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Sample records for zinc nitrate concentration

  1. Nitrate concentrations under irrigated agriculture

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has been expressed in the nitrate content of water supplies. The most notable toxic effect of nitrate is infant methemoglobinemia. The risk of this disease increases significantly at nitrate-nitrogen levels exceeding 10 mg/l. For this reason, this concentration has been established as a limit for drinking water in many countries. In natural waters, nitrate is a minor ionic constituent and seldom accounts for more than a few percent of the total anions. However, nitrate in a significant concentration may occur in the vicinity of some point sources such as septic tanks, manure pits, and waste-disposal sites. Non-point sources contributing to groundwater pollution are numerous and a majority of them are related to agricultural activities. The largest single anthropogenic input of nitrate into the groundwater is fertilizer. Even though it has not been proven that nitrogen fertilizers are responsible for much of nitrate pollution, they are generally recognized as the main threat to groundwater quality, especially when inefficiently applied to irrigated fields on sandy soils. The biggest challenge facing today's agriculture is to maintain the balance between the enhancement of crop productivity and the risk of groundwater pollution. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  2. Biological denitrification of high concentration nitrate waste

    DOEpatents

    Francis, Chester W.; Brinkley, Frank S.

    1977-01-01

    Biological denitrification of nitrate solutions at concentrations of greater than one kilogram nitrate per cubic meter is accomplished anaerobically in an upflow column having as a packing material a support for denitrifying bacteria.

  3. A concentrated electrolyte for zinc hexacyanoferrate electrodes in aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Lee, C.; Jeong, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a concentrated electrolyte was applied in an aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion battery system with a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) electrode to improve the electrochemical performance by changing the hydration number of the zinc ions. To optimize the active material, ZnHCF was synthesized using aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate with three different concentrations. The synthesized materials exhibited some differences in structure, crystallinity, and particle size, as observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, these well-structured materials were applied in electrochemical tests. A more than two-fold improvement in the charge/discharge capacities was observed when the concentrated electrolyte was used instead of the dilute electrolyte. Additionally, the cycling performance observed in the concentrated electrolyte was superior to that in the dilute electrolyte. This improvement in the electrochemical performance may result from a decrease in the hydration number of the zinc ions in the concentrated electrolyte.

  4. [Nitrate concentrations in tap water in Spain].

    PubMed

    Vitoria, Isidro; Maraver, Francisco; Sánchez-Valverde, Félix; Armijo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    To determine nitrate concentrations in drinking water in a sample of Spanish cities. We used ion chromatography to analyze the nitrate concentrations of public drinking water in 108 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (supplying 21,290,707 potential individuals). The samples were collected between January and April 2012. The total number of samples tested was 324. The median nitrate concentration was 3.47 mg/L (range: 0.38-66.76; interquartile range: 4.51). The water from 94% of the municipalities contained less than 15 mg/L. The concentration was higher than 25mg/L in only 3 municipalities and was greater than 50mg/L in one. Nitrate levels in most public drinking water supplies in municipalities inhabited by almost half of the Spanish population are below 15 mg/L. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum zinc concentrations: contamination from laboratory equipment.

    PubMed

    Ralstin, J O; Schneider, P J; Blackstone, L; Ruberg, R L

    1979-01-01

    The following experiment was designed because of high serum zinc reported in patients who were reciving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) concentrations. Blood samples were collected, divided into 3 containers: a clean glass control test tube, a vacuum collecting tube with a rubber stopper, and paraffin clot activator. It was found that compared to glass control tubes, vacuum collection with rubber stoppers contributed an average of 76 +/- 14 microgram/dl of zinc as contaminants. Moreover, tubes with a rubber stopper and clot activator contributed 198 +/- 42 microgram/dl of zinc as contaminants. It is concluded that care must be used to avoid trace element contaminants when plasma zinc concentrations are analyzed. Without proper methodology, including selection of the container in which the sample is taken, erroneous results will be reported.

  6. Synthesis, characterisation and anion exchange properties of copper, magnesium, zinc and nickel hydroxy nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswick, Timothy; Jones, William; Pacuła, Aleksandra; Serwicka, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Anion exchange reactions of four structurally related hydroxy salts, Cu 2(OH) 3NO 3, Mg 2(OH) 3NO 3, Ni 2(OH) 3NO 3 and Zn 3(OH) 4(NO 3) 2 are compared and trends rationalised in terms of the strength of the covalent bond between the nitrate group and the matrix cation. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis are used to characterise the materials. Replacement of the nitrate anions in the zinc and copper salts with benzoate anions is possible although exchange of the zinc salt is accompanied by modification of the layer structure from one where zinc is exclusively six-fold coordinated to a structure where there is both six- and four-fold zinc coordination. Magnesium and nickel hydroxy nitrates, on the other hand, hydrolyse to their respective metal hydroxides.

  7. Concentration of Nitrate near the Surface of Frozen Salt Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, R. R. H.; Marrocco, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    The photolysis of nitrate near the surface of snow and ice in Earth's environment results in the emission of nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2 and, in acidic snow, HONO) and OH radicals. As a result, nitrate photolysis affects the composition and oxidative capacity of the overlying atmosphere. Photolysis yields depend in part on how much nitrate is close enough to the surface to be photolyzed. These concentrations are assumed to be higher than the concentrations of nitrate that are measured in melted snow and ice samples. However, near-surface concentrations of nitrate have not been directly measured. In this work, laboratory studies of the concentration of nitrate in frozen aqueous solutions are described. Individual aqueous solutions of nitric acid, sodium nitrate, and magnesium nitrate were mixed. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy was utilized to measure the nitrate and liquid water signals within 200 - 400 nm of the lower surface of frozen samples. Temperature was varied from -18°C to -2°C. In addition to the amount of nitrate observed, changes to the frozen samples' morphology with annealing are discussed. Nitrate concentrations near the lower surface of these frozen solutions are high: close to 1 M at warmer temperatures and almost 4 M at the coldest temperature. Known freezing point depression data describe the observed concentrations better than ideal solution thermodynamics, which overestimate concentration significantly at colder temperatures. The implications for modeling the chemistry of snow are discussed. Extending and relating this work to the interaction of gas-phase nitric acid with the surfaces of vapor-deposited ice will also be explored.

  8. Effect of temperature & salt concentration on salt tolerant nitrate-perchlorate reducing bacteria: Nitrate degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Shelir; Nguyen, Thi Hau; Roberts, Deborah J

    2015-10-15

    The sustainability of nitrate-contaminated water treatment using ion-exchange processes can be achieved by regenerating the exhausted resin several times. Our previous study shows that the use of multi-cycle bioregeneration of resin enclosed in membrane is an effective and innovative regeneration method. In this research, the effects of two independent factors (temperature and salt concentration) on the biological denitrification rate were studied. The results of this research along with the experimental results of the previous study on the effect of the same factors on nitrate desorption rate from the resin allow the optimization of the bioregeneration process. The results of nitrate denitrification rate study show that the biodegradation rate at different temperature and salt concentration is independent of the initial nitrate concentration. At each specific salt concentration, the nitrate removal rate increased with increasing temperature with the average value of 0.001110 ± 0.0000647 mg-nitrate/mg-VSS.h.°C. However, the effect of different salt concentrations was dependent on the temperature; there is a significant interaction between salt concentration and temperature; within each group of temperatures, the nitrate degradation rate decreased with increasing the salt concentration. The temperature affected the tolerance to salinity and culture was less tolerant to high concentration of salt at low temperature. Evidenced by the difference between the minimum and maximum nitrate degradation rate being greater at lower temperature. At 35 °C, a 32% reduction in the nitrate degradation rate was observed while at 12 °C this reduction was 69%. This is the first published study to examine the interaction of salt concentration and temperature during biological denitrification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of mineral dust on global atmospheric nitrate concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Pozzer, A.; Astitha, M.; Lelieveld, J.

    2016-02-01

    This study assesses the chemical composition and global aerosol load of the major inorganic aerosol components, focusing on mineral dust and aerosol nitrate. The mineral dust aerosol components (i.e., Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) and their emissions are included in the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry model (EMAC). Gas/aerosol partitioning is simulated using the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic equilibrium model that considers K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, Na+, SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, and H2O aerosol components. Emissions of mineral dust are calculated online by taking into account the soil particle size distribution and chemical composition of different deserts worldwide. Presence of metallic ions can substantially affect the nitrate partitioning into the aerosol phase due to thermodynamic interactions. The model simulates highest fine aerosol nitrate concentration over urban and industrialized areas (1-3 µg m-3), while coarse aerosol nitrate is highest close to deserts (1-4 µg m-3). The influence of mineral dust on nitrate formation extends across southern Europe, western USA, and northeastern China. The tropospheric burden of aerosol nitrate increases by 44 % when considering interactions of nitrate with mineral dust. The calculated global average nitrate aerosol concentration near the surface increases by 36 %, while the coarse- and fine-mode concentrations of nitrate increase by 53 and 21 %, respectively. Other inorganic aerosol components are affected by reactive dust components as well (e.g., the tropospheric burden of chloride increases by 9 %, ammonium decreases by 41 %, and sulfate increases by 7 %). Sensitivity tests show that nitrate aerosol is most sensitive to the chemical composition of the emitted mineral dust, followed by the soil size distribution of dust particles, the magnitude of the mineral dust emissions, and the aerosol state assumption.

  10. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Helfenstein, Julian; Müller, Isabel; Grüter, Roman; Bhullar, Gurbir; Mandloi, Lokendra; Papritz, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael; Schulin, Rainer; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms. PMID:27537548

  11. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration.

    PubMed

    Helfenstein, Julian; Müller, Isabel; Grüter, Roman; Bhullar, Gurbir; Mandloi, Lokendra; Papritz, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael; Schulin, Rainer; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms.

  12. Modeling groundwater nitrate concentrations in private wells in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David C; Nolan, Bernard T; Flory, Abigail R; DellaValle, Curt T; Ward, Mary H

    2015-12-01

    Contamination of drinking water by nitrate is a growing problem in many agricultural areas of the country. Ingested nitrate can lead to the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds, potent carcinogens. We developed a predictive model for nitrate concentrations in private wells in Iowa. Using 34,084 measurements of nitrate in private wells, we trained and tested random forest models to predict log nitrate levels by systematically assessing the predictive performance of 179 variables in 36 thematic groups (well depth, distance to sinkholes, location, land use, soil characteristics, nitrogen inputs, meteorology, and other factors). The final model contained 66 variables in 17 groups. Some of the most important variables were well depth, slope length within 1 km of the well, year of sample, and distance to nearest animal feeding operation. The correlation between observed and estimated nitrate concentrations was excellent in the training set (r-square=0.77) and was acceptable in the testing set (r-square=0.38). The random forest model had substantially better predictive performance than a traditional linear regression model or a regression tree. Our model will be used to investigate the association between nitrate levels in drinking water and cancer risk in the Iowa participants of the Agricultural Health Study cohort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling groundwater nitrate concentrations in private wells in Iowa

    Wheeler, David C.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Flory, Abigail R.; DellaValle, Curt T.; Ward, Mary H.

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of drinking water by nitrate is a growing problem in many agricultural areas of the country. Ingested nitrate can lead to the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds, potent carcinogens. We developed a predictive model for nitrate concentrations in private wells in Iowa. Using 34,084 measurements of nitrate in private wells, we trained and tested random forest models to predict log nitrate levels by systematically assessing the predictive performance of 179 variables in 36 thematic groups (well depth, distance to sinkholes, location, land use, soil characteristics, nitrogen inputs, meteorology, and other factors). The final model contained 66 variables in 17 groups. Some of the most important variables were well depth, slope length within 1 km of the well, year of sample, and distance to nearest animal feeding operation. The correlation between observed and estimated nitrate concentrations was excellent in the training set (r-square = 0.77) and was acceptable in the testing set (r-square = 0.38). The random forest model had substantially better predictive performance than a traditional linear regression model or a regression tree. Our model will be used to investigate the association between nitrate levels in drinking water and cancer risk in the Iowa participants of the Agricultural Health Study cohort.

  14. Synthesis, characterisation and anion exchange properties of copper, magnesium, zinc and nickel hydroxy nitrates

    SciT

    Biswick, Timothy; Jones, William; Pacula, Aleksandra

    2006-01-15

    Anion exchange reactions of four structurally related hydroxy salts, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3}, Mg{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3}, Ni{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3} and Zn{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} are compared and trends rationalised in terms of the strength of the covalent bond between the nitrate group and the matrix cation. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis are used to characterise the materials. Replacement of the nitrate anions in the zinc and copper salts with benzoate anions is possible although exchange of the zinc salt is accompanied by modification of the layer structure frommore » one where zinc is exclusively six-fold coordinated to a structure where there is both six- and four-fold zinc coordination. Magnesium and nickel hydroxy nitrates, on the other hand, hydrolyse to their respective metal hydroxides. -- Graphical abstract: PXRD patterns of exchange products of (a) Zn{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (b) Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O and (c) Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3} with benzoate anions.« less

  15. Estimating soil zinc concentrations using reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weichao; Zhang, Xia

    2017-06-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals has been an increasingly severe threat to nature environment and human health. Efficiently investigation of contamination status is essential to soil protection and remediation. Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VNIRS) has been regarded as an alternative for monitoring soil contamination by heavy metals. Generally, the entire VNIR spectral bands are employed to estimate heavy metal concentration, which lacks interpretability and requires much calculation. In this study, 74 soil samples were collected from Hunan Province, China and their reflectance spectra were used to estimate zinc (Zn) concentration in soil. Organic matter and clay minerals have strong adsorption for Zn in soil. Spectral bands associated with organic matter and clay minerals were used for estimation with genetic algorithm based partial least square regression (GA-PLSR). The entire VNIR spectral bands, the bands associated with organic matter and the bands associated with clay minerals were incorporated as comparisons. Root mean square error of prediction, residual prediction deviation, and coefficient of determination (R2) for the model developed using combined bands of organic matter and clay minerals were 329.65 mg kg-1, 1.96 and 0.73, which is better than 341.88 mg kg-1, 1.89 and 0.71 for the entire VNIR spectral bands, 492.65 mg kg-1, 1.31 and 0.40 for the organic matter, and 430.26 mg kg-1, 1.50 and 0.54 for the clay minerals. Additionally, in consideration of atmospheric water vapor absorption in field spectra measurement, combined bands of organic matter and absorption around 2200 nm were used for estimation and achieved high prediction accuracy with R2 reached 0.640. The results indicate huge potential of soil reflectance spectroscopy in estimating Zn concentrations in soil.

  16. Environmentally relevant concentrations of nitrate increase plasma testosterone concentrations in female American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Edwards, Thea M; McCoy, Jessica; Cruze, Lori; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-11-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that is contributing to the degradation of freshwater, estuarine, and coastal ecosystems worldwide. The effects of environmental nitrate, a principal form of nitrogen, on the health of aquatic life is of increasing concern. We exposed female American alligators to three concentrations of nitrate (0.7, 10 and 100mg/L NO 3 -N) for a duration of five weeks and five months from hatch. We assessed growth, plasma sex steroid and thyroid hormone concentrations, and transcription levels of key genes involved in steroidogenesis (StAR, 3β-HSD, and P450 scc ) and hepatic clearance (Cyp1a, Cyp3a). Exposure to 100mg/L NO 3 -N for both five weeks and five months resulted in significantly increased plasma testosterone (T) concentrations compared with alligators in the reference treatment. No differences in 17β-estradiol, progesterone, or thyroid hormones were observed, nor were there differences in alligator weight or the mRNA abundance of steroidogenic or hepatic genes. Plasma and urinary nitrate concentrations increased with increasing nitrate treatment levels, although relative plasma concentrations of nitrate were significantly lower in five month, versus five week old animals, possibly due to improved kidney function in older animals. These results indicate that environmentally relevant concentrations of nitrate can increase circulating concentrations of T in young female alligators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Different zinc sensitivity of Brassica organs is accompanied by distinct responses in protein nitration level and pattern.

    PubMed

    Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Bordé, Ádám; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László

    2016-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement, but its excess exerts toxic effects in plants. Heavy metal stress can alter the metabolism of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) leading to oxidative and nitrosative damages; although the participation of these processes in Zn toxicity and tolerance is not yet known. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the zinc tolerance of Brassica organs and the putative correspondence of it with protein nitration as a relevant marker for nitrosative stress. Both examined Brassica species (B. juncea and B. napus) proved to be moderate Zn accumulators; however B. napus accumulated more from this metal in its organs. The zinc-induced damages (growth diminution, altered morphology, necrosis, chlorosis, and the decrease of photosynthetic activity) were slighter in the shoot system of B. napus than in B. juncea. The relative zinc tolerance of B. napus shoot was accompanied by moderate changes of the nitration pattern. In contrast, the root system of B. napus suffered more severe damages (growth reduction, altered morphology, viability loss) and slighter increase in nitration level compared to B. juncea. Based on these, the organs of Brassica species reacted differentially to excess zinc, since in the shoot system modification of the nitration pattern occurred (with newly appeared nitrated protein bands), while in the roots, a general increment in the nitroproteome could be observed (the intensification of the same protein bands being present in the control samples). It can be assumed that the significant alteration of nitration pattern is coupled with enhanced zinc sensitivity of the Brassica shoot system and the general intensification of protein nitration in the roots is attached to relative zinc endurance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations between intestinal mucosal function and changes in plasma zinc concentration following zinc supplementation1

    PubMed Central

    Wessells, K. Ryan; Hess, Sonja Y.; Rouamba, Noel; Ouédraogo, Zinewendé P.; Kellogg, Mark; Goto, Rie; Duggan, Christopher; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Subclinical environmental enteropathy is associated with malabsorption of fats, carbohydrates, and vitamins A, B12 and folate; however, little information is available on mineral absorption. We therefore investigated the relationship between intestinal mucosal function (measured by the lactulose:mannitol permeability test and plasma citrulline concentration), and zinc absorption, as estimated by the change in plasma zinc concentration (PZC) following short-term zinc or placebo supplementation. Methods We conducted a randomized, partially-masked, placebo-controlled trial among 282 apparently healthy children 6–23 mo of age in Burkina Faso. After completing baseline intestinal function tests, participants received either 5 mg zinc, as zinc sulfate, or placebo, daily for 21 d. Results At baseline, mean ± SD PZC was 62.9 ± 11.9 µg/dL; median (IQR) urinary lactulose:mannitol (L:M) recovery ratio and plasma citrulline concentration were 0.04 (0.03 – 0.07) and 11.4 (9.0 – 15.6) µmol/L, respectively. Change in PZC was significantly greater in the zinc supplemented versus placebo group (15.6 ± 13.3 µg/dL vs. 0.02 ± 10.9 µg/dL; P < 0.0001), and was negatively associated with initial urinary L:M recovery ratio (−1.1 µg/dL per 50% increase in urinary L:M recovery ratio; P = 0.014); this latter relationship did not differ between supplementation groups (P = 0.26). Baseline plasma citrulline concentration was not associated with change in PZC. Conclusions Although altered intestinal permeability may reduce dietary zinc absorption, it likely does not undermine the efficacy of zinc supplementation, given the large increases in PZC following short-term zinc supplementation observed in this study, even among those with increased urinary L:M recovery ratios. PMID:23689263

  19. Intercalation of anionic organic ultraviolet ray absorbers into layered zinc hydroxide nitrate.

    PubMed

    Cursino, Ana Cristina Trindade; Gardolinski, José Eduardo Ferreira da Costa; Wypych, Fernando

    2010-07-01

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) was synthesized and nitrate ions were topotactically exchanged with three different anionic species of commercial organic ultraviolet (UV) ray absorbers: 2-mercaptobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, and 4-aminobenzoic acid. The exchange reactions were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and thermal analysis (thermogravimetry, TGA, and differential thermal analysis, DTA). In all the anionic exchanged products, evidence of grafting of the organic species onto the inorganic matrix was obtained. In general, after intercalation/grafting, the UV absorption ability was improved in relation to the use of the parent organic material, showing that layered hydroxide salts (LHS) can be good alternative matrixes for the immobilization of organic species with UV-blocking properties in cosmetic products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relation of nitrate concentrations to baseflow in the Raccoon River, Iowa

    Schilling, K.E.; Lutz, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    Excessive nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) export from the Raccoon River in west central Iowa is an environmental concern to downstream receptors. The 1972 to 2000 record of daily streamflow and the results from 981 nitrate measurements were examined to describe the relation of nitrate to streamflow in the Raccoon River. No long term trends in streamflow and nitrate concentrations were noted in the 28-year record. Strong seasonal patterns were evident in nitrate concentrations, with higher concentrations occurring in spring and fall. Nitrate concentrations were linearly related to streamflow at daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual time scales. At all time scales evaluated, the relation was improved when baseflow was used as the discharge variable instead of total streamflow. Nitrate concentrations were found to be highly stratified according to flow, but there was little relation of nitrate to streamflow within each flow range. Simple linear regression models developed to predict monthly mean nitrate concentrations explained as much as 76 percent of the variability in the monthly nitrate concentration data for 2001. Extrapolation of current nitrate baseflow relations to historical conditions in the Raccoon River revealed that increasing baseflow over the 20th century could account for a measurable increase in nitrate concentrations.

  1. Effect of Exogenous and Endogenous Nitrate Concentration on Nitrate Utilization by Dwarf Bean 1

    PubMed Central

    Breteler, Hans; Nissen, Per

    1982-01-01

    The effect of the exogenous and endogenous NO3− concentration on net uptake, influx, and efflux of NO3− and on nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in roots was studied in Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Witte Krombek. After exposure to NO3−, an apparent induction period of about 6 hours occurred regardless of the exogenous NO3− level. A double reciprocal plot of the net uptake rate of induced plants versus exogenous NO3− concentration yielded four distinct phases, each with simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and separated by sharp breaks at about 45, 80, and 480 micromoles per cubic decimeter. Influx was estimated as the accumulation of 15N after 1 hour exposure to 15NO3−. The isotherms for influx and net uptake were similar and corresponded to those for alkali cations and Cl−. Efflux of NO3− was a constant proportion of net uptake during initial NO3− supply and increased with exogenous NO3− concentration. No efflux occurred to a NO3−-free medium. The net uptake rate was negatively correlated with the NO3− content of roots. Nitrate efflux, but not influx, was influenced by endogenous NO3−. Variations between experiments, e.g. in NO3− status, affected the values of Km and Vmax in the various concentration phases. The concentrations at which phase transitions occurred, however, were constant both for influx and net uptake. The findings corroborate the contention that separate sites are responsible for uptake and transitions between phases. Beyond 100 micromoles per cubic decimeter, root NRA was not affected by exogenous NO3− indicating that NO3− uptake was not coupled to root NRA, at least not at high concentrations. PMID:16662570

  2. Estimating soil solution nitrate concentration from dielectric spectra using PLS analysis

    Fast and reliable methods for in situ monitoring of soil nitrate-nitrogen concentration are vital for reducing nitrate-nitrogen losses to ground and surface waters from agricultural systems. While several studies have been done to indirectly estimate nitrate-nitrogen concentration from time domain s...

  3. Streamwater nitrate concentrations in six agricultural catchments in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Hooda, P S; Moynagh, M; Svoboda, I F; Thurlow, M; Stewart, M; Thomson, M; Anderson, H A

    1997-08-01

    The concentrations of nitrate-N (NO3-N) in catchment inputs and outputs have been compared and contrasted between 6 farm catchments in Scotland, 3 in the West and 3 in the North-East. Forms of intensive animal farming ranging between beef and dairy cattle, sheep and poultry give different sources for potential NO3-N leakage from the systems. While stream reaches bordered by intensive cereal production give rise to the largest inputs to surface waters, climatic influences result in the more-efficient use of fertilizer- and farm waste-N in the West, and an enhanced potential for N-loss to waters in the cooler North-East, regardless of the N-inputs being considerably lower in the latter region. Although the EC Nitrate Directive limit of 11.3 mg NO3-N 1(-1) was not exceeded, peak values occurring during summer baseflows and autumn soil rewetting were commonly larger than the 'target' maximum concentration of 5.65 mg NO3-N 1-1.

  4. High-nitrate vegetable diet increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Ann; Mitchell, Klaus; Blackwell, Jamie R; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that green leafy vegetables, which are high in dietary nitrate, are protective against CVD such as stroke. High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for stroke and inorganic nitrate has been shown to reduce BP. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that diets containing high-nitrate (HN) vegetables would increase plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduce BP in healthy women. A randomized, crossover trial, where participants received HN vegetables (HN diet) or avoided HN vegetables (Control diet) for 1 week. Before and after each intervention, resting BP and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured. University of Exeter, UK. Nineteen healthy women (mean age 20 (sd 2) years; mean BMI 22·5 (sd 3·8) kg/m2). The HN diet significantly increased plasma nitrate concentration (before HN diet: mean 24·4 (sd 5·6) µmol/l; after HN diet: mean 61·0 (sd 44·1) µmol/l, P<0·05) and plasma nitrite concentration (before HN diet: mean 98 (sd 91) nmol/l; after HN diet: mean 185 (sd 34) nmol/l, P<0·05). No significant change in plasma nitrate or nitrite concentration was observed after the Control diet. The HN diet significantly reduced resting systolic BP (before HN diet: mean 107 (sd 9) mmHg; after HN diet: mean 103 (sd 6) mmHg, P<0·05). No significant change in systolic BP was observed after the Control diet (before Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg; after Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg). Consumption of HN vegetables significantly increased plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduced BP in normotensive women.

  5. Sonication-assisted synthesis of a new cationic zinc nitrate complex with a tetradentate Schiff base ligand: Crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and investigation of different parameters influence on morphological properties.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, S A; Montazerozohori, M; Masoudiasl, A; Mahmoudi, G; White, J M

    2018-09-01

    A nanostructured cationic zinc nitrate complex with a formula of [ZnLNO 3 ]NO 3 (where L = (N 2 E,N 2' E)-N 1 ,N 1' -(ethane-1,2-diyl)bis(N 2 -((E)-3-phenylallylidene)ethane-1,2-diamine)) was prepared by sonochemical process and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The X-ray analysis demonstrates the formation of a cationic complex that metal center is five-coordinated by four nitrogen atom from Schiff base ligand and one oxygen atom from nitrate group. The crystal packing analysis demonstrates the essential role of the nitrate groups in the organization of supramolecular structure. The morphology and size of ultrasound-assisted synthesized zinc nitrate complex have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by changing parameters such as the concentration of initial reactants, the sonication power and reaction temperature. In addition the calcination of zinc nitrate complex in air atmosphere led to production of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX in Parma-like ham without nitrate or nitrite.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Uemura, Juichi; Odagiri, Hiroko; Okui, Jun; Hayashi, Nobutaka; Hioki, Shoji; Nishimura, Takanori; Hattori, Akihito

    2009-04-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) is a characteristic red pigment in meat products that are manufactured without the addition of a curing agent such as nitrate or nitrite. To examine the effects of impurities such as mineral components in sea salt on the formation of ZPP, we manufactured Parmatype dry-cured hams that were salted with refined salt or sea salt and examined the involvement of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in the formation of ZPP. The content of ZPP was increased drastically after 40 weeks. Microscopic observation showed strong fluorescence caused by ZPP muscle fiber after 40 weeks. Conversely, heme content varied considerably during processing. ORP increased during processing. However, there was no obvious difference between ham salted with refined salt and that salted with sea salt. Therefore, it was concluded that impurities in sea salt were not involved in the formation of ZPP.

  7. Estimating background and threshold nitrate concentrations using probability graphs

    Panno, S.V.; Kelly, W.R.; Martinsek, A.T.; Hackley, Keith C.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the ubiquitous nature of anthropogenic nitrate (NO 3-) in many parts of the world, determining background concentrations of NO3- in shallow ground water from natural sources is probably impossible in most environments. Present-day background must now include diffuse sources of NO3- such as disruption of soils and oxidation of organic matter, and atmospheric inputs from products of combustion and evaporation of ammonia from fertilizer and livestock waste. Anomalies can be defined as NO3- derived from nitrogen (N) inputs to the environment from anthropogenic activities, including synthetic fertilizers, livestock waste, and septic effluent. Cumulative probability graphs were used to identify threshold concentrations separating background and anomalous NO3-N concentrations and to assist in the determination of sources of N contamination for 232 spring water samples and 200 well water samples from karst aquifers. Thresholds were 0.4, 2.5, and 6.7 mg/L for spring water samples, and 0.1, 2.1, and 17 mg/L for well water samples. The 0.4 and 0.1 mg/L values are assumed to represent thresholds for present-day precipitation. Thresholds at 2.5 and 2.1 mg/L are interpreted to represent present-day background concentrations of NO3-N. The population of spring water samples with concentrations between 2.5 and 6.7 mg/L represents an amalgam of all sources of NO3- in the ground water basins that feed each spring; concentrations >6.7 mg/L were typically samples collected soon after springtime application of synthetic fertilizer. The 17 mg/L threshold (adjusted to 15 mg/L) for well water samples is interpreted as the level above which livestock wastes dominate the N sources. Copyright ?? 2006 The Author(s).

  8. Effect of Nitrite/Nitrate concentrations on Corrosivity of Washed Precipitate

    SciT

    Congdon, J.W.

    2001-03-28

    Cyclic polarization scans were performed using A-537 carbon steel in simulated washed precipitate solutions of various nitrite and nitrate concentrations. The results of this study indicate that nitrate is an aggressive anion in washed precipitate. Furthermore, a quantitative linear log-log relationship between the minimum effective nitrite concentration and the nitrate concentration was established for washed precipitate with other ions at their average compositions.

  9. Nitrate-Rich Vegetables Increase Plasma Nitrate and Nitrite Concentrations and Lower Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Jonvik, Kristin L; Nyakayiru, Jean; Pinckaers, Philippe Jm; Senden, Joan Mg; van Loon, Luc Jc; Verdijk, Lex B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is receiving increased attention due to its reported ergogenic and cardioprotective properties. The extent to which ingestion of various nitrate-rich vegetables increases postprandial plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure is currently unknown. We aimed to assess the impact of ingesting different nitrate-rich vegetables on subsequent plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and resting blood pressure in healthy normotensive individuals. With the use of a semirandomized crossover design, 11 men and 7 women [mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 1 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI, in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1; exercise: 1-10 h/wk] ingested 4 different beverages, each containing 800 mg (∼12.9 mmol) nitrate: sodium nitrate (NaNO3), concentrated beetroot juice, a rocket salad beverage, and a spinach beverage. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and blood pressure were determined before and up to 300 min after beverage ingestion. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations increased after ingestion of all 4 beverages (P < 0.001). Peak plasma nitrate concentrations were similar for all treatments (all values presented as means ± SEMs: NaNO3: 583 ± 29 μmol/L; beetroot juice: 597 ± 23 μmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 584 ± 24 μmol/L; spinach beverage: 584 ± 23 μmol/L). Peak plasma nitrite concentrations were different between treatments (NaNO3: 580 ± 58 nmol/L; beetroot juice: 557 ± 57 nmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 643 ± 63 nmol/L; spinach beverage: 980 ± 160 nmol/L; P = 0.016). When compared with baseline, systolic blood pressure declined 150 min after ingestion of beetroot juice (from 118 ± 2 to 113 ± 2 mm Hg; P < 0.001) and rocket salad beverage (from 122 ± 3 to 116 ± 2 mm Hg; P = 0.007) and 300 min after ingestion of spinach beverage (from 118 ± 2 to 111 ± 3 mm Hg; P < 0.001), but did not change with NaNO3 Diastolic blood pressure declined 150 min after ingestion of all

  10. Short-Term Subclinical Zinc Deficiency in Weaned Piglets Affects Cardiac Redox Metabolism and Zinc Concentration.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Daniel; Windisch, Wilhelm M

    2017-04-01

    Background: Subclinical zinc deficiency (SZD) represents the common zinc malnutrition phenotype. However, its association with oxidative stress is not well understood. The heart muscle may be a promising target for studying early changes in redox metabolism. Objective: We investigated the effects of short-term SZD on cardiac redox metabolism in weaned piglets. Methods: Forty-eight weaned German Large White × Landrace × Piétrain piglets (50% castrated males and 50% females; body weight of 8.5 kg) were fed diets with different zinc concentrations for 8 d. Measurements included cardiac parameters of antioxidative capacity, stress-associated gene expression, and tissue zinc status. Analyses comprised (linear, broken-line) regression models and Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: Glutathione and α-tocopherol concentrations as well as catalase, glutathione reductase, B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, and caspase 9 gene expression plateaued in response to reduction in dietary zinc from 88.0 to 57.6, 36.0, 36.5, 41.3, 55.3, and 33.8 mg/kg, respectively ( P < 0.0001). Further reduction in dietary zinc promoted a linear decrease of glutathione and α-tocopherol (30 and 0.6 nmol/mg dietary Zn, respectively; P < 0.05) and a linear increase of gene expression [0.02, 0.01, 0.003, and 0.02 Log 10 (2 -ΔΔCt )/mg dietary Zn, respectively; P < 0.05)]. Tissue zinc declined linearly with reduction in dietary zinc (0.21 mg tissue Zn/mg dietary Zn; P = 0.004) from 88.0 to 42.7 mg/kg ( P < 0.0001), below which it linearly increased inversely to further reduction in dietary zinc (0.57 mg tissue Zn/mg dietary Zn; P = 0.006). H 2 O 2 -detoxification activity and metallothionein 1A gene expression decreased linearly with reduction in dietary zinc from 88.0 to 28.1 mg/kg [0.02 mU and 0.008 Log 10 (2 -ΔΔCt )/mg dietary Zn, respectively; P < 0.05]. Fas cell-surface death receptor, etoposide-induced 2.4 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A gene expression correlated

  11. Impact of Testosterone, Zinc, Calcium and Magnesium Concentrations on Sperm Parameters in Subfertile Men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydemir, Birsen; Kiziler, Ali Riza; Onaran, Ilhan; Alici, Bülent; Özkara, Hamdi; Akyolcu, Mehmet Can

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the impact of testosterone, zinc, calcium and magnesium concentrations in serum and seminal plasma on sperm parameters. There were significant decrease in sperm parameters, serum and seminal plasma zinc levels in subfertile males. It indicates zinc has a essential role in male infertility; the determination the level of zinc during infertility investigation is recommended.

  12. Serum nitrate/nitrite concentration correlates with gastric juice nitrate/nitrite: a possible marker for mutagenesis of the proximal stomach.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Hiroshi; Nishida, Jiro; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Kaida, Shogo; Matsukubo, Takashi; Miura, Soichiro; Morishita, Tetsuo; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2011-01-01

    In the normal acid-secreting stomach, luminally generated nitric oxide, which contributes to carcinogenesis in the proximal stomach, is associated with the concentration of nitrate plus nitrite (nitrate/nitrite) in gastric juice. We investigated whether the serum nitrate/nitrite concentration is associated with that of gastric juice and whether it can be used as a serum marker. Serum and gastric juice nitrate/nitrite concentration, Helicobacter pylori antibody, and gastric pH were measured in 176 patients undergoing upper endoscopy. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum nitrate/nitrite concentration was the best independent predictor of gastric juice nitrate/nitrite concentration. On single regression analysis, serum and gastric juice nitrate/nitrite concentration were significantly correlated, according to the following equation: gastric juice nitrate/nitrite concentration (μmol/l) = 3.93 - 0.54 × serum nitrate/nitrite concentration (μmol/l; correlation coefficient = 0.429, p < 0.001). In analyses confined to subjects with gastric pH less than 2.0, and in those with serum markers suggesting normal acid secretion (pepsinogen-I >30 ng/ml and negative H. pylori antibody), the serum nitrate/nitrite concentration was an independent predictor of the gastric juice nitrate/nitrite concentration (p < 0.001). Measuring the serum nitrate/nitrite concentration has potential in estimating the gastric juice nitrate/nitrite concentration. The serum nitrate/nitrite concentration could be useful as a marker for mutagenesis in the proximal stomach. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Modeling the temporal variability of zinc concentrations in zinc roof runoff-experimental study and uncertainty analysis.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jérémie; El Oreibi, Elissar; Saad, Mohamed; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the temporal variability of zinc concentrations from zinc roof runoff. The influence of rainfall characteristics and dry period duration is evaluated by combining laboratory experiment on small zinc sheets and in situ measurements under real weather conditions from a 1.6-m(2) zinc panel. A reformulation of a commonly used conceptual runoff quality model is introduced and its ability to simulate the evolution of zinc concentrations is evaluated. A systematic and sharp decrease from initially high to relatively low and stable zinc concentrations after 0.5 to 2 mm of rainfall is observed for both experiments, suggesting that highly soluble corrosion products are removed at early stages of runoff. A moderate dependence between antecedent dry period duration and the magnitude of zinc concentrations at the beginning of a rain event is evidenced. Contrariwise, results indicate that concentrations are not significantly influenced by rainfall intensities. Simulated rainfall experiment nonetheless suggests that a slight effect of rainfall intensities may be expected after the initial decrease of concentrations. Finally, this study shows that relatively simple conceptual runoff quality models may be adopted to simulate the variability of zinc concentrations during a rain event and from a rain event to another.

  14. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations.

    PubMed

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-02-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day(-1)), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to "total metal", the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin concentrations in infants receiving intravenous zinc and copper supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lockitch, G; Godolphin, W; Pendray, M R; Riddell, D; Quigley, G

    1983-02-01

    One hundred twenty-seven newborn infants requiring parenteral nutrition were randomly assigned to receive differing amounts of zinc (40 to 400 micrograms/kg/day) and copper (20 or 40 micrograms/kg/day) supplementation within five birth weight groups (600 to 2,500 gm). The serum zinc concentration remained relatively constant in the group receiving the most zinc supplementation after two weeks of therapy, but declined sharply in the groups receiving less supplementation. No effect of increased copper intake was noted on ceruloplasmin values, but a difference in serum copper concentrations was noted at two weeks. No correlation was noted between serum zinc and copper values or among those for serum zinc, retinol-binding protein, and prealbumin. Reference ranges were defined for serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin in the preterm infant.

  16. Dynamic regression modeling of daily nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in a large agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhujing; Schilling, Keith E; Chan, Kung-Sik

    2013-06-01

    Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in rivers represent challenges for water supplies that use surface water sources. Nitrate concentrations are often modeled using time-series approaches, but previous efforts have typically relied on monthly time steps. In this study, we developed a dynamic regression model of daily nitrate concentrations in the Raccoon River, Iowa, that incorporated contemporaneous and lags of precipitation and discharge occurring at several locations around the basin. Results suggested that 95 % of the variation in daily nitrate concentrations measured at the outlet of a large agricultural watershed can be explained by time-series patterns of precipitation and discharge occurring in the basin. Discharge was found to be a more important regression variable than precipitation in our model but both regression parameters were strongly correlated with nitrate concentrations. The time-series model was consistent with known patterns of nitrate behavior in the watershed, successfully identifying contemporaneous dilution mechanisms from higher relief and urban areas of the basin while incorporating the delayed contribution of nitrate from tile-drained regions in a lagged response. The first difference of the model errors were modeled as an AR(16) process and suggest that daily nitrate concentration changes remain temporally correlated for more than 2 weeks although temporal correlation was stronger in the first few days before tapering off. Consequently, daily nitrate concentrations are non-stationary, i.e. of strong memory. Using time-series models to reliably forecast daily nitrate concentrations in a river based on patterns of precipitation and discharge occurring in its basin may be of great interest to water suppliers.

  17. The changing trend in nitrate concentrations in major aquifers due to historical nitrate loading from agricultural land across England and Wales from 1925 to 2150.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Stuart, M E; Lewis, M A; Ward, R S; Skirvin, D; Naden, P S; Collins, A L; Ascott, M J

    2016-01-15

    Nitrate is necessary for agricultural productivity, but can cause considerable problems if released into aquatic systems. Agricultural land is the major source of nitrates in UK groundwater. Due to the long time-lag in the groundwater system, it could take decades for leached nitrate from the soil to discharge into freshwaters. However, this nitrate time-lag has rarely been considered in environmental water management. Against this background, this paper presents an approach to modelling groundwater nitrate at the national scale, to simulate the impacts of historical nitrate loading from agricultural land on the evolution of groundwater nitrate concentrations. An additional process-based component was constructed for the saturated zone of significant aquifers in England and Wales. This uses a simple flow model which requires modelled recharge values, together with published aquifer properties and thickness data. A spatially distributed and temporally variable nitrate input function was also introduced. The sensitivity of parameters was analysed using Monte Carlo simulations. The model was calibrated using national nitrate monitoring data. Time series of annual average nitrate concentrations along with annual spatially distributed nitrate concentration maps from 1925 to 2150 were generated for 28 selected aquifer zones. The results show that 16 aquifer zones have an increasing trend in nitrate concentration, while average nitrate concentrations in the remaining 12 are declining. The results are also indicative of the trend in the flux of groundwater nitrate entering rivers through baseflow. The model thus enables the magnitude and timescale of groundwater nitrate response to be factored into source apportionment tools and to be taken into account alongside current planning of land-management options for reducing nitrate losses. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions

    SciT

    Bortolaz de Oliveira, Henrique; Wypych, Fernando, E-mail: wypych@ufpr.br

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZnHN) and Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts were synthesized and used to remove chromate ions from solutions at pH 8.0. The materials were characterized by many instrumental techniques before and after chromate ion removal. ZnHN decomposed after contact with the chromate solution, whereas the layered structure of Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate (Zn/NiHN) and Zn/Ni hydroxide acetate (Zn/NiHA) remained their layers intact after the topotactic anionic exchange reaction, only changing the basal distances. ZnHN, Zn/NiHN, and Zn/NiHA removed 210.1, 144.8, and 170.1 mg of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/g of material, respectively. Although the removal values obtained for Zn/NiHN andmore » Zn/NiHA were smaller than the values predicted for the ideal formulas of the solids (194.3 and 192.4 mg of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/g of material, respectively), the measured capacities were higher than the values achieved with many materials reported in the literature. Kinetic experiments showed the removal reaction was fast. To facilitate the solid/liquid separation process after chromium removal, Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts with magnetic supports were also synthesized, and their ability to remove chromate was evaluated. - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxide nitrate and Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate were synthesized. • The interlayer anions were replaced by chromate anions at pH=8.0. • Only Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate have the structure preserved after exchange. • Fast exchange reaction and high capacity of chromate removal were observed. • Magnetic materials were obtained to facilitate the solids removal the from solutions.« less

  19. Groundwater level and nitrate concentration trends on Mountain Home Air Force Base, southwestern Idaho

    Williams, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain Home Air Force Base in southwestern Idaho draws most of its drinking water from the regional aquifer. The base is located within the State of Idaho's Mountain Home Groundwater Management Area and is adjacent to the State's Cinder Cone Butte Critical Groundwater Area. Both areas were established by the Idaho Department of Water Resources in the early 1980s because of declining water levels in the regional aquifer. The base also is listed by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality as a nitrate priority area. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, began monitoring wells on the base in 1985, and currently monitors 25 wells for water levels and 17 wells for water quality, primarily nutrients. This report provides a summary of water-level and nitrate concentration data collected primarily between 2001 and 2013 and examines trends in those data. A Regional Kendall Test was run to combine results from all wells to determine an overall regional trend in water level. Groundwater levels declined at an average rate of about 1.08 feet per year. Nitrate concentration trends show that 3 wells (18 percent) are increasing in nitrate concentration trend, 3 wells (18 percent) show a decreasing nitrate concentration trend, and 11 wells (64 percent) show no nitrate concentration trend. Six wells (35 percent) currently exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant limit of 10 milligrams per liter for nitrate (nitrite plus nitrate, measured as nitrogen).

  20. Relation of morphology of electrodeposited zinc to ion concentration profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, C. E.; Kautz, H. E.; Sabo, B. B.

    1977-01-01

    The morphology of electrodeposited zinc was studied with special attention to the ion concentration profile. The initial concentrations were 9M hydroxide ion and 1.21M zincate. Current densities were 6.4 to 64 mA/sq cm. Experiments were run with a horizontal cathode which was observed in situ using a microscope. The morphology of the zinc deposit was found to be a function of time as well as current density; roughly, the log of the transition time from mossy to large crystalline type deposit is inversely proportional to current density. Probe electrodes indicated that the electrolyte in the cathode chamber was mixed by self inducted convection. However, relatively large concentration gradients of the involved species existed across the boundary layer of the cathode. Analysis of the data suggests that the morphology converts from mossy to large crystalline when the hydroxide activity on the cathode surface exceeds about 12 M. Other experiments show that the pulse discharge technique had no effect on the morphology in the system where the bulk concentration of the electrolyte was kept homogeneous via self induced convection.

  1. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Peter J; Brender, Jean D; Romitti, Paul A; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A; Vuong, Ann M; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997-2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers' overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS.

  2. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects

    PubMed Central

    Weyer, Peter J.; Brender, Jean D.; Romitti, Paul A.; Kantamneni, Jiji R.; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A.; Vuong, Ann M.; Langlois, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997–2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers’ overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS. PMID:25473985

  3. Impacts of drainage water management on subsurface drain flow, nitrate concentration, and nitrate loads in Indiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drainage water management is a conservation practice that has the potential to reduce drainage outflow and nitrate (NO3) loss from agricultural fields while maintaining or improving crop yields. The goal of this study was to quantify the impact of drainage water management on dra...

