vitro. Four cancer cells were selected (CaCo-2, HCT116, HeLa, and MCF-7), and after their treatment with the nanosuspension, the distribution of ZnS in the cells was studied using a fluorescence microscope. The particles were clearly seen; they passed through the cell membrane and accumulated in cytosol. The biological activity of the cells was not influenced by nanoparticles, they did not cause cell death, and only the granularity of cells was increased as a consequence of cellular uptake. These results confirm the potential of ZnS nanocrystals using in bio-imaging applications.

  1. Dynamic coupled metal transport-speciation model: application to assess a zinc-contaminated lake.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Diamond, Miriam L; Gandhi, Nilima; Nilsen, Joel

    2004-10-01

    A coupled metal transport and speciation/complexation model (TRANSPEC) has been developed to estimate the speciation and fate of multiple interconverting species in surface aquatic systems. Dynamic-TRANSPEC loosely, sequentially couples the speciation/complexation and fate modules that, for the unsteady state formulation, run alternatively at every time step. The speciation module first estimates species abundance using, in this version, MINEQL+ considering time-dependent changes in water and pore-water chemistry. The fate module is based on the quantitative water air sediment interaction (QWASI) model and fugacity/aquivalence formulation, with the option of using a pseudo-steady state solution to account for past discharges. Similarly to the QWASI model for organic contaminants, TRANSPEC assumes the instantaneous equilibrium distribution of metal species among dissolved, colloidal, and particulate phases based on ambient chemistry parameters that can be collected through conventional field methods. The model is illustrated with its application to Ross Lake (Manitoba, Canada) that has elevated Zn concentrations due to discharges over 70 years from a mining operation. Using measurements from field studies, the model reproduces year-round variations in Zn water concentrations. A 10-year projection for current conditions suggests decreasing Zn remobilization and export from the lake. Decreasing Zn loadings increases sediment-to-water transport but decreases water concentrations, and vice versa. Species distribution is affected by pH such that a decrease in pH increases metal export from the lake and vice versa.

  2. Electrical and structural characterization of IZO (indium oxide-zinc oxide) thin films for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaglioglu, Burag

    Materials for oxide-based transparent electronics have been recently reported in the literature. These materials include various amorphous and crystalline compounds based on multi-component oxides and many of them offer useful combinations of transparency, controllable carrier concentrations, and reasonable n-carrier mobility. In this thesis, the properties of amorphous and crystalline In2O3-10wt%ZnO, IZO, thin films were investigated for their potential use in oxide electronics. The room temperature deposition of this material using DC magnetron sputtering results in the formation of amorphous films. Annealing amorphous IZO films at 500°C in air produces a previously unknown crystalline compound. Using electron diffraction experiments, it is reported that the crystal structure of this compound is based on the high-pressure rhombohedral phase of In2O3. Electrical properties of different phases of IZO were explored and it was concluded that amorphous films offer most promising characteristics for device applications. Therefore, thin film transistors (TFT) were fabricated based on amorphous IZO films where both the channel and metallization layers were deposited from the same target. The carrier densities in the channel and source-drain layers were adjusted by changing the oxygen content in the sputter chamber during deposition. The resulting transistors operate as depletion mode n-channel field effect devices with high saturation mobilities.

  3. Long-term changes in the extractability and bioavailability of zinc and cadmium after sludge application

    SciT

    McGrath, S.P.; Zhao, F.J.; Dunham, S.J.

    2000-06-01

    Changes in the extractability and uptake by crops of sludge metals in a long-term field experiment, started in 1942, were measured to assess whether Zn and Cd are either fixed by the sludge/soil constituents or are released as the sludge organic matter (OM) decomposes. Total and 0.1 M CaCl{sub 2}-extractable concentrations of Zn and Cd in soil and total concentrations in crops were measured on archived crop and soil samples. Extractability of Zn as a proportion of the total ranged from 0.5 to 3% and that of Cd from 4 to 18%, and were higher in sludge-amended than farmyard manuremore » or fertilizer-amended soils. Over a 23-yr period after 1961, when sludge was last applied, the extractability of both metals fluctuated, but neither decreased nor increased consistently. The relationships between total soil and crop metal concentrations were linear, with no evidence of a plateau across the range of soil metal concentrations achieved. The slopes of the soil-plant relationships depended on the type of crop or crop part examined, but were generally in the order red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) > sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) > carrot (Daucus carota L.) > barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). However, there also were large seasonal differences in metal concentrations in the crops. It is concluded from the available evidence that up to 23 yr after sludge applications cease, Zn and Cd extractability and bioavailability do not decrease.« less

  4. Template-Assisted Hydrothermal Growth of One-Dimensional Zinc Oxide Nanowires for Photocatalytic Application.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuai-Shuai; Xu, Peng; Cai, Zhi-Lan; Li, Qing; Ye, Zhao-Lian; Zhou, Yu-Ming

    2018-07-01

    One-dimensional (1D) semiconductor ZnO nanowires have been successfully synthesized by a novel soft-chemical hydrothermal method with allylpolyethoxy amino carboxylate (AA-APEA) at low temperature. Their structure and properties have been characterized by a series of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that ZnO nanowires with diameters around 50 nm and lengths up to about several micrometers are well-distributed. The photocatalytic activity toward degradation of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) was investigated and the results showed that the ZnO nanowires exhibit a markedly higher photoactivity compared to the ZnO nanoparticles which were obtained without AA-APEA polymer assistant, and it can be ascribed to the special 1D morphology of the ZnO nanowires. In particular, the rate of degradation of the ZnO nanowires was 11 times faster than that of ZnO nanoparticles. In addition, the ZnO nanowires could be easily recycled in UV photocatalytic activity. These observations could promote new applications of photocatalyst for wastewater treatment utilizing oxide semiconductor nanostructures.

  5. Polylactic acid/zinc oxide biocomposite films for food packaging application.

    PubMed

    Marra, Antonella; Silvestre, Clara; Duraccio, Donatella; Cimmino, Sossio

    2016-07-01

    Although PLA is much more expensive than polyolefins, such as PP and PE, there is a great interest to propose PLA based material as alternative films for food packaging being PLA derivable from natural source, compostable and biodegradable. For this purpose the research has the task to investigate and propose PLA materials with enhanced properties to be effectively and efficiently alternative to polyolefin films for food packaging application. In this contribution, biocomposite films of PLA with 1, 3 and 5wt% of ZnO have been investigated to determine mechanical, barrier and antimicrobial (against Escherichia coli) properties. It is found that the biocomposite films are characterized by a good dispersion of the ZnO particles in PLA matrix, although no previous treatment was performed on ZnO particles, such as silanization, to decrease its incompatibility with the polymer. The biocomposite films have shown good mechanical properties, decrease of permeability to CO2 and O2, and only a slight increase to water vapour. Particularly important is that, for the biocomposite with 5wt% of ZnO, the % Reduction for E. Coli test reached the value of 99.99 already after 24h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanochemistry of Chitosan-Coated Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) Nanocrystals for Bio-imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujňáková, Zdenka; Dutková, Erika; Kello, Martin; Mojžiš, Ján; Baláž, Matej; Baláž, Peter; Shpotyuk, Oleh

    2017-05-01

    The ZnS nanocrystals were prepared in chitosan solution (0.1 wt.%) using a wet ultra-fine milling. The obtained suspension was stable and reached high value of zeta potential (+57 mV). The changes in FTIR spectrum confirmed the successful surface coating of ZnS nanoparticles by chitosan. The prepared ZnS nanocrystals possessed interesting optical properties verified in vitro. Four cancer cells were selected (CaCo-2, HCT116, HeLa, and MCF-7), and after their treatment with the nanosuspension, the distribution of ZnS in the cells was studied using a fluorescence microscope. The particles were clearly seen; they passed through the cell membrane and accumulated in cytosol. The biological activity of the cells was not influenced by nanoparticles, they did not cause cell death, and only the granularity of cells was increased as a consequence of cellular uptake. These results confirm the potential of ZnS nanocrystals using in bio-imaging applications.

  7. Inhalation exposure during spray application and subsequent sanding of a wood sealant containing zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Michael R; West, Gavin H; Burrelli, Leonard G; Dresser, Daniel; Griffin, Kelsey N; Segrave, Alan M; Perrenoud, Jon; Lippy, Bruce E

    2017-07-01

    Nano-enabled construction products have entered into commerce. There are concerns about the safety of manufactured nanomaterials, and exposure assessments are needed for a more complete understanding of risk. This study assessed potential inhalation exposure to ZnO nanoparticles during spray application and power sanding of a commercially available wood sealant and evaluated the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation in reducing exposure. A tradesperson performed the spraying and sanding inside an environmentally-controlled chamber. Dust control methods during sanding were compared. Filter-based sampling, electron microscopy, and real-time particle counters provided measures of exposure. Airborne nanoparticles above background levels were detected by particle counters for all exposure scenarios. Nanoparticle number concentrations and particle size distributions were similar for sanding of treated versus untreated wood. Very few unbound nanoparticles were detected in aerosol samples via electron microscopy, rather nano-sized ZnO was contained within, or on the surface of larger airborne particles. Whether the presence of nanoscale ZnO in these aerosols affects toxicity merits further investigation. Mass-based exposure measurements were below the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit for Zn, although there are no established exposure limits for nanoscale ZnO. Local exhaust ventilation was effective, reducing airborne nanoparticle number concentrations by up to 92% and reducing personal exposure to total dust by at least 80% in terms of mass. Given the discrepancies between the particle count data and electron microscopy observations, the chemical identity of the airborne nanoparticles detected by the particle counters remains uncertain. Prior studies attributed the main source of nanoparticle emissions during sanding to copper nanoparticles generated from electric sander motors. Potentially contrary results are presented suggesting the sander motor may not have been

  8. Application of the High Resolution Melting analysis for genetic mapping of Sequence Tagged Site markers in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.).

    PubMed

    Kamel, Katarzyna A; Kroc, Magdalena; Święcicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Sequence tagged site (STS) markers are valuable tools for genetic and physical mapping that can be successfully used in comparative analyses among related species. Current challenges for molecular markers genotyping in plants include the lack of fast, sensitive and inexpensive methods suitable for sequence variant detection. In contrast, high resolution melting (HRM) is a simple and high-throughput assay, which has been widely applied in sequence polymorphism identification as well as in the studies of genetic variability and genotyping. The present study is the first attempt to use the HRM analysis to genotype STS markers in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). The sensitivity and utility of this method was confirmed by the sequence polymorphism detection based on melting curve profiles in the parental genotypes and progeny of the narrow-leafed lupin mapping population. Application of different approaches, including amplicon size and a simulated heterozygote analysis, has allowed for successful genetic mapping of 16 new STS markers in the narrow-leafed lupin genome.

  9. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... process alone or in conjunction with other processes, for the beneficiation of copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, or molybdenum ores, or any combination of these ores; (3) Mines and mills that use dump, heap, in-situ leach, or vat-leach processes to extract copper from ores or ore waste materials; and (4) Mills...

  10. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... process alone or in conjunction with other processes, for the beneficiation of copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, or molybdenum ores, or any combination of these ores; (3) Mines and mills that use dump, heap, in-situ leach, or vat-leach processes to extract copper from ores or ore waste materials; and (4) Mills...

  11. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... process alone or in conjunction with other processes, for the beneficiation of copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, or molybdenum ores, or any combination of these ores; (3) Mines and mills that use dump, heap, in-situ leach, or vat-leach processes to extract copper from ores or ore waste materials; and (4) Mills...

  12. Antibacterial effects, biocompatibility and electrochemical behavior of zinc incorporated niobium oxide coating on 316L SS for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep PremKumar, K.; Duraipandy, N.; Manikantan Syamala, Kiran; Rajendran, N.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, Nb2O5 (NZ0) composite coatings with various concentrations of zinc (NZ2, NZ4 & NZ6) are produced on 316L SS by sol-gel method with the aim of improving its antibacterial activity, bone formability and corrosion resistance properties. This work studied the surface characterization of NZ0, NZ2, NZ4 & NZ6 coated 316L SS by ATR-FTIR, XRD, HR-SEM with EDAX. The synthesized coatings were different in the morphological aspects, NZ0 shows mesoporous morphology whereas irregular cluster like morphology was observed for the zinc incorporated coatings. The chemical composition of the NZ0 and NZ4 composite coatings were studied by XPS and the results revealed that the zinc exist as ZnO and Nb as Nb2O5 in the coatings. The increase in the concentration of zinc in Nb2O5 increases the hydrophilic nature identified by water contact angle studies. The potentiodynamic polarization studies in simulated body fluid reveals the increase in polarization resistance with decrease in current density (icorr) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies with increase in charge transfer resistance (Rct) and double layer capacitance (Qdl) were observed for NZ4 coated 316L SS. The inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria were identified for NZ4 coated 316L SS by bacterial viability studies. The NZ4 coated 316L SS showed better Osseo-integration by spreading the MG 63 osteoblast cells. The study results imply that zinc incorporated Nb2O5 (NZ4) composite coating exhibits antibacterial activity and also enhance the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the 316L SS.

  13. Bright up-conversion white light emission from Er3+ doped lithium fluoro zinc borate glasses for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayalakshmi, L.; Naveen Kumar, K.; Rao, K. Srinivasa; Hwang, Pyung

    2018-03-01

    Various concentrations of Er3+ (0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mol %) doped lithium fluoro zinc borate glasses were synthesized by a traditional melt quenching method. XRD, FTIR and FESEM have been employed to analyze the structural, compositional and morphological analysis respectively. Judd-Ofelt theory has been employed to analyze the intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4 and 6) which can be used to estimate the radiative properties of fluorescent levels of Er3+. We have been observed a strong NIR emission peak at 1.53 μm (4I13/2 → 4I15/2) under the excitation of 980 nm from Er3+: LBZ glasses. Nevertheless, the NIR emission is remarkably enhanced by increasing the Er3+ ions concentration until the optimized concentration of 0.5 mol%. The lifetime of the excited level of 4I13/2 in the NIR emission transition is evaluated and it is found to be1.22 ms from the decay analysis of 0.5 mol% Er3+: LBZ glass. Apart from the NIR emission, a bright up-conversion green emission is observed at 544 nm (4S3/2 → 4I15/2) along with an intense red emission at 659 nm (4F9/2 → 4I15/2) and a weak blue emission (2H9/2 → 4I15/2) under the excitation of 980 nm. Up-conversion emission features were significantly enhanced with increasing the Er3+ concentration up to 1.0 mol%. The combination of the obtained up-conversion emission colors of green, red and blue could generate white light emission. The cool white-light emission from the optimized glass sample has been confirmed from the Commission International de I'Echairage (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram analysis and their correlated color temperature (CCT) values. Based on the NIR and up-conversion emission features, Er3+: LBZ glasses could be suggested as promising candidates for optical amplifiers, optical telecommunication windows and white light photonic applications.

  14. Vertical leaf area distribution, light transmittance, and application of the Beer-Lambert Law in four mature hardwood stands in the southern Appalachians

    James M. Vose; Neal H. Sullivan; Barton D. Clinton; Paul V. Bolstad

    1995-01-01

    We quantified stand leaf area index and vertical leaf area distribution, and developed canopy extinction coefficients (k), in four mature hardwood stands. Leaf area index, calculated from litter fall and specific leaf area (cm²·g-1), ranged from 4.3 to 5.4 m²·m-2. In three of the four stands, leaf area was distributed in...

  15. Leaf-age and soil-plant relationships: key factors for reporting trace-elements hyperaccumulation by plants and design applications.

    PubMed

    Losfeld, Guillaume; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Mc Coy, Stéphane; Grison, Claude; Jaffré, Tanguy

    2015-04-01

    Relationships between the trace-elements (TE) content of plants and associated soil have been widely investigated especially to understand the ecology of TE hyperaccumulating species to develop applications using TE phytoextraction. Many studies have focused on the possibility of quantifying the soil TE fraction available to plants, and used bioconcentration (BC) as a measure of the plants ability to absorb TE. However, BC only offers a static view of the dynamic phenomenon of TE accumulation. Accumulation kinetics are required to fully account for TE distributions in plants. They are also crucial to design applications where maximum TE concentrations in plant leaves are needed. This paper provides a review of studies of BC (i.e. soil-plant relationships) and leaf-age in relation to TE hyperaccumulation. The paper focuses of Ni and Mn accumulators and hyperaccumulators from New Caledonia who were previously overlooked until recent Ecocatalysis applications emerged for such species. Updated data on Mn hyperaccumulators and accumulators from New Caledonia are also presented and advocate further investigation of the hyperaccumulation of this element. Results show that leaf-age should be considered in the design of sample collection and allowed the reclassification of Grevillea meisneri known previously as a Mn accumulator to a Mn hyperaccumulator.

  16. Fidelity of fossil n-alkanes from leaf to paleosol and applications to the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, R. T.; McInerney, F. A.; Baczynski, A. A.; Wing, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Long chain n-alkanes (C21-C35) are well-known as biomarkers of terrestrial plants. They can be preserved across a wide range of terrestrial and marine environments, survive in the sedimentary record for millions of years, and can serve as proxies for ancient environments. Most n-alkane records are derived from sediments rather than directly from fossil leaves. However, little is known about the fidelity of the n-alkane record: how and where leaf preservation relates to n-alkane preservation and how patterns of n-alkane carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) compare to living relatives. To examine these questions, we analyzed n-alkanes from fluvial sediments and individual leaf fossils collected in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) carbon isotope excursion. We assessed the fidelity of the n-alkane signature from individual fossil leaves via three separate means. 1) Spatial variations were assessed by comparing n-alkane concentrations on a fossil leaf and in sediments both directly adjacent to the leaf and farther away. Absolute concentrations were greater within the compression fossil than in the directly adjacent sediment, which were in turn greater than in more distant sediment. 2) n-Alkane abundances and distributions were examined in fossil leaves having a range of preservational quality, from fossils with intact cuticle to carbonized fossils lacking cuticle and higher-order venation. The best preserved fossils preserved a higher concentration of n-alkanes and showed the most similar n-alkane distribution to living relatives. However, a strong odd over even predominance suggests a relatively unmodified plant source occurred in all samples regardless of preservation state. 3) n-Alkane δ13C values were measured for both fossil leaves and their living relatives. Both the saw-tooth pattern of δ13C values between odd and even chain lengths and the general decrease in δ13C values with increasing chain length are consistent with

  17. Leaf application of a sprayable bioplastic-based formulation of biocontrol Aspergillus flavus strains for reduction of aflatoxins in corn.

    PubMed

    Accinelli, Cesare; Abbas, Hamed K; Vicari, Alberto; Shier, W Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Applying non-aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus isolates to the soil has been shown to be effective in reducing aflatoxin levels in harvested crops, including peanuts, cotton and corn. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of controlling aflatoxin contamination using a novel sprayable formulation consisting of a partially gelatinized starch-based bioplastic dispersion embedded with spores of biocontrol A. flavus strains, which is applied to the leaf surfaces of corn plants. The formulation was shown to be adherent, resulting in colonization of leaf surfaces with the biocontrol strain of A. flavus, and to reduce aflatoxin contamination of harvested kernels by up to 80% in Northern Italy and by up to 89% in the Mississippi Delta. The percentage of aflatoxin-producing isolates in the soil reservoir under leaf-treated corn was not significantly changed, even when the soil was amended with additional A. flavus as a model of changes to the soil reservoir that occur in no-till agriculture. This study indicated that it is not necessary to treat the soil reservoir in order to achieve effective biocontrol of aflatoxin contamination in kernel corn. Spraying this novel bioplastic-based formulation to leaves can be an effective alternative in the biocontrol of A. flavus in corn. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Facile synthesis of size-tunable gold nanoparticles by pomegranate (Punica granatum) leaf extract: Applications in arsenate sensing

    SciT

    Rao, Ashit; Mahajan, Ketakee; Bankar, Ashok

    Highlights: ► Pomegranate leaf extracts mediated rapid gold nanoparticle (AuNP) synthesis. ► The phyto-inspired AuNPs were size-tuned and characterized. ► The reducing and capping agents in the extract were identified. ► The nanoparticles reacted specifically with arsenate (V) ions. - Abstract: When pomegranate leaf extracts were incubated with chloroauric acid (HAuCl{sub 4}), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized. These were characterized by a variety of techniques. With an increasing content of the leaf extract, a gradual decrease in size and an increase in monodispersity were observed. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed that the phyto-fabricated AuNPs were surrounded by an amorphousmore » layer. Gallic acid in the extract mediated the reduction and a natural decapeptide capped the nanostructures. Blocking of thiol groups in the decapeptide cysteine residues caused the nanoparticles to aggregate. On interaction with arsenate (V) ions, the UV–vis spectra of the nanoparticles showed a decrease in intensity and a red-shift. Energy dispersive spectra confirmed the presence of arsenate associated with the AuNPs. Thus, by using these AuNPs, a method for sensing the toxic arsenate ions could be developed.« less

  19. Zinc alloy enhances strength and creep resistance

    SciT

    Machler, M.

    1996-10-01

    A family of high-performance ternary zinc-copper-aluminum alloys has been developed that provides higher strength, hardness, and creep resistance than the traditional zinc-aluminum alloys Zamak 3, Zamak 5, and ZA-8. Designated ACuZinc, mechanical properties comparable to those of more expensive materials make it suitable for high-load applications and those at elevated temperatures. This article describes the alloy`s composition, properties, and historical development.

  20. Room-temperature synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in different media and their application in cyanide photodegradation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide is an extreme hazard and extensively found in the wastes of refinery, coke plant, and metal plating industries. A simple, fast, cost-effective, room-temperature wet chemical route, based on cyclohexylamine, for synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles in aqueous and enthanolic media was established and tested for the photodegradation of cyanide ions. Particles of polyhedra morphology were obtained for zinc oxide, prepared in ethanol (ZnOE), while spherical and some chunky particles were observed for zinc oxide, prepared in water (ZnOW). The morphology was crucial in enhancing the cyanide ion photocatalytic degradation efficiency of ZnOE by a factor of 1.5 in comparison to the efficiency of ZnOW at an equivalent concentration of 0.02 wt.% ZnO. Increasing the concentration wt.% of ZnOE from 0.01 to 0.09 led to an increase in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency from 85% to almost 100% after 180 min and a doubling of the first-order rate constant (k). PMID:24314056

  1. Synthesis and application of ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the extraction and preconcentration of zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Roushani, Mahmoud; Abbasi, Shahryar; Khani, Hossein; Sahraei, Reza

    2015-04-15

    A new Zinc (II) ion-imprinted polymer (IIPs) nanoparticles was synthesised for the separation and recovery of trace Zn (II) ion from food and water sample. Zn (II) IIP was prepared by copolymerisation of methyl methacrylate (monomer) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (cross-linker) in the presence of Zn (II)-N,N'-o-phenylene bis (salicylideneimine) ternary complex wherein Zn (II) ion is the imprint ion and is used to form the imprinted polymer. Moreover, control polymer (NIP) particles were similarly prepared without the zinc (II) ions. The unleached and leached IIP particles were characterised by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The preconcentration of Zn(2+) from aqueous solution was studied during rebinding with the leached IIP particles as a function of pH, the weight of the polymer material, the uptake and desorption times, the aqueous phase and the desorption volumes. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for determination of zinc in aqueous solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Betel leaf in stoma care.

    PubMed

    Banu, Tahmina; Talukder, Rupom; Chowdhury, Tanvir Kabir; Hoque, Mozammel

    2007-07-01

    Construction of a stoma is a common procedure in pediatric surgical practice. For care of these stomas, commercially available devices such as ostomy bag, either disposable or of longer duration are usually used. These are expensive, particularly in countries like Bangladesh, and proper-sized ones are not always available. We have found an alternative for stoma care, betel leaf, which is suitable for Bangladeshis. We report the outcome of its use. After construction of stoma, at first zinc oxide paste was applied on the peristomal skin. A betel leaf with shiny, smooth surface outwards and rough surface inwards was put over the stoma with a hole made in the center according to the size of stoma. Another intact leaf covers the stomal opening. When bowel movement occurs, the overlying intact leaf was removed and the fecal matter was washed away from both. The leaves were reused after cleaning. Leaves were changed every 2 to 3 days. From June 1998 to December 2005, in the department of pediatric surgery, Chittagong Medical College and Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh, a total of 623 patients had exteriorization of bowel. Of this total, 495 stomas were cared for with betel leaves and 128 with ostomy bags. Of 623 children, 287 had sigmoid colostomy, 211 had transverse colostomy, 105 had ileostomy, and 20 had jejunostomy. Of the 495 children under betel leaf stoma care, 13 patients (2.6%) developed skin excoriation. There were no allergic reactions. Of the 128 patients using ostomy bag, 52 (40.65%) had skin excoriation. Twenty-four (18.75%) children developed some allergic reactions to adhesive. Monthly costs for betel leaves were 15 cents (10 BDT), whereas ostomy bags cost about US$24. In the care of stoma, betel leaves are cheap, easy to handle, nonirritant, and nonallergic.

  3. Characterization of an Olive Flounder Bone Gelatin-Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite Film and Evaluation of Its Potential Application in Spinach Packaging.

    PubMed

    Beak, Songee; Kim, Hyeri; Song, Kyung Bin

    2017-11-01

    Olive flounder bone gelatin (OBG) was used for a film base material in this study. In addition, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) were incorporated into the OBG film to prepare a nanocomposite film and to impart antimicrobial activity to it. The tensile strength of the OBG film increased by 6.62 MPa, and water vapor permeability and water solubility decreased by 0.93 × 10 -9 g/m s Pa and 13.79%, respectively, by the addition of ZnO to the OBG film. In particular, the OBG-ZnO film exhibited antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate the applicability of the OBG-ZnO packaging film, fresh spinach was wrapped in this film and stored for a week. The results indicated that the OBG-ZnO film showed antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes inoculated on spinach without affecting the quality of spinach, such as vitamin C content and color. Thus, the OBG-ZnO nanocomposite film can be applied as an efficient antimicrobial food packaging material. As a base material of edible films, gelatin was extracted from olive flounder bone, which is fish processing by-product. Olive flounder bone gelatin (OBG) nanocomposite films were prepared with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO). For an application to antimicrobial packaging, spinach was wrapped with the OBG-ZnO nanocomposite film. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. A Study on Dielectric Properties of Cadmium Sulfide-Zinc Sulfide Core-Shell Nanocomposites for Application as Nanoelectronic Filter Component in the Microwave Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Jutika; Datta, Pranayee

    2018-03-01

    Complex permittivities of cadmium sulfide (CdS), zinc sulfide (ZnS), and of cadmium sulfide-zinc sulfide (CdS/ZnS) core-shell nanoparticles embedded in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix (PVA) were measured in liquid phase using a VectorNetwork Analyzer in the frequency range of 500 MHz-10 GHz. These nanocomposites are modeled as an embedded capacitor, and their electric field distribution and polarization have been studied using COMSOL Multiphysics software. By varying the thickness of the shell and the number of inclusions, the capacitance values were estimated. It was observed that CdS, ZnS and CdS/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles embedded in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix show capacitive behavior. There is a strong influence of the dielectric properties in the capacitive behavior of the embedded nanocapacitor. The capping matrix, position and filling factors of nanoinclusions all affect the capacitive behavior of the tested nanocomposites. Application of the CdS, ZnS and CdS/ZnS core-shell nanocomposite as the passive low-pass filter circuit has also been investigated. From the present study, it has been found that CdS/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles embedded in PVA matrix are potential structures for application as nanoelectronic filter components in different areas of communication.

  5. A Study on Dielectric Properties of Cadmium Sulfide-Zinc Sulfide Core-Shell Nanocomposites for Application as Nanoelectronic Filter Component in the Microwave Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Jutika; Datta, Pranayee

    2018-07-01

    Complex permittivities of cadmium sulfide (CdS), zinc sulfide (ZnS), and of cadmium sulfide-zinc sulfide (CdS/ZnS) core-shell nanoparticles embedded in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix (PVA) were measured in liquid phase using a VectorNetwork Analyzer in the frequency range of 500 MHz-10 GHz. These nanocomposites are modeled as an embedded capacitor, and their electric field distribution and polarization have been studied using COMSOL Multiphysics software. By varying the thickness of the shell and the number of inclusions, the capacitance values were estimated. It was observed that CdS, ZnS and CdS/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles embedded in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix show capacitive behavior. There is a strong influence of the dielectric properties in the capacitive behavior of the embedded nanocapacitor. The capping matrix, position and filling factors of nanoinclusions all affect the capacitive behavior of the tested nanocomposites. Application of the CdS, ZnS and CdS/ZnS core-shell nanocomposite as the passive low-pass filter circuit has also been investigated. From the present study, it has been found that CdS/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles embedded in PVA matrix are potential structures for application as nanoelectronic filter components in different areas of communication.

  6. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  7. Studies and Application of the Platform for Synergies among Tobacco Enterprises in Tobacco Leaf Threshing and Redrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Shuang; Wang, Hong-Lv

    2018-03-01

    Departing from the formulas of cigarette products, synergized business framework is established on the basis of cross-enterprise synergies for tobacco leaf threshing and redrying through the introduction of batch management, remote quality data sharing and consistent processes, among others. Functions of the business framework are achieved and a platform for synergies is erected by applying IOT, cross-enterprise system integration and big data processing technologies, resulting in a new pattern for intensive interaction and synergies between China Tobacco Zhejiang (CTZ) and tobacco redrying plants for more delicate management of the redrying process, more interactive information flows and more stable tobacco strip quality.

  8. Influence of sputtering deposition parameters on electrical and optical properties of aluminium-doped zinc oxide thin films for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczak, Ewelina; Agata, Zdyb; Gulkowski, Slawomir; Fave, Alain; Fourmond, Erwann

    2017-11-01

    Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCOs) characterized by high visible transmittance and low electrical resistivity play an important role in photovoltaic technology. Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) is one of the TCOs that can find its application in thin film solar cells (CIGS or CdTe PV technology) as well as in other microelectronic applications. In this paper some optical and electrical properties of ZnO:Al thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering method have been investigated. AZO layers have been deposited on the soda lime glass substrates with use of variable technological parameters such as pressure in the deposition chamber, power applied and temperature during the process. The composition of AZO films has been investigated by EDS method. Thickness and refraction index of the deposited layers in dependence on certain technological parameters of sputtering process have been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The measurements of transmittance and sheet resistance were also performed.

  9. The relationship of leaf photosynthetic traits V cmax and Jmax - to leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus, and specific leaf area: A meta-analysis and modeling study

    DOE PAGES

    Walker, Anthony P.; Beckerman, Andrew P.; Gu, Lianhong; ...

    2014-07-25

    Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between Vcmax and Jmax and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derivedmore » from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between Vcmax and Jmax and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of Vcmax and Jmax with leaf N, P, and SLA. Vcmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of Vcmax to leaf N. Jmax was strongly related to Vcmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm 2), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm 2 nearly doubled assimilation rates. Lastly, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of Jmax to Vcmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting.« less

  10. The relationship of leaf photosynthetic traits V cmax and Jmax - to leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus, and specific leaf area: A meta-analysis and modeling study

    SciT

    Walker, Anthony P.; Beckerman, Andrew P.; Gu, Lianhong

    Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between Vcmax and Jmax and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derivedmore » from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between Vcmax and Jmax and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of Vcmax and Jmax with leaf N, P, and SLA. Vcmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of Vcmax to leaf N. Jmax was strongly related to Vcmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm 2), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm 2 nearly doubled assimilation rates. Lastly, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of Jmax to Vcmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting.« less

  11. Evaluation of poly (vinyl alcohol) based cryogel-zinc oxide nanocomposites for possible applications as wound dressing materials.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Archana; Bajpai, Anil K; Bajpai, Jaya; K Singh, Sunil

    2016-08-01

    In this investigation cryogels composed of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared by repeated freeze thaw method followed by in situ precipitation of zinc oxide nanoparticles within the cryogel networks. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used to characterize the nanocomposites. The morphologies of native PVA cryogels and PVA cryogel-ZnO nanocomposites were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The SEM analysis suggested that cryogels show a well-defined porous morphology whereas TEM micrographs revealed the presence of nearly spherical and well separated zinc oxide nanoparticles with diameter<100nm. XRD results showed all relevant Bragg's reflections for crystal structure of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) was conducted to evaluate thermal stability of the nanocomposites. Mechanical properties of nanocomposites were determined in terms of tensile strength and percent elongation. Biocompatible nature was ascertained by anti-haemolytic activity, bovine serum albumin (blood protein) adsorption and in vitro cytotoxicity tests. The prepared nanocomposites were also investigated for swelling and deswelling behaviours. The results revealed that both the swelling and deswelling process depend on the chemical composition of the nanocomposites, number of freeze-thaw cycles, pH and temperature of the swelling medium. The developed biocompatible PVA cryogel-ZnO nanocomposites were also tested for antibacterial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens Are Biphasic Mixed Microbial Bioreactors That Convert Plant Biomass to Polyols with Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Somera, Alexandre F.; Lima, Adriel M.; dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J.; Lanças, Fernando M.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology. PMID:25911490

  13. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  14. [Effects of intercropping Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens on the soil chemical and microbiological properties under the contamination of zinc and cadmium from sewage sludge application].

    PubMed

    Nai, Feng-Jiao; Wu, Long-Hua; Liu, Hong-Yan; Ren, Jing; Liu, Wu-Xing; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2013-05-01

    Taking the vegetable soil with zinc- and cadmium contamination from a long-term sewage sludge application as the object, a pot experiment was conducted to study the remediation effect of Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens under continuous monoculture and intercropping. With the remediation time increased, both S. plumbizincicola and A. graceolens under monoculture grew poorly, but S. plumbizincicola under intercropping grew well. Under intercropping, the soil organic matter, total N, extractable N, and total P contents decreased significantly while the soil extractable K content had a significant increase, the counts of soil bacteria and fungi increased by 7.9 and 18.4 times and 3.7 and 4.3 times, respectively, but the soil urease and catalase activities remained unchanged, as compared with those under A. graceolens and S. plumbizincicola monoculture. The BIOLOG ECO micro-plates also showed that the carbon sources utilization level and the functional diversity index of soil microbial communities were higher under intercropping than under monoculture, and the concentrations of soil zinc and cadmium under intercropping decreased by 5.8% and 50.0%, respectively, with the decrements being significantly higher than those under monoculture. It was suggested that soil microbial effect could be one of the important factors affecting plant growth.