  4. High nitrate concentrations in some Midwest United States streams in 2013 after the 2012 drought

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Nakagaki, Naomi; Qi, Sharon L.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Wieczorek, Michael; Button, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen sources in the Mississippi River basin have been linked to degradation of stream ecology and to Gulf of Mexico hypoxia. In 2013, the USGS and the USEPA characterized water quality stressors and ecological conditions in 100 wadeable streams across the midwestern United States. Wet conditions in 2013 followed a severe drought in 2012, a weather pattern associated with elevated nitrogen concentrations and loads in streams. Nitrate concentrations during the May to August 2013 sampling period ranged from <0.04 to 41.8 mg L−1 as N (mean, 5.31 mg L−1). Observed mean May to June nitrate concentrations at the 100 sites were compared with May to June concentrations predicted from a regression model developed using historical nitrate data. Observed concentrations for 17 sites, centered on Iowa and southern Minnesota, were outside the 95% confidence interval of the regression-predicted mean, indicating that they were anomalously high. The sites with a nitrate anomaly had significantly higher May to June nitrate concentrations than sites without an anomaly (means, 19.8 and 3.6 mg L−1, respectively) and had higher antecedent precipitation indices, a measure of the departure from normal precipitation, in 2012 and 2013. Correlations between nitrate concentrations and watershed characteristics and nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate indicated that fertilizer and manure used in crop production, principally corn, were the dominant sources of nitrate. The anomalously high nitrate levels in parts of the Midwest in 2013 coincide with reported higher-than-normal nitrate loads in the Mississippi River.

  5. SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF TOTAL NITRATE CONCENTRATIONS USING DYNAMIC STATISTICAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric concentrations of total nitrate (TNO3), defined here as gas-phase nitric acid plus particle-phase nitrate, are difficult to simulate in numerical air quality models due to the presence of a variety of formation pathways and loss mechanisms, some of which ar...

  6. Effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc concentration and T cell proliferation in nursing home elderly:A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    Background: Zinc is essential for the regulation of immune response. T cell function declines with age. Zinc supplementation has the potential to improve serum zinc concentrations and immunity of nursing home elderly with low serum zinc concentration. Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of ...

  7. The relationship between the nitrate concentration and hydrology of a small chalk spring; Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burg, Avi; Heaton, Tim H. E.

    1998-01-01

    Discharge from a spring draining a small, perched, Cretaceous chalk aquifer in the Upper Galilee, Israel, was monitored over a period of two years. The water has elevated nitrate concentrations, with 15N/ 14N and chemical data suggesting that it is a mixture of low-nitrate and high-nitrate end-members; the latter derived from the sewage of a centuries-old village served by septic tanks. Hydrograph data allowed distinction between fissure flow during the period of winter rainfall, and matrix drainage during the dry summer months. These different flow types, however, did not have markedly different nitrate concentrations: a 50-fold increase in spring discharge due to fissure flow, compared with matrix drainage, was reflected in only a 35% decrease in nitrate concentrations. The relatively high nitrate concentrations in the fissure waters suggests that they have had close contact with, and are possibly displaced from the matrix. This should help to accelerate the decline in the spring's nitrate concentrations following the recent completion of the village's central sewage drainage system.

  8. Effects of over-winter green cover on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath tillage land.

    PubMed

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine E; Hackett, Richard; Kirwan, Laura; Richards, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing need to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural systems to increase food production while reducing negative environmental impacts. The efficacy of vegetation cover for reducing nitrate leaching in tillage systems during fallow periods has been widely investigated. Nitrate leaching reductions by natural regeneration (i.e. growth of weeds and crop volunteers) have been investigated to a lesser extent than reductions by planted cover crops. This study compares the efficacy of natural regeneration and a sown cover crop (mustard) relative to no vegetative cover under both a reduced tillage system and conventional plough-based system as potential mitigation measures for reducing over-winter soil solution nitrate concentrations. The study was conducted over three winter fallow seasons on well drained soil, highly susceptible to leaching, under temperate maritime climatic conditions. Mustard cover crop under both reduced tillage and conventional ploughing was observed to be an effective measure for significantly reducing nitrate concentrations. Natural regeneration under reduced tillage was found to significantly reduce the soil solution nitrate concentrations. This was not the case for the natural regeneration under conventional ploughing. The improved efficacy of natural regeneration under reduced tillage could be a consequence of potential stimulation of seedling germination by the autumn reduced tillage practices and improved over-winter plant growth. There was no significant effect of tillage practices on nitrate concentrations. This study shows that over winter covers of mustard and natural regeneration, under reduced tillage, are effective measures for reducing nitrate concentrations in free draining temperate soils. © 2013.

  9. Nitrate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitrate ; CASRN 14797 - 55 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  10. Antecedent flow conditions and nitrate concentrations in the Mississippi River basin

    Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Sprague, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between antecedent flow conditions and nitrate concentrations was explored at eight sites in the 2.9 million square kilometers (km2) Mississippi River basin, USA. Antecedent flow conditions were quantified as the ratio between the mean daily flow of the previous year and the mean daily flow from the period of record (Qratio), and the Qratio was statistically related to nitrate anomalies (the unexplained variability in nitrate concentration after filtering out season, long-term trend, and contemporaneous flow effects) at each site. Nitrate anomaly and Qratio were negatively related at three of the four major tributary sites and upstream in the Mississippi River, indicating that when mean daily streamflow during the previous year was lower than average, nitrate concentrations were higher than expected. The strength of these relationships increased when data were subdivided by contemporaneous flow conditions. Five of the eight sites had significant negative relationships (p ≤ 0.05) at high or moderately high contemporaneous flows, suggesting nitrate that accumulates in these basins during a drought is flushed during subsequent high flows. At half of the sites, when mean daily flow during the previous year was 50 percent lower than average, nitrate concentration can be from 9 to 27 percent higher than nitrate concentrations that follow a year with average mean daily flow. Conversely, nitrate concentration can be from 8 to 21 percent lower than expected when flow during the previous year was 50 percent higher than average. Previously documented for small, relatively homogenous basins, our results suggest that relationships between antecedent flows and nitrate concentrations are also observable at a regional scale. Relationships were not observed (using all contemporaneous flow data together) for basins larger than 1 million km2, suggesting that above this limit the overall size and diversity within these basins may necessitate the use of more

  11. Measurement of trace nitrate concentrations in seawater by ion chromatography with valve switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Juan; Fa, Yun; Zheng, Yue; Li, Xuebing; Du, Fanglin; Yang, Haiyan

    2014-05-01

    An ion chromatographic method with a valve switching facility was developed to determine trace nitrate concentrations in seawater using two pumps, two different suppressors, and two columns. A carbohydrate membrane desalter was used to reduce the high concentrations of sodium salts in samples. In this method, trace nitrate was eluted from the concentrator column to the analytical columns, while the matrix fl owed to waste. Neither chemical pre-treatment nor sample dilution was required. In the optimized separation conditions, the method showed good linearity ( R >0.99) in the 0.05 and 50 mg/L concentration range, and satisfactory repeatability (RSD<5%, n =6). The limit of detection for nitrate was 0.02 mg/L. Results showed that the valve switching system was suitable and practical for the determination of trace nitrate in seawater.

  12. Estimating the Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Ground Water in Washington State

    Frans, Lonna M.

    2008-01-01

    Logistic regression was used to relate anthropogenic (manmade) and natural variables to the occurrence of elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water in Washington State. Variables that were analyzed included well depth, ground-water recharge rate, precipitation, population density, fertilizer application amounts, soil characteristics, hydrogeomorphic regions, and land-use types. Two models were developed: one with and one without the hydrogeomorphic regions variable. The variables in both models that best explained the occurrence of elevated nitrate concentrations (defined as concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen greater than 2 milligrams per liter) were the percentage of agricultural land use in a 4-kilometer radius of a well, population density, precipitation, soil drainage class, and well depth. Based on the relations between these variables and measured nitrate concentrations, logistic regression models were developed to estimate the probability of nitrate concentrations in ground water exceeding 2 milligrams per liter. Maps of Washington State were produced that illustrate these estimated probabilities for wells drilled to 145 feet below land surface (median well depth) and the estimated depth to which wells would need to be drilled to have a 90-percent probability of drawing water with a nitrate concentration less than 2 milligrams per liter. Maps showing the estimated probability of elevated nitrate concentrations indicated that the agricultural regions are most at risk followed by urban areas. The estimated depths to which wells would need to be drilled to have a 90-percent probability of obtaining water with nitrate concentrations less than 2 milligrams per liter exceeded 1,000 feet in the agricultural regions; whereas, wells in urban areas generally would need to be drilled to depths in excess of 400 feet.

  13. Point source pollution and variability of nitrate concentrations in water from shallow aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemčić-Jurec, Jasna; Jazbec, Anamarija

    2017-06-01

    Agriculture is one of the several major sources of nitrate pollution, and therefore the EU Nitrate Directive, designed to decrease pollution, has been implemented. Point sources like septic systems and broken sewage systems also contribute to water pollution. Pollution of groundwater by nitrate from 19 shallow wells was studied in a typical agricultural region, middle Podravina, in northwest Croatia. The concentration of nitrate ranged from <0.1 to 367 mg/l in water from wells, and 29.8 % of 253 total samples were above maximum acceptable value of 50 mg/l (MAV). Among regions R1-R6, there was no statistically significant difference in nitrate concentrations ( F = 1.98; p = 0.15) during the years 2002-2007. Average concentrations of nitrate in all 19 wells for all the analyzed years were between recommended limit value of 25 mg/l (RLV) and MAV except in 2002 (concentration was under RLV). The results of the repeated measures ANOVA showed statistically significant differences between the wells at the point source distance (proximity) of <10 m, compared to the wells at the point source distance of >20 m ( F = 10.6; p < 0.001). Average annual concentrations of nitrate during the years studied are not statistically different, but interaction between proximity and years is statistically significant ( F = 2.07; p = 0.04). Results of k-means clustering confirmed division into four clusters according to the pollution. Principal component analysis showed that there is only one significant factor, proximity, which explains 91.6 % of the total variability of nitrate. Differences in water quality were found as a result of different environmental factors. These results will contribute to the implementation of the Nitrate Directive in Croatia and the EU.

  14. Are groundwater nitrate concentrations reaching a turning point in some chalk aquifers?

    PubMed

    Smith, J T; Clarke, R T; Bowes, M J

    2010-09-15

    In past decades, there has been much scientific effort dedicated to the development of models for simulation and prediction of nitrate concentrations in groundwaters, but producing truly predictive models remains a major challenge. A time-series model, based on long-term variations in nitrate fertiliser applications and average rainfall, was calibrated against measured concentrations from five boreholes in the River Frome catchment of Southern England for the period spanning from the mid-1970s to 2003. The model was then used to "blind" predict nitrate concentrations for the period 2003-2008. To our knowledge, this represents the first "blind" test of a model for predicting nitrate concentrations in aquifers. It was found that relatively simple time-series models could explain and predict a significant proportion of the variation in nitrate concentrations in these groundwater abstraction points (R(2)=0.6-0.9 and mean absolute prediction errors 4.2-8.0%). The study highlighted some important limitations and uncertainties in this, and other modelling approaches, in particular regarding long-term nitrate fertiliser application data. In three of the five groundwater abstraction points (Hooke, Empool and Eagle Lodge), once seasonal variations were accounted for, there was a recent change in the generally upward historical trend in nitrate concentrations. This may be an early indication of a response to levelling-off (and declining) fertiliser application rates since the 1980s. There was no clear indication of trend change at the Forston and Winterbourne Abbas sites nor in the trend of nitrate concentration in the River Frome itself from 1965 to 2008. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A moderate increase in dietary zinc reduces DNA strand breaks in leukocytes and alters plasma proteins without changing plasma zinc concentrations123

    PubMed Central

    Zyba, Sarah J; Killilea, David W; Holland, Tai C; Kim, Elijah; Moy, Adrian; Sutherland, Barbara; Shigenaga, Mark K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Food fortification has been recommended to improve a population’s micronutrient status. Biofortification techniques modestly elevate the zinc content of cereals, but few studies have reported a positive impact on functional indicators of zinc status. Objective: We determined the impact of a modest increase in dietary zinc that was similar to that provided by biofortification programs on whole-body and cellular indicators of zinc status. Design: Eighteen men participated in a 6-wk controlled consumption study of a low-zinc, rice-based diet. The diet contained 6 mg Zn/d for 2 wk and was followed by 10 mg Zn/d for 4 wk. To reduce zinc absorption, phytate was added to the diet during the initial period. Indicators of zinc homeostasis, including total absorbed zinc (TAZ), the exchangeable zinc pool (EZP), plasma and cellular zinc concentrations, zinc transporter gene expression, and other metabolic indicators (i.e., DNA damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress), were measured before and after each dietary-zinc period. Results: TAZ increased with increased dietary zinc, but plasma zinc concentrations and EZP size were unchanged. Erythrocyte and leukocyte zinc concentrations and zinc transporter expressions were not altered. However, leukocyte DNA strand breaks decreased with increased dietary zinc, and the level of proteins involved in DNA repair and antioxidant and immune functions were restored after the dietary-zinc increase. Conclusions: A moderate 4-mg/d increase in dietary zinc, similar to that which would be expected from zinc-biofortified crops, improves zinc absorption but does not alter plasma zinc. The repair of DNA strand breaks improves, as do serum protein concentrations that are associated with the DNA repair process. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02861352. PMID:28003206

  16. Knock-Down of CsNRT2.1, a Cucumber Nitrate Transporter, Reduces Nitrate Uptake, Root length, and Lateral Root Number at Low External Nitrate Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Li, Juanqi; Yan, Yan; Liu, Wenqian; Zhang, Wenna; Gao, Lihong; Tian, Yongqiang

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a macronutrient that plays a crucial role in plant growth and development. Nitrate (NO3-) is the most abundant N source in aerobic soils. Plants have evolved two adaptive mechanisms such as up-regulation of the high-affinity transport system (HATS) and alteration of the root system architecture (RSA), allowing them to cope with the temporal and spatial variation of NO3-. However, little information is available regarding the nitrate transporter in cucumber, one of the most important fruit vegetables in the world. In this study we isolated a nitrate transporter named CsNRT2.1 from cucumber. Analysis of the expression profile of the CsNRT2.1 showed that CsNRT2.1 is a high affinity nitrate transporter which mainly located in mature roots. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that CsNRT2.1 is a plasma membrane transporter. In N-starved CsNRT2.1 knock-down plants, both of the constitutive HATS (cHATS) and inducible HATS (iHATS) were impaired under low external NO3- concentration. Furthermore, the CsNRT2.1 knock-down plants showed reduced root length and lateral root numbers. Together, our results demonstrated that CsNRT2.1 played a dual role in regulating the HATS and RSA to acquire NO3- effectively under N limitation. PMID:29911677

  17. Diminished Stream Nitrate Concentrations Linked to Dissolved Organic Carbon Dynamics After Leaf Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebestyen, S. D.; Shanley, J. B.; Boyer, E. W.; Doctor, D. H.; Kendall, C.

    2004-05-01

    Thermodynamic coupling of the nitrogen and carbon cycles has broad implications for controls on catchment nutrient fluxes. In the northeast US, leaf fall occurs in early October and the availability of organic carbon increases as the leaves decompose. At the Sleepers River Research Watershed in northeastern Vermont (USA), we sampled stream chemistry from seven nested catchments to determine how stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate vary as a function of flow conditions, land-use, and basin size in response to leaf fall. Following leaf fall, nitrate concentration patterns were quantitatively different from other times of the year. Under baseflow conditions, stream and soil water DOC concentrations were higher than normal, whereas nitrate concentrations declined sharply at the five smallest catchments and more modestly at the two largest catchments. Under high flow conditions, flushing of nitrate was observed, as is typical for stormflow response at Sleepers River. Our field data suggest that in-stream processing of nitrate is likely thermodynamically and kinetically favorable under baseflow but not at higher flow conditions when expanding variable source areas make hydrological connections between nitrate source areas and streams. We are working to evaluate this hypothesis with isotopic and other monitoring data, and to model the coupled interactions of water, DOC, and nitrate fluxes in these nested catchments.

  18. Evaluation of Nitrate Concentrations and Sources in the Elk Creek Watershed, Southwestern Ohio, 2003-2004

    Schumann, Thomas L.; Pletsch, Bruce A.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrate concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter have been reported in ground water near the City of Trenton, Ohio, in the southern part of the Elk Creek watershed. A study of nitrate concentrations and sources in surface and ground water within the Elk Creek watershed was conducted during 2003 and 2004. Nitrate concentrations in the Elk Creek watershed range from less than 0.06 to 11 milligrams per liter. The likely sources of elevated nitrate in the ground water near the City of Trenton appear to be soil organic matter and ammonia fertilizer. Land use is predominantly (93 percent) agricultural, with no identified point sources of nitrate. Likely sources of nitrate in the surface water appear to be manure and septic system effluent, soil organic matter, and ammonia fertilizer. Water-quality constituents, including nitrate, were sampled in water from 38 wells and at 6 surface-water sites. The wells were all shallow (less than 105 feet deep), with open intervals in aquifers of glacial origin, that include tills, outwash, and alluvium. Nitrate concentrations (median of 0.06 milligrams per liter) in the ground water of the upper section of the watershed were lower than those in the lower section of the watershed (median of 4.2 milligrams per liter). Nitrate was analyzed for nitrogen and oxygen isotope values. The d15N and d18O range from -22.36 to +32.29 per mil, and -6.27 to +17.72 per mil, respectively. A positive correlation of d15N and d18O enrichment indicates that denitrification is a prevalent process within the watershed.

  19. Knowledge discovery from high-frequency stream nitrate concentrations: hydrology and biology contributions.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Alice H; Thrun, Michael C; Breuer, Lutz; Ultsch, Alfred

    2016-08-30

    High-frequency, in-situ monitoring provides large environmental datasets. These datasets will likely bring new insights in landscape functioning and process scale understanding. However, tailoring data analysis methods is necessary. Here, we detach our analysis from the usual temporal analysis performed in hydrology to determine if it is possible to infer general rules regarding hydrochemistry from available large datasets. We combined a 2-year in-stream nitrate concentration time series (time resolution of 15 min) with concurrent hydrological, meteorological and soil moisture data. We removed the low-frequency variations through low-pass filtering, which suppressed seasonality. We then analyzed the high-frequency variability component using Pareto Density Estimation, which to our knowledge has not been applied to hydrology. The resulting distribution of nitrate concentrations revealed three normally distributed modes: low, medium and high. Studying the environmental conditions for each mode revealed the main control of nitrate concentration: the saturation state of the riparian zone. We found low nitrate concentrations under conditions of hydrological connectivity and dominant denitrifying biological processes, and we found high nitrate concentrations under hydrological recession conditions and dominant nitrifying biological processes. These results generalize our understanding of hydro-biogeochemical nitrate flux controls and bring useful information to the development of nitrogen process-based models at the landscape scale.

  20. Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Row Crops and their Relationship to Nitrate in Eastern Iowa Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Weldon, Mark B.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and fertilizer application to row crops may contribute to poor water quality in surface waters. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated nutrient concentrations and fluxes in four Eastern Iowa watersheds sampled between 1996-2004. We found that these watersheds contribute nearly 10% of annual nitrate flux entering the Gulf of Mexico, while representing only 1.5% of the contributing drainage basin. Mass budget analysis shows stream flow to be a major loss of nitrogen (18% of total N output), second only to crop harvest (63%). The major watershed inputs of nitrogen include applied fertilizer for corn (54% of total N input) and nitrogen fixation by soybeans (26%). Despite the relatively small input from animal manure (~5%), the results of spatial analysis indicate that row crop and CAFO densities are significantly and independently correlated to higher nitrate concentration in streams. Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.59 and 0.89 were found between nitrate concentration and row crop and CAFO density, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis produced a correlation for nitrate concentration with an R2 value of 85%. High spatial density of row crops and CAFOs are linked to the highest river nitrate concentrations (up to 15 mg/l normalized over five years). PMID:16749677

  1. A field investigation of the relationship between zinc and acid volatile sulfide concentrations in freshwater sediments

    Ankley, Gerald T.; Liber, Karsten; Call, Daniel J.; Markee, Thomas P.; Canfield, Timothy J.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    1996-01-01

    Understanding relationships between cationic metals such as cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc, and amorphous iron sulfides, measured as acid volatile sulfide (AVS), is key to predicting metal bioavailability and toxicity insediments. The objective of the present study was to assess seasonal and spatial variations of AVS in freshwater sediments contaminated with zinc. Sediments were sampled from three streams with varying levels of zinc contamination at two different times, March and June of 1995, representing cold- and warm-weather situations. Interstitial (pore) water concentrations of zinc, and solid phase concentrations of AVS and zinc were measured in surficial and deep sediment horizons. Toxicity tests (10-d) with the amphipodHyalella azteca were conducted using intact cores. Sediment zinc concentrations from six sites within the primary test stream differed by about five-fold, and also varied seasonally. Acid volatile sulfide concentrations were generally lower than those of zinc, and pore water zinc concentrations typically were elevated. There was a positive correlation between solid-phase AVS and zinc concentrations, suggesting that the system was dominated by zinc, as opposed to iron sulfides. In contrast to expectations arising from some studies of seasonal variations of AVS in iron-dominated systems, AVS concentrations were smaller in June than in March. However, this was likely due to a major storm event and associated sediment scouring before the June sampling, rather than to seasonal processes related to variations in temperature and dissolved oxygen. Based upon an indirect analysis of depth variations in AVS, there was some indication that zinc sulfide might be less prone to oxidation than iron sulfide. There was a strong correlation between toxicity of the sediment samples toH. azteca and interstitial water concentrations of zinc; however, the possible contribution of other contaminants to sediment toxicity cannot be dismissed.

  2. Distribution of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Ground Water in Washington State

    Frans, Lonna

    2008-01-01

    More than 60 percent of the population of Washington State uses ground water for their drinking and cooking needs. Nitrate concentrations in ground water are elevated in parts of the State as a result of various land-use practices, including fertilizer application, dairy operations and ranching, and septic-system use. Shallow wells generally are more vulnerable to nitrate contamination than deeper wells (Williamson and others, 1998; Ebbert and others, 2000). In order to protect public health, the Washington State Department of Health requires that public water systems regularly measure nitrate in their wells. Public water systems serving more than 25 people collect water samples at least annually; systems serving from 2 to 14 people collect water samples at least every 3 years. Private well owners serving one residence may be required to sample when the well is first drilled, but are unregulated after that. As a result, limited information is available to citizens and public health officials about potential exposure to elevated nitrate concentrations for people whose primary drinking-water sources are private wells. The U.S. Geological Survey and Washington State Department of Health collaborated to examine water-quality data from public water systems and develop models that calculate the probability of detecting elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water. Maps were then developed to estimate ground water vulnerability to nitrate in areas where limited data are available.

  3. Effects of groundwater-flow paths on nitrate concentrations across two riparian forest corridors

    Speiran, Gary K.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater levels, apparent age, and chemistry from field sites and groundwater-flow modeling of hypothetical aquifers collectively indicate that groundwater-flow paths contribute to differences in nitrate concentrations across riparian corridors. At sites in Virginia (one coastal and one Piedmont), lowland forested wetlands separate upland fields from nearby surface waters (an estuary and a stream). At the coastal site, nitrate concentrations near the water table decreased from more than 10 mg/L beneath fields to 2 mg/L beneath a riparian forest buffer because recharge through the buffer forced water with concentrations greater than 5 mg/L to flow deeper beneath the buffer. Diurnal changes in groundwater levels up to 0.25 meters at the coastal site reflect flow from the water table into unsaturated soil where roots remove water and nitrate dissolved in it. Decreases in aquifer thickness caused by declines in the water table and decreases in horizontal hydraulic gradients from the uplands to the wetlands indicate that more than 95% of the groundwater discharged to the wetlands. Such discharge through organic soil can reduce nitrate concentrations by denitrification. Model simulations are consistent with field results, showing downward flow approaching toe slopes and surface waters to which groundwater discharges. These effects show the importance of buffer placement over use of fixed-width, streamside buffers to control nitrate concentrations.

  4. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  5. The relationship of nitrate concentrations in streams to row crop land use in Iowa

    Schilling, K.E.; Libra, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between row crop land use and nitrate N concentrations in surface water was evaluated for 15 Iowa watersheds ranging from 1002 to 2774 km2 and 10 smaller watersheds ranging from 47 to 775 km2 for the period 1996 to 1998. The percentage of land in row crop varied from 24 to >87% in the 15 large watersheds, and mean annual NO3-N concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 10.8 mg/L. In the small watersheds, row crop percentage varied from 28 to 87% and mean annual NO3-N concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 10.5 mg/L. In both cases, nitrate N concentrations were directly related to the percentage of row crop in the watershed (p 87% in the 15 large watersheds, and mean annual NO3-N concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 10.8 mg/L. In the small watersheds, row crop percentage varied from 28 to 87% and mean annual NO3-N concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 10.5 mg/L. In both cases, nitrate N concentrations were directly related to the percentage of row crop in the watershed (p<0.0003). Linear regression showed similar slope for both sets of watersheds (0.11) suggesting that average annual surface water nitrate concentrations in Iowa, and possibly similar agricultural areas in the midwestern USA, can be approximated by multiplying a watershed's row crop percentage by 0.1. Comparing the Iowa watershed data with similar data collected at a subwatershed scale in Iowa (0.1 to 8.1 km2) and a larger midcontinent scale (7300 to 237 100 km2) suggests that watershed scale affects the relationship of nitrate concentration and land use. The slope of nitrate concentration versus row crop percentage decreases with increasing watershed size.Mean nitrate concentrations and row crop land use were summarized for 15 larger and ten smaller watersheds in Iowa, and the relationship between NO3 concentration and land use was examined. Linear regression of mean NO3 concentration and percent row crop was highly significant for both sets of watershed data, but a stronger correlation was noted in the

  6. Evaluation of the Source and Transport of High Nitrate Concentrations in Ground Water, Warren Subbasin, California

    Nishikawa, Tracy; Densmore, Jill N.; Martin, Peter; Matti, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Ground water historically has been the sole source of water supply for the Town of Yucca Valley in the Warren subbasin of the Morongo ground-water basin, California. An imbalance between ground-water recharge and pumpage caused ground-water levels in the subbasin to decline by as much as 300 feet from the late 1940s through 1994. In response, the local water district, Hi-Desert Water District, instituted an artificial recharge program in February 1995 using imported surface water to replenish the ground water. The artificial recharge program resulted in water-level recoveries of as much as 250 feet in the vicinity of the recharge ponds between February 1995 and December 2001; however, nitrate concentrations in some wells also increased from a background concentration of 10 milligrams per liter to more than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 44 milligrams per liter (10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen). The objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate the sources of the high-nitrate concentrations that occurred after the start of the artificial-recharge program, (2) develop a ground-water flow and solute-transport model to better understand the source and transport of nitrates in the aquifer system, and (3) utilize the calibrated models to evaluate the possible effect of a proposed conjunctive-use project. These objectives were accomplished by collecting water-level and water-quality data for the subbasin and assessing changes that have occurred since artificial recharge began. Collected data were used to calibrate the ground-water flow and solute-transport models. Data collected for this study indicate that the areal extent of the water-bearing deposits is much smaller (about 5.5 square miles versus 19 square miles) than that of the subbasin. These water-bearing deposits are referred to in this report as the Warren ground-water basin. Faults separate the ground-water basin into five hydrogeologic units: the west

  7. Temporal and spatial trends in streamwater nitrate concentrations in the San Bernardino mountains, southern California

    Mark E. Fenn; Mark A. Poth

    1999-01-01

    We report streamwater nitrate (NO,) concentrations for December 1995 to September 1998 from 19 sampling sites across a N deposition gradient in the San Bernardino Mountains. Streamwater NO3- concentrations in Devil Canyon (DC), a high-pollution area, and in previously reported data from the San Gabriel Mountains 40 km...

  8. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations of human breast milk as affected by maternal dietary practices

    SciT

    Umoren, J.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-01

    Maternal dietary practices have been found to affect the concentrations of some nutrients in human breast milk. Lead toxicity is a concern in young children. Lead, copper and zinc are thought to compete for intestinal absorption sites. The objective of the current project was to compare copper, lead and zinc contents of breast milk from practicing lacto-vegetarian and omnivore, lactating women at approximately four months post-partum. Analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a carbon rod attachment. Copper concentrations were higher in milk samples from lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Milk samples from the omnivores had the highest lead and zinc concentrations. Leadmore » and copper concentrations in milk were negatively correlated. The higher zinc concentrations in the milk of the omnivore women may have been related to better utilization of zinc from meat than from plant food sources.« less

  9. Profound differences between humans and rodents in the ability to concentrate salivary nitrate: Implications for translational research.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Marcelo F; Sundqvist, Michaela L; Nihlén, Carina; Hezel, Michael; Carlström, Mattias; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O

    2016-12-01

    In humans dietary circulating nitrate accumulates rapidly in saliva through active transport in the salivary glands. By this mechanism resulting salivary nitrate concentrations are 10-20 times higher than in plasma. In the oral cavity nitrate is reduced by commensal bacteria to nitrite, which is subsequently swallowed and further metabolized to nitric oxide (NO) and other bioactive nitrogen oxides in blood and tissues. This entero-salivary circulation of nitrate is central in the various NO-like effects observed after ingestion of inorganic nitrate. The very same system has also been the focus of toxicologists studying potential carcinogenic effects of nitrite-dependent nitrosamine formation. Whether active transport of nitrate and accumulation in saliva occurs also in rodents is not entirely clear. Here we measured salivary and plasma levels of nitrate and nitrite in humans, rats and mice after administration of a standardized dose of nitrate. After oral (humans) or intraperitoneal (rodents) sodium nitrate administration (0.1mmol/kg), plasma nitrate levels increased markedly reaching ~300µM in all three species. In humans ingestion of nitrate was followed by a rapid increase in salivary nitrate to >6000µM, ie 20 times higher than those found in plasma. In contrast, in rats and mice salivary nitrate concentrations never exceeded the levels in plasma. Nitrite levels in saliva and plasma followed a similar pattern, ie marked increases in humans but modest elevations in rodents. In mice there was also no accumulation of nitrate in the salivary glands as measured directly in whole glands obtained after acute administration of nitrate. This study suggests that in contrast to humans, rats and mice do not actively concentrate circulating nitrate in saliva. These apparent species differences should be taken into consideration when studying the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in rodents, when calculating doses, exploring physiological, therapeutic and toxicological

  10. The role of climate on inter-annual variation in stream nitrate fluxes and concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Aurousseau, Pierre; Durand, Patrick; Ruiz, Laurent; Molenat, Jérôme

    2010-11-01

    In recent decades, temporal variations in nitrate fluxes and concentrations in temperate rivers have resulted from the interaction of anthropogenic and climatic factors. The effect of climatic drivers remains unclear, while the relative importance of the drivers seems to be highly site dependent. This paper focuses on 2-6 year variations called meso-scale variations, and analyses the climatic drivers of these variations in a study site characterized by high N inputs from intensive animal farming systems and shallow aquifers with impervious bedrock in a temperate climate. Three approaches are developed: 1) an analysis of long-term records of nitrate fluxes and nitrate concentrations in 30 coastal rivers of Western France, which were well-marked by meso-scale cycles in the fluxes and concentration with a slight hysteresis; 2) a test of the climatic control using a lumped two-box model, which demonstrates that hydrological assumptions are sufficient to explain these meso-scale cycles; and 3) a model of nitrate fluxes and concentrations in two contrasted catchments subjected to recent mitigation measures, which analyses nitrate fluxes and concentrations in relation to N stored in groundwater. In coastal rivers, hydrological drivers (i.e., effective rainfall), and particularly the dynamics of the water table and rather stable nitrate concentration, explain the meso-scale cyclic patterns. In the headwater catchment, agricultural and hydrological drivers can interact according to their settings. The requirements to better distinguish the effect of climate and human changes in integrated water management are addressed: long-term monitoring, coupling the analysis and the modelling of large sets of catchments incorporating different sizes, land uses and environmental factors. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Concurrent microbial reduction of high concentrations of nitrate and perchlorate in an ion exchange membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Fox, Shalom; Bruner, Tali; Oren, Yoram; Gilron, Jack; Ronen, Zeev

    2016-09-01

    We investigated effective simultaneous removal of high loads of nitrate and perchlorate from synthetic groundwater using an ion exchange membrane bioreactor (IEMB). The aim of this research was to characterize both transport aspects and biodegradation mechanisms involved in the treatment process of high loads of the two anions. Biodegradation process was proven to be efficient with over 99% efficiency of both perchlorate and nitrate, regardless of their load. The maximum biodegradation rates were 18.3 (mmol m(-2)  h(-1) ) and 5.5 (mmol m(-2)  h(-1) ) for nitrate and perchlorate, respectively. The presence of a biofilm on the bio-side of the membrane only slightly increased the nitrate and perchlorate transmembrane flux as compared to the measured flux during a Donnan dialysis experiment where there is no biodegradation of perchlorate and nitrate in the bio-compartment. The nitrate flux in presence of a biofilm was 18.3 (±1.9) (mmole m(-2)  h(-1) ), while without the biofilm, the flux was 16.9 (±1.5) (mmole m(-2)  h(-1) ) for the same feed inlet nitrate concentration of 4 mM. The perchlorate transmembrane flux increased similarly by an average of 5%. Samples of membrane biofilm and suspended bacteria from the bio-reactor were analyzed for diversity and abundance of the perchlorate and nitrate reducing bacteria. Klebsiella oxytoca, known as a glycerol fermenter, accounted for 70% of the suspended bacteria. In contrast, perchlorate and nitrate reducing bacteria predominated in the biofilm present on the membrane. These results are consistent with our proposed two stage biodegradation mechanism where glycerol is first fermented in the suspended phase of the bio-reactor and the fermentation products drive perchlorate and nitrate bio-reduction in the biofilm attached to the membrane. These results suggest that the niche exclusion of microbial populations in between the reactor and membrane is controlled by the fluxes of the electron donors and

  12. Seasonal Changes in diurnal in-Stream Nitrate Concentration Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusjan, Simon; Mikoš, Matjaž; Mitja, Brilly; Vidmar, Andrej

    2010-05-01

    A variability of seasonal changes in the diurnal in-stream NO3-N concentration oscillations was studied through high-frequency measurements of the stream-water's physical, chemical parameters (in-stream NO3-N concentration, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH) and hydrometeorological variables (stream discharge, solar radiation) under hydrologically stable conditions. The study was carried out in 2006, within the 42 km2 forested Padež stream watershed in the southwestern part of Slovenia, which is characterized by distinctive hydrogeological settings (flysch) and climate conditions (transitional area between the Mediterranean and continental climate). Fine temporal resolution of the data measured at 15 minute intervals enabled the identification of the main driving factors responsible for the seasonal variability in the diurnal pattern of the streamwater NO3-N concentrations vs. seasonal and diurnal behavior of meteorological and other water chemistry constituents. Seasonal variability of the shifts in daily maximum (up to 6 hours) and minimum NO3-N concentrations (between 1 and 3 hours) and changes in the amplitude of the daily NO3-N concentration oscillations (in order of 0.1-0.3 mg/l-N) offer supplementary evidence of the in-stream NO3-N processing by photoautotrophs. A wavelet analysis was further used to acquire clear, de-noised NO3-N concentration signals on which models in the form of Fourier series were build, reaching R2 values between 0.73 and 0.94. The models can be used to simulate the in-stream NO3-N oscillating signal in order to obtain more accurate assessment of the NO3-N exports from the forested watershed in different seasonal settings, undisturbed by the changing hydrological conditions.

  13. Effects of watershed-scale land use change on stream nitrate concentrations

    Schilling, K.E.; Spooner, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Walnut Creek Watershed Monitoring Project was conducted from 1995 through 2005 to evaluate the response of stream nitrate concentrations to changing land use patterns in paired 5000-ha Iowa watersheds. A large portion of the Walnut Creek watershed is being converted from row crop agriculture to native prairie and savanna by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (NSNWR). Before restoration, land use in both Walnut Creek (treatment) and Squaw Creek (control) watersheds consisted of 70% row crops. Between 1990 and 2005, row crop area decreased 25.4% in Walnut Creek due to prairie restoration but increased 9.2% in Squaw Creek due to Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grassland conversion back to row crop. Nitrate concentrations ranged between <0.5 to 14 mg L-1 at the Walnut Creek outlet and 2.1 to 15 mg L-1 at the downstream Squaw Creek outlet. Nitrate concentrations decreased 1.2 mg L-1 over 10 yr in the Walnut Creek watershed but increased 1.9 mg L-1 over 10 yr in Squaw Creek. Changes in nitrate were easier to detect and more pronounced in monitored subbasins, decreasing 1.2 to 3.4 mg L-1 in three Walnut Creek subbasins, but increasing up to 8.0 and 11.6 mg L-1 in 10 yr in two Squaw Creek subbasins. Converting row crop lands to grass reduced stream nitrate levels over time in Walnut Creek, but stream nitrate rapidly increased in Squaw Creek when CRP grasslands were converted back to row crop. Study results highlight the close association of stream nitrate to land use change and emphasize that grasslands or other perennial vegetation placed in agricultural settings should be part of a long-term solution to water quality problems. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  14. Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Henrique Bortolaz; Wypych, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZnHN) and Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts were synthesized and used to remove chromate ions from solutions at pH 8.0. The materials were characterized by many instrumental techniques before and after chromate ion removal. ZnHN decomposed after contact with the chromate solution, whereas the layered structure of Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate (Zn/NiHN) and Zn/Ni hydroxide acetate (Zn/NiHA) remained their layers intact after the topotactic anionic exchange reaction, only changing the basal distances. ZnHN, Zn/NiHN, and Zn/NiHA removed 210.1, 144.8, and 170.1 mg of CrO42-/g of material, respectively. Although the removal values obtained for Zn/NiHN and Zn/NiHA were smaller than the values predicted for the ideal formulas of the solids (194.3 and 192.4 mg of CrO42-/g of material, respectively), the measured capacities were higher than the values achieved with many materials reported in the literature. Kinetic experiments showed the removal reaction was fast. To facilitate the solid/liquid separation process after chromium removal, Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts with magnetic supports were also synthesized, and their ability to remove chromate was evaluated.

  15. Association of Mood Disorders with Serum Zinc Concentrations in Adolescent Female Students.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, Kobra; Amani, Reza; Nazari, Zahra; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Moazzen, Sara; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2017-08-01

    Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes. Serum zinc status was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and zinc deficiency was defined accordingly. Mood disorders were estimated by calculating the sum of two test scores including Beck's depression inventory (BDI) and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS) tests. General linear model (GLM) and Pearson's regression test were applied to show the correlation of serum zinc levels and mood disorder scores and the correlation between zinc serum levels and BDI scores, respectively. Dietary zinc intake was higher in subjects with normal zinc concentrations than that of zinc-deficient group (p = 0.001). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with BDI and HADS scores (p < 0.05). Each 10 μg/dL increment in serum zinc levels led to 0.3 and 0.01 decrease in depression and anxiety scores, respectively (p < 0.05). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with mood disorders including depression and anxiety in adolescent female students. Increasing serum levels of zinc in female students could improve their mood disorders.

  16. Fluoride, Nitrate, and Dissolved-Solids Concentrations in Ground Waters of Washington

    Lum, W. E.; Turney, Gary L.

    1984-01-01

    This study provides basic data on ground-water quality throughout the State. It is intended for uses in planning and management by agencies and individuals who have responsibility for or interest in, public health and welfare. It also provides a basis for directing future studies of ground-water quality toward areas where ground-water quality problems may already exist. The information presented is a compilation of existing data from numerous sources including: the Washington Departments of Ecology and Social and Health Services, the Environmental Protection Agency, as well as many other local, county, state and federal agencies and private corporations. Only data on fluoride, nitrate, and dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water are presented, as these constituents are among those commonly used to determine the suitability of water for drinking or other purposes. They also reflect both natural and man-imposed effects on water quality and are the most readily available water-quality data for the State of Washington. The percentage of wells with fluoride, nitrate, or dissolved-solids concentrations exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations were about 1, about 3, and about 3, respectively. Most high concentrations occurred in widely separated wells. Two exceptions were: high concentrations of nitrate and dissolved solids in wells on the Hanford Department of Energy Facility and high concentrations of nitrate in the lower Yakima River basin. (USGS)

  17. Impact of Vitamin B12 and Nitrate Availability on the Concentration of Particulate Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in Phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, J.; Lee, P. A.; Schanke, N. L.; Pound, H.; Penta, W. B.; Shore, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    The production of particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPp) was examined in natural phytoplankton communities from the South Atlantic Bight near Savannah, Georgia, during an expedition in June 2015. Vitamin B12 and nitrate were added to seawater samples from a coastal and an oceanic site, both of which contained low-biomass, cyanobacteria-dominated communities. Under nitrate-limited conditions, irrespective of changes in B12 levels, DMSPp concentrations increased. DMSPp concentrations of these mixed phytoplankton communities did not appear to be limited by the availability of B12. In a laboratory experiment, DMSPp concentrations in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were measured after the removal of vitamin B12 and nitrate from a synthetic seawater culture media. DMSPp concentrations increased under nitrate-limited conditions, irrespective of changes in B12 levels, and are argued to be the result of increased biosynthesis. DMSPp concentrations in P. tricornutum were unaffected by B12 limitation. It is hypothesized that P. tricornutum is using the B12-independent methionine synthase MetE to synthesize DMSPp rather than the B12-dependent methionine synthase MetH.

  18. Building factorial regression models to explain and predict nitrate concentrations in groundwater under agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigter, T. Y.; Ribeiro, L.; Dill, A. M. M. Carvalho

    2008-07-01

    SummaryFactorial regression models, based on correspondence analysis, are built to explain the high nitrate concentrations in groundwater beneath an agricultural area in the south of Portugal, exceeding 300 mg/l, as a function of chemical variables, electrical conductivity (EC), land use and hydrogeological setting. Two important advantages of the proposed methodology are that qualitative parameters can be involved in the regression analysis and that multicollinearity is avoided. Regression is performed on eigenvectors extracted from the data similarity matrix, the first of which clearly reveals the impact of agricultural practices and hydrogeological setting on the groundwater chemistry of the study area. Significant correlation exists between response variable NO3- and explanatory variables Ca 2+, Cl -, SO42-, depth to water, aquifer media and land use. Substituting Cl - by the EC results in the most accurate regression model for nitrate, when disregarding the four largest outliers (model A). When built solely on land use and hydrogeological setting, the regression model (model B) is less accurate but more interesting from a practical viewpoint, as it is based on easily obtainable data and can be used to predict nitrate concentrations in groundwater in other areas with similar conditions. This is particularly useful for conservative contaminants, where risk and vulnerability assessment methods, based on assumed rather than established correlations, generally produce erroneous results. Another purpose of the models can be to predict the future evolution of nitrate concentrations under influence of changes in land use or fertilization practices, which occur in compliance with policies such as the Nitrates Directive. Model B predicts a 40% decrease in nitrate concentrations in groundwater of the study area, when horticulture is replaced by other land use with much lower fertilization and irrigation rates.

  19. Rising atmospheric CO2 lowers food zinc, iron, and protein concentrations

    Dietary deficiencies of zinc and iron are a major global public health problem. Most people who experience these deficiencies depend on agricultural crops for zinc and iron. In this context, the influence of rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 on the availability of these nutrients from crops i...

  20. Nitrite and Nitrate Concentrations and Metabolism in Breast Milk, Infant Formula, and Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jesica A.; Ninnis, Janet R.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T. Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P < .01). Nitrate concentrations averaged 13.6 ± 3.7 μM and 12.7 ± 4.9 μM, respectively. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations in infant formulas varied from undetectable to many-fold more than breast milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ∼64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite. PMID:23894175

  1. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations and metabolism in breast milk, infant formula, and parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jesica A; Ninnis, Janet R; Hopper, Andrew O; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-09-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P < .01). Nitrate concentrations averaged 13.6 ± 3.7 μM and 12.7 ± 4.9 μM, respectively. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations in infant formulas varied from undetectable to many-fold more than breast milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ~64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  2. Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones

    Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W. J. Williard; James J. Zaczek; Jean C. Mangun; Andrew D. Carver

    2003-01-01

    Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones along Cypress Creek in southern Illinois were compared to determine if the riparian zones were sources or sinks for nitrogen in the rooting zone. Suction lysimeters were used to collect soil water samples from the lower rooting zone in each of the two vegetation types. The cane riparian...

  3. NITRATE AND NITROUS OXIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN SMALL STREAMS OF THE GEORGIA PIEDMONT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are measuring dissolved nitrate and nitrous oxide concentrations and related parameters in 17 headwater streams in the South Fork Broad River, Georgia watershed on a monthly basis. The selected small streams drain watersheds dominated by forest, pasture, residential, or mixed...

  4. Effects of substrate type on plant growth and nitrogen and nitrate concentration in spinach

    The effects of three commercial substrates (a mixture of forest residues, composted grape husks, and white peat; black peat; and coir) on plant growth and nitrogen (N) and nitrate (NO3) concentration and content were evaluated in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Tapir). Spinach seedlings were trans...

  5. Effect of cation type and concentration of nitrates on neurological disorders during experimental cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kuzenkov, V S; Krushinskii, A L; Reutov, V P

    2013-10-01

    Experiments were performed on the model of ischemic stroke due to bilateral occlusion of the carotid arteries. Nitrates had various effects on the dynamics of neurological disorders and mortality rate of Wistar rats, which depended on the cation type and concentration.

  6. Effect of adsorbed/intercalated anionic dyes into the mechanical properties of PVA: layered zinc hydroxide nitrate nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Rafael; Mikowski, Alexandre; Wypych, Fernando

    2010-11-15

    Zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) was adsorbed with anions of blue dyes (Chicago sky blue, CSB; Evans blue, EB; and Niagara blue, NB) and intercalated with anions of orange dyes (Orange G, OG; Orange II, OII; methyl orange, MO). Transparent, homogeneous and colored nanocomposite films were obtained by casting after dispersing the pigments (dye-intercalated/adsorbed into LHSs) into commercial poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The films were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and mechanical testing. The mechanical properties of the PVA compounded with the dye-intercalated/adsorbed ZHN were evaluated, and reasonable increases in Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength were observed, depending on the amount and choice of layered filler. These results demonstrate the possibility of using a new class of layered hydroxide salts intercalated and adsorbed with anionic dyes to prepare multifunctional polymer nanocomposite materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Structure and optical properties of ZnO produced from microwave hydrothermal hydrolysis of tris(ethylenediamine)zinc nitrate complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Heiba, Zein K.; Ibrahim, Mohamed M.

    2015-01-01

    ZnO powders were synthesized using a solution microwave hydrothermal hydrolysis process and tris(ethylenediamine)zinc nitrate {[Zn(en)3](NO3)2} (en = ethylenediamine) as a precursor. Hydrolysis of the precursor complex at different pH produced zinc oxide with a diversity of well-defined morphologies. The effect of hydrolysis pH values on the structural and optical properties has been explored using XRD, SEM, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). At pH = 7.0, randomly dispersed rods were formed. Whereas flower-like morphologies were obtained by treating the complex precursor in water at pH = 10.0 and 12.0. The ZnO4 tetrahedrons are greatly affected by the pH value. The band gap decreased sharply with increasing the pH value from 7.0 to 10.0, then slightly decreased with further increasing the pH to 12.0. The relationship between band gap and both structure and surface defects of the samples is also discussed.

  8. Concentrations and possible sources of nitrate in water from the Silurian-Devonian aquifer, Cedar Falls, Iowa

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    1999-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer sales in Iowa have been higher in recent years than during the mid- 1970’s. This suggests that nitrate concentrations in water from well 9 may persist at present levels or could increase in future years if fertilizer use increases and if higher nitrate concentrations are directly related to higher nitrogen fertilizer use.

  9. Attenuation of hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation by low micromolar concentrations of zinc.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Kanno, Shingo; Sakurada, Naomi; Ando, Masaki; Oku, Naoto

    2008-10-01

    The role of zinc in long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses is controversial because of the contrary results obtained when using zinc chelators. On the basis of the postulation that exogenous zinc enhances the action of zinc released from mossy fibers, mossy fiber LTP after tetanic stimulation (100 Hz, 1 sec) was checked in the presence of exogenous zinc at low micromolar concentrations. Mossy fiber LTP was significantly attenuated in the presence of 5-30 microM ZnCl(2), and the amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials 60 min after tetanic stimulation was decreased to almost the basal level. Mossy fiber LTP was also attenuated in the presence of 5 microM ZnCl(2) 5 min after tetanic stimulation. The present study is the first to demonstrate that low micromolar concentrations of zinc attenuate mossy fiber LTP. When mossy fiber LTP was induced in the presence of CaEDTA and ZnAF-2 DA, a membrane-impermeable and a membrane-permeable zinc chelator, respectively, extracellular and intracellular chelation of zinc enhanced a transient posttetanic potentiation (PTP) without altering LTP. It is likely that zinc released by tetanic stimulation is immediately taken up into the mossy fibers and attenuates mossy fiber PTP. These results suggest that attenuation of PTP rather than LTP at mossy fiber synapses is a more physiological role for endogenous zinc. Targeting molecules of zinc in mossy fiber LTP seem to be different between during and after LTP induction because of the differential synaptic activity between them. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Improved daily precipitation nitrate and ammonium concentration models for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.

    PubMed

    Grimm, J W; Lynch, J A

    2005-06-01

    Daily precipitation nitrate and ammonium concentration models were developed for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (USA) using a linear least-squares regression approach and precipitation chemistry data from 29 National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) sites. Only weekly samples that comprised a single precipitation event were used in model development. The most significant variables in both ammonium and nitrate models included: precipitation volume, the number of days since the last event, a measure of seasonality, latitude, and the proportion of land within 8km covered by forest or devoted to industry and transportation. Additional variables included in the nitrate model were the proportion of land within 0.8km covered by water and/or forest. Local and regional ammonia and nitrogen oxide emissions were not as well correlated as land cover. Modeled concentrations compared very well with event chemistry data collected at six NADP/AirMoN sites within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Wet deposition estimates were also consistent with observed deposition at selected sites. Accurately describing the spatial distribution of precipitation volume throughout the watershed is important in providing critical estimates of wet-fall deposition of ammonium and nitrate.

  11. Temporal variations and scaling of streamflow and baseflow and their nitrate-nitrogen concentrations and loads

    Zhang, Y.-K.; Schilling, K.

    2005-01-01

    The patterns of temporal variations of precipitation (P), streamflow (SF) and baseflow (BF) as well as their nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) concentrations (C) and loads (L) from a long-term record (28 years) in the Raccoon River, Iowa, were analyzed using variogram and spectral analyses. The daily P is random but scaling may exist in the daily SF and BF with a possible break point in the scaling at about 18 days and 45 days, respectively. The nitrate concentrations and loads are shown to have a half-year cycle while daily P, SF, and BF have a one-year cycle. Furthermore, there may be a low-frequency cycle of 6-8 years in C. The power spectra of C and L in both SF and BF exhibit fractal 1/f scaling with two characteristic frequencies of half-year and one-year, and are fitted well with the spectrum of the gamma distribution. The nitrate input to SF and BF at the Raccoon watershed seems likely to be a white noise process superimposed on another process with a half-year and one-year cycle. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of inflammation on plasma zinc concentration in apparently healthy, HIV+ Kenyan adults and zinc responses after a multi-micronutrient supplement.

    PubMed

    Mburu, A S W; Thurnham, D I; Mwaniki, D L; Muniu, E M; Alumasa, F M

    2010-05-01

    Plasma zinc is an important biomarker of zinc status, but the concentration is depressed by inflammation. Apparently healthy adults, who tested positive twice for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but who had not reached stage IV or clinical AIDS, were randomly allocated to receive a food supplement (n=17 and 21) or the food plus a micronutrient capsule (MN; n=10 men and n=33 women) containing 15 mg zinc/day. We used the inflammation biomarkers, C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), to identify subjects with and without inflammation and determine the effect of inflammation on the response of plasma zinc concentrations to the MN and food supplements. There were no differences between men and women either in plasma zinc or in the responses to the supplements and their data were combined. Plasma zinc was lower in those with inflammation than without. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that inflammation blocked increases in plasma zinc, and there was an approximate 10% increase in plasma zinc concentration in response to the MN supplement (P=0.023) in those without inflammation. Subgroup analysis showed mean changes in plasma zinc of 0.95 and -0.83 micromol/l (P=0.031) in response to the MN and food treatments, respectively, in those without inflammation at both time points. Inflammation seems to block any increase in plasma zinc after MN supplement and it is important to identify those without inflammation to determine the effectiveness of a zinc supplementation program.

  13. Nitrate dynamics in natural plants: insights based on the concentration and natural isotope abundances of tissue nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Koba, Keisuke; Makabe, Akiko; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of nitrate (NO−3), a major nitrogen (N) source for natural plants, has been studied mostly through experimental N addition, enzymatic assay, isotope labeling, and genetic expression. However, artificial N supply may not reasonably reflect the N strategies in natural plants because NO−3 uptake and reduction may vary with external N availability. Due to abrupt application and short operation time, field N addition, and isotopic labeling hinder the elucidation of in situ NO−3-use mechanisms. The concentration and natural isotopes of tissue NO−3 can offer insights into the plant NO−3 sources and dynamics in a natural context. Furthermore, they facilitate the exploration of plant NO−3 utilization and its interaction with N pollution and ecosystem N cycles without disturbing the N pools. The present study was conducted to review the application of the denitrifier method for concentration and isotope analyses of NO−3 in plants. Moreover, this study highlights the utility and advantages of these parameters in interpreting NO−3 sources and dynamics in natural plants. We summarize the major sources and reduction processes of NO−3 in plants, and discuss the implications of NO−3 concentration in plant tissues based on existing data. Particular emphasis was laid on the regulation of soil NO−3 and plant ecophysiological functions in interspecific and intra-plant NO−3 variations. We introduce N and O isotope systematics of NO−3 in plants and discuss the principles and feasibilities of using isotopic enrichment and fractionation factors; the correlation between concentration and isotopes (N and O isotopes: δ18O and Δ17O); and isotope mass-balance calculations to constrain sources and reduction of NO−3 in possible scenarios for natural plants are deliberated. Finally, we offer a preliminary framework of intraplant δ18O-NO−3 variation, and summarize the uncertainties in using tissue NO−3 parameters to interpret plant NO−3 utilization

  14. Nitrate dynamics in natural plants: insights based on the concentration and natural isotope abundances of tissue nitrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Koba, Keisuke; Makabe, Akiko; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of nitrate (NO(-) 3), a major nitrogen (N) source for natural plants, has been studied mostly through experimental N addition, enzymatic assay, isotope labeling, and genetic expression. However, artificial N supply may not reasonably reflect the N strategies in natural plants because NO(-) 3 uptake and reduction may vary with external N availability. Due to abrupt application and short operation time, field N addition, and isotopic labeling hinder the elucidation of in situ NO(-) 3-use mechanisms. The concentration and natural isotopes of tissue NO(-) 3 can offer insights into the plant NO(-) 3 sources and dynamics in a natural context. Furthermore, they facilitate the exploration of plant NO(-) 3 utilization and its interaction with N pollution and ecosystem N cycles without disturbing the N pools. The present study was conducted to review the application of the denitrifier method for concentration and isotope analyses of NO(-) 3 in plants. Moreover, this study highlights the utility and advantages of these parameters in interpreting NO(-) 3 sources and dynamics in natural plants. We summarize the major sources and reduction processes of NO(-) 3 in plants, and discuss the implications of NO(-) 3 concentration in plant tissues based on existing data. Particular emphasis was laid on the regulation of soil NO(-) 3 and plant ecophysiological functions in interspecific and intra-plant NO(-) 3 variations. We introduce N and O isotope systematics of NO(-) 3 in plants and discuss the principles and feasibilities of using isotopic enrichment and fractionation factors; the correlation between concentration and isotopes (N and O isotopes: δ(18)O and Δ(17)O); and isotope mass-balance calculations to constrain sources and reduction of NO(-) 3 in possible scenarios for natural plants are deliberated. Finally, we offer a preliminary framework of intraplant δ(18)O-NO(-) 3 variation, and summarize the uncertainties in using tissue NO(-) 3 parameters to interpret

  15. Groundwater nitrate concentration evolution under climate change and agricultural adaptation scenarios: Prince Edward Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradis, Daniel; Vigneault, Harold; Lefebvre, René; Savard, Martine M.; Ballard, Jean-Marc; Qian, Budong

    2016-03-01

    Nitrate (N-NO3) concentration in groundwater, the sole source of potable water in Prince Edward Island (PEI, Canada), currently exceeds the 10 mg L-1 (N-NO3) health threshold for drinking water in 6 % of domestic wells. Increasing climatic and socio-economic pressures on PEI agriculture may further deteriorate groundwater quality. This study assesses how groundwater nitrate concentration could evolve due to the forecasted climate change and its related potential changes in agricultural practices. For this purpose, a tridimensional numerical groundwater flow and mass transport model was developed for the aquifer system of the entire Island (5660 km2). A number of different groundwater flow and mass transport simulations were made to evaluate the potential impact of the projected climate change and agricultural adaptation. According to the simulations for year 2050, N-NO3 concentration would increase due to two main causes: (1) the progressive attainment of steady-state conditions related to present-day nitrogen loadings, and (2) the increase in nitrogen loadings due to changes in agricultural practices provoked by future climatic conditions. The combined effects of equilibration with loadings, climate and agricultural adaptation would lead to a 25 to 32 % increase in N-NO3 concentration over the Island aquifer system. The change in groundwater recharge regime induced by climate change (with current agricultural practices) would only contribute 0 to 6 % of that increase for the various climate scenarios. Moreover, simulated trends in groundwater N-NO3 concentration suggest that an increased number of domestic wells (more than doubling) would exceed the nitrate drinking water criteria. This study underlines the need to develop and apply better agricultural management practices to ensure sustainability of long-term groundwater resources. The simulations also show that observable benefits from positive changes in agricultural practices would be delayed in time due to

  16. Groundwater nitrate concentration evolution under climate change and agricultural adaptation scenarios: Prince Edward Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradis, D.; Vigneault, H.; Lefebvre, R.; Savard, M. M.; Ballard, J.-M.; Qian, B.

    2015-08-01

    Nitrate (N-NO3) concentration in groundwater, the sole source of potable water in Prince Edward Island (PEI, Canada), currently exceeds the 10 mg L-1 (N-NO3) health threshold for drinking water in 6 % of domestic wells. Increasing climatic and socio-economic pressures on PEI agriculture may further deteriorate groundwater quality. This study assesses how groundwater nitrate concentrations could evolve due to the forecasted climate change and its related potential changes in agricultural practices. For this purpose, a tridimensional numerical groundwater flow and mass transport model was developed for the aquifer system of the entire Island (5660 km2). A number of different groundwater flow and mass transport simulations were made to evaluate the potential impact of the projected climate change and agricultural adaptation. According to the simulations for year 2050, N-NO3 concentration would increase due to two main causes: (1) the progressive attainment of steady-state conditions related to present-day nitrogen loadings, and (2) the increase in nitrogen loadings due to changes in agricultural practices provoked by future climatic conditions. The combined effects of equilibration with loadings, climate and agricultural adaptation would lead to a 25 to 32 % increase in N-NO3 concentration over the Island aquifer system. Climate change alone (practices maintained at their current level) would contribute only 0 to 6 % to that increase according to the various climate scenarios. Moreover, simulated trends in groundwater N-NO3 concentration suggest that an increased number of domestic wells (more than doubling) would exceed the nitrate drinking water criteria. This study underlines the need to develop and apply better agricultural management practices to ensure sustainability of long-term groundwater resources. The simulations also show that observable benefits from positive changes in agricultural practices would be delayed in time due to the slow dynamics of nitrate

  17. Zinc transporter-1 concentrates at the postsynaptic density of hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Sindreu, Carlos; Bayés, Álex; Altafaj, Xavier; Pérez-Clausell, Jeús

    2014-03-07

    Zinc concentrates at excitatory synapses, both at the postsynaptic density and in a subset of glutamatergic boutons. Zinc can modulate synaptic plasticity, memory formation and nociception by regulating transmitter receptors and signal transduction pathways. Also, intracellular zinc accumulation is a hallmark of degenerating neurons in several neurological disorders. To date, no single zinc extrusion mechanism has been directly localized to synapses. Based on the presence of a canonical PDZ I motif in the Zinc Transporter-1 protein (ZnT1), we hypothesized that ZnT1 may be targeted to synaptic compartments for local control of cytosolic zinc. Using our previously developed protocol for the co-localization of reactive zinc and synaptic proteins, we further asked if ZnT1 expression correlates with presynaptic zinc content in individual synapses. Here we demonstrate that ZnT1 is a plasma membrane protein that is enriched in dendritic spines and in biochemically isolated synaptic membranes. Hippocampal CA1 synapses labelled by postembedding immunogold showed over a 5-fold increase in ZnT1 concentration at synaptic junctions compared with extrasynaptic membranes. Subsynaptic analysis revealed a peak ZnT1 density on the postsynaptic side of the synapse, < 10 nm away from the postsynaptic membrane. ZnT1 was found in the vast majority of excitatory synapses regardless of the presence of vesicular zinc in presynaptic boutons. Our study has identified ZnT1 as a novel postsynaptic density protein, and it may help elucidate the role of zinc homeostasis in synaptic function and disease.

  18. Zinc transporter-1 concentrates at the postsynaptic density of hippocampal synapses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Zinc concentrates at excitatory synapses, both at the postsynaptic density and in a subset of glutamatergic boutons. Zinc can modulate synaptic plasticity, memory formation and nociception by regulating transmitter receptors and signal transduction pathways. Also, intracellular zinc accumulation is a hallmark of degenerating neurons in several neurological disorders. To date, no single zinc extrusion mechanism has been directly localized to synapses. Based on the presence of a canonical PDZ I motif in the Zinc Transporter-1 protein (ZnT1), we hypothesized that ZnT1 may be targeted to synaptic compartments for local control of cytosolic zinc. Using our previously developed protocol for the co-localization of reactive zinc and synaptic proteins, we further asked if ZnT1 expression correlates with presynaptic zinc content in individual synapses. Findings Here we demonstrate that ZnT1 is a plasma membrane protein that is enriched in dendritic spines and in biochemically isolated synaptic membranes. Hippocampal CA1 synapses labelled by postembedding immunogold showed over a 5-fold increase in ZnT1 concentration at synaptic junctions compared with extrasynaptic membranes. Subsynaptic analysis revealed a peak ZnT1 density on the postsynaptic side of the synapse, < 10 nm away from the postsynaptic membrane. ZnT1 was found in the vast majority of excitatory synapses regardless of the presence of vesicular zinc in presynaptic boutons. Conclusions Our study has identified ZnT1 as a novel postsynaptic density protein, and it may help elucidate the role of zinc homeostasis in synaptic function and disease. PMID:24602382

  19. Oral Zinc Supplementation Decreases the Serum Iron Concentration in Healthy Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; de Medeiros Rocha, Érika Dantas; de Araújo Silva, Alfredo; Costa, João Batista Sousa; França, Mardone Cavalcante; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Brandão-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001). However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001) and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia. PMID:25192026

  20. Assessing the extent of nitrogen saturation in northern West Virginia forested watersheds: a survey of stream nitrate concentrations

    Karl W. J. Williard; David R. DeWalle; Pamela J. Edwards

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-seven forested watersheds in northern West Virginia were sampled for stream nitrate concentrations during summer 1997 and fall 1998 baseflow periods to determine if Fernow watershed 4, an often-cited and studied nitrogen saturated basin, was anomalous or regionally representative in terms of stream nitrate levels. Baseflow stream NO3-N...

  1. Median nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the New Jersey Highlands Region estimated using regression models and land-surface characteristics

    Baker, Ronald J.; Chepiga, Mary M.; Cauller, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The Kaplan-Meier method of estimating summary statistics from left-censored data was applied in order to include nondetects (left-censored data) in median nitrate-concentration calculations. Median concentrations also were determined using three alternative methods of handling nondetects. Treatment of the 23 percent of samples that were nondetects had little effect on estimated median nitrate concentrations because method detection limits were mostly less than median values.

  2. Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwestern United States

    Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems across the United States. The Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the region to groundwater contamination by synthesizing baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in 16 basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. The improved understanding of aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability to contamination is assisting in the development of tools that water managers can use to assess and protect the quality of groundwater resources.Human-health concerns and economic considerations associated with meeting drinking-water standards motivated a study of the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to nitrate con­tamination and arsenic enrichment in the southwestern United States. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid that represents about 190,600 square miles of basin-fill aquifers in parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The statistical models, referred to as classifiers, reflect natural and human-related factors that affect aquifer vulnerability to contamina­tion and relate nitrate and arsenic concentrations to explana­tory variables representing local- and basin-scale measures of source, aquifer susceptibility, and geochemical conditions. The classifiers were unbiased and fit the observed data well, and misclassifications were primarily due to statistical sampling error in the training datasets.The classifiers were designed to predict concentrations to be in one of six classes for nitrate, and one of seven classes for arsenic. Each classification scheme allowed for identification of areas with concentrations that were equal to or exceeding

  3. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  4. Zinc

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  5. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal and bacterial inocula on nitrate concentration in mesocosms simulating a wastewater treatment system relying on phytodepuration.

    PubMed

    Lingua, Guido; Copetta, Andrea; Musso, Davide; Aimo, Stefania; Ranzenigo, Angelo; Buico, Alessandra; Gianotti, Valentina; Osella, Domenico; Berta, Graziella

    2015-12-01

    High nitrogen concentration in wastewaters requires treatments to prevent the risks of eutrophication in rivers, lakes and coastal waters. The use of constructed wetlands is one of the possible approaches to lower nitrate concentration in wastewaters. Beyond supporting the growth of the bacteria operating denitrification, plants can directly take up nitrogen. Since plant roots interact with a number of soil microorganisms, in the present work we report the monitoring of nitrate concentration in macrocosms with four different levels of added nitrate (0, 30, 60 and 90 mg l(-1)), using Phragmites australis, inoculated with bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, to assess whether the use of such inocula could improve wastewater denitrification. Higher potassium nitrate concentration increased plant growth and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi or bacteria resulted in larger plants with more developed root systems. In the case of plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, a faster decrease of nitrate concentration was observed, while the N%/C% ratio of the plants of the different treatments remained similar. At 90 mg l(-1) of added nitrate, only mycorrhizal plants were able to decrease nitrate concentration to the limits prescribed by the Italian law. These data suggest that mycorrhizal and microbial inoculation can be an additional tool to improve the efficiency of denitrification in the treatment of wastewaters via constructed wetlands.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of nitrate and ammonium ion concentrations in soil solutions collected using MacroRhizon suction cups.

    PubMed

    Kabala, Cezary; Karczewska, Anna; Gałka, Bernard; Cuske, Mateusz; Sowiński, Józef

    2017-07-01

    The aims of the study were to analyse the concentration of nitrate and ammonium ions in soil solutions obtained using MacroRhizon miniaturized composite suction cups under field conditions and to determine potential nitrogen leaching from soil fertilized with three types of fertilizers (standard urea, slow-release urea, and ammonium nitrate) at the doses of 90 and 180 kg ha -1 , applied once or divided into two rates. During a 3-year growing experiment with sugar sorghum, the concentration of nitrate and ammonium ions in soil solutions was the highest with standard urea fertilization and the lowest in variants fertilized with slow-release urea for most of the months of the growing season. Higher concentrations of both nitrogen forms were noted at the fertilizer dose of 180 kg ha -1 . One-time fertilization, at both doses, resulted in higher nitrate concentrations in June and July, while dividing the dose into two rates resulted in higher nitrate concentrations between August and November. The highest potential for nitrate leaching during the growing season was in July. The tests confirmed that the miniaturized suction cups MacroRhizon are highly useful for routine monitoring the concentration of nitrate and ammonium ions in soil solutions under field conditions.

  7. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration.

    PubMed

    Killilea, David W; Rohner, Fabian; Ghosh, Shibani; Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations. Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC. Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1-2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale. Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions.

  8. Comparative study of glycine single crystals with additive of potassium nitrate in different concentration ratios

    SciT

    Gujarati, Vivek P., E-mail: vivekgujarati@gmail.com; Deshpande, M. P., E-mail: vishwadeshpande@yahoo.co.in; Patel, Kamakshi R.

    2016-05-06

    Semi-organic crystals of Glycine Potassium Nitrate (GPN) with potential applications in Non linear optics (NLO) were grown using slow evaporation technique. Glycine and Potassium Nitrate were taken in three different concentration ratios of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 respectively. We checked the solubility of the material in distilled water at different temperatures and could observe the growth of crystals in 7 weeks time. Purity of the grown crystals was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and CHN analysis. GSN Powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded to confirm the crystalline nature. To confirm the applications of grown crystals in opto-electronics field,more » UV-Vis-NIR study was carried out. Dielectric properties of the samples were studied in between the frequency range 1Hz to 100 KHz.« less

  9. Effects of Dietary Zinc Pectin Oligosaccharides Chelate Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Tissue Zinc Concentrations of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongcheng; Yu, Huimin; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Cui, Hu; Wan, Chunmeng; Gao, Xiuhua

    2016-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc pectin oligosaccharides (Zn-POS) chelate on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and tissue zinc concentrations of Arbor Acre broilers aged from 1 to 42 days. A total of 576 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 9 replicates per group and 16 chicks per replicate. Chicks were fed either a basal diet (control) or basal diet supplemented with Zn-POS at 300 (Zn-POS-300), 600 (Zn-POS-600), or 900 mg/kg (Zn-POS-900), respectively, for 42 days. A 3-day metabolism trial was conducted during the last week of the experiment feeding. The average daily gain and the average daily feed intake of Zn-POS-600 were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of either the control, Zn-POS-300, or Zn-POS-900. Zn-POS-600 had the highest apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and metabolic energy among all groups. The control group had the lowest apparent digestibility of dry matter (P < 0.05), whereas the apparent digestibility of dry matter in Zn-POS-600 was higher (P < 0.05) than that of Zn-POS-300. The apparent digestibility of crude protein in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P < 0.05) compared to Zn-POS-300 or the control. The apparent digestibility of metabolic energy in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P < 0.05) than that of Zn-POS-300. Zn-POS-600 had the highest liver zinc concentrations (P < 0.05), while Zn-POS-900 had the highest pancreatic zinc concentrations (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that the supplementation of 600 mg/kg Zn-POS is optimal in improving the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake, utilization of dietary dry matter and crude protein, and increasing tissue zinc concentrations in liver and pancreas of broilers.

  10. Relation of pathways and transit times of recharge water to nitrate concentrations using stable isotopes

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Komor, S.C.; Regan, C.P.

    2000-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope values of precipitation, irrigation water, soil water, and ground water were used with soil-moisture contents and water levels to estimate transit times and pathways of recharge water in the unsaturated zone of a sand and gravel aquifer. Nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) concentrations in ground water were also measured to assess their relation to seasonal recharge. Stable isotope values indicated that recharge water usually had a transit time through the unsaturated zone of several weeks to months. However, wetting fronts usually moved through the unsaturated zone in hours to weeks. The much slower transit of isotopic signals than that of wetting fronts indicates that recharge was predominantly composed of older soil water that was displaced downward by more recent infiltrating water. Comparison of observed and simulated isotopic values from pure-piston flow and mixing-cell water and isotope mass balance models indicates that soil water isotopic values were usually highly mixed. Thus, movement of recharge water did not occur following a pure piston-flow displacement model but rather follows a hydrid model involving displacement of mixed older soil water with new infiltration water. An exception to this model occurred in a topographic depression, where movement of water along preferential flowpaths to the water table occurred within hours to days following spring thaw as result of depression-focused infiltration of snow melt. In an adjacent upland area, recharge of snow melt occurred one to two months later. Increases in nitrate concentrations at the water table during April-May 1993 and 1994 in a topographic lowland within a corn field were related to recharge of water that had infiltrated the previous summer and was displaced from the unsaturated zone by spring infiltration. Increases in nitrate concentrations also occurred during July-August 1994 in response to recharge of water that infiltrated during May-August 1994. These results

  11. Assessment of regional change in nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Central Valley, California, USA, 1950s-2000s

    Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

    2013-01-01

    A regional assessment of multi-decadal changes in nitrate concentrations was done using historical data and a spatially stratified non-biased approach. Data were stratified into physiographic subregions on the basis of geomorphology and soils data to represent zones of historical recharge and discharge patterns in the basin. Data were also stratified by depth to represent a shallow zone generally representing domestic drinking-water supplies and a deep zone generally representing public drinking-water supplies. These stratifications were designed to characterize the regional extent of groundwater with common redox and age characteristics, two factors expected to influence changes in nitrate concentrations over time. Overall, increasing trends in nitrate concentrations and the proportion of nitrate concentrations above 5 mg/L were observed in the east fans subregion of the Central Valley. Whereas the west fans subregion has elevated nitrate concentrations, temporal trends were not detected, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of the water quality in this area and geologic sources of nitrate, combined with sparse and uneven data coverage. Generally low nitrate concentrations in the basin subregion are consistent with reduced geochemical conditions resulting from low permeability soils and higher organic content, reflecting the distal portions of alluvial fans and historical groundwater discharge areas. Very small increases in the shallow aquifer in the basin subregion may reflect downgradient movement of high nitrate groundwater from adjacent areas or overlying intensive agricultural inputs. Because of the general lack of regionally extensive long-term monitoring networks, the results from this study highlight the importance of placing studies of trends in water quality into regional context. Earlier work concluded that nitrate concentrations were steadily increasing over time in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, but clearly those trends do not apply to other

  12. Spatial and temporal study of nitrate concentration in groundwater by means of coregionalization

    D'Agostino, V.; Greene, E.A.; Passarella, G.; Vurro, M.

    1998-01-01

    Spatial and temporal behavior of hydrochemical parameters in groundwater can be studied using tools provided by geostatistics. The cross-variogram can be used to measure the spatial increments between observations at two given times as a function of distance (spatial structure). Taking into account the existence of such a spatial structure, two different data sets (sampled at two different times), representing concentrations of the same hydrochemical parameter, can be analyzed by cokriging in order to reduce the uncertainty of the estimation. In particular, if one of the two data sets is a subset of the other (that is, an undersampled set), cokriging allows us to study the spatial distribution of the hydrochemical parameter at that time, while also considering the statistical characteristics of the full data set established at a different time. This paper presents an application of cokriging by using temporal subsets to study the spatial distribution of nitrate concentration in the aquifer of the Lucca Plain, central Italy. Three data sets of nitrate concentration in groundwater were collected during three different periods in 1991. The first set was from 47 wells, but the second and the third are undersampled and represent 28 and 27 wells, respectively. Comparing the result of cokriging with ordinary kriging showed an improvement of the uncertainty in terms of reducing the estimation variance. The application of cokriging to the undersampled data sets reduced the uncertainty in estimating nitrate concentration and at the same time decreased the cost of the field sampling and laboratory analysis.Spatial and temporal behavior of hydrochemical parameters in groundwater can be studied using tools provided by geostatistics. The cross-variogram can be used to measure the spatial increments between observations at two given times as a function of distance (spatial structure). Taking into account the existence of such a spatial structure, two different data sets (sampled

  13. Feeding Low or Pharmacological Concentrations of Zinc Oxide Changes the Hepatic Proteome Profiles in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Bondzio, Angelika; Pieper, Robert; Gabler, Christoph; Weise, Christoph; Schulze, Petra; Zentek, Juergen; Einspanier, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological levels of zinc oxide can promote growth and health of weaning piglets, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are yet not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine changes in the global hepatic protein expression in response to dietary zinc oxide in weaned piglets. Nine half-sib piglets were allocated to three dietary zinc treatment groups (50, 150, 2500 mg/kg dry matter). After 14 d, pigs were euthanized and liver samples taken. The increase in hepatic zinc concentration following dietary supplementation of zinc was accompanied by up-regulation of metallothionein mRNA and protein expression. Global hepatic protein profiles were obtained by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis following matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 15 proteins were differentially (P<0.05) expressed between groups receiving control (150 mg/kg) or pharmacological levels of zinc (2500 mg/kg) with 7 down- (e.g. arginase1, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase, HSP70) and 8 up-regulated (e.g. apolipoprotein AI, transferrin, C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase) proteins. Additionally, three proteins were differentially expressed with low zinc supply (50 mg/kg Zn) in comparison to the control diet. The identified proteins were mainly associated with functions related to cellular stress, transport, metabolism, and signal transduction. The differential regulation was evaluated at the mRNA level and a subset of three proteins of different functional groups was selected for confirmation by western blotting. The results of this proteomic study suggest that zinc affects important liver functions such as blood protein secretion, protein metabolism, detoxification and redox homeostasis, thus supporting the hypothesis of intermediary effects of pharmacological levels of zinc oxide fed to pigs. PMID:24282572

  14. Survey of Nitrate Ion Concentrations in Vegetables Cultivated in Plant Factories: Comparison with Open-Culture Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Oka, Yuka; Hirayama, Izumi; Yoshikawa, Mitsuhide; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Iida, Kenji; Iwakoshi, Katsushi; Suzuki, Ayana; Yanagihara, Midori; Segawa, Yukino; Kukimoto, Sonomi; Hamada, Humika; Matsuzawa, Satomi; Tabata, Setsuko; Sasamoto, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    A survey of nitrate-ion concentrations in plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables was conducted. 344 samples of twenty-one varieties of raw leafy vegetables were examined using HPLC. The nitrate-ion concentrations in plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables were found to be LOD-6,800 mg/kg. Furthermore, the average concentration values varied among different leafy vegetables. The average values for plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables were higher than those of open-cultured leafy vegetables reported in previous studies, such as the values listed in the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan- 2015 - (Seventh revised edition). For some plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables, such as salad spinach, the average values were above the maximum permissible levels of nitrate concentration in EC No 1258/2011; however, even when these plant-factory-cultured vegetables were routinely eaten, the intake of nitrate ions in humans did not exceed the ADI.

  15. A hybrid machine learning model to predict and visualize nitrate concentration throughout the Central Valley aquifer, California, USA

    Ransom, Katherine M.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Traum, Jonathan A.; Faunt, Claudia; Bell, Andrew M.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Wheeler, David C.; Zamora, Celia; Jurgens, Bryant; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Belitz, Kenneth; Eberts, Sandra; Kourakos, George; Harter, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Intense demand for water in the Central Valley of California and related increases in groundwater nitrate concentration threaten the sustainability of the groundwater resource. To assess contamination risk in the region, we developed a hybrid, non-linear, machine learning model within a statistical learning framework to predict nitrate contamination of groundwater to depths of approximately 500 m below ground surface. A database of 145 predictor variables representing well characteristics, historical and current field and landscape-scale nitrogen mass balances, historical and current land use, oxidation/reduction conditions, groundwater flow, climate, soil characteristics, depth to groundwater, and groundwater age were assigned to over 6000 private supply and public supply wells measured previously for nitrate and located throughout the study area. The boosted regression tree (BRT) method was used to screen and rank variables to predict nitrate concentration at the depths of domestic and public well supplies. The novel approach included as predictor variables outputs from existing physically based models of the Central Valley. The top five most important predictor variables included two oxidation/reduction variables (probability of manganese concentration to exceed 50 ppb and probability of dissolved oxygen concentration to be below 0.5 ppm), field-scale adjusted unsaturated zone nitrogen input for the 1975 time period, average difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration during the years 1971–2000, and 1992 total landscape nitrogen input. Twenty-five variables were selected for the final model for log-transformed nitrate. In general, increasing probability of anoxic conditions and increasing precipitation relative to potential evapotranspiration had a corresponding decrease in nitrate concentration predictions. Conversely, increasing 1975 unsaturated zone nitrogen leaching flux and 1992 total landscape nitrogen input had an increasing relative

  16. Evaluating regional trends in ground-water nitrate concentrations of the Columbia Basin ground water management area, Washington

    Frans, Lonna M.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2005-01-01

    Trends in nitrate concentrations in water from 474 wells in 17 subregions in the Columbia Basin Ground Water Management Area (GWMA) in three counties in eastern Washington were evaluated using a variety of statistical techniques, including the Friedman test and the Kendall test. The Kendall test was modified from its typical 'seasonal' version into a 'regional' version by using well locations in place of seasons. No statistically significant trends in nitrate concentrations were identified in samples from wells in the GWMA, the three counties, or the 17 subregions from 1998 to 2002 when all data were included in the analysis. For wells in which nitrate concentrations were greater than 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L), however, a significant downward trend of -0.4 mg/L per year was observed between 1998 and 2002 for the GWMA as a whole, as well as for Adams County (-0.35 mg/L per year) and for Franklin County (-0.46 mg/L per year). Trend analysis for a smaller but longer-term 51-well dataset in Franklin County found a statistically significant upward trend in nitrate concentrations of 0.1 mg/L per year between 1986 and 2003. The largest increase of nitrate concentrations occurred between 1986 and 1991. No statistically significant differences were observed in this dataset between 1998 and 2003 indicating that the increase in nitrate concentrations has leveled off.

  17. Nitrate concentrations, 1936-99, and pesticide concentrations, 1990-99, in the unconfined aquifer in the San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2001-01-01

    The first documented analysis of nitrate concentrations for ground water in the unconfined aquifer was done in 1936. This valleywide investigation indicated that nitrate concentrations were 0.3 milligram per liter or less in water-quality samples from 38 wells completed in the unconfined aquifer. A valleywide study conducted in the late 1940's documented the first occurrences of nitrate concentrations greater than 3 mg/L. Up to this time, soil fertility was maintained primarily through the use of cattle and (or) sheep manure and crop rotation. Subsequent valleywide studies have documented several occurrences of elevated nitrate concentrations in the unconfined aquifer in a localized, intensively cultivated area north of the Rio Grande. The nitrate concentrations in water appear to have changed in response to increasing use of commercial inorganic fertilizers after the mid-1940's. A 1993 valleywide study evaluated the potential health risk associated with elevated nitrate concentrations in domestic water supplies. Water-quality samples from 14 percent of the wells sampled contained nitrate concentrations greater than 10 milligrams per liter. Most of the samples that contained concentrations greater than 10 milligrams per liter were collected from wells located in the intensively cultivated area north of the Rio Grande. During the 1990's, several local, small-scale, and field-scale investigations were conducted in the intensively cultivated area north of the Rio Grande. These studies identified spatial and temporal variations in nitrate concentration and evaluated the effectiveness of using shallow monitoring wells to determine nitrate leaching. Variations in nitrate concentration were attributed, in part, to seasonal recharge of the aquifer by surface water with low nitrate concentrations. Shallow monitoring wells were effective for determining the amount of nitrate leached, but because of the amount of residual nitrate in the soil from previous seasons, were

  18. Effects of Zinc Glycinate on Productive and Reproductive Performance, Zinc Concentration and Antioxidant Status in Broiler Breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yong-Xia; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Qian; Li, Kai-Xuan; Guo, Tian-Yu; Zhan, Xiu-An

    2017-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc glycinate (Zn-Gly) supplementation as an alternative for zinc sulphate (ZnSO 4 ) on productive and reproductive performance, zinc (Zn) concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders. Six hundred 39-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 groups consisting of 4 replicates with 25 birds each. Breeders were fed a basal diet (control group, 24 mg Zn/kg diet), basal diet supplemented with 80 mg Zn/kg diet from ZnSO 4 or basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg Zn/kg diet from Zn-Gly. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks after a 4-week pre-test with the basal diet, respectively. Results showed that Zn supplementation, regardless of sources, improved (P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio (kilogram of feed/kilogram of egg) and decreased broken egg rate, and elevated (P < 0.05) the qualified chick rate. Compared with the ZnSO 4 group, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly increased (P < 0.05) average egg weight, fertility, hatchability and qualified chick rate, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) broken egg rate. The Zn concentrations in liver and muscle were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group than that in ZnSO 4 group. Compared with ZnSO 4 group, 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly elevated (P < 0.05) the mRNA abundances of metallothionein (MT) and copper-zinc superoxide (Cu-Zn SOD), as well as the Cu-Zn SOD activity and MT concentration in liver. Moreover, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group had higher (P < 0.05) serum T-SOD and Cu-Zn SOD activities than that in the ZnSO 4 group. This study indicated that supplementation of Zn in basal diet improved productive and reproductive performance, Zn concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders, and the 80 mg Zn/kg from Zn-Gly was the optimum choice for broiler breeders compared with other levels of Zn from Zn-Gly and 80 mg/kg Zn from ZnSO 4 .

  19. Observations of fine particulate nitrated phenols in four sites in northern China: concentrations, source apportionment, and secondary formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liwei; Wang, Xinfeng; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Hao; Yao, Lan; Wen, Liang; Zhu, Fanping; Wang, Weihao; Xue, Likun; Yang, Lingxiao; Lu, Keding; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yuanghang; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-03-01

    Filter samples of fine particulate matters were collected at four sites in northern China (urban, rural, and mountain) in summer and winter, and the contents of nine nitrated phenols were quantified in the laboratory with the use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. During the sampling periods, the concentrations of particulate nitrated phenols exhibited distinct temporal and spatial variation. On average, the total concentration of particulate nitrated phenols in urban Jinan in the wintertime reached 48.4 ng m-3, and those in the summertime were 9.8, 5.7, 5.9, and 2.5 ng m-3 in urban Jinan, rural Yucheng and Wangdu, and Mt. Tai, respectively. The elevated concentrations of nitrated phenols in wintertime and in urban areas demonstrate the apparent influences of anthropogenic sources. The positive matrix factorization receptor model was then applied to determine the origins of particulate nitrated phenols in northern China. The five major source factors were traffic, coal combustion, biomass burning, secondary formation, and aged coal combustion plume. Among them, coal combustion played a vital role, especially at the urban site in the wintertime, with a contribution of around 55 %. In the summertime, the observed nitrated phenols were highly influenced by aged coal combustion plumes at all of the sampling sites. Meanwhile, in remote areas, contributions from secondary formation were significant. Further correlation analysis indicates that nitrosalicylic acids were produced mostly from secondary formation that was dominated by NO2 nitration.

  20. Effects of Unsaturated Microtopography on Nitrate Concentrations in Tundra Ecosystems: Examples from Polygonal Terrain and Degraded Peat Plateaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikoop, J. M.; Arendt, C. A.; Newman, B. D.; Charsley-Groffman, L.; Perkins, G.; Wilson, C. J.; Wullschleger, S.

    2017-12-01

    Under the auspices of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment - Arctic, we have been studying hydrogeochemical signals in Alaskan tundra ecosystems underlain by continuous permafrost (Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO)) and discontinuous permafrost (Seward Peninsula). The Barrow site comprises largely saturated tundra associated with the low gradient Arctic Coastal Plain. Polygonal microtopography, however, can result in slightly raised areas that are unsaturated. In these areas we have previously demonstrated production and accumulation of nitrate, which, based on nitrate isotopic analysis, derives from microbial degradation. Our Seward Peninsula site is located in a much steeper and generally well-drained watershed. In lower-gradient areas at the top and bottom of the watershed, however, the tundra is generally saturated, likely because of the presence of underlying discontinuous permafrost inhibiting infiltration. These settings also contain microtopographic features, though in the form of degraded peat plateaus surrounded by wet graminoid sag ponds. Despite being very different microtopographic features in a very different setting with distinct vegetation, qualitatively similar nitrate accumulation patterns as seen in polygonal terrain were observed. The highest nitrate pore water concentration observed in an unsaturated peat plateau was approximately 5 mg/L, whereas subsurface pore water concentrations in surrounding sag ponds were generally below the limit of detection. Nitrate isotopes indicate this nitrate results from microbial mineralization and nitrification based on comparison to the nitrate isotopic composition of reduced nitrogen sources in the environment and the oxygen isotope composition of site pore water. Nitrate concentrations were most similar to those found in low-center polygon rims and flat-centered polygon centers at the BEO, but were significantly lower than the maximum concentrations seen in the highest and driest polygonal features

  1. Zinc bioleaching from an iron concentrate using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain from Hercules Mine of Coahuila, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez-Ramírez, Diola Marina; Solís-Soto, Aquiles; López-Miranda, Javier; Pereyra-Alférez, Benito; Rutiaga-Quiñónes, Miriam; Medina-Torres, Luis; Medrano-Roldán, Hiram

    2011-10-01

    The iron concentrate from Hercules Mine of Coahuila, Mexico, which mainly contained pyrite and pyrrhotite, was treated by the bioleaching process using native strain Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ( A. ferrooxidans) to determine the ability of these bacteria on the leaching of zinc. The native bacteria were isolated from the iron concentrate of the mine. The bioleaching experiments were carried out in shake flasks to analyze the effects of pH values, pulp density, and the ferrous sulfate concentration on the bioleaching process. The results obtained by microbial kinetic analyses for the evaluation of some aspects of zinc leaching show that the native bacteria A. ferrooxidans, which is enriched with a 9K Silverman medium under the optimum conditions of pH 2.0, 20 g/L pulp density, and 40 g/L FeSO4, increases the zinc extraction considerably observed by monitoring during15 d, i.e., the zinc concentration has a decrease of about 95% in the iron concentrate.

  2. Nitrate concentration effects on NO3-N uptake and reduction, growth, and fruit yield in strawberry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darnell, R. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Strawberries (Fragaria xananassa Duch. 'Osogrande') were grown hydroponically with three NO3-N concentrations (3.75, 7.5, or 15.0 mM) to determine effects of varying concentration on NO3-N uptake and reduction rates, and to relate these processes to growth and fruit yield. Plants were grown for 32 weeks, and NO3-N uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) activities in roots and shoots were measured during vegetative and reproductive growth. In general, NO3-N uptake rates increased as NO3-N concentration in the hydroponics system increased. Tissue NO3- concentration also increased as external NO3-N concentration increased, reflecting the differences in uptake rates. There was no effect of external NO3-N concentration on NR activities in leaves or roots during either stage of development. Leaf NR activity averaged approximately 360 nmol NO2 formed/g fresh weight (FW)/h over both developmental stages, while NR activity in roots was much lower, averaging approximately 115 nmol NO2 formed/g FW/h. Vegetative organ FW, dry weight (DW), and total fruit yield were unaffected by NO3-N concentration. These data suggest that the inability of strawberry to increase growth and fruit yield in response to increasing NO3-N concentrations is not due to limitations in NO3-N uptake rates, but rather to limitations in NO3- reduction and/or assimilation in both roots and leaves.

  3. Determinants of serum zinc concentrations in a population of French middle-age subjects (SU.VI.MAX cohort).

    PubMed

    Arnaud, J; Touvier, M; Galan, P; Andriollo-Sanchez, M; Ruffieux, D; Roussel, A-M; Hercberg, S; Favier, A

    2010-10-01

    Few studies have been conducted on determinants of serum zinc concentration, especially in France. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between serum zinc concentrations, and age, education, living area and life style in a large sample cohort of French adults. Blood samples were collected after 12-h fasting in French adults (7448 women, 35-65 years old and 4926 men, 45-65 years old) participating to the SUpplementation in AntioXidant VItamins and Minerals cohort at enrolment. Serum zinc was determined by flame atomic absorption. Serum zinc concentration was lower in women (mean: 12.9 μmol/l, 95% confidence interval: 9.2-16.6 μmol/l) compared with men (mean: 13.4 μmol/l, 95% confidence interval: 9.7-17.1 μmol/l, P<0.0001). In total, 10% of the women showed serum zinc values <10.7 μmol/l and 10% of the men showed serum zinc values <11.3 μmol/l. Age was negatively associated with serum zinc only in men (P=0.001). In women, a positive association between smoking and serum zinc concentration (P=0.0003), and a negative relationship between highest education level and serum zinc concentration (P=0.01) were observed. With regard to geographical areas, the highest serum zinc concentrations were found in the Center, and the lowest in the Southwest of France for both men and women. The association between serum zinc concentrations and food categories or macronutrient intake disappeared after stratifying by gender. Age, gender and geographic area seem the main determinants of serum zinc concentrations in this study.