  15. Electron transport and electron energy distributions within the wurtzite and zinc-blende phases of indium nitride: Response to the application of a constant and uniform electric field

    SciT

    Siddiqua, Poppy; Hadi, Walid A.; Salhotra, Amith K.

    2015-03-28

    Within the framework of an ensemble semi-classical three-valley Monte Carlo electron transport simulation approach, we critically contrast the nature of the electron transport that occurs within the wurtzite and zinc-blende phases of indium nitride in response to the application of a constant and uniform electric field. We use the electron energy distribution and its relationship with the electron transport characteristics in order to pursue this analysis. For the case of zinc-blende indium nitride, only a peak corresponding to the electrons within the lowest energy conduction band valley is observed, this peak being seen to broaden and shift to higher energiesmore » in response to increases in the applied electric field strength, negligible amounts of upper energy conduction band valley occupancy being observed. In contrast, for the case of wurtzite indium nitride, in addition to the aforementioned lowest energy conduction band valley peak in the electron energy distribution, and its broadening and shifting to higher energies in response to increases in the applied electric field strength, beyond a certain critical electric field strength, 30 kV/cm for the case of this particular material, upper energy conduction band valley occupancy is observed, this occupancy being further enhanced in response to further increases in the applied electric field strength. Reasons for these results are provided. The potential for device consequences is then commented upon.« less

  16. Application of nickel zinc ferrite/graphene nanocomposite as a modifier for fabrication of a sensitive electrochemical sensor for determination of omeprazole in real samples.

    PubMed

    Afkhami, Abbas; Bahiraei, Atousa; Madrakian, Tayyebeh

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, a simple and highly sensitive sensor for the determination of omeprazole based on nickel-zinc ferrite/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode is reported. The morphology and electro analytical performance of the fabricated sensor were characterized with X-ray diffraction spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and operation of the sensor. Results were compared with those achieved at the graphene modified glassy carbon electrode and bare glassy carbon electrode. Under the optimized experimental conditions, linear response was over the range of 0.03-100.0µmolL -1 . The lower detection limit was found to be 0.015µmolL -1 . The effect of different interferences on the anodic current response of OMZ was investigated. By measuring the concentrations of omeprazole in plasma and pharmaceutical samples, the practical application of the modified electrode was evaluated. This revealed that the nickel-zinc ferrite/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode shows excellent analytical performance for the determination of omeprazole with a very low detection limit, high sensitivity, and very good accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Green synthesis of novel zinc iron oxide (ZnFe2O4) nanocomposite via Moringa Oleifera natural extract for electrochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matinise, N.; Kaviyarasu, K.; Mongwaketsi, N.; Khamlich, S.; Kotsedi, L.; Mayedwa, N.; Maaza, M.

    2018-07-01

    The main motivation of the research study involves development of reliable, accurate, inexpensive and environmental friendly method for the synthesis of zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) nanocomposites. It was thought of interest to synthesized zinc ferrite via green synthetic method using Moringa Oleifera extract. For the first time, we used green synthetic route via Moringa Oleifera extract acted as both chelating and reducing agents to synthesis spinel ZnFe2O4 nanocomposites. The physical and electrochemical properties were characterized using different techniques such as High Resolve Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The XRD pattern thus clearly illustrated that the ZnFe2O4 nanocmposites synthesized by the green method were good crystalline in nature. The time constant and exchange current of ZnFe2O4 nanocomposites from EIS analysis were calculated and found to be 5.2001 × 10-4 s/rad and 6.59432 × 10-4 A, respectively. Based on the electrochemical results, GCE/ZnFe2O4 electrode exhibited a good voltametric response, high electro-activity, and excellent electrochemical performance making it a highly suitable/promising electrode for electrochemical applications.

  18. [Synergistic application of zinc and vitamin C to support memory, attention and the reduction of the risk of the neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Gromova, O A; Torshin, I Yu; Pronin, A V; Kilchevsky, M A

    Zinc and vitamin C supplementation of the body is important for CNS functioning. Zinc ions are involved in the neurotransmission (signal transmission from acetylcholine, catecholamine, serotonin, prostaglandin receptors) and in ubiquitin-related protein degradation. Zinc deficits are associated with Alzheimer's disease and depression. Zinc supplementation (10-30 mg daily) improves neurologic recovery rate in patients with stroke and brain injury, has a positive impact on memory and reduces hyperactivity in children. Vitamin C, a zinc synergist, maintains antioxidant resources of the brain, synaptic activity and detoxification. Vitamin C in dose 130-500 mg daily should be used to prevent dementia and neurodegenerative pathology.

  19. Update on zinc biology.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has become a prominent nutrient of clinical and public health interest in the new millennium. Functions and actions for zinc emerge as increasingly ubiquitous in mammalian anatomy, physiology and metabolism. There is undoubtedly an underpinning in fundamental biology for all of the aspects of zinc in human health (clinical and epidemiological) in pediatric and public health practice. Unfortunately, basic science research may not have achieved a full understanding as yet. As a complement to the applied themes in the companion articles, a selection of recent advances in the domains homeostatic regulation and transport of zinc is presented; they are integrated, in turn, with findings on genetic expression, intracellular signaling, immunity and host defense, and bone growth. The elements include ionic zinc, zinc transporters, metallothioneins, zinc metalloenzymes and zinc finger proteins. In emerging basic research, we find some plausible mechanistic explanations for delayed linear growth with zinc deficiency and increased infectious disease resistance with zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Ca2+-exchange in layered zirconium orthophosphate, α-ZrP: Chemical study and potential application for zinc corrosion inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouali, Imane; Rocca, Emmanuel; Veys-Renaux, Delphine; Rhouta, Benaissa; Khalil, Aziza; Aït Aghzzaf, Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    The control of the corrosion phenomenon occurring at the metal interface requires the development of new non-toxic anticorrosion additives. For this purpose, zirconium orthophosphate compounds (Zr(HPO4)2,H2O noted α-ZrP) were synthesized by both hydrothermal and refluxing methods The Ca2+-cationic exchange in the layered structure is kinetically favoured by low crystallinity of α-ZrP synthesized by refluxing process, and leads to the formation of CaZr(PO4)2,4H2O, noted Ca2+-ZrP. The H+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism is mainly triggered by acid-base considerations, and especially the pKa of α-ZrP/Ca2+-ZrP acid-base couple (evaluated to 2.5). Both compounds are acidic compounds by internal exchangeable H+ for α-ZrP and surface protons for Ca2+-ZrP, and can be used as potential inhibitors of zinc corrosion. Electrochemical measurements show that Ca2+-ZrP compounds dispersed in the NaCl electrolyte buffer the pH value over a long time and therefore allow controlling the corrosion rate of zinc.

  1. Application of a puffer fish skin gelatin film containing Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract to the packaging of Gouda cheese.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ka-Yeon; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to develop a puffer fish skin gelatin (PSG) film that contains Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract (ME) as a new biodegradable film. With the increase in ME concentration, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the PSG film increased, whereas the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability decreased. In addition, the PSG film with ME exhibited antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and antioxidant activity. To apply the ME-containing PSG film to food packaging, Gouda cheese was wrapped with the ME-containing PSG film. During storage, the cheese packaging with the ME-containing PSG film effectively inhibited the microbial growth and retarded the lipid oxidation of cheese compared with the control sample. Thus, the ME-containing PSG film can be used as an antimicrobial and antioxidative packaging material to improve the quality of food products.

  2. Leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens are biphasic mixed microbial bioreactors that convert plant biomass to polyols with biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Somera, Alexandre F; Lima, Adriel M; Dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Lanças, Fernando M; Bacci, Maurício

    2015-07-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. [Application of quality by design in granulation process for ginkgo leaf tablet (Ⅱ): identification of critical quality attributes].

    PubMed

    Xu, Bing; Cui, Xiang-Long; Yang, Chan; Wang, Xin; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Quality by design (QbD) highlights the concept of "begin with the end", which means to thoroughly understand the target product quality first, and then guide pharmaceutical process development and quality control throughout the whole manufacturing process. In this paper, the Ginkgo biloba granules intermediates were taken as the research object, and the requirements of the tensile strength of tablets were treated as the goals to establish the methods for identification of granules' critical quality attributes (CQAs) and establishment of CQAs' limits. Firstly, the orthogonal partial least square (OPLS) model was adopted to build the relationship between the micromeritic properties of 29 batches of granules and the tensile strength of ginkgo leaf tablets, and thereby the potential critical quality attributes (pCQAs) were screened by variable importance in the projection (VIP) indexes. Then, a series of OPLS models were rebuilt by reducing pCQAs variables one by one in view of the rule of VIP values from low to high in sequence. The model performance results demonstrated that calibration and predictive performance of the model had no decreasing trend after variables reduction. In consideration of the results from variables selection as well as the collinearity test and testability of the pCQAs, the median particle size (D₅₀) and the bulk density (Da) were identified as critical quality attributes (CQAs). The design space of CQAs was developed based on a multiple linear regression model established between the CQAs (D₅₀ and Da) and the tensile strength. The control constraints of the CQAs were determined as 170 μm< D₅₀<500 μm and 0.30 g•cm⁻³leaf tablet.. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Application of a new leaf area index algorithm to China's landmass using MODIS data for carbon cycle research.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Chen, J M; Liu, J; Deng, F; Sun, R

    2007-11-01

    An operational system was developed for mapping the leaf area index (LAI) for carbon cycle models from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The LAI retrieval algorithm is based on Deng et al. [2006. Algorithm for global leaf area index retrieval using satellite imagery. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 44, 2219-2229], which uses the 4-scale radiative transfer model [Chen, J.M., Leblancs, 1997. A 4-scale bidirectional reflection model based on canopy architecture. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 35, 1316-1337] to simulate the relationship of LAI with vegetated surface reflectance measured from space for various spectral bands and solar and view angles. This algorithm has been integrated to the MODISoft platform, a software system designed for processing MODIS data, to generate 250 m, 500 m and 1 km resolution LAI products covering all of China from MODIS MOD02 or MOD09 products. The multi-temporal interpolation method was implemented to remove the residual cloud and other noise in the final LAI product so that it can be directly used in carbon models without further processing. The retrieval uncertainties from land cover data were evaluated using five different data sets available in China. The results showed that mean LAI discrepancies can reach 27%. The current product was also compared with the NASA MODIS MOD15 LAI product to determine the agreement and disagreement of two different product series. LAI values in the MODIS product were found to be 21% larger than those in the new product. These LAI products were compared against ground TRAC measurements in forests in Qilian Mountain and Changbaishan. On average, the new LAI product agrees with the field measurement in Changbaishan within 2%, but the MODIS product is positively biased by about 20%. In Qilian Mountain, where forests are sparse, the new product is lower than field measurements by about 38%, while the MODIS product is larger by about 65%.

  5. Status of zinc injection in PWRs

    SciT

    Bergmann, C.A.

    1995-03-01

    Based on laboratory and other studies, it was concluded that zinc addition in a PWR primary coolant should result in reduced Alloy 600 PWSCC and general corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Because of these positive results, a Westinghouse Owner`s Subgroup, EPRI, and Westinghouse provided funds to continue the development and application of zinc in an operating plant. As part of the program, Southern Operating Nuclear Company agreed to operate the Farley 2 plant with zinc addition as a demonstration test of the effectiveness of zinc. Since zinc is incorporated in the corrosion oxide film on the primary systemmore » surfaces and Farley 2 is a mature plant, it was estimated that about 10 kgs of zinc would be needed to condition the plant before an equilibrium value in the coolant would be reached. The engineered aspects of a Zinc Addition and Monitoring System (ZAMS) considered such items as the constitutents, location, sizing and water supply of the ZAMS. Baseline data such as the PWSCC history of the Alloy 600 steam generator tubing, fuel oxide thickness, fuel crud deposits, radiation levels, and RCP seal leak-off rates were obtained before zinc addition is initiated. This presentation summarizes some of the work performed under the program, and the status of zinc injection in the Farley 2 plant.« less

  6. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Zinc-Substituted Myoglobin Is a Naturally Occurring Photo-antimicrobial Agent with Potential Applications in Food Decontamination.

    PubMed

    Delcanale, Pietro; Montali, Chiara; Rodríguez-Amigo, Beatriz; Abbruzzetti, Stefania; Bruno, Stefano; Bianchini, Paolo; Diaspro, Alberto; Agut, Montserrat; Nonell, Santi; Viappiani, Cristiano

    2016-11-16

    Zinc-substituted myoglobin (ZnMb) is a naturally occurring photosensitizer that generates singlet oxygen with a high quantum yield. Using a combination of photophysical and fluorescence imaging techniques, we demonstrate the interaction of ZnMb with Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. An efficient antibacterial action against S. aureus was observed, with a reduction up to 99.9999% in the number of colony-forming units, whereas no sizable effect was detected against E. coli. Because ZnMb is known to form during the maturation of additive-free not-cooked cured ham, the use of this protein as a built-in photodynamic agent may constitute a viable method for the decontamination of these food products from Gram-positive bacteria.

  8. Wrinkle-free graphene electrodes in zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors for large area applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hee; Park, Byeong-Ju; Park, Jozeph; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Yoon, Soon-Gil

    2017-02-17

    Wrinkle-free graphene was used to form the source-drain electrodes in thin film transistors based on a zinc tin oxide (ZTO) semiconductor. A 10 nm thick titanium adhesion layer was applied prior to transferring a conductive graphene film on top of it by chemical detachment. The formation of an interlayer oxide between titanium and graphene allows the achievement of uniform surface roughness over the entire substrate area. The resulting devices were thermally treated in ambient air, and a substantial decrease in field effect mobility is observed with increasing annealing temperature. The increase in electrical resistivity of the graphene film at higher annealing temperatures may have some influence, however the growth of the oxide interlayer at the ZTO/Ti boundary is suggested to be most influential, thereby inducing relatively high contact resistance.

  9. Wrinkle-free graphene electrodes in zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors for large area applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hee; Park, Byeong-Ju; Park, Jozeph; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Yoon, Soon-Gil

    2017-02-01

    Wrinkle-free graphene was used to form the source-drain electrodes in thin film transistors based on a zinc tin oxide (ZTO) semiconductor. A 10 nm thick titanium adhesion layer was applied prior to transferring a conductive graphene film on top of it by chemical detachment. The formation of an interlayer oxide between titanium and graphene allows the achievement of uniform surface roughness over the entire substrate area. The resulting devices were thermally treated in ambient air, and a substantial decrease in field effect mobility is observed with increasing annealing temperature. The increase in electrical resistivity of the graphene film at higher annealing temperatures may have some influence, however the growth of the oxide interlayer at the ZTO/Ti boundary is suggested to be most influential, thereby inducing relatively high contact resistance.

  10. A study on the dynamics of the zraP gene expression profile and its application to the construction of zinc adsorption bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Sambandam; Yoo, Ik-keun; Lee, Sang Yup; Hong, Soon Ho

    2011-11-01

    Zinc ion plays essential roles in biological chemistry. Bacteria acquire Zn(2+) from the environment, and cellular concentration levels are controlled by zinc homeostasis systems. In comparison with other homeostatic systems, the ZraSR two-component system was found to be more efficient in responding to exogenous zinc concentrations. To understand the dynamic response of the bacterium ZraSR two-component system with respect to exogenous zinc concentrations, the genetic circuit of the ZraSR system was integrated with a reporter protein. This study was helpful in the construction of an E. coli system that can display selective metal binding peptides on the surface of the cell in response to exogenous zinc. The engineered bacterial system for monitoring exogenous zinc was successfully employed to detect levels of zinc as low as 0.001 mM, which directly activates the expression of chimeric ompC(t)--zinc binding peptide gene to remove zinc by adsorbing a maximum of 163.6 μmol of zinc per gram of dry cell weight. These results indicate that the engineered bacterial strain developed in the present study can sense the specific heavy metal and activates a cell surface display system that acts to remove the metal.

  11. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    SciT

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  12. Real-Time X-ray Imaging Reveals Interfacial Growth, Suppression, and Dissolution of Zinc Dendrites Dependent on Anions of Ionic Liquid Additives for Rechargeable Battery Applications.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuexian; Hu, Jiugang; Tang, Jia; Gu, Wanmiao; He, Lili; Ji, Xiaobo

    2016-11-23

    The dynamic interfacial growth, suppression, and dissolution of zinc dendrites have been studied with the imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) as additives on the basis of in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging. The phase contrast difference of real-time images indicates that zinc dendrites are preferentially developed on the substrate surface in the ammoniacal electrolytes. After adding imidazolium ILs, both nucleation overpotential and polarization extent increase in the order of additive-free < EMI-Cl < EMI-PF 6 < EMI-TFSA < EMI-DCA. The real-time X-ray images show that the EMI-Cl can suppress zinc dendrites, but result in the formation of the loose deposits. The EMI-PF 6 and EMI-TFSA additives can smooth the deposit morphology through suppressing the initiation and growth of dendritic zinc. The addition of EMI-DCA increases the number of dendrite initiation sites, whereas it decreases the growth rate of dendrites. Furthermore, the dissolution behaviors of zinc deposits are compared. The zinc dendrites show a slow dissolution process in the additive-free electrolyte, whereas zinc deposits are easily detached from the substrate in the presence of EMI-Cl, EMI-PF 6 , or EMI-TFSA due to the formation of the loose structure. Hence, the dependence of zinc dendrites on anions of imidazolium IL additives during both electrodeposition and dissolution processes has been elucidated. These results could provide the valuable information in perfecting the performance of zinc-based rechargeable batteries.

  13. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  14. Cross-linked κ-carrageenan polymer/zinc nanoporous composite matrix for expanded bed application: Fabrication and hydrodynamic characterization.

    PubMed

    Mohsenkhani, Sadaf; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Rahimpour, Ahmad

    2015-08-21

    Expanded bed adsorption (EBA) is a reliable separation technique for the purification of bioproducts from complex feedstocks. The specifically designed adsorbent is necessary to form a stable expanded bed. In the present work, a novel custom-designed composite matrix has been prepared through the method of water-in-oil emulsification. In order to develop an adsorbent with desirable qualities and reduce the costs, κ-carrageenan and zinc powder were used as the polymeric skeleton and the densifier, respectively. The prepared composite matrix was named as KC-Zn. Optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were applied to characterize the morphology and structure of prepared composite matrix. These analyses approved good spherical shape and porous structure with nano-scale pores in the range of about 60-180nm. The results from the particle size analyzer (PSA) revealed that all the KC-Zn beads followed logarithmic normal size distribution with the range of 50-350μm and average diameter of 160-230μm, respectively. Main physical properties of KC-Zn matrices were measured as a function of zinc powder ratio to κ-carrageenan slurry, which showed an appropriate wet density in the range of 1.39-2.27g/ml, water content of 72.67-36.41% and porosity of 98.07-80.24%, respectively. The effects of matrix density and liquid phase viscosity on hydrodynamic behavior of prepared matrix have been investigated by residence time distribution (RTD) experiments in an expanded bed. The results indicated that in a constant liquid velocity as the matrix density was increased, the expansion factor of bed decreased and the axial mixing coefficient increased. Moreover, an enhancement in the fluid viscosity led to an increase in the bed expansion and a decrease in the stability of expanded bed. Therefore using a matrix with higher density seems necessary to face viscous feedstocks. All the results demonstrated that proper physical properties and hydrodynamic characteristics

  15. Bioemulsifier production byMicrobacterium SP. strains isolated from mangrove and their application to remove cadmiun and zinc from hazardous industrial residue

    PubMed Central

    Aniszewski, Erick; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Mota, Fábio Faria; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Rosado, Alexandre Soares

    2010-01-01

    The contamination of ecosystems with heavy metals is an important issue in current world and remediation technologies should be in according to environmental sustainability concept. Bioemulsifier are promising agents to be used in metal removal and could be effective to many applications in environmental industries. The aims of this work was screening the potential production of bioemulsifier by microorganisms isolated from an oil contaminated mangrove, and evaluate cadmium and zinc removal potential of those strains from a hazardous industrial residue. From that, bioemulsifier-producing bacteria were isolated from urban mangrove sediments. Four isolates were identified as Microbacterium sp by 16S rRNA analysis and were able to reduce up to 53.3% of culture medium surface tension (TS) when using glucose as carbon and energy source and 20.2% when sucrose was used. Suspensions containing bioemulsifier produced by Microbacterium sp. strains show to be able to remove cadmium and zinc from contaminated industrial residue, and its ability varied according carbon source. Significant differences in metal removal were observed by all strains depending on the carbon source. When glucose was used, Cd and Zn removal varied from 17 to 41%, and 14 to 68%, respectively. However, when sucrose was used it was observed only 4 to a maximum of 15% of Cd removal, and 4 to 17% of Zn removal. When the same tests were performed after ethanol precipitation, the results were different: the percentages of removal of Zn (7–27%) and Cd (14–32%) were higher from sucrose cultures. This is the first report of heavy metals removal by bioemulsifier from Microbacterium sp. PMID:24031486

  16. Bioemulsifier production byMicrobacterium SP. strains isolated from mangrove and their application to remove cadmiun and zinc from hazardous industrial residue.

    PubMed

    Aniszewski, Erick; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Mota, Fábio Faria; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Rosado, Alexandre Soares

    2010-01-01

    The contamination of ecosystems with heavy metals is an important issue in current world and remediation technologies should be in according to environmental sustainability concept. Bioemulsifier are promising agents to be used in metal removal and could be effective to many applications in environmental industries. The aims of this work was screening the potential production of bioemulsifier by microorganisms isolated from an oil contaminated mangrove, and evaluate cadmium and zinc removal potential of those strains from a hazardous industrial residue. From that, bioemulsifier-producing bacteria were isolated from urban mangrove sediments. Four isolates were identified as Microbacterium sp by 16S rRNA analysis and were able to reduce up to 53.3% of culture medium surface tension (TS) when using glucose as carbon and energy source and 20.2% when sucrose was used. Suspensions containing bioemulsifier produced by Microbacterium sp. strains show to be able to remove cadmium and zinc from contaminated industrial residue, and its ability varied according carbon source. Significant differences in metal removal were observed by all strains depending on the carbon source. When glucose was used, Cd and Zn removal varied from 17 to 41%, and 14 to 68%, respectively. However, when sucrose was used it was observed only 4 to a maximum of 15% of Cd removal, and 4 to 17% of Zn removal. When the same tests were performed after ethanol precipitation, the results were different: the percentages of removal of Zn (7-27%) and Cd (14-32%) were higher from sucrose cultures. This is the first report of heavy metals removal by bioemulsifier from Microbacterium sp.

  17. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  18. Zinc complexes supported by methyl salicylato ligands: synthesis, structure, and application in ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide.

    PubMed

    Petrus, Rafał; Sobota, Piotr

    2013-10-14

    Two novel zinc alkoxides supported by chelating methyl salicylato (MesalO; MesalOH = methyl salicylate) ligands were successfully synthesized and characterized. Reaction of MesalOH with ZnEt2 (2:1) gives a tetranuclear cluster [Zn(MesalO)2]4 (1), which by addition of pyridine is transformed to the mononuclear compound [Zn(MesalO)2(py)2] (2). Compounds 1 and 2 were characterized by elemental analysis, NMR, IR, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The catalytic activity of both compounds was tested for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of L-lactide (L-LA). It was found that compounds 1 and 2 are efficient initiators of the ROP of L-LA, yielding cyclic PLLA with weight average molecular weights up to 100 kDa for 2. The treatment of 2 with 1 equiv. of BnOH in toluene afforded a dimeric compound [Zn(OBn)(MesalO)(py)]2 (3). The addition of L-LA to a combination of 1 and 4 equiv. of BnOH in THF or 2 and 1 equiv. of BnOH in toluene led to the rapid and efficient generation of PLLA with end-capped BnO groups.

  19. Facile fabrication of wire-type indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors applicable to ultrasensitive flexible sensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong-Gyu; Tak, Young Jun; Kim, Hee Jun; Kim, Won-Gi; Yoo, Hyukjoon; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2018-04-03

    We fabricated wire-type indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) using a self-formed cracked template based on a lift-off process. The electrical characteristics of wire-type IGZO TFTs could be controlled by changing the width and density of IGZO wires through varying the coating conditions of template solution or multi-stacking additional layers. The fabricated wire-type devices were applied to sensors after functionalizing the surface. The wire-type pH sensor showed a sensitivity of 45.4 mV/pH, and this value was an improved sensitivity compared with that of the film-type device (27.6 mV/pH). Similarly, when the wire-type device was used as a glucose sensor, it showed more variation in electrical characteristics than the film-type device. The improved sensing properties resulted from the large surface area of the wire-type device compared with that of the film-type device. In addition, we fabricated wire-type IGZO TFTs on flexible substrates and confirmed that such structures were very resistant to mechanical stresses at a bending radius of 10 mm.

  20. Electronic Structure of C60/Zinc Phthalocyanine/V₂O₅ Interfaces Studied Using Photoemission Spectroscopy for Organic Photovoltaic Applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chang Jin; Park, Min Gyu; Kim, Min Su; Han, Jeong Hwa; Cho, Soohaeng; Cho, Mann-Ho; Yi, Yeonjin; Lee, Hyunbok; Cho, Sang Wan

    2018-02-18

    The interfacial electronic structures of a bilayer of fullerene (C 60 ) and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) grown on vanadium pentoxide (V₂O₅) thin films deposited using radio frequency sputtering under various conditions were studied using X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of the ZnPc layer and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of the C 60 layer was determined and compared with that grown on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. The energy difference of a heterojunction on all V₂O₅ was found to be 1.3~1.4 eV, while that on ITO was 1.1 eV. This difference could be due to the higher binding energy of the HOMO of ZnPc on V₂O₅ than that on ITO regardless of work functions of the substrates. We also determined the complete energy level diagrams of C 60 /ZnPc on V₂O₅ and ITO.

  1. Enhanced fluorescence of tetrasulfonated zinc phthalocyanine by graphene quantum dots and its application in molecular sensing/imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yanjun; Ye, Jiqing; Jiang, Zhou

    2017-06-01

    When excited at 435 nm, tetra-sulfonate zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPcS 4 ) emitted dual fluorescence at 495 and 702 nm. The abnormal fluorescence at 495 nm was experimentally studied and analyzed in detail for the first time. The abnormal fluorescence at 495 nm was deduced to originate from triplet-triplet (T-T) energy transfer of excited phthalocyanine ( 3 *ZnPcS 4 ). Furthermore, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) enhanced the 495 nm fluorescence quantum yield (Q) of ZnPcS 4 . The fluorescence properties of ZnPcS 4 -GQDs conjugate were retained in a cellular environment. Based on the fluorescence of ZnPcS 4 -GQDs conjugate, we designed and prepared an Apt29/thrombin/Apt15 sandwich thrombin sensor with high specificity and affinity. This cost-saving, simple operational sensing strategy can be extended to use in sensing/imaging of other biomolecules. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Device level optimization of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)–zinc oxide polymer nanocomposite thin films for ferroelectric applications

    SciT

    C K, Subash, E-mail: cksubash08@gmail.com; Valiyaneerilakkal, Uvais; Varghese, Soney

    Polymer nanocomposite was prepared using poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowder, which are ferroelectric in nature. Nanocomposite was prepared in various concentrations(0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1 wt. %) using probe ultra-sonication, followed by spin coating and annealing at 120 °C for 2 h to improve the formation of β-phase. Metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitor was fabricated using this optimized thin film as a ferroelectric layer. Device level optimization was carried out by polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis studies of this film, which shows polarization enhancement of composite. Various characterization techniques like atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffractionmore » were used to study the β-phase formation of nancomposite. The capacitance–voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were studied through varying frequency and temperature. C-V measurements show an increase of 79% in the capacitance of polymer nanocomposite, which can be used for the fabrication of ferroelectric devices.« less

  3. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  4. Electro-thermal control of aluminum-doped zinc oxide/vanadium dioxide multilayered thin films for smart-device applications

    PubMed Central

    Skuza, J. R.; Scott, D. W.; Mundle, R. M.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the electro-thermal control of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) /vanadium dioxide (VO2) multilayered thin films, where the application of a small electric field enables precise control of the applied heat to the VO2 thin film to induce its semiconductor-metal transition (SMT). The transparent conducting oxide nature of the top Al:ZnO film can be tuned to facilitate the fine control of the SMT of the VO2 thin film and its associated properties. In addition, the Al:ZnO film provides a capping layer to the VO2 thin film, which inhibits oxidation to a more energetically favorable and stable V2O5 phase. It also decreases the SMT of the VO2 thin film by approximately 5–10 °C because of an additional stress induced on the VO2 thin film and/or an alteration of the oxygen vacancy concentration in the VO2 thin film. These results have significant impacts on technological applications for both passive and active devices by exploiting this near-room-temperature SMT. PMID:26884225

  5. Zinc and cadmium accumulation in single zebrafish ( Danio rerio) embryos — A total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mages, Margarete; Bandow, Nicole; Küster, Eberhard; Brack, Werner; von Tümpling, Wolf

    2008-12-01

    Trace metals such as Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) are known to exhibit adverse effects on many aquatic organisms including early life stages of fish. In contact with contaminated sediment, fish eggs and embryos may be exposed to metals via the water phase as well as via direct contact with contaminated particles. This may result in body burdens that are difficult to predict and may vary according to individual micro scale exposure conditions. The highly sensitive total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) may provide a tool to analyse individual embryos for internal contaminant concentrations and thus helps to develop a better understanding of dose-response relationships. To test this hypothesis, embryos of Danio rerio were exposed to Cd and Zn spiked sediment in different treatments applying an ion exchange resin for modification of bioavailable concentrations. The TXRF analysis indicated individual embryos with dramatically enhanced exposure compared to other individuals despite uniform exposure conditions on a macro scale. Ion exchanger reduced embryo Zn concentrations to values close to control value with a comparably low standard deviation. Cadmium concentrations in embryos were in the range of 4000 to 7000 µg/g with a median of 5740 µg/g. A commercial ion exchanger reduced individual body burdens by a factor 50 to 100. Individual peak body burdens of up to 3160 µg/g were accompanied by reduced weight of the fish eggs due to early death i.e. coagulation. The investigation of exposure and effects on an individual-based scale may significantly help to reduce uncertainty and inconsistencies occurring in conventional analysis of pooled fish embryo samples.

  6. Spectroscopic study of Pr3+ ions doped Zinc Lead Tungsten Tellurite glasses for visible photonic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ritu; Rao, A. S.; Deopa, Nisha; Venkateswarlu, M.; Jayasimhadri, M.; Haranath, D.; Prakash, G. Vijaya

    2018-04-01

    Zinc Lead Tungsten Tellurite (ZnPbWTe) glasses doped with different Pr3+ ion concentrations having the composition 5ZnO + 15PbO + 20WO3 + (60-x)TeO2 + xPr6O11 (where x = 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%) were prepared by using sudden quenching technique and characterized to understand their visible emission characteristic features using spectroscopic techniques such as absorption, excitation and emission. The Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory has been applied to the absorption spectral features with an aim to evaluate various radiative properties for the prominent fluorescent levels of Pr3+ions in the as-prepared glasses. The emission spectra recorded for the as-prepared glasses under 468 nm excitation show three prominent emission transitions 3P0→3H6, 3P0→3F2 and 3P1→3F4, of which 3P0→3F2 observed in visible red region (648 nm), is relatively more intense. The intensity of 3P0→3F2 emission transition in the titled glasses increases up to 1mol% of Pr3+ ions and beyond concentration quenching is observed. Branching ratios (βR) and emission cross-sections (σse) were estimated for 3P0→3F2 transition to understand the luminescence efficiency in visible red region (648 nm). The CIE chromaticity coordinates were also evaluated in order to understand the suitability of these glasses for visible red luminescence devices. From the emission cross-sections, quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates, it was concluded that 1mol% of Pr3+ ions in ZnPbWTe glasses are quite suitable for preparing visible reddish orange luminescent devices.

  7. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  8. Total phosphorus, zinc, copper, and manganese concentrations in cecil soil through ten years of poultry litter application

    Poultry litter (PL) is an inexpensive and effective source of plant nutrients. However, over application could result in phosphorus and heavy metal accumulation in soils. A field experiment evaluating PL application to a Cecil soil used for cotton and corn production has been maintained for 10 years...

  9. Zinc Signals and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc. PMID:29064429

  10. Weed and Onion Response to multiple Applications of Goal Tender beginning at the 1-Leaf Stage of Onion

    Broadleaf weed control in onion is difficult in part due to a lack of postemergence herbicide options at an early growth stage of onions. Onion tolerance to sequential applications of oxyfluorfen (Goal-Tender) alone and with bromoxynil (Buctril) beginning at the 1-lf stage of onions was evaluated n...

  11. Preparation of ionic membranes for zinc/bromine storage batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assink, R. A.; Arnold, C., Jr.

    Zinc/bromine flow batteries are being developed for vehicular and utility load leveling applications. During charge, an aqueous zinc bromide salt is electrolyzed to zinc metal and molecular bromine. During discharge, the zinc and bromine react to again form the zinc bromide salt. One serious disadvantage of the microporous separators presently used in the zinc/bromine battery is that modest amounts of bromine and negatively charged bromine moieties permeate through these materials and react with the zinc anode. This results in partial self-discharge of the battery and low coulombic efficiencies. Our approach to this problem is to impregnate the microporous separators with a soluble cationic polyelectrolyte. In laboratory screening tests a sulfonated polysulfone resin and fully fluorinated sulfonic acid polymer substantially reduced bromine permeation with only modest increases in the area resistance.