  4. Textural, Structural and Biological Evaluation of Hydroxyapatite Doped with Zinc at Low Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Predoi, Daniela; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Deniaud, Aurélien; Chevallet, Mireille; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; Buton, Nicolas; Prodan, Alina Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    The present work was focused on the synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite doped with low concentrations of zinc (Zn:HAp) (0.01 < xZn < 0.05). The incorporation of low concentrations of Zn2+ ions in the hydroxyapatite (HAp) structure was achieved by co-precipitation method. The physico-chemical properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), zeta-potential, and DLS and N2-BET measurements. The results obtained by XRD and FTIR studies demonstrated that doping hydroxyapatite with low concentrations of zinc leads to the formation of a hexagonal structure with lattice parameters characteristic to hydroxyapatite. The XRD studies have also shown that the crystallite size and lattice parameters of the unit cell depend on the substitutions of Ca2+ with Zn2+ in the apatitic structure. Moreover, the FTIR analysis revealed that the water content increases with the increase of zinc concentration. Furthermore, the Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and XPS analyses showed that the elements Ca, P, O, and Zn were found in all the Zn:HAp samples suggesting that the synthesized materials were zinc doped hydroxyapatite, Ca10−xZnx(PO4)6(OH), with 0.01 ≤ xZn ≤ 0.05. Antimicrobial assays on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacterial strains and HepG2 cell viability assay were carried out. PMID:28772589

  5. Trends in nitrate and dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water, Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, 1985-2001

    Rosen, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of trends in nitrate and total dissolved-solids concentrations over time in Carson Valley, Nevada, indicates that 56 percent of 27 monitoring wells that have long-term records of nitrate concentrations show increasing trends, 11 percent show decreasing trends, and 33 percent have not changed. Total dissolved-solids concentrations have increased in 52 percent of these wells and are stable in 48 percent. None of these wells show decreasing trends in total dissolved-solids concentrations. The wells showing increasing trends in nitrate and total dissolved-solids concentrations were always in areas that use septic waste-disposal systems. Therefore, the primary cause of these increases is likely the increase in septic-tank usage over the past 40 years.

  6. Preferential solvation, ion pairing, and dynamics of concentrated aqueous solutions of divalent metal nitrate salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Sushma; Chandra, Amalendu

    2017-12-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of preferential solvation of ions, structure of solvation shells, ion pairing, and dynamics of aqueous solutions of divalent alkaline-earth metal nitrate salts at varying concentration by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Hydration shell structures and the extent of preferential solvation of the metal and nitrate ions in the solutions are investigated through calculations of radial distribution functions, tetrahedral ordering, and also spatial distribution functions. The Mg2+ ions are found to form solvent separated ion-pairs while the Ca2+ and Sr2+ ions form contact ion pairs with the nitrate ions. These findings are further corroborated by excess coordination numbers calculated through Kirkwood-Buff G factors for different ion-ion and ion-water pairs. The ion-pairing propensity is found to be in the order of Mg(NO3) 2 < C a (NO3) 2 < S r (NO3) 2, and it follows the trend given by experimental activity coefficients. It is found that proper modeling of these solutions requires the inclusion of electronic polarization of the ions which is achieved in the current study through electronic continuum correction force fields. A detailed analysis of the effects of ion-pairs on the structure and dynamics of water around the hydrated ions is done through classification of water into different subspecies based on their locations around the cations or anions only or bridged between them. We have looked at the diffusion coefficients, relaxation of orientational correlation functions, and also the residence times of different subspecies of water to explore the dynamics of water in different structural environments in the solutions. The current results show that the water molecules are incorporated into fairly well-structured hydration shells of the ions, thus decreasing the single-particle diffusivities and increasing the orientational relaxation times of water with an increase in salt concentration. The different structural

  7. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration123

    PubMed Central

    Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations. Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC. Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1–2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale. Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions. PMID

  8. Decay of the zincate concentration gradient at an alkaline zinc cathode after charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, H. E.; May, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    The study was carried out by observing the decay of the zincate concentration gradient at a horizontal zinc cathode after charging. This decay was found to approximate first order kinetics as expected from a proposed boundary layer model. The decay half life was shown to be a linear function of the thickness of porous zinc deposit on the cathode indicating a very rapid transport of zincate through porous zinc metal. The rapid transport is attributed to an electrochemical mechanism. The data also indicated a relatively sharp transition between the diffusion and convection transport regions. The diffusion of zincate ion through asbestos submerged in alkaline electrolyte was shown to be comparable with that predicted from the bulk diffusion coefficient of the zincate ion in alkali.

  9. Developmental stage- and concentration-specific sodium nitroprusside application results in nitrate reductase regulation and the modification of nitrate metabolism in leaves of Medicago truncatula plants

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Chrystalla; Filippou, Panagiota; Mylona, Photini; Fasoula, Dionysia; Ioannides, Ioannis; Polidoros, Alexios; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive molecule involved in numerous biological events that has been reported to display both pro-oxidant and antioxidant properties in plants. Several reports exist which demonstrate the protective action of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a widely used NO donor, which acts as a signal molecule in plants responsible for the expression regulation of many antioxidant enzymes. This study attempts to provide a novel insight into the effect of application of low (100 μΜ) and high (2.5 mM) concentrations of SNP on the nitrosative status and nitrate metabolism of mature (40 d) and senescing (65 d) Medicago truncatula plants. Higher concentrations of SNP resulted in increased NO content, cellular damage levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration, further induced in older tissues. Senescing M. truncatula plants demonstrated greater sensitivity to SNP-induced oxidative and nitrosative damage, suggesting a developmental stage-dependent suppression in the plant’s capacity to cope with free oxygen and nitrogen radicals. In addition, measurements of the activity of nitrate reductase (NR), a key enzyme involved in the generation of NO in plants, indicated a differential regulation in a dose and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression levels of NO-responsive genes (NR, nitrate/nitrite transporters) involved in nitrogen assimilation and NO production revealed significant induction of NR and nitrate transporter during long-term 2.5 mM SNP application in mature plants and overall gene suppression in senescing plants, supporting the differential nitrosative response of M. truncatula plants treated with different concentrations of SNP. PMID:23838961

  10. Surface Water Qualit: Revisiting Nitrate Concentrations in the Des Moines River: 1945 and 1976-2001

    McIsaac, G.F.; Libra, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Recent compilations of historical and contemporary riverine nitrate (NO3) concentrations indicate that concentrations in many rivers in the north-central USA increased during the second half of the 20th century. The Des Moines River near Des Moines, Iowa, however, was reported to have had similar NO3 concentrations in 1945 and the 1980s, in spite of substantially greater N input to the watershed during the latter period. The objective of this study was to reconsider the comparison of historical and contemporary NO3 concentrations in the Des Moines River near Des Moines in light of the following: (i) possible errors in the historical data used, (ii) variations in methods of sample collection, (iii) variations in location of sampling, and (iv) additional data collected since 1990. We discovered that an earlier study had compared the flow-weighted average concentration in 1945 to arithmetic annual average concentrations in the 1980s. The intertemporal comparison also appeared to be influenced by differences in sample collection methods and locations used at different times. Depending on the model used and the estimated effects of composite sample collection, the 1945 arithmetic average NO3 concentration was between 44 and 57% of the expected mean value at a similar water yield during 1976-2001. The flow-weighted average NO3 concentration for 1945 was between 54 and 73% of the expected mean value at a similar water yield during 1976-2001. The difference between NO3 concentrations in 1945 and the contemporary period are larger than previously reported for the Des Moines River.

  11. Modeling of nitrate concentration in groundwater using artificial intelligence approach--a case study of Gaza coastal aquifer.

    PubMed

    Alagha, Jawad S; Said, Md Azlin Md; Mogheir, Yunes

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate concentration in groundwater is influenced by complex and interrelated variables, leading to great difficulty during the modeling process. The objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate the performance of two artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, namely artificial neural networks and support vector machine, in modeling groundwater nitrate concentration using scant input data, as well as (2) to assess the effect of data clustering as a pre-modeling technique on the developed models' performance. The AI models were developed using data from 22 municipal wells of the Gaza coastal aquifer in Palestine from 2000 to 2010. Results indicated high simulation performance, with the correlation coefficient and the mean average percentage error of the best model reaching 0.996 and 7 %, respectively. The variables that strongly influenced groundwater nitrate concentration were previous nitrate concentration, groundwater recharge, and on-ground nitrogen load of each land use land cover category in the well's vicinity. The results also demonstrated the merit of performing clustering of input data prior to the application of AI models. With their high performance and simplicity, the developed AI models can be effectively utilized to assess the effects of future management scenarios on groundwater nitrate concentration, leading to more reasonable groundwater resources management and decision-making.

  12. Predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in the Puget Sound Basin: Implications for aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Voss, F.D.

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of elevated nitrate concentrations (≥ 3 mg/l) in ground water in the Puget Sound Basin, Washington, were determined by examining existing data from more than 3000 wells. Models that estimate the probability that a well has an elevated nitrate concentration were constructed by relating the occurrence of elevated nitrate concentrations to both natural and anthropogenic variables using logistic regression. The variables that best explain the occurrence of elevated nitrate concentrations were well depth, surficial geology, and the percentage of urban and agricultural land within a radius of 3.2 kilometers of the well. From these relations, logistic regression models were developed to assess aquifer susceptibility (relative ease with which contaminants will reach aquifer) and ground-water vulnerability (relative ease with which contaminants will reach aquifer for a given set of land-use practices). Both models performed well at predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in an independent data set. This approach to assessing aquifer susceptibility and ground-water vulnerability has the advantages of having both model variables and coefficient values determined on the basis of existing water quality information and does not depend on the assignment of variables and weighting factors based on qualitative criteria.

  13. Zinc deficiency in field-grown pecan trees: changes in leaf nutrient concentrations and structure.

    PubMed

    Ojeda-Barrios, Dámaris; Abadía, Javier; Lombardini, Leonardo; Abadía, Anunciación; Vázquez, Saúl

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a typical nutritional disorder in pecan trees [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] grown under field conditions in calcareous soils in North America, including northern Mexico and south-western United States. The aim of this study was to assess the morphological and nutritional changes in pecan leaves affected by Zn deficiency as well as the Zn distribution within leaves. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf chlorophyll concentrations, leaf area and trunk cross-sectional area. Zinc deficiency increased significantly the leaf concentrations of K and Ca, and decreased the leaf concentrations of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu. All nutrient values found in Zn-deficient leaves were within the sufficiency ranges, with the only exception of Zn, which was approximately 44, 11 and 9 µg g(-1) dry weight in Zn-sufficient, moderately and markedly Zn-deficient leaves, respectively. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf thickness, mainly due to a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, as well as to increases in stomatal density and size. The localisation of Zn was determined using the fluorophore Zinpyr-1 and ratio-imaging technique. Zinc was mainly localised in the palisade mesophyll area in Zn-sufficient leaves, whereas no signal could be obtained in Zn-deficient leaves. The effects of Zn deficiency on the leaf characteristics of pecan trees include not only decreases in leaf chlorophyll and Zn concentrations, but also a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, an increase in stomatal density and pore size and the practical disappearance of Zn leaf pools. These characteristics must be taken into account to design strategies to correct Zn deficiency in pecan tree in the field. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Spatial and temporal trends in nitrate concentrations in the River Derwent, North Yorkshire, and its need for NVZ status.

    PubMed

    Mian, Ishaq A; Begum, Shaheen; Riaz, Muhammad; Ridealgh, Mike; McClean, Colin J; Cresser, Malcolm S

    2010-01-15

    Long-term spatial and temporal variations in nitrate-N concentrations along the River Derwent have been examined using Environment Agency data to investigate the relative importance of impacts of atmospheric N deposition, land use, and changes in management. Where moorland and rough grazing dominate upstream of Forge Valley and Malton, over the 20 years since 1988 mean nitrate-N concentrations were initially increasing significantly, but are now levelling off, with peaks at ca. 4.5 mg Nl(-1). As expected in a catchment in a nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ), more agricultural land use increases mean nitrate concentrations and the occurrence of distinct winter maxima, though the latter have become markedly less pronounced since 2001. It is suggested that this improvement is a combined effect of imposition of NVZ designation in the lower reaches in 2002, animal number declines associated with the Foot & Mouth outbreak in the region in 2001, and the impact of farmers' responses to increasing fertilizer prices and to beneficial pollutant mineral N inputs from the atmosphere. Minima in nitrate-N concentrations in summer have become much less pronounced over the past decade and are typically ca. 60% higher in concentration than a decade earlier. This probably is attributable to the effects of pollutant-N leaching to depths in soil below the rooting zone when near surface biotic uptake is low in winter. The resultant N mineralization in summer enhances summer nitrate leaching. The Derwent is a relatively clean river; however, its entire catchment was designated justifiably as a NVZ in January 2009, apparently based upon a projected 95 percentile nitrate-N concentration >11.29 mg l(-1) for 2010 based upon forward projection of data from 1990 to 2004 for Derwent Bridge. A survey of water quality in March 2009 showed that some agricultural areas are still making a significant contribution to the total nitrate level well downstream, at the point responsible for implementation of

  15. Decay of the zincate concentration gradient at an alkaline zinc cathode after charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, H. E.; May, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    The transport of the zincate ion to the alkaline zinc cathode was studied by observing the decay of the zincate concentration gradient at a horizontal zinc cathode after charging. This decay was found to approximate first order kinetics as expected from a proposed boundary layer model. The concentrations were calculated from polarization voltages. The decay half life was shown to be a linear function of the thickness of porous zinc deposit on the cathode indicating a very rapid transport of zincate through porous zinc metal. The rapid transport is attributed to an electrochemical mechanism. From the linear dependence of the half life on the thickness the boundary layer thickness was found to be about 0.010 cm when the cathode was at the bottom of the cell. No significant dependence of the boundary layer thickness on the viscosity of electrolyte was observed. The data also indicated a relatively sharp transition between the diffusion and convection transport regions. When the cathode was at the top of the cell, the boundary layer thickness was found to be roughly 0.080 cm. The diffusion of zincate ion through asbestos submerged in alkaline electrolyte was shown to be comparable with that predicted from the bulk diffusion coefficient of the zincate ion in alkali.

  16. Ecohydrological factors affecting nitrate concentrations in a phreatic desert aquifer in northwestern China

    Gates, J.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Edmunds, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Aerobic conditions in desert aquifers commonly allow high nitrate (NO 3-) concentrations in recharge to persist for long periods of time, an important consideration for N-cycling and water quality. In this study, stable isotopes of NO3- (??15N NO3 and ??18ONO3) were used to trace NO3- cycling processes which affect concentrations in groundwater and unsaturated zone moisture in the arid Badain Jaran Oesert in northwestern China. Most groundwater NO3- appears to be depleted relative to Cl- in rainfall concentrated by evapotranspiration, indicating net N losses. Unsaturated zone NO 3- is generally higher than groundwater NO 3- in terms of both concentration (up to 15 476 ??M, corresponding to 3.6 mg NO3--N per kg sediment) and ratios with Cl-. Isotopic data indicate that the NO3- derives primarily from nitrification, with a minor direct contribution of atmospheric NO3- inferred for some samples, particularly in the unsaturated zone. Localized denitrification in the saturated zone is suggested by isotopic and geochemical indicators in some areas. Anthropogenic inputs appear to be minimal, and variability is attributed to environmental factors. In comparison to other arid regions, the sparseness of vegetation in the study area appears to play an important role in moderating unsaturated zone NO3- accumulation by allowing solute flushing and deterring extensive N2 fixation. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  17. Effects of intraocular injection of a low concentration of zinc on the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, N; Chidlow, G; Osborne, N N

    2003-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate whether intraocular injection of low concentrations of zinc (no greater than 10 microM) aid the survival of ganglion cells in the rat retina after excitotoxic (NMDA) and ischemia/reperfusion injuries. We also determined whether low amounts of zinc cause any detectable retinal toxicity. Intraocular injection of NMDA caused substantial reductions in the mRNA levels of the ganglion cell-specific markers Thy-1 and neurofilament light (NF-L). Co-injection of 0.1 or 1 nmol zinc neither diminished nor exacerbated the effect of NMDA on the levels of these mRNAs. Likewise, ischemia/reperfusion caused significant decreases in the levels of Thy-1 and NF-L mRNAs and in the b-wave amplitude of the electroretinogram. These effects were not counteracted by injection of zinc. Intraocular injection of NMDA caused marked toxicological effects in retinal glial cells, including upregulations of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), glial fibrial acidic protein (GFAP), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). Interestingly, injection of 1 nmol zinc caused no changes in the levels of COX-2 and iNOS, yet produced similar, although quantitatively less pronounced, changes in FGF-2, GFAP and CNTF. The upregulations of FGF-2 and CNTF suggest that increasing zinc intake may benefit injured retinal neurons. However, this was not found to be the case in the present studies, perhaps due to the acute nature of the injury paradigms utilised.

  18. Low concentrations of zinc in gastric mucosa are associated with increased severity of Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sempértegui, Fernando; Díaz, Myriam; Mejía, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Mora, Oswaldo G; Rentería, Edgar; Guarderas, Carlos; Estrella, Bertha; Recalde, Ramiro; Hamer, Davidson H; Reeves, Philip G

    2007-02-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is the most common cause of gastric cancer. H. pylori induces oxidative stress while zinc deficiency results in increased sensitivity to it. In Ecuador, the prevalence of gastric cancer and zinc deficiency are high. We hypothesized that zinc deficiency in Ecuadorian people would cause increased H. pylori-induced inflammation in the gastric mucosa associated with lower tissue zinc concentrations. Three hundred and fifty-two patients with dyspepsia underwent endoscopy to obtain gastric mucosa biopsies. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection and its severity, histopathology, mucosal zinc concentration, and inflammation intensity were determined. H. pylori-infected patients with non-atrophic chronic gastritis had lower concentrations of zinc in gastric mucosa than uninfected patients with the same type of gastritis (251.3 +/- 225.3 vs. 426.2 +/- 279.9 ng/mg of protein; p = .016). Considering all patients, the more severe the H. pylori infection, the higher the percentage of subjects with infiltration by polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells (p = .0001). Patients with high PMN infiltration had lower mucosal zinc concentrations than patients with low PMN infiltration (35.2 +/- 20.7 vs. 242.9 +/- 191.8 ng/mg of protein; p = .021). The degree of inflammation in H. pylori-induced gastritis appears to be modulated by gastric tissue zinc concentrations.

  19. Effect of increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide on the global threat of zinc deficiency: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Myers, Samuel S; Wessells, K Ryan; Kloog, Itai; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-10-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) lower the content of zinc and other nutrients in important food crops. Zinc deficiency is currently responsible for large burdens of disease globally, and the populations who are at highest risk of zinc deficiency also receive most of their dietary zinc from crops. By modelling dietary intake of bioavailable zinc for the populations of 188 countries under both an ambient CO2 and elevated CO2 scenario, we sought to estimate the effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on the global risk of zinc deficiency. We estimated per capita per day bioavailable intake of zinc for the populations of 188 countries at ambient CO2 concentrations (375-384 ppm) using food balance sheet data for 2003-07 from the Food and Agriculture Organization. We then used previously published data from free air CO2 enrichment and open-top chamber experiments to model zinc intake at elevated CO2 concentrations (550 ppm, which is the concentration expected by 2050). Estimates developed by the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group were used for country-specific theoretical mean daily per-capita physiological requirements for zinc. Finally, we used these data on zinc bioavailability and population-weighted estimated average zinc requirements to estimate the risk of inadequate zinc intake among the populations of the different nations under the two scenarios (ambient and elevated CO2). The difference between the population at risk at elevated and ambient CO2 concentrations (ie, population at new risk of zinc deficiency) was our measure of impact. The total number of people estimated to be placed at new risk of zinc deficiency by 2050 was 138 million (95% CI 120-156). The people likely to be most affected live in Africa and South Asia, with nearly 48 million (32-63) residing in India alone. Global maps of increased risk show significant heterogeneity. Our results indicate that one heretofore unquantified human health effect associated

  20. Concentrations of nitrate in drinking water in the lower Yakima River Basin, Groundwater Management Area, Yakima County, Washington, 2017

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2018-05-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the lower Yakima River Basin Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) group, conducted an intensive groundwater sampling collection effort of collecting nitrate concentration data in drinking water to provide a baseline for future nitrate assessments within the GWMA. About every 6 weeks from April through December 2017, a total of 1,059 samples were collected from 156 wells and 24 surface-water drains. The domestic wells were selected based on known location, completion depth, ability to collect a sample prior to treatment on filtration, and distribution across the GWMA. The drains were pre-selected by the GWMA group, and further assessed based on ability to access sites and obtain a representative sample. More than 20 percent of samples from the domestic wells and 12.8 percent of drain samples had nitrate concentrations that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. At least one nitrate concentration above the MCL was detected in 26 percent of wells and 33 percent of drains sampled. Nitrate was not detected in 13 percent of all samples collected.

  1. Effects of agricultural practices and vadose zone stratigraphy on nitrate concentration in ground water in Kansas, USA

    Townsend, M.A.; Sleezer, R.O.; Macko, S.A.; ,

    1996-01-01

    Differences in nitrate-N concentrations in,around water in Kansas can be explained by variations in agricultural practices and vadose-zone stratigraphy. In northwestern Kansas, past use of a local stream for tailwater runoff from irrigation and high fertilizer applications for sugar-beet farming resulted in high nitrate-N concentrations (12-60 mg L-1; in both soil and ground water. Nitrogen isotope values from the soil and ground water range from +4 to +8? which is typical for a fertilizer source. In parts of south-central Kansas, the use of crop rotation and the presence of both continuous fine-textured layers and a reducing ground-water chemistry resulted in ground-water nitrate-N values of 10 mg L-1; in both soil and grounwater. Nitrogen isotope values of +3 to +7? indicate a fertilizer source. Crop rotation decreased nitrate-N values in the shallow ground water (9 m). However, deeper ground water showed increasing nitrate-N concentrations as a result of past farming practices.

  2. Gravel pit lake ecosystems reduce nitrate and phosphate concentrations in the outflowing groundwater.

    PubMed

    Weilhartner, Andreas; Muellegger, Christian; Kainz, Martin; Mathieu, Francine; Hofmann, Thilo; Battin, Tom J

    2012-03-15

    Gravel excavation often bears conflicts with the use of drinking water as under-water-table mining can directly impact groundwater quality downstream of the open gravel pit lake due to exposure of the groundwater aquifer to the atmosphere and to human activities. To assess this potential impact of GPLs on groundwater, we assessed the mass balance for nitrate (NO(3)) and phosphate (PO(4)) and whole-ecosystem metabolism of five post-excavation GPLs in Austria. GPLs differed in both age and residence time of lake water. We found that GPLs significantly reduced the concentration of NO(3) and PO(4) as groundwater passes through the lake ecosystem, which in most cases acted as a net sink for these nutrients. Groundwater-derived nutrients enhanced both epilithic and pelagic net primary production in the GPLs, which ultimately leads to biomass accrual. Our data also suggest that this biomass accrual may induce, at least in part, clogging of the GPLs and their successive hydrodynamic isolation from the adjacent groundwater. Despite continuous biomass build-up and elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the lake water compared to the inflowing groundwater, DOC export into the outflowing groundwater remained low. Our data suggest that GPLs could contribute to groundwater amelioration where agricultural land use increases nutrient concentrations in the groundwater given a proper management of these man-made ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mining nitrate concentration patterns from high-frequency in situ monitoring: a step towards more detailed understanding of hydrological processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Alice; Houska, Tobias; Plesca, Ina; Kraft, Philipp; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    Recently developed sensing technics allow collecting a considerable amount of high-frequency data; not only for hydrologic parameters (water levels, rainfall, etc.) but also for water chemistry. With devices such as in situ spectrophotometer, nitrate concentration can be monitored down to sub-hourly intervals. Thus, opening the way to new questions: what about daily or sub-daily instream nitrate concentration variations? What do these newly observed variations tell us about hydrological processes? In the Vollnkirchener Bach catchment, a headwater creek flows through a human impacted landscape dominated by agricultural and forest use and including a small settlement. Since March 2013, a Pro-PS device has been installed at the gauging station (monitored since 2011). Nitrate concentration is measured every 15 minutes, discharge and water temperature every 5 minutes. Data mining, more precisely motif discovery, is performed on these time series to identify high-resolution patterns. Spectral analysis highlighted that, in data measured at sub-hourly sampling frequency, variations up to a few hours are more likely to be dominated by measurement noise rather than real-world fluctuations. Therefore, we focus on daily motifs and flood patterns (given the fact that hydrological conditions are changing during flood events, we assume that nitrate concentration changes are depicting real processes). Various flood motifs were extracted: (1) nitrate can either be diluted or (2) concentrated, or (3) both (dilution followed by a bumpy recession curve indicating nitrate enrichment at the end of the flood). In addition to these classical nutrient-discharge behaviors, a variety of other interesting motifs were highlighted. (4) A daily nitrate cycle is clearly observed, but only during a specific year period. (5) Lag to peak time between parameters differentiate flood patterns: sometimes nitrate peaks first, sometimes discharge peaks first. (6) Furthermore, we are able to pinpoint the

  4. Serum copper and zinc concentrations in a representative sample of the Canarian population.

    PubMed

    Díaz Romero, Carlos; Henríquez Sánchez, Patricia; López Blanco, Félix; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Serra Majem, Lluis

    2002-01-01

    Serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations of 395 individuals (187 males + 208 females) living in Canary Islands were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 1.10 +/- 0.25 mg/L and 1.16 +/- 0.52 mg/L respectively. Our data were similar to other data published in other Spanish regions. Individuals from Lanzarote presented a mean Cu and Zn concentrations higher (p < 0.05) than individuals from the rest of islands; Individuals from EL Hierro showed the lowest (p < 0.05) mean Zn concentration. These differences could be attributed a differences in Cu and Zn contents of soil and/or differences in dietary habits of the populations. The mean serum Cu concentration in females was higher (p < 0.05) than in males, however serum Zn concentration did not vary with the sex of the subjects. No relation to socio-economic status and educational level were found with respect to the serum Cu and Zn concentrations. The serum Cu concentration varied with age of individuals, observing the highest (p < 0.05) Cu concentration in the 20-30 year old interval. A higher serum Cu concentration in females within 20-30 year old interval was observed. This could be due to a higher use of oral contraceptives or to the higher number of pregnancies. Boys (younger than 15) showed a decrease (p < 0.05) of the serum Cu concentration with age. The mean Zn concentrations in serum did not change (p > 0.05) among the different age intervals. No clear trends in the serum Cu and Zn concentrations were observed when drinking and smoking habits were considered. The increase of physical exercise reduced (p < 0.05) the serum Cu concentrations.

  5. Cadmium, zinc, copper, sodium and potassium concentrations in rooster and turkey semen and their correlation.

    PubMed

    Massanyi, Peter; Weis, Jan; Lukac, Norbert; Trandzik, Jozef; Bystricka, Judita

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess concentration of selected elements (cadmium, zinc, copper, sodium and potassium) in rooster and turkey semen and to find possible correlations between these elements. Samples were analyzed on the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis of cadmium showed that the concentration in rooster is 9.06 +/- 7.70 and in turkey 4.10 +/- 3.59 microg/mL. In zinc 5.25 +/- 1.96 microg/mL in rooster and 3.70 +/- 1.26 microg/mL in turkey were detected. Higher concentration of copper was found in rooster semen (6.79 +/- 6.42 microg/mL) in comparison with turkey semen (4.29 +/- 5.43 microg/mL). The level of sodium (3.96 +/- 1.02 microg/mL; 3.14 +/- 0.85 microg/mL) and potassium (2.88 +/- 0.65 microg/mL; 3.42 +/- 1.41 microg/mL) was very similar in both species. Correlation analysis detected high positive correlation between cadmium and zinc (r = 0.701) in rooster and between sodium and potassium (r = 0.899) in turkey semen.

  6. Assessment of Fluoride Concentration of Soil and Vegetables in Vicinity of Zinc Smelter, Debari, Udaipur, Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Nagesh; Jain, Sandeep; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Singh, Anukriti; Gandhi, Neha; Gupta, Vivek Vardhan

    2015-10-01

    As of late, natural contamination has stimulated as a reaction of mechanical and other human exercises. In India, with the expanding industrialization, numerous unsafe substances are utilized or are discharged amid generation as cleans, exhaust, vapours and gasses. These substances at last are blended in the earth and causes health hazards. To determine concentration of fluoride in soils and vegetables grown in the vicinity of Zinc Smelter, Debari, Udaipur, Rajasthan. Samples of vegetables and soil were collected from areas situated at 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10 km distance from the zinc smelter, Debari. Three samples of vegetables (i.e. Cabbage, Onion and Tomato) and 3 samples of soil {one sample from the upper layer of soil (i.e. 0 to 20 cm) and one from the deep layer (i.e. 20 - 40 cm)} at each distance were collected. The soil and vegetable samples were sealed in clean polythene bags and transported to the laboratory for analysis. One sample each of water and fertilizer from each distance were also collected. The mean fluoride concentration in the vegetables grown varied between 0.36 ± 0.69 to 0.71 ± 0.90 ppm. The fluoride concentration in fertilizer and water sample from various distances was found to be in the range of 1.4 - 1.5 ppm and 1.8 - 1.9 ppm respectively. The fluoride content of soil and vegetables was found to be higher in places near to the zinc smelter.

  7. A computerized data base of nitrate concentrations in Indiana ground water

    Risch, M.R.; Cohen, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The nitrate data base was compiled from numerous data sets that were readily accessible in electronic format. The uses of these data may be limited because they were neither comprehensive nor of a single statistical design. Nonetheless, the nitrate data can be used in several ways: (1) to identify geographic areas with and without nitrate data; (2) to evaluate assumptions, models, and maps of ground-water-contamination potential; and (3) to investigate the relation between environmental factors, land-use types, and the occurrence of nitrate.

  8. A GIS-based groundwater travel time model to evaluate stream nitrate concentration reductions from land use change

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) loss from agricultural watersheds is an environmental concern. A common conservation practice to improve stream water quality is to retire vulnerable row croplands to grass. In this paper, a groundwater travel time model based on a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of readily available soil and topographic variables was used to evaluate the time needed to observe stream nitrate concentration reductions from conversion of row crop land to native prairie in Walnut Creek watershed, Iowa. Average linear groundwater velocity in 5-m cells was estimated by overlaying GIS layers of soil permeability, land slope (surrogates for hydraulic conductivity and gradient, respectively) and porosity. Cells were summed backwards from the stream network to watershed divide to develop a travel time distribution map. Results suggested that groundwater from half of the land planted in prairie has reached the stream network during the 10 years of ongoing water quality monitoring. The mean travel time for the watershed was estimated to be 10.1 years, consistent with results from a simple analytical model. The proportion of land in the watershed and subbasins with prairie groundwater reaching the stream (10-22%) was similar to the measured reduction of stream nitrate (11-36%). Results provide encouragement that additional nitrate reductions in Walnut Creek are probable in the future as reduced nitrate groundwater from distal locations discharges to the stream network in the coming years. The high spatial resolution of the model (5-m cells) and its simplicity may make it potentially applicable for land managers interested in communicating lag time issues to the public, particularly related to nitrate concentration reductions over time. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Deep-sea coral evidence for lower Southern Ocean surface nitrate concentrations during the last ice age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingchen Tony; Sigman, Daniel M.; Prokopenko, Maria G.; Adkins, Jess F.; Robinson, Laura F.; Hines, Sophia K.; Chai, Junyi; Studer, Anja S.; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Chen, Tianyu; Haug, Gerald H.

    2017-03-01

    The Southern Ocean regulates the ocean’s biological sequestration of CO2 and is widely suspected to underpin much of the ice age decline in atmospheric CO2 concentration, but the specific changes in the region are debated. Although more complete drawdown of surface nutrients by phytoplankton during the ice ages is supported by some sediment core-based measurements, the use of different proxies in different regions has precluded a unified view of Southern Ocean biogeochemical change. Here, we report measurements of the 15N/14N of fossil-bound organic matter in the stony deep-sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus, a tool for reconstructing surface ocean nutrient conditions. The central robust observation is of higher 15N/14N across the Southern Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), 18-25 thousand years ago. These data suggest a reduced summer surface nitrate concentration in both the Antarctic and Subantarctic Zones during the LGM, with little surface nitrate transport between them. After the ice age, the increase in Antarctic surface nitrate occurred through the deglaciation and continued in the Holocene. The rise in Subantarctic surface nitrate appears to have had both early deglacial and late deglacial/Holocene components, preliminarily attributed to the end of Subantarctic iron fertilization and increasing nitrate input from the surface Antarctic Zone, respectively.

  10. Deep-sea coral evidence for lower Southern Ocean surface nitrate concentrations during the last ice age

    PubMed Central

    Sigman, Daniel M.; Prokopenko, Maria G.; Adkins, Jess F.; Robinson, Laura F.; Hines, Sophia K.; Chai, Junyi; Studer, Anja S.; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Chen, Tianyu; Haug, Gerald H.

    2017-01-01

    The Southern Ocean regulates the ocean’s biological sequestration of CO2 and is widely suspected to underpin much of the ice age decline in atmospheric CO2 concentration, but the specific changes in the region are debated. Although more complete drawdown of surface nutrients by phytoplankton during the ice ages is supported by some sediment core-based measurements, the use of different proxies in different regions has precluded a unified view of Southern Ocean biogeochemical change. Here, we report measurements of the 15N/14N of fossil-bound organic matter in the stony deep-sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus, a tool for reconstructing surface ocean nutrient conditions. The central robust observation is of higher 15N/14N across the Southern Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), 18–25 thousand years ago. These data suggest a reduced summer surface nitrate concentration in both the Antarctic and Subantarctic Zones during the LGM, with little surface nitrate transport between them. After the ice age, the increase in Antarctic surface nitrate occurred through the deglaciation and continued in the Holocene. The rise in Subantarctic surface nitrate appears to have had both early deglacial and late deglacial/Holocene components, preliminarily attributed to the end of Subantarctic iron fertilization and increasing nitrate input from the surface Antarctic Zone, respectively. PMID:28298529

  11. Selenium and Zinc Status in Chronic Myofascial Pain: Serum and Erythrocyte Concentrations and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Barros-Neto, João Araújo; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Kraychete, Durval Campos; de Jesus, Rosangela Passos; Cortes, Matheus Lopes; Lima, Michele dos Santos; Freitas, Mariana Carvalho; Santos, Tascya Morganna de Morais; Viana, Gustavo Freitas de Sousa; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutritional disorders have been reported to be important causal factors that can intensify or cause a painful response in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Aim To assess the habitual intake of and the serum and erythrocyte levels of selenium and zinc in patients with chronic myofascial pain. Materials and Methods A case-control study of 31 patients with chronic myofascial pain (group I) and 31 subjects without pain (group II). Dietary record in five days for assessing food intake were used. The serum and erythrocyte concentrations of selenium and zinc were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale. Results The group of patients with chronic myofascial pain, compared with the control group, showed a lower erythrocyte concentration of selenium (79.46 ± 19.79 μg/L vs. 90.80 ± 23.12 μg/L; p = 0.041) and zinc (30.56 ± 7.74 μgZn/gHb vs. 38.48 ± 14.86 μgZn/gHb, respectively; p = 0.004). In this study, a compromised food intake of zinc was observed in the majority of the subjects in both groups. The selenium intake was considered to be safe in 80% of the subjects in both groups; however, the likelihood of inadequate intake of this mineral was twice as high in group I (49.5% vs. 24.4%, respectively). In the logistic regression analysis, the erythrocyte concentration of zinc was associated with the presence of pain. In each additional 1 mg of Zn2+ per gram of hemoglobin, a reduction of 12.5% was observed in the risk of the individual having chronic myofascial pain (B = -0.133; adjusted OR = 0.875, 95% CI = 0.803 to 0.954, Wald = 9.187, standard error = 0.044, p = 0.002). Physical inactivity and obesity were noted more commonly in group I compared with the control group. Conclusion In this study, patients with chronic myofascial pain showed lower intracellular stores of zinc and selenium and inadequate food intake of these nutrients. PMID:27755562

  12. The Zinc Concentration in the Diet and the Length of the Feeding Period Affect the Methylation Status of the ZIP4 Zinc Transporter Gene in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Karweina, Diana; Kreuzer-Redmer, Susanne; Müller, Uwe; Franken, Tobias; Pieper, Robert; Baron, Udo; Olek, Sven; Zentek, Jürgen; Brockmann, Gudrun A.

    2015-01-01

    High doses of zinc oxide are commonly used in weaned pig diets to improve performance and health. Recent reports show that this may also lead to an imbalanced zinc homeostasis in the animal. For a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of different zinc intakes, we performed a feeding experiment to assess potential epigenetic regulation of the ZIP4 gene expression via DNA methylation in the small intestine of piglets. Fifty-four piglets were fed diets with 57 (LZn), 164 (NZn) or 2,425 (HZn) mg Zn/kg feed for one or four weeks. The ZIP4 expression data provided significant evidence for counter-regulation of zinc absorption with higher dietary zinc concentrations. The CpG +735 in the second exon had a 56% higher methylation in the HZn group compared to the others after one week of feeding (8.0·10-4 < p < 0.035); the methylation of this CpG was strongly negatively associated with the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts (p < 0.007). In the LZn and NZn diets, the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts were lower after four vs. one week of feeding (2.9·10-4 < p < 0.017). The strongest switch leading to high DNA methylation in nearly all analysed regions was dependent on feeding duration or age in all diet groups (3.7·10-10 < p < 0.099). The data suggest that DNA methylation serves as a fine-tuning mechanism of ZIP4 gene regulation to maintain zinc homeostasis. Methylation of the ZIP4 gene may play a minor role in the response to very high dietary zinc concentration, but may affect binding of alternate zinc-responsive transcription factors. PMID:26599865

  13. Maps of estimated nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the southwestern United States

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Human-health concerns and economic considerations associated with meeting drinking-water standards motivated a study of the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment in the southwestern United States. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid representing about 190,600 square miles of basin-fill aquifers in parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The statistical models, referred to as classifiers, reflect natural and human-related factors that affect aquifer vulnerability to contamination and relate nitrate and arsenic concentrations to explanatory variables representing local- and basin-scale measures of source and aquifer susceptibility conditions. Geochemical variables were not used in concentration predictions because they were not available for the entire study area. The models were calibrated to assess model accuracy on the basis of measured values.Only 2 percent of the area underlain by basin-fill aquifers in the study area was predicted to equal or exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard for nitrate as N (10 milligrams per liter), whereas 43 percent of the area was predicted to equal or exceed the standard for arsenic (10 micrograms per liter). Areas predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for nitrate include basins in central Arizona near Phoenix; the San Joaquin Valley, the Santa Ana Inland, and San Jacinto Basins of California; and the San Luis Valley of Colorado. Much of the area predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for arsenic is within a belt of basins along the western portion of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province that includes almost all of Nevada and parts of California and Arizona. Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations are substantially lower than the drinking-water standards in much of

  14. Effects of dietary protein concentration on ammonia volatilization, nitrate leaching, and plant nitrogen uptake from dairy manure applied to lysimeters

    This lysimeter experiment was designed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) concentration on nitrate-N (NO3-N) and ammonia (NH3) losses from dairy manure applied to soil and manure N use for plant growth. Lactating dairy cows were fed diets with 16.7 (HighCP) or 14.8% (LowCP) cru...

  15. Sources, transformations, and hydrological processes that control stream nitrate and dissolved organic matter concentrations during snowmelt in an upland forest

    Stephen D. Sebestyen; Elizabeth W. Boyer; James B. Shanley; Carol Kendall; Daniel H. Doctor; George R. Aiken; Nobuhito Ohte

    2008-01-01

    We explored catchment processes that control stream nutrient concentrations at an upland forest in northeastern Vermont, USA, where inputs of nitrogen via atmospheric deposition are among the highest in the nation and affect ecosystem functioning. We traced sources of water, nitrate, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) using stream water samples collected at high...

  16. Relations that affect the probability and prediction of nitrate concentration in private wells in the glacial aquifer system in the United States

    Warner, Kelly L.; Arnold, Terri L.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrate in private wells in the glacial aquifer system is a concern for an estimated 17 million people using private wells because of the proximity of many private wells to nitrogen sources. Yet, less than 5 percent of private wells sampled in this study contained nitrate in concentrations that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as N (nitrogen). However, this small group with nitrate concentrations above the USEPA MCL includes some of the highest nitrate concentrations detected in groundwater from private wells (77 mg/L). Median nitrate concentration measured in groundwater from private wells in the glacial aquifer system (0.11 mg/L as N) is lower than that in water from other unconsolidated aquifers and is not strongly related to surface sources of nitrate. Background concentration of nitrate is less than 1 mg/L as N. Although overall nitrate concentration in private wells was low relative to the MCL, concentrations were highly variable over short distances and at various depths below land surface. Groundwater from wells in the glacial aquifer system at all depths was a mixture of old and young water. Oxidation and reduction potential changes with depth and groundwater age were important influences on nitrate concentrations in private wells. A series of 10 logistic regression models was developed to estimate the probability of nitrate concentration above various thresholds. The threshold concentration (1 to 10 mg/L) affected the number of variables in the model. Fewer explanatory variables are needed to predict nitrate at higher threshold concentrations. The variables that were identified as significant predictors for nitrate concentration above 4 mg/L as N included well characteristics such as open-interval diameter, open-interval length, and depth to top of open interval. Environmental variables in the models were mean percent silt in soil, soil type, and mean depth to

  17. Nitrate Loads and Concentrations in Surface-Water Base Flow and Shallow Groundwater for Selected Basins in the United States, Water Years 1990-2006

    Spahr, Norman E.; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.; Franke, O. Lehn; Wolock, David M.

    2010-01-01

    nutrient management practices designed to reduce nutrient transport to streams by runoff. Conversely, sites with potential for shallow or deep groundwater contribution (some combination of permeable soils or permeable bedrock) had significantly greater contributions of nitrate from base flow. Effective nutrient management strategies would consider groundwater nitrate contributions in these areas. Mean annual base-flow nitrate concentrations were compared to shallow-groundwater nitrate concentrations for 27 sites. Concentrations in groundwater tended to be greater than base-flow concentrations for this group of sites. Sites where groundwater concentrations were much greater than base-flow concentrations were found in areas of high infiltration and oxic groundwater conditions. The lack of correspondingly high concentrations in the base flow of the paired surface-water sites may have multiple causes. In some settings, there has not been sufficient time for enough high-nitrate shallow groundwater to migrate to the nearby stream. In these cases, the stream nitrate concentrations lag behind those in the shallow groundwater, and concentrations may increase in the future as more high-nitrate groundwater reaches the stream. Alternatively, some of these sites may have processes that rapidly remove nitrate as water moves from the aquifer into the stream channel. Partitioning streamflow and nitrate load between the quick-flow and base-flow portions of the hydrograph coupled with relative scales of soil permeability can infer the importance of surface water compared to groundwater nitrate sources. Study of the relation of nitrate concentrations to base-flow index and the comparison of groundwater nitrate concentrations to stream nitrate concentrations during times when base-flow index is high can provide evidence of potential nitrate transport mechanisms. Accounting for the surface-water and groundwater contributions of nitrate is crucial to effective management and remediat

  18. Stability of nitrate-ion concentrations in simulated deposition samples used for quality-assurance activities by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Willoughby, T.C.; See, R.B.; Schroder, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the stability of nitrate-ion concentrations in simulated deposition samples. In the four experiment-A solutions, nitric acid provided nitrate-ion concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 10.0 mg/L and that had pH values ranging from 3.8 to 5.0. In the five experiment-B solutions, sodium nitrate provided nitrate-ion concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/L. The pH was adjusted to about 4.5 for each of the solutions by addition of sulfuric acid. In the four experiment-C solutions, nitric acid provided nitrate-ion concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/L. Major cation and anion concentrations were added to each solution to simulate natural deposition. Aliquots were removed from the 13 original solutions and analyzed by ion chromatography about once a week for 100 days to determine if any changes occurred in nitrate-ion concentrations throughout the study period. No substantial changes were observed in the nitrate-ion concentrations in solutions that had initial concentrations below 4.0 mg/L in experiments A and B, although most of the measured nitrate-ion concentrations for the 100-day study were below the initial concentrations. In experiment C, changes in nitrate-ion concentrations were much more pronounced; the measured nitrate-ion concentrations for the study period were less than the initial concentrations for 62 of the 67 analyses. (USGS)

  19. Stimulating hydrogenotrophic denitrification in simulated groundwater containing high dissolved oxygen and nitrate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Schnobrich, Matthew R; Chaplin, Brian P; Semmens, Michael J; Novak, Paige J

    2007-05-01

    In agricultural areas, nitrate (NO3-) is a common groundwater pollutant as a result of extensive fertilizer application. At elevated concentrations, NO3- consumption causes methemoglobinemia in infants and has been linked to several cancers; therefore, its removal from groundwater is important. The addition of hydrogen gas (H2) via gas-permeable membranes has been shown to stimulate denitrification in a laboratory-scale reactor. This research, using large columns packed with aquifer material to which a simulated groundwater was fed, was conducted to further identify the conditions required for the use of membrane-delivered H2 in situ. In this study, we show that this novel technology was capable of treating highly contaminated (25 mg/L NO3- -N) and oxygenated (5.5mg/L dissolved oxygen) water, but that nutrient addition and gas pressure adjustment was required. Complete NO3- reduction was possible without the accumulation of either NO2- or N2O when the H2 lumen pressure was increased to 17 psi and phosphate was added to the groundwater. The total organic carbon content of the effluent, 110 cm downgradient of H2 addition, did not increase. The results from these experiments demonstrate that this technology can be optimized to provide effective NO3- removal in even challenging field applications.

  20. Establishing a Multi-spatial Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Nitrate Concentrations in Soil Moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haux, E.; Busek, N.; Park, Y.; Estrin, D.; Harmon, T. C.

    2004-12-01

    The use of reclaimed wastewater for irrigation in agriculture can be a significant source of nutrients, in particular nitrogen species, but its use raises concern for groundwater, riparian, and water quality. A 'smart' technology would have the ability to measure wastewater nutrients as they enter the irrigation system, monitor their transport in situ and optimally control inputs with little human intervention, all in real-time. Soil heterogeneity and economic issues require, however, a balance between cost and the spatial and temporal scales of the monitoring effort. Therefore, a wireless and embedded sensor network, deployed in the soil vertically across the horizon, is capable of collecting, processing, and transmitting sensor data. The network consists of several networked nodes or 'pylons', each outfitted with an array of sensors measuring humidity, temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, and aqueous nitrate concentrations. Individual sensor arrays are controlled by a MICA2 mote (Crossbow Technology Inc., San Jose, CA) programmed with TinyOS (University of California, Berkeley, CA) and a Stargate (Crossbow Technology Inc., San Jose, CA) base-station capable of GPRS for data transmission. Results are reported for the construction and testing of a prototypical pylon at the benchtop and in the field.

  1. Effect of Nitrite and Nitrate Concentrations on the Performance of AFB-MFC Enriched with High-Strength Synthetic Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Sheng; Yang, Ping; Li, Chong-Ming; Guo, Yong; Lai, Bo; Wang, Ye; Feng, Li; Zhang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of nitrite and nitrate on the performance of microbial fuel cell, a system combining an anaerobic fluidized bed (AFB) and a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was employed for high-strength nitrogen-containing synthetic wastewater treatment. Before this study, the AFB-MFC had been used to treat high-strength organic wastewater for about one year in a continuous flow mode. The results showed that when the concentrations of nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were increased from 1700 mg/L to 4045 mg/L and 545 mg/L to 1427 mg/L, respectively, the nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen removal efficiencies were both above 99%; the COD removal efficiency went up from 60.00% to 88.95%; the voltage was about 375 ± 15 mV while the power density was at 70 ± 5 mW/m(2). However, when the concentrations of nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were above 4045 mg/L and 1427 mg/L, respectively, the removal of nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, COD, voltage, and power density were decreased to be 86%, 88%, 77%, 180 mV, and 17 mW/m(2) when nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were increased to 4265 mg/L and 1661 mg/L. In addition, the composition of biogas generated in the anode chamber was analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Nitrogen gas, methane, and carbon dioxide were obtained. The results indicated that denitrification happened in anode chamber.

  2. Nitrate concentration-drainage flow (C-Q) relationship for a drained agricultural field in Eastern North Carolina Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Youssef, M.; Birgand, F.; Chescheir, G. M.; Maxwell, B.; Tian, S.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural drainage is a practice used to artificially enhance drainage characteristics of naturally poorly drained soils via subsurface drain tubing or open-ditch systems. Approximately 25% of the U.S. agricultural land requires improved drainage for economic crop production. However, drainage increases the transport of dissolved agricultural chemicals, particularly nitrates to downstream surface waters. Nutrient export from artificially drained agricultural landscapes has been identified as the leading source of elevated nutrient levels in major surface water bodies in the U.S. Controlled drainage has long been practiced to reduce nitrogen export from agricultural fields to downstream receiving waters. It has been hypothesized that controlled drainage reduces nitrogen losses by promoting denitrification, reducing drainage outflow from the field, and increasing plant uptake. The documented performance of the practice was widely variable as it depends on several site-specific factors. The goal of this research was to utilize high frequency measurements to investigate the effect of agricultural drainage and related management practices on nitrate fate and transport for an artificially drained agricultural field in eastern North Carolina. We deployed a field spectrophotometer to measure nitrate concentration every 45 minutes and measured drainage flow rate using a V-notch weir every 15 minutes. Furthermore, we measured groundwater level, precipitation, irrigation amount, temperature to characterize antecedent conditions for each event. Nitrate concentration-drainage flow (C-Q) relationships generated from the high frequency measurements illustrated anti-clockwise hysteresis loops and nitrate flushing mechanism in response to most precipitation and irrigation events. Statistical evaluation will be carried out for the C-Q relationships. The results of our analysis, combined with numerical modeling, will provide a better understanding of hydrological and

  3. Spatial and temporal changes in the structure of groundwater nitrate concentration time series (1935 1999) as demonstrated by autoregressive modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. L.; Smart, P. L.

    2005-08-01

    Autoregressive modelling is used to investigate the internal structure of long-term (1935-1999) records of nitrate concentration for five karst springs in the Mendip Hills. There is a significant short term (1-2 months) positive autocorrelation at three of the five springs due to the availability of sufficient nitrate within the soil store to maintain concentrations in winter recharge for several months. The absence of short term (1-2 months) positive autocorrelation in the other two springs is due to the marked contrast in land use between the limestone and swallet parts of the catchment, rapid concentrated recharge from the latter causing short term switching in the dominant water source at the spring and thus fluctuating nitrate concentrations. Significant negative autocorrelation is evident at lags varying from 4 to 7 months through to 14-22 months for individual springs, with positive autocorrelation at 19-20 months at one site. This variable timing is explained by moderation of the exhaustion effect in the soil by groundwater storage, which gives longer residence times in large catchments and those with a dominance of diffuse flow. The lags derived from autoregressive modelling may therefore provide an indication of average groundwater residence times. Significant differences in the structure of the autocorrelation function for successive 10-year periods are evident at Cheddar Spring, and are explained by the effect the ploughing up of grasslands during the Second World War and increased fertiliser usage on available nitrogen in the soil store. This effect is moderated by the influence of summer temperatures on rates of mineralization, and of both summer and winter rainfall on the timing and magnitude of nitrate leaching. The pattern of nitrate leaching also appears to have been perturbed by the 1976 drought.

  4. Near-decadal changes in nitrate and pesticide concentrations in the South Platte River alluvial aquifer, 1993-2004

    Paschke, S.S.; Schaffrath, K.R.; Mashbum, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    The lower South Platte River basin of Colorado and Nebraska is an area of intense agriculture supported by surface-water diversions from the river and ground-water pumping from a valley-fill alluvial aquifer. Two well networks consisting of 45 wells installed in the South Platte alluvial aquifer were sampled in the early 1990s and again in the early 2000s to examine near-decadal ground-water quality changes in irrigated agricultural areas. Ground-water age generally increases and dissolved-oxygen content decreases with distance along flow paths and with depdi below the water table, and denitrification is an important natural mitigation mechanism for nitrate in downgradient areas. Ground-water travel time from upland areas to the river ranges from 12 to 31 yr on the basis of apparent ground-water ages. Ground-water nitrate concentrations for agricultural land-use wells increased significantly for oxidized samples over the decade, and nitrogen isotope ratios for oxidized samples indicate synthetic fertilizer as the predominant nitrate source. Ground-water concentrations of atrazine, DEA, and prometon decreased significandy. The decrease in pesticide concentrations and a significant increase in the ratio of DEA to atrazine suggest decreases in pesticide concentrations are likely caused by local decreases in application rates and/or degradation processes and that atrazine degradation is promoted by oxidizing conditions. The difference between results for oxidizing and nitrate-reducing conditions indicates redox state is an important variable to consider when evaluating ground-water quality trends for redox-sensitive constituents such as nitrate and pesticides in the South Platte alluvial aquifer. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  5. [Assessment of shallow groundwater nitrate concentrations in typical terrestrial ecosystems of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) during 2004-2009].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Min; Yuan, Guo-Fu; Wang, Sheng-Zhong; Liu, Wen-Hua

    2011-10-01

    The nitrate-N (NO3(-) -N) concentrations of 38 shallow groundwater wells from 31 of the typical terrestrial ecosystems on Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) were assessed using the monitoring data from 2004 to 2009. The results showed that the average values of NO3(-) -N concentrations were significantly higher in the agricultural (4.85 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.42 mg x L(-1)), desert (oasis) (3.72 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.42 mg x L(-1)) and urban ecosystems (3.77 mg x L(-1) 0.51 mg x L(-1)) than in the grass (1.59 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.35 mg L(-1)) and forest ecosystems (0.39 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.03 mg x L(-1)). Nitrate was the major form of nitrogen, with between 56% to 88% of nitrogen in the nitrate-N form in the shallow groundwater of desert (oasis), urban and agricultural ecosystems. Nitrate-N concentrations for some agricultural ecosystems (Ansai, Yanting, Yucheng) and desert (oasis) ecosystems (Cele, Linze, Akesu) analysis exceeded the 10 mg x L(-1) World Health Organization drinking water standards between 14.3% and 84.6%. Significant seasonality was found in Ansai, Fengqiu, Yanting agricultural ecosystems and the Beijing urban ecosystem using the relatively high frequency monitoring data, with the higher nitrate concentrations usually found during summer and winter months. The monitoring results indicated that the shallow groundwater of agricultural ecosystems was contaminated by agricultural management practices, i.e. fertilization, while the shallow groundwater of forest ecosystems was under natural condition with no contamination from human activities.

  6. Characteristics of Zinc Phosphate Coating Activated by Different Concentrations of Nickel Acetate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Khalid; Zuhailawati, H.; Rahmat, Azmi; Azizan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Activation pretreatment with nickel acetate solution at various concentrations was performed prior to the phosphating step to enhance the corrosion resistance of carbon steel substrates. The activation solution was studied over various concentrations: 10, 50, and 100 g/L. The effects of these concentrations on surface characteristics and microstructural evolution of the coated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test in a 3.5 pct NaCl solution. Significant increases in the nucleation sites and surface coverage of zinc phosphate coating were observed as the concentration of activation solution reached 50 g/L. The electrochemical analysis revealed that the activation treatment with 50 g/L nickel acetate solution significantly improved the protection ability of the zinc phosphate coating. The corrosion current density of activated phosphate coating with 50 g/L was reduced by 64.64 and 13.22 pct, compared to the coatings obtained with activation solutions of 10 and 100 g/L, respectively.

  7. Electrochemical reduction of nitrate and nitrite in concentrated sodium hydroxide at platinum and nickel electrodes

    SciT

    Hu Lin Li; Robertson, D.H.; Chambers, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    This work describes the electrochemical reduction of nitrate in alkaline solutions. Conditions which maximize the current efficiency for the production of dinitrogen and/or ammonia gases could be very important for the treatment of radioactive waste solutions.

  8. Effect of soil and foliar application of zinc on grain zinc and cadmium concentration of wheat genotypes differing in Zn-efficiency

    A two-year field experiment was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of soil and foliar applications of zinc sulfate and soil application of waste rubber ash to increase Zn and decrease cadmium (Cd) concentration in grain of 10 wheat genotypes with different Zn-efficiency. Foliar spray of zi...

  9. Patterns of Diel Variation in Nitrate Concentrations in the Potomac River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. A.; Miller, M. P.; Pellerin, B. A.; Capel, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Potomac River is the second largest source of nitrogen to Chesapeake Bay, where reducing nutrient loads has been a focus of efforts to improve estuarine trophic status. Two years of high frequency sensor measurements of nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in the Upper Potomac River at the Little Falls gage were analyzed to quantify seasonal variation in the magnitude and timing of the apparent loss of NO3- from the water column that results from diel-driven processes. In addition to broad seasonal and flow-driven variation in NO3- concentrations, clear diel patterns were evident in the river, especially during low flow conditions that follow stormflow by several days. Diel variation was about 0.01 mg N/L in winter and 0.02 to 0.03 mg N/L in summer with intermediate values during spring and fall. This variation was equivalent to <1% of the mean daily NO3- concentration in winter and about 4% in summer; however, variation >10% occurred during some summer days. Maximum diel concentrations occurred during mid- to late-morning in most seasons, with the most repeatable patterns in summer and wider variation in timing during fall and winter. Diel NO3- loss diminished loads by about 0.6% in winter and 1.3% in summer, and diel-driven processes were minor compared to estimates of total in-stream NO3- loss that averaged about one-third of the inferred groundwater NO3- contribution to the river network. The magnitude of diel NO3- variation was more strongly related to metrics based on water temperature and discharge than to metrics based on photosynthetically active radiation. Despite the fairly low diminishment of NO3- loads attributable to diel variation, estimates of diel NO3- uptake were fairly high compared to published values from smaller streams and rivers. The diel NO3- patterns observed in the Potomac River are consistent with photosynthesis of periphyton as a principal driver which may be linked to denitrification through the release of labile carbon. The extent to

  10. Assessment of Fluoride Concentration of Soil and Vegetables in Vicinity of Zinc Smelter, Debari, Udaipur, Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Nagesh; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Singh, Anukriti; Gandhi, Neha; Gupta, Vivek Vardhan

    2015-01-01

    Background As of late, natural contamination has stimulated as a reaction of mechanical and other human exercises. In India, with the expanding industrialization, numerous unsafe substances are utilized or are discharged amid generation as cleans, exhaust, vapours and gasses. These substances at last are blended in the earth and causes health hazards. Objective To determine concentration of fluoride in soils and vegetables grown in the vicinity of Zinc Smelter, Debari, Udaipur, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods Samples of vegetables and soil were collected from areas situated at 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10 km distance from the zinc smelter, Debari. Three samples of vegetables (i.e. Cabbage, Onion and Tomato) and 3 samples of soil {one sample from the upper layer of soil (i.e. 0 to 20 cm) and one from the deep layer (i.e. 20 – 40 cm)} at each distance were collected. The soil and vegetable samples were sealed in clean polythene bags and transported to the laboratory for analysis. One sample each of water and fertilizer from each distance were also collected. Results The mean fluoride concentration in the vegetables grown varied between 0.36 ± 0.69 to 0.71 ± 0.90 ppm. The fluoride concentration in fertilizer and water sample from various distances was found to be in the range of 1.4 – 1.5 ppm and 1.8 – 1.9 ppm respectively. Conclusion The fluoride content of soil and vegetables was found to be higher in places near to the zinc smelter. PMID:26557620

  11. A method for nitrate collection for δ15N and δ18O analysis from waters with low nitrate concentrations

    Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Langston, J.; Riggs, M.; Campbell, D.H.; Silva, S.R.; Kendall, C.

    1999-01-01

     Recently, methods have been developed to analyze NO3- for δ15N and δ18O, improving our ability to identify NO3- sources and transformations. However, none of the existing methods are suited for waters with low NO3- concentrations (0.7-10 µM). We describe an improved method for collecting and recovering NO3- on exchange columns. To overcome the lengthy collection loading times imposed by the large sample volumes (7-70 L), the sample was prefiltered (0.45 µm) with a large surface area filter. Switching to AG2X anion resin and using a coarser mesh size (100-200) than previous methods also enhanced sample flow. Placement of a cation column in front of the anion column minimized clogging of the anion column by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) accumulation. This also served to minimize transfer of unwanted oxygen atoms from DOC to the 18O portion of the NO3- sample, thereby contaminating the sample and shifting δ18O. The cat-AG2X method is suited for on-site sample collection, making it possible to collect and recover NO3- from low ionic strength waters with modest DOC concentrations (80-800 µM), relieves the investigator of transporting large volumes of water back to the laboratory, and offers a means of sampling rain, snow, snowmelt, and stream samples from access-limited sites.

  12. Serum Zinc, Iron, and Copper Concentrations during Typhoid Fever in Man: Effect of Chloramphenicol Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-12

    automated colori- exposure. In those volunteers who became clinically metric technique (13, 14). ill and were hospitalized, blood samples were ob- Monkey ...study. Two adult female rhesus monkeys tained for an additional seven days. were inoculated intravenously with 1 x 1010 viable S. Serum zinc, iron, and...on Serum Transferrin and am0 at-Macroglebullfl Concentrations zoo D a ft T r peora laa r mr U ea n b Uoac t o o Control 283 * 7 ml339 :L 13 10 di 120

  13. Concentrations and sources of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in house dust in Christchurch, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kim, N; Fergusson, J

    1993-09-30

    The amounts (microgram m-2) and concentrations (microgram g-1) of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc have been measured in house dust in Christchurch, New Zealand. For 120 houses surveyed the geometric mean concentrations of the four metals are 4.24 micrograms g-1, 165 micrograms g-1, 573 micrograms g-1 and 10,400 micrograms g-1, respectively. In addition eleven variables, such as house age, carpet wear and traffic density, were recorded for each property and the results analysed with respect to their effects on the amounts and concentrations of the four elements. The amounts of all the metals were highly correlated with the overall dustiness of the houses, which was found to be predominantly determined by the degree of carpet wear. No one dominant source of cadmium was identified, although several minor sources including carpet wear, galvanized iron roofs and red/orange/yellow coloured carpets were implicated. Petrol lead and lead-based paints were identified as significant sources of lead in house dust. Rubber carpet underlays or backings were identified as a significant source of zinc, with some contribution from galvanized iron roofs. Road traffic and probably the existence of a fire place appear to contribute to the copper levels.

  14. Stream Nitrate Concentrations Diverge at Baseflow and Converge During Storms in Watersheds with Contrasting Urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, R. O.; Wollheim, W. M.; Mulukutla, G. K.; Cook, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    Management of non-point sources is challenging because it requires adequate quantification of non-point fluxes that are highly dynamic over time. Most fluxes occur during storms and are difficult to characterize with grab samples alone in flashy, urban watersheds. Accurate and relatively precise measurements using in situ sensor technology can quantify fluxes continuously, avoiding the uncertainties in extrapolation of infrequently collected grab samples. In situ nitrate (NO3-N) sensors were deployed simultaneously from April to December 2013 in two streams with contrasting urban land uses in an urbanizing New Hampshire watershed (80 km2). Nitrogen non-point fluxes and temporal patterns were evaluated in Beards Creek (forested: 50%; residential: 24%; commercial/institutional/transportation: 7%; agricultural: 6%) and College Brook (forested: 35%; residential: 11%; commercial/institutional/transportation: 20%; agricultural: 17%). Preliminary data indicated NO3-N concentrations in Beards Creek (mean: 0.37 mg/L) were lower than College Brook (mean: 0.60 mg/L), but both streams exhibited rapid increases in NO3-N during the beginning of storms followed by overall dilution. While baseflow NO3-N was greater in College Brook than Beards Creek, NO3-N at the two sites consistently converged during storms. This suggests that standard grab sampling may overestimate fluxes in urban streams, since short-term dilution occurred during periods of highest flow. Analyzing NO3-N flux patterns in smaller urban streams that are directly impacted by watershed activities could help to inform management decisions regarding N source controls, ultimately allowing an assessment of the interactions of climate variability and management actions.

  15. Factors influencing tissue nitrate concentration in field-grown wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) in southern England.

    PubMed

    Weightman, R M; Huckle, A J; Roques, S E; Ginsburg, D; Dyer, C J

    2012-01-01

    Wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) is a leafy vegetable known for its high tissue nitrate concentration (TNC) which can exceed the limits set in the relevant European legislation designed to protect human health. The aim of this work was to understand the factors influencing TNC and to develop best practice guidelines to growers. Commercial crops of field-grown wild rocket were studied over two seasons. In 2010, ten separate crops were sampled representing a range of soil types and time periods during the summer. Two fields sampled using a 'W'- or 'X'-shaped sampling pattern demonstrated that 10 incremental samples bulked to make 1 kg of fresh material could be used to provide an adequate sample for determination of TNC in the wild rocket crop, as is the case for other leafy vegetables. Of eight commercial crops sampled in 2010 with an average nitrogen (N) fertiliser application of 104 kg N ha(-1), two exceeded the limit of 6000 mg NO3(-) kg(-1) set in the legislation. In 2011, six N response experiments were carried out, and only two sites showed a significant yield response to N fertiliser. The reason for the lack of response at the other sites was principally due to high levels of soil mineral N prior to drilling, meaning the crops' requirement for N was satisfied without additional fertiliser N. In the experimental situation at an N fertiliser application rate of 120 kg N ha(-1), 50% of crops would have exceeded the 6000 mg NO3(-) kg(-1) limit. In both seasons, low radiation levels in the 5 days prior to harvest were shown to increase TNC, although the relationship was also influenced by N supply. Strategies for optimising N nutrition of field-grown wild rocket are discussed.

  16. Numerical model simulations of nitrate concentrations in groundwater using various nitrogen input scenarios, mid-Snake region, south-central Idaho

    Skinner, Kenneth D.; Rupert, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program nitrate transport in groundwater was modeled in the mid-Snake River region in south-central Idaho to project future concentrations of nitrate. Model simulation results indicated that nitrate concentrations would continue to increase over time, eventually exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level for drinking water of 10 milligrams per liter in some areas. A subregional groundwater model simulated the change of nitrate concentrations in groundwater over time in response to three nitrogen input scenarios: (1) nitrogen input fixed at 2008 levels; (2) nitrogen input increased from 2008 to 2028 using the same rate of increase as the average rate of increase during the previous 10 years (1998 through 2008); after 2028, nitrogen input is fixed at 2028 levels; and (3) nitrogen input related to agriculture completely halted, with only nitrogen input from precipitation remaining. Scenarios 1 and 2 project that nitrate concentrations in groundwater continue to increase from 10 to 50 years beyond the year nitrogen input is fixed, depending on the location in the model area. Projected nitrate concentrations in groundwater increase by as much as 2–4 milligrams per liter in many areas, with nitrate concentrations in some areas reaching 10 milligrams per liter. Scenario 3, although unrealistic, estimates how long (20–50 years) it would take nitrate in groundwater to return to background concentrations—the “flushing time” of the system. The amount of nitrate concentration increase cannot be explained solely by differences in nitrogen input; in fact, some areas with the highest amount of nitrogen input have the lowest increase in nitrate concentration. The geometry of the aquifer and the pattern of regional groundwater flow through the aquifer greatly influence nitrate concentrations. The aquifer thins toward discharge areas along the Snake River

  17. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  18. Probability of detecting atrazine/desethyl-atrazine and elevated concentrations of nitrate in ground water in Colorado

    Rupert, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Draft Federal regulations may require that each State develop a State Pesticide Management Plan for the herbicides atrazine, alachlor, metolachlor, and simazine. Maps were developed that the State of Colorado could use to predict the probability of detecting atrazine and desethyl-atrazine (a breakdown product of atrazine) in ground water in Colorado. These maps can be incorporated into the State Pesticide Management Plan and can help provide a sound hydrogeologic basis for atrazine management in Colorado. Maps showing the probability of detecting elevated nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (nitrate) concentrations in ground water in Colorado also were developed because nitrate is a contaminant of concern in many areas of Colorado. Maps showing the probability of detecting atrazine and(or) desethyl-atrazine (atrazine/DEA) at or greater than concentrations of 0.1 microgram per liter and nitrate concentrations in ground water greater than 5 milligrams per liter were developed as follows: (1) Ground-water quality data were overlaid with anthropogenic and hydrogeologic data using a geographic information system to produce a data set in which each well had corresponding data on atrazine use, fertilizer use, geology, hydrogeomorphic regions, land cover, precipitation, soils, and well construction. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Relations were observed between ground-water quality and the percentage of land-cover categories within circular regions (buffers) around wells. Several buffer sizes were evaluated; the buffer size that provided the strongest relation was selected for use in the logistic regression models. (3) Relations between concentrations of atrazine/DEA and nitrate in ground water and atrazine use, fertilizer use, geology, hydrogeomorphic regions, land cover, precipitation, soils, and well-construction data were evaluated, and several preliminary multivariate models with various

  19. Nitrous oxide and nitrate concentration in under-drainage from arable fields subject to diffuse pollution mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hama-Aziz, Zanist; Hiscock, Kevin; Adams, Christopher; Reid, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric nitrous oxide concentrations are increasing by 0.3% annually and a major source of this greenhouse gas is agriculture. Indirect emissions of nitrous oxide (e.g. from groundwater and surface water) account for about quarter of total nitrous oxide emissions. However, these indirect emissions are subject to uncertainty, mainly due to the range in reported emission factors. It's hypothesised in this study that cover cropping and implementing reduced (direct drill) cultivation in intensive arable systems will reduce dissolved nitrate concentration and subsequently indirect nitrous oxide emissions. To test the hypothesis, seven fields with a total area of 102 ha in the Wensum catchment in eastern England have been chosen for experimentation together with two fields (41 ha) under conventional cultivation (deep inversion ploughing) for comparison. Water samples from field under-drainage have been collected for nitrate and nitrous oxide measurement on a weekly basis from April 2013 for two years from both cultivation areas. A purge and trap preparation line connected to a Shimadzu GC-8A gas chromatograph fitted with an electron capture detector was used for dissolved nitrous oxide analysis. Results revealed that with an oilseed radish cover crop present, the mean concentration of nitrate, which is the predominant form of N, was significantly depleted from 13.9 mg N L-1 to 2.5 mg N L-1. However, slightly higher mean nitrous oxide concentrations under the cover crop of 2.61 μg N L-1 compared to bare fields of 2.23 μg N L-1 were observed. Different inversion intensity of soil tended to have no effect on nitrous oxide and nitrate concentrations. The predominant production mechanism for nitrous oxide was nitrification process and the significant reduction of nitrate was due to plant uptake rather than denitrification. It is concluded that although cover cropping might cause a slight increase of indirect nitrous oxide emission, it can be a highly effective

  20. New multifunctional materials obtained by the intercalation of anionic dyes into layered zinc hydroxide nitrate followed by dispersion into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA).

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Rafael; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Wypych, Fernando

    2009-02-15

    Different anionic blue and orange dyes have been immobilized on a zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn(5)(OH)(8)(NO(3))(2)nH(2)O--Zn-OH-NO(3)) by anion exchange with interlayer and/or outer surface nitrate ions of the layered matrix. Orange G (OG) was totally intercalated, orange II (OII) was partially intercalated, while Niagara blue 3B (NB) and Evans blue (EV) were only adsorbed at the outer surface. Several composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol)--PVA were prepared by casting through the dispersion of the hybrid material (Zn-OH-OG) into a PVA aqueous solution and evaporation of water in a vacuum oven. The obtained composite films were transparent, colored, and capable of absorbing UV radiation. Improved mechanical properties were also obtained in relation to the nonfilled PVA films. These results demonstrate the onset of a new range of potential applications for layered hydroxide salts in the preparation of polymer composite multifunctional materials.

  1. Zinc Oxide-Containing Porous Boron-Carbon-Nitrogen Sheets from Glycine-Nitrate Combustion: Synthesis, Self-Cleaning, and Sunlight-Driven Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Bharathidasan, T; Mandalam, Aditya; Balasubramanian, M; Dhandapani, P; Sathiyanarayanan, S; Mayavan, Sundar

    2015-08-26

    We developed a single-step thermal method that enables successful inclusion of ZnO components in the porous boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) framework to form a new class of functional hybrid. ZnO-containing BCN hybrids were prepared by treating a mixture of B2O3, glycine, and zinc nitrate at 500 °C. Glycine-nitrate decomposition along with B2O3 acts as a source for ZnO-BCN formation. The incorporation of ZnO onto BCN has extended the photoresponse of ZnO in the visible region, which makes ZnO-BCN a preferable photocatalyst relative to ZnO upon sunlight exposure. It is interesting to note that as-prepared 2D ZnO-BCN sheets dispersed in PDMS form a stable coating over aluminum alloys. The surface exhibited a water contact angle (CA) of 157.6° with 66.6 wt % ZnO-BCN in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a water droplet (7 μL) roll-off angle of <6° and also demonstrates oil fouling resistant superhydrophobicity. In brief, the present study focuses on the gram scale synthesis of a new class of sunlight-driven photocatalyst and also its application toward the development of superhydrophobic and oleophobic coating.

  2. Coniferous coverage as well as catchment steepness influences local stream nitrate concentrations within a nitrogen-saturated forest in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mirai; Miura, Shingo; Hasegawa, Shun; Koshikawa, Masami K; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Kohzu, Ayato; Imai, Akio; Hayashi, Seiji

    2018-04-28

    High concentrations of nitrate have been detected in streams flowing from nitrogen-saturated forests; however, the spatial variations of nitrate leaching within those forests and its causes remain poorly explored. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influences of catchment topography and coniferous coverage on stream nitrate concentrations in a nitrogen-saturated forest. We measured nitrate concentrations in the baseflow of headwater streams at 40 montane forest catchments on Mount Tsukuba in central Japan, at three-month intervals for 1 year, and investigated their relationship with catchment topography and with coniferous coverage. Although stream nitrate concentrations varied from 0.5 to 3.0 mgN L -1 , those in 31 catchments consistently exceeded 1 mgN L -1 , indicating that this forest had experienced nitrogen saturation. A classification and regression tree analysis with multiple environmental factors showed that the mean slope gradient and coniferous coverage were the best and second best, respectively, at explaining inter-catchment variance of stream nitrate concentrations. This analysis suggested that the catchments with steep topography and high coniferous coverage tend to have high nitrate concentrations. Moreover, in the three-year observation period for five adjacent catchments, the two catchments with relatively higher coniferous coverage consistently had higher stream nitrate concentrations. Thus, the spatial variations in stream nitrate concentrations were primarily regulated by catchment steepness and, to a lesser extent, coniferous coverage in this nitrogen-saturated forest. Our results suggest that a decrease in coniferous coverage could potentially contribute to a reduction in nitrate leaching from this nitrogen-saturated forest, and consequently reduce the risk of nitrogen overload for the downstream ecosystems. This information will allow land managers and researchers to develop improved management plans for this and similar

  3. Effect of nitrate concentration on filamentous bulking under low level of dissolved oxygen in an airlift inner circular anoxic-aerobic incorporate reactor.

    PubMed

    Su, Yiming; Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei; Jiang, Ming

    2013-09-01

    This laboratory research investigated a possible cause of filamentous bulking under low level of dissolved oxygen conditions (dissolved oxygen value in aerobic zone maintained between 0.6-0.8 mg O2/L) in an airlift inner-circular anoxic-aerobic reactor. During the operating period, it was observed that low nitrate concentrations affected sludge volume index significantly. Unlike the existing hypothesis, the batch tests indicated that filamentous bacteria (mainly Thiothrix sp.) could store nitrate temporarily under carbon restricted conditions. When nitrate concentration was below 4 mg/L, low levels of carbon substrates and dissolved oxygen in the aerobic zone stimulated the nitrate-storing capacity of filaments. When filamentous bacteria riched in nitrate reached the anoxic zone, where they were exposed to high levels of carbon but limited nitrate, they underwent denitrification. However, when nonfilamentous bacteria were exposed to similar conditions, denitrification was restrained due to their intrinsic nitrate limitation. Hence, in order to avoid filamentous bulking, the nitrate concentration in the return sludge (from aerobic zone to the anoxic zone) should be above 4 mg/L, or alternatively, the nitrate load in the anoxic zone should be kept at levels above 2.7 mg NO(3-)-N/g SS.

  4. Sources, transformations, and hydrological processes that control stream nitrate and dissolved organic matter concentrations during snowmelt in an upland forest

    Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Shanley, James B.; Kendall, Carol; Doctor, Daniel H.; Aiken, George R.; Ohte, Nobuhito

    2008-01-01

    We explored catchment processes that control stream nutrient concentrations at an upland forest in northeastern Vermont, USA, where inputs of nitrogen via atmospheric deposition are among the highest in the nation and affect ecosystem functioning. We traced sources of water, nitrate, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) using stream water samples collected at high frequency during spring snowmelt. Hydrochemistry, isotopic tracers, and end‐member mixing analyses suggested the timing, sources, and source areas from which water and nutrients entered the stream. Although stream‐dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) both originated from leaching of soluble organic matter, flushing responses between these two DOM components varied because of dynamic shifts of hydrological flow paths and sources that supply the highest concentrations of DOC and DON. High concentrations of stream water nitrate originated from atmospheric sources as well as nitrified sources from catchment soils. We detected nitrification in surficial soils during late snowmelt which affected the nitrate supply that was available to be transported to streams. However, isotopic tracers showed that the majority of nitrate in upslope surficial soil waters after the onset of snowmelt originated from atmospheric sources. A fraction of the atmospheric nitrogen was directly delivered to the stream, and this finding highlights the importance of quick flow pathways during snowmelt events. These findings indicate that interactions among sources, transformations, and hydrologic transport processes must be deciphered to understand why concentrations vary over time and over space as well as to elucidate the direct effects of human activities on nutrient dynamics in upland forest streams.

  5. Modeling effects of solute concentration in Bridgman growth of cadmium zinc telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelian, Carmen; Duffar, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    Numerical modeling is used to investigate the effect of solute concentration on the melt convection and interface shape in Bridgman growth of Cd1-x Znx Te (CZT). The numerical analysis is compared to experimental growth in cylindrical ampoules having a conical tip performed by Komar et al. (2001) [15]. In these experiments, the solidification process occurs at slow growth rate (V = 2 ṡ10-7 m / s) in a thermal field characterized by a vertical gradient GT = 20 K / cm at the growth interface. The computations performed by accounting the solutal effect show a progressive damping of the melt convection due to the depleted Zn at the growth interface. The computed shape of the crystallization front is in agreement with the experimental measurement showing a convex-concave shape for the growth through the conical part of the ampoule and a concave shape of the interface in the cylindrical region. The distribution of Zn is nearly uniform over the crystal length except for the end part of the ingots. The anomalous zinc segregation observed in some experiments is explained by introducing the hypothesis of incomplete charge mixing during the homogenization time which precedes the growth process. When the crystallization is started in ampoules having a very sharp conical tip, the heavy CdTe is accumulated at the bottom part of the melt, giving rise to anomalous segregation patterns, featuring very low zinc concentration in the ingots during the first stage of the solidification.

  6. Facilitated citrate-dependent iron translocation increases rice endosperm iron and zinc concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Ying; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K

    2018-05-01

    Iron deficiency affects one third of the world population. Most iron biofortification strategies have focused on genes involved in iron uptake and storage but facilitating internal long-distance iron translocation has been understudied for increasing grain iron concentrations. Citrate is a primary iron chelator, and the transporter FERRIC REDUCTASE DEFECTIVE 3 (FRD3) loads citrate into the xylem. We have expressed AtFRD3 in combination with AtNAS1 (NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE 1) and PvFER (FERRITIN) or with PvFER alone to facilitate long-distance iron transport together with efficient iron uptake and storage in the rice endosperm. The citrate and iron concentrations in the xylem sap of transgenic plants increased two-fold compared to control plants. Iron and zinc levels increased significantly in polished and unpolished rice grains to more than 70% of the recommended estimated average requirement (EAR) for iron and 140% of the recommended EAR for zinc in polished rice grains. Furthermore, the transformed lines showed normal phenotypic growth, were tolerant to iron deficiency and aluminum toxicity, and had grain cadmium levels similar to control plants. Together, our results demonstrate that deploying FRD for iron biofortification has no obvious anti-nutritive effects and should be considered as an effective strategy for reducing human iron deficiency anemia. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Phosphorus reduces the zinc concentration in cereals pot-grown on calcareous Vertisols from southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Antonio Rafael; Del Campillo, María Carmen; Torrent, José

    2017-08-01

    Zinc deficiency, a major problem in crops grown on soils low in available Zn, is even more important in phosphorus-rich soils. This work aimed to elucidate the effects of soil P and Zn levels, and of fertilizer application, on yield and Zn concentration in cereal grains. Wheat and barley were successively pot-grown on 20 calcareous Vertisols low in available Zn and ranging widely in available P. Grain yield in the plants grown on the native soils was positively correlated with Olsen P but not with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn except for wheat on P-rich soils. Grain Zn concentration was negatively correlated with Olsen P. Grain Zn uptake differed little among soils. Application of P to the soils increased grain yield insignificantly and P concentration significantly; however, it reduced grain Zn concentration (particularly at low Olsen P values). Applying Zn alone only increased grain Zn concentration, whereas applying P and Zn in combination increased yield and grain Zn concentration at low and high Olsen P values, respectively. Applying P alone to plants grown on calcareous Vertisols low in available P and Zn may in practice reduce grain Zn concentrations while not increasing grain yield significantly. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Concentrations of zinc and chromium in aquatic macrophytes from the sudbury and muskoka regions of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Reimer, P; Duthie, H C

    1993-01-01

    Root and shoot samples of Eriocaulon septangulare, Nuphar variegatum, Nymphaea odorata and Pontederia cordata were collected from 15 lakes in central Ontario during the summer of 1988 to investigate possible relationships between zinc and chromium levels in aquatic macrophytes and water and sediment variables. Although concentrations of zinc and chromium differed greatly among the four species, both metals were consistently higher in Eriocaulon. Generally, root and rhizome tissue contained higher zinc and chromium than shoot tissues of the same species and site. Zinc concentrations (dry weight) ranged from 6.3 microg g(-1) in Nuphar shoots to 87.7 microg g(-1) in whole Eriocaulon. Chromium ranged from 0.23 microg g(-1) in Pontederia shoots to 23.9 microg g(-1) in whole Eriocaulon. No significant trends were detected throughout the growing season in macrophyte or sediment concentrations of either metal. Results of multiple linear regression analyses of several water quality and environmental variables on Eriocaulon indicated that sediment zinc was the best predictor of plant zinc, and sediment chromium and calcium were the best predictors of plant chromium.

  9. Determination of endogenous concentrations of nitrites and nitrates in different types of cheese in the United States: method development and validation using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Genualdi, Susan; Jeong, Nahyun; DeJager, Lowri

    2018-04-01

    Nitrites and nitrates can be present in dairy products from both endogenous and exogenous sources. In the European Union (EU), 150 mg kg - 1 of nitrates are allowed to be added to the cheese milk during the manufacturing process. The CODEX General Standard for Food Additives has a maximum permitted level of 50 mg kg - 1 residue in cheese, while in the United States (U.S.) nitrates are unapproved for use as food additives in cheese. In order to be able to investigate imported cheeses for nitrates intentionally added as preservatives and the endogenous concentrations of nitrates and nitrites present in cheeses in the U.S. marketplace, a method was developed and validated using ion chromatography with conductivity detection. A market sampling of cheese samples purchased in the Washington DC metro area was performed. In 64 samples of cheese, concentrations ranged from below the method detection limit (MDL) to 26 mg kg - 1 for nitrates and no concentrations of nitrites were found in any of the cheese samples above the MDL of 0.1 mg kg - 1 . A majority of the samples (93%) had concentrations below 10 mg kg - 1 , which indicate the presence of endogenous nitrates. The samples with concentrations above 10 mg kg - 1 were mainly processed cheese spread, which can contain additional ingredients often of plant-based origin. These ingredients are likely the cause of the elevated nitrate concentrations. The analysis of 12 additional cheese samples that are liable to the intentional addition of nitrates, 9 of which were imported, indicated that in this limited study, concentrations of nitrate in the U.S.-produced cheeses did not differ from those in imported samples.

  10. Correlations between lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in frozen tuna fish

    SciT

    Galindo, L.; Hardisson, A.; Montelongo, F.G.

    1986-04-01

    The presence of metallic pollutants in marine ecosystems has promoted wide research plans in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine organisms. However, little is known concerning environmental and physiological processes that regulate the concentration of trace metals in marine organisms. Even though the toxicity of lead and cadmium is well established, copper, zinc and iron are considered as essential elements for mammals. Little is known about heavy metals, other than mercury, concentrations in fresh and frozen tuna fish. Fifty samples obtained at the entrance of a canning factory in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), were analyzed by atomicmore » absorption spectrophotometry. Results were treated by applying the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences compiled and linked in the software of a Digital VAX/VMS 11/780 computer.« less

  11. Toxicity of chromium (VI) to two mussels and an amphipod in water-only exposures with or without a co-stressor of elevated temperature, zinc, or nitrate

    Wang, Ning; Kunz, James L.; Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Glidewell, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for propagating western pearlshell (Margaritifera falcata) for laboratory toxicity testing and evaluate acute and chronic toxicity of chromium VI [Cr(VI)] to the pearlshell and a commonly tested mussel (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea at 20 °C or in association with a co-stressor of elevated temperature (27 °C), zinc (50 µg Zn/L), or nitrate (35 mg NO3/L). A commonly tested invertebrate (amphipod, Hyalella azteca) also was tested in chronic exposures. Newly transformed pearlshell (~1 week old) were successfully cultured and tested in acute 96 h Cr exposures (control survival 100%). However, the grow-out of juveniles in culture for chronic toxicity testing was less successful and chronic 28-day Cr toxicity tests started with 4 month-old pearlshell failed due to low control survival (39–68%). Acute median effect concentration (EC50) for the pearlshell (919 µg Cr/L) and fatmucket (456 µg Cr/L) tested at 20 °C without a co-stressor decreased by a factor of > 2 at elevated temperature but did not decrease at elevated Zn or elevated NO3. Chronic 28-day Cr tests were completed successfully with the fatmucket and amphipod (control survival 83–98%). Chronic maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) for fatmucket at 20 °C (26 µg Cr/L) decreased by a factor of 2 at elevated temperature or NO3 but did not decrease at elevated Zn. However, chronic MATC for amphipod at 20 °C (13 µg Cr/L) did not decrease at elevated temperature, Zn, or NO3. Acute EC50s for both mussels tested with or without a co-stressor were above the final acute value used to derive United States Environmental Protection Agency acute water quality criterion (WQC) for Cr(VI); however, chronic MATCs for fatmucket at elevated temperature or NO3 and chronic MATCs for the amphipod at 20 °C with or without elevated Zn or NO3 were about equal to the chronic WQC. The results indicate that (1) the elevated temperature

  12. Evaluation of the change of serum copper and zinc concentrations of dairy cows with subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Liu, Guowen; Li, Xiaobing; Gao, Li; Guo, Changming; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Zhe

    2010-12-01

    Ketosis in dairy cows can lead to poor reproductive success and decreased milk production. Since the serum concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are closely associated with the health status of cows, we investigated whether serum concentrations of Cu and Zn differed in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis and healthy dairy cows. Blood samples of 19 healthy dairy cows and 15 subclinically ketotic dairy cows were collected from three farms, and the concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), Cu, and Zn were determined. Subclinically ketotic dairy cows had significantly higher BHBA and NEFA levels (p < 0.01) and lower glucose (p < 0.01) than healthy dairy cows. Likewise, serum concentrations of Zn were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis. There was no significant difference observed for serum Cu concentration between healthy and subclinically ketotic dairy cows. This study suggests that a decreased serum Zn concentration could be a cause of decreased reproductive performance in subclinically ketotic dairy cows.

  13. Trace concentration - Huge impact: Nitrate in the calcite/Eu(III) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Sascha; Voïtchovsky, Kislon; Schmidt, Moritz; Stumpf, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    The interactions of trivalent lanthanides and actinides with secondary mineral phases such as calcite is of high importance for the safety assessment of deep geological repositories for high level nuclear waste (HLW). Due to similar ionic radii, calcium-bearing mineral phases are suitable host minerals for Ln(III) and An(III) ions. Especially calcite has been proven to retain these metal ions effectively by both surface complexation and bulk incorporation. Since anionic ligands (e.g., nitrate) are omnipresent in the geological environment and due to their coordinating properties, their influence on retentive processes should not be underestimated. Nitrate is a common contaminant in most HLW forms as a result of using nitric acid in fuel reprocessing. It is also formed by microbial activity under aerobic conditions. In this study, atomic force microscopy investigations revealed a major influence of nitrate upon the surface of calcite crystals. NaNO3 causes serious modifications even in trace amounts (<10-7 M) and forms a soft surface layer of low crystallinity on top of the calcite crystal. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy of Eu(III) showed that, within this layer, Eu(III) ions are incorporated, while losing most of their hydration shell. The results show that solid solution modelling for actinides in calcite must take into account the presence of nitrate in pore and ground waters.

  14. Stream Nitrate Concentrations in a Small Catchment in South West England over a Period of 35 Years (1970-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, T.; Worrall, F.

    2008-12-01

    A 35-year record of nitrate concentration for the Slapton Wood stream, a small agricultural catchment in south west England, is presented. The study reconsiders earlier work in order to assess whether upward trends have been maintained and how controls on catchment nitrate processes have altered. The study has shown that: (i) the catchment has reached a new position of equilibrium and increases in nitrate concentration have levelled off; (ii) the occurrence of severe droughts means that records of less than a decade are misleading and only longer records can illustrate changes of system state; (iii) the change of state observed in the catchment is illustrated in the switching of long-term memory effects from a negative to a positive annual memory; (iv) a significant long-term impulsivity relationship with rainfall becomes insignificant over the course of the study period. The study shows the importance of long records in exposing changes in state in catchment systems and understanding the time constants of a range of driving processes. The study by its very nature also demonstrates the importance of maintaining long-term monitoring programmes.

  15. Aluminide slurry coatings for protection of ferritic steel in molten nitrate corrosion for concentrated solar power technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audigié, Pauline; Bizien, Nicolas; Baráibar, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Sergio; Pastor, Ana; Hernández, Marta; Agüero, Alina

    2017-06-01

    Molten nitrates can be employed as heat storage fluids in solar concentration power plants. However molten nitrates are corrosive and if operating temperatures are raised to increase efficiencies, the corrosion rates will also increase. High temperature corrosion resistant coatings based on Al have demonstrated excellent results in other sectors such as gas turbines. Aluminide slurry coated and uncoated P92 steel specimens were exposed to the so called Solar Salt (industrial grade), a binary eutectic mixture of 60 % NaNO3 - 40 % KNO3, in air for 2000 hours at 550°C and 580°C in order to analyze their behavior as candidates to be used in future solar concentration power plants employing molten nitrates as heat transfer fluids. Coated ferritic steels constitute a lower cost technology than Ni based alloy. Two different coating morphologies resulting from two heat treatment performed at 700 and 1050°C after slurry application were tested. The coated systems exhibited excellent corrosion resistance at both temperatures, whereas uncoated P92 showed significant mass loss from the beginning of the test. The coatings showed very slow reaction with the molten Solar Salt. In contrast, uncoated P92 developed a stratified, unprotected Fe, Cr oxide with low adherence which shows oscillating Cr content as a function of coating depth. NaFeO2 was also found at the oxide surface as well as within the Fe, Cr oxide.