  12. Porous Nanocomposite Comprising Ultralong Hydroxyapatite Nanowires Decorated with Zinc-Containing Nanoparticles and Chitosan: Synthesis and Application in Bone Defect Repair.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tuan-Wei; Yu, Wei-Lin; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Jiang, Ying-Ying; He, Yao-Hua

    2018-06-21

    Hydroxyapatite nanowires exhibit a great potential in biomedical applications owing to their high specific surface area, high flexibility, excellent mechanical properties, and similarity to mineralized collagen fibrils of natural bone. In this work, zinc-containing nanoparticle-decorated ultralong hydroxyapatite nanowires (Zn-UHANWs) with a hierarchical nanostructure have been synthesized by a one-step solvothermal method. The highly flexible Zn-UHANWs exhibit a hierarchical rough surface and enhanced specific surface area as compared with ultralong hydroxyapatite nanowires (UHANWs). To evaluate the potential application of Zn-UHANWs in bone regeneration, the biomimetic Zn-UHANWs/chitosan (CS) (Zn-UHANWs/CS) composite porous scaffold with 80 wt % Zn-UHANWs was prepared by incorporating Zn-UHANWs into the chitosan matrix by the freeze-drying process. The as-prepared Zn-UHANWs/CS composite porous scaffold exhibits enhanced mechanical properties, highly porous structure, and excellent water retention capacity. In addition, the Zn-UHANWs/CS porous scaffold has a good biodegradability with the sustainable release of Zn, Ca, and P elements in aqueous solution. More importantly, the Zn-UHANWs/CS porous scaffold can promote the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and facilitate in vivo bone regeneration as compared with the pure CS porous scaffold or UHANWs/CS porous scaffold. Thus, both the Zn-UHANWs and Zn-UHANWs/CS porous scaffold developed in this work are promising for application in bone defect repair. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Potential risks of copper, zinc, and cadmium pollution due to pig manure application in a soil-rice system under intensive farming: a case study of Nanhu, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiachun; Yu, Xiulin; Zhang, Mingkui; Lu, Shenggao; Wu, Weihong; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal (copper [Cu], zinc [Zn], and cadmium [Cd]) pollution of soils from pig manures in soil-rice ( L.) systems under intensive farming was investigated, taking Nanhu, China, as the case study area. Two hundred pig manures and 154 rice straws, brown rice samples, and corresponding surface soil (0-15 cm) samples were collected in paddy fields from 150 farms in 16 major villages within the study area. The mean Cu and Zn concentrations in pig manures consistently exceeded the related standard. About 44 and 60% of soil samples exceed the Chinese Soil Cu and Cd Environmental Quality Standards, respectively. The concentration of Cu, Zn, and Cd in brown rice did not exceed the Chinese Food Hygiene Standard. There was a significant positive correlation between total Cu and Zn contents in soil and application rate of pig manures. Strong correlation was observed between the extractable Cu, Zn, and Cd in soil and the Cu, Zn, and Cd contents in the brown rice. The spatial distribution maps of Cu and Zn concentrations in brown rice, straw, and extractable soil Cu and Zn concentration also showed similar geographical trends. Further analyses on heavy metals loading flux and accumulation rates from pig manure applied suggested that Cu and Cd contents in soil currently have already exceeded the maximum permissible limit, and Zn, if still at current manure application rates, will reach the ceiling concentration limits in 9 yr. This study assists in understanding the risk of heavy metals accumulating from pig manure applications to agricultural soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. [Tasseled cap triangle (TCT)-leaf area index (LAI)model of rice fields based on PROSAIL model and its application].

    PubMed

    Li, Ya Ni; Lu, Lei; Liu, Yong

    2017-12-01

    The tasseled cap triangle (TCT)-leaf area index (LAI) isoline is a model that reflects the distribution of LAI isoline in the spectral space constituted by reflectance of red and near-infrared (NIR) bands, and the LAI retrieval model developed on the basis of this is more accurate than the commonly used statistical relationship models. This study used ground-based measurements of the rice field, validated the applicability of PROSAIL model in simulating canopy reflectance of rice field, and calibrated the input parameters of the model. The ranges of values of PROSAIL input parameters for simulating rice canopy reflectance were determined. Based on this, the TCT-LAI isoline model of rice field was established, and a look-up table (LUT) required in remote sensing retrieval of LAI was developed. Then, the LUT was used for Landsat 8 and WorldView 3 data to retrieve LAI of rice field, respectively. The results showed that the LAI retrieved using the LUT developed from TCT-LAI isoline model had a good linear relationship with the measured LAI R 2 =0.76, RMSE=0.47. Compared with the LAI retrieved from Landsat 8, LAI values retrieved from WorldView 3 va-ried with wider range, and data distribution was more scattered. Resampling the Landsat 8 and WorldView 3 reflectance data to 1 km to retrieve LAI, the result of MODIS LAI product was significantly underestimated compared to that of retrieved LAI.

  15. Green synthesis and characterization of gold and silver nanoparticles using Mussaenda glabrata leaf extract and their environmental applications to dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sijo; Joseph, Siby; Koshy, Ebey P; Mathew, Beena

    2017-07-01

    Plant-derived nanomaterials opened a green approach in solving the current environment issues. Present study focused on rapid microwave-assisted synthesis and applications of gold and silver nanoparticles mediated by aqueous leaf extract of Mussaenda glabrata. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, powder XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron (TEM), and atomic force microscopic techniques (AFM). FCC crystal structure of both nanoparticles was confirmed by peaks corresponding to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes in XRD spectra and bright circular spots in SAED pattern. IC 50 values shown by gold and silver nanoparticles (44.1 ± 0.82 and 57.92 ± 1.33 μg/mL) reflected their high free radical scavenging potential. The synthesized gold and silver nanoparticles revealed their potency to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Anthropogenic pollutants rhodamine B and methyl orange were effectively degraded from aquatic environment and waste water sewages of dye industries using the prepared nanocatalysts. The catalytic capacities of the synthesized nanoparticles were also exploited in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Graphical abstract.

  16. Topical application of zinc oxide nanoparticles reduces bacterial skin infection in mice and exhibits antibacterial activity by inducing oxidative stress response and cell membrane disintegration in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pati, Rashmirekha; Mehta, Ranjit Kumar; Mohanty, Soumitra; Padhi, Avinash; Sengupta, Mitali; Vaseeharan, Baskarlingam; Goswami, Chandan; Sonawane, Avinash

    2014-08-01

    Here we studied immunological and antibacterial mechanisms of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) against human pathogens. ZnO-NPs showed more activity against Staphylococcus aureus and least against Mycobacterium bovis-BCG. However, BCG killing was significantly increased in synergy with antituberculous-drug rifampicin. Antibacterial mechanistic studies showed that ZnO-NPs disrupt bacterial cell membrane integrity, reduce cell surface hydrophobicity and down-regulate the transcription of oxidative stress-resistance genes in bacteria. ZnO-NP treatment also augmented the intracellular bacterial killing by inducing reactive oxygen species production and co-localization with Mycobacterium smegmatis-GFP in macrophages. Moreover, ZnO-NPs disrupted biofilm formation and inhibited hemolysis by hemolysin toxin producing S. aureus. Intradermal administration of ZnO-NPs significantly reduced the skin infection, bacterial load and inflammation in mice, and also improved infected skin architecture. We envision that this study offers novel insights into antimicrobial actions of ZnO-NPs and also demonstrates ZnO-NPs as a novel class of topical anti-infective agent for the treatment of skin infections. This in-depth study demonstrates properties of ZnO nanoparticles in infection prevention and treatment in several skin infection models, dissecting the potential mechanisms of action of these nanoparticles and paving the way to human applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A new method for modelling roofing materials emissions on the city scale: application for zinc in the City of Créteil (France).

    PubMed

    Sellami-Kaaniche, Emna; de Gouvello, Bernard; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2014-04-01

    Today, urban runoff is considered as an important source of environmental pollution. Roofing materials, in particular, the metallic ones, are considered as a major source of urban runoff metal contaminations. In the context of the European Water Directive (2000/60 CE), an accurate evaluation of contaminant flows from roofs is thus required on the city scale, and therefore the development of assessment tools is needed. However, on this scale, there is an important diversity of roofing materials. In addition, given the size of a city, a complete census of the materials of the different roofing elements represents a difficult task. Information relating roofing materials and their surfaces on an urban district do not currently exist in urban databases. The objective of this paper is to develop a new method of evaluating annual contaminant flow emissions from the different roofing material elements (e.g., gutter, rooftop) on the city scale. This method is based on using and adapting existing urban databases combined with a statistical approach. Different rules for identifying the materials of the different roofing elements on the city scale have been defined. The methodology is explained through its application to the evaluation of zinc emissions on the scale of the city of Créteil.

  18. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Cadmium Zinc Sulfide Nanocomposite with Controlled Band Gap for Large-Area Thin-Film Optoelectronic Device Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Sk; Chakraborty, Koushik; Pal, Tanusri; Ghosh, Surajit

    2017-12-01

    Herein, we report the one pot single step solvothermal synthesis of reduced grapheme oxide-cadmium zinc sulfide (RGO-Cd0.5Zn0.5S) composite. The reduction in graphene oxide (GO), synthesis of Cd0.5Zn0.5S (mentioned as CdZnS in the text) nanorod and decoration of CdZnS nanorods onto RGO sheet were done simultaneously. The structural, morphological and optical properties were studied thoroughly by different techniques, such as XRD, TEM, UV-Vis and PL. The PL intensity of CdZnS nanorods quenches significantly after the attachment of RGO, which confirms photoinduced charge transformation from CdZnS nanorods to RGO sheet through the interface of RGO-CdZnS. An excellent photocurrent generation in RGO-CdZnS thin-film device has been observed under simulated solar light irradiation. The photocurrent as well as photosensitivity increases linearly with the solar light intensity for all the composites. Our study establishes that the synergistic effect of RGO and CdZnS in the composite is capable of getting promising applications in the field of optoelectronic devising.

  19. Zinc and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Juan P.; Guo, Liang; Yoo, Changwon; Stewart, Tiffanie S

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process through which cells overcome stressful conditions. Inasmuch as faulty autophagy has been associated with aging, neuronal degeneration disorders, diabetes, and fatty liver, autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning the role of zinc in the regulation of autophagy, the role of autophagy in zinc metabolism, and the potential role of autophagy as a mediator of the protective effects of zinc. Data from in vitro studies consistently support the notion that zinc is critical for early and late autophagy. Studies have shown inhibition of early and late autophagy in cells cultured in medium treated with zinc chelators. Conversely, excess zinc added to the medium has shown to potentiate the stimulation of autophagy by tamoxifen, H2O2, ethanol and dopamine. The potential role of autophagy in zinc homeostasis has just begun to be investigated.Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy dysregulation causes significant changes in cellular zinc homeostasis. Autophagy may mediate the protective effect of zinc against lipid accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation by promoting degradation of lipid droplets, inflammasomes, p62/SQSTM1 and damaged mitochondria.Studies with humans and animal models are necessary to determine whether autophagy is influenced by zinc intake. PMID:25012760

  20. Leaf anatomical traits determine the 18O enrichment of leaf water in coastal halophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, J.; Lin, G., Sr.; Sternberg, L. O.

    2017-12-01

    Foliar anatomical adaptations to high-salinity environment in mangroves may be recorded by leaf water isotopes. Recent studies observed that a few mangrove species have lower 18O enrichment of leaf water (ΔL) relative to source water than the adjacent terrestrial trees, but what factors actually control this phenomenon is still disputable at present. To resolve this issue, we collected 15 species of true mangrove plants, 14 species of adjacent freshwater trees and 4 species of semi-mangrove plants at five study sites on the southeastern coast of China. Leaf stomatal density and pore size, water content, ΔL and other related leaf physiological traits were determined for the selected leaves of these plants. Our results confirmed that ΔL values of mangroves were generally 3 4 ‰ lower than those of the adjacent freshwater or semi-mangrove species. Higher leaf water per area (LWC) and lower leaf stomatal density (LS) of mangroves played co-dominant roles in lowering ΔL through elongating effective leaf mixing length by about 20%. The Péclet model incorporated by LWC and LS performed well in predicting ΔL. The demonstrated general law between leaf anatomy and ΔL in this paper based on a large pool of species bridges the gap between leaf functional traits and metabolic proxies derived ΔL, which will have considerable potential applications in vegetation succession and reconstruction of paleoclimate research.

  1. Assessing soybean leaf area and leaf biomass by spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B. N.; Tucker, C. J.; Fan, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral radiances were correlated with soybean total leaf area index, green leaf area index, chlorotic leaf area index, green leaf biomass, chlorotic leaf biomass, and total biomass. The most significant correlations were found to exist between the IR/red radiance ratio data and green leaf area index and/or green leaf biomass (r squared equals 0.85 and 0.86, respectively). These findings demonstrate that remote sensing data can supply information basic to soybean canopy growth, development, and status by nondestructive determination of the green leaf area or green leaf biomass.

  2. Fabrication, characterization, and in vitro study of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin composite coatings on titanium for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhenyu; Ma, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Zinc substituted hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin composite coatings were deposited on titanium substrates at room temperature by electrophoretic deposition. Microscopic characterization of the synthesized composite nanoparticles revealed that the particle size ranged 50-200 nm, which increased a little after zinc substitution. The obtained coatings maintained the phase of hydroxyapatite and they could induce fast apatite formation in simulated body fluid, indicating high bone activity. The cell culturing results showed that the biomimetic hydroxyapatite coatings could regulate adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, the biological behavior of the zinc substituted hydroxyapatite coatings was found to be better than the bare titanium without coatings and hydroxyapatite coatings without zinc, increasing MC3T1-E1 cell differentiation in alkaline phosphatase expression.

  3. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  4. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  5. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciT

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remainedmore » constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.« less

  6. Zinc-catalyzed allenylations of aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Fandrick, Daniel R; Saha, Jaideep; Fandrick, Keith R; Sanyal, Sanjit; Ogikubo, Junichi; Lee, Heewon; Roschangar, Frank; Song, Jinhua J; Senanayake, Chris H

    2011-10-21

    The general zinc-catalyzed allenylation of aldehydes and ketones with an allenyl boronate is presented. Preliminary mechanistic studies support a kinetically controlled process wherein, after a site-selective B/Zn exchange to generate a propargyl zinc intermediate, the addition to the electrophile effectively competes with propargyl-allenyl zinc equilibration. The utility of the methodology was demonstrated by application to a rhodium-catalyzed [4+2] cycloaddition. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Biochar application to a contaminated soil reduces the availability and plant uptake of zinc, lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Puga, A P; Abreu, C A; Melo, L C A; Beesley, L

    2015-08-15

    Heavy metals in soil are naturally occurring but may be enhanced by anthropogenic activities such as mining. Bio-accumulation of heavy metals in the food chain, following their uptake to plants can increase the ecotoxicological risks associated with remediation of contaminated soils using plants. In the current experiment sugar cane straw-derived biochar (BC), produced at 700 °C, was applied to a heavy metal contaminated mine soil at 1.5%, 3.0% and 5.0% (w/w). Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and Mucuna aterrima were grown in pots containing soil and biochar mixtures, and control pots without biochar. Pore water was sampled from each pot to confirm the effects of biochar on metal solubility, whilst soils were analyzed by DTPA extraction to confirm available metal concentrations. Leaves were sampled for SEM analysis to detect possible morphological and anatomical changes. The application of BC decreased the available concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in 56, 50 and 54% respectively, in the mine contaminated soil leading to a consistent reduction in the concentration of Zn in the pore water (1st collect: 99 to 39 μg L(-1), 2nd: 97 to 57 μg L(-1) and 3rd: 71 to 12 μg L(-1)). The application of BC reduced the uptake of Cd, Pb and Zn by plants with the jack bean translocating high proportions of metals (especially Cd) to shoots. Metals were also taken up by Mucuna aterrima but translocation to shoot was more limited than for jack bean. There were no differences in the internal structures of leaves observed by scanning electron microscopy. This study indicates that biochar application during mine soil remediation reduce plant concentrations of potential toxic metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physiological limits to zinc biofortification of edible crops.

    PubMed

    White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2011-01-01

    It has been estimated that one-third of the world's population lack sufficient Zn for adequate nutrition. This can be alleviated by increasing dietary Zn intakes through Zn biofortification of edible crops. Biofortification strategies include the application of Zn-fertilizers and the development of crop genotypes that acquire more Zn from the soil and accumulate it in edible portions. Zinc concentrations in roots, leaves, and stems can be increased through the application of Zn-fertilizers. Root Zn concentrations of up to 500-5000 mg kg(-1) dry matter (DM), and leaf Zn concentrations of up to 100-700 mg kg(-1) DM, can be achieved without loss of yield when Zn-fertilizers are applied to the soil. It is possible that greater Zn concentrations in non-woody shoot tissues can be achieved using foliar Zn-fertilizers. By contrast, Zn concentrations in fruits, seeds, and tubers are severely limited by low Zn mobility in the phloem and Zn concentrations higher than 30-100 mg kg(-1) DM are rarely observed. However, genetically modified plants with improved abilities to translocate Zn in the phloem might be used to biofortify these phloem-fed tissues. In addition, genetically modified plants with increased tolerance to high tissue Zn concentrations could be used to increase Zn concentrations in all edible produce and, thereby, increase dietary Zn intakes.

  9. Application of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles for the Removal of Aqueous Zinc Ions under Various Experimental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wen; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei

    2014-01-01

    Application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) for Zn2+ removal and its mechanism were discussed. It demonstrated that the uptake of Zn2+ by nZVI was efficient. With the solids concentration of 1 g/L nZVI, more than 85% of Zn2+ could be removed within 2 h. The pH value and dissolved oxygen (DO) were the important factors of Zn2+ removal by nZVI. The DO enhanced the removal efficiency of Zn2+. Under the oxygen-contained condition, oxygen corrosion gave the nZVI surface a shell of iron (oxy)hydroxide, which could show high adsorption affinity. The removal efficiency of Zn2+ increased with the increasing of the pH. Acidic condition reduced the removal efficiency of Zn2+ by nZVI because the existing H+ inhibited the formation of iron (oxy)hydroxide. Adsorption and co-precipitation were the most likely mechanism of Zn2+ removal by nZVI. The FeOOH-shell could enhance the adsorption efficiency of nZVI. The removal efficiency and selectivity of nZVI particles for Zn2+ were higher than Cd2+. Furthermore, a continuous flow reactor for engineering application of nZVI was designed and exhibited high removal efficiency for Zn2+. PMID:24416439

  10. Zinc triggers microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, “amoeboid” morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 μM zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 – 30 μM zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-κB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-κB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders. PMID:18509044

  11. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  12. [Zinc and chronic enteropathies].

    PubMed

    Giorgi, P L; Catassi, C; Guerrieri, A

    1984-01-01

    In recent years the nutritional importance of zinc has been well established; its deficiency and its symptoms have also been recognized in humans. Furthermore, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica has been isolated, a rare but severe disease, of which skin lesions, chronic diarrhoea and recurring infections are the main symptoms. The disease is related to the malfunctioning of intestinal absorption of zinc and can be treated by administering pharmacological doses of zinc orally. Good dietary sources of zinc are meat, fish and, to a less extent, human milk. The amount of zinc absorbed in the small intestine is influenced by other nutrients: some compounds inhibit this process (dietary fiber, phytate) while others (picolinic acid, citric acid), referred to as Zn-binding ligands (ZnBL) facilitate it. Citric acid is thought to be the ligand which accounts for the high level of bioavailability of zinc in human milk. zinc absorption occurs throughout the small intestine, not only in the prossimal tract (duodenum and jejunum) but also in the distal tract (ileum). Diarrhoea is one of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, thus many illnesses distinguished by chronic diarrhoea entail a bad absorption of zinc. In fact, in some cases of chronic enteropathies in infants, like coeliac disease and seldom cystic fibrosis, a deficiency of zinc has been isolated. Some of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, like retarded growth and hypogonadism, have been related to hypozinchemia which is present in this illness. Finally, it is possible that some of the dietary treatments frequently used for persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea (i.e. cow's milk exclusion, abuse and misuse of dietary fiber like carrot and carub powder, use of soy formula) can constitute a scarce supply of zinc and therefore could promote the persistency of diarrhoea itself.

  13. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  14. Band structure engineering for solar energy applications: Zinc oxide(1-x) selenium(x) films and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Marie Annette

    New technologies motivate the development of new semiconducting materials, for which structural, electrical and chemical properties are not well understood. In addition to new materials systems, there are huge opportunities for new applications, especially in solar energy conversion. In this dissertation I explore the role of band structure engineering of semiconducting oxides for solar energy. Due to the abundance and electrochemical stability of oxides, the appropriate modification could make them appealing for applications in both photovoltaics and photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. This dissertation describes the design, synthesis and evaluation of the alloy ZnO1-xSe x for these purposes. I review several methods of band structure engineering including strain, quantum confinement and alloying. A detailed description of the band anticrossing (BAC) model for highly mismatched alloys is provided, including the derivation of the BAC model as well as recent work and potential applications. Thin film ZnOxSe1-x samples are grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). I describe in detail the effect of growth conditions (temperature, pressure and laser fluence) on the chemistry, structure and optoelectronic properties of ZnOxSe1-x. The films are grown using different combinations of PLD conditions and characterized with a variety of techniques. Phase pure films with low roughness and high crystallinity were obtained at temperatures below 450¢ªC, pressures less than 10-4 Torr and laser fluences on the order of 1.5 J/cm 2. Electrical conduction was still observed despite heavy concentrations of grain boundaries. The band structure of ZnO1-xSex is then examined in detail. The bulk electron affinity of a ZnO thin film was measured to be 4.5 eV by pinning the Fermi level with native defects. This is explained in the framework of the amphoteric defect model. A shift in the ZnO1-xSe x valence band edge with x is observed using synchrotron x-ray absorption and emission

  15. Leaf Size in Swietenia

    Charles B. Briscoe; F. Bruce Lamb

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of the putative hybrid of bigleaf and small-leaf mahoganies. Initial measurements indicated that bigleaf mahogany can be distinguished from small-leaf mahogany by gross measurements of leaflets. Isolated mother trees yield typical progeny. Typical mother trees in mixed stands yield like progeny plus, usually, mediumleaf progeny. Mediumleaf mother trees...

  16. Preliminary application of tapered glass capillary microbeam in MeV-PIXE mapping of longan leaf for elemental concentration distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natyanun, S.; Unai, S.; Yu, L. D.; Tippawan, U.; Pussadee, N.

    2017-09-01

    This study was aimed at understanding elemental concentration distribution in local longan leaf for how the plant was affected by the environment or agricultural operation. The analysis applied the MeV-microbeam particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) mapping technique using a home-developed tapered glass capillary microbeam system at Chiang Mai University. The microbeam was 2-MeV proton beam in 130 µm in diameter. The studying interest was in the difference in the elemental concentrations distributed between the leaf midrib and lamina areas. The micro proton beam analyzed the leaf sample across the leaf midrib edge to the leaf lamina area for total 9 data requisition spots. The resulting data were colored to form a 1D-map of the elemental concentration distribution. Seven dominant elements, Al, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc and Fe, were identified, the first six of which were found having higher concentrations in the midrib area than in the lamina area, while the Fe concentration was in an opposite trend to that of the others.

  17. Recycling coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes to improve the yield and mineral content of grains of paddy rice.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Claudio K; Saigusa, M

    2011-08-30

    Coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes exhibit strong affinity for metals such as Fe and Zn. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of top-dressing application of Fe- and Zn-enriched coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes at the panicle initiation stage on the mineral content of rice grains and the yield of paddy rice. The Fe and Zn contents of brown rice grains increased significantly on application of both coffee and tea waste materials. The concentration of Mn was increased by top-dressing application of coffee waste material only. For Cu, no significant (P < 0.05) differences were found between the control and ferrous sulfate/zinc sulfate treatment. The application of coffee and tea waste materials led to a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the number of grains per panicle, which was reflected in increases in the total number of grains per hill and in grain yield. The top-dressing application of these materials is an excellent method to recycle coffee grounds and tea wastes from coffee shops. Use of these novel materials would not only reduce the waste going to landfill but would also benefit the mineral nutrition of rice consumers at low cost by increasing Fe and Zn levels of rice grains as well as grain yield. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Magnetic properties and bio-medical applications in hyperthermia of lithium zinc ferrite nanoparticles integrated with reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, A.; Mahapatra, A. S.; Mitra, A.; Greneche, J. M.; Ningthoujam, R. S.; Chakrabarti, P. K.

    2018-02-01

    Nanoparticles of Zn substituted lithium ferrite (Li0.31Zn0.38Fe2.31O4, LZFO) synthesized by the sol-gel route are successfully dispersed in layers of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) during the course of preparation. The analysis of X-ray diffractograms confirms the desired crystallographic phase of the nanocomposite sample of LZFO-RGO. The results of field emission scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy are consistent with the presence of dispersed nanoparticles in different layers of graphene oxide. Structural information obtained from selected area electron diffraction and nanocrystalline fringe patterns agree well with those obtained from X-ray diffractogram analysis. Mössbauer spectra recorded at 300 and 77 K suggest the presence of a fraction of superparamagnetic particles together with ferrimagnetic particles. Static magnetic measurements include observation of hysteresis loops at 300 and 5 K, magnetization vs. temperature curves under zero field cooling and field cooling conditions. Saturation magnetizations, coercive field, and saturation to remanence ratio are also evaluated. To explore the suitability of this nanocomposite for hyperthermia application, inductive heating of LZFO and LZFO-RGO is measured at different concentrations of nanoparticles. Interestingly, the inductive heating rate of LZFO nanoparticles is enhanced in the nanocomposite phase of LZFO-RGO, suggesting their high potential for hyperthermia therapy in cancer treatment.

  19. Supramolecular polymeric chemosensor for biomedical applications: design and synthesis of a luminescent zinc metallopolymer as a chemosensor for adenine detection.

    PubMed

    Chow, Cheuk-Fai

    2012-11-01

    Adenine is an important bio-molecule that plays many crucial roles in food safety and biomedical diagnostics. Differentiating adenine from a mixture of adenosine and other nucleic bases (guanine, thymine, cytosine, and uracil) is particularly important for both biological and clinical applications. A neutral Zn(II) metallosupramolecular polymer based on acyl hydrazone derived coordination centres (P1) were generated through self-assembly polymerization. It is a linear coordination polymer that behaves like self-standing film. The synthesis, (1)H-NMR characterization, and spectroscopic properties of this supramolecular material are reported. P1 was found to be a chemosensor specific to adenine, with a luminescent enhancement. The binding properties of P1 with common nucleic bases and nucleosides reveal that this supramolecular polymer is very selective to adenine molecules (~20 to 420 times more selectivity than other nucleic bases). The formation constant (K) of P1 to adenine was found to be log K = 4.10 ± 0.02. This polymeric chemosensor produces a specific response to adenine down to 90 ppb. Spectrofluorimetric and (1)H-NMR titration studies showed that the P1 polymer allows each Zn(II) coordination centre to bind to two adenine molecules through hydrogen bonding with their imine and hydrazone protons.

  20. Refining the application of direct embryogenesis in sugarcane: Effect of the developmental phase of leaf disc explants and the timing of DNA transfer on transformation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Snyman, S J; Meyer, G M; Richards, J M; Haricharan, N; Ramgareeb, S; Huckett, B I

    2006-10-01

    A rapid in vitro protocol using direct somatic embryogenesis and microprojectile bombardment was investigated to establish the developmental phases most suitable for efficient sugarcane transformation. Immature leaf roll disc explants with and without pre-emergent inflorescence tissue were compared. It was shown that for effective transformation to occur, explants should be cultured for several days to allow initiation of embryo development prior to bombardment. Leaf roll discs with pre-emergent inflorescences showed a higher degree of embryogenic competence than non-flowering explants, and transformation efficiency was higher when explants containing floral initials were bombarded. Despite the occurrence of high numbers of phenotypically negative plants, combining the use of inflorescent leaf roll discs with direct embryogenic regeneration has the potential to improve the speed and efficiency of transgenesis in sugarcane.

  1. Transcriptome Characterization of Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma' Using 454 Pyrosequencing and Its Application in the Identification of Genes Associated with Leaf Color Variation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Genfa; Yang, Fengxi; Shi, Shanshan; Li, Dongmei; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Hailin; Huang, Dan; Wang, Caiyun

    2015-01-01

    The highly variable leaf color of Cymbidium sinense significantly improves its horticultural and economic value, and makes it highly desirable in the flower markets in China and Southeast Asia. However, little is understood about the molecular mechanism underlying leaf-color variations. In this study, we found the content of photosynthetic pigments, especially chlorophyll degradation metabolite in the leaf-color mutants is distinguished significantly from that in the wild type of Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma'. To further determine the candidate genes controlling leaf-color variations, we first sequenced the global transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing. More than 0.7 million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with an average read length of 445.9 bp were generated and assembled into 103,295 isotigs representing 68,460 genes. Of these isotigs, 43,433 were significantly aligned to known proteins in the public database, of which 29,299 could be categorized into 42 functional groups in the gene ontology system, 10,079 classified into 23 functional classifications in the clusters of orthologous groups system, and 23,092 assigned to 139 clusters of specific metabolic pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Among these annotations, 95 isotigs were designated as involved in chlorophyll metabolism. On this basis, we identified 16 key enzyme-encoding genes in the chlorophyll metabolism pathway, the full length cDNAs and expressions of which were further confirmed. Expression pattern indicated that the key enzyme-encoding genes for chlorophyll degradation were more highly expressed in the leaf color mutants, as was consistent with their lower chlorophyll contents. This study is the first to supply an informative 454 EST dataset for Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma' and to identify original leaf color-associated genes, which provide important resources to facilitate gene discovery for molecular breeding, marketable trait discovery, and investigating various biological

  2. Transcriptome Characterization of Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma' Using 454 Pyrosequencing and Its Application in the Identification of Genes Associated with Leaf Color Variation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shanshan; Li, Dongmei; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Hailin; Huang, Dan; Wang, Caiyun

    2015-01-01

    The highly variable leaf color of Cymbidium sinense significantly improves its horticultural and economic value, and makes it highly desirable in the flower markets in China and Southeast Asia. However, little is understood about the molecular mechanism underlying leaf-color variations. In this study, we found the content of photosynthetic pigments, especially chlorophyll degradation metabolite in the leaf-color mutants is distinguished significantly from that in the wild type of Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma'. To further determine the candidate genes controlling leaf-color variations, we first sequenced the global transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing. More than 0.7 million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with an average read length of 445.9 bp were generated and assembled into 103,295 isotigs representing 68,460 genes. Of these isotigs, 43,433 were significantly aligned to known proteins in the public database, of which 29,299 could be categorized into 42 functional groups in the gene ontology system, 10,079 classified into 23 functional classifications in the clusters of orthologous groups system, and 23,092 assigned to 139 clusters of specific metabolic pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Among these annotations, 95 isotigs were designated as involved in chlorophyll metabolism. On this basis, we identified 16 key enzyme-encoding genes in the chlorophyll metabolism pathway, the full length cDNAs and expressions of which were further confirmed. Expression pattern indicated that the key enzyme-encoding genes for chlorophyll degradation were more highly expressed in the leaf color mutants, as was consistent with their lower chlorophyll contents. This study is the first to supply an informative 454 EST dataset for Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma' and to identify original leaf color-associated genes, which provide important resources to facilitate gene discovery for molecular breeding, marketable trait discovery, and investigating various biological

  3. [Effects of applying tea seed meal and EDTA on the speciation transformation and phyto-availability of nickel and zinc in soil].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Xia, Hui-Long

    2013-06-01

    A pot experiment with sugarcane was conducted to study the effects of applying tea seed meal and EDTA on the speciation transformation and phyto-availability of nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in soil. With the increasing application rate of tea seed meal, the biomass of sugarcane root, stem, and leaf increased gradually, but no significant difference was observed in the stem and leaf biomass between EDTA treatments and the control. Applying tea seed meal and EDTA increased the acid-soluble Ni and Zn contents in soil, and promoted the bioconcentration and translocation of Ni and Zn in sugarcane. Meanwhile, the strengthening effect increased gradually with the increasing application rate of tea seed meal. As compared with EDTA, tea seed meal was more efficient in improving the accumulation of Ni and Zn in sugarcane, and thus, made the sugarcane remove more Ni and Zn from soil. The Ni and Zn contents in sugarcane stem and leaf had significant positive correlations with the application rate of tea seed meal, while the Ni and Zn contents in sugarcane root were significantly negatively correlated with the application rate of tea seed meal.

  4. Study of structural and optical properties of ZnAlQ5 (zinc aluminum quinolate) organic phosphor for OLED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpure, I. M.; Painuly, Deepshikha; Rabanal, Maria Eugenia

    2016-05-01

    The various composition of ZnAlQ5 such as Zn1.5A10.5Q5, Zn1Al1Q5, Zn0.5Al1.5Q5 organic phosphors were prepared via simple cost effective co-precipitation method. The FTIR, SEM, photoluminescence analysis of the prepared phosphors were reported. ZnQ2 and AlQ3 were also prepared by similar method and their properties were compared with different composition of ZnAlQ5. The structural elucidation in the form of stretching frequencies of chemical bonds of the prepared phosphor was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The stretching frequency analysis confirms the formation of prepared phosphor materials. The SEM analysis shows the surface morphological behavior of prepared phosphor materials. Greenish photoluminescence were observed at 505 to 510 nm for the different composition of ZnAlQ5,in which Zn1.5Al0.5Q5 shows maximum luminescence intensity at 505 nm. PL emission of ZnQ2 was observed at 515 nm, while for AlQ3 at 520 nm. The blue shift of 10 nm was observed in Zn1.5A10.5Q5 due to modification of energy level due to presence of Zn2+ and Al3+. The enhancement in PL intensity was observed in Zn1.5A10.5Q5 compared to the other composition due to transfer of energy between Zn2+ and quinolate complex. Optical properties of the prepared materials were evaluated for possible applications in organic light emitting devices (OLED).