  16. Low concentrations of selenium and zinc in nails are associated with childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos; Amantéa, Sérgio Luis; Barbosa, Fernando

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible associations between Zn, Se, Cu, Mn, and Co concentrations in nails and asthma in a young population from a Southern Brazil city. Additionally, correlations between these chemical elements among asthmatic and non-asthmatic children were evaluated. Before nail collection (n = 165), children were asked to complete the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. The concentrations of trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the association between element concentrations in nails and the respiratory outcome. To evaluate correlations between the elements, we used the Spearman correlation test. For all tests, the significance level was set at 95% (P ≤ 0.05). Children included in the highest quartile of nail Se and Zn concentration presented a fivefold decrease in the prevalence ratio of asthma while children in the lowest Se range presented an almost 2.5-fold increase in the asthma prevalence ratio. There were weak to strong correlations between Cu vs. Zn, Cu vs. Co, Cu vs. Se, Zn vs. Se, Zn vs. Mn, and Mn vs. Co in both asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. Interestingly, non-asthmatics also presented correlations between Co vs. Se and Zn. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrated an association between concentrations of selenium and zinc and childhood asthma and the usefulness of nail as a noninvasive matrix to detect minerals imbalance in asthma patients.

  17. Inheritance of seed iron and zinc concentrations in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Micronutrients are essential elements needed in small amounts for adequate human nutrition and include the elements iron and zinc. Both of these minerals are essential to human well-being, and an adequate supply of iron and zinc helps to prevent iron deficiency anemia and zinc deficiency, two preva...

  18. Relation of nitrate concentrations in ground water to well depth, well use, and land use in Franklin Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey, 1970-85

    MacLeod, Cecilia Louise; Barringer, T.H.; Vowinkel, E.F.; Price, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    A water-quality data base was developed to permit the investigation of the relation of concentrations of nitrate (as nitrogen) in ground water to well depth, well use, and land use (agricultural, residential, urban nonresidential, and undeveloped) in Franklin Township. Nitrate concentrations in water from 868 wells tended to decrease with depth. A rank-order regression model of nitrate concen- trations and land-use percentages was fitted to data from 98 shallow domestic wells. The model, which explains about 25 percent of the variance in the data, indicated that nitrate concentration increased with the percentage of developed land in a well's buffer zone. Further stratification of the data based on well use (commercial, domestic, or agricultural/irrigation) indicated that elevated nitrate concentrations were more common in water from agricultural/irrigation wells than in water from domestic or commercial wells. Concentrations of nitrate were indicative of human activities in water from about one-third of the wells sampled but exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in water from only 1 percent of the wells. A sampling strategy in which water from wells of different depths located within areas in each of the four land-use categories is sampled yearly and analyzed for nitrate and other constituents would facilitate determination of the effects of human activities on ground-water quality.

  19. Long-term trends in dissolved iron and DOC concentration linked to nitrate depletion in riparian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musolff, Andreas; Selle, Benny; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Oosterwoud, Marieke R.; Tittel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The instream concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are rising in many catchments of the northern hemisphere. Elevated concentrations of DOC, mainly in the form of colored humic components, increase efforts and costs of drinking water purification. In this study, we evaluated a long-term dataset of 110 catchments draining into German drinking water reservoirs in order to assess sources of DOC and drivers of a potential long-term change. The average DOC concentrations across the wide range of different catchments were found to be well explained by the catchment's topographic wetness index. Higher wetness indices were connected to higher average DOC concentrations, which implies that catchments with shallow topography and pronounced riparian wetlands mobilize more DOC. Overall, 37% of the investigated catchments showed a significant long-term increase in DOC concentrations, while 22% exhibited significant negative trends. Moreover, we found that increasing trends in DOC were positively correlated to trends in dissolved iron concentrations at pH≤6 due to remobilization of DOC previously sorbed to iron minerals. Both, increasing trends in DOC and dissolve iron were found to be connected to decreasing trends and low concentrations of nitrate (below ~6 mg/L). This was especially observed in forested catchments where atmospheric N-depositions were the major source for nitrate availability. In these catchments, we also found long-term increases of phosphate concentrations. Therefore, we argue that dissolved iron, DOC and phosphate were jointly released under iron-reducing conditions when nitrate as a competing electron acceptor was too low in concentrations to prevent the microbial iron reduction. In contrast, we could not explain the observed increasing trends in DOC, iron and phosphate concentrations by the long-term trends of pH, sulfate or precipitation. Altogether this study gives strong evidence that both, source and long-term increases in DOC are

  20. The effect of feed supplementation with zinc chelate and zinc sulphate on selected humoral and cell-mediated immune parameters and cytokine concentration in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Łukasz; Marek, Agnieszka; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Kalinowski, Marcin

    2017-06-01

    The ability of poultry to withstand infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses or protozoa depends upon the integrity of the immune system. Zinc is important for proper functioning of heterophils, mononuclear phagocytes and T lymphocytes. Numerous data indicate that the demand for zinc in poultry is not met in Poland due to its low content in feeds of vegetable origin. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplementation of inorganic (ZnSO 4 and ZnSO 4 + phytase enzyme), and organic forms of zinc (Zn with glycine and Zn with glycine and phytase enzyme) on selected parameters of the cellular and humoral immune response in broiler chickens by evaluating the percentage of CD3 + CD4 + , CD3 + CD8 + , CD25 + , MHC Class II, and BU-1 + lymphocytes, the phagocytic activity of monocytes and heterophils, and the concentration of IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α in the peripheral blood. Flow cytometry was used to determine selected cell-mediated immune response parameters. Phagocytic activity in whole blood was performed using the commercial Phagotest kit (ORPEGEN-Pharma, Immuniq, Poland). The results showed that supplementation with zinc chelates causes activation of the cellular and humoral immune response in poultry, helping to maintain the balance between the Th1 and Th2 response and enhancing resistance to infections. In contrast with chelates, the use of zinc in the form of sulphates has no immunomodulatory effect and may contribute to the development of local inflammatory processes in the digestive tract, increasing susceptibility to infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Digital spatial data for predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area

    McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This product "Digital spatial data for predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area" is a 1:250,000-scale vector spatial dataset developed as part of a regional Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study (Anning and others, 2012). The study examined the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid that represents local- and basin-scale measures of source, aquifer susceptibility, and geochemical conditions.

  2. Electrical properties of tin-doped zinc oxide nanostructures doped at different dopant concentrations

    SciT

    Nasir, M. F., E-mail: babaibaik2002@yahoo.com; Zainol, M. N., E-mail: nizarzainol@yahoo.com; Hannas, M., E-mail: mhannas@gmail.com

    This project has been focused on the electrical and optical properties respectively on the effect of Tin doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films at different dopant concentrations. These thin films were doped with different Sn dopant concentrations at 1 at%, 2 at%, 3 at%, 4 at% and 5 at% was selected as the parameter to optimize the thin films quality while the annealing temperature is fixed 500 °C. Sn doped ZnO solutions were deposited onto the glass substrates using sol-gel spin coating method. This project was involved with three phases, which are thin films preparation, deposition and characterization. The thinmore » films were characterized using Current Voltage (I-V) measurement and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer Lambda 750) for electrical properties and optical properties. The electrical properties show that the resistivity is the lowest at 4 at% Sn doping concentration with the value 3.08 × 10{sup 3} Ωcm{sup −1}. The absorption coefficient spectrum obtained shows all films exhibit very low absorption in the visible (400-800 nm) and near infrared (NIR) (>800 nm) range but exhibit high absorption in the UV range.« less

  3. Synchrotron radiation microbeam X-ray fluorescence analysis of zinc concentration in remineralized enamel in situ.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Tsunenori; Ishizaki, Hidetaka; Tanabe, Shuji; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2009-05-01

    Remineralization is an indispensable phenomenon during the natural healing process of enamel decay. The incorporation of zinc (Zn) into enamel crystal could accelerate this remineralization. The present study was designed to investigate the concentration and distribution of Zn in remineralized enamel after gum chewing. The experiment was performed at the Photon Factory. Synchrotron radiation was monochromatized and X-rays were focused into a small beam spot. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) from the sample was detected with a silicon (Si) (lithium (Li)) detector. X-ray beam energy was tuned to detect Zn. The examined samples were small enamel fragments remineralized after chewing calcium phosphate-containing gum in situ. The incorporation of Zn atom into hydroxyapatite (OHAP), the main component of enamel, was measured using Zn K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) with fluorescence mode at the SPring-8. A high concentration of Zn was detected in a superficial area 10-microm deep of the sectioned enamel after gum chewing. This concentration increased over that in the intact enamel. The atomic distance between Zn and O in the enamel was calculated using the EXAFS data. The analyzed atomic distances between Zn and O in two sections were 0.237 and 0.240 nm. The present experiments suggest that Zn is effectively incorporated into remineralized enamel through the physiological processes of mineral deposition in the oral cavity through gum-chewing and that Zn substitution probably occurred at the calcium position in enamel hydroxyapatite.

  4. Model for thickness dependence of mobility and concentration in highly conductive zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Look, David C.; Leedy, Kevin D.; Kiefer, Arnold; Claflin, Bruce; Itagaki, Naho; Matsushima, Koichi; Surhariadi, Iping

    2013-03-01

    The dependences of the 294 and 10 K mobility μ and volume carrier concentration n on thickness (d=25 to 147 nm) are examined in aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO). Two AZO layers are grown at each thickness, one with and one without a 20-nm-thick ZnON buffer layer. Plots of the 10 K sheet concentration ns versus d for buffered (B) and unbuffered (UB) samples give straight lines of similar slope, n=8.36×1020 and 8.32×1020 cm-3, but different x-axis intercepts, δd=-4 and +13 nm, respectively. Plots of ns versus d at 294 K produce substantially the same results. Plots of μ versus d can be well fitted with the equation μ(d)=μ(∞)/[1+d*/(d-δd)], where d* is the thickness for which μ(∞) is reduced by a factor 2. For the B and UB samples, d*=7 and 23 nm, respectively, showing the efficacy of the ZnON buffer. Finally, from n and μ(∞) we can use degenerate electron scattering theory to calculate bulk donor and acceptor concentrations of 1.23×1021 cm-3 and 1.95×1020 cm-3, respectively, and Drude theory to predict a plasmonic resonance at 1.34 μm. The latter is confirmed by reflectance measurements.

  5. Observational assessment of the role of nocturnal residual-layer chemistry in determining daytime surface particulate nitrate concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Gouri; Parworth, Caroline L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Kim, Hwajin; Young, Dominique E.; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Ziemba, Luke D.; Nowak, John B.; Bertram, Timothy H.; Faloona, Ian C.; Zhang, Qi; Cappa, Christopher D.

    2017-12-01

    This study discusses an analysis of combined airborne and ground observations of particulate nitrate (NO3-(p)) concentrations made during the wintertime DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically resolved observations relevant to Air Quality) study at one of the most polluted cities in the United States - Fresno, CA - in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and focuses on developing an understanding of the various processes that impact surface nitrate concentrations during pollution events. The results provide an explicit case-study illustration of how nighttime chemistry can influence daytime surface-level NO3-(p) concentrations, complementing previous studies in the SJV. The observations exemplify the critical role that nocturnal chemical production of NO3-(p) aloft in the residual layer (RL) can play in determining daytime surface-level NO3-(p) concentrations. Further, they indicate that nocturnal production of NO3-(p) in the RL, along with daytime photochemical production, can contribute substantially to the buildup and sustaining of severe pollution episodes. The exceptionally shallow nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) heights characteristic of wintertime pollution events in the SJV intensify the importance of nocturnal production aloft in the residual layer to daytime surface concentrations. The observations also demonstrate that dynamics within the RL can influence the early-morning vertical distribution of NO3-(p), despite low wintertime wind speeds. This overnight reshaping of the vertical distribution above the city plays an important role in determining the net impact of nocturnal chemical production on local and regional surface-level NO3-(p) concentrations. Entrainment of clean free-tropospheric (FT) air into the boundary layer in the afternoon is identified as an important process that reduces surface-level NO3-(p) and limits buildup during pollution episodes. The influence of dry deposition of HNO3 gas to the surface on

  6. [Reduced zinc concentration in expressed prostatic secretion relates to the pain symptoms of types Ⅲ and Ⅳ prostatitis].

    PubMed

    Mo, Lin-Jian; Chen, Xi; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Guang-Yu; Zhang, Xun; Huang, Shan; Xie, Zhi-Bin; Mo, Zeng-Nan

    2016-06-01

    To determine the zinc levels in the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) of the patients with different types of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis, and explore the reference value of zinc concentration in EPS in the diagnosis and treatment of prostatitis. We collected EPS samples from 35 healthy men and 173 patients with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis, including 65 cases of type ⅢA, 69 cases of type ⅢB, and 39 cases of type Ⅳ, according to the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). We compared the zinc levels in the EPS samples among different groups and analyzed the correlations of zinc concentration with the NIH-CPSI scores, WBC count, pH value, and age of the subjects. The participants were aged 17-65 (32.5±8.5) years. The zinc concentrations in the EPS were significantly lower in the ⅢA ([162.2±10.8] μg/ml) and ⅢB ([171.2±12.0] μg/ml) than in the Ⅳ ([234.6±17.9] μg/ml) (P<0.05 ) and the control group ([259.5±14.6] μg/ml) (P<0.05 ). The zinc level was correlated negatively with the NIH-CPSI pain score (r=-0.248, P<0.01), quality of life score (r=-0.232, P<0.01), severity score (r=-0.270, P<0.01), total NIH-CPSI score (r=-0.281, P<0.01), and the pH value in EPS (r=-0.208, P<0.01), but showed no correlation with the WBC count and age of the subjects. The reduced zinc concentration in the EPS of the patients with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis may be associated with the pain symptoms of the disease, which suggests the potential reference value of measuring the zinc concentration in EPS in the diagnosis and treatment of prostatitis.

  7. Adaptation of cytochrome-b5 reductase activity and methaemoglobinaemia in areas with a high nitrate concentration in drinking-water.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S. K.; Gupta, R. C.; Seth, A. K.; Gupta, A. B.; Bassin, J. K.; Gupta, A.

    1999-01-01

    An epidemiological investigation was undertaken in India to assess the prevalence of methaemoglobinaemia in areas with high nitrate concentration in drinking-water and the possible association with an adaptation of cytochrome-b5 reductase. Five areas were selected, with average nitrate ion concentrations in drinking-water of 26, 45, 95, 222 and 459 mg/l. These areas were visited and house schedules were prepared in accordance with a statistically designed protocol. A sample of 10% of the total population was selected in each of the areas, matched for age and weight, giving a total of 178 persons in five age groups. For each subject, a detailed history was documented, a medical examination was conducted and blood samples were taken to determine methaemoglobin level and cytochrome-b5 reductase activity. Collected data were subjected to statistical analysis to test for a possible relationship between nitrate concentration, cytochrome-b5 reductase activity and methaemoglobinaemia. High nitrate concentrations caused methaemoglobinaemia in infants and adults. The reserve of cytochrome-b5 reductase activity (i.e. the enzyme activity not currently being used, but which is available when needed; for example, under conditions of increased nitrate ingestion) and its adaptation with increasing water nitrate concentration to reduce methaemoglobin were more pronounced in children and adolescents. PMID:10534899

  8. Using paired in situ high frequency nitrate measurements to better understand controls on nitrate concentrations and estimate nitrification rates in a wastewater-impacted river

    Kraus, Tamara; O'Donnell, Katy; Downing, Bryan D.; Burau, Jon R.; Bergamaschi, Brian

    2017-01-01

    We used paired continuous nitrate ( ) measurements along a tidally affected river receiving wastewater discharge rich in ammonium ( ) to quantify rates of change in  concentration ( ) and estimate nitrification rates.  sensors were deployed 30 km apart in the Sacramento River, California (USA), with the upstream station located immediately above the regional wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). We used a travel time model to track water transit between the stations and estimated  every 15 min (October 2013 to September 2014). Changes in concentration were strongly related to water temperature. In the presence of wastewater, was generally positive, ranging from about 7 µM d−1 in the summer to near zero in the winter. Numerous periods when the WWTP halted discharge allowed the  to be estimated under no-effluent conditions and revealed that in the absence of effluent, net gains in  were substantially lower but still positive in the summer and negative (net sink) in the winter. Nitrification rates of effluent-derived NH4 ( ) were estimated from the difference between  measured in the presence versus absence of effluent and ranged from 1.5 to 3.4 µM d−1, which is within literature values but tenfold greater than recently reported for this region.  was generally lower in winter (∼2 µM d−1) than summer (∼3 µM d−1). This in situ, high frequency approach provides advantages over traditional discrete sampling, incubation, and tracer methods and allows measurements to be made over broad areas for extended periods of time. Incorporating this approach into environmental monitoring programs can facilitate our ability to protect and manage aquatic systems.

  9. Using Paired In Situ High Frequency Nitrate Measurements to Better Understand Controls on Nitrate Concentrations and Estimate Nitrification Rates in a Wastewater-Impacted River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, T. E. C.; O'Donnell, K.; Downing, B. D.; Burau, J. R.; Bergamaschi, B. A.

    2017-10-01

    We used paired continuous nitrate (NO3-) measurements along a tidally affected river receiving wastewater discharge rich in ammonium (NH4+) to quantify rates of change in NO3- concentration (RΔNO3) and estimate nitrification rates. NO3- sensors were deployed 30 km apart in the Sacramento River, California (USA), with the upstream station located immediately above the regional wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). We used a travel time model to track water transit between the stations and estimated RΔNO3 every 15 min (October 2013 to September 2014). Changes in NO3- concentration were strongly related to water temperature. In the presence of wastewater, RΔNO3 was generally positive, ranging from about 7 µM d-1 in the summer to near zero in the winter. Numerous periods when the WWTP halted discharge allowed the RΔNO3 to be estimated under no-effluent conditions and revealed that in the absence of effluent, net gains in NO3- were substantially lower but still positive in the summer and negative (net sink) in the winter. Nitrification rates of effluent-derived NH4 (RNitrific_E) were estimated from the difference between RΔNO3 measured in the presence versus absence of effluent and ranged from 1.5 to 3.4 µM d-1, which is within literature values but tenfold greater than recently reported for this region. RNitrific_E was generally lower in winter (˜2 µM d-1) than summer (˜3 µM d-1). This in situ, high frequency approach provides advantages over traditional discrete sampling, incubation, and tracer methods and allows measurements to be made over broad areas for extended periods of time. Incorporating this approach into environmental monitoring programs can facilitate our ability to protect and manage aquatic systems.

  10. Green Manure Addition to Soil Increases Grain Zinc Concentration in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A.; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H.; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg−1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg−1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg−1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  11. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  12. The relationship between bone health and plasma zinc, copper lead and cadmium concentration in osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behzad, Masoomeh; Behfar, Abdolazim; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Saadatmand, Sahereh

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a multi factorial disease with dimension of genetic and nutritional considerations. The aim of this study was to present data from the association of plasma zinc, copper and toxic elements of lead and cadmium levels with bone mineral density in Iranian women. 135 women gave their information and enrolled. Fasting plasma was used for measurement of trace elements and heavy metals by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Control group (n = 51) were normal in both lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck density (T-score ≥ -1), but just femoral neck T-score was considered as criterion in selection of patient group (n = 49, Tscore < -1). No differences were found in the nutritional status, number of diseases, drugs and functional activities between these groups. Plasma Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd levels were analyzed by, a method of voltammetry. Mean ± SD levels of copper and zinc was 1.168 ± 0.115, 1.097 ± 0.091 μg/ml in control group, 1.394 ± 0.133, 1.266 ± 0.11 μg/ml in total patient (TP) and 1.237 ± 0.182, 1.127 ± 0.176 μg/ml in Mild patients(-1 > T-score > -1.7), 1.463 ± 0.174, 1.327 ± 0.147 μg/ml in Severe patient group (T-score < -1.7); respectively. Mean ± SD plasma level of lead and cadmium was 168.42 ± 9.61 ng/l, 2.91 ± 0.18 ng/ml in control group, 176.13 ± 8.64 ng/l, 2.97 ± 0.21 ng/ml in TP, 176.43 ± 13.2 ng/l, 2.99 ± 0.1 ng/ml in mild patients, 221.44 ± 20 ng/l and 3.80 ± 0.70 ng/ml in severe patient group, respectively. In this study plasma zinc, copper, lead & cadmium concentrations were higher in the patients than in the control, though differences were not significant. However, differences were higher between the controls and patients with severe disease (T-score < -1.7). In addition adjusted T-score of femur with age and BMI showed negative significant correlation with plasma levels of zinc and lead in total participants (p < 0.05, r = -0.201, p = 0.044, r = -0.201). It seems that more extensive study with larger

  13. Percentile Distributions of Median Nitrite Plus Nitrate as Nitrogen, Total Nitrogen, and Total Phosphorus Concentrations in Oklahoma Streams, 1973-2001

    Haggard, Brian E.; Masoner, Jason R.; Becker, Carol J.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrients are one of the primary causes of water-quality impairments in streams, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries in the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed regional-based nutrient criteria using ecoregions to protect streams in the United States from impairment. However, nutrient criteria were based on nutrient concentrations measured in large aggregated nutrient ecoregions with little relevance to local environmental conditions in states. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is using a dichotomous process known as Use Support Assessment Protocols to define nutrient criteria in Oklahoma streams. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is modifying the Use Support Assessment Protocols to reflect nutrient informa-tion and environmental characteristics relevant to Oklahoma streams, while considering nutrient information grouped by geographic regions based on level III ecoregions and state boundaries. Percentile distributions of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorous concentrations were calculated from 563 sites in Oklahoma and 4 sites in Arkansas near the Oklahoma and Arkansas border to facilitate development of nutrient criteria for Oklahoma streams. Sites were grouped into four geographic regions and were categorized into eight stream categories by stream slope and stream order. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus concentrations were greater in the Ozark Highland ecoregion and were less in the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion when compared to other geographic areas used to group sites. The 50th percentiles of median concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were least in first, second, and third order streams. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the Ozark Highland and Ouachita Mountains ecoregions were least in

  14. Estimating the probability of elevated nitrate (NO2+NO3-N) concentrations in ground water in the Columbia Basin Ground Water Management Area, Washington

    Frans, Lonna M.

    2000-01-01

    Logistic regression was used to relate anthropogenic (man-made) and natural factors to the occurrence of elevated concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen in ground water in the Columbia Basin Ground Water Management Area, eastern Washington. Variables that were analyzed included well depth, depth of well casing, ground-water recharge rates, presence of canals, fertilizer application amounts, soils, surficial geology, and land-use types. The variables that best explain the occurrence of nitrate concentrations above 3 milligrams per liter in wells were the amount of fertilizer applied annually within a 2-kilometer radius of a well and the depth of the well casing; the variables that best explain the occurrence of nitrate above 10 milligrams per liter included the amount of fertilizer applied annually within a 3-kilometer radius of a well, the depth of the well casing, and the mean soil hydrologic group, which is a measure of soil infiltration rate. Based on the relations between these variables and elevated nitrate concentrations, models were developed using logistic regression that predict the probability that ground water will exceed a nitrate concentration of either 3 milligrams per liter or 10 milligrams per liter. Maps were produced that illustrate the predicted probability that ground-water nitrate concentrations will exceed 3 milligrams per liter or 10 milligrams per liter for wells cased to 78 feet below land surface (median casing depth) and the predicted depth to which wells would need to be cased in order to have an 80-percent probability of drawing water with a nitrate concentration below either 3 milligrams per liter or 10 milligrams per liter. Maps showing the predicted probability for the occurrence of elevated nitrate concentrations indicate that the irrigated agricultural regions are most at risk. The predicted depths to which wells need to be cased in order to have an 80-percent chance of obtaining low nitrate ground water exceed 600 feet

  15. Geographic variation in the relationships of temperature, salinity or sigma sub t versus plant nutrient concentrations in the world ocean. [silicic acid, nitrate, and phosphate concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamykowski, D.; Zentara, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A NODC data set representing all regions of the world ocean was analyzed for temperature and sigma-t relationships with nitrate, phosphate or silicic acid. Six cubic regressions were for each ten degree square of latitude and longitude containing adequate data. World maps display the locations that allow the prediction of plant nutrient concentrations from temperature or sigma-t. Geographic coverage improves along the sequence: nitrate, phosphate, and silicic acid and is better for sigma-t than for temperature. Contour maps of the approximate temperature of sigma-t at which these nitrients are no longer measurable in a parcel of water are generated, based on a percentile analysis of the temperature or sigma-t at which less than a selected amount of plant nutrient occurs. Results are stored on magnetic tape in tabular form. The global potential to predict plant nutrient concentrations from remotely sensed temperature of sigma-t and to emphasize the latitudinally and longitudinally changing phytoplankton growth environment in present and past oceans is demonstrated.

  16. Anomalous concentrations of zinc and copper in highmoor peat bog, southeast coast of Lake Baikal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, V. A.; Bogush, A. A.; Leonova, G. A.; Krasnobaev, V. A.; Anoshin, G. N.

    2011-08-01

    When examining the peat deposit discovered in Vydrinaya bog, South Baikal region, the authors encountered anomalous Zn and Cu concentrations for highmoors being up to 600-500 ppm on a dry matter basis in the Early Holocene beds (360-440 cm) formed 11 000-8500 years ago. It has been demonstrated that Zn and Cu are present inside the plant cells of peat moss in the form of authigenic sulfide minerals of micron size. Apart from Zn and Cu, native Ag particles (5-7 um) have been encountered in the peat of the Vydrinaya bog at a depth of 390-410 cm; these particles formed inside the organic matter of the plasma membrane of peat moss containing Ca, Al, S, and Cu. This study suggests probable patterns of the formation of zinc sulfides, copper sulfides, and native silver in peat moss. The results obtained indicate that biogenic mineral formation plays a significant role in this system, which is a very important argument in the discussion on the ore genesis, in which physicochemical processes are normally favored, while the role of living matter is quite frequently disregarded.

  17. New perspectives on the regulation of iron absorption via cellular zinc concentrations in humans.

    PubMed

    Knez, Marija; Graham, Robin D; Welch, Ross M; Stangoulis, James C R

    2017-07-03

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency, affecting more than 30% of the total world's population. It is a major public health problem in many countries around the world. Over the years various methods have been used with an effort to try and control iron-deficiency anemia. However, there has only been a marginal reduction in the global prevalence of anemia. Why is this so? Iron and zinc are essential trace elements for humans. These metals influence the transport and absorption of one another across the enterocytes and hepatocytes, due to similar ionic properties. This paper describes the structure and roles of major iron and zinc transport proteins, clarifies iron-zinc interactions at these sites, and provides a model for the mechanism of these interactions both at the local and systemic level. This review provides evidence that much of the massive extent of iron deficiency anemia in the world may be due to an underlying deficiency of zinc. It explains the reasons for predominance of cellular zinc status in determination of iron/zinc interactions and for the first time thoroughly explains mechanisms by which zinc brings about these changes.

  18. QTL for seed iron and zinc concentration and content in a Mesoamerican common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) population.

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Medina, Juliana I; Astudillo, Carolina; Rengifo, Judith; Beebe, Steve E; Machado, Gloria; Graham, Robin

    2010-10-01

    Iron and zinc deficiencies are human health problems found throughout the world and biofortification is a plant breeding-based strategy to improve the staple crops that could address these dietary constraints. Common bean is an important legume crop with two major genepools that has been the focus of genetic improvement for seed micronutrient levels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inheritance of seed iron and zinc concentrations and contents in an intra-genepool Mesoamerican × Mesoamerican recombinant inbred line population grown over three sites in Colombia and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for each mineral. The population had 110 lines and was derived from a high-seed iron and zinc climbing bean genotype (G14519) crossed with a low-mineral Carioca-type, prostrate bush bean genotype (G4825). The genetic map for QTL analysis was created from SSR and RAPD markers covering all 11 chromosomes of the common bean genome. A set of across-site, overlapping iron and zinc QTL was discovered on linkage group b06 suggesting a possibly pleiotropic locus and common physiology for mineral uptake or loading. Other QTL for mineral concentration or content were found on linkage groups b02, b03, b04, b07, b08 and b11 and together with the b06 cluster were mostly novel compared to loci found in previous studies of the Andean genepool or inter-genepool crosses. The discovery of an important new locus for seed iron and zinc concentrations may facilitate crop improvement and biofortification using the high-mineral genotype especially within the Mesoamerican genepool.

  19. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy increases blood nitrite, nitrate, and s-nitrosohemoglobin concentrations in infants with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Yomna I; Ninnis, Janet R; Hopper, Andrew O; Deming, Douglas D; Zhang, Amy X; Herring, Jason L; Sowers, Lawrence C; McMahon, Timothy J; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2012-02-01

    To measure the circulating concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) adducts with NO bioactivity after inhaled NO (iNO) therapy in infants with pulmonary hypertension. In this single center study, 5 sequential blood samples were collected from infants with pulmonary hypertension before, during, and after therapy with iNO (n = 17). Samples were collected from a control group of hospitalized infants without pulmonary hypertension (n = 16) and from healthy adults for comparison (n = 12). After beginning iNO (20 ppm) whole blood nitrite levels increased approximately two-fold within 2 hours (P<.01). Whole blood nitrate levels increased to 4-fold higher than baseline during treatment with 20 ppm iNO (P<.01). S-nitrosohemoglobin increased measurably after beginning iNO (P<.01), whereas iron nitrosyl hemoglobin and total hemoglobin-bound NO-species compounds did not change. Treatment of pulmonary hypertensive infants with iNO results in increases in levels of nitrite, nitrate, and S-nitrosohemoglobin in circulating blood. We speculate that these compounds may be carriers of NO bioactivity throughout the body and account for peripheral effects of iNO in the brain, heart, and other organs. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhaled NO therapy increases blood nitrite, nitrate and S-nitrosohemoglobin concentrations in infants with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Yomna I.; Ninnis, Janet R.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Deming, Douglas D.; Zhang, Amy X.; Herring, Jason L.; Sowers, Lawrence C.; McMahon, Timothy J.; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To measure the circulating concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) adducts with NO bioactivity following inhaled NO therapy in infants with pulmonary hypertension. Study design In this single center study five sequential blood samples were collected from infants with pulmonary hypertension before, during and after therapy with iNO (n=17). Samples were collected from a control group of hospitalized infants without pulmonary hypertension (n=16) and from healthy adults for comparison (n=12). Results After beginning iNO (20 ppm) whole blood nitrite increased about two-fold within two hours (P<0.01). Whole blood nitrate increased to four-fold higher than baseline during treatment with 20ppm iNO (P<0.01). S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb) increased measurably after beginning iNO (P<0.01) whereas iron nitrosyl hemoglobin and total Hb-bound NO-species compounds did not change. Conclusion Treatment of pulmonary hypertensive infants with iNO results in increases in nitrite, nitrate, and SNO-Hb in circulating blood. We speculate that these compounds may be carriers of NO bioactivity throughout the body and account for peripheral effects of iNO in the brain, heart and other organs. PMID:21907348

  1. In what root-zone N concentration does nitrate start to leach significantly? A reasonable answer from modeling Mediterranean field data and closed root-zone experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtzman, D.; Kanner, B.; Levy, Y.; Shapira, R. H.; Bar-Tal, A.

    2017-12-01

    Closed-root-zone experiments (e.g. pots, lyzimeters) reveal in many cases a mineral-nitrogen (N) concentration from which the root-N-uptake efficiency reduces significantly and nitrate leaching below the root-zone increases dramatically. A les-direct way to reveal this threshold concentration in agricultural fields is to calibrate N-transport models of the unsaturated zone to nitrate data of the deep samples (under the root-zone) by fitting the threshold concentration of the nitrate-uptake function. Independent research efforts of these two types in light soils where nitrate problems in underlying aquifers are common reviled: 1) that the threshold exists for most crops (filed, vegetables and orchards); 2) nice agreement on the threshold value between the two very different research methodologies; and 3) the threshold lies within 20-50 mg-N/L. Focusing on being below the threshold is a relatively simple aim in the way to maintain intensive agriculture with limited effects on the nitrate concentration in the underlying water resource. Our experience show that in some crops this threshold coincides with the end-of-rise of the N-yield curve (e.g. corn); in this case, it is relatively easy to convince farmers to fertilize below threshold. In other crops, although significant N is lost to leaching the crop can still use higher N concentration to increase yield (e.g. potato).

  2. Experimental additions of aluminum sulfate and ammonium nitrate to in situ mesocosms to reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration

    Harris, Ted D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitrogen additions to increase the total nitrogen:total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio may reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration in reservoirs. In systems where TP is >100 μg/L, however, nitrogen additions to increase the TN:TP ratio could cause ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Reducing phosphorus via aluminum sulfate (alum) may be needed prior to nitrogen additions aimed at increasing the TN:TP ratio. We experimentally tested this sequential management approach in large in situ mesocosms (70.7 m3) to examine effects on cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration. Because alum removes nutrients and most seston from the water column, alum treatment reduced both TN and TP, leaving post-treatment TN:TP ratios similar to pre-treatment ratios. Cyanobacterial biovolume was reduced after alum addition, but the percent composition (i.e., relative) cyanobacterial abundance remained unchanged. A single ammonium nitrate (nitrogen) addition increased the TN:TP ratio 7-fold. After the TN:TP ratio was >50 (by weight), cyanobacterial biovolume and abundance were reduced, and chrysophyte and cryptophyte biovolume and abundance increased compared to the alum treatment. Microcystin was not detectable until the TN:TP ratio was <50. Although both treatments reduced cyanobacteria, only the nitrogen treatment seemed to stimulate energy flow from primary producers to zooplankton, which suggests that combining alum and nitrogen treatments may be a viable in-lake management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and possibly microcystin concentrations in high-phosphorus systems. Additional studies are needed to define best management practices before combined alum and nitrogen additions are implemented as a reservoir management strategy.

  3. Estimation of nitrate metabolism in intestinal tract by measuring breath nitrous oxide concentration in Chinese and Japanese.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, T; Kato, N; Kondo, T

    2000-05-01

    We have previously reported that ingestion of vegetables containing high nitrate (NO3-) increases breath nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration, probably due to denitrification. In the present study, we estimated NO3- metabolism in the intestine by determining exhaled breath N2O concentration after the ingestion of vegetables by 16 healthy Chinese and Japanese. Breath samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 4 hr after subjects ingested 180 g of vegetable juice or 50 g of lettuce. Breath N2O concentration was measured by an IR-PAS analyzer. Lettuce but not vegetable juice increased N2O concentrations similarly in Japanese and Chinese. In control subjects who ingested nothing, there were significant differences between Chinese and Japanese in peak N2O concentrations (334 +/- 91 vs 140 +/- 24 ppb, P = 0.027) and total excretions (535 +/- 143 vs 214 +/- 36 microg, P = 0.036). Although the reason for this difference is unclear, Chinese subjects could produce breath N2O from other metabolic pathways than denitrification of dietary NO3.

  4. Nucleation effect and growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructures by electrodeposition from aqueous zinc nitrate baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Sujuan; Jiao, Shujie; Zhang, Kejun; Wang, Dongbo; Gao, Shiyong; Li, Hongtao; Wang, Jinzhong; Yu, Qingjiang; Guo, Fengyun; Zhao, Liancheng

    2012-11-01

    We presented a systematic study of the nucleation effect and growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructures from electrolyte mixed with different concentration of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O and KCl by cathodic electrochemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal that the concentration of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O is important to control the dimension and nucleation rate, which 1D ZnO nanostructures with smaller diameters and rougher facets are formed at lower Zn(NO3)2 precursor concentration(1 mM) and dense and well-defined nanorods are achieved above 5 mM. We also found other major effects of KCl besides as a supporting electrolyte. A high [Cl-] not only makes the transition of morphology from 1D to 2D, but also has important influence on the nucleation in the initial stage in electrodeposition. Very sparse ZnO nanoclusters composed of two dimensional nanosheets evolve from dense ZnO nanotowers when the KCl supporting electrolyte concentration is added to 2 M. Thus, altering the content of Zn(NO3)2 precursor and KCl is a effective method to obtain ZnO nanostructures with different morphology for more applications.

  5. Changes in stream nitrate concentrations due to land management practices, ecological succession, and climate: Developing a system approach to integrated catchment response

    F. Worrall; Wayne T. Swank; T. P. Burt

    2003-01-01

    This study uses time series analysis to examine long-term stream water nitrate concentration records from a pair of forested catchments at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina, USA. Monthly average concentrations were available from 1970 through 1997 for two forested catchments, one of which was clear-felled in 1977 and the other maintained as a control....

  6. Compound heterozygous mutations in SLC30A2/ZnT2 results in low milk zinc concentrations: a novel mechanism for zinc deficiency in a breast-fed infant.

    PubMed

    Itsumura, Naoya; Inamo, Yasuji; Okazaki, Fumiko; Teranishi, Fumie; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Kodama, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Zinc concentrations in breast milk are considerably higher than those of the maternal serum, to meet the infant's requirements for normal growth and development. Thus, effective mechanisms ensuring secretion of large amounts of zinc into the milk operate in mammary epithelial cells during lactation. ZnT2 was recently found to play an essential role in the secretion of zinc into milk. Heterozygous mutations of human ZnT2 (hZnT2), including H54R and G87R, in mothers result in low (>75% reduction) secretion of zinc into the breast milk, and infants fed on the milk develop transient neonatal zinc deficiency. We identified two novel missense mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene in a Japanese mother with low milk zinc concentrations (>90% reduction) whose infant developed severe zinc deficiency; a T to C transition (c.454T>C) at exon 4, which substitutes a tryptophan residue with an arginine residue (W152R), and a C to T transition (c.887C>T) at exon 7, which substitutes a serine residue with a leucine residue (S296L). Biochemical characterization using zinc-sensitive DT40 cells indicated that the W152R mutation abolished the abilities to transport zinc and to form a dimer complex, indicating a loss-of-function mutation. The S296L mutation retained both abilities but was extremely destabilized. The two mutations were found on different alleles, indicating that the genotype of the mother with low milk zinc was compound heterozygous. These results show novel compound heterozygous mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene causing zinc deficiency in a breast-fed infant.

  7. Compound Heterozygous Mutations in SLC30A2/ZnT2 Results in Low Milk Zinc Concentrations: A Novel Mechanism for Zinc Deficiency in a Breast-Fed Infant

    PubMed Central

    Itsumura, Naoya; Inamo, Yasuji; Okazaki, Fumiko; Teranishi, Fumie; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Kodama, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Zinc concentrations in breast milk are considerably higher than those of the maternal serum, to meet the infant's requirements for normal growth and development. Thus, effective mechanisms ensuring secretion of large amounts of zinc into the milk operate in mammary epithelial cells during lactation. ZnT2 was recently found to play an essential role in the secretion of zinc into milk. Heterozygous mutations of human ZnT2 (hZnT2), including H54R and G87R, in mothers result in low (>75% reduction) secretion of zinc into the breast milk, and infants fed on the milk develop transient neonatal zinc deficiency. We identified two novel missense mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene in a Japanese mother with low milk zinc concentrations (>90% reduction) whose infant developed severe zinc deficiency; a T to C transition (c.454T>C) at exon 4, which substitutes a tryptophan residue with an arginine residue (W152R), and a C to T transition (c.887C>T) at exon 7, which substitutes a serine residue with a leucine residue (S296L). Biochemical characterization using zinc-sensitive DT40 cells indicated that the W152R mutation abolished the abilities to transport zinc and to form a dimer complex, indicating a loss-of-function mutation. The S296L mutation retained both abilities but was extremely destabilized. The two mutations were found on different alleles, indicating that the genotype of the mother with low milk zinc was compound heterozygous. These results show novel compound heterozygous mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene causing zinc deficiency in a breast-fed infant. PMID:23741301

  8. Modelling drivers and distribution of lead and zinc concentrations in soils of an urban catchment (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    PubMed

    Johnson, L E; Bishop, T F A; Birch, G F

    2017-11-15

    The human population is increasing globally and land use is changing to accommodate for this growth. Soils within urban areas require closer attention as the higher population density increases the chance of human exposure to urban contaminants. One such example of an urban area undergoing an increase in population density is Sydney, Australia. The city also possesses a notable history of intense industrial activity. By integrating multiple soil surveys and covariates into a linear mixed model, it was possible to determine the main drivers and map the distribution of lead and zinc concentrations within the Sydney estuary catchment. The main drivers as derived from the model included elevation, distance to main roads, main road type, soil landscape, population density (lead only) and land use (zinc only). Lead concentrations predicted using the model exceeded the established guideline value of 300mgkg -1 over a large portion of the study area with concentrations exceeding 1000mgkg -1 in the south of the catchment. Predicted zinc did not exceed the established guideline value of 7400mgkg -1 ; however concentrations were higher to the south and west of the study area. Unlike many other studies we considered the prediction uncertainty when assessing the contamination risk. Although the predictions indicate contamination over a large area, the broadness of the prediction intervals suggests that in many of these areas we cannot be sure that the site is contaminated. More samples are required to determine the contaminant distribution with greater precision, especially in residential areas where contamination was highest. Managing sources and addressing areas of elevated lead and zinc concentrations in urban areas has the potential to reduce the impact of past human activities and improve the urban environment of the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Meta-QTL analysis of seed iron and zinc concentration and content in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Paulo; Astudillo, Carolina; Blair, Matthew W; Iqbal, Asif M; Raatz, Bodo; Cichy, Karen A

    2018-05-11

    Twelve meta-QTL for seed Fe and Zn concentration and/or content were identified from 87 QTL originating from seven population grown in sixteen field trials. These meta-QTL include 2 specific to iron, 2 specific to zinc and 8 that co-localize for iron and zinc concentrations and/or content. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important legume for human consumption worldwide and it is an important source of microelements, especially iron and zinc. Bean biofortification breeding programs develop new varieties with high levels of Fe and Zn targeted for countries with human micronutrient deficiencies. Biofortification efforts thus far have relied on phenotypic selection of raw seed mineral concentrations in advanced generations. While numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies have been conducted to identify genomic regions associated with increased Fe and Zn concentration in seeds, these results have yet to be employed for marker-assisted breeding. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis from seven QTL studies in Andean and Middle American intra- and inter-gene pool populations to identify the regions in the genome that control the Fe and Zn levels in seeds. Two meta-QTL specific to Fe and two meta-QTL specific to Zn were identified. Additionally, eight Meta QTL that co-localized for Fe and Zn concentration and/or content were identified across seven chromosomes. The Fe and Zn shared meta-QTL could be useful candidates for marker-assisted breeding to simultaneously increase seed Fe and Zn. The physical positions for 12 individual meta-QTL were identified and within five of the meta-QTL, candidate genes were identified from six gene families that have been associated with transport of iron and zinc in plants.

  10. Reflectance degradation of a secondary concentrator by nitrate salt vapor deposition in an open volumetric receiver configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahlou, Radia; Armstrong, Peter R.; Calvet, Nicolas; Shamim, Tariq

    2017-06-01

    Nitrate salt vapor deposition on the reflecting surface of a secondary concentrator placed on top of an open molten salt tank at 500 °C is investigated using a lab-scale setup over an 8h-exposure cycle. Deposition, consisting of mostly spherical particles, is characterized in terms of chemical composition using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The corresponding specular reflectance degradation both temporary (before washing off the salt deposits) and permanent (residual reflectance loss after cleaning), is measured at different incidence angles and at reference points located at different heights. Reflectance drop due to salt deposits is compared to the one resulting from dust deposition. Long-term reflectance degradation by means of corrosion needs to be further studied through suitable accelerated aging tests.

  11. Open-path in situ measurement of the nitrate radical concentrations during the CAREBeijing-NCP 2014 summer campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Midhun; Suhail, Suhail; Chandran, Satheesh; Chen, Jun; Lu, Keding; Ruth, Albert; Venables, Dean; Varma, Ravi

    2016-04-01

    We describe the application of an incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer in an open path configuration (OP-IBBCEAS) for in situ detection of nitrate radical (NO3) and aerosol extinction. The optical cavity was 3.35 m long with separate transmitter and receiver units, and the instrument was installed on top of a residential complex (elevation of 17 m) near the CAREBEIJING-NCP 2014 supersite in Wangdu, 200 km southwest of Beijing. Despite high aerosol loading, NO3 was detected on all nights when the instrument was operational (28-30 June, 2014). The maximum concentration measured was 170 pptv with a detection limit of 40 pptv for measurements. Preliminary quantification of the aerosol extinction is also described. The results presented here demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity that can be achieved from open path measurements and its application to polluted environments.

  12. Relationships between stream nitrate concentration and spatially distributed snowmelt in high-elevation catchments of the western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Danielle; Molotch, Noah P.; Williams, Mark W.; Jepsen, Steven M.; Sickman, James O.

    2014-11-01

    This study compares stream nitrate (NO3-) concentrations to spatially distributed snowmelt in two alpine catchments, the Green Lakes Valley, Colorado (GLV4) and Tokopah Basin, California (TOK). A snow water equivalent reconstruction model and Landsat 5 and 7 snow cover data were used to estimate daily snowmelt at 30 m spatial resolution in order to derive indices of new snowmelt areas (NSAs). Estimates of NSA were then used to explain the NO3- flushing behavior for each basin over a 12 year period (1996-2007). To identify the optimal method for defining NSAs and elucidate mechanisms underlying catchment NO3- flushing, we conducted a series of regression analyses using multiple thresholds of snowmelt based on temporal and volumetric metrics. NSA indices defined by volume of snowmelt (e.g., snowmelt ≤ 30 cm) rather than snowmelt duration (e.g., snowmelt ≤ 9 days) were the best predictors of stream NO3- concentrations. The NSA indices were better correlated with stream NO3- concentration in TOK (average R2= 0.68) versus GLV4 (average R2= 0.44). Positive relationships between NSA and stream NO3- concentration were observed in TOK with peak stream NO3- concentration occurring on the rising limb of snowmelt. Positive and negative relationships between NSA and stream NO3- concentration were found in GLV4 with peak stream NO3- concentration occurring as NSA expands. Consistent with previous works, the contrasting NO3- flushing behavior suggests that streamflow in TOK was primarily influenced by overland flow and shallow subsurface flow, whereas GLV4 appeared to be more strongly influenced by deeper subsurface flow paths.

  13. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods: Effects of zinc salt concentration, various solvents and alkaline mineralizers

    SciT

    Edalati, Khatereh, E-mail: kh_ed834@stu.um.ac.ir; Shakiba, Atefeh; Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized ZnO nanorods by a simple hydrothermal process at 60 °C. • Effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent and alkaline mineralizer was studied. • Increasing concentration of zinc salt changed ZnO nucleation system. • NaOH yielded better results in the production of nanorods in both solvents. • Methanol performed better in the formation of nanorods using the two mineralizers. - Abstract: ZnO has been produced using various methods in the solid, gaseous, and liquid states, and the hydrothermal synthesis at low temperatures has been shown to be an environmentally-friendly one. The current work utilizes a low reactionmore » temperature (60 °C) for the simple hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorod morphologies. Furthermore, the effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent type and alkaline mineralizer type on ZnO nanorods synthesis at a low reaction temperature by hydrothermal processing was studied. Obtained samples were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Increasing the concentration of the starting zinc salt from 0.02 to 0.2 M changed ZnO nucleation system from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous state. The XRD results confirmed the production hexagonal ZnO nanostructures of with a crystallite size of 40.4 nm. Varying the experimental parameters (mineralizer and solvent) yielded ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 90–250 nm and lengths of 1–2 μm.« less

  14. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  15. Seasonal changes in the diurnal in-stream nitrate concentration oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusjan, S.; Mikoš, M.

    2009-04-01

    A variability of seasonal changes in the diurnal in-stream NO3-N concentration oscillations was studied through high-frequency measurements of the stream-water's physical, chemical parameters (in-stream NO3-N concentration, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH) and hydrometeorological variables (stream discharge, solar radiation) under hydrologically stable conditions. The study was carried out in 2006, within the 42 km2 forested Padež stream watershed in the southwestern part of Slovenia, which is characterized by distinctive hydrogeological settings (flysch) and climate conditions (transitional area between the Mediterranean and continental climate). Fine temporal resolution of the data measured at 15 minute intervals enabled the identification of the main driving factors responsible for the seasonal variability in the diurnal pattern of the streamwater NO3-N concentrations vs. seasonal and diurnal behavior of meteorological and other water chemistry constituents. Seasonal variability of the shifts in daily maximum (up to 6 hours) and minimum NO3-N concentrations (between 1 and 3 hours) and changes in the amplitude of the daily NO3-N concentration oscillations (in order of 0.1-0.3 mg/l-N) offer supplementary evidence of the in-stream NO3-N processing by photoautotrophs. A wavelet analysis was further used to acquire clear, de-noised NO3-N concentration signals on which models in the form of Fourier series were build, reaching R2 values between 0.73 and 0.94. The models can be used to simulate the in-stream NO3-N oscillating signal in order to obtain more accurate assessment of the NO3-N exports from the forested watershed in different seasonal settings, undisturbed by the changing hydrological conditions.

  16. The effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dong; Han, GuangWei; Shang, YongGang; Mu, LiJun; Long, QingZhi; Du, YueFeng

    2015-01-01

    Prostatitis is a common disease in urology departments. Prostatic zinc accumulation is connected with the secretory function of the prostate, and zinc concentrations present in prostatic diseases differ greatly from the normal level. Studies have investigated the effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma, but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of chronic prostatitis on the zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Systematic literature searches were conducted with PubMed, Embase, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library up to March 2015 for case-control studies that involved the relationship between chronic prostatitis and zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager and Stata software. Standard mean differences (SMDs) of zinc concentration were identified with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in a random- or fixed-effects model. Our results illustrated that the zinc concentrations in prostatic fluid and seminal plasma from chronic prostatitis patients were significantly lower than normal controls (SMD [95% CI] -246.71 [-347.97, -145.44], -20.74 [-35.11, -6.37], respectively). The sample size of each study was relatively small, and a total of 731 chronic prostatitis patients and 574 normal controls were investigated in all fourteen studies. Several studies related to the subject were excluded due to lack of control data or means and standard deviations. The present study illustrates that there was a significant negative effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentrations of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better illuminate the negative impact of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentrations.

  17. Serum Concentration of Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Manganese, and Cu/Zn Ratio in Children and Adolescents with Myopia.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Monika; Socha, Katarzyna; Urban, Beata; Soroczyńska, Jolanta; Matyskiela, Monika; Borawska, Maria H; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was the assessment of the serum concentration of antioxidant microelements-zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, and Cu/Zn ratio in children and adolescents with myopia. Eighty-three children were examined (mean age 14.36 ± 2.49 years) with myopia. The control group was 38 persons (mean age 12.89 ± 3.84 years). Each patient had complete eye examination. The serum concentration of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cu/Zn ratio, which is the indicator of the oxidative stress, was also calculated. The average serum concentration of zinc in myopic patients was significantly lower (0.865 ± 0.221 mg L -1 ) in comparison to the control group (1.054 ± 0.174 mg L -1 ). There was significantly higher Cu/Zn ratio in myopic patients (1.196 ± 0.452) in comparison to that in the control group (0.992 ± 0.203). The average serum concentration of selenium in the study group was significantly lower (40.23 ± 12.07 μg L -1 ) compared with that in the control group (46.00 ± 12.25 μg L -1 ). There were no essential differences between serum concentration of copper and manganese in the study group and the control group. Low serum concentration of zinc and selenium in myopic children may imply an association between insufficiency of these antioxidant microelements and the development of the myopia and could be the indication for zinc and selenium supplementation in the prevention of myopia. Significantly, higher Cu/Zn ratio in the study group can suggest the relationship between myopia and oxidative stress.

  18. Effect of fertilizer application on ammonia emission and concentration levels of ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite ions in a rice field.

    PubMed

    Das, Piw; Sa, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2009-07-01

    The concentrations of ammonium NH4+, nitrate NO3-, and nitrite NO2- ions were recorded along with ammonia (NH(3)) emission from a fertilized rice field located in the Kwangju province in South Korea over a period of 4 months (June to October 2006). The highest magnitude of NH(3) flux was 20,754 microg m(-2) h(-1), while the average flux value over the entire sampling period was 2,395 microg m(-2) h(-1). The highest ionic concentrations were 1.67, 0.44, and 0.71 ppm for NH4+, NO3-, and NO2- ions, respectively. Possible effects of soil pH on NH(3) fluxes were detected, as they concurrently exhibited a gradual and periodic change during the sampling period. Positive correlations existed between concentrations of NH4+ and NO2- ions and the soil pH. Positive correlations also existed between NH(3) emission flux and ambient (and water) temperatures. Results indicated that fertilizer application to rice can lead to significant emission of NH(3) along with NH4+ and NO3- ions.

  19. Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate of soybean plants: effects of external nitrate concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolley-Henry, L.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Granato, T. C.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Net uptake of NO3- by non-nodulated soybean plants [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] growing in flowing hydroponic cultures containing 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0 mol m-3 NO3- was measured daily during a 24-d period of vegetative development to determine if amplitude of maximum and minimum rates of net NO3- uptake are responsive to external concentrations of NO3-. Removal of NO3- from the replenished solutions during each 24-h period was determined by ion chromatography. Neither dry matter accumulation nor the periodicity of oscillations in net uptake rate was altered by the external NO3- concentrations. The maxima of the oscillations in net uptake rate, however, increased nearly 3-fold in response to external NO3- concentrations. The maxima and minima, respectively, changed from 4.0 and 0.6 mmol NO3- per gram root dry weight per day at an external solution level of 0.5 mol m-3 NO3- to 15.2 and -2.7 mmol NO3- per gram root dry weight per day at an external solution level of 10.0 mol m-3 NO3-. The negative values for minimum net uptake rate from 10.0 mol m-3 NO3- solutions show that net efflux was occurring and indicate that the magnitude of the efflux component of net uptake was responsive to external concentration of NO3-.

  20. Inhibition of orally produced volatile sulfur compounds by zinc, chlorhexidine or cetylpyridinium chloride--effect of concentration.

    PubMed

    Young, Alix; Jonski, Grazyna; Rölla, Gunnar

    2003-10-01

    Zinc ions, chlorhexidine (CHX) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) are all known to inhibit production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The objective was to examine the anti-VSC dose-response effects of each of the above agents. Oral malodor was induced in 13 test subjects using the cysteine challenge method. The oral VSC response to rinses with 6 mm l-cysteine (pH 7.2) before and 1, 2 and 3 h after rinsing with zinc ions (Zn2+: 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0%), CHX and CPC (0.025 and 0.2%) was measured. Mouth air was analysed for VSC by gas chromatography (GC) according to current methodology. Zinc had a marked dose- and time-dependent anti-VSC effect. Zinc at 1% concentration had a somewhat unpleasant taste, whereas the lowest concentration was found acceptable. Chlorhexidine maintained a moderate anti-VSC effect over time. At 3 h, 0.2% CHX was the most effective agent but tasted relatively unpleasant. Cetylpyridinium at a concentration of 0.2% was only marginally more effective than 0.025% CHX over the 3 h, while 0.025% CPC had no better anti-VSC effect than water at both 2 h and 3 h. It was concluded that the three test agents demonstrated different anti-VSC kinetics. Although Zn had the best anti-VSC effect at 1 h, 0.2% CHX was at least as effective as 1% Zn at 3 h, most likely as a result of its unique substantivity.

  1. Nitrate and Moisture Content of Broad Permafrost Landscape Features in the Barrow Peninsula: Predicting Evolving NO3 Concentrations in a Changing Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, C. A.; Heikoop, J. M.; Newman, B. D.; Wales, N. A.; McCaully, R. E.; Wilson, C. J.; Wullschleger, S.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemical evolution of Arctic regions as permafrost degrades, significantly impacts nutrient availability. The release of nitrogen compounds from permafrost degradation fertilizes both microbial decomposition and plant productivity. Arctic warming promotes permafrost degradation, causing geomorphic and hydrologic transitions that have the potential to convert saturated zones to unsaturated zones and subsequently alter the nitrate production capacity of permafrost regions. Changes in Nitrate (NO3-) content associated with shifting moisture regimes are a primary factor determining Arctic fertilization and subsequent primary productivity, and have direct feedbacks to carbon cycling. We have documented a broad survey of co-located soil moisture and nitrate concentration measurements in shallow active layer regions across a variety of topographic features in the expansive continuous permafrost region encompassing the Barrow Peninsula of Alaska. Topographic features of interest are slightly higher relative to surrounding landscapes with drier soils and elevated nitrate, including the rims of low centered polygons, the centers of flat and high centered polygons, the rims of young, old and ancient drain thaw lake basins and drainage slopes that exist across the landscape. With this information, we model the nitrate inventory of the Barrow Peninsula using multiple geospatial approaches to estimate total area cover by unsaturated features of interest and further predict how various drying scenarios increase the magnitude of nitrate produced in degrading permafrost regions across the Arctic. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment, NGEE-Arctic.

  2. Variability of pesticides and nitrates concentrations along a river transect: chemical and isotopic evidence of groundwater - surface water interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Nicole; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Saplairoles, Maritxu

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater quality is increasingly monitored in Europe where various levels of nitrate and pesticide and/or metabolite contamination have been demonstrated (Loos et al., 2010, Stuart et al., 2012). The Groundwater Daughter Directive (2006/118/EC) to Water Framework Directive (WFD) particularly requires measures to prevent or limit inputs of pollutants into groundwater and compliance with good chemical status criteria (based on EU standards of nitrate and pesticides). The WFD mentioned the need to protect groundwater but also to have a particular regard to its impact and interrelationship with associated surface waters and directly dependent terrestrial Ecosystems. The Ariège river basin (SW France - 538 km²) is an alluvial plain under high agricultural pressure leading to a contamination of the aquifer by several pesticides and metabolites (Amalric et al., 2013). The Crieu is an allochtone river, crossing the plain (~ 10 km length) before joining the Ariège River. The Crieu is often dry in its middle section suggesting water leakage from surface water towards groundwater. At the opposite, the permanent flow observed downstream suggests an input of groundwater into surface water. In May 2014, while the Crieu flow was continuous through the plain, 7 river samples were collected and analyzed for pesticides, major ions, strontium concentration and isotopes. In situ measurements of electric conductivity were also performed as well as flow gauging. Two groundwaters close to the river were also sampled. The flow gauging measurements show a decreasing river discharge in the central area of the Crieu River, suggesting surface water leakage towards groundwater. Nevertheless, the electric conductivity increases along the river flow as well as some pesticides and nitrates concentrations. This chemical evolution of the river water is thus inconsistent with a simple water infiltration and another source of dissolved solutes is required to explain the increased of

  3. The effect of stocking rate on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath a free-draining dairy production system in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, J; Delaby, L; Hennessy, D; McCarthy, B; Ryan, W; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2015-06-01

    Economically viable and productive farming systems are required to meet the growing worldwide need for agricultural produce while at the same time reducing environmental impact. Within grazing systems of animal production, increasing concern exists as to the effect of intensive farming on potential N losses to ground and surface waters, which demands an appraisal of N flows within complete grass-based dairy farming systems. A 3-yr (2011 to 2013) whole-farm system study was conducted on a free-draining soil type that is highly susceptible to N loss under temperate maritime conditions. Soil solution concentrations of N from 3 spring-calving, grass-based systems designed to represent 3 alternative whole-farm stocking rate (SR) treatments in a post-milk quota situation in the European Union were compared: low (2.51 cows/ha), medium (2.92 cows/ha), and high SR (3.28 cows/ha). Each SR had its own farmlet containing 18 paddocks and 23 cows. Nitrogen loss from each treatment was measured using ceramic cups installed to a depth of 1m to sample the soil water. The annual and monthly average nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and total N concentrations in soil solution collected were analyzed for each year using a repeated measures analysis. Subsequently, and based on the biological data collated from each farm system treatment within each year, the efficiency of N use was evaluated using an N balance model. Based on similar N inputs, increasing SR resulted in increased grazing efficiency and milk production per hectare. Stocking rate had no significant effect on soil solution concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, or total N (26.0, 0.2, 2.4, and 32.3 mg/L, respectively). An N balance model evaluation of each treatment incorporating input and output data indicated that the increased grass utilization and milk production per hectare at higher SR resulted in a reduction in N surplus and increased N use efficiency. The results highlight the possibility for the sustainable

  4. The Relationship between Zinc Intake and Serum/Plasma Zinc Concentration in Children: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Victoria Hall; Stammers, Anna-Louise; Medina, Marisol Warthon; Patel, Sujata; Dykes, Fiona; Souverein, Olga W.; Dullemeijer, Carla; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Nissensohn, Mariela; Lowe, Nicola M.

    2012-01-01

    Recommendations for zinc intake during childhood vary widely across Europe. The EURRECA project attempts to consolidate the basis for the definition of micronutrient requirements, taking into account relationships among intake, status and health outcomes, in order to harmonise these recommendations. Data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status reported in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can provide estimates of dose-response relationships which may be used for underpinning zinc reference values. This systematic review included all RCTs of apparently healthy children aged 1–17 years published by February 2010 which provided data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status. An intake-status regression coefficient () was calculated for each individual study and calculated the overall pooled and SE () using random effects meta-analysis on a double log scale. The pooled dose-response relationship between zinc intake and zinc status indicated that a doubling of the zinc intake increased the serum/plasma zinc status by 9%. This evidence can be utilised, together with currently used balance studies and repletion/depletion studies, when setting zinc recommendations as a basis for nutrition policies. PMID:23016120

  5. Apocynin decreases hydrogen peroxide and nitrate concentrations in exhaled breath in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Stefanska, J; Sokolowska, M; Sarniak, A; Wlodarczyk, A; Doniec, Z; Nowak, D; Pawliczak, R

    2010-02-01

    The imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis and antioxidants might be involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. NADPH oxidase, an enzyme responsible for ROS production, may represent an attractive therapeutic target to inhibit, for the treatment of these diseases. Apocynin is an inhibitor of activation of NADPH oxidase complex present in the inflammatory cells. In double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, we investigated the effect of nebulized apocynin on ROS synthesis in 10 nonsmoking healthy volunteers. Apocynin (6ml of 0.5mg/ml) was administered by nebulization and its effects on H(2)O(2), NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) generation were assessed after 30, 60 and 120min by collecting exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples using an EcoScreen analyzer. Additionally, respiratory parameters have been evaluated, utilizing spirometry and DLCO. We also analyzed peripheral blood differential counts and NO(2)(-) serum level, cough scale control and blood pressure as safety parameters. Apocynin caused reduction of H(2)O(2) concentration in EBC as compared to placebo, after 60min. of inhalation (0.18microM vs. 0.31microM, p<0.05) as well as after 120min. (0.2microM vs. 0.31microM, p<0.05). Similarly, apocynin significantly decreased concentration of NO(3)(-) as compared to placebo, after 60 and 120min. (6.8microM vs. 14.4microM and 6.5microM vs. 14.9microM respectively, p<0.05). Apocynin was well tolerated and no adverse events have been observed throughout the study. Thus, as apocynin significantly influence ROS concentration, it might have also antiinflammatory properties. As it is safe, it may have a potential to become a drug in airway inflammatory diseases treatment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ipso Nitration. Regiospecific Nitration via Ipso Nitration Products.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-20

    products of nitration of alkylbenzenes and alkylphenol derivatives. The general pattern envisioned is shown in Scheme 1. In order to realize this...we have also explored solid state nitration of various alkylphenols . This procedure involves adsorbing concentrated nitric acid on alumina, followed

  7. Tissue lead concentration during chronic exposure of Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) to lead nitrate in aquarium water.

    PubMed

    Spokas, Eric G; Spur, Bernd W; Smith, Holly; Kemp, Francis W; Bogden, John D

    2006-11-01

    The fathead minnow is a useful species for evaluating the toxicity of wastewater effluents. While this fish is widely used for "survival" studies of metal toxicity, little or no work has been done on the tissue distribution of metals in fathead minnows. To determine the distribution of tissue lead, aquarium studies were conducted for several weeks with fish maintained in soft synthetic freshwater. Lead- (II) nitrate was added to three aquaria attaining concentrations of 20-30 ppb (aquarium B), 100-140 ppb (aquarium C), and roughly 200 ppb (aquarium D). Results were compared to controls (aquarium A). During the initial week, the majority of aquarium D fish died, whereas few deaths occurred in the other groups. Lead accumulation was dose- and tissue-dependent, with highest uptake by the gills. Gill concentrations of aquarium D fish averaged about 4-fold higherthan in skeleton or skin and muscle. In vitro, lead (2.5-25 ppm) caused dose-dependent reductions in the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in gills incubated in physiological buffer. These findings demonstrate that fathead minnow gills bind and accumulate waterborne lead rapidly and preferentially and raise the possibility that gill lipid peroxidation contributes to lead toxicity at low water hardness.

  8. Endocrine, immune, and behavioral effects of aldicarb (carbamate), atrazine (triazine) and nitrate (fertilizer) mixtures at groundwater concentrations.

    PubMed

    Porter, W P; Jaeger, J W; Carlson, I H

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the results of 5 years of research on interactive effects of mixtures of aldicarb, atrazine, and nitrate on endocrine, immune, and nervous system function. The concentrations of chemicals used were the same order of magnitude as current maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for all three compounds. Such levels occur in groundwater across the United States. Dosing was through voluntary consumption of drinking water. We used fractional and full factorial designs with center replicates to determine multifactor effects. We used chronic doses in experiments that varied in duration from 22 to 103 days. We tested for changes in thyroid hormone levels, ability to make antibodies to foreign proteins, and aggression in wild deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, and white outbred Swiss Webster mice, Mus musculus, ND4 strain. Endocrine, immune, and behavior changes occurred due to doses of mixtures, but rarely due to single compounds at the same concentrations. Immune assay data suggest the possibility of seasonal effects at low doses. We present a multiple-level model to help interpret the data in the context of human health and biological conservation concerns. We discuss six testing deficiencies of currently registered pesticides, and suggest areas of human health concerns if present trends in pesticide use continue.

  9. Serum and tissue concentrations of gallium after oral administration of gallium nitrate and gallium maltolate to neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Monk, Caroline S; Sweeney, Raymond W; Bernstein, Lawrence R; Fecteau, Marie-Eve

    2016-02-01

    To determine serum and tissue concentrations of gallium (Ga) after oral administration of gallium nitrate (GaN) and gallium maltolate (GaM) to neonatal calves. 8 healthy neonatal calves. Calves were assigned to 1 of 2 groups (4 calves/group). Gallium (50 mg/kg) was administered as GaN or GaM (equivalent to 13.15 mg of Ga/kg for GaN and 7.85 mg of Ga/kg for GaM) by oral gavage once daily for 5 days. Blood samples were collected 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after Ga administration on day 1; 4 and 24 hours after Ga administration on days 2, 3, and 4; and 4, 12, and 24 hours after Ga administration on day 5. On day 6, calves were euthanized and tissue samples were obtained. Serum and tissue Ga concentrations were measured by use of mass spectrometry. Data were adjusted for total Ga dose, and comparisons were made between the 2 groups. Calves receiving GaM had a significantly higher dose-adjusted area under the curve and dose-adjusted maximum serum Ga concentration than did calves receiving GaN. Despite receiving less Ga per dose, calves receiving GaM had tissue Ga concentrations similar to those for calves receiving GaN. In this study, calves receiving GaM had significantly higher Ga absorption than did calves receiving GaN. These findings suggested that GaM might be useful as a prophylactic agent against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in neonatal calves.

  10. Meta-QTL analysis of seed iron and zinc concentration in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important legume for human consumption worldwide and it is an important source of microelements, especially iron and zinc. Bean biofortification programs develop new varieties with high levels of Fe and Zn targeted for countries with human micronutrien...

  11. Patterns of diel variation in nitrate concentrations in the Potomac River

    Burns, Douglas A.; Miller, Matthew P.; Pellerin, Brian; Capel, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The Potomac River is a large source of N to Chesapeake Bay, where reducing nutrient loads is a focus of efforts to improve trophic status. Better understanding of NO3– loss, reflected in part by diel variation in NO3– concentrations, may refine model predictions of N loads to the Bay. We analyzed 2 y of high-frequency NO3– sensor data in the Potomac to quantify seasonal variation in the magnitude and timing of diel NO3– loss. Diel patterns were evident, especially during low flow, despite broad seasonal and flow-driven variation in NO3– concentrations. Diel variation was ~0.01 mg N/L in winter and 0.02 to 0.03 mg N/L in summer with intermediate values in spring and autumn, equivalent to <1% of the daily mean NO3– concentration in winter and ~2 to 4% in summer. Maximum diel NO3– values generally occurred in mid- to late morning, with more repeatable patterns in summer and wider variation in autumn and winter. Diel NO3– loss reduced loads by 0.7% in winter and 3% in summer. These losses were less than estimates of total in-stream NO3– load loss across the basin that averaged 33% of the annual groundwater contribution to the river. Water temperature and discharge had stronger relationships to the daily magnitude of diel NO3– variation than did photosynthetically active radiation. Estimated diel areal NO3– loss rates were generally >1000 mg N m–2 d–1, greater than most published values because measurements in this large river integrate over a greater depth/unit stream bottom area than do those from smaller rivers. These diel NO3– patterns are consistent with the influence of photoautotrophic uptake and related denitrification, but we cannot attribute these patterns to assimilation alone because the magnitude and timing of diel dynamics were affected to an unknown extent by processes, such as evapotranspiration, transient storage, and hydrodynamic dispersion. Improvements to diel loss estimates will require additional high-frequency measures

  12. Evaluation of hydrologic conditions and nitrate concentrations in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer, Salinas, Puerto Rico, 2002-03

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    A ground-water quality study to define the potential sources and concentration of nitrate in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer was conducted between January 2002 and March 2003. The study area covers about 3,600 hectares of the coastal plain within the municipality of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico, extending from the foothills to the Caribbean Sea. Agriculture is the principal land use and includes cultivation of diverse crops, turf grass, bioengineered crops for seed production, and commercial poultry farms. Ground-water withdrawal in the alluvial fan was estimated to be about 43,500 cubic meters per day, of which 49 percent was withdrawn for agriculture, 42 percent for public supply, and 9 percent for industrial use. Ground-water flow in the study area was primarily to the south and toward a cone of depression within the south-central part of the alluvial fan. The presence of that cone of depression and a smaller one located in the northeastern quadrant of the study area may contribute to the increase in nitrate concentration within a total area of about 545 hectares by 'recycling' ground water used for irrigation of cultivated lands. In an area that covers about 405 hectares near the center of the Salinas alluvial fan, nitrate concentrations increased from 0.9 to 6.7 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 1986 to 8 to 12 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 2002. Principal sources of nitrate in the study area are fertilizers (used in the cultivated farmlands) and poultry farm wastes. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found at poultry farms in the foothills area. In the area of disposed poultry farm wastes, nitrate concentrations in ground water ranged from 25 to 77 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Analyses for the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen-15/nitrogen-14 in nitrate were used to distinguish the source of nitrate in the coastal plain alluvial fan aquifer. Potential nitrate loads from areas under cultivation were estimated for the

  13. Leachate Concentrations of Ammonium, Nitrate, and Phosphorus as Affected by Nutrient Release from Four Different Types of Controlled-Release Fertilizers and Crop Development of Containerized Waxleaf Privet.

    Concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphorus in irrigation leachate were measured weekly over a 47-week period from a high-fertility, neutral-pH substrate into which four types of 12-month controlled-release fertilizers (Osmocote, Nutricote, Polyon, or Multicote) were incorporated. Containers...

  14. Leachate Concentrations of Ammonium, Nitrate, and Phosphorus as Affected by Nutrient Release From Four Different Types of Controlled-Release Fertilizers and Crop Development of Containerized Azaleas

    Concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphorus in irrigation leachate were measured weekly over a 47-week period from a low-fertility, acid-based substrate into which four types of 12-month controlled-release fertilizers (Osmocote, Nutricote, Polyon, or Multicote) were incorporated. Containers ...

  15. PERSONAL, INDOOR, AND OUTDOOR CONCENTRATIONS OF PM2.5, PARTICULATE NITRATE, AND ELEMENTAL CARBON FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH COPD IN LOS ANGELES, CA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study characterizes the personal, indoor, and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 and the major components of PM2.5, including nitrate (NO3-), elemental carbon (EC), and the elements for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) living in Los Angeles, CA. ...

  16. Changes in nitrate concentrations and loads in United Kingdom watersheds since 1868: Evidence for land use change as a dominant driver and ineffective mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, M. J.; Burt, T. P.; Howden, N. K.; Worrall, F.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrate concentrations and fluxes in many of the world's rivers have increased over the latter part of the 20th Century leading to freshwater and, more frequently, marine eutrophication. This has largely been linked to agricultural intensification which has increased food production via a combination of improved methods, crop varieties, pest control technologies, mechanisation and fertiliser use. The area of land under intensive production has also increased in many watersheds. Here we analyse long term water quality records from a number of UK rivers to assess temporal patterns of nitrate concentrations and fluxes and to identify driving factors. The data, which include the world's longest record of nitrate concentrations from the River Thames, London (1868 to 2008), show that dramatic and sustained increases in nitrate concentrations and fluxes occurred after periods of substantial land use change including the conversion of significant areas of permanent pasture to arable production in the 1940s and 1960s and increases in fertiliser use in the 1960s. Grassland to arable conversion can release large quantities of nitrate due to the enhanced mineralisation of the extra soil organic nitrogen which accumulates in pasture systems. Recent attempts to reverse these increases, such as widespread restrictions of nitrogen inputs have, thus far, been relatively ineffective, although there have been recent indications that levels have stabilised in some watersheds. Our analysis clearly shows the dominance of land use change over other potential drivers such as waste water emission, climatic and hydrological changes and suggests that current measures for the mitigation of large-scale diffuse pollution based on limiting fertiliser use are not drastic enough to reverse significantly the increases in riverine nitrate concentrations which have been observed. Analysis of the long term data also shows that trend detection is problematic for periods less than about 15 years

  17. Spatial and temporal variability of nitrate and nitrous oxide concentrations in the unsaturated zone at a corn field in the US Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C.

    2011-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in reactive nitrogen in the environment as a result of human activity. Reactive nitrogen of anthropogenic origin now equals that derived from natural terrestrial nitrogen fixation and is expected to exceed it by the end of the decade. Nitrogen is applied to crops as fertilizer and impacts the environment through water quality impairments (mostly as nitrate) and as greenhouse gas emissions (as nitrous oxide). Research on environmental impacts resulting from nitrogen application in the form of fertilizers has focused disproportionately on the degradation of water quality from agricultural non-point sources. The impacts of this degradation are registered both locally, with runoff and percolation of agrochemicals into local surface water and groundwater, and on a larger scale, such as the increase in the anoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico attributed to nitrate from the Mississippi River. Impacts to the global climate from increased production of nitrous oxide as a result of increased fertilization are equally significant. Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas with a warming potential that is approximately 300 times greater than carbon dioxide. Direct emissions of nitrous oxide from the soil have been expressed as 1% of the applied nitrogen. Indirect emissions due to runoff, leaching and volatilization of the nitrogen from the field have been expressed as 0.75% of the applied nitrogen. Many studies have focused on processes governing nitrogen fluxes in the soil, surface water and groundwater systems. However, research on the biogeochemical processes regulating nitrogen fluxes in the unsaturated zone and consequent impacts on nitrate and nitrous oxide concentrations in groundwater are lacking. Our study explores the spatial and temporal variability of nitrate and nitrous oxide concentrations in the vadose zone at a 15 acre corn field in the US Midwest and links it to the concentrations found in the groundwater at the field site. Results

  18. Long term stability of Li-S batteries using high concentration lithium nitrate electrolytes

    SciT

    Adams, Brian D.; Carino, Emily V.; Connell, Justin G.

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a very promising candidate for the next generation of energy storage systems required for electrical vehicles and grid energy storage applications due to its very high theoretical specific energy (2500 W h kg-1). However, the low coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li plating/stripping of these processes have limited practical application of rechargeable Li-S batteries. In this work, a new electrolyte system based on high concentration of LiNO3 in diglyme solvent is developed which enables high CE of Li metal plating/stripping and high stability of Li anode in the sulfur containing electrolyte. Tailoring of electrolyte properties formore » the Li negative electrode has proven to be a successful strategy for improving the capacity retention and cycle life of Li-S batteries. This electrolyte provides a CE for Li plating/stripping of greater than 99% for over 200 cycles. In contrast, Li metal cycles for only less than 35 cycles at high CE in the standard 1 M LiTFSI + 2wt% LiNO3 in DOL:DME electrolyte under the same conditions. The stable Li metal anode enabled by the new electrolyte may accelerate the applications of high energy density Li-S batteries in both electrical vehicles and large-scale grid energy storage markets.« less

  19. Long term stability of Li-S batteries using high concentration lithium nitrate electrolytes

    DOE PAGES

    Adams, Brian D.; Carino, Emily V.; Connell, Justin G.; ...

    2017-09-08

    The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a very promising candidate for the next generation of energy storage systems required for electrical vehicles and grid energy storage applications due to its very high theoretical specific energy (2500 W h kg -1). However, low Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li metal plating/stripping has severely limited the practical application of rechargeable Li-S batteries. In this work, a new electrolyte system based on a high concentration of LiNO 3 in diglyme (G2) solvent is developed which enables an exceptionally high CE for Li metal plating/stripping and thus high stability of the Li anode in themore » sulfur-containing electrolyte. The tailoring of electrolyte properties for the Li anode has proven to be a highly successful strategy for improving the capacity retention and cycle life of Li-S batteries. This electrolyte provides a CE of greater than 99% for over 200 cycles of Li plating/stripping. In contrast, the Li anode cycles for less than 35 cycles (with a high CE) in the state-of-the-art 1 M LiTFSI + 0.3 M LiNO 3 in 1,3-dioxolane:1,2-dimethoxyethane (DOL:DME) electrolyte under the same conditions. Lastly, the stable Li anode enabled by the new electrolyte may accelerate the applications of high energy density Li-S batteries in both electrical vehicles and large-scale grid energy storage markets.« less

  20. Long term stability of Li-S batteries using high concentration lithium nitrate electrolytes

    SciT

    Adams, Brian D.; Carino, Emily V.; Connell, Justin G.

    The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a very promising candidate for the next generation of energy storage systems required for electrical vehicles and grid energy storage applications due to its very high theoretical specific energy (2500 W h kg -1). However, low Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li metal plating/stripping has severely limited the practical application of rechargeable Li-S batteries. In this work, a new electrolyte system based on a high concentration of LiNO 3 in diglyme (G2) solvent is developed which enables an exceptionally high CE for Li metal plating/stripping and thus high stability of the Li anode in themore » sulfur-containing electrolyte. The tailoring of electrolyte properties for the Li anode has proven to be a highly successful strategy for improving the capacity retention and cycle life of Li-S batteries. This electrolyte provides a CE of greater than 99% for over 200 cycles of Li plating/stripping. In contrast, the Li anode cycles for less than 35 cycles (with a high CE) in the state-of-the-art 1 M LiTFSI + 0.3 M LiNO 3 in 1,3-dioxolane:1,2-dimethoxyethane (DOL:DME) electrolyte under the same conditions. Lastly, the stable Li anode enabled by the new electrolyte may accelerate the applications of high energy density Li-S batteries in both electrical vehicles and large-scale grid energy storage markets.« less

  1. Long term stability of Li-S batteries using high concentration lithium nitrate electrolytes

    SciT

    Adams, Brian D.; Carino, Emily V.; Connell, Justin G.

    The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a very promising candidate for the next generation of energy storage systems required for electrical vehicles and grid energy storage applications due to its very high theoretical specific energy (2500 W h kg(-1)). However, low Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li metal plating/stripping has severely limited the practical application of rechargeable Li-S batteries. In this work, a new electrolyte system based on a high concentration of LiNO3 in diglyme (G2) solvent is developed which enables an exceptionally high CE for Li metal plating/stripping and thus high stability of the Li anode in the sulfur-containing electrolyte.more » The tailoring of electrolyte properties for the Li anode has proven to be a highly successful strategy for improving the capacity retention and cycle life of Li-S batteries. This electrolyte provides a CE of greater than 99% for over 200 cycles of Li plating/stripping. In contrast, the Li anode cycles for less than 35 cycles (with a high CE) in the state-of-the-art 1 M LiTFSI + 0.3 M LiNO3 in 1,3-dioxolane: 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DOL:DME) electrolyte under the same conditions. The stable Li anode enabled by the new electrolyte may accelerate the applications of high energy density Li-S batteries in both electrical vehicles and large-scale grid energy storage markets.« less

  2. Probability of detecting atrazine/desethyl-atrazine and elevated concentrations of nitrate plus nitrate as nitrogen in ground water in the Idaho part of the western Snake River Plain

    Donato, Mary M.

    2000-01-01

    . In areas where this map overlaps the 1998 map of the upper Snake River Basin, the two maps show broadly similar probabilities of detecting atrazine. Logistic regression also was used to develop a preliminary statistical model that predicts the probability of detecting elevated nitrate in the western Snake River Plain. A nitrate probability map was produced from this model. Results showed that elevated nitrate concentrations were correlated with land use, soil organic content, well depth, and water level. Detailed information on nitrate input, specifically fertilizer application, might have improved the effectiveness of this model.

  3. Characteristics of the Fiber Laser Sensor System Based on Etched-Bragg Grating Sensing Probe for Determination of the Low Nitrate Concentration in Water

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thanh Binh; Bui, Huy; Le, Huu Thang; Pham, Van Hoi

    2016-01-01

    The necessity of environmental protection has stimulated the development of many kinds of methods allowing the determination of different pollutants in the natural environment, including methods for determining nitrate in source water. In this paper, the characteristics of an etched fiber Bragg grating (e-FBG) sensing probe—which integrated in fiber laser structure—are studied by numerical simulation and experiment. The proposed sensor is demonstrated for determination of the low nitrate concentration in a water environment. Experimental results show that this sensor could determine nitrate in water samples at a low concentration range of 0–80 ppm with good repeatability, rapid response, and average sensitivity of 3.5 × 10−3 nm/ppm with the detection limit of 3 ppm. The e-FBG sensing probe integrated in fiber laser demonstrates many advantages, such as a high resolution for wavelength shift identification, high optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR of 40 dB), narrow bandwidth of 0.02 nm that enhanced accuracy and precision of wavelength peak measurement, and capability for optical remote sensing. The obtained results suggested that the proposed e-FBG sensor has a large potential for the determination of low nitrate concentrations in water in outdoor field work. PMID:28025512

  4. Characteristics of the Fiber Laser Sensor System Based on Etched-Bragg Grating Sensing Probe for Determination of the Low Nitrate Concentration in Water.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thanh Binh; Bui, Huy; Le, Huu Thang; Pham, Van Hoi

    2016-12-22

    The necessity of environmental protection has stimulated the development of many kinds of methods allowing the determination of different pollutants in the natural environment, including methods for determining nitrate in source water. In this paper, the characteristics of an etched fiber Bragg grating (e-FBG) sensing probe-which integrated in fiber laser structure-are studied by numerical simulation and experiment. The proposed sensor is demonstrated for determination of the low nitrate concentration in a water environment. Experimental results show that this sensor could determine nitrate in water samples at a low concentration range of 0-80 ppm with good repeatability, rapid response, and average sensitivity of 3.5 × 10 -3 nm/ppm with the detection limit of 3 ppm. The e-FBG sensing probe integrated in fiber laser demonstrates many advantages, such as a high resolution for wavelength shift identification, high optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR of 40 dB), narrow bandwidth of 0.02 nm that enhanced accuracy and precision of wavelength peak measurement, and capability for optical remote sensing. The obtained results suggested that the proposed e-FBG sensor has a large potential for the determination of low nitrate concentrations in water in outdoor field work.

  5. Estimate of oxygen consumption and intracellular zinc concentration of human spermatozoa in relation to motility.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Ralf R; Defosse, Kerstin; Koyro, Hans-Wilhelm; Weissmann, Norbert; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard

    2003-03-01

    To investigate the human sperm oxygen/energy consumption and zinc content in relation to motility. In washed spermatozoa from 67 ejaculates, the oxygen consumption was determined. Following calculation of the total oxygen consumed by the Ideal Gas Law, the energy consumption of spermatozoa was calculated. In addition, the zinc content of the sperm was determined using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The resulting data were correlated to the vitality and motility. The oxygen consumption averaged 0.24 micromol/10(6) sperm x 24h, 0.28 micromol/10(6) live sperm x 24h and 0.85 micromol/10(6) live motile sperm x 24h. Further calculations revealed that sperm motility was the most energy consuming process (164.31 mJ/10(6) motile spermatozoa x 24h), while the oxygen consumption of the total spermatozoa was 46.06 mJ/10(6) spermatozoa x 24h. The correlation of the oxygen/energy consumption and zinc content with motility showed significant negative correlations (r= -0.759; P<0.0001 and r=-0.441; P<0.0001, respectively). However, when correlating sperm energy consumption with the zinc content, a significant positive relation (r=0.323; P=0.01) was observed. Poorly motile sperm are actually wasting the available energy. Moreover, our data clearly support the "Geometric Clutch Model" of the axoneme function and demonstrate the importance of the outer dense fibers for the generation of sperm motility, especially progressive motility.

  6. Recent (2008-10) concentrations and isotopic compositions of nitrate and concentrations of wastewater compounds in the Barton Springs zone, south-central Texas, and their potential relation to urban development in the contributing zone

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Herrington, Chris; Sample, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    During 2008–10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Austin, the City of Dripping Springs, the Barton Springs/Edwards Aquifer Conservation District, the Lower Colorado River Authority, Hays County, and Travis County, collected and analyzed water samples from five streams (Barton, Williamson, Slaughter, Bear, and Onion Creeks), two groundwater wells (Marbridge well [YD–58–50–704] and Buda well [LR–58–58–403]), and the main orifice of Barton Springs in Austin, Texas, with the objective of characterizing concentrations and isotopic compositions of nitrate and concentrations of wastewater compounds in the Barton Springs zone. The Barton Springs zone is in south-central Texas, an area undergoing rapid growth in population and in land area affected by development, with associated increases in wastewater generation. Over a period of 17 months, during which the hydrologic conditions transitioned from dry to wet, samples were collected routinely from the streams, wells, and spring and, in response to storms, from the streams and spring; some or all samples were analyzed for nitrate, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, and waste­water compounds. The median nitrate concentrations in routine samples from all sites were higher in samples collected during the wet period than in samples collected during the dry period, with the greatest difference for stream samples (0.05 milligram per liter during the dry period to 0.96 milligram per liter for the wet period). Nitrate concentrations in recent (2008–10) samples were elevated relative to concentrations in historical (1990–2008) samples from streams and from Barton Springs under medium- and high-flow conditions. Recent nitrate concentrations were higher than historical concentrations at the Marbridge well but the reverse was true at the Buda well. The elevated concentrations likely are related to the cessation of dry conditions coupled with increased nitrogen loading in the

  7. Inhibition of nitrate reduction by NaCl adsorption on a nano-zero-valent iron surface during a concentrate treatment for water reuse.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yuhoon; Kim, Dogun; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) has been considered as a possible material to treat water and wastewater. However, it is necessary to verify the effect of the matrix components in different types of target water. In this study, different effects depending on the sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on reductions of nitrates and on the characteristics of NZVI were investigated. Although NaCl is known as a promoter of iron corrosion, a high concentration of NaCl (>3 g/L) has a significant inhibition effect on the degree of NZVI reactivity towards nitrate. The experimental results were interpreted by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson reaction in terms of inhibition, and the decreased NZVI reactivity could be explained by the increase in the inhibition constant. As a result of a chloride concentration analysis, it was verified that 7.7-26.5% of chloride was adsorbed onto the surface of NZVI. Moreover, the change of the iron corrosion product under different NaCl concentrations was investigated by a surface analysis of spent NZVI. Magnetite was the main product, with a low NaCl concentration (0.5 g/L), whereas amorphous iron hydroxide was observed at a high concentration (12 g/L). Though the surface was changed to permeable iron hydroxide, the Fe(0) in the core was not completely oxidized. Therefore, the inhibition effect of NaCl could be explained as the competitive adsorption of chloride and nitrate.

  8. Morphological Control of Metal Oxide-Doped Zinc Oxide and Application to Cosmetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Takehiro; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio; Tanaka, Takumi

    2012-06-01

    Zinc oxide shows excellent transparency and ultraviolet radiation shielding ability, and is used for various cosmetics.1-3 However, it possesses high catalytic activity and lower dispersibility. Therefore, spherical particles of zinc oxide have been synthesized by soft solution reaction using zinc nitrate, ethylene glycol, sodium hydroxide and triethanolamine as starting materials. After dissolving these compounds in water, the solution was heated at 90°C for 1 h to form almost mono-dispersed spherical zinc oxide particles. The particle size changed depending on zinc ion concentration, ethylene glycol concentration and so on. Furthermore, with doping some metal ions, the phtocatalytic activity could be decreased. The obtained monodispersed metal ion-doped spherical zinc oxides showed excellent UV shielding ability and low photocatalytic activity. Therefore, they are expected to be used as cosmetics ingredients.

  9. Trends in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids in public supply wells of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins, San Bernardino County, California: Influence of legacy land use

    Kent, Robert; Landon, Matthew K.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and temporal changes in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins of the Upper Santa Ana Valley Groundwater Basin were evaluated to identify trends and factors that may be affecting trends. One hundred, thirty-one public-supply wells were selected for analysis based on the availability of data spanning at least 11 years between the late 1980s and the 2000s. Forty-one of the 131 wells (31%) had a significant (p < 0.10) increase in nitrate and 14 wells (11%) had a significant decrease in nitrate. For TDS, 46 wells (35%) had a significant increase and 8 wells (6%) had a significant decrease. Slopes for the observed significant trends ranged from − 0.44 to 0.91 mg/L/yr for nitrate (as N) and − 8 to 13 mg/L/yr for TDS. Increasing nitrate trends were associated with greater well depth, higher percentage of agricultural land use, and being closer to the distal end of the flow system. Decreasing nitrate trends were associated with the occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); VOC occurrence decreases with increasing depth. The relations of nitrate trends to depth, lateral position, and VOCs imply that increasing nitrate concentrations are associated with nitrate loading from historical agricultural land use and that more recent urban land use is generally associated with lower nitrate concentrations and greater VOC occurrence. Increasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater current nitrate concentrations and relatively greater amounts of urban land. Decreasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater amounts of natural land use. Trends in TDS concentrations were not related to depth, lateral position, or VOC occurrence, reflecting more complex factors affecting TDS than nitrate in the study area.