  5. X-ray absorption Studies of Zinc species in Centella asiatica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehipawala, Sunil; Cheung, Tak; Hogan, Clayton; Agoudavi, Yao; Dehipawala, Sumudu

    2013-03-01

    Zinc is a very important mineral present in a variety of vegetables. It is an essential element in cellular metabolism and several bodily functions. We used X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray Absorption near Edge structure(XANES) to study the amount of zinc present in several leafy vegetables as well as its chemical environment within the plant. Main absorption edge position of XANES is sensitive to the oxidation state of zinc and is useful when comparing the type of zinc present in different vegetables to the standard zinc present in supplements. Normalized main edge height is proportional to the amount of zinc present in the sample. Several leafy greens were used in this study, such as Spinacia oleracea, Basella alba, Brassica oleracea, Cardiospermum halicacabumand Centella asiatica. All of these plant leaves contained approximately the same amount of zinc in the leaf portion of the plant and a slightly lower amount in the stems, except Centella asiatica. Both leaves and stems of the plant Centella asiatica contained nearly two times the zinc compared to other plants. Further investigation of zinc's chemical environment within Centella asiatica could lead to a much more efficient dietary consumption of zinc. Use of the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886

  6. The application of crystal soaking technique to study the effect of zinc and cresol on insulinotropin crystals grown from a saline solution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Haren, A M

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of zinc and cresol on the structure of insulinotropin crystals. Insulinotropin crystals grown from a saline solution were treated with zinc and/or m-cresol using a crystal soaking technique. The effects of these additives on the crystal structure were investigated with powder X-ray diffraction, photomicrography, and differential scanning calorimetry. The molecular interaction between insulinotropin and m-trifluorocresol in solution was also studied by 19F NMR: The data suggest that the original crystals grown from a saline solution have relatively weak lattice forces. After the addition of m-cresol to the suspension of the insulinotropin crystals, the crystals were immediately rendered amorphous. The m-cresol molecules which diffused into the crystals through solvent channels may have disturbed the lattice interactions that maintain the integrity of the crystal. In contrast, the zinc added to the suspension stabilized the crystal lattice so that the subsequent addition of m-cresol did not alter the integrity of the crystals. A marked increase in melting point (206 degrees versus 184 degrees) and heat of fusion (24.6 J/g versus 1.4 J/g) of the crystals was observed after the treatment with zinc. The solubility of the zinc treated crystals in a pH 7.1 phosphate buffered saline was 1/20 of that of the original crystals. When the insulinotropin crystals were treated with the additives using a crystal soaking method, the crystals underwent structural changes. Zinc stabilized the crystal lattice, and reduced the solubility of the peptide.

  7. Computational predictions of zinc oxide hollow structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuoc, Vu Ngoc; Huan, Tran Doan; Thao, Nguyen Thi

    2018-03-01

    Nanoporous materials are emerging as potential candidates for a wide range of technological applications in environment, electronic, and optoelectronics, to name just a few. Within this active research area, experimental works are predominant while theoretical/computational prediction and study of these materials face some intrinsic challenges, one of them is how to predict porous structures. We propose a computationally and technically feasible approach for predicting zinc oxide structures with hollows at the nano scale. The designed zinc oxide hollow structures are studied with computations using the density functional tight binding and conventional density functional theory methods, revealing a variety of promising mechanical and electronic properties, which can potentially find future realistic applications.

  8. How do leaf veins influence the worldwide leaf economic spectrum? Review and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sack, Lawren; Scoffoni, Christine; John, Grace P; Poorter, Hendrik; Mason, Chase M; Mendez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Donovan, Lisa A

    2013-10-01

    Leaf vein traits are implicated in the determination of gas exchange rates and plant performance. These traits are increasingly considered as causal factors affecting the 'leaf economic spectrum' (LES), which includes the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis, dark respiration, foliar nitrogen concentration, leaf dry mass per area (LMA) and leaf longevity. This article reviews the support for two contrasting hypotheses regarding a key vein trait, vein length per unit leaf area (VLA). Recently, Blonder et al. (2011, 2013) proposed that vein traits, including VLA, can be described as the 'origin' of the LES by structurally determining LMA and leaf thickness, and thereby vein traits would predict LES traits according to specific equations. Careful re-examination of leaf anatomy, published datasets, and a newly compiled global database for diverse species did not support the 'vein origin' hypothesis, and moreover showed that the apparent power of those equations to predict LES traits arose from circularity. This review provides a 'flux trait network' hypothesis for the effects of vein traits on the LES and on plant performance, based on a synthesis of the previous literature. According to this hypothesis, VLA, while virtually independent of LMA, strongly influences hydraulic conductance, and thus stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate. We also review (i) the specific physiological roles of VLA; (ii) the role of leaf major veins in influencing LES traits; and (iii) the role of VLA in determining photosynthetic rate per leaf dry mass and plant relative growth rate. A clear understanding of leaf vein traits provides a new perspective on plant function independently of the LES and can enhance the ability to explain and predict whole plant performance under dynamic conditions, with applications towards breeding improved crop varieties.

  9. Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

  10. Application of an online post-column derivatization HPLC-DPPH assay to detect compounds responsible for antioxidant activity in Sonchus oleraceus L. leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Ou, Zong-Quan; Schmierer, David M; Rades, Thomas; Larsen, Lesley; McDowell, Arlene

    2013-02-01

    To use an online assay to identify key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus leaf extracts and to investigate the effect of leaf position and extraction conditions on antioxidant concentration and activity. Separation of phytochemicals and simultaneous assessment of antioxidant activity were performed online using HPLC and post-column reaction with a free-radical reagent (2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, DPPH). Active compounds were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. We applied the online HPLC-DPPH radical assay to evaluate antioxidants in leaves from different positions on the plant and to assess the effect of pre-treatment of leaves with liquid N(2) before grinding, extraction time, extraction temperature and method of concentrating extracts. Key antioxidants identified in S. oleraceus leaf extracts were caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid and chicoric acid. Middle leaves contained the highest total amount of the three key antioxidant compounds, consisting mainly of chicoric acid. Pre-treatment with liquid N(2), increasing the extraction temperature and time and freeze-drying the extract did not enhance the yield of the key antioxidants. The online HPLC-DPPH radical assay was validated as a useful screening tool for investigating individual antioxidants in leaf extracts. Optimized extraction conditions were middle leaves pre-treated with liquid N(2), extraction at 25°C for 0.5 h and solvent removal by rotary evaporation. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012. Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Leaf morphological effects predict effective path length and enrichment of 18O in leaf water of different Eucalyptus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahmen, A.; Merchant, A.; Callister, A.; Dawson, T. E.; Arndt, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    Stable isotopes have been a valuable tool to study water or carbon fluxes of plants and ecosystems. In particular oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in leaf water or plant organic material are now beginning to be established as a simple and integrative measure for plant - water relations. Current δ18O models, however, are still limited in their application to a broad range of different species and ecosystems. It remains for example unclear, if species-specific effects such as different leaf morphologies need to be included in the models for a precise understanding and prediction of δ18O signals. In a common garden experiment (Currency Creek Arboretum, South Australia), where over 900 different Eucalyptus species are cultivated in four replicates, we tested effects of leaf morphology and anatomy on δ18O signals in leaf water of 25 different species. In particular, we determined for all species enrichment in 18O of mean lamina leaf water above source water (Δ18O) as related to leaf physiology as well as leaf thickness, leaf area, specific leaf area and weight and selected anatomical properties. Our data revealed that diurnal Δ18O in leaf water at steady state was significantly different among the investigated species and with differences up to 10% at midday. Fitting factors (effective path length) of leaf water Δ18O models were also significantly different among the investigated species and were highly affected by species-specific morphological parameters. For example, leaf area explained a high percentage of the differences in effective path length observed among the investigated species. Our data suggest that leaf water δ18O can act as powerful tool to estimate plant - water relations in comparative studies but that additional leaf morphological parameters need to be considered in existing δ18O models for a better interpretation of the observed δ18O signals.

  12. Zinc treatment increases the titre of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in Huanglongbing-affected citrus plants while affecting the bacterial microbiomes

    Huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus often display zinc deficiency symptoms. In this study, supplemental zinc was applied to citrus to determine its effect on Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) titer, HLB symptoms, and leaf microbiome. HLB-affected citrus were treated with various amounts of zi...

  13. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  14. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  15. Project LEAF Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project LEAF has a goal of educating farmworkers about how to reduce pesticide exposure to their families from pesticide residues they may be inadvertently taking home on their clothing, etc. Find outreach materials.

  16. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  17. Effects of Zinc Chelators on Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Josephine; Day, Devin M.; Linz, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc concentrations strongly influence aflatoxin accumulation in laboratory media and in food and feed crops. The presence of zinc stimulates aflatoxin production, and the absence of zinc impedes toxin production. Initial studies that suggested a link between zinc and aflatoxin biosynthesis were presented in the 1970s. In the present study, we utilized two zinc chelators, N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) to explore the effect of zinc limitation on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. TPEN but not DMPS decreased aflatoxin biosynthesis up to six-fold depending on whether A. parasiticus was grown on rich or minimal medium. Although we observed significant inhibition of aflatoxin production by TPEN, no detectable changes were observed in expression levels of the aflatoxin pathway gene ver-1 and the zinc binuclear cluster transcription factor, AflR. Treatment of growing A. parasiticus solid culture with a fluorescent zinc probe demonstrated an increase in intracellular zinc levels assessed by increases in fluorescent intensity of cultures treated with TPEN compared to controls. These data suggest that TPEN binds to cytoplasmic zinc therefore limiting fungal access to zinc. To investigate the efficacy of TPEN on food and feed crops, we found that TPEN effectively decreases aflatoxin accumulation on peanut medium but not in a sunflower seeds-derived medium. From an application perspective, these data provide the basis for biological differences that exist in the efficacy of different zinc chelators in various food and feed crops frequently contaminated by aflatoxin. PMID:27271668

  18. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  19. A Novel Diffuse Fraction-Based Two-Leaf Light Use Efficiency Model: An Application Quantifying Photosynthetic Seasonality across 20 AmeriFlux Flux Tower Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hao; Wang, Shao-Qiang; Yu, Kai-Liang; Wang, Bin; Yu, Qin; Bohrer, Gil; Billesbach, Dave; Bracho, Rosvel; Rahman, Faiz; Shugart, Herman H.