  10. Preparation of Diatomite Supported Nano Zinc Oxide Composite Photocatalytic Material and Study on its Formaldehyde Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liguang; Pang, Bo

    2017-09-01

    This experiment used zinc nitrate as precursor, ethanol as solvent and polyethylene glycol as dispersant, diatomite as carrier, diatomite loaded nano Zinc Oxide was prepared by sol-gel method, in addition, the formaldehyde degradation was studied by two kinds of experimental methods: preparation and loading, preparation and post loading, The samples were characterized by SEM, XRD, BET and IR. Experimental results showed that: Diatomite based nano Zinc Oxide had a continuous adsorption and degradation of formaldehyde, formaldehyde gas with initial concentration was 0.7mg/m3, after 36h degradation, the concentration reached 0.238mg/m3, the degradation rate reached to 66%.

  11. Effects of pharmacological concentrations of dietary zinc oxide on growth of post-weaning pigs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sales, James

    2013-06-01

    Pharmacological dietary zinc (Zn) concentrations of 1,000 to 3,000 mg/kg diet from Zn oxide have been found to increase growth in post-weaning pigs. However, results were inconsistent among studies. A frequentist meta-analysis, in which effects were numerically described with standardized effect sizes (Hedges's g), was conducted in order to identify and quantify the responses in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain to feed ratio (G/F) in post-weaning pigs upon dietary Zn supplementation from Zn oxide. The inability of independent continuous variables to explain significant heterogeneity obtained with fixed effect models necessitated the use of random effects models to calculate summary statistics. Dietary Zn supplementation increased (P < 0.05) ADG (mean effect size = 1.086, 95 % confidence intervals = 0.905-1.266, 26 studies, 72 comparisons), ADFI (mean effect size = 0.794, 95 % confidence intervals = 0.616-0.971, 25 studies, 71 comparisons), and G/F (mean effect size = 0.566, 95 % confidence intervals = 0.422-0.710, 24 studies, 70 comparisons). Zinc oxide provided a feasible alternative to in-feed antibiotics to improve growth in post-weaning pigs, and its reduction in diets due to potential environmental pollution will have to be negated by alternative feed additives and management strategies in order to prevent economic losses.

  12. Catchment-scale variation in the nitrate concentrations of groundwater seeps in the Catskill Mountains, New York, U.S.A.

    West, A.J.; Findlay, S.E.G.; Burns, Douglas A.; Weathers, K.C.; Lovett, Gary M.

    2001-01-01

    Forested headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains of New York show significant among-catchment variability in mean annual nitrate (NO3-) concentrations. Large contributions from deep groundwater with high NO3- concentrations have been invoked to explain high NO3- concentrations in stream water during the growing season. To determine whether variable contributions of groundwater could explain among-catchment differences in streamwater, we measured NO3- concentrations in 58 groundwater seeps distributed across six catchments known to have different annual average streamwater concentrations. Seeps were identified based on release from bedrock fractures and bedding planes and had consistently lower temperatures than adjacent streamwaters. Nitrate concentrations in seeps ranged from near detection limits (0.005 mg NO3--N/L) to 0.75 mg NO3--N/L. Within individual catchments, groundwater residence time does not seem to strongly affect NO3- concentrations because in three out of four catchments there were non-significant correlations between seep silica (SiO2) concentrations, a proxy for residence time, and seep NO3- concentrations. Across catchments, there was a significant but weak negative relationship between NO3- and SiO2 concentrations. The large range in NO3- concentrations of seeps across catchments suggests: 1) the principal process generating among-catchment differences in streamwater NO3- concentrations must influence water before it enters the groundwater flow system and 2) this process must act at large spatial scales because among-catchment variability is much greater than intra-catchment variability. Differences in the quantity of groundwater contribution to stream baseflow are not sufficient to account for differences in streamwater NO3- concentrations among catchments in the Catskill Mountains.

  13. The effect of polymers onto the size of zinc layered hydroxide salt and its calcined product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mohd Zobir bin; Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh; Yahaya, Asmah Hj; Abd Rahman, Mohd Zaki

    2009-02-01

    Zinc hydroxide nitrate, a brucite-like layered material was synthesized using pH control method. Poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(ethylene glycol) were used at various percentages as size decreasing agents during the synthesis of zinc hydroxide nitrate. SEM and PXRD showed the decrease of size and thickness of the resultant zinc hydroxide nitrates. TG and surface area data confirmed the decrease of the particle sizes, too. When zinc hydroxide nitrates were heat treated at 500 °C, the physical properties of nano zinc oxides obtained depended on the parent material, zinc hydroxide nitrate.

  14. Genetic evaluation of recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) for grain zinc concentrations, yield related traits and identification of associated SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Berhanu D; Naveen, G K; Rakhi, S; Shashidhar, H E

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate genetic variability parameters, correlations that exist for grain Zn concentration and yield related traits and identification of SSR markers linked to these traits in rice. One hundred seventy six Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) of Azucena X Moromutant were grown at University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore in augmented experimental design during wet seasons of 2010 and 2011. The study revealed significant genetic variability for all the traits. Grain yield per plant and grain zinc concentration showed higher phenotypic and genotypic co-efficient of variation. Significant positive correlation was observed for grain yield per plant with number of productive tillers per plant (r = 0.5) and number of tillers per plant (r = 0.4). Grain zinc concentration showed negative correlation with grain yield per plant (r = - 0.27). The path-coefficient analysis indicated the positive direct effect of number of productive tillers per plant on grain yield per plant (0.514). Grain zinc concentration showed negative direct effect on grain yield per plant (-0.186). Single-marker analysis using 26 SSR markers on RILs mapping population showed that RM212, RM263, RM6832, RM152, RM21, RM234 and RM3331 had association with grain zinc concentration and other yield related traits. But validation of these markers on fifty two rice genotypes showed that only three markers RM263, RM152 and RM21 had association with grain zinc concentration. Therefore, the genetic information generated and molecular markers identified from this study could be used for zinc biofortification programmes in rice.

  15. Trends in Surface-Water Nitrate-N Concentrations and Loads from Predominantly-Forested Watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshleman, K. N.

    2011-12-01

    Water quality monitoring data from streams and rivers provide the "gold standard" by which progress toward achieving real reductions in nutrient loadings to Chesapeake Bay must ultimately be assessed. The most recent trend results posted at the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) website reveal that a substantial percentage of tributaries are now showing long-term declines in flow-adjusted concentrations of nutrients and sediments: 22 sites showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) downward trends (1985-2010) in flow-adjusted concentrations, two sites showed upward trends, and eight sites showed no trend. Based on the data, the CBP has drawn the following conclusion: "At many monitored locations, long-term trends indicate that management actions, such as pollution controls for improved wastewater treatment plants and practices to reduce nutrients on farms and suburban lands, have reduced concentrations of nitrogen." But could this conclusion be pre-mature? I recently undertook a comparable analysis of long-term nitrate-N trends for a different group of watersheds (all located in the Chesapeake Bay watershed with long data records); this group includes nine watersheds that are predominantly (i.e., >75%) forested, plus five other Potomac River subwatersheds added for comparison. Based on comparable data and analytical methods to those used by CBP partners and USGS, 13 of the 14 sites-including both Potomac River stations (Chain Bridge at Washington DC and Hancock, Maryland)-showed statistically significant decreasing linear trends in annual flow-weighted nitrate-N concentration. Only one station-the heavily agricultural Upper Monocacy River-did not show a statistically significant (p < 0.05) trend. Five of the predominantly-forested watersheds also showed statistically significant decreasing trends in annual nitrate-N loads, and none of the stations showed a trend in annual runoff presumably due to high inter-annual hydroclimatological variability. While the largest

  16. Transformation of zinc-concentrate in surface and subsurface environments: Implications for assessing zinc mobility/toxicity and choosing an optimal remediation strategy.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Man Jae; Boyanov, Maxim I; Yang, Jung-Seok; Lee, Seunghak; Hwang, Yun Ho; Lee, Ju Yeon; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Kemner, Kenneth M

    2017-07-01

    Zinc contamination in near- and sub-surface environments is a serious threat to many ecosystems and to public health. Sufficient understanding of Zn speciation and transport mechanisms is therefore critical to evaluating its risk to the environment and to developing remediation strategies. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of contaminated soils in the vicinity of a Zn ore transportation route were thoroughly investigated using a variety of analytical techniques (sequential extraction, XRF, XRD, SEM, and XAFS). Imported Zn-concentrate (ZnS) was deposited in a receiving facility and dispersed over time to the surrounding roadside areas and rice-paddy soils. Subsequent physical and chemical weathering resulted in dispersal into the subsurface. The species identified in the contaminated areas included Zn-sulfide, Zn-carbonate, other O-coordinated Zn-minerals, and Zn species bound to Fe/Mn oxides or clays, as confirmed by XAFS spectroscopy and sequential extraction. The observed transformation from S-coordinated Zn to O-coordinated Zn associated with minerals suggests that this contaminant can change into more soluble and labile forms as a result of weathering. For the purpose of developing a soil washing remediation process, the contaminated samples were extracted with dilute acids. The extraction efficiency increased with the increase of O-coordinated Zn relative to S-coordinated Zn in the sediment. This study demonstrates that improved understanding of Zn speciation in contaminated soils is essential for well-informed decision making regarding metal mobility and toxicity, as well as for choosing an appropriate remediation strategy using soil washing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transformation of zinc-concentrate in surface and subsurface environments: Implications for assessing zinc mobility/toxicity and choosing an optimal remediation strategy

    DOE PAGES

    Kwon, Man Jae; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Yang, Jung -Seok; ...

    2017-03-24

    Zinc contamination in near- and sub-surface environments is a serious threat to many ecosystems and to public health. Sufficient understanding of Zn speciation and transport mechanisms is therefore critical to evaluating its risk to the environment and to developing remediation strategies. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of contaminated soils in the vicinity of a Zn ore transportation route were thoroughly investigated using a variety of analytical techniques (sequential extraction, XRF, XRD, SEM, and XAFS). Imported Zn-concentrate (ZnS) was deposited in a receiving facility and dispersed over time to the surrounding roadside areas and rice-paddy soils. Subsequent physical and chemical weatheringmore » resulted in dispersal into the subsurface. The species identified in the contaminated areas included Zn-sulfide, Zn-carbonate, other O-coordinated Zn-minerals, and Zn species bound to Fe/Mn oxides or clays, as confirmed by XAFS spectroscopy and sequential extraction. The observed transformation from S-coordinated Zn to O-coordinated Zn associated with minerals suggests that this contaminant can change into more soluble and labile forms as a result of weathering. For the purpose of developing a soil washing remediation process, the contaminated samples were extracted with dilute acids. The extraction efficiency increased with the increase of O-coordinated Zn relative to S-coordinated Zn in the sediment. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that improved understanding of Zn speciation in contaminated soils is essential for well-informed decision making regarding metal mobility and toxicity, as well as for choosing an appropriate remediation strategy using soil washing.« less

  18. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOEpatents

    Cox, John L.; Hallen, Richard T.; Lilga, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrates present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  19. The steady-state and transient electron transport within bulk zinc-blende indium nitride: The impact of crystal temperature and doping concentration variations

    SciT

    Siddiqua, Poppy; O'Leary, Stephen K., E-mail: stephen.oleary@ubc.ca

    2016-03-07

    Within the framework of a semi-classical three-valley Monte Carlo electron transport simulation approach, we analyze the steady-state and transient aspects of the electron transport within bulk zinc-blende indium nitride, with a focus on the response to variations in the crystal temperature and the doping concentration. We find that while the electron transport associated with zinc-blende InN is highly sensitive to the crystal temperature, it is not very sensitive to the doping concentration selection. The device consequences of these results are then explored.

  20. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: Effects on growth and concentrations of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus calves of intra-testicular injection of either saline (n=9) or one of two doses of zinc acetate ((ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10, or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) or surgical castration (n=9) on circulating concentrations of testostosterone and liveweight. Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG, 1500IU) was administered 202 and 525 days after treatment on Day 0 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. In animals left intact treatment with ZA reduced mean serum concentrations of testosterone (Saline: 5.58±0.79ng/mL, ZA1: 1.28±0.27ng/mL, ZA2: 1.01±0.17ng/mL; P<0.001) and concentrations 48h following administration of hCG. The maximum concentration of testosterone recorded throughout the study in six out of 19 animals treated with ZA was ≤0.21ng/mL. Treatment with ZA did not significantly affect live weights or carcass weights or result in any detectable scrotal lesions. Animals with concentrations of testosterone ≥1.0ng/mL exhibited greater liveweights throughout most of the study and yielded heavier carcass weights (340.9±7.02 versus 309.3±6.17kg, P=0.002). It is concluded that a single, intra-testicular administration of either 57.75mg or 71.75mg of ZA was able to similarly reduce circulating concentrations of testosterone without significantly affecting liveweights or carcass weights. Treatment with ZA can result in variation in circulating concentrations of testosterone which could lead to differences in behaviour, liveweights and carcass characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal and neonatal scalp hair concentrations of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead: relationship to some lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Razagui, Ibrahim B-A; Ghribi, Ibrahim

    2005-07-01

    Postpartum scalp hair samples from 82 term-pregnancy mother/ neonate pairs were analyzed for their concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Maternal and neonatal Zn concentrations had geometric means (and 99% confidence intervals) of 122.5 microg/g (117.9--131.5 microg/g) and 146.9 microg (141.5--156.7 microg/g) respectively. Corresponding Cu values were 18.4 microg/g (17.6--23.8 microg/g) and 6.7 microg/g (6.3--7.6 microg/g). Those of Cd were 0.49 microg/g (0.47--0.69 microg/g) in the mothers and 0.57 microg/g (0.55--0.86 microg/g) in the neonates. For Pb, they were 7.95 microg/g (7.60--9.32 microg/g) and 4.56 microg/g (4.39--5.56 microg/g). Cigarette smoking, despite its relatively low prevalence (19.5%), was associated with lower Zn and higher Cd and Pb concentrations and in lower Zn/Cd and Zn/Pb molar concentration ratios. Smoking also altered interelemental relationships, particularly those of Zn with Cd and Pb and those between Cd and Pb. Smoking frequency appeared to show negative dose-response effects on maternal and neonatal Zn concentrations, Zn/Pb molar concentration ratios, and birth weight. Mothers with a history of oral contraceptive (OC) usage had significantly higher Cu concentrations and lower Zn/Cu molar concentration ratios than non users, with the highest Cu concentrations and lowest Zn/Cu values being associated with third-generation OCs. No similar effects were elicited in the respective neonatal Cu concentrations. Neither alcohol consumption nor prenatal supplementation with iron and/or folic acid had discernible effects on the maternal or neonatal elemental concentrations. The data from this study suggest that in a given population of term-pregnancy mothers and neonates, significant interindividual variations in hair trace element concentrations can occur, irrespective of commonality of general environment, and that lifestyle factors, including cigarette

  2. Effects of polymorphisms in endothelial nitric oxide synthase and folate metabolizing genes on the concentration of serum nitrate, folate, and plasma total homocysteine after folic acid supplementation: a double-blind crossover study.

    PubMed

    Cabo, Rona; Hernes, Sigrunn; Slettan, Audun; Haugen, Margaretha; Ye, Shu; Blomhoff, Rune; Mansoor, M Azam

    2015-02-01

    A number of studies have explored the effects of dietary nitrate on human health. Nitrate in the blood can be recycled to nitric oxide, which is an essential mediator involved in many important biochemical mechanisms. Nitric oxide is also formed in the body from l-arginine by nitric oxide synthase. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and genes involved in folate metabolism affect the concentration of serum nitrate, serum folate, and plasma total homocysteine in healthy individuals after folic acid supplementation. In a randomized double-blind, crossover study, participants were given either folic acid 800 μg/d (n = 52) or placebo (n = 51) for 2 wk. Wash-out period was 2 wk. Fasting blood samples were collected, DNA was extracted by salting-out method and the polymorphisms in eNOS synthase and folate genes were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction methods. Measurement of serum nitrate and plasma total homocysteine (p-tHcy) concentration was done by high-performance liquid chromatography. The concentration of serum nitrate did not change in individuals after folic acid supplements (trial 1); however, the concentration of serum nitrate increased in the same individuals after placebo (P = 0.01) (trial 2). The individuals with three polymorphisms in eNOS gene had increased concentration of serum folate and decreased concentration of p-tHcy after folic acid supplementation. Among the seven polymorphisms tested in folate metabolizing genes, serum nitrate concentration was significantly decreased only in DHFR del 19 gene variant. A significant difference in the concentration of serum nitrate was detected among individuals with MTHFR C > T677 polymorphisms. Polymorphisms in eNOS and folate genes affect the concentration of serum folate and p-tHcy but do not have any effect on the concentration of NO3 in healthy individuals after folic acid supplementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Nitrate and Phosphate Concentration Trends in Selected Puerto Rico Rivers over the Past Four Decades--The Impact of Human Activity on Tropical Island Landscapes and Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troester, J. W.

    2001-12-01

    For more than four decades, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected riverine nutrient concentration data in Puerto Rico, a mountainous Caribbean tropical island. During the last forty years the population of this 9043 square km island has increased from about 2.4 to 3.8 million people. Much of the island has been developed for agriculture, and later for industry and urbanization. Data from gaging stations located within four of the larger, mixed land-use drainage basins of Puerto Rico were compiled and analyzed. The stations selected were the Rio Grande de Manati at Highway 2 (Station 50038100), Rio de la Plata at Highway 2 (Station 50046000), Rio Grande de Patillas near Patillas (Station 50092000), and Rio Grande de Anasco near San Sebastian (Station 50144000). Analytical results were compared with a shorter-term data set from smaller forested watersheds (that are part of the USGS Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) Program) to evaluate the impact of human activity on the water quality. During the 1960's, discharge weighted average concentrations (DWAC) of dissolved nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate-N) ranged from 0.10 to 0.51 mg/L in the four rivers. DWAC of nitrate-N increased and peaked in the 1970's and 1980's (range of 0.35 to 1.00 mg/L), and have subsequently decreased (range of 0.30 to 0.95 mg/L). DWAC of nitrate-N declined, even though the average nitrate-N concentration continued to increase in three of these rivers. The decrease in DWAC of nitrate-N may reflect the changes in land use from the 1960's to present, which includes an increase in forest and a decrease in cropland throughout much of Puerto Rico. However, the largest decrease (from 0.77 to 0.34 mg/L) occurred in the Rio de la Plata after it was dammed in 1974. DWAC of nitrate-N in the four rivers were several times higher than the total nitrate-N observed at gaging stations in undisturbed forested watersheds, such as at the Rio Mameyes near Sabana (Station 50065500) and the Rio

  4. Regulation of body metal concentrations: Toxicokinetics of cadmium and zinc in crickets.

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Opyd, Marta; Żurawicz, Ewelina; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies indicated that essential and xenobiotic metals differ substantially in terms of their toxicokinetics. Whether these differences are due to different assimilation rates, different elimination rates, or both, and whether all metals are regulated in a similar manner but with different efficiency remains unclear. To compare the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of different metals, parameters for toxicokinetic models have to be tested under exposures to the identical molar concentration of those metals. In this study, the cricket Gryllus assimilis was exposed to Zn or Cd at 2.5, 10, and 40mMkg(-1) dry food. The body concentrations of the metals were not perfectly regulated by the crickets. For Zn, a clear increase in the body concentration was found only at the highest treatment; whereas at the lowest treatment, the internal concentration remained unchanged throughout the experiment. At the lowest Zn concentration, the assimilation (kA) [day(-1)] and elimination (kE) [day(-1)] rate constants were balanced (kA=0.024, kE=0.024). When increasing the Zn exposure, kA decreased to 0.018 at 10mMkg(-1) and 0.01 at 40mMkg(-1), and kE increased to 0.05 and 0.07, respectively. Therefore, the body concentration of Zn was regulated by simultaneously changing the assimilation and elimination rate. By contrast, even at the lowest treatment, a significant increase in Cd concentration was observed in the crickets. The equilibrium Cd concentration resulted almost exclusively from increasing kE from 0.17, through 0.28 to 0.61 at 2.5, 10 and 40mMkg(-1). The kA for Cd did not reveal any clear trend. Zn was more efficiently regulated by crickets than was Cd: a 16-fold increase in exposure concentration (from 2.5 to 40mM Znkg(-1)) resulted only in a twofold increase of internal concentration, whereas the identical increase in Cd exposure concentration resulted in almost a sevenfold increase in internal concentration of this metal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  5. Effect of nano-zinc oxide on nitrogenase activity in legumes: an interplay of concentration and exposure time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen; Burman, Uday; Santra, P.

    2015-07-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnO) on nitrogenase activity in legumes. In the first experiment, nodulated roots of cluster bean, moth bean, green gram and cowpea were dipped in Hoagland solution containing 1.5 and 10 μg mL-1 of nano-ZnO for 24 h. Nitrogenase activity in cluster bean, green gram and cowpea roots increased after dipping in solution containing 1.5 μg mL-1 nano-ZnO, but decreased in roots dipped in solution containing 10 μg mL-1 nano-ZnO. However, in moth bean roots, nitrogenase activity decreased after dipping in solution containing either concentration of nano-ZnO. In the second experiment, nodulated roots of green gram were dipped in Hoagland solution containing 1, 4, 6, 8 and 10 μg mL-1 nano-ZnO for 6-30 h before estimating nitrogenase activity. Results showed that an interactive effect of nano-ZnO concentration and exposure time influenced nitrogenase activity. The possible reasons behind this effect have been discussed. A model [ A = 3.44 + 0.46 t - 0.01 t 2 - 0.002 tc 2 ( R 2 = 0.81)] involving linear and power components was developed to simulate the response of nitrogenase activity in green gram roots to the concentration and exposure time of nano-ZnO.

  6. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in aquatic food chains from the Upper Sacramento River (California) and selected tributaries

    Saiki, M.K.; Castleberry, D. T.; May, T. W.; Martin, B.A.; Bullard, F. N.

    1995-01-01

    Metals enter the Upper Sacramento River above Redding, California, primarily through Spring Creek, a tributary that receives acid-mine drainage from a US EPA Superfund site known locally as Iron Mountain Mine. Waterweed (Elodea canadensis) and aquatic insects (midge larvae, Chironomidae; and mayfly nymphs, Ephemeroptera) from the Sacramento River downstream from Spring Creek contained much higher concentrations of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) than did similar taxa from nearby reference tributaries not exposed to acid-mine drainage. Aquatic insects from the Sacramento River contained especially high maximum concentrations of Cu (200 mg/kg dry weight in midge larvae), Cd (23 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs), and Zn (1,700 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs). Although not always statistically significant, whole-body concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn in fishes (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis; Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis; and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytasch) from the Sacramento River were generally higher than in fishes from the reference tributaries.

  7. Association mapping unveils favorable alleles for grain iron and zinc concentrations in lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Akanksha; Sharma, Vinay; Dikshit, Harsh Kumar; Aski, Muraleedhar; Kumar, Harish; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Patil, Basavanagouda S.; Kumar, Shiv; Sarker, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    Lentil is a major cool-season grain legume grown in South Asia, West Asia, and North Africa. Populations in developing countries of these regions have micronutrient deficiencies; therefore, breeding programs should focus more on improving the micronutrient content of food. In the present study, a set of 96 diverse germplasm lines were evaluated at three different locations in India to examine the variation in iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) concentration and identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that associate with the genetic variation. The genetic variation among genotypes of the association mapping (AM) panel was characterized using a genetic distance-based and a general model-based clustering method. The model-based analysis identified six subpopulations, which satisfactorily explained the genetic structure of the AM panel. AM analysis identified three SSRs (PBALC 13, PBALC 206, and GLLC 563) associated with grain Fe concentration explaining 9% to 11% of phenotypic variation and four SSRs (PBALC 353, SSR 317–1, PLC 62, and PBALC 217) were associated with grain Zn concentration explaining 14%, to 21% of phenotypic variation. These identified SSRs exhibited consistent performance across locations. These candidate SSRs can be used in marker-assisted genetic improvement for developing Fe and Zn fortified lentil varieties. Favorable alleles and promising genotypes identified in this study can be utilized for lentil biofortification. PMID:29161321

  8. Relationship between welding fume concentration and systemic inflammation after controlled exposure of human subjects with welding fumes from metal inert gas brazing of zinc-coated materials.

    PubMed

    Brand, Peter; Bauer, Marcus; Gube, Monika; Lenz, Klaus; Reisgen, Uwe; Spiegel-Ciobanu, Vilia Elena; Kraus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that exposure of subjects to emissions from a metal inert gas (MIG) brazing process of zinc-coated material led to an increase of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in the blood. In this study, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for such emissions was assessed. Twelve healthy subjects were exposed for 6 hours to different concentrations of MIG brazing fumes under controlled conditions. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured in the blood. For welding fumes containing 1.20 and 1.50 mg m zinc, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was increased the day after exposure. For 0.90 mg m zinc, no increase was detected. These data indicate that the no-observed-effect level for emissions from a MIG brazing process of zinc-coated material in respect to systemic inflammation is found for welding fumes with zinc concentrations between 0.90 and 1.20 mg m.

  9. Low zinc in drinking water is associated with the risk of type 1 diabetes in children.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Ulf; Oikarinen, Sami; Hyöty, Heikki; Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2011-05-01

    To explore if drinking water may influence the development of type 1 diabetes in children, either via enterovirus spread via drinking water or quality of drinking water related to acidity or concentration of certain minerals. One hundred and forty-two families with a child with diabetes and who lived either in seven municipalities with a high annual diabetes incidence during 1977-2001 and in six municipalities with the lowest incidence during those 25 yr were asked to participate. Three hundred and seventy-three families in these communities were used as controls. The families filled a 200-mL plastic bottle with their tap drinking water and returned it by mail. The water samples were analyzed for pH, zinc, iron, nitrate, nitrite, nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen, and occurrence of enterovirus RNA. Enterovirus RNA was not found in the tap water samples. The concentration of zinc, nitrate, and nitrate-nitrogen was lower in the municipalities with high incidence of type 1 diabetes. The water samples from families with a child with diabetes had lower concentration of zinc than water samples from control families. Low zinc in drinking water is associated with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes during childhood. Enterovirus does not seem to be spread via drinking water in a country with modern water works. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  11. Low-Concentration Indium Doping in Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Films for Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Lee, Hyeonju; Kwon, Jung-Hyok; Kim, Eui-Jik; Park, Jaehoon

    2017-07-31

    We investigated the influence of low-concentration indium (In) doping on the chemical and structural properties of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) films and the electrical characteristics of bottom-gate/top-contact In-doped ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs). The thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis results showed that thermal annealing at 400 °C for 40 min produces In-doped ZnO films. As the In content of ZnO films was increased from 1% to 9%, the metal-oxygen bonding increased from 5.56% to 71.33%, while the metal-hydroxyl bonding decreased from 72.03% to 9.63%. The X-ray diffraction peaks and field-emission scanning microscope images of the ZnO films with different In concentrations revealed a better crystalline quality and reduced grain size of the solution-processed ZnO thin films. The thickness of the In-doped ZnO films also increased when the In content was increased up to 5%; however, the thickness decreased on further increasing the In content. The field-effect mobility and on/off current ratio of In-doped ZnO TFTs were notably affected by any change in the In concentration. Considering the overall TFT performance, the optimal In doping concentration in the solution-processed ZnO semiconductor was determined to be 5% in this study. These results suggest that low-concentration In incorporation is crucial for modulating the morphological characteristics of solution-processed ZnO thin films and the TFT performance.

  12. Low-Concentration Indium Doping in Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Films for Thin-Film Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue; Lee, Hyeonju; Kim, Eui-Jik; Park, Jaehoon

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the influence of low-concentration indium (In) doping on the chemical and structural properties of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) films and the electrical characteristics of bottom-gate/top-contact In-doped ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs). The thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis results showed that thermal annealing at 400 °C for 40 min produces In-doped ZnO films. As the In content of ZnO films was increased from 1% to 9%, the metal-oxygen bonding increased from 5.56% to 71.33%, while the metal-hydroxyl bonding decreased from 72.03% to 9.63%. The X-ray diffraction peaks and field-emission scanning microscope images of the ZnO films with different In concentrations revealed a better crystalline quality and reduced grain size of the solution-processed ZnO thin films. The thickness of the In-doped ZnO films also increased when the In content was increased up to 5%; however, the thickness decreased on further increasing the In content. The field-effect mobility and on/off current ratio of In-doped ZnO TFTs were notably affected by any change in the In concentration. Considering the overall TFT performance, the optimal In doping concentration in the solution-processed ZnO semiconductor was determined to be 5% in this study. These results suggest that low-concentration In incorporation is crucial for modulating the morphological characteristics of solution-processed ZnO thin films and the TFT performance. PMID:28773242

  13. Atmospheric concentrations of particulate sulfate and nitrate in Hong Kong during 1995-2008: Impact of local emission and super-regional transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing; Wei, Xiaolin; Liu, Qian

    2013-09-01

    The release of large amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the burning of fossil fuel leads to regional air pollution phenomena such as haze and acidic deposition. Despite longstanding recognition of the severity of these problems and the numerous studies conducted in China, little is known of long-term trends in particulate sulfate and nitrate and their association with changes in precursor emissions. In this study, we analyze records covering a 14-year period (1995-2008) of PM10 composition in the subtropical city of Hong Kong, situated in the rapidly developing Pearl River Delta region of southern China. A linear regression method and a Regional Kendall test are employed for trend calculations. In contrast to the decreased levels of SO2 and NOx emissions in Hong Kong, there are increasing overall trends in ambient concentrations of PM10 sulfate and PM10 nitrate, with the most obvious rise seen during 2001-2005. The percentages of sulfate and nitrate in the PM10 mass and rainwater acidity also increased. Backward trajectories are computed to help identify the origin of large-scale air masses arriving in Hong Kong. In air masses dominated by Hong Kong urban sources and ship emissions, there was no statistically significant trend for PM10 sulfate and a small increase for PM10 nitrate; however, the evident increases in PM10 sulfate and PM10 nitrate concentrations were observed in air masses originating from eastern China and are generally consistent with changes in emissions of their precursors in eastern China. Examination of PM10 mass data recorded at a pair of upwind-urban sites also indicates that long-range transport makes a large contribution (>80%) to PM10 loadings in Hong Kong. Together with our previous study on the ozone trend, these results demonstrate the important impact exerted by long-distance sources and suggest a need to consider the impact of super-regional transport when formulating air-quality management strategy in Hong

  14. Effects of feeding different concentration and forms of zinc on the performance and tissue mineral status of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ao, T; Pierce, J L; Pescatore, A J; Cantor, A H; Dawson, K A; Ford, M J; Paul, M

    2011-08-01

    1. Two studies were conducted to investigate the effect of feeding different concentration and forms of zinc (Zn) on the performance and tibia Zn status of broiler chicks. 2. In Experiment 1, chicks fed on the control or the diet supplemented with 12?mg of Zn as sulphate had lower feed intake, weight gain and tibia Zn content than other treatment groups. Chicks given 12 and 24 mg of organic Zn in starter and grower phases, respectively, had the same performance and tibia Zn content as those fed 40 mg of Zn as sulphate and the same performance but higher tibia Zn content than those given 12 mg of Zn as organic over the 42 d. 3. In Experiment 2, chicks given 24 mg organic Zn had greater weight gain than chicks fed on the other treatment diets in the starter period. Chicks fed on the control diet had lower tibia Zn content than chicks fed other treatment diets. Chicks given 80 mg Zn as sulphate had higher tibia Zn content than chicks fed the other treatment diets except those given 40 mg of Zn as sulphate. 4. The results from these trials indicate that feeding lower concentration of Zn as organic form may better promote the growth performance of broiler chicks.

  15. Nitrate reduction

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  16. Tricolor emission of a fluorescent heteroditopic ligand over a concentration gradient of zinc(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Sreenath, Kesavapillai; Clark, Ronald J; Zhu, Lei

    2012-09-21

    The internal charge transfer (ICT) type fluoroionophore arylvinyl-bipy (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridyl) is covalently tethered to the spirolactam form of rhodamine to afford fluorescent heteroditopic ligand 4. Compound 4 can be excited in the visible region, the emission of which undergoes sequential bathochromic shifts over an increasing concentration gradient of Zn(ClO(4))(2) in acetonitrile. Coordination of Zn(2+) stabilizes the ICT excited state of the arylvinyl-bipy component of 4, leading to the first emission color shift from blue to green. At sufficiently high concentrations of Zn(ClO(4))(2), the nonfluorescent spirolactam component of 4 is transformed to the fluorescent rhodamine, which turns the emission color from green to orange via intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the Zn(2+)-bound arylvinyl-bipy fluorophore to rhodamine. While this work offers a new design of ratiometric chemosensors, in which sequential analyte-induced emission band shifts result in the sampling of multiple colors at different concentration ranges (i.e., from blue to green to orange as [Zn(2+)] increases in the current case), it also reveals the nuances of rhodamine spirolactam chemistry that have not been sufficiently addressed in the published literature. These issues include the ability of rhodamine spirolactam as a fluorescence quencher via electron transfer, and the slow kinetics of spirolactam ring-opening effected by Zn(2+) coordination under pH neutral aqueous conditions.

  17. Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha

    2014-01-01

    The nitrate anion is a simple, abundant and relatively stable species, yet plays a significant role in global cycling of nitrogen, global climate change, and human health. Although it has been known for quite some time that nitrate is an important species environmentally, recent studies have identified potential medical applications. In this respect the nitrate anion remains an enigmatic species that promises to offer exciting science in years to come. Many bacteria readily reduce nitrate to nitrite via nitrate reductases. Classified into three distinct types – periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar) and assimilatory nitrate reductase (Nas), they are defined by their cellular location, operon organization and active site structure. Of these, Nap proteins are the focus of this review. Despite similarities in the catalytic and spectroscopic properties Nap from different Proteobacteria are phylogenetically distinct. This review has two major sections: in the first section, nitrate in the nitrogen cycle and human health, taxonomy of nitrate reductases, assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, cellular locations of nitrate reductases, structural and redox chemistry are discussed. The second section focuses on the features of periplasmic nitrate reductase where the catalytic subunit of the Nap and its kinetic properties, auxiliary Nap proteins, operon structure and phylogenetic relationships are discussed. PMID:24141308

  18. The fields of mean concentration in potential sources of ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate and natural silicates for the west of Moscow region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukurov, K. A.; Shukurova, L. M.

    2017-11-01

    According to measurements in 2002-2015 of concentrations of ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and natural silicates in aerosol samples with particles in the range of 1-2 μm in diameter at the Zvenigorod scientific station (55.7° N, 36.8° E) of the A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and simulation of backward trajectories of air parcels using the trajectory model NOAA HYSPLIT_4 by means of CWT (concentration weighted trajectory) method, the average fields of capacity (in unit of concentration) of potential sources of these admixtures and their sum for the west of Moscow region were obtained. The patterns of large-scale atmospheric circulation, which favoring the transfer of these admixtures from their regions of the most probable potential sources to the western Moscow region, are analyzed.

  19. Changes between early development (1930–60) and recent (2005–15) groundwater-level altitudes and dissolved-solids and nitrate concentrations In and near Gaines, Terry, and Yoakum Counties, Texas

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Teeple, Andrew; Payne, Jason; Ikard, Scott

    2016-06-21

    During the recent period, median dissolved-solids concentrations of less than 1,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) were predominantly measured in the western part of the study area, and median concentrations of more than 1,000 mg/L were predominantly measured in the eastern part of the study area. A general pattern of increasing nitrate concentrations from west to the northeast was evident in the study area. Nitrate concentrations measured in samples collected from 16 wells completed in the Ogallala aquifer for the recent period were equal to or greater than 10 mg/L, the primary drinking water standard for finished drinking water.

  20. Statistical assessment of a sampling pattern for evaluation of changes in mercury and zinc concentrations in Patella coerulea

    SciT

    Puel, D.; Zsuerger, N.; Breittmayer, J.P.

    1987-04-01

    The validity and representativeness of sampling, whether in temporal or in geographic terms, are always a problematical aspect of the evaluation of metal pollution in coastal sea water. Numerous field studies have underscored the great variety in metal levels in a given site, even in the very short term. The choice of sedentary test species disposes of the variation factor associated with those that move from place to place. Because they are ubiquitous and easy to collect, mollusks have very often been used for this purpose. This is particularly true of the mussel and the oyster because they are eatenmore » by man. The limpet (Patella) is a primary herbivore consumer and would seem an equally elective test organism. Its very localized feeding habits (grazing the algae colonizing the rocks where it lives) are less prone to sudden changes than those of the filtering mollusks. Indeed, it has already been employed in campaigns evaluating pollution by hydrocarbons and metals. To be able to compare several areas in this way, however, or follow their progress over the course of time, it is essential to work out a representative sampling plan. This paper reports an investigation of this aspect of the question with regard to two metals: mercury, which is toxic and plays no part in any natural metabolic process, and zinc, a cation required in weak concentrations by certain enzyme systems.« less

  1. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, selenium, and zinc in fish from the Mississippi River Basin, 1995

    Schmitt, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    Fish were collected in late 1995 from 34 National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations and 12 National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) stations in the Mississippi River basin (MRB), and in late 1996 from a reference site in West Virginia. The NCBP sites represented key points (dams, tributaries, etc.) in the largest rivers of the MRB. The NAWQA sites were typically on smaller rivers and were selected to represent dominant land uses in their watersheds. The West Virginia site, which is in an Eastern U.S. watershed adjacent to the MRB, was selected to document elemental concentrations in fish used for other aspects of a larger study and to provide additional contemporaneous data on background elemental concentrations. At each site four samples, each comprising (nominally) 10 adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio, `carp') or black bass (Micropterus spp., `bass') of the same sex, were collected. The whole fish were composited by station, species, and gender for analysis of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) by atomic absorption spectroscopy and for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) by inductively-coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Concentrations of most of the elements examined were lower in both carpand bass from the reference site, a small impoundment located in a rural area, than from the NCBP and NAWQA sites on rivers and larger impoundments. In contrast, there were few overall differences between NCBP sites NAWQA sites. The 1995 results generally confirmed the continued weathering and re-distribution of these elemental contaminants in the MRB; concentrations declined or were unchanged from 1984–1986 to 1995 at most NCBP sites, thus continuing two-decade trends. Exceptions were Se at Station 77 (Arkansas R. at John Martin Reservoir, CO), where concentrations have been elevated historically and increased slightly (to 3.8–4.7 μg g-1 in bass and carp); and Pb, Cd, and Zn at Station 67 (Allegheny R. at Natrona, PA), where

  2. Dopamine elevates intracellular zinc concentration in cultured rat embryonic cortical neurons through the cAMP-nitric oxide signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hui-Hsing; Kao, Lung-Sen; Liu, Pei-Shan; Huang, Chien-Chang; Yang, De-Ming; Pan, Chien-Yuan

    2017-07-01

    Zinc ion (Zn 2+ ), the second most abundant transition metal after iron in the body, is essential for neuronal activity and also induces toxicity if the concentration is abnormally high. Our previous results show that exposure of cultured cortical neurons to dopamine elevates intracellular Zn 2+ concentrations ([Zn 2+ ] i ) and induces autophagosome formation but the mechanism is not clear. In this study, we characterized the signaling pathway responsible for the dopamine-induced elevation of [Zn 2+ ] i and the effect of [Zn 2+ ] i in modulating the autophagy in cultured rat embryonic cortical neurons. N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), a membrane-permeable Zn 2+ chelator, could rescue the cell death and suppress the autophagosome puncta number induced by dopamine. Dopamine treatment increased the lipidation level of the endogenous microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3 II), an autophagosome marker. TPEN added 1h before, but not after, dopamine treatment suppressed the dopamine-induced elevation of LC3 II level. Inhibitors of the dopamine D1-like receptor, protein kinase A (PKA), and NOS suppressed the dopamine-induced elevation of [Zn 2+ ] i . PKA activators and NO generators directly increased [Zn 2+ ] i in cultured neurons. Through cell fractionation, proteins with m.w. values between 5 and 10kD were found to release Zn 2+ following NO stimulation. In addition, TPEN pretreatment and an inhibitor against PKA could suppress the LC3 II level increased by NO and dopamine, respectively. Therefore, our results demonstrate that dopamine-induced elevation of [Zn 2+ ] i is mediated by the D1-like receptor-PKA-NO pathway and is important in modulating the cell death and autophagy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  4. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOEpatents

    Cox, J.L.; Hallen, R.T.; Lilga, M.A.

    1992-06-02

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrites present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200 C to about 600 C, and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  5. Evaluating vertical concentration profile of carbon source released from slow-releasing carbon source tablets and in situ biological nitrate denitrification activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeum, Y.; HAN, K.; Yoon, J.; Lee, J. H.; Song, K.; Kang, J. H.; Park, C. W.; Kwon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Slow-releasing carbon source tablets were manufactured during the design of a small-scale in situ biological denitrification system to reduce high-strength nitrate (> 30 mg N/L) from a point source such as livestock complexes. Two types of slow-releasing tablets, precipitating tablet (PT, apparent density of 2.0 g/mL) and floating tablet (FT), were prepared to achieve a vertically even distribution of carbon source (CS) in a well and an aquifer. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was used to control the release rate, and microcrystalline cellulose pH 101 (MCC 101) was added as a binder. The #8 sand was used as a precipitation agent for the PTs, and the floating agents for the FTs were calcium carbonate and citric acid. FTs floated within 30 min. and remained in water because of the buoyance from carbon dioxide, which formed during the acid-base reaction between citric acid and calcium carbonate. The longevities of PTs with 300 mg of HPMC and FTs with 400 mg of HPMC were 25.4 days and 37.3 days, respectively. We assessed vertical CS profile in a continuous flowing physical aquifer model (release test, RT) and its efficiency on biological nitrate denitrification (denitrification test, DT). During the RT, PTs, FTs and a tracer (as 1 mg rhodamine B/L) were initially injected into a well of physical aquifer model (PAM). Concentrations of CS and the tracer were monitored along the streamline in the PAM to evaluate vertical profile of CS. During the DT, the same experiment was performed as RT, except continuous injection of solution containing 30 mg N/L into the PAM to evaluate biological denitrification activity. As a result of RT, temporal profiles of CS were similar at 3 different depths of monitoring wells. These results suggest that simultaneous addition of PT and FT be suitable for achieving a vertically even distribution of the CS in the injection well and an aquifer. In DT, similar profile of CS was detected in the injection well, and nitrate was biologically

  6. Effect of pH and complementary ion concentration on nitrate removal using puroliteA400 Resin impregnated Cu in batch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turmuzi, M.; Tarigan, Z. N.; Nadapdap, L.; Batubara, F.

    2018-02-01

    The total nitrogen content in water bodies should be below 50 mg NO3 -/L (11.3 mgN/l) World Health Organization (WHO) 2006. The content of nitrogen exceeding the quality standard threshold will cause damage to the aquatic ecosystem and be carcinogenic to humans. The Purolite A-400 resin will be modified with Cu metal by batch method to see the adsorption allowance of nitrate in synthetic liquid waste with nitrate concentration of 50 mg/l. This study will evaluate the effect of pH and complementary ions on the adsorption process. From the result of the research, the second order pseudo model is the most suitable adsorption kinetics model. For the adsorption isotherms the most suitable model is the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. The optimum pH conditions were at the range of 8.5. The addition of complementary ions sulfate and phosphate did not show any significant change, but sulfate is the most effective complementary ion with a content of 20 mg/l.

  7. Regional assessment of concentrations and sources of pharmaceutically active compounds, pesticides, nitrate, and E. coli in post-glacial aquifer environments (Canada).

    PubMed

    Saby, Marion; Larocque, Marie; Pinti, Daniele L; Barbecot, Florent; Gagné, Sylvain; Barnetche, Diogo; Cabana, Hubert

    2017-02-01

    There is growing concern worldwide about the exposure of groundwater resources to pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and agricultural contaminants, such as pesticides, nitrate, and Escherichia coli. For regions with a low population density and an abundance of water, regional contamination assessments are not carried out systematically due to the typically low concentrations and high costs of analyses. The objectives of this study were to evaluate regional-scale contaminant distributions in untreated groundwater in a rural region of Quebec (Canada). The geological and hydrogeological settings of this region are typical of post-glacial regions around the world, where groundwater flow can be complex due to heterogeneous geological conditions. A new spatially distributed Anthropogenic Footprint Index (AFI), based on land use data, was developed to assess surface pollution risks. The Hydrogeochemical Vulnerability Index (HVI) was computed to estimate aquifer vulnerability. Nine wells had detectable concentrations of one to four of the 13 tested PhACs, with a maximum concentration of 116ng·L -1 for benzafibrate. A total of 34 of the 47 tested pesticides were detected in concentrations equal to or greater than the detection limit, with a maximum total pesticide concentration of 692ng·L -1 . Nitrate concentrations exceeded 1mg·L -1 N-NO 3 in 15.3% of the wells, and the Canadian drinking water standard was exceeded in one well. Overall, 13.5% of the samples had detectable E. coli. Including regional-scale sources of pollutants to the assessment of aquifer vulnerability with the AFI did not lead to the identification of contaminated wells, due to the short groundwater flow paths between recharge and the sampled wells. Given the occurrence of contaminants, the public health concerns stemming from these new data on regional-scale PhAC and pesticide concentrations, and the local flow conditions observed in post-glacial terrains, there is a clear need to investigate

  8. Use of Encapsulated Zinc Particles in a Eutectic Chloride Salt to Enhance Thermal Energy Storage Capacity for Concentrated Solar Power

    SciT

    Cingarapu, Sreeram; Singh, Dileep; Timofeeva, Elena V.

    2015-08-01

    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is considered as a viable large-scale renewable energy source to produce electricity. However, current costs to produce electricity from CSP are not cost competitive as compared to the traditional energy generation technologies based on fossil fuels and nuclear. It is envisioned that development of high efficiency and high heat capacity thermal storage fluids will increase system efficiency, reduce structural storage volume, and hence, contribute to reducing costs. Particularly, with respect to CSP