    2017-10-01

    Diffuse radiation can increase canopy light use efficiency (LUE). This creates the need to differentiate the effects of direct and diffuse radiation when simulating terrestrial gross primary production (GPP). Here, we present a novel GPP model, the diffuse-fraction-based two-leaf model (DTEC), which includes the leaf response to direct and diffuse radiation, and treats maximum LUE for shaded leaves (ɛmsh defined as a power function of the diffuse fraction (Df)) and sunlit leaves (ɛmsu defined as a constant) separately. An Amazonian rainforest site (KM67) was used to calibrate the model by simulating the linear relationship between monthly canopy LUE and Df. This showed a positive response of forest GPP to atmospheric diffuse radiation, and suggested that diffuse radiation was more limiting than global radiation and water availability for Amazon rainforest GPP on a monthly scale. Further evaluation at 20 independent AmeriFlux sites showed that the DTEC model, when driven by monthly meteorological data and MODIS leaf area index (LAI) products, explained 70% of the variability observed in monthly flux tower GPP. This exceeded the 51% accounted for by the MODIS 17A2 big-leaf GPP product. The DTEC model's explicit accounting for the impacts of diffuse radiation and soil water stress along with its parameterization for C4 and C3 plants was responsible for this difference. The evaluation of DTEC at Amazon rainforest sites demonstrated its potential to capture the unique seasonality of higher GPP during the diffuse radiation-dominated wet season. Our results highlight the importance of diffuse radiation in seasonal GPP simulation.Plain Language SummaryAs diffuse radiation can increase canopy light use efficiency (LUE), there is a need to differentiate the effects of direct and diffuse radiation in simulating terrestrial gross primary production (GPP). A novel diffuse-fraction (Df)-based two <span class="hlt">leaf</span> GPP model (DTEC) developed by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26909469','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26909469"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> treatment increases the titre of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in huanglongbing-affected citrus plants while affecting the bacterial microbiomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, M Q; Guo, Y; Powell, C A; Doud, M S; Yang, C Y; Zhou, H; Duan, Y P</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus often display <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency symptoms. In this study, supplemental <span class="hlt">zinc</span> was applied to citrus to determine its effect on Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) titre, HLB symptoms, and <span class="hlt">leaf</span> microbiome. HLB-affected citrus were treated with various amounts of <span class="hlt">zinc</span>. The treatments promoted Las growth and affected microbiomes in citrus leaves. Phylochip(™) -based results indicated that 5475 of over 50 000 known Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in 52 phyla were detected in the midribs of HLB-affected citrus, of which Proteobacteria was the most abundant, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In comparison, the microbiomes of <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-treated diseased plants had overall more OTUs with higher amounts of Proteobacteria, but decreased percentages of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In addition, more OTUs of siderophore-producing bacteria were present. Only <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-sensitive Staphylococcaceae had higher OTU's in the diseased plants without <span class="hlt">zinc</span> treatments. Although HLB-affected citrus appear <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficient, <span class="hlt">zinc</span> amendments increased the pathogen levels and shifted the microbiome. HLB is currently the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> is often applied to HLB-affected citrus due to <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency symptoms. This study provided new insights into the potential effects of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> on HLB and the microbial ecology of citrus. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24946828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24946828"><span><span class="hlt">Leaf</span> phenomics: a systematic reverse genetic screen for Arabidopsis <span class="hlt">leaf</span> mutants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilson-Sánchez, David; Rubio-Díaz, Silvia; Muñoz-Viana, Rafael; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Jover-Gil, Sara; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The study and eventual manipulation of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> development in plants requires a thorough understanding of the genetic basis of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> organogenesis. Forward genetic screens have identified hundreds of Arabidopsis mutants with altered <span class="hlt">leaf</span> development, but the genome has not yet been saturated. To identify genes required for <span class="hlt">leaf</span> development we are screening the Arabidopsis Salk Unimutant collection. We have identified 608 lines that exhibit a <span class="hlt">leaf</span> phenotype with full penetrance and almost constant expressivity and 98 additional lines with segregating mutant phenotypes. To allow indexing and integration with other mutants, the mutant phenotypes were described using a custom <span class="hlt">leaf</span> phenotype ontology. We found that the indexed mutation is present in the annotated locus for 78% of the 553 mutants genotyped, and that in half of these the annotated T-DNA is responsible for the phenotype. To quickly map non-annotated T-DNA insertions, we developed a reliable, cost-effective and easy method based on whole-genome sequencing. To enable comprehensive access to our data, we implemented a public web <span class="hlt">application</span> named Pheno<span class="hlt">Leaf</span> (http://genetics.umh.es/phenoleaf) that allows researchers to query the results of our screen, including text and visual phenotype information. We demonstrated how this new resource can facilitate gene function discovery by identifying and characterizing At1g77600, which we found to be required for proximal-distal cell cycle-driven <span class="hlt">leaf</span> growth, and At3g62870, which encodes a ribosomal protein needed for cell proliferation and chloroplast function. This collection provides a valuable tool for the study of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> development, characterization of biomass feedstocks and examination of other traits in this fundamental photosynthetic organ. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18965990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18965990"><span><span class="hlt">Application</span> of catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry of the cobalt-alpha-benzil dioxime complex to analysis of cobalt traces in metallic <span class="hlt">zinc</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bobrowski, A</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>The catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetric method with alpha-benzil dioxime and nitrite affords numerous advantages in cobalt determination. The detailed conditions of the determination of the cobalt traces in metallic <span class="hlt">zinc</span> by catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry have been investigated. Both the linear sweep and the differential pulse stripping modes can be used with similar sensitivity. Possible interferences by Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni and Fe are evaluated. In the presence of 5 x 10(5) fold excess of Zn the linear dependence of the cobalt CASV peak current on concentration ranged from 0.05 mug/l to 3 mug/l. Optimal conditions include the accumulation potential of -0.65 V and the accumulation time of 10 sec. The results of the determination of 10(-5)% level of Co in the metallic <span class="hlt">zinc</span> showed good reproducibility (relative standard deviation, RSD = 0.07) and reliability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29717180','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29717180"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> use efficiency is enhanced in wheat through nanofertilization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dapkekar, Ashwin; Deshpande, Paresh; Oak, Manoj D; Paknikar, Kishore M; Rajwade, Jyutika M</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>Ferti-fortification of wheat with <span class="hlt">zinc</span>, an essential micronutrient is one of the strategies for combating 'hidden hunger' in a large proportion of people all over the world. During fertilization, <span class="hlt">application</span> of large quantities of micronutrients often results in nutrient wastage and subsequent environmental pollution. Here, we report <span class="hlt">zinc</span> complexed chitosan nanoparticles (Zn-CNP) for ferti-fortification of durum wheat in field-scale experiments. The efficacy of Zn-CNP was assessed vis-à-vis conventionally applied ZnSO 4 (0.2%; 400 mgL -1 <span class="hlt">zinc</span>) in two durum wheat genotypes (MACS 3125, an indigenous high yielding genotype and UC 1114, a genotype containing the Gpc-B1gene). The observed grain <span class="hlt">zinc</span> enrichment using Zn-CNP nanocarrier (~36%) and conventional ZnSO 4 (~50%) were comparable, despite 10 folds less <span class="hlt">zinc</span> (40 mgL -1 ) used in the former. Nanofertilizer <span class="hlt">application</span> increased grain <span class="hlt">zinc</span> content without affecting grain yield, protein content, spikelets per spike, thousand kernel weight, etc. Grain <span class="hlt">zinc</span> enrichment observed in the four-year field trials on plots with varying soil <span class="hlt">zinc</span> content was consistent, proving the utility of Zn-CNP as a novel nanofertilizer which enhanced fertilizer use efficiency. Our work describes a new paradigm in micronutrient fortification, viz. 'use nanofertilizers at the right place, right time and in right doses'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750020137','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750020137"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span>-rich coatings: A market survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lizak, R.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zinc</span>-rich coatings with both organic and inorganic binders were considered for coastal bridges which require more corrosion protection than inland bridges because of exposure to salt spray and fog. Inorganics give longer protection and may be applied without a finish coat; those currently available are harder to apply than organics. The NASA potassium silicate/<span class="hlt">zinc</span> - dust coating appears to provide longer protection, resist thermal shock, and overcome the <span class="hlt">application</span> problem. Panels coated with the formulation withstood 5308 hours in a salt spray chamber with no rusting or blistering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2854917','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2854917"><span>Endogenous <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> in Neurological Diseases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The use of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its <span class="hlt">zinc</span> ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for <span class="hlt">zinc</span> indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is summarized. PMID:20396459</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4977457','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4977457"><span>Ocimum sanctum <span class="hlt">leaf</span> extract induces drought stress tolerance in rice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pandey, Veena; Ansari, M.W.; Tula, Suresh; Sahoo, R.K.; Bains, Gurdeep; Kumar, J.; Tuteja, Narendra; Shukla, Alok</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Ocimum leaves are highly enriched in antioxidant components. Thus, its <span class="hlt">leaf</span> extract, if applied in plants, is believed to efficiently scavenge ROS, thereby preventing oxidative damage under drought stress. Thus, the present study was performed in kharif 2013 and rabi 2014 season to evaluate the effect of aqueous <span class="hlt">leaf</span> extract of Ocimum sanctum against drought stress in 2 rice genotype under glass house conditions. Here we show that various morpho- physiological (chlorophyll fluorescence, <span class="hlt">leaf</span> rolling score, <span class="hlt">leaf</span> tip burn, number of senesced leaves and total dry matter) and biochemical parameters (proline, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase content) were amended by Ocimum treatment in both the seasons. <span class="hlt">Application</span> of Ocimum extract increased expression of dehydrin genes, while reducing expression of aquaporin genes in drought stressed rice plant. Thus, <span class="hlt">application</span> of Ocimum <span class="hlt">leaf</span> extract under drought stress can be suggested as a promising strategy to mitigate drought stress in economical, accessible and ecofriendly manner. PMID:26890603</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/co0922.photos.365691p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/co0922.photos.365691p/"><span>99. <span class="hlt">ZINC</span> ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, <span class="hlt">ZINC</span> CLEANER CELLS ON ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>99. <span class="hlt">ZINC</span> ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, <span class="hlt">ZINC</span> CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19700000419','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19700000419"><span>Suppression of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> dendrites in <span class="hlt">zinc</span> electrode power cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> dendrites during charging of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23558696','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23558696"><span>Chelating ionic liquids for reversible <span class="hlt">zinc</span> electrochemistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kar, Mega; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R</p> <p>2013-05-21</p> <p>Advanced, high energy-density, metal-air rechargeable batteries, such as <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-air, are of intense international interest due to their important role in energy storage <span class="hlt">applications</span> such as electric and hybrid vehicles, and to their ability to deal with the intermittency of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. Ionic liquids offer a number of ideal thermal and physical properties as potential electrolytes in such large-scale energy storage <span class="hlt">applications</span>. We describe here the synthesis and characterisation of a family of novel "chelating" ILs designed to chelate and solubilize the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> ions to create electrolytes for this type of battery. These are based on quaternary alkoxy alkyl ammonium cations of varying oligo-ether side chains and anions such as p-toluene sulfonate, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and dicyanoamides. This work shows that increasing the ether chain length in the cation from two to four oxygens can increase the ionic conductivity and reduce the melting point from 67 °C to 15 °C for the tosylate system. Changing the anion also plays a significant role in the nature of the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deposition electrochemistry. We show that <span class="hlt">zinc</span> can be reversibly deposited from [N(222(20201))][NTf2] and [N(222(202020201))][NTf2] beginning at -1.4 V and -1.7 V vs. SHE, respectively, but not in the case of tosylate based ILs. This indicates that the [NTf2] is a weaker coordinating anion with the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> cation, compared to the tosylate anion, allowing the coordination of the ether chain to dominate the behavior of the deposition and stripping of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> ions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23686432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23686432"><span>In-house <span class="hlt">zinc</span> SAD phasing at Cu Kα edge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sangmin; An, Young Jun; Jeong, Chang-Sook; Ji, Chang-Jun; Lee, Jin-Won; Cha, Sun-Shin</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>De novo <span class="hlt">zinc</span> single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (Zn-SAD) phasing has been demonstrated with the 1.9 Å resolution data of glucose isomerase and 2.6 Å resolution data of Staphylococcus aureus Fur (SaFur) collected using in-house Cu Kα X-ray source. The successful in-house Zn-SAD phasing of glucose isomerase, based on the anomalous signals of both <span class="hlt">zinc</span> ions introduced to crystals by soaking and native sulfur atoms, drove us to determine the structure of SaFur, a <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-containing transcription factor, by Zn-SAD phasing using in-house X-ray source. The abundance of <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-containing proteins in nature, the easy <span class="hlt">zinc</span> derivatization of the protein surface, no need of synchrotron access, and the successful experimental phasing with the modest 2.6 Å resolution SAD data indicate that inhouse Zn-SAD phasing can be widely <span class="hlt">applicable</span> to structure determination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28558726','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28558726"><span>Development and <span class="hlt">application</span> of triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for begomovirus detection using monoclonal antibodies against Tomato yellow <span class="hlt">leaf</span> curl Thailand virus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seepiban, Channarong; Charoenvilaisiri, Saengsoon; Warin, Nuchnard; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Phironrit, Namthip; Phuangrat, Bencharong; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Attathom, Supat; Gajanandana, Oraprapai</p> <p>2017-05-30</p> <p>Tomato yellow <span class="hlt">leaf</span> curl Thailand virus, TYLCTHV, is a begomovirus that causes severe losses of tomato crops in Thailand as well as several countries in Southeast and East Asia. The development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and serological methods for detecting TYLCTHV is essential for epidemiological studies and screening for virus-resistant cultivars. The recombinant coat protein (CP) of TYLCTHV was expressed in Escherichia coli and used to generate MAbs against TYLCTHV through hybridoma technology. The MAbs were characterized and optimized to develop triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (TAS-ELISAs) for begomovirus detection. The efficiency of TAS-ELISAs for begomovirus detection was evaluated with tomato, pepper, eggplant, okra and cucurbit plants collected from several provinces in Thailand. Molecular identification of begomoviruses in these samples was also performed through PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the CP gene. Two MAbs (M1 and D2) were generated and used to develop TAS-ELISAs for begomovirus detection. The results of begomovirus detection in 147 field samples indicated that MAb M1 reacted with 2 begomovirus species, TYLCTHV and Tobacco <span class="hlt">leaf</span> curl Yunnan virus (TbLCYnV), whereas MAb D2 reacted with 4 begomovirus species, TYLCTHV, TbLCYnV, Tomato <span class="hlt">leaf</span> curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and Squash <span class="hlt">leaf</span> curl China virus (SLCCNV). Phylogenetic analyses of CP amino acid sequences from these begomoviruses revealed that the CP sequences of begomoviruses recognized by the narrow-spectrum MAb M1 were highly conserved, sharing 93% identity with each other but only 72-81% identity with MAb M1-negative begomoviruses. The CP sequences of begomoviruses recognized by the broad-spectrum MAb D2 demonstrated a wider range of amino acid sequence identity, sharing 78-96% identity with each other and 72-91% identity with those that were not detected by MAb D2. TAS-ELISAs using the narrow-specificity MAb M1 proved highly efficient for the detection of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4529538','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4529538"><span>Metallic <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Exhibits Optimal Biocompatibility for Bioabsorbable Endovascular Stents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bowen, Patrick K.; Guillory, Roger J.; Shearier, Emily R.; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Bocks, Martin; Zhao, Feng; Goldman, Jeremy</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although corrosion resistant bare metal stents are considered generally effective, their permanent presence in a diseased artery is an increasingly recognized limitation due to the potential for long-term complications. We previously reported that metallic <span class="hlt">zinc</span> exhibited an ideal biocorrosion rate within murine aortas, thus raising the possibility of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> as a candidate base material for endovascular stenting <span class="hlt">applications</span>. This study was undertaken to further assess the arterial biocompatibility of metallic <span class="hlt">zinc</span>. Metallic <span class="hlt">zinc</span> wires were punctured and advanced into the rat abdominal aorta lumen for up to 6.5 months. This study demonstrated that metallic <span class="hlt">zinc</span> did not provoke responses that often contribute to restenosis. Low cell densities and neointimal tissue thickness, along with tissue regeneration within the corroding implant, point to optimal biocompatibility of corroding <span class="hlt">zinc</span>. Furthermore, the lack of progression in neointimal tissue thickness over 6.5 months or the presence of smooth muscle cells near the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> implant suggest that the products of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> corrosion may suppress the activities of inflammatory and smooth muscle cells. PMID:26249616</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810022501','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810022501"><span>Observations of interstellar <span class="hlt">zinc</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jura, M.; York, D.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar <span class="hlt">zinc</span> toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990PhDT.......283S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990PhDT.......283S"><span>X-Ray Microanalytic Concentration Measurements in Unsectioned Specimens: a Technique and its <span class="hlt">Application</span> to <span class="hlt">Zinc</span>, Manganese, and Iron Enriched Mechanical Structures of Organisms from Three Phyla</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schofield, Robert M. S.</p> <p></p> <p>A method for measuring concentrations of minor elements in microscopic volumes of heterogeneous, unsectioned biological specimens using an ion microprobe is developed. The element quantity is obtained from PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and the total quantity of material is derived from STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy) energy loss measurements. Sources of error, including changes in x-ray production cross section with proton energy and absorption of induced x-rays, are discussed and a method of calculating the total measurement uncertainty, typically about 25% here, is developed. The measurement accuracy is shown to be improved for symmetric specimens, and a method of using the bremsstrahlung background to correct for x-ray attenuation within irregular specimens is developed. Methods for measuring local concentrations in internal features are also discussed. With this technique, scorpions were found to contain cuticular accumulations of one or more heavy metals (manganese up to 5% of dry weight, iron up to 8%, <span class="hlt">zinc</span> up to 24%) in the chelicera, pedipalp denticles, tarsal claws, and stingers; different region soften contained different metals. The stingers are argued to be of particular interest because they are not homologous to legs. Similar accumulations were found in spiders, some other chelicerates and crustaceans. Previous reports of manganese and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> accumulations in insect and worm mouth parts were augmented with local concentration measurements and with the detection of other enrichment features (such as 6% iron in the paragnaths of the worm Nereis vexillosa). <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> accumulations (up to only 0.1%) were also found in the tips of the teeth of a hagfish, Myxine + glutinosa. X-ray images of several of these features are presented. It is argued that the extreme magnitude of some concentration values suggests that some metals are incorporated in unusual biominerals rather than organically bound. Results of x-ray diffractometry and Vickers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhDT.......128W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhDT.......128W"><span>Investigation of the Degradation Mechanisms of Particulate Reinforced Epoxy Coatings and <span class="hlt">Zinc</span>-Rich Coatings Under an Erosion and Corrosion Environment for Oil and Gas Industry <span class="hlt">Applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Dailin</p> <p></p> <p>During oil and gas production and transportation, the presence of an oil-sand slurry, together with the presence of CO2, H2S, oxygen, and seawater, create an erosive/abrasive and corrosive environment for the interior surfaces of undersea pipelines transporting oil and gas from offshore platforms. Erosion/wear and corrosion are often synergic processes leading to a much greater material loss of pipeline cross-section than that caused by each individual process alone. Both organic coatings and metallic sacrificial coatings have been widely employed to provide protection to the pipeline steels against corrosion through barrier protection and cathodic protection, and these protection mechanisms have been well studied. However, coating performance under the synergic processes of erosion/wear and corrosion have been much less researched and coating degradation mechanisms when erosion/wear and corrosion are both going on has not been well elucidated. In the work presented in this dissertation, steel panels coated with filler reinforced epoxy coatings and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-rich coatings have been evaluated under erosion/wear followed by an exposure to a corrosive environment. Electrochemical tests and material characterization methods have been applied to study the degradation mechanisms of the coatings during the tests and coating degradation mechanisms have been proposed. While organic coatings with a lower amount of filler particles provided better protection in a corrosive environment alone and in solid particle impingement erosion testing alone, organic coatings with a higher amount of filler particles showed better performance during wear testing alone. A higher amount of filler particles was also beneficial in providing protection against wear and corrosion environment, and erosion and corrosion environment. Coating thickness played a significant role in the barrier properties of the coatings under both erosion and corrosion tests. When the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=289773','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=289773"><span>History of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in agriculture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, over 20 years would past before the first descriptions of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that <span class="hlt">zinc</span> supplementation would cure a parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it wa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830000568&hterms=zinc&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dzinc','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830000568&hterms=zinc&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dzinc"><span>Recovering <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> From Discarded Tires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Du Fresne, E. R.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract <span class="hlt">zinc</span>. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as <span class="hlt">zinc</span> sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/865205','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/865205"><span>Photovoltaic cells employing <span class="hlt">zinc</span> phosphide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A photovoltaic cell having a <span class="hlt">zinc</span> phosphide absorber. The <span class="hlt">zinc</span> phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing <span class="hlt">zinc</span> phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080348','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080348"><span>The <span class="hlt">Application</span> of <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> Ultrasonic Resonance to Vitis vinifera L. Suggests the Existence of a Diurnal Osmotic Adjustment Subjected to Photosynthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Medrano, Hipólito; Peguero-Pina, José J.; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Fariñas, Maria D.; Álvarez-Arenas, Tomás G.; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The main objective of this study was to apply the air-coupled broad-band ultrasonic spectroscopy in attached transpiring leaves of Vitis vinifera L. to monitor changes in <span class="hlt">leaf</span> water potential (Ψ) through the measurements of the standardized value of the resonant frequency associated with the maximum transmitance (f/fo). With this purpose, the response of grapevine to a drought stress period was investigated in terms of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> water status, ultrasounds, gas exchange and sugar accumulation. Two strong correlations were obtained between f/fo and Ψ measured at predawn (pd) and at midday (md) with different slopes. This fact implied the existence of two values of Ψ for a given value of f/fo, which was taken as a sign that the ultrasonic technique was not directly related to the overall Ψ, but only to one of its components: the turgor pressure (P). The difference in Ψ at constant f/fo (δ) was found to be dependent on net CO2 assimilation (A) and might be used as a rough estimator of photosynthetic activity. It was then, the other main component of Ψ, osmotic potential (π), the one that may have lowered the values of md Ψ with respect to pd Ψ by the accumulation of sugars associated to net CO2 assimilation. This phenomenon suggests the existence of a diurnal osmotic adjustment in this species associated to sugars production in well-watered plants. PMID:27833626</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24219138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24219138"><span>Biological safety assessment of mutant variant of Allium sativum <span class="hlt">leaf</span> agglutinin (mASAL), a novel antifungal protein for future transgenic <span class="hlt">application</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ghosh, Prithwi; Roy, Amit; Chakraborty, Joydeep; Das, Sampa</p> <p>2013-12-04</p> <p>Genetic engineering has established itself to be an important tool for crop improvement. Despite the success, there is always a risk of food allergy induced by alien gene products. The present study assessed the biosafety of mutant Allium sativum <span class="hlt">leaf</span> agglutinin (mASAL), a potent antifungal protein generated by site directed mutagenesis of Allium sativum <span class="hlt">leaf</span> agglutinin (ASAL). mASAL was cloned in pET28a+ and expressed in E. coli, and the safety assessment was carried out according to the FAO/WHO guideline (2001). Bioinformatics analysis, pepsin digestion, and thermal stability assay showed the protein to be nonallergenic. Targeted sera screening revealed no significant IgE affinity of mASAL. Furthermore, mASAL sensitized Balb/c mice showed normal histopathology of lung and gut tissue. All results indicated the least possibility of mASAL being an allergen. Thus, mASAL appears to be a promising antifungal candidate protein suitable for agronomical biotechnology.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25625477','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25625477"><span><span class="hlt">Application</span> of mixed cloud point extraction for the analysis of six flavonoids in Apocynum venetum <span class="hlt">leaf</span> samples by high performance liquid chromatography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Jun; Sun, Jiang Bing; Xu, Xin Yu; Cheng, Zhao Hui; Zeng, Ping; Wang, Feng Qiao; Zhang, Qiong</p> <p>2015-03-25</p> <p>A simple, inexpensive and efficient method based on the mixed cloud point extraction (MCPE) combined with high performance liquid chromatography was developed for the simultaneous separation and determination of six flavonoids (rutin, hyperoside, quercetin-3-O-sophoroside, isoquercitrin, astragalin and quercetin) in Apocynum venetum <span class="hlt">leaf</span> samples. The non-ionic surfactant Genapol X-080 and cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was chosen as the mixed extracting solvent. Parameters that affect the MCPE processes, such as the content of Genapol X-080 and CTAB, pH, salt content, extraction temperature and time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve for six flavonoids were all linear with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.9994. The intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD) were below 8.1% and the limits of detection (LOD) for the six flavonoids were 1.2-5.0 ng mL(-1) (S/N=3). The proposed method was successfully used to separate and determine the six flavonoids in A. venetum <span class="hlt">leaf</span> samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5914118-acid-base-chemistry-dissolved-organic-matter-aqueous-leaf-extracts-application-organic-acids-throughfall-chrysolepis-sempervirens-pinus-monticola-salix-orestera','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5914118-acid-base-chemistry-dissolved-organic-matter-aqueous-leaf-extracts-application-organic-acids-throughfall-chrysolepis-sempervirens-pinus-monticola-salix-orestera"><span>Acid-base chemistry of dissolved organic matter in aqueous <span class="hlt">leaf</span> extracts: <span class="hlt">Application</span> to organic acids in throughfall. [Chrysolepis sempervirens; Pinus monticola; Salix orestera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Brown, A.D.; Sposito, G.</p> <p></p> <p>Elemental composition data were obtained for bulk precipitation and throughfall samples and for aqueous extracts of leaves of three woody plant species common in the subalpine Sierras Nevada range, California: chinquapin (Chrysolepis sempervirens Hjelmqvist), western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.), and willow (Salix orestera Schneider). The acid-base equilibria of the extracts were characterized by potentiometric titration and proton formation functions were computed. The latter then were modeled assuming four classes of quasiparticle acidic functional groups, yielding negative logarithms of conditional protonation constants in the range 4.8 to 5.0, 6.1 to 6.6, 7.4 to 7.7, and 9.1 to 9.4. The relativemore » concentration of a given acidic functional group class varied markedly among the three woody species, but the conditional protonation constants were very similar. The model parameters, along with dissolved organic C concentration and pH values, were used to estimate net anion deficits in throughfall samples collected from the same sites as the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> samples. On average, the calculated charge concentration of free organic anions in the western white pine extract matched the throughfall anion deficit, whereas the deficits in the chinquapin and willow throughfall samples were not accounted for by free anion concentrations. Metal complexation and in situ, species-dependent <span class="hlt">leaf</span> surfaces processes may account for these latter differences.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=325040','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=325040"><span>Cucumber <span class="hlt">leaf</span> spot virus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cucumber <span class="hlt">leaf</span> spot virus (CLSV) was originally identified from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) in Germany, but has since been found in various parts of Europe, the UK, and the Middle East, including Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Bulgaria, Poland, and Spain. CLSV is known to cause symptoms ranging from chloroti...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=270030','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=270030"><span>Bacterial <span class="hlt">leaf</span> spot</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Bacterial <span class="hlt">leaf</span> spot has been reported in Australia (Queensland), Egypt, El Salvador, India, Japan, Nicaragua, Sudan, and the United States (Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, and Wisconsin). It occasionally causes locally severe defoliation and post-emergence damping-off and stunting. The disease is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24727553','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24727553"><span>Further aspects of ochratoxin A-cation interactions: complex formation with <span class="hlt">zinc</span> ions and a novel analytical <span class="hlt">application</span> of ochratoxin A-magnesium interaction in the HPLC-FLD system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Poór, Miklós; Kuzma, Mónika; Matisz, Gergely; Li, Yin; Perjési, Pál; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Kőszegi, Tamás</p> <p>2014-04-10</p> <p>Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by different Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Since its mechanism of action is not fully understood yet, it is important to gain further insight into different interactions of OTA at the molecular level. OTA is found worldwide in many foods and drinks. Moreover, it can also be detected in human and animal tissues and body fluids, as well. Therefore, the development of highly sensitive quantitative methods for the determination of OTA is of utmost importance. OTA most likely forms complexes with divalent cations, both in cells and body fluids. In the present study, the OTA-<span class="hlt">zinc</span> interaction was investigated and compared to OTA-magnesium complex formation using fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Our results show that <span class="hlt">zinc</span>(II) ion forms a two-fold higher stable complex with OTA than magnesium(II) ion. In addition, based on the enhanced fluorescence emission of OTA in its magnesium-bound form, a novel RP-HPLC-fluorescence detector (FLD) method was also established. Our results highlight that the <span class="hlt">application</span> of magnesium chloride in alkaline eluents results in an approximately two-fold increase in sensitivity using the HPLC-FLD technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23382966','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23382966"><span>Influence of vegetation structure on lidar-derived canopy height and fractional cover in forested riparian buffers during <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-off and <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-on conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wasser, Leah; Day, Rick; Chasmer, Laura; Taylor, Alan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Estimates of canopy height (H) and fractional canopy cover (FC) derived from lidar data collected during <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-on and <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-off conditions are compared with field measurements from 80 forested riparian buffer plots. The purpose is to determine if existing lidar data flown in <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-off conditions for <span class="hlt">applications</span> such as terrain mapping can effectively estimate forested riparian buffer H and FC within a range of riparian vegetation types. Results illustrate that: 1) <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-off and <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-on lidar percentile estimates are similar to measured heights in all plots except those dominated by deciduous compound-leaved trees where lidar underestimates H during <span class="hlt">leaf</span> off periods; 2) canopy height models (CHMs) underestimate H by a larger margin compared to percentile methods and are influenced by vegetation type (conifer needle, deciduous simple <span class="hlt">leaf</span> or deciduous compound <span class="hlt">leaf</span>) and canopy height variability, 3) lidar estimates of FC are within 10% of plot measurements during <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-on periods, but are underestimated during <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-off periods except in mixed and conifer plots; and 4) depth of laser pulse penetration lower in the canopy is more variable compared to top of the canopy penetration which may influence within canopy vegetation structure estimates. This study demonstrates that <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-off lidar data can be used to estimate forested riparian buffer canopy height within diverse vegetation conditions and fractional canopy cover within mixed and conifer forests when <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-on lidar data are not available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3561319','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3561319"><span>Influence of Vegetation Structure on Lidar-derived Canopy Height and Fractional Cover in Forested Riparian Buffers During <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>-Off and <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>-On Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wasser, Leah; Day, Rick; Chasmer, Laura; Taylor, Alan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Estimates of canopy height (H) and fractional canopy cover (FC) derived from lidar data collected during <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-on and <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-off conditions are compared with field measurements from 80 forested riparian buffer plots. The purpose is to determine if existing lidar data flown in <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-off conditions for <span class="hlt">applications</span> such as terrain mapping can effectively estimate forested riparian buffer H and FC within a range of riparian vegetation types. Results illustrate that: 1) <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-off and <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-on lidar percentile estimates are similar to measured heights in all plots except those dominated by deciduous compound-leaved trees where lidar underestimates H during <span class="hlt">leaf</span> off periods; 2) canopy height models (CHMs) underestimate H by a larger margin compared to percentile methods and are influenced by vegetation type (conifer needle, deciduous simple <span class="hlt">leaf</span> or deciduous compound <span class="hlt">leaf</span>) and canopy height variability, 3) lidar estimates of FC are within 10% of plot measurements during <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-on periods, but are underestimated during <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-off periods except in mixed and conifer plots; and 4) depth of laser pulse penetration lower in the canopy is more variable compared to top of the canopy penetration which may influence within canopy vegetation structure estimates. This study demonstrates that <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-off lidar data can be used to estimate forested riparian buffer canopy height within diverse vegetation conditions and fractional canopy cover within mixed and conifer forests when <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-on lidar data are not available. PMID:23382966</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21641436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21641436"><span>Spectrophotometric determination of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> and copper in a multi-syringe flow injection analysis system using a liquid waveguide capillary cell: <span class="hlt">application</span> to natural waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Páscoa, Ricardo N M J; Tóth, Ildikó V; Rangel, António O S S</p> <p>2011-06-15</p> <p>This work exploits a multi-syringe injection analysis (MSFIA) system coupled with a long liquid waveguide capillary cell for the spectrophotometric determination of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> and copper in waters. A liquid waveguide capillary cell (1.0m pathlength, 550 μm i.d. and 250 μL internal volume) was used to enhance the sensitivity of the detection. The determination for both ions is based on a colorimetric reaction with zincon at different pH values. The developed methodology compares favourably with other previously described procedures, as it allows to reach low detection limits for both cations (LODs of 0.1 and 2 μg L(-1), for copper and <span class="hlt">zinc</span>, respectively), without the need for any pre-concentration step. The system also provided a linear response up to 100 μg L(-1) with a high throughput (43 h(-1)) and low reagent consumption and effluent production. The developed work was applied to natural waters and three certified reference water samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/869065','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/869065"><span>Doped <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide microspheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A new composition and method of making same for a doped <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=426','SCIGOV-IRIS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=426"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> and Compounds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/iris">Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 66 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5447019','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5447019"><span>Doped <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide microspheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.</p> <p>1993-12-14</p> <p>A new composition and method of making same for a doped <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/864945','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/864945"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> sulfide liquefaction catalyst</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Garg, Diwakar</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated <span class="hlt">zinc</span> sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JCrGr.311.1545G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JCrGr.311.1545G"><span>Improved synthesis of fine <span class="hlt">zinc</span> borate particles using seed crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gürhan, Deniz; Çakal, Gaye Ö.; Eroğlu, İnci; Özkar, Saim</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> borate is a flame retardant additive used in polymers, wood <span class="hlt">applications</span> and textile products. There are different types of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> borate having different chemical compositions and structures. In this study, the production of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> borate having the molecular formula of 2ZnO·3B 2O 3·3.5H 2O was reexamined by studying the effects of reaction parameters on the properties of product as well as the reaction kinetics. Production of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> borate from the reaction of boric acid and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide in the presence of seed crystals was performed in a continuously stirred, temperature-controlled batch reactor having a volume of 1.5 L. Samples taken in regular time intervals during the experiments were analyzed for the concentration of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide and boron oxide in the solid as well as for the conversion of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide to <span class="hlt">zinc</span> borate versus time. The <span class="hlt">zinc</span> borate production reaction was fit to the logistic model. The reaction rate, reaction completion time, composition and particle size distribution of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> borate product were determined by varying the following parameters: the boric acid to <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide ratio (H 3BO 3:ZnO=3:1, 3.5:1, 5:1 and 7:1), the particle size of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide (10 and 25 μm), stirring rate (275, 400, 800 and 1600 rpm), temperature (75, 85 and 95 °C) and the size of seed crystals (10 and 2 μm). The products were also analyzed for particle size distribution. The experimental results showed that the reaction rate increases with the increase in H 3BO 3:ZnO ratio, particle size of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide, stirring rate and temperature. Concomitantly, the reaction completion time is decreased by increasing the H 3BO 3:ZnO ratio, stirring rate and temperature. The average particle sizes of the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> borate products are in the range 4.3-16.6 μm (wet dispersion analysis).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017INL.....7..220M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017INL.....7..220M"><span>Synthesis of palladium nanoparticles with <span class="hlt">leaf</span> extract of Chrysophyllum cainito (Star apple) and their <span class="hlt">applications</span> as efficient catalyst for C-C coupling and reduction reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Majumdar, Rakhi; Tantayanon, Supawan; Bag, Braja Gopal</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>A simple green chemical method for the one-step synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) has been described by reducing palladium (II) chloride with the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> extract of Chrysophyllum cainito in aqueous medium. The synthesis of the palladium nanoparticles completed within 2-3 h at room temperature, whereas on heat treatment (70-80 °C), the synthesis of colloidal PdNPs completed almost instantly. The stabilized PdNPs have been characterized in detail by spectroscopic, electron microscopic and light scattering measurements. The synthesized PdNPs have been utilized as a green catalyst for C-C coupling reactions under aerobic and phosphine-free conditions in aqueous medium. In addition, the synthesized PdNPs have also been utilized as a catalyst for a very efficient sodium borohydride reduction of 3- and 4-nitrophenols. The synthesized PdNPs can retain their catalytic activity for several months.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29027415','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29027415"><span>[<span class="hlt">Application</span> of quality by design in granulation process for Ginkgo <span class="hlt">leaf</span> tablet (Ⅲ): process control strategy based on design space].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cui, Xiang-Long; Xu, Bing; Sun, Fei; Dai, Sheng-Yun; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>In this paper, under the guidance of quality by design (QbD) concept, the control strategy of the high shear wet granulation process of the ginkgo <span class="hlt">leaf</span> tablet based on the design space was established to improve the process controllability and product quality consistency. The median granule size (D50) and bulk density (Da) of granules were identified as critical quality attributes (CQAs) and potential critical process parameters (pCPPs) were determined by the failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA). The Plackeet-Burmann experimental design was used to screen pCPPs and the results demonstrated that the binder amount, the wet massing time and the wet mixing impeller speed were critical process parameters (CPPs). The design space of the high shear wet granulation process was developed within pCPPs range based on the Box-Behnken design and quadratic polynomial regression models. ANOVA analysis showed that the P-values of model were less than 0.05 and the values of lack of fit test were more than 0.1, indicating that the relationship between CQAs and CPPs could be well described by the mathematical models. D₅₀ could be controlled within 170 to 500 μm, and the bulk density could be controlled within 0.30 to 0.44 g•cm⁻³ by using any CPPs combination within the scope of design space. Besides, granules produced by process parameters within the design space region could also meet the requirement of tensile strength of the ginkgo <span class="hlt">leaf</span> tablet.. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23689111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23689111"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> supplementation in public health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Penny, Mary Edith</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> is necessary for physiological processes including defense against infections. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> deficiency is responsible for 4% of global child morbidity and mortality. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> supplements given for 10-14 days together with low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (Lo-ORS) are recommended for the treatment of childhood diarrhea. In children aged ≥ 6 months, daily <span class="hlt">zinc</span> supplements reduce the duration of acute diarrhea episodes by 12 h and persistent diarrhea by 17 h. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> supplements could reduce diarrhea mortality in children aged 12-59 months by an estimated 23%; they are very safe but are associated with an increase in vomiting especially with the first dose. Heterogeneity between the results of trials is not understood but may be related to dose and the etiology of the diarrhea infection. Integration of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> and Lo-ORS into national programs is underway but slowly, procurement problems are being overcome and the greatest challenge is changing health provider and caregiver attitudes to diarrhea management. Fewer trials have been conducted of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> adjunct therapy in severe respiratory tract infections and there is as yet insufficient evidence to recommend addition of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> to antibiotic therapy. Daily <span class="hlt">zinc</span> supplements for all children >12 months of age in <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficient populations are estimated to reduce diarrhea incidence by 11-23%. The greatest impact is in reducing multiple episodes of diarrhea. The effect on duration of diarrheal episodes is less clear, but there may be up to 9% reduction. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> is also efficacious in reducing dysentery and persistent diarrhea. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> supplements may also prevent pneumonia by about 19%, but heterogeneity across studies has not yet been explained. When analyses are restricted to better quality studies using CHERG (Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group) methodology, <span class="hlt">zinc</span> supplements are estimated to reduce diarrheal deaths by 13% and pneumonia deaths by 20%. National-level programs to combat childhood <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency should be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhPro..56..535R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhPro..56..535R"><span>Remote Laser Welding of <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Coated Steel Sheets in an Edge Lap Configuration with Zero Gap</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roos, Christian; Schmidt, Michael</p> <p></p> <p>Remote Laser Welding (RLW) of <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-coated steel sheets is a great challenge for the automotive industry but offers high potentials with respect to flexibility and costs. In state of the art <span class="hlt">applications</span>, sheets are joined in overlap configuration with a preset gap for a stable <span class="hlt">zinc</span> degassing. This paper investigates RLW of fillets without a preset gap and conditions for a stable process. The influence of process parameters on weld quality and process stability is shown. Experimental data give evidence, that the degassing of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> through the capillary and the rear melt pool are the major degassing mechanisms. Furthermore the paper gives experimental validation of the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> degassing in advance of the process zone to the open side of the fillet. Chemical analysis of the hot-dip galvanized <span class="hlt">zinc</span> coating proof the iron-<span class="hlt">zinc</span>-alloys to be the reason for a limited effectiveness of this mechanism in comparison to pure <span class="hlt">zinc</span> as intermediate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPCS..104..152P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPCS..104..152P"><span>One-pot green synthesis of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nano rice and its <span class="hlt">application</span> as sonocatalyst for degradation of organic dye and synthesis of 2-benzimidazole derivatives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paul, Bappi; Vadivel, Sethumathavan; Dhar, Siddhartha Sankar; Debbarma, Shyama; Kumaravel, M.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, we report novel and green approach for one-pot biosynthesis of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs). Highly stable and hexagonal phase ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using seeds extract from the tender pods of Parkia roxburghii and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, EDX, TEM, and N2 adsorption-desorption (BET) studies. The present method of synthesis of ZnO NPs is very efficient and cost effective. The powder XRD pattern furnished evidence for the formation of hexagonal close packing structure of ZnO NPs having average crystallite size 25.6 nm. The TEM image reveals rice shapes ZnO NPs are with an average diameter of 40-60 nm. The as-synthesized ZnO NPs has proved to be an excellent sonocatalysts for degradation of organic dye and synthesis of 2-benzimidazole derivatives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26099750','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26099750"><span><span class="hlt">Application</span> of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> chloride precipitation method for rapid isolation and concentration of infectious Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. lytic bacteriophages from surface water and plant and soil extracts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Czajkowski, Robert; Ozymko, Zofia; Lojkowska, Ewa</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This is the first report describing precipitation of bacteriophage particles with <span class="hlt">zinc</span> chloride as a method of choice to isolate infectious lytic bacteriophages against Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. from environmental samples. The isolated bacteriophages are ready to use to study various (ecological) aspects of bacteria-bacteriophage interactions. The method comprises the well-known precipitation of phages from aqueous extracts of the test material by addition of ZnCl2, resuscitation of bacteriophage particles in Ringer's buffer to remove the ZnCl2 excess and a soft agar overlay assay with the host bacterium to isolate infectious individual phage plaques. The method requires neither an enrichment step nor other steps (e. g., PEG precipitation, ultrafiltration, or ultracentrifugation) commonly used in other procedures and results in isolation of active viable bacteriophage particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25000572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25000572"><span>On the temporal variation of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> magnetic parameters: seasonal accumulation of <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-deposited and <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-encapsulated particles of a roadside tree crown.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hofman, Jelle; Wuyts, Karen; Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Samson, Roeland</p> <p>2014-09-15</p> <p>Understanding the accumulation behaviour of atmospheric particles inside tree leaves is of great importance for the interpretation of biomagnetic monitoring results. In this study, we evaluated the temporal variation of the saturation isothermal remanent magnetisation (SIRM) of leaves of a roadside urban Platanus × acerifolia Willd. tree in Antwerp, Belgium. We hereby examined the seasonal development of the total <span class="hlt">leaf</span> SIRM signal as well as the <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-encapsulated fraction of the deposited dust, by washing the leaves before biomagnetic analysis. On average 38% of the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> SIRM signal was exhibited by the <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-encapsulated particles. Significant correlations were found between the SIRM and the cumulative daily average atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 measurements. Moreover, a steady increase of the SIRM throughout the in-<span class="hlt">leaf</span> season was observed endorsing the <span class="hlt">applicability</span> of biomagnetic monitoring as a proxy for the time-integrated PM exposure of urban tree leaves. Strongest correlations were obtained for the SIRM of the <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-encapsulated particles which confirms the dynamic nature of the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> surface-accumulated particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960011694','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960011694"><span><span class="hlt">Leaf</span> absorbance and photosynthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schurer, Kees</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The absorption spectrum of a <span class="hlt">leaf</span> is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia <span class="hlt">leaf</span>, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26420239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26420239"><span>Acute changes in cellular <span class="hlt">zinc</span> alters <span class="hlt">zinc</span> uptake rates prior to <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A coordinated network of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular <span class="hlt">zinc</span> levels. Canonical responses to <span class="hlt">zinc</span> availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual <span class="hlt">zinc</span> uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular <span class="hlt">zinc</span> levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous <span class="hlt">zinc</span> sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess <span class="hlt">zinc</span> resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> importers did not change during this time period. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> importers did not change. Overall, <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular <span class="hlt">zinc</span> uptake with exogenous <span class="hlt">zinc</span> or TPEN treatments. This suggests <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in <span class="hlt">zinc</span> within Jurkat cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18385818','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18385818"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> in human health: effect of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> on immune cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prasad, Ananda S</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Although the essentiality of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> for plants and animals has been known for many decades, the essentiality of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> for humans was recognized only 40 years ago in the Middle East. The <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-deficient patients had severe immune dysfunctions, inasmuch as they died of intercurrent infections by the time they were 25 years of age. In our studies in an experimental human model of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency, we documented decreased serum testosterone level, oligospermia, severe immune dysfunctions mainly affecting T helper cells, hyperammonemia, neurosensory disorders, and decreased lean body mass. It appears that <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency is prevalent in the developing world and as many as two billion subjects may be growth retarded due to <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency. Besides growth retardation and immune dysfunctions, cognitive impairment due to <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency also has been reported recently. Our studies in the cell culture models showed that the activation of many <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-dependent enzymes and transcription factors were adversely affected due to <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency. In HUT-78 (T helper 0 [Th(0)] cell line), we showed that a decrease in gene expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor alpha(IL-2Ralpha) were due to decreased activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficient cells. Decreased NF-kappaB activation in HUT-78 due to <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency was due to decreased binding of NF-kappaB to DNA, decreased level of NF-kappaB p105 (the precursor of NF-kappaB p50) mRNA, decreased kappaB inhibitory protein (IkappaB) phosphorylation, and decreased Ikappa kappa. These effects of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> were cell specific. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> also is an antioxidant and has anti-inflammatory actions. The therapeutic roles of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in acute infantile diarrhea, acrodermatitis enteropathica, prevention of blindness in patients with age-related macular degeneration, and treatment of common cold with <span class="hlt">zinc</span> have been reported. In HL-60 cells (promyelocytic leukemia cell line), <span class="hlt">zinc</span> enhances the up-regulation of A20 mRNA, which, via TRAF</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920017909&hterms=zinc&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dzinc','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920017909&hterms=zinc&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dzinc"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span>-oxygen battery development program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bourland, Deborah S.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this <span class="hlt">Zinc</span>-Oxygen development program is to incorporate the improved air/oxygen cathode and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> anode technology developed in recent years into relatively large cells (150-200 amp/hr, 25-100 hour rate) and smaller high rate cells (9-12 amp/hr, 3-12 hour rate). Existing commercial cells manufactured by Duracell and Rayovac are currently being utilized on the Space Shuttle Orbiter in a mini-oscilloscope, the crew radio, and other crew equipment. These <span class="hlt">applications</span> provide a basis for other Orbiter systems that require portable, storable, electrical power as well as emergency power for the Space Station major payload systems power and for Space Station equipment <span class="hlt">applications</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ybda.book..237N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ybda.book..237N"><span>Interaction Between Yeasts and <span class="hlt">Zinc</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available <span class="hlt">zinc</span> translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular <span class="hlt">zinc</span> concentration, which may become <span class="hlt">zinc</span> depleted at the onset of the fermentation. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell <span class="hlt">zinc</span> homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29536133','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29536133"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> and <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Transporters: Novel Regulators of Ventricular Myocardial Development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Wen; Li, Deqiang</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>Ventricular myocardial development is a well-orchestrated process involving different cardiac structures, multiple signal pathways, and myriad proteins. Dysregulation of this important developmental event can result in cardiomyopathies, such as left ventricle non-compaction, which affect the pediatric population and the adults. Human and mouse studies have shed light upon the etiology of some cardiomyopathy cases and highlighted the contribution of both genetic and environmental factors. However, the regulation of ventricular myocardial development remains incompletely understood. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> is an essential trace metal with structural, enzymatic, and signaling function. Perturbation of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> homeostasis has resulted in developmental and physiological defects including cardiomyopathy. In this review, we summarize several mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">zinc</span> and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transporters can impact the regulation of ventricular myocardial development. Based on our review, we propose that <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency and mutations of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transporters may underlie some cardiomyopathy cases especially those involving ventricular myocardial development defects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1903d0018C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1903d0018C"><span>Utilization of household organic compost in <span class="hlt">zinc</span> adsorption system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cundari, Lia; Isvaringga, Nyiayu Dita; Arinda, Yesica Maharani</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> (Zn) is one of the heavy metals which is polluted to the environment in an amount greater than 15 mg/L [1]. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> contamination caused by the disposal of industrial waste such as batteries, electroplating, paint and other industries. One of the <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> recovery technique that is relatively inexpensive, simple, high effectiveness and efficiency, and can be regenerated is adsorption using compost. This study has been carried out the preparation of compost from organic household waste and cow manure and its <span class="hlt">application</span> to <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> recovery. In this research, the raw material of compost is varied. There is an organic household waste (A1) and a mixture of organic household waste and cow manure with ratio 7:6 (A2). Decomposition of A1 and A2 with addition Effective Microorganism (EM4) requires 21 days, with 3 times inversion. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> adsorption is done by using a compost variation of 0.5 g, 1 g, and 2 g in every 100 and 200 mg/L Zn concentration solution. The batch process is applied to analyze the capacity of adsorption. Determination of capacity of adsorption based on the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm model. Direct observation and spectrophotometry are applied in research methodology. The results show that compost A1 and A2 have fulfilled Indonesian Standart of compost and have the ability to reduce <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> concentration to 94-96%. It indicates highly recommended biosorbent that can be applied to <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> adsorption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25382858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25382858"><span>Peptide-based, two-fluorophore, ratiometric probe for quantifying mobile <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in biological solutions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Daniel Y; Azrad, Maria; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Frederickson, Christopher J; Lippard, Stephen J; Radford, Robert J</p> <p>2015-02-20</p> <p>Small-molecule fluorescent sensors are versatile agents for detecting mobile <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in biology. Capitalizing on the abundance of validated mobile <span class="hlt">zinc</span> probes, we devised a strategy for repurposing existing intensity-based sensors for quantitative <span class="hlt">applications</span>. Using solid-phase peptide synthesis, we conjugated a <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-sensitive Zinpyr-1 derivative and a <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-insensitive 7-hydroxycoumarin derivative onto opposite ends of a rigid P9K peptide scaffold to create HcZ9, a ratiometric fluorescent probe for mobile <span class="hlt">zinc</span>. A plate reader-based assay using HcZ9 was developed, the accuracy of which is comparable to that of atomic absorption spectroscopy. We investigated <span class="hlt">zinc</span> accumulation in prostatic cells and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> levels in human seminal fluid. When normal and tumorigenic cells are bathed in <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-enriched media, cellular mobile <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is buffered and changes slightly, but total <span class="hlt">zinc</span> levels increase significantly. Quantification of mobile and total <span class="hlt">zinc</span> levels in human seminal plasma revealed that the two are positively correlated with a Pearson's coefficient of 0.73.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820043809&hterms=zinc&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dzinc','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820043809&hterms=zinc&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dzinc"><span>Observations of interstellar <span class="hlt">zinc</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>York, D. G.; Jura, M.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24103092','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24103092"><span>Delay in <span class="hlt">leaf</span> senescence of Malus hupehensis by long-term melatonin <span class="hlt">application</span> is associated with its regulation of metabolic status and protein degradation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Ping; Sun, Xun; Chang, Cong; Feng, Fengjuan; Liang, Dong; Cheng, Lailiang; Ma, Fengwang</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Melatonin has an important anti-aging role in plant physiology. We tested the effects of long-term melatonin exposure on metabolic status and protein degradation during natural <span class="hlt">leaf</span> senescence in trees of Malus hupehensis Rehd. The 2-month regular supplement of 100 μm melatonin to the soil once every 6 days altered the metabolic status and delayed protein degradation. For example, leaves from treated plants had significantly higher photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll concentrations, and levels of three photosynthetic end products (sorbitol, sucrose, and starch) when compared with the control. The significant inhibition of hexose (fructose and glucose) accumulation possibly regulated the signaling of MdHXK1, a gene for which expression was also repressed by melatonin during senescence. The plants also exhibited better preservation of their nitrogen, total soluble protein, and Rubisco protein concentrations than the control. The slower process of protein degradation might be a result of melatonin-linked inhibition on the expression of apple autophagy-related genes (ATGs). Our results are the first to provide evidence for this delay in senescence based on the metabolic alteration and protein degradation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018MS%26E..333a2063A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018MS%26E..333a2063A"><span>The <span class="hlt">Application</span> of Active Paper Incorporated with Oleoresin of Cinnamon <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> (Cinnamomum burmanii) Distillation Residues on Maintaining Dragon Fruits (Hylocereus costaricensis) Quality during Storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aziz, M. S. H.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of active paper placement methods on super red dragon fruits quality during storage at ambient temperature. The active papers were incorporated with oleoresin of cinnamon <span class="hlt">leaf</span> distillation residues. Various active paper placement methods were applied such as wrapping, placed on the cardboard wall, placed cardboard pad, and scrap of paper on the sidelines. Weight loss, peel color, surface and flesh hardness, total titratable acid, soluble solid total, pH flesh fruit, and total plate count (TPC) of super red dragon fruits samples were investigated during 9 days storage. The result shows that active paper placement methods significantly affected the weight loss, surface firmness and color peel change of super red dragon fruits samples. However, active paper placement methods insignificantly affected the titrable acid total, soluble solid total, pH, flesh firmness and microbial spoilage of super red dragon fruits samples. The best method to maintain the super red dragon fruits quality was wrapping method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017437','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017437"><span><span class="hlt">Application</span> of a two-stream radiative transfer model for <span class="hlt">leaf</span> lignin and cellulose concentrations from spectral reflectance measurements, part 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Conel, James E.; Vandenbosch, Jeannette; Grove, Cindy I.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>We used the Kubelka-Munk theory of diffuse spectral reflectance in layers to analyze influences of multiple chemical components in leaves. As opposed to empirical approaches to estimation of plant chemistry, the full spectral resolution of laboratory reflectance data was retained in an attempt to estimate lignin or other constituent concentrations from spectral band positions. A <span class="hlt">leaf</span> water reflectance spectrum was derived from theoretical mixing rules, reflectance observations, and calculations from theory of intrinsic k- and s-functions. Residual reflectance bands were then isolated from spectra of fresh green leaves. These proved hard to interpret for composition in terms of simple two component mixtures such as lignin and cellulose. We next investigated spectral and dilution influences of other possible components (starch, protein). These components, among others, added to cellulose in hypothetical mixtures, produce band displacements similar to lignin, but will disguise by dilution the actual abundance of lignin present in a multicomponent system. This renders interpretation of band positions problematical. Knowledge of end-members and their spectra, and a more elaborate mixture analysis procedure may be called for. Good observational atmospheric and instrumental conditions and knowledge thereof are required for retrieval of expected subtle reflectance variations present in spectra of green vegetation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29168792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29168792"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Signal in Brain Diseases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Portbury, Stuart D; Adlard, Paul A</p> <p>2017-11-23</p> <p>The divalent cation <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is an integral requirement for optimal cellular processes, whereby it contributes to the function of over 300 enzymes, regulates intracellular signal transduction, and contributes to efficient synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Given the critical role of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in a breadth of cellular processes, its cellular distribution and local tissue level concentrations remain tightly regulated via a series of proteins, primarily including <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transporter and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> import proteins. A loss of function of these regulatory pathways, or dietary alterations that result in a change in <span class="hlt">zinc</span> homeostasis in the brain, can all lead to a myriad of pathological conditions with both acute and chronic effects on function. This review aims to highlight the role of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> signaling in the central nervous system, where it may precipitate or potentiate diverse issues such as age-related cognitive decline, depression, Alzheimer's disease or negative outcomes following brain injury.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16162323','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16162323"><span>Environmental exposure of road borders to <span class="hlt">zinc</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blok, J</p> <p>2005-09-15</p> <p>The emissions of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the "technosphere" and the "target zone" beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The "technosphere" of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle "free zone" that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> load is about 4 mg/m(2) year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m(2) year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted <span class="hlt">zinc</span> stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the <span class="hlt">application</span> of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28624948','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28624948"><span>Metal release from contaminated <span class="hlt">leaf</span> litter and leachate toxicity for the freshwater crustacean Gammarus fossarum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maunoury-Danger, Florence; Felten, Vincent; Bojic, Clément; Fraysse, Fabrice; Cosin Ponce, Mar; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain; Guérold, François; Danger, Michael</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>Industrialization has left large surfaces of contaminated soils, which may act as a source of pollution for contiguous ecosystems, either terrestrial or aquatic. When polluted sites are recolonized by plants, dispersion of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> litter might represent a non-negligible source of contaminants, especially metals. To evaluate the risks associated to contaminated <span class="hlt">leaf</span> litter dispersion in aquatic ecosystems, we first measured the dynamics of metal loss from <span class="hlt">leaf</span> litter during a 48-h experimental leaching. We used aspen (Populus tremula L.), a common tree species on these polluted sites, and collected <span class="hlt">leaf</span> litter on three polluted sites (settling pond of a former steel mill) and three control sites situated in the same geographic area. Then, toxicity tests were carried out on individuals of a key detritivore species widely used in ecotoxicology tests, Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda), with uncontaminated and contaminated <span class="hlt">leaf</span> litter leachates, using a battery of biomarkers selected for their sensitivity to metallic stress. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> litters collected on polluted sites exhibited not only significantly higher cadmium and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> concentrations but also lower lignin contents. All <span class="hlt">leaf</span> litters released high amounts of chemical elements during the leaching process, especially potassium and magnesium, and, in a lesser extent, phosphorus, calcium, and trace metals (copper, cadmium, and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> but not lead). Toxicity tests revealed that the most important toxic effects measured on G. fossarum were due to <span class="hlt">leaf</span> litter leachates by themselves, whatever the origin of litter (from polluted or control sites), confirming the toxicity of such substances, probably due to their high content in phenolic compounds. Small additional toxic effects of leachates from contaminated <span class="hlt">leaf</span> litters were only evidenced on gammarid lipid peroxidation, indicating that contaminated <span class="hlt">leaf</span> litter leachates might be slightly more toxic than uncontaminated ones, but in a very reduced manner. Further studies will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/470','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/470"><span>Relationships of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> dark respiration to <span class="hlt">leaf</span> nitrogen, specific <span class="hlt">leaf</span> area and <span class="hlt">leaf</span> life-span: a test across biomes and functional groups</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Peter B. Reich; Michael B. Walters; David S. Ellsworth; [and others; [Editor’s note: James M.. Vose is the SRS co-author for this publication.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Based on prior evidence of coordinated multiple <span class="hlt">leaf</span> trait scaling, the authors hypothesized that variation among species in <span class="hlt">leaf</span> dark respiration rate (Rd) should scale with variation in traits such as <span class="hlt">leaf</span> nitrogen (N), <span class="hlt">leaf</span> life-span, specific <span class="hlt">leaf</span> area (SLA), and net photosynthetic capacity (Amax). However, it is not known whether such scaling, if it exists, is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol2-sec29-3033.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol2-sec29-3033.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.3033 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16758, Apr. 20, 1984] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol2-sec29-1028.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol2-sec29-1028.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.1028 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16755, Apr. 20, 1984. Redesignated at 51 FR 25027, July...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol2-sec29-3525.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol2-sec29-3525.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.3525 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol2-sec29-3525.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol2-sec29-3525.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.3525 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984] ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol2-sec29-1028.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol2-sec29-1028.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.1028 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16755, Apr. 20, 1984. Redesignated at 51 FR 25027, July...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol2-sec29-1028.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol2-sec29-1028.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.1028 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16755, Apr. 20, 1984. Redesignated at 51 FR 25027, July...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol2-sec29-3525.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol2-sec29-3525.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.3525 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol2-sec29-3033.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol2-sec29-3033.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.3033 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16758, Apr. 20, 1984] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol2-sec29-3525.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol2-sec29-3525.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.3525 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol2-sec29-1028.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol2-sec29-1028.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.1028 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16755, Apr. 20, 1984. Redesignated at 51 FR 25027, July...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol2-sec29-3033.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol2-sec29-3033.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.3033 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16758, Apr. 20, 1984] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol2-sec29-3033.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol2-sec29-3033.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.3033 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16758, Apr. 20, 1984] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol2-sec29-1028.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol2-sec29-1028.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.1028 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16755, Apr. 20, 1984. Redesignated at 51 FR 25027, July...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol2-sec29-3525.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol2-sec29-3525.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.3525 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol2-sec29-3033.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol2-sec29-3033.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.3033 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16758, Apr. 20, 1984] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29675973','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29675973"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> cobalt sulfide nanosheets array derived from 2D bimetallic metal-organic frameworks for high-performance supercapacitor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tao, Kai; Han, Xue; Cheng, Qiuhui; Yang, Yujing; Yang, Zheng; Ma, Qingxiang; Han, Lei</p> <p>2018-04-19</p> <p>Porous ternary metal sulfide integrated electrode materials with abundant electroactive sites and redox reactions are very promising for supercapacitors. Here, porous <span class="hlt">zinc</span> cobalt sulfide nanosheets array on Ni foam (Zn-Co-S/NF) has been successfully constructed by a facile growth of 2D bimetallic <span class="hlt">zinc</span>/cobalt-based metal-organic frameworks (Zn/Co-MOF) nanosheets with <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-like morphology on Ni foam, followed by additional sulfurization. The Zn-Co-S/NF nanosheets array is directly acted as an electrode for supercapacitor, showing much better electrochemical performance (2354.3 F g-1 and 88.6% retention over 1000 cycles) when compared with <span class="hlt">zinc</span> cobalt sulfide powder (355.3 F g-1 and 75.8% retention over 1000 cycles), which is originated from good electric conductivity and mechanical stability, abundant electroactive sites, and facilitated transportation of electron and electrolyte ion endowed by the unique nanosheets array structure. The asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device assembled from Zn-Co-S/NF and activated carbon electrodes can deliver the highest energy density of 31.9 Wh kg-1 and the maximum power density of 8.5 kW kg-1. Most importantly, this ASC also presents good cycling stability (97% retention over 1000 cycles). Furthermore, a red light-emitting diode (LED) can be illuminated by two connected ASCs, indicating that as-synthesized Zn-Co-S/NF hold great potential for practical <span class="hlt">applications</span>. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030112609','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030112609"><span>Long Life, High Energy Silver-<span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Batteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kainthla, Ramesh; Coffey, Brendan</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This viewgraph presentation includes: 1) an introduction to RBC Technologies; 2) Rechargeable <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Alkaline (RZA(tm)) Systems which include MnO2/Zn, Ni/Zn, Ag/Zn, and Zn/Air; and 3) RZA Silver/<span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Battery Developments. Conclusions include the following: 1)Issues with long term wet life and cycle life of the silver/<span class="hlt">zinc</span> battery system are being overcome through the use of new anode formulations and separator designs; 2) Performance may exceed 200 cycles to 80% of initial capacity and ultimate wet-life of > 36 months; and 3) Rechargeable silver/<span class="hlt">zinc</span> batteries available in prismatic and cylindrical formats may provide a high energy, high power alternative to lithium-ion in military/aerospace <span class="hlt">applications</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992STIN...9417770N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992STIN...9417770N"><span>Mechanically refuelable <span class="hlt">zinc</span>/air electric vehicle cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J. F.</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>Refuelable <span class="hlt">zinc</span>/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic <span class="hlt">zinc</span>. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells, and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-<span class="hlt">zinc</span>/air batteries for electric vehicle <span class="hlt">applications</span>. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration - factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such an electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized <span class="hlt">applications</span> (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover <span class="hlt">zinc</span> from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the <span class="hlt">zinc</span>. The work described focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume <span class="hlt">zinc</span> particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26226935','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26226935"><span>Bovine serum albumin surface imprinted polymer fabricated by surface grafting copolymerization on <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide rods and its <span class="hlt">application</span> for protein recognition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Xiangjie; Zhou, Jingjing; Tian, Lei; Li, Wei; Zhang, Baoliang; Zhang, Hepeng; Zhang, Qiuyu</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>A novel bovine serum albumin (BSA) surface imprinted polymer based on ZnO rods was synthesized by surface grafting copolymerization. It exhibited an excellent recognition performance to bovine serum albumin. The adsorption capacity and imprinting factor of bovine serum albumin could reach 89.27 mg/g and 2.35, respectively. Furthermore, the fluorescence property of ZnO was used for tracing the process of protein imprinting and it implied the excellent optical sensing property of this material. More importantly, the hypothesis that the surface charge of carrier could affect the imprinting process was confirmed. That is, ZnO with positive surface charge could not only improve the recognition specificity of binding sites to template proteins (pI < 7), but also deteriorate the bindings between sites and non-template proteins (pI > 7). It was also important that the reusability of ZnO@BSA molecularly imprinted polymers was satisfactory. This implied that the poor mechanical/chemical stability of traditional <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide sensors could be solved by the introduction of surface grafting copolymerization. These results revealed that the ZnO@BSA molecularly imprinted polymers are a promising optical/electrochemical sensor element. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPCS...67.1823A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPCS...67.1823A"><span>Optimization of the optical and electrical properties of electron beam evaporated aluminum-doped <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide films for opto-electronic <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ali, H. M.; Abd El-Raheem, M. M.; Megahed, N. M.; Mohamed, H. A.</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Aluminum-doped <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide (AZO) thin films have been deposited by electron beam evaporation technique on glass substrates. The structural, electrical and optical properties of AZO films have been investigated as a function of annealing temperature. It was observed that the optical properties such as transmittance, reflectance, optical band gap and refractive index of AZO films were strongly affected by annealing temperature. The transmittance values of 84% in the visible region and 97% in the NIR region were obtained for AZO film annealed at 475 °C. The room temperature electrical resistivity of 4.6×10-3 Ω cm has been obtained at the same temperature of annealing. It was found that the calculated refractive index has been affected by the packing density of the thin films, whereas, the high annealing temperature gave rise to improve the homogeneity of the films. The single-oscillator model was used to analyze the optical parameters such as the oscillator and dispersion energies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018OptMa..79..358F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018OptMa..79..358F"><span>Lithium-aluminum-<span class="hlt">zinc</span> phosphate glasses activated with Tb3+ and Tb3+/Eu3+ for green laser medium, reddish-orange and white phosphor <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Francisco-Rodriguez, H. I.; Lira, A.; Soriano-Romero, O.; Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Bordignon, S.; Speghini, A.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Caldiño, U.</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>A spectroscopic analysis of Tb3+ and Tb3+/Eu3+ doped lithium-aluminum-<span class="hlt">zinc</span> phosphate glasses is performed through their absorbance and photoluminescence spectra, and decay time profiles. Laser parameter values (stimulated emission cross section, effective bandwidth, gain bandwidth and optical gain) were obtained for the terbium 5D4 → 7F5 green emission from the Tb3+ singly-doped glass (LAZT) excited at 350 nm to judge the suitability of the glass phosphor for fiber lasers. A quantum yield of (47.68 ± 0.49)% was measured for the 5D4 level luminescence. Upon 350 nm excitation the LAZT glass phosphor emits green light with a color purity of 65.6% and chromaticity coordinates (0.285, 0.585) very close to those (0.29, 0.60) of European Broadcasting Union illuminant green. The Tb3+/Eu3+codoped glass emission color can be tuned from reddish-orange of 1865 K upon 318 nm excitation to warm white of 3599 K and neutral white of 4049 K upon 359 and 340 nm excitations, respectively. Upon Tb3+ excitation at 340 nm Eu3+ is sensitized by Tb3+ through a non-radiative energy transfer with an efficiency of 0.23-0.26. An electric dipole-dipole interaction might be the dominant mechanism in the Tb3+ to Eu3+ energy transfer taking place into Tb3+ - Eu3+ clusters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JApSp..84..716K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JApSp..84..716K"><span><span class="hlt">Application</span> of Chitosan-<span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Oxide Nanoparticles for Lead Extraction From Water Samples by Combining Ant Colony Optimization with Artificial Neural Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khajeh, M.; Pourkarami, A.; Arefnejad, E.; Bohlooli, M.; Khatibi, A.; Ghaffari-Moghaddam, M.; Zareian-Jahromi, S.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Chitosan-<span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles (CZPs) were developed for solid-phase extraction. Combined artificial neural network-ant colony optimization (ANN-ACO) was used for the simultaneous preconcentration and determination of lead (Pb2+) ions in water samples prior to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). The solution pH, mass of adsorbent CZPs, amount of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN), which was used as a complexing agent, eluent volume, eluent concentration, and flow rates of sample and eluent were used as input parameters of the ANN model, and the percentage of extracted Pb2+ ions was used as the output variable of the model. A multilayer perception network with a back-propagation learning algorithm was used to fit the experimental data. The optimum conditions were obtained based on the ACO. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection for Pb2+ ions was found to be 0.078 μg/L. This procedure was also successfully used to determine the amounts of Pb2+ ions in various natural water samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA552483','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA552483"><span>Sulfur-Doped <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Oxide (ZnO) Nanostars: Synthesis and Simulation of Growth Mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Oxide ( ZnO ) Nanostars: Synthesis and Simulation of Growth Mechanism Jinhyun Cho1, Qiubao Lin2,3, Sungwoo...characterization, and ab initio simulations of star-shaped hexagonal <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide ( ZnO ) nanowires. The ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a low...Introduction <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> oxide ( ZnO ) is a wide bandgap (3.37 eV), Ⅱ–Ⅵ semiconductor of great interest for optoelectronic <span class="hlt">applications</span> [1–3]. Its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3520789','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3520789"><span>Influence of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> on the calcium carbonate biomineralization of Halomonas halophila</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background The salt tolerance of halophilic bacteria make them promising candidates for technical <span class="hlt">applications</span>, like isolation of salt tolerant enzymes or remediation of contaminated saline soils and waters. Furthermore, some halophilic bacteria synthesize inorganic solids resulting in organic–inorganic hybrids. This process is known as biomineralization, which is induced and/or controlled by the organism. The adaption of the soft and eco-friendly reaction conditions of this formation process to technical syntheses of inorganic nano materials is desirable. In addition, environmental contaminations can be entrapped in biomineralization products which facilitate the subsequent removal from waste waters. The moderately halophilic bacteria Halomonas halophila mineralize calcium carbonate in the calcite polymorph. The biomineralization process was investigated in the presence of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> ions as a toxic model contaminant. In particular, the time course of the mineralization process and the influence of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> on the mineralized inorganic materials have been focused in this study. Results H. halophila can adapt to <span class="hlt">zinc</span> contaminated medium, maintaining the ability for biomineralization of calcium carbonate. Adapted cultures show only a low influence of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> on the growth rate. In the time course of cultivation, <span class="hlt">zinc</span> ions accumulated on the bacterial surface while the medium depleted in the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> contamination. Intracellular <span class="hlt">zinc</span> concentrations were below the detection limit, suggesting that <span class="hlt">zinc</span> was mainly bound extracellular. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> ions influence the biomineralization process. In the presence of <span class="hlt">zinc</span>, the polymorphs monohydrocalcite and vaterite were mineralized, instead of calcite which is synthesized in <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-free medium. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the bacterial mineralization process can be influenced by <span class="hlt">zinc</span> ions resulting in the modification of the synthesized calcium carbonate polymorph. In addition, the shape of the mineralized inorganic material is chancing</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27879981','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27879981"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> supplementation for tinnitus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Person, Osmar C; Puga, Maria Es; da Silva, Edina Mk; Torloni, Maria R</p> <p>2016-11-23</p> <p>Tinnitus is the perception of sound without external acoustic stimuli. Patients with severe tinnitus may have physical and psychological complaints and their tinnitus can cause deterioration in their quality of life. At present no specific therapy for tinnitus has been found to be satisfactory in all patients. In recent decades, a number of reports have suggested that oral <span class="hlt">zinc</span> supplementation may be effective in the management of tinnitus. Since <span class="hlt">zinc</span> has a role in cochlear physiology and in the synapses of the auditory system, there is a plausible mechanism of action for this treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral <span class="hlt">zinc</span> supplementation in the management of patients with tinnitus. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 6); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 14 July 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing <span class="hlt">zinc</span> supplementation versus placebo in adults (18 years and over) with tinnitus. We used the standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Our primary outcome measures were improvement in tinnitus severity and disability, measured by a validated tinnitus-specific questionnaire, and adverse effects. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, change in socioeconomic impact associated with work, change in anxiety and depression disorders, change in psychoacoustic parameters, change in tinnitus loudness, change in overall severity of tinnitus and change in thresholds on pure tone audiometry. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included three trials involving a total of 209 participants. The studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. All included studies had differences in participant selection criteria, length of follow-up and outcome measurement</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27030646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27030646"><span>Transformation of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew</p> <p>2016-04-25</p> <p>Thermal decomposition of layered <span class="hlt">zinc</span> hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as <span class="hlt">zinc</span> hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22475039','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22475039"><span>The artificial <span class="hlt">leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nocera, Daniel G</p> <p>2012-05-15</p> <p>To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the <span class="hlt">leaf</span>, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial <span class="hlt">leaf</span> comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21755349','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21755349"><span>Uptake and partitioning of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in Lemnaceae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between <span class="hlt">zinc</span> accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for <span class="hlt">zinc</span> tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more <span class="hlt">zinc</span> than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of <span class="hlt">zinc</span>. The proportion of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high <span class="hlt">zinc</span> levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated <span class="hlt">zinc</span> at low concentrations, and was <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-sensitive. Overall, internal <span class="hlt">zinc</span> concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between <span class="hlt">zinc</span> toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, <span class="hlt">zinc</span> distribution and storage. Differences in <span class="hlt">zinc</span> distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for <span class="hlt">zinc</span> bioavailability and trophic mobility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5437255','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5437255"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> starvation induces autophagy in yeast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is bound to protein. Because <span class="hlt">zinc</span> serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain <span class="hlt">zinc</span> homeostasis under severely <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of <span class="hlt">zinc</span>, but to date the fate of existing <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-binding proteins under <span class="hlt">zinc</span> starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under <span class="hlt">zinc</span> starvation. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by <span class="hlt">zinc</span> starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed <span class="hlt">zinc</span> starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant <span class="hlt">zinc</span> proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-binding proteins. When cellular <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing <span class="hlt">zinc</span> from the degraded proteins and recycling <span class="hlt">zinc</span> for other essential purposes. PMID:28264932</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28264932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28264932"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> starvation induces autophagy in yeast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori</p> <p>2017-05-19</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is bound to protein. Because <span class="hlt">zinc</span> serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain <span class="hlt">zinc</span> homeostasis under severely <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of <span class="hlt">zinc</span>, but to date the fate of existing <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-binding proteins under <span class="hlt">zinc</span> starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under <span class="hlt">zinc</span> starvation. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by <span class="hlt">zinc</span> starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed <span class="hlt">zinc</span> starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant <span class="hlt">zinc</span> proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-binding proteins. When cellular <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing <span class="hlt">zinc</span> from the degraded proteins and recycling <span class="hlt">zinc</span> for other essential purposes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28774805','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28774805"><span>Organically modified clay supported chitosan/hydroxyapatite-<span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical and biological properties for the <span class="hlt">application</span> in bone tissue engineering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhowmick, Arundhati; Banerjee, Sovan Lal; Pramanik, Nilkamal; Jana, Piyali; Mitra, Tapas; Gnanamani, Arumugam; Das, Manas; Kundu, Patit Paban</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to design biomimetic organically modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) supported chitosan/hydroxyapatite-<span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide (CTS/HAP-ZnO) nanocomposites (ZnCMH I-III) with improved mechanical and biological properties compared to previously reported CTS/OMMT/HAP composite. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the composition and surface morphology of the prepared nanocomposites. Strong antibacterial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains were established for ZnCMH I-III. pH and blood compatibility study revealed that ZnCMH I-III should be nontoxic to the human body. Cytocompatibility of these nanocomposites with human osteoblastic MG-63 cells was also established. Experimental findings suggest that addition of 5wt% of OMMT into CTS/HAP-ZnO (ZnCMH I) gives the best mechanical strength and water absorption capacity. Addition of 0.1wt% of ZnO nanoparticles into CTS-OMMT-HAP significantly enhanced the tensile strengths of ZnCMH I-III compared to previously reported CTS-OMMT-HAP composite. In absence of OMMT, control sample (ZnCH) also showed reduced tensile strength, antibacterial effect and cytocompatibility with osteoblastic cell compared to ZnCMH I. Considering all of the above-mentioned studies, it can be proposed that ZnCMH I nanocomposite has a great potential to be applied in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29310434','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29310434"><span>In Vitro and in Vivo Studies on Biomedical Magnesium Low-Alloying with Elements Gadolinium and <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> for Orthopedic Implant <span class="hlt">Applications</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bian, Dong; Deng, Jiuxu; Li, Nan; Chu, Xiao; Liu, Yang; Li, Wenting; Cai, Hong; Xiu, Peng; Zhang, Yu; Guan, Zhenpeng; Zheng, Yufeng; Kou, Yuhui; Jiang, Baoguo; Chen, Rongshi</p> <p>2018-02-07</p> <p>Ternary magnesium alloys with low combined addition of elements gadolinium and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> were developed in the present work, with their microstructures, mechanical properties, in vitro degradation behaviors, and cytotoxicity being systematically studied. Furthermore, the Mg-1.8Zn-0.2Gd alloy, with the best in vitro performance, was implanted into Sprague Dawley rats to examine its in vivo degradation performance for up to 6 months. It was found that Mg-1.8Zn-0.2Gd, composed of a single α-Mg phase, owned excellent strength and toughness that were comparable to the CE marked MAGNEZIX, the mischmetal added Mg alloy. Owing to the uniform single-phased microstructure, the degradation rate of this alloy was around 0.12 mm/y measured by electrochemical testing, which was comparable to high purity magnesium. Moreover, the Mg-1.8Zn-0.2Gd alloy exhibited no cytotoxicity to L929, MG63, and VSMC cells. In vivo degradation characterized by micro-computed tomography revealed that the Mg-1.8Zn-0.2Gd implant could maintain structural integrity in the first 2 months, and serious degradation could be observed after 6 months. A remarkable 100% survival rate of experimental animals was observed with no negative effects on bone tissues. The implant and the surrounding bone were well integrated within 2 months, implying good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of the experimental alloy. On the basis of the above findings, the feasibility of Mg-Zn-Gd alloys for use as orthopedic implants was systematically discussed. This study provides a new strategy for development of high-performance Mg-rare earth (RE)-based alloys with superior mechanical properties and corrosion resistance while effectively avoiding the possible standing toxic effect of RE elements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=297486','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=297486"><span>How to pattern a <span class="hlt">leaf</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Leaf</span> development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea <span class="hlt">leaf</span> or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, an...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5708888','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5708888"><span><span class="hlt">Leaf</span> expansion in Phaseolus: transient auxin-induced growth increase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Keller, Christopher P.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Control of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> expansion by auxin is not well understood. Evidence from short term exogenous <span class="hlt">applications</span> and from treatment of excised tissues suggests auxin positively influences growth. Manipulations of endogenous <span class="hlt">leaf</span> auxin content, however, suggests that, long-term, auxin suppresses <span class="hlt">leaf</span> expansion. This study attempts to clarify the growth effects of auxin on unifoliate (primary) leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by reexamining the response to auxin treatment of both excised <span class="hlt">leaf</span> strips and attached leaves. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> strips, incubated in culture conditions that promoted steady elongation for up to 48 h, treated with 10 μM NAA responded with an initial surge of elongation growth complete within 10 hours followed by insensitivity. A range of NAA concentrations from 0.1 μM to 300 μM induced increased strip elongation after 24 hours and 48 hours. Increased elongation and epinastic curvature of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> strips was found specific to active auxins. Expanding attached unifoliates treated once with aqueous auxin α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 1.0 mM showed both an initial surge in growth lasting 4–6 hours followed by growth inhibition sustained at least as long as 24 hours post treatment. Auxin-induced inhibition of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> expansion was associated with smaller epidermal cell area. Together the results suggest increasing <span class="hlt">leaf</span> auxin first increases growth then slows growth through inhibition of cell expansion. Excised <span class="hlt">leaf</span> strips, retain only the initial increased growth response to auxin and not the subsequent growth inhibition, either as a consequence of wounding or of isolation from the plant. PMID:29200506</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5490603','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5490603"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> in Infection and Inflammation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency is malnutrition. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates <span class="hlt">zinc</span> depending on different stimuli. PMID:28629136</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28629136','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28629136"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> in Infection and Inflammation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar</p> <p>2017-06-17</p> <p>Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency is malnutrition. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates <span class="hlt">zinc</span> depending on different stimuli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5210743','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5210743"><span>High-Throughput Phenotyping of Maize <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> Physiological and Biochemical Traits Using Hyperspectral Reflectance1[OPEN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yendrek, Craig R.; Tomaz, Tiago; Montes, Christopher M.; Cao, Youyuan; Morse, Alison M.; Brown, Patrick J.; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>High-throughput, noninvasive field phenotyping has revealed genetic variation in crop morphological, developmental, and agronomic traits, but rapid measurements of the underlying physiological and biochemical traits are needed to fully understand genetic variation in plant-environment interactions. This study tested the <span class="hlt">application</span> of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> hyperspectral reflectance (λ = 500–2,400 nm) as a high-throughput phenotyping approach for rapid and accurate assessment of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> photosynthetic and biochemical traits in maize (Zea mays). <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> traits were measured with standard wet-laboratory and gas-exchange approaches alongside measurements of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> reflectance. Partial least-squares regression was used to develop a measure of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> chlorophyll content, nitrogen content, sucrose content, specific <span class="hlt">leaf</span> area, maximum rate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylation, [CO2]-saturated rate of photosynthesis, and <span class="hlt">leaf</span> oxygen radical absorbance capacity from <span class="hlt">leaf</span> reflectance spectra. Partial least-squares regression models accurately predicted five out of seven traits and were more accurate than previously used simple spectral indices for <span class="hlt">leaf</span> chlorophyll, nitrogen content, and specific <span class="hlt">leaf</span> area. Correlations among <span class="hlt">leaf</span> traits and statistical inferences about differences among genotypes and treatments were similar for measured and modeled data. The hyperspectral reflectance approach to phenotyping was dramatically faster than traditional measurements, enabling over 1,000 rows to be phenotyped during midday hours over just 2 to 4 d, and offers a nondestructive method to accurately assess physiological and biochemical trait responses to environmental stress. PMID:28049858</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..MARR49003S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..MARR49003S"><span>A growing <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> as a Sheet of an Active Solid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharon, Eran</p> <p></p> <p>A growing <span class="hlt">leaf</span> is a thin sheet of active solid, which expands while obeying the laws of mechanics. The effective rheology of this active solid is nontrivial, allowing the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> to increase its area by orders of magnitude, keeping its ''proper'' geometry. The questions of what the characteristics of the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> growth field are and how it is regulated without any central ''headquarter'' are still open. I will present measurements of natural <span class="hlt">leaf</span> growth with high time and space resolution. These show that the growth is a highly fluctuating process in both time and space. We suggest that the entire statistics of the growth field, not just its averages contain information important for the understanding of growth regulation. In another set of experiments we measure the effect of mechanical stress on deformation and growth. The measured effective rheology is viscoelastic with time varying parameters, indicating remodeling of the tissue in response to extended <span class="hlt">application</span> of mechanical stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4754756','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4754756"><span>Niclosamide inhibits <span class="hlt">leaf</span> blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae in rice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Sung-Il; Song, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Seo, Hak Soo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Rice <span class="hlt">leaf</span> blight, which is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), results in huge losses in grain yield. Here, we show that Xoo-induced rice <span class="hlt">leaf</span> blight is effectively controlled by niclosamide, an oral antihelminthic drug and molluscicide, which also functions as an anti-tumor agent. Niclosamide directly inhibited the growth of the three Xoo strains PXO99, 10208 and K3a. Niclosamide moved long distances from the site of local <span class="hlt">application</span> to distant rice tissues. Niclosamide also increased the levels of salicylate and induced the expression of defense-related genes such as OsPR1 and OsWRKY45, which suppressed Xoo-induced <span class="hlt">leaf</span> wilting. Niclosamide had no detrimental effects on vegetative/reproductive growth and yield. These combined results indicate that niclosamide can be used to block bacterial <span class="hlt">leaf</span> blight in rice with no negative side effects. PMID:26879887</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1700f0004S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1700f0004S"><span>Enhanced antibacterial activity of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Petroselinum crispum extracts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stan, Manuela; Popa, Adriana; Toloman, Dana; Silipas, Teofil-Danut; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Katona, Gabriel</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The present contribution reports the synthesis of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using aqueous <span class="hlt">leaf</span> and root extracts of Petroselinum crispum (parsley) and characterization of as-prepared samples. ZnO NPs are subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies. The XRD studies reveal a hexagonal wurtzite structure without supplementary diffraction lines for all ZnO samples. TEM analysis shows that the particle size is influenced by the type of plant extract. The EPR spectra indicate the presence of Mn2+ ions in ZnO sample synthesized using P. crispum <span class="hlt">leaf</span> extract, while <span class="hlt">zinc</span> vacancy complexes and oxygen vacancies are evidenced in all analyzed samples. ZnO NPs synthesized using P. crispum extracts exhibit increased (2-16 times) antibacterial activity as compared to chemically synthesized ZnO NPs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22494495-enhanced-antibacterial-activity-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-synthesized-using-petroselinum-crispum-extracts','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22494495-enhanced-antibacterial-activity-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-synthesized-using-petroselinum-crispum-extracts"><span>Enhanced antibacterial activity of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Petroselinum crispum extracts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Stan, Manuela, E-mail: manuela.stan@itim-cj.ro; Popa, Adriana; Toloman, Dana</p> <p></p> <p>The present contribution reports the synthesis of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using aqueous <span class="hlt">leaf</span> and root extracts of Petroselinum crispum (parsley) and characterization of as-prepared samples. ZnO NPs are subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies. The XRD studies reveal a hexagonal wurtzite structure without supplementary diffraction lines for all ZnO samples. TEM analysis shows that the particle size is influenced by the type of plant extract. The EPR spectra indicate the presence of Mn{sup 2+} ions in ZnO sample synthesized using P. crispum <span class="hlt">leaf</span> extract, while <span class="hlt">zinc</span> vacancy complexes andmore » oxygen vacancies are evidenced in all analyzed samples. ZnO NPs synthesized using P. crispum extracts exhibit increased (2-16 times) antibacterial activity as compared to chemically synthesized ZnO NPs.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28778822','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28778822"><span>Antibacterial and antimitotic potential of bio-fabricated <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles of Cochlospermum religiosum (L.).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mahendra, C; Murali, M; Manasa, G; Ponnamma, Pooja; Abhilash, M R; Lakshmeesha, T R; Satish, A; Amruthesh, K N; Sudarshana, M S</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles synthesized through eco-friendly approach has gained importance among researchers due to its broad <span class="hlt">applications</span>. In the present work, hexagonal wurtzite shape nanoparticles (below 100 nm size) were obtained using aqueous <span class="hlt">leaf</span> extract of Cochlospermum religiosum which was confirmed through X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The synthesized ZnO-NPs showed an absorption peak at 305 nm which is one of the characteristic features of ZnO-NPs.The bio-fabricated ZnO-NPs were of high purity with an average size of ∼76 nm analyzed through Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis supporting the findings of XRD. The SEM images confirmed the same with agglomeration of smaller nanoparticles. The composition of aqueous <span class="hlt">leaf</span> extract and ZnO-NPs was explored with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The plant extract as well as bio-fabricated ZnO-NPs offered significant inhibition against Gram-positive (B. subtilis and Staph. aureus) and Gram-negative (P. aeruginosa and E. coli) bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of bio-fabricated ZnO-NPs and plant extract was found between 4.8 and 625 μg/ml against test pathogens, which was authenticated with live and dead cell analysis. Apart from antibacterial potentiality, antimitotic activity was also observed with a mitotic index of 75.42% (ID 50 0.40 μg mL -1 ) and 61.41% (ID 50 0.58 μg mL -1 ) in ZnO-NPs and plant extract, respectively. The results affirm that plant extract and its mediated ZnO-NPs possess biological properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29331716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29331716"><span>Bioremediation of cadmium- and <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-contaminated soil using Rhodobacter sphaeroides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Weihua; Li, Xiaomin; Song, Jingxiang; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Yingying; Fan, Wenhong</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>Bioremediation using microorganisms is a promising technique to remediate soil contaminated with heavy metals. In this study, Rhodobacter sphaeroides was used to bioremediate soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> (Zn). The study found that the treatment reduced the overall bioavailable fractions (e.g., exchangeable and carbonate bound phases) of Cd and Zn. More stable fractions (e.g., Fe-Mn oxide, organic bound, and residual phases (only for Zn)) increased after bioremediation. A wheat seedling experiment revealed that the phytoavailability of Cd was reduced after bioremediation using R. sphaeroides. After bioremediation, the exchangeable phases of Cd and Zn in soil were reduced by as much as 30.7% and 100.0%, respectively; the Cd levels in wheat <span class="hlt">leaf</span> and root were reduced by as much as 62.3% and 47.2%, respectively. However, when the soils were contaminated with very high levels of Cd and Zn (Cd 54.97-65.33 mg kg -1 ; Zn 813.4-964.8 mg kg -1 ), bioremediation effects were not clear. The study also found that R. sphaeroides bioremediation in soil can enhance the Zn/Cd ratio in the harvested wheat <span class="hlt">leaf</span> and root overall. This indicates potentially favorable <span class="hlt">application</span> in agronomic practice and biofortification. Although remediation efficiency in highly contaminated soil was not significant, R. sphaeroides may be potentially and practically applied to the bioremediation of soils co-contaminated by Cd and Zn. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5748737','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5748737"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wessels, Inga; Maywald, Martina; Rink, Lothar</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>After the discovery of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is essential for the function of the immune system. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> “importers” (ZIP 1–14), <span class="hlt">zinc</span> “exporters” (ZnT 1–10), and <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered <span class="hlt">zinc</span> homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in <span class="hlt">zinc</span> homeostasis. Effects of fast <span class="hlt">zinc</span> flux, intermediate “<span class="hlt">zinc</span> waves”, and late homeostatic <span class="hlt">zinc</span> signals will be discriminated. Description of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> as a gatekeeper of immune function. PMID:29186856</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28455771','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28455771"><span>Cadmium and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> activate adaptive mechanisms in Nicotiana tabacum similar to those observed in metal tolerant plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Gómez-Méndez, María F; Amezcua-Romero, Julio C; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Rosas-Santiago, Paul; Pantoja, Omar</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Tobacco germinated and grew in the presence of high concentrations of cadmium and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> without toxic symptoms. Evidence suggests that these ions are sequestered into the vacuole by heavy metal/H + exchanger mechanisms. Heavy metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance are traits shared by a small set of plants which show specialized physiological and molecular adaptations allowing them to accumulate and sequester toxic metal ions. Nicotiana tabacum was used to test its potential as a metal-accumulator in a glass house experiment. Seed germination was not affected in the presence of increasing concentrations of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> and cadmium. Juvenile and adult plants could concentrate CdCl 2 and ZnSO 4 to levels exceeding those in the hydroponic growth medium and maintained or increased their <span class="hlt">leaf</span> dry weight when treated with 0.5- or 1-mM CdCl 2 or 1-mM ZnSO 4 for 5 days. Accumulation of heavy metals did not affect the chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, while variable effects were observed in cell sap osmolarity. Heavy metal-dependent H + transport across the vacuole membrane was monitored using quinacrine fluorescence quenching. Cadmium- or <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-dependent fluorescence recovery revealed that increasing concentrations of heavy metals stimulated the activities of the tonoplast Cd 2+ or Zn 2+ /H + exchangers. Immunodetection of the V-ATPase subunits showed that the increased proton transport by <span class="hlt">zinc</span> was not due to changes in protein amount. MTP1 and MTP4 immunodetection and semiquantitative RT-PCR of NtMTP1, NtNRAMP1, and NtZIP1 helped to identify the genes that are likely involved in sequestration of cadmium and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> and root tissue. Finally, we demonstrated that cadmium and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> treatments induced an accumulation of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in <span class="hlt">leaf</span> tissues. This study shows that N. tabacum possesses a hyperaccumulation response, and thus could be used for phytoremediation purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-21/pdf/2011-32591.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-21/pdf/2011-32591.pdf"><span>76 FR 79064 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Gluconate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-12-21</p> <p>... [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Gluconate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect a change of sponsor for a new animal drug <span class="hlt">application</span> (NADA) for <span class="hlt">zinc</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=335022','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=335022"><span>Efficacy of topical <span class="hlt">application</span>, <span class="hlt">leaf</span> residue or soil drench of Blastopores of Isaria fumosorosea for citrus root weevil management: Laboratory and greenhouse investigations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Different treatment <span class="hlt">applications</span> with Isaria fumosorosea blastospore formulation (Ifr strain 3581) were assessed for efficacy in the management of the citrus weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus. Ifr when applied topically on larvae and adults at a rate of 107 blastospores/ml and incubated in original reari...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24012489','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24012489"><span><span class="hlt">Leaf</span> hydraulics II: vascularized tissues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rockwell, Fulton E; Holbrook, N Michele; Stroock, Abraham D</p> <p>2014-01-07</p> <p>Current models of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> hydration employ an Ohm's law analogy of the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> as an ideal capacitor, neglecting the resistance to flow between cells, or treat the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> as a plane sheet with a source of water at fixed potential filling the mid-plane, neglecting the discrete placement of veins as well as their resistance. We develop a model of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> hydration that considers the average conductance of the vascular network to a representative areole (region bounded by the vascular network), and represent the volume of tissue within the areole as a poroelastic composite of cells and air spaces. Solutions to the 3D flow problem are found by numerical simulation, and these results are then compared to 1D models with exact solutions for a range of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> geometries, based on a survey of temperate woody plants. We then show that the hydration times given by these solutions are well approximated by a sum of the ideal capacitor and plane sheet times, representing the time for transport through the vasculature and tissue respectively. We then develop scaling factors relating this approximate solution to the 3D model, and examine the dependence of these scaling factors on <span class="hlt">leaf</span> geometry. Finally, we apply a similar strategy to reduce the dimensions of the steady state problem, in the context of peristomatal transpiration, and consider the relation of transpirational gradients to equilibrium <span class="hlt">leaf</span> water potential measurements. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28487399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28487399"><span>The <span class="hlt">zinc</span> paradigm for metalloneurochemistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barr, Chelsea A; Burdette, Shawn C</p> <p>2017-05-09</p> <p>Neurotransmission and sensory perception are shaped through metal ion-protein interactions in various brain regions. The term "metalloneurochemistry" defines the unique field of bioinorganic chemistry focusing on these processes, and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> has been the leading target of metalloneurochemists in the almost 15 years since the definition was introduced. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> in the hippocampus interacts with receptors that dictate ion flow and neurotransmitter release. Understanding the intricacies of these interactions is crucial to uncovering the role that <span class="hlt">zinc</span> plays in learning and memory. Based on receptor similarities and <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-enriched neurons (ZENs) in areas of the brain responsible for sensory perception, such as the olfactory bulb (OB), and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), <span class="hlt">zinc</span> participates in odor and sound perception. Development and improvement of methods which allow for precise detection and immediate manipulation of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> ions in neuronal cells and in brain slices will be critical in uncovering the synaptic action of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> and, more broadly, the bioinorganic chemistry of cognition. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=333903','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=333903"><span>Maize YABBY genes drooping <span class="hlt">leaf</span>1 and drooping <span class="hlt">leaf</span>2 affect agronomic traits by regulating <span class="hlt">leaf</span> architecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Leaf</span> architectural traits, such as length, width and angle, directly influence canopy structure and light penetration, photosynthate production and overall yield. We discovered and characterized a maize (Zea mays) mutant with aberrant <span class="hlt">leaf</span> architecture we named drooping <span class="hlt">leaf</span>1 (drl1), as <span class="hlt">leaf</span> blades ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/863273','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/863273"><span>Regeneration of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> chloride hydrocracking catalyst</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Zielke, Clyde W.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Improved rate of recovery of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent <span class="hlt">zinc</span> chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> values as <span class="hlt">zinc</span> chloride.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol6-sec522-2690.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol6-sec522-2690.pdf"><span>21 CFR 522.2690 - <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> gluconate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams <span class="hlt">zinc</span> as <span class="hlt">zinc</span> gluconate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol6-sec522-2690.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol6-sec522-2690.pdf"><span>21 CFR 522.2690 - <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> gluconate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams <span class="hlt">zinc</span> as <span class="hlt">zinc</span> gluconate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160008943','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160008943"><span><span class="hlt">Leaf</span> Relative Water Content Estimated from <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> Reflectance and Transmittance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> interior, R, as well as the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially <span class="hlt">leaf</span> water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from <span class="hlt">leaf</span> and canopy optical measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5877643','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5877643"><span>Transcriptome Analysis of a Premature <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> Senescence Mutant of Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xia, Chuan; Zhang, Lichao; Dong, Chunhao; Liu, Xu; Kong, Xiuying</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Leaf</span> senescence is an important agronomic trait that affects both crop yield and quality. In this study, we characterized a premature <span class="hlt">leaf</span> senescence mutant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) obtained by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis, named m68. Genetic analysis showed that the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> senescence phenotype of m68 is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. We compared the transcriptome of wheat leaves between the wild type (WT) and the m68 mutant at four time points. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis revealed many genes that were closely related to senescence genes. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis suggested that transcription factors and protein transport genes might function in the beginning of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> senescence, while genes that were associated with chlorophyll and carbon metabolism might function in the later stage. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the genes that are involved in plant hormone signal transduction were significantly enriched. Through expression pattern clustering of DEGs, we identified 1012 genes that were induced during senescence, and we found that the WRKY family and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> finger transcription factors might be more important than other transcription factors in the early stage of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> senescence. These results will not only support further gene cloning and functional analysis of m68, but also facilitate the study of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> senescence in wheat. PMID:29534430</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.B13C..11S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.B13C..11S"><span>Modeling canopy-level productivity: is the "big-<span class="hlt">leaf</span>" simplification acceptable?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sprintsin, M.; Chen, J. M.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>The "big-<span class="hlt">leaf</span>" approach to calculating the carbon balance of plant canopies assumes that canopy carbon fluxes have the same relative responses to the environment as any single unshaded <span class="hlt">leaf</span> in the upper canopy. Widely used light use efficiency models are essentially simplified versions of the big-<span class="hlt">leaf</span> model. Despite its wide acceptance, subsequent developments in the modeling of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> photosynthesis and measurements of canopy physiology have brought into question the assumptions behind this approach showing that big <span class="hlt">leaf</span> approximation is inadequate for simulating canopy photosynthesis because of the additional <span class="hlt">leaf</span> internal control on carbon assimilation and because of the non-linear response of photosynthesis on <span class="hlt">leaf</span> nitrogen and absorbed light, and changes in <span class="hlt">leaf</span> microenvironment with canopy depth. To avoid this problem a sunlit/shaded <span class="hlt">leaf</span> separation approach, within which the vegetation is treated as two big leaves under different illumination conditions, is gradually replacing the "big-<span class="hlt">leaf</span>" strategy, for <span class="hlt">applications</span> at local and regional scales. Such separation is now widely accepted as a more accurate and physiologically based approach for modeling canopy photosynthesis. Here we compare both strategies for Gross Primary Production (GPP) modeling using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) at local (tower footprint) scale for different land cover types spread over North America: two broadleaf forests (Harvard, Massachusetts and Missouri Ozark, Missouri); two coniferous forests (Howland, Maine and Old Black Spruce, Saskatchewan); Lost Creek shrubland site (Wisconsin) and Mer Bleue petland (Ontario). BEPS calculates carbon fixation by scaling Farquhar's <span class="hlt">leaf</span> biochemical model up to canopy level with stomatal conductance estimated by a modified version of the Ball-Woodrow-Berry model. The "big-<span class="hlt">leaf</span>" approach was parameterized using derived <span class="hlt">leaf</span> level parameters scaled up to canopy level by means of <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> Area Index. The influence of sunlit</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol2-sec29-3036.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol2-sec29-3036.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.3036 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol2-sec29-3036.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol2-sec29-3036.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.3036 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol2-sec29-3036.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol2-sec29-3036.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.3036 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol2-sec30-2.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol2-sec30-2.pdf"><span>7 CFR 30.2 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> tobacco.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... AND STANDARDS Classification of <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol2-sec29-3036.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol2-sec29-3036.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.3036 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol2-sec30-2.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol2-sec30-2.pdf"><span>7 CFR 30.2 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> tobacco.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... AND STANDARDS Classification of <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol2-sec30-2.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol2-sec30-2.pdf"><span>7 CFR 30.2 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> tobacco.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... AND STANDARDS Classification of <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol2-sec30-2.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol2-sec30-2.pdf"><span>7 CFR 30.2 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> tobacco.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... AND STANDARDS Classification of <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol2-sec29-3036.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol2-sec29-3036.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.3036 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> surface is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol2-sec30-2.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol2-sec30-2.pdf"><span>7 CFR 30.2 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> tobacco.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... AND STANDARDS Classification of <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870059272&hterms=leaf+structure&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dleaf%2Bstructure','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870059272&hterms=leaf+structure&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dleaf%2Bstructure"><span>Diffuse and specular characteristics of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> reflectance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Grant, Lois</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, the evolution of current understanding of the mechanisms of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> reflectance is reviewed. The use of measurements of polarized reflectance to separate <span class="hlt">leaf</span> reflectance into diffuse and specular components is discussed. A section on the factors influencing <span class="hlt">leaf</span> reflectance - <span class="hlt">leaf</span> structure and physiological disturbances - is included along with discussion on the manner in which these influences are manifested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25979917','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25979917"><span>Strigolactone Regulates <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> Senescence in Concert with Ethylene in Arabidopsis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ueda, Hiroaki; Kusaba, Makoto</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Leaf</span> senescence is not a passive degenerative process; it represents a process of nutrient relocation, in which materials are salvaged for growth at a later stage or to produce the next generation. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> senescence is regulated by various factors, such as darkness, stress, aging, and phytohormones. Strigolactone is a recently identified phytohormone, and it has multiple functions in plant development, including repression of branching. Although strigolactone is implicated in the regulation of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> senescence, little is known about its molecular mechanism of action. In this study, strigolactone biosynthesis mutant strains of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) showed a delayed senescence phenotype during dark incubation. The strigolactone biosynthesis genes MORE AXIALLY GROWTH3 (MAX3) and MAX4 were drastically induced during dark incubation and treatment with the senescence-promoting phytohormone ethylene, suggesting that strigolactone is synthesized in the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> during <span class="hlt">leaf</span> senescence. This hypothesis was confirmed by a grafting experiment using max4 as the stock and Columbia-0 as the scion, in which the leaves from the Columbia-0 scion senesced earlier than max4 stock leaves. Dark incubation induced the synthesis of ethylene independent of strigolactone. Strigolactone biosynthesis mutants showed a delayed senescence phenotype during ethylene treatment in the light. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">leaf</span> senescence was strongly accelerated by the <span class="hlt">application</span> of strigolactone in the presence of ethylene and not by strigolactone alone. These observations suggest that strigolactone promotes <span class="hlt">leaf</span> senescence by enhancing the action of ethylene. Thus, dark-induced senescence is regulated by a two-step mechanism: induction of ethylene synthesis and consequent induction of strigolactone synthesis in the <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044932','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044932"><span>Mineral resource of the month: <span class="hlt">zinc</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Tolcin, Amy C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The article provides information on <span class="hlt">zinc</span>, the fourth most-widely consumed metal. It traces the first use of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> with the Romans' production of brass. It describes the presence of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in Earth's crust and the importance of sphalerite as a source of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> and other some minor metal production. The production and consumption of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> as well as the commercial and industrial uses of this metal are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3142737','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3142737"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span>: an essential but elusive nutrient123</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>King, Janet C</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> is essential for multiple aspects of metabolism. Physiologic signs of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> depletion are linked with diverse biochemical functions rather than with a specific function, which makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> nutrition. Nutrients, such as <span class="hlt">zinc</span>, that are required for general metabolism are called type 2 nutrients. Protein and magnesium are examples of other type 2 nutrients. Type 1 nutrients are required for one or more specific functions: examples include iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate, and copper. When dietary <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is insufficient, a marked reduction in endogenous <span class="hlt">zinc</span> loss occurs immediately to conserve the nutrient. If <span class="hlt">zinc</span> balance is not reestablished, other metabolic adjustments occur to mobilize <span class="hlt">zinc</span> from small body pools. The location of those pools is not known, but all cells probably have a small <span class="hlt">zinc</span> reserve that includes <span class="hlt">zinc</span> bound to metallothionein or <span class="hlt">zinc</span> stored in the Golgi or in other organelles. Plasma <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is also part of this small <span class="hlt">zinc</span> pool that is vulnerable to insufficient intakes. Plasma <span class="hlt">zinc</span> concentrations decline rapidly with severe deficiencies and more moderately with marginal depletion. Unfortunately, plasma <span class="hlt">zinc</span> concentrations also decrease with a number of conditions (eg, infection, trauma, stress, steroid use, after a meal) due to a metabolic redistribution of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> from the plasma to the tissues. This redistribution confounds the interpretation of low plasma <span class="hlt">zinc</span> concentrations. Biomarkers of metabolic <span class="hlt">zinc</span> redistribution are needed to determine whether this redistribution is the cause of a low plasma <span class="hlt">zinc</span> rather than poor nutrition. Measures of metallothionein or cellular <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transporters may fulfill that role. PMID:21715515</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29722842','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29722842"><span>A dynamic model for predicting growth in <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-deficient stunted infants given supplemental <span class="hlt">zinc</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wastney, Meryl E; McDonald, Christine M; King, Janet C</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> deficiency limits infant growth and increases susceptibility to infections, which further compromises growth. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> supplementation improves the growth of <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-deficient stunted infants, but the amount, frequency, and duration of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> supplementation required to restore growth in an individual child is unknown. A dynamic model of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> metabolism that predicts changes in weight and length of <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-deficient, stunted infants with dietary <span class="hlt">zinc</span> would be useful to define effective <span class="hlt">zinc</span> supplementation regimens. The aims of this study were to develop a dynamic model for <span class="hlt">zinc</span> metabolism in stunted, <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-deficient infants and to use that model to predict the growth response when those infants are given <span class="hlt">zinc</span> supplements. A model of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> metabolism was developed using data on <span class="hlt">zinc</span> kinetics, tissue <span class="hlt">zinc</span>, and growth requirements for healthy 9-mo-old infants. The kinetic model was converted to a dynamic model by replacing the rate constants for <span class="hlt">zinc</span> absorption and excretion with functions for these processes that change with <span class="hlt">zinc</span> intake. Predictions of the dynamic model, parameterized for <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-deficient, stunted infants, were compared with the results of 5 published <span class="hlt">zinc</span> intervention trials. The model was then used to predict the results for <span class="hlt">zinc</span> supplementation regimes that varied in the amount, frequency, and duration of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> dosing. Model predictions agreed with published changes in plasma <span class="hlt">zinc</span> after <span class="hlt">zinc</span> supplementation. Predictions of weight and length agreed with 2 studies, but overpredicted values from a third study in which other nutrient deficiencies may have been growth limiting; the model predicted that <span class="hlt">zinc</span> absorption was impaired in that study. The model suggests that frequent, smaller doses (5-10 mg Zn/d) are more effective for increasing growth in stunted, <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-deficient 9-mo-old infants than are larger, less-frequent doses. The dose amount affects the duration of dosing necessary to restore and maintain plasma <span class="hlt">zinc</span> concentration and growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H33C1370T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H33C1370T"><span>Interaction between Silver Nanoparticles and Spinach <span class="hlt">Leaf</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Y.; Li, H.; Zhang, Y.; Riser, E.; He, S.; Zhang, W.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Interactions of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with plant surfaces are critical to assessing the bioavailability of ENPs to edible plants and to further evaluating impacts of ENPs on ecological health and food safety. Silver nanoparticles (i.e., nanoAg) could enter the agroecosystems either as an active ingredient in pesticides or from other industrial and consumer <span class="hlt">applications</span>. Thus, in the events of pesticide <span class="hlt">application</span>, rainfall, and irrigation, vegetable leaves could become in contact and then interact with nanoAg. The present study was to assess whether the interaction of nanoAg with spinach leaves can be described by classical sorption models and to what extent it depends on and varies with dispersion methods, environmental temperature, and ion release. We investigated the stability and ion release of nanoAg dispersed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, 1%) and humic acid (HA, 10 mg C/L) solutions, as well as sorption and desorption of nanoAg on and from the fresh spinach <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. Results showed SDS-nanoAg released about 2%-8% more Ag ion than HA-nanoAg. The sorption of Ag ion, described by the Freundlich model in the initial concentration range of 0.6-50 mg/L, was 2-4 times higher than that of nanoAg. The sorption of nanoAg on spinach <span class="hlt">leaf</span> can be fitted by the Langmuir model, and the maximum sorption amount of HA-nanoAg and SDS-nanoAg was 0.21 and 0.41 mg/g, respectively. The higher sorption of SDS-nanoAg relative to that of HA-nanoAg could be partially resulted from the higher release of Ag ion from the former. The maximum desorption amount of HA-nanoAg and SDS-nanoAg in 1% SDS solution was 0.08 and 0.10 mg/g, respectively. NanoAg attachment on and its penetration to the spinach <span class="hlt">leaf</span> was visualized by the Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). It is equally important that the less sorption of nanoAg under low environmental temperature could be partially due to the closure of stomata, as verified by SEM-EDS. Cyto</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860048818&hterms=leaf+structure&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dleaf%2Bstructure','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860048818&hterms=leaf+structure&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dleaf%2Bstructure"><span>Near infrared <span class="hlt">leaf</span> reflectance modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parrish, J. B.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Near infrared <span class="hlt">leaf</span> reflectance modeling using Fresnel's equation (Kumar and Silva, 1973) and Snell's Law successfully approximated the spectral curve for a 0.25-mm turgid oak <span class="hlt">leaf</span> lying on a Halon background. Calculations were made for ten interfaces, air-wax, wax-cellulose, cellulose-water, cellulose-air, air-water, and their inverses. A water path of 0.5 mm yielded acceptable results, and it was found that assignment of more weight to those interfaces involving air versus water or cellulose, and less to those involving wax, decreased the standard deviation of the error for all wavelengths. Data suggest that the air-cell interface is not the only important contributor to the overall reflectance of a <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. Results also argue against the assertion that the near infrared plateau is a function of cell structure within the <span class="hlt">leaf</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5723103-effect-glyphosate-import-sink-leaf-sugar-beet','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5723103-effect-glyphosate-import-sink-leaf-sugar-beet"><span>The effect of glyphosate on import into a sink <span class="hlt">leaf</span> of sugar beet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Shieh, Wenjang; Geiger, D.R.</p> <p>1990-05-01</p> <p>The basis for glyphosate inducted limitation of carbon import into developing leaves was studied in sugar beet. To separate the effects of the herbicide on export from those on import, glyphosate was supplied to a developing <span class="hlt">leaf</span> from two exporting source leaves which fed the sink <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. Carbon import into the sink <span class="hlt">leaf</span> was determined by supplying {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to a third source <span class="hlt">leaf</span> which also supplies carbon to the monitored sink <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. Import into the sink <span class="hlt">leaf</span> decreased within 2 to 3 h after glyphosate <span class="hlt">application</span>, even though photosynthesis and export in the source <span class="hlt">leaf</span> supplying {sup 14}Cmore » were unaffected. Reduced import into the sink <span class="hlt">leaf</span> was accompanied by increased import by the tap root. Elongation of the sink <span class="hlt">leaf</span> was only slightly decreased following arrival of glyphosate. Photosynthesis by the sink <span class="hlt">leaf</span> was not inhibited. The results to data support the view that import is slowed by the inhibition of synthesis of structural or storage compounds in the developing leaves.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4339593','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4339593"><span>Increasing <span class="hlt">leaf</span> hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to <span class="hlt">leaf</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Simonin, Kevin A.; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M.; Dawson, Todd E.; Franks, Peter J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Leaf</span> hydraulic conductance (k <span class="hlt">leaf</span>) is a central element in the regulation of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> water balance but the properties of k <span class="hlt">leaf</span> remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k <span class="hlt">leaf</span> in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k <span class="hlt">leaf</span> is constant or (ii) k <span class="hlt">leaf</span> increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and <span class="hlt">leaf</span> water potential (ΔΨstem–<span class="hlt">leaf</span>), stomatal conductance (g s), k <span class="hlt">leaf</span>, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k <span class="hlt">leaf</span> is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k <span class="hlt">leaf(E</span>), which incorporates the inherent k <span class="hlt">leaf</span> at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k <span class="hlt">leaf</span>(0). Growth under different CO2 concentrations maintained the same relationship between k <span class="hlt">leaf</span> and E, resulting in similar k <span class="hlt">leaf</span>(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO2 on g s. The positive relationship between k <span class="hlt">leaf</span> and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem–<span class="hlt">leaf</span>. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψ<span class="hlt">leaf</span> and maximize g s and CO2 assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=442670','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=442670"><span>Serum thymulin in human <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Prasad, A S; Meftah, S; Abdallah, J; Kaplan, J; Brewer, G J; Bach, J F; Dardenne, M</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The activity of thymulin (a thymic hormone) is dependent on the presence of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in the molecule. We assayed serum thymulin activity in three models of mildly <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-deficient (ZD) human subjects before and after <span class="hlt">zinc</span> supplementation: (a) two human volunteers in whom a specific and mild <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency was induced by dietary means; (b) six mildly ZD adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) subjects; and (c) six mildly ZD adult non-SCA subjects. Their plasma <span class="hlt">zinc</span> levels were normal and they showed no overt clinical manifestations of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency. The diagnosis of mild <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency was based on the assay of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets. Serum thymulin activity was decreased as a result of mild <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency and was corrected by in vivo and in vitro <span class="hlt">zinc</span> supplementation, suggesting that this parameter was a sensitive indicator of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency in humans. An increase in T101-, sIg-cells, decrease in T4+/T8+ ratio, and decreased IL 2 activity were observed in the experimental human model during the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> depletion phase, all of which were corrected after repletion with <span class="hlt">zinc</span>. Similar changes in lymphocyte subpopulation, correctable with <span class="hlt">zinc</span> supplementation, were also observed in mildly ZD SCA subjects. Inasmuch as thymulin is known to induce intra- and extrathymic T cell differentiation, our studies provide a possible mechanism for the role of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> on T cell functions. Images PMID:3262625</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5156673-stabilized-nickel-zinc-battery','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5156673-stabilized-nickel-zinc-battery"><span>Stabilized nickel-<span class="hlt">zinc</span> battery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Himy, A.; Wagner, O.C.</p> <p></p> <p>An alkaline nickel-<span class="hlt">zinc</span> cell which has (1) a nickel-nickel hydroxide cathode; (2) a <span class="hlt">zinc-zinc</span> oxide anode containing (A) a corrosion inhibitor such as PBO, SNO2, Tl2O3, in(OH)3 or mixtures thereof; (B) a slight corrosion accelerator such as cdo, bi2o3, ga2o3, or mixtures thereof; and (C) a <span class="hlt">zinc</span> active material; (3) a mass-transport separator; (4) an alkaline electrolyte; and (5) means for charging the cell with an interrupted current having a frequency of from more than zero to 16 hertz with a rest period of not less than 60 milliseconds. Another desirable feature is the use of a pressure-cutoff switch tomore » terminate charging when the internal pressure of the cell reaches a selected value in the range of from 5 to 8 psig.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2796768','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2796768"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> toxicology following particulate inhalation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cooper, Ross G.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg <span class="hlt">zinc</span>/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with <span class="hlt">zinc</span> intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ANSNN...9a5008S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ANSNN...9a5008S"><span>Green synthesis and characterization of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanoparticle using insulin plant (Costus pictus D. Don) and investigation of its antimicrobial as well as anticancer activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suresh, Joghee; Pradheesh, Ganeshan; Alexramani, Vincent; Sundrarajan, Mahalingam; Hong, Sun Ig</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>In this work we aim to synthesize biocompatible ZnO nanoparticles from the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> nitrate via green process using <span class="hlt">leaf</span> extracts of the Costus pictus D. Don medicinal plant. FTIR studies confirm the presence of biomolecules and metal oxides. X-ray diffraction (XRD) structural analysis reveals the formation of pure hexagonal phase structures of ZnO nanoparticles. The surface morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) suggest that most ZnO crystallites are hexagonal. EDX analysis confirms the presence of primarily <span class="hlt">zinc</span> and oxygen. TEM images show that biosynthesized <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles are hexagonal and spherical. The plausible formation mechanisms of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles are also predicted. The biosynthesized <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles exhibit strong antimicrobial behavior against bacterial and fungal species when employing the agar diffusion method. Synthesized ZnO nanoparticles exhibit anticancer activity against Daltons lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells as well as antimicrobial activity against some bacterial and fungal strains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol2-sec29-2528.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol2-sec29-2528.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.2528 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16757, Apr. 20...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol2-sec29-2528.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol2-sec29-2528.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.2528 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16757, Apr. 20...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol2-sec29-2528.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol2-sec29-2528.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.2528 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16757, Apr. 20...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol2-sec29-2528.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol2-sec29-2528.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.2528 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16757, Apr. 20...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol2-sec29-2528.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol2-sec29-2528.pdf"><span>7 CFR 29.2528 - <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>. Whole, unstemmed <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. <span class="hlt">Leaf</span>, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole <span class="hlt">leaf</span>. [49 FR 16757, Apr. 20...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OptMa..69..401K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OptMa..69..401K"><span>Structural and optical studies of Er3+-doped alkali/alkaline oxide containing <span class="hlt">zinc</span> boro-aluminosilicate glasses for 1.5 μm optical amplifier <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaky, Kawa M.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Baki, S. O.; Lira, A.; Caldiño, U.; Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Falcony, C.; Kityk, I. V.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Halimah, M. K.; Mahdi, M. A.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>In the present work, we report on the optical spectral properties of Er3+-doped <span class="hlt">zinc</span> boro-aluminosilicate glasses with an addition of 10 mol % alkali/alkaline modifier regarding the fabrication of new optical materials for optical amplifiers. A total of 10 glasses were prepared using melt-quenching technique with the compositions (40-x)B2O3 - 10SiO2 - 10Al2O3 - 30ZnO - 10Li2O - xEr2O3 and (40-x)B2O3 - 10SiO2 - 10Al2O3 - 30ZnO - 10MgO - xEr2O3 (x = 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mol %). We confirm the amorphous-like structure for all the prepared glasses using X-ray diffraction (XRD). To study the functional groups of the glass composition after the melt-quenching process, Raman spectroscopy was used, and various structural units such as triangular and tetrahedral-borates (BO3 and BO4) have been identified. All the samples were characterized using optical absorption for UV, visible and NIR regions. Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4 and 6) were calculated from the optical absorption spectra of two glasses LiEr 2.0 and MgEr 2.0 (doped with 2 mol % of Er3+). JO parameters for LiEr 2.0 and MgEr 2.0 glasses follow the trend as Ω6>Ω2>Ω4. Using Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, we obtained radiative probability A (S-1), branching ratios (β), radiative decay lifetimes τrad (μs) of emissions from excited Er+3 ions in LiEr 2.0 and MgEr 2.0 to all lower levels. Quantum efficiency (η) of 4I13/2 and 4S3/2 levels for LiEr 2.0 and MgEr 2.0 with and without 4D7/2 level was calculated using the radiative decay lifetimes τrad. (μs) and measured lifetimes τexp. (μs). We measured the visible photoluminescence under 377 nm excitation for both LiEr and MgEr glass series within the region 390-580 nm. Three bands were observed in the visible region at 407 nm, 530 nm, and 554 nm, as a result of 2H9/2 → 4I15/2, 2H11/2 → 4I15/2 and 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 transitions, respectively. Decay lifetimes for emissions at 407 nm, 530 nm, and 554 nm were measured and they show</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JTST...19.1277M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JTST...19.1277M"><span>Review of Thermal Spray Coating <span class="hlt">Applications</span> in the Steel Industry: Part 2—<span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Pot Hardware in the Continuous Galvanizing Line</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matthews, S.; James, B.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>This two-part article series reviews the <span class="hlt">application</span> of thermal spray coating technology in the production of steel and steel sheet products. Part 2 of this article series is dedicated to coating solutions in the continuous galvanizing line. The corrosion mechanisms of Fe- and Co-based bulk materials are briefly reviewed as a basis for the development of thermal spray coating solutions. WC-Co thermal spray coatings are commonly applied to low Al-content galvanizing hardware due to their superior corrosion resistance compared to Fe and Co alloys. The effect of phase degradation, carbon content, and WC grain size are discussed. At high Al concentrations, the properties of WC-Co coatings degrade significantly, leading to the <span class="hlt">application</span> of oxide-based coatings and corrosion-resistant boride containing coatings. The latest results of testing are summarized, highlighting the critical coating parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=111706&keyword=water+water&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=111706&keyword=water+water&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>LEAD AND COPPER CONTROL WITH NON-<span class="hlt">ZINC</span> ORTHOPHOSPHATE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Successful <span class="hlt">application</span> of orthophosphate formulations not containing <span class="hlt">zinc</span> for achieving control of copper and lead corrosion requires careful consideration of the background water chemistry, particularly pH and DIC. Inhibitor performance is extremely dependent upon dosage and pH,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3002329','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3002329"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> in innate and adaptive tumor immunity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> is important. It is the second most abundant trace metal with 2-4 grams in humans. It is an essential trace element, critical for cell growth, development and differentiation, DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> deficiency has adverse consequences during embryogenesis and early childhood development, particularly on immune functioning. It is essential in members of all enzyme classes, including over 300 signaling molecules and transcription factors. Free <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in immune and tumor cells is regulated by 14 distinct <span class="hlt">zinc</span> importers (ZIP) and transporters (ZNT1-8). <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> depletion induces cell death via apoptosis (or necrosis if apoptotic pathways are blocked) while sufficient <span class="hlt">zinc</span> levels allows maintenance of autophagy. Cancer cells have upregulated <span class="hlt">zinc</span> importers, and frequently increased <span class="hlt">zinc</span> levels, which allow them to survive. Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate <span class="hlt">zinc</span> levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor apoptosis are in order. PMID:21087493</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21328251','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21328251"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> for the common cold.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi R</p> <p>2011-02-16</p> <p>The common cold is one of the most widespread illnesses and is a leading cause of visits to the doctor and absenteeism from school and work. Trials conducted since 1984 investigating the role of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> for the common cold symptoms have had mixed results. Inadequate treatment masking and reduced bioavailability of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> from some formulations have been cited as influencing results. To assess the effect of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> on common cold symptoms. We searched CENTRAL (2010, Issue 2) which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to May week 3, 2010) and EMBASE (1974 to June 2010). Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using <span class="hlt">zinc</span> for at least five consecutive days to treat, or for at least five months to prevent the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We included 13 therapeutic trials (966 participants) and two preventive trials (394 participants). Intake of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> is associated with a significant reduction in the duration (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.56 to -0.38) (P = 0.001), and severity of common cold symptoms (SMD -0.39; 95% CI -0.77 to -0.02) (P = 0.04). There was a significant difference between the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> and control group for the proportion of participants symptomatic after seven days of treatment (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.00) (P = 0.05). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of developing a cold (IRR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.88) (P = 0.006), school absence (P = 0.0003) and prescription of antibiotics (P < 0.00001) was lower in the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> group. Overall adverse events (OR 1.59; 95% CI 0.97 to 2.58) (P = 0.06), bad taste (OR 2.64; 95% CI 1.91 to 3.64) (P < 0.00001) and nausea (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 to 3.23) (P = 0.002) were higher in the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> group. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> administered within 24 hours of onset of symptoms reduces the duration and severity of the common cold in healthy people. When supplemented for at least five months, it reduces cold</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25518678','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25518678"><span>[Effects of different amounts of phosphate fertilizers on copper, <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transfer in red soil under the <span class="hlt">application</span> of KH2PO4].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Liang; Li, Zhong-wu; Huang, Bin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yan</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>In order to study the effects of different phosphate addition amounts on migration and transformation of heavy metals (Cu, Zn) in soil, an indoor leaching experiment using soil columns was carry out to study the leaching behavior of Cu and Zn. The KH2PO4 was chosen as the fertilizer <span class="hlt">application</span> at the doses of 5 mg.kg-1, 15 mg.kg-1 and 25 mg.kg-1. The results showed that KH2PO4, could reduce the leachate pH, but different phosphate amounts had little effect on leachate pH, pH in leachate kept rising in the whole leaching process. With the <span class="hlt">application</span> of KH2PO4, Cu migration was mainly in the surface layer while Zn migrated into deeper soil. Concentrations of Cu, Zn in deep soil leachate were low indicating that it was harmless to the shallow groundwater. After leaching, heavy metals mainly existed in the residual form in soil, the proportion of residual form of Cu was around 60% and the proportion of residual form of Zn was around 40%. High concentration of KH2PO4 helps the transformation of Zn from residual organic combination state to exchange state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MRE.....4l5018H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MRE.....4l5018H"><span>Graphitic nanofilms of <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-blende materials: ab initio calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, San-Lue; Zhao, Li; Li, Yan-Li</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Ab initio calculations on ultra-thin nanofilms of 25 kinds of <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-blende semiconductors demonstrate their stable geometry structures growth along (1 1 1) surface. Our results show that the (1 1 1) surfaces of 9 kinds of <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-blende semiconductors can transform into a stable graphitelike structure within a certain thickness. The tensile strain effect on the thickness of graphitic films is not obvious. The band gaps of stable graphitic films can be tuned over a wide range by epitaxial tensile strain, which is important for <span class="hlt">applications</span> in microelectronic devices, solar cells and light-emitting diodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22469717-zinc-oxide-based-nanostructured-materials-heterostructure-solar-cells','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22469717-zinc-oxide-based-nanostructured-materials-heterostructure-solar-cells"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span>-oxide-based nanostructured materials for heterostructure solar cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Bobkov, A. A.; Maximov, A. I.; Moshnikov, V. A., E-mail: vamoshnikov@mail.ru</p> <p></p> <p>Results obtained in the deposition of nanostructured <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-oxide layers by hydrothermal synthesis as the basic method are presented. The possibility of controlling the structure and morphology of the layers is demonstrated. The important role of the procedure employed to form the nucleating layer is noted. The faceted hexagonal nanoprisms obtained are promising for the fabrication of solar cells based on oxide heterostructures, and aluminum-doped <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-oxide layers with petal morphology, for the deposition of an antireflection layer. The results are compatible and promising for <span class="hlt">application</span> in flexible electronics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3901420','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3901420"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Citrate Is Comparable with That from <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Gluconate and Higher than from <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Oxide123</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnić, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The water-soluble <span class="hlt">zinc</span> salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> citrate is an alternative compound with high <span class="hlt">zinc</span> content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure <span class="hlt">zinc</span> absorption from <span class="hlt">zinc</span> citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from <span class="hlt">zinc</span> gluconate and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> from <span class="hlt">zinc</span> citrate was 61.3% (56.6–71.0) and was not different from that from <span class="hlt">zinc</span> gluconate with 60.9% (50.6–71.7). Absorption from <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide at 49.9% (40.9–57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide. We conclude that <span class="hlt">zinc</span> citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as <span class="hlt">zinc</span> gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ApSS..433..798L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ApSS..433..798L"><span>On the origin of the changes in the opto-electrical properties of boron-doped <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide films after plasma surface treatment for thin-film silicon solar cell <span class="hlt">applications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Kim, Youngkuk; Lee, Youn-Jung; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Nguyen, Cam Phu Thi; Lee, Jaehyung; Yi, Junsin</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>The modification of the steep and sharp valleys on the surface of the boron-doped <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide (BZO) front electrodes by plasma surface treatment is a critical process for avoiding a significant reduction in the electrical performance of thin-film silicon solar cells. In this work, we report the origin of the changes in the electrical and optical properties of the BZO films that occur after this process. On the basis of an analysis of the chemical states, we found an improvement of the carrier concentration along with the treatment time that was mainly due to an increase of the oxygen vacancy. This indicated a deficiency of the oxygen in the BZO films under argon-ion bombardment. The red-shift of the A1 longitudinal optical mode frequency in the Raman spectra that was attributed to the existence of vacancy point defects within the films also strengthened this argument. The significant reduction of the haze ratio as well as the appearance of interference peaks on the transmittance spectra as the treatment time was increased were mainly due to the smoothing of the film surface, which indicated a degradation of the light-scattering capability of the BZO films. We also observed a gain of the visible-region transmittance that was attributed to the decrease of the thickness of the BZO films after the plasma surface treatment, instead of the crystallinity improvement. On the basis of our findings, we have proposed a further design rule of the BZO front electrodes for thin-film silicon solar cell <span class="hlt">applications</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23174765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23174765"><span>How to pattern a <span class="hlt">leaf</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bolduc, N; O'Connor, D; Moon, J; Lewis, M; Hake, S</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Leaf</span> development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea <span class="hlt">leaf</span> or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, and function, all leaves initiate in the same manner: from the flanks of a meristem. The maize <span class="hlt">leaf</span> is useful for analysis of patterning due to the wealth of mutants and the distinct tissues along the proximal distal axis. The blade is distal, the sheath is proximal, and the ligule forms at the blade/sheath boundary. Establishment of this boundary involves the transcription factors LIGULELESS1 and LIGULELESS2 and the kinase LIGULELESS NARROW. The meristem-specific protein KNOTTED1 (KN1) binds and modulates the lg2 gene. Given the localization of KN1 at the proximal end of the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> from the time of inception, we hypothesize that KN1 has a role in establishing the very proximal end of the <span class="hlt">leaf</span>, whereas an auxin maximum guides the growing distal tip.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4709445','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4709445"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Oxide Nanoparticles Affect Biomass Accumulation and Photosynthesis in Arabidopsis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiaoping; Yang, Xiyu; Chen, Siyu; Li, Qianqian; Wang, Wei; Hou, Chunjiang; Gao, Xiao; Wang, Li; Wang, Shucai</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Dramatic increase in the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in a variety of <span class="hlt">applications</span> greatly increased the likelihood of the release of NPs into the environment. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are among the most commonly used NPs, and it has been shown that ZnO NPs were harmful to several different plants. We report here the effects of ZnO NPs exposure on biomass accumulation and photosynthesis in Arabidopsis. We found that 200 and 300 mg/L ZnO NPs treatments reduced Arabidopsis growth by ∼20 and 80%, respectively, in comparison to the control. Pigments measurement showed that Chlorophyll a and b contents were reduced more than 50%, whereas carotenoid contents remain largely unaffected in 300 mg/L ZnO NPs treated Arabidopsis plants. Consistent with this, net rate of photosynthesis, <span class="hlt">leaf</span> stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate were all reduced more than 50% in 300 mg/L ZnO NPs treated plants. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that expression levels of chlorophyll synthesis genes including CHLOROPHYLL A OXYGENASE (CAO), CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE (CHLG), COPPER RESPONSE DEFECT 1 (CRD1), MAGNESIUM-PROTOPORPHYRIN IX METHYLTRANSFERASE (CHLM) and MG-CHELATASE SUBUNIT D (CHLD), and photosystem structure gene PHOTOSYSTEM I SUBUNIT D-2 (PSAD2), PHOTOSYSTEM I SUBUNIT E-2 (PSAE2), PHOTOSYSTEM I SUBUNIT K (PSAK) and PHOTOSYSTEM I SUBUNIT K (PSAN) were reduced about five folds in 300 mg/L ZnO NPs treated plants. On the other hand, elevated expression, though to different degrees, of several carotenoids synthesis genes including GERANYLGERANYL PYROPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE 6 (GGPS6), PHYTOENE SYNTHASE (PSY) PHYTOENE DESATURASE (PDS), and ZETA-CAROTENE DESATURASE (ZDS) were observed in ZnO NPs treated plants. Taken together, these results suggest that toxicity effects of ZnO NPs observed in Arabidopsis was likely due to the inhibition of the expression of chlorophyll synthesis genes and photosystem structure genes, which results in the inhibition of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24298944','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24298944"><span>Extracellular synthesis of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanoparticle using seaweeds of gulf of Mannar, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nagarajan, Sangeetha; Arumugam Kuppusamy, Kumaraguru</p> <p>2013-12-03</p> <p>The biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles by marine resources is thought to be clean, nontoxic, and environmentally acceptable "green procedures". Marine ecosystems are very important for the overall health of both marine and terrestrial environments. The use of natural sources like Marine biological resources essential for nanotechnology. Seaweeds constitute one of the commercially important marine living renewable resources. Seaweeds such as green Caulerpa peltata, red Hypnea Valencia and brown Sargassum myriocystum were used for synthesis of <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles. The preliminary screening of physico-chemical parameters such as concentration of metals, concentration of seaweed extract, temperature, pH and reaction time revealed that one seaweed S. myriocystum were able to synthesize <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles. It was confirmed through the, initial colour change of the reaction mixture and UV visible spectrophotometer. The extracellular biosynthesized clear <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles size 36 nm through characterization technique such as DLS, AFM, SEM -EDX, TEM, XRD and FTIR. The biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles are effective antibacterial agents against Gram-positive than the Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the FTIR results, fucoidan water soluble pigments present in S. myriocystum <span class="hlt">leaf</span> extract is responsible for reduction and stabilization of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles. by this approach are quite stable and no visible changes were observed even after 6 months. These soluble elements could have acted as both reduction and stabilizing agents preventing the aggregation of nanoparticles in solution, extracellular biological synthesis of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles of size 36 nm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23775705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23775705"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> for the common cold.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi R</p> <p>2013-06-18</p> <p>The common cold is one of the most widespread illnesses and is a leading cause of visits to the doctor and absenteeism from school and work. Trials conducted in high-income countries since 1984 investigating the role of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> for the common cold symptoms have had mixed results. Inadequate treatment masking and reduced bioavailability of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> from some formulations have been cited as influencing results. To assess whether <span class="hlt">zinc</span> (irrespective of the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> salt or formulation used) is efficacious in reducing the incidence, severity and duration of common cold symptoms. In addition, we aimed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity in results obtained and to assess their clinical significance. In this updated review, we searched CENTRAL (2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 2, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to January 2013), CINAHL (1981 to January 2013), Web of Science (1985 to January 2013), LILACS (1982 to January 2013), WHO ICTRP and clinicaltrials.gov. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using <span class="hlt">zinc</span> for at least five consecutive days to treat, or for at least five months to prevent the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Five trials were identified in the updated searches in January 2013 and two of them did not meet our inclusion criteria. We included 16 therapeutic trials (1387 participants) and two preventive trials (394 participants). Intake of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> was associated with a significant reduction in the duration (days) (mean difference (MD) -1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.72 to -0.34) (P = 0.003) (I(2) statistic = 89%) but not the severity of common cold symptoms (MD -1.06, 95% CI -2.36 to 0.23) (P = 0.11) (I(2) statistic = 84%). The proportion of participants who were symptomatic after seven days of treatment was significantly smaller (odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.00) (P = 0.05) than those in the control, (I(2 )statistic = 75%). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of developing a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......317K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......317K"><span>Dynamics of vacuum-sealed, double-<span class="hlt">leaf</span> partitions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kavanaugh, Joshua Stephen</p> <p></p> <p>The goal of this research is to investigate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of using vacuum-sealed, double-<span class="hlt">leaf</span> partitions for <span class="hlt">applications</span> in noise control. Substantial work has been done previously on double-<span class="hlt">leaf</span> partitions where the acoustics of the inner chamber and mechanical vibrations of structural supports are passively and actively controlled. The work presented here is unique in that the proposed system aims to eliminate the need for active acoustic control of transmitted acoustic energy by removing all the air between the two panels of the double partition. Therefore, the only remaining energy paths would be along the boundary and at the points where there are intermediate structural supports connecting the two panels. The eventual goal of the research is to develop a high-loss double-<span class="hlt">leaf</span> partition that simplifies active control by removing the need for control of the air cavity and channeling all the energy into discrete structural paths. The work presented here is a first step towards the goal of designing a high-loss, actively-controlled double-<span class="hlt">leaf</span> partition with an air-evacuated inner chamber. One experiment is conducted to investigate the effects of various levels of vacuum on the response of a double-<span class="hlt">leaf</span> partition whose panels are mechanically coupled only at the boundary. Another experiment is conducted which investigates the effect of changing the stiffness of an intermediate support coupling the two panels of a double-<span class="hlt">leaf</span> partition in which a vacuum has been applied to the inner cavity. The available equipment was able to maintain a 99% vacuum between the panels. Both experiments are accompanied by analytical models used to investigate the importance of various dynamic parameters. Results show that the vacuum-sealed system shows some potential for increased transmission loss, primarily by the changing the natural frequencies of the double-<span class="hlt">leaf</span> partition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16782267','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16782267"><span>The influence of EDTA <span class="hlt">application</span> on the interactions of cadmium, <span class="hlt">zinc</span>, and lead and their uptake of rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang</p> <p>2006-10-11</p> <p>Soil used in this study was artificially contaminated with Cd, Zn, Pb, or applied in combinations (Cd-Zn, Cd-Pb, Zn-Pb, or Cd-Zn-Pb) to study the interactions of metals in soil contaminated with multiple metals. After planting rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis) in these soils for 21 days, three different concentrations of ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were added to study the effect of applying EDTA on the interactions among these metals. The concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in the soil solutions of different metals-treated soils increased significantly after applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil (p<0.05). The potential of groundwater contamination will increase after applying EDTA and it is not recommended to be in situ used or have to use very carefully. The existence of Pb in the Cd-contaminated soil enhanced the uptake of Cd in rainbow pink in the treatments of control and 2 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil. Cadmium inhibited the concentration of Zn without applying EDTA. However, whether the <span class="hlt">application</span> of EDTA or not and the applied EDTA concentration had the greatest effect on the uptake of Pb when compared to Cd and Zn. After applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil, Cd or Zn in the Pb-contaminated soil inhibited the uptake of Pb in rainbow pink, but there were no effect in other treatments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880041043&hterms=dry+forest&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddry%2Bforest','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880041043&hterms=dry+forest&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddry%2Bforest"><span>Remote sensing of forest canopy and <span class="hlt">leaf</span> biochemical contents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peterson, David L.; Matson, Pamela A.; Card, Don H.; Aber, John D.; Wessman, Carol; Swanberg, Nancy; Spanner, Michael</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Recent research on the remote sensing of forest <span class="hlt">leaf</span> and canopy biochemical contents suggests that the shortwave IR region contains this information; laboratory analyses of dry ground leaves have yielded reliable predictive relationships between both <span class="hlt">leaf</span> nitrogen and lignin with near-IR spectra. Attention is given to the <span class="hlt">application</span> of these laboratory techniques to a limited set of spectra from fresh, whole leaves of conifer species. The analysis of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer data reveals that total water content variations in deciduous forest canopies appear as overall shifts in the brightness of raw spectra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26905204','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26905204"><span>Influence of DNA-methylation on <span class="hlt">zinc</span> homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transporters and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> binding proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The distribution of intracellular <span class="hlt">zinc</span>, predominantly regulated through <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transporters and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular <span class="hlt">zinc</span> levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed <span class="hlt">zinc</span> homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transporters and <span class="hlt">zinc</span> binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular <span class="hlt">zinc</span> levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas <span class="hlt">zinc</span> exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated <span class="hlt">zinc</span> levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore <span class="hlt">zinc</span> homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting <span class="hlt">zinc</span> binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating <span class="hlt">zinc</span> homeostasis in myeloid cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5552101','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5552101"><span>Assessment of photocatalytic potentiality and determination of ecotoxicity (using plant model for better environmental <span class="hlt">applicability</span>) of synthesized copper, copper oxide and copper-doped <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide nanoparticles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Das, Debadrito; Kumbhakar, Divya Vishambhar; Ghosh, Bapi; Pramanik, Ankita; Gupta, Sudha; Mandal, Aninda</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>NPs synthesis, characterization and azo-dye degradation A facile cost effective wet chemical method of synthesis is proposed for Cu-NPs, CuO-NPs and Cu-doped ZnO-NPs. The nanomaterials are opto-physically characterized for nano standard quality. Cu-doped ZnO-NPs based catalytic system is found to possess most efficient photocatalytic activity in degradation of two organic azo-dyes namely methyl red (MR) and malachite green (MG) that are released as industrial effluents in eco-environment intercollegium. Two possible photocatalytic degradation pathways are proposed to understand the mechanism of interaction prevailing during the mineralization of MR and MG dyes. Such study provides insight for waste water management. The uniqueness of the present work is 1) possible routes of MG dye degradation by Cu-doped ZnO-NPs and subsequent intermediate by-products are novel and pioneered of its kind. 2) two new intermediate byproducts are identified suggesting prevalence of multiple MR degradation pathways by Cu-doped ZnO-NPs. Assessment of ecotoxicity For assessment of residual NPs impact on environment, eco-toxicological assay is performed using plant system (Sesamum indicum L.) as model. The study encompasses seed germination, seedling morphology, quantification of endogenous H2O2 and MDA generation, estimation of DNA double strand break and analysis of cell cycle inhibition. Results highlight reduced ecotoxicity of Cu-doped ZnO-NPs compared to the other synthesized nanomaterials thereby suggesting better environmental <span class="hlt">applicability</span> in waste water purification. PMID:28796823</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28702996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28702996"><span>Luciferase-<span class="hlt">Zinc</span>-Finger System for the Rapid Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shi, Chu; Xu, Qing; Ge, Yue; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He</p> <p>2017-08-09</p> <p>Rapid and reliable detection of pathogenic bacteria is crucial for food safety control. Here, we present a novel luciferase-<span class="hlt">zinc</span> finger system for the detection of pathogens that offers rapid and specific profiling. The system, which uses a <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-finger protein domain to probe <span class="hlt">zinc</span> finger recognition sites, was designed to bind the amplified conserved regions of 16S rDNA, and the obtained products were detected using a modified luciferase. The luciferase-<span class="hlt">zinc</span> finger system not only maintained luciferase activity but also allowed the specific detection of different bacterial species, with a sensitivity as low as 10 copies and a linear range from 10 to 10 4 copies per microliter of the specific PCR product. Moreover, the system is robust and rapid, enabling the simultaneous detection of 6 species of bacteria in artificially contaminated samples with excellent accuracy. Thus, we envision that our luciferase-<span class="hlt">zinc</span> finger system will have far-reaching <span class="hlt">applications</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=389946','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=389946"><span>Long-Term Inhibition by Auxin of <span class="hlt">Leaf</span> Blade Expansion in Bean and Arabidopsis1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Keller, Christopher P.; Stahlberg, Rainer; Barkawi, Lana S.; Cohen, Jerry D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The role of auxin in controlling <span class="hlt">leaf</span> expansion remains unclear. Experimental increases to normal auxin levels in expanding leaves have shown conflicting results, with both increases and decreases in <span class="hlt">leaf</span> growth having been measured. Therefore, the effects of both auxin <span class="hlt">application</span> and adjustment of endogenous <span class="hlt">leaf</span> auxin levels on midrib elongation and final <span class="hlt">leaf</span> size (fresh weight and area) were examined in attached primary monofoliate leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and in early Arabidopsis rosette leaves. Aqueous auxin <span class="hlt">application</span> inhibited long-term <span class="hlt">leaf</span> blade elongation. Bean leaves, initially 40 to 50 mm in length, treated once with α-naphthalene acetic acid (1.0 mm), were, after 6 d, approximately 80% the length and weight of controls. When applied at 1.0 and 0.1 mm, α-naphthalene acetic acid significantly inhibited long-term <span class="hlt">leaf</span> growth. The weak auxin, β-naphthalene acetic acid, was effective at 1.0 mm; and a weak acid control, benzoic acid, was ineffective. Indole-3-acetic acid (1 μm, 10 μm, 0.1 mm, and 1 mm) required daily <span class="hlt">application</span> to be effective at any concentration. <span class="hlt">Application</span> of the auxin transport inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (1% [w/w] in lanolin), to petioles also inhibited long-term <span class="hlt">leaf</span> growth. This treatment also was found to lead to a sustained elevation of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> free indole-3-acetic acid content relative to untreated control leaves. Auxin-induced inhibition of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> growth appeared not to be mediated by auxin-induced ethylene synthesis because growth inhibition was not rescued by inhibition of ethylene synthesis. Also, petiole treatment of Arabidopsis with 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid similarly inhibited <span class="hlt">leaf</span> growth of both wild-type plants and ethylene-insensitive ein4 mutants. PMID:14988474</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29468392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29468392"><span>Hydrogen sulfide regulates the levels of key metabolites and antioxidant defense system to counteract oxidative stress in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants exposed to high <span class="hlt">zinc</span> regime.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaya, Cengiz; Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>In the present experiment, we aimed to test the impact of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) on growth, key oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide, mineral elements, and antioxidative defense in Capia-type red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants subjected to high concentration of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> (Zn). A factorial experiment was designed with two Zn levels (0.05 and 0.5 mM) and 0.2 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as a donor of H 2 S supplied in combination plus nutrient solution through the root zone. High level of Zn led to reduce dry mass, chlorophyll pigments, fruit yield, <span class="hlt">leaf</span> maximum fluorescence, and relative water content, but enhanced endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), free proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL), H 2 S, as well as the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. Exogenously applied NaHS significantly enhanced plant growth, fruit yield, water status, the levels of H 2 S and proline as well as the activities of different antioxidant enzymes, while it significantly suppressed EL, MDA, and H 2 O 2 contents in the pepper plants receiving low level Zn. NaHS <span class="hlt">application</span> to the control plants did not significantly change all these parameters tested except the dry matter which increased significantly. High Zn regime led to increase intrinsic Zn levels in the leaves and roots, but it lowered <span class="hlt">leaf</span> nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe) concentrations. However, NaHS reduces the Zn conc. and enhances Fe and N in <span class="hlt">leaf</span> and root organs. It can be concluded that NaHS can mitigate the harmful effects of Zn on plant growth particularly by lowering the concentrations of H 2 O 2 , Zn, EL, and MDA, and enhancing the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and levels of essential nutrients in pepper plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23F0289D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23F0289D"><span>Biophysical control of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, N.; Prentice, I. C.; Wright, I. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In principle sunlit leaves can maintain their temperatures within a narrower range than ambient temperatures. This is an important and long-known (but now overlooked) prediction of energy balance theory. Net radiation at <span class="hlt">leaf</span> surface in steady state (which is reached rapidly) must be equal to the combination of sensible and latent heat exchanges with surrounding air, the former being proportional to <span class="hlt">leaf</span>-to-air temperature difference (ΔT), the latter to the transpiration rate. We present field measurements of ΔT which confirm the existence of a 'crossover temperature' in the 25-30˚C range for species in a tropical savanna and a tropical rainforest environment. This finding is consistent with a simple representation of transpiration as a function of net radiation and temperature (Priestley-Taylor relationship) assuming an entrainment factor (ω) somewhat greater than the canonical value of 0.26. The fact that leaves in tropical forests are typically cooler than surrounding air, often already by solar noon, is consistent with a recently published comparison of MODIS day-time land-surface temperatures with air temperatures. Theory further predicts a strong dependence of <span class="hlt">leaf</span> size (which is inversely related to <span class="hlt">leaf</span> boundary-layer conductance, and therefore to absolute magnitude of ΔT) on moisture availability. Theoretically, <span class="hlt">leaf</span> size should be determined by either night-time constraints (risk of frost damage to active leaves) or day-time constraints (risk of heat stress damage),with the former likely to predominate - thereby restricting the occurrence of large leaves - at high latitudes. In low latitudes, daytime maximum <span class="hlt">leaf</span> size is predicted to increase with temperature, provided that water is plentiful. If water is restricted, however, transpiration cannot proceed at the Priestley-Taylor rate, and it quickly becomes advantageous for plants to have small leaves, which do not heat up much above the temperature of their surroundings. The difference between <span class="hlt">leaf</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27411336','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27411336"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> finger proteins in cancer progression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jen, Jayu; Wang, Yi-Ching</p> <p>2016-07-13</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> finger proteins are the largest transcription factor family in human genome. The diverse combinations and functions of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> finger motifs make <span class="hlt">zinc</span> finger proteins versatile in biological processes, including development, differentiation, metabolism and autophagy. Over the last few decades, increasing evidence reveals the potential roles of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> finger proteins in cancer progression. However, the underlying mechanisms of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> finger proteins in cancer progression vary in different cancer types and even in the same cancer type under different types of stress. Here, we discuss general mechanisms of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> finger proteins in transcription regulation and summarize recent studies on <span class="hlt">zinc</span> finger proteins in cancer progression. In this review, we also emphasize the importance of further investigations in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> finger proteins in cancer progression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/21971','DOTNTL'); return false;" href="https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/21971"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> coating procedures : final report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntlsearch.bts.gov/tris/index.do">DOT National Transportation Integrated Search</a></p> <p></p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>This research project was conducted in order to compare the existing procedure of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> coating by hot-dip galvanizing with the other <span class="hlt">zinc</span> coating systems of painting and electroplating. : Hardware coated by these processes was exposed to varied labor...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3648744','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3648744"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Biochemistry: From a Single <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Maret, Wolfgang</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The nutritional essentiality of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before <span class="hlt">zinc</span> biochemistry began with the discovery of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “<span class="hlt">zinc</span> finger” proteins, in which <span class="hlt">zinc</span> has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict <span class="hlt">zinc</span>-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ∼3000 <span class="hlt">zinc</span> proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of <span class="hlt">zinc</span>(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> and the concentrations of <span class="hlt">zinc</span>(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly <span class="hlt">zinc</span> interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free <span class="hlt">zinc</span>(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5096885','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5096885"><span>Active suppression of a <span class="hlt">leaf</span> meristem orchestrates determinate <span class="hlt">leaf</span> growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alvarez, John Paul; Furumizu, Chihiro; Efroni, Idan; Eshed, Yuval; Bowman, John L</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Leaves are flat determinate organs derived from indeterminate shoot apical meristems. The presence of a specific <span class="hlt">leaf</span> meristem is debated, as anatomical features typical of meristems are not present in leaves. Here we demonstrate that multiple NGATHA (NGA) and CINCINNATA-class-TCP (CIN-TCP) transcription factors act redundantly, shortly after <span class="hlt">leaf</span> initiation, to gradually restrict the activity of a <span class="hlt">leaf</span> meristem in Arabidopsis thaliana to marginal and basal domains, and that their absence confers persistent marginal growth to leaves, cotyledons and floral organs. Following primordia initiation, the restriction of the broadly acting <span class="hlt">leaf</span> meristem to the margins is mediated by the juxtaposition of adaxial and abaxial domains and maintained by WOX homeobox transcription factors, whereas other marginal elaboration genes are dispensable for its maintenance. This genetic framework parallels the morphogenetic program of shoot apical meristems and may represent a relic of an ancestral shoot system from which seed plant leaves evolved. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15023.001 PMID:27710768</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1202310-supplemental-macronutrients-microbial-fermentation-products-improve-uptake-transport-foliar-applied-zinc-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-plants-studies-utilizing-micro-ray-florescence','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1202310-supplemental-macronutrients-microbial-fermentation-products-improve-uptake-transport-foliar-applied-zinc-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-plants-studies-utilizing-micro-ray-florescence"><span>Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied <span class="hlt">zinc</span> in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; ...</p> <p>2015-01-21</p> <p>Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of <span class="hlt">application</span> to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field <span class="hlt">application</span> of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied <span class="hlt">zinc</span> (Zn) formulations in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by <span class="hlt">application</span> of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower ( H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualizemore » Zn within the vascular system of the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO₄ alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of <span class="hlt">application</span> in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the <span class="hlt">leaf</span> of sunflower.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860000500&hterms=zinc&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dzinc','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860000500&hterms=zinc&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dzinc"><span>Low-Resistivity <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> Selenide for Heterojunctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stirn, R. J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Magnetron reactive sputtering enables doping of this semiconductor. Proposed method of reactive sputtering combined with doping shows potential for yielding low-resistivity <span class="hlt">zinc</span> selenide films. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> selenide attractive material for forming heterojunctions with other semiconductor compounds as <span class="hlt">zinc</span> phosphide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor junctions promising for future optoelectronic devices, including solar cells and electroluminescent displays. Resistivities of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> selenide layers deposited by evaporation or chemical vapor deposition too high to form practical heterojunctions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6049483','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6049483"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> oxide varistors and/or resistors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.</p> <p>1993-07-27</p> <p>Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide gel microspheres. The doped <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/868874','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/868874"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> oxide varistors and/or resistors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide gel microspheres. The doped <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27455817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27455817"><span>[Improvement in <span class="hlt">zinc</span> nutrition due to <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transporter-targeting strategy].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kambe, Taiho</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Adequate intake of <span class="hlt">zinc</span> from the daily diet is indispensable to maintain health. However, the dietary <span class="hlt">zinc</span> content often fails to fulfill the recommended daily intake, leading to <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency and also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, particularly in elderly individuals. Therefore, increased attention is required to overcome <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency and it is important to improve <span class="hlt">zinc</span> nutrition in daily life. In the small intestine, the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for <span class="hlt">zinc</span> absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient <span class="hlt">zinc</span> absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency and improving human health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28858721','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28858721"><span>Evolution of the degradation mechanism of pure <span class="hlt">zinc</span> stent in the one-year study of rabbit abdominal aorta model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Hongtao; Wang, Cong; Liu, Chaoqiang; Chen, Houwen; Wu, Yifan; Han, Jintao; Jia, Zichang; Lin, Wenjiao; Zhang, Deyuan; Li, Wenting; Yuan, Wei; Guo, Hui; Li, Huafang; Yang, Guangxin; Kong, Deling; Zhu, Donghui; Takashima, Kazuki; Ruan, Liqun; Nie, Jianfeng; Li, Xuan; Zheng, Yufeng</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>In the present study, pure <span class="hlt">zinc</span> stents were implanted into the abdominal aorta of rabbits for 12 months. Multiscale analysis including micro-CT, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and histological stainings was performed to reveal the fundamental degradation mechanism of the pure <span class="hlt">zinc</span> stent and its biocompatibility. The pure <span class="hlt">zinc</span> stent was able to maintain mechanical integrity for 6 months and degraded 41.75 ± 29.72% of stent volume after 12 months implantation. No severe inflammation, platelet aggregation, thrombosis formation or obvious intimal hyperplasia was observed at all time points after implantation. The degradation of the <span class="hlt">zinc</span> stent played a beneficial role in the artery remodeling and healing process. The evolution of the degradation mechanism of pure <span class="hlt">zinc</span> stents with time was revealed as follows: Before endothelialization, dynamic blood flow dominated the degradation of pure <span class="hlt">zinc</span> stent, creating a uniform corrosion mode; After endothelialization, the degradation of pure <span class="hlt">zinc</span> stent depended on the diffusion of water molecules, hydrophilic solutes and ions which led to localized corrosion. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> phosphate generated in blood flow transformed into <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide and small amounts of calcium phosphate during the conversion of degradation microenvironment. The favorable physiological degradation behavior makes <span class="hlt">zinc</span> a promising candidate for future stent <span class="hlt">applications</span>. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870033400&hterms=stress+relationship&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dstress%2Brelationship','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870033400&hterms=stress+relationship&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dstress%2Brelationship"><span>Spectral reflectance relationships to <span class="hlt">leaf</span> water stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ripple, William J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Spectral reflectance data were collected from detached snapbean leaves in the laboratory with a multiband radiometer. Four experiments were designed to study the spectral response resulting from changes in <span class="hlt">leaf</span> cover, relative water content of leaves, and <span class="hlt">leaf</span> water potential. Spectral regions included in the analysis were red (630-690 nm), NIR (760-900 nm), and mid-IR (2.08-2.35 microns). The red and mid-IR bands showed sensitivity to changes in both <span class="hlt">leaf</span> cover and relative water content of leaves. The NIR was only highly sensitive to changes in <span class="hlt">leaf</span> cover. Results provided evidence that mid-IR reflectance was governed primarily by <span class="hlt">leaf</span> moisture content, although soil reflectance was an important factor when <span class="hlt">leaf</span> cover was less than 100 percent. High correlations between <span class="hlt">leaf</span> water potentials and reflectance were attributed to covariances with relative water content of leaves and <span class="hlt">leaf</span> cover.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=248557','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=248557"><span><span class="hlt">Zinc</span> supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic <span class="hlt">zinc</span> deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about <span class="hlt">zinc</span> homeostasis in children with CF. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol1-sec73-1991.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol1-sec73-1991.pdf"><span>21 CFR 73.1991 - <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> oxide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive <span class="hlt">zinc</span>...). It is principally composed of Zn. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with <span class="hlt">zinc</span> oxide may...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol6-sec582-5997.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol6-sec582-5997.pdf"><span>21 CFR 582.5997 - <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> sulfate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> sulfate. (a) Product. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol6-sec582-5997.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol6-sec582-5997.pdf"><span>21 CFR 582.5997 - <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> sulfate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> sulfate. (a) Product. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol3-sec182-8994.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol3-sec182-8994.pdf"><span>21 CFR 182.8994 - <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> stearate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> stearate. (a) Product. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> stearate prepared from...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol3-sec182-8997.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol3-sec182-8997.pdf"><span>21 CFR 182.8997 - <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> sulfate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> sulfate. (a) Product. <span class="hlt">Zinc</span> sulfate. (b) Conditions of...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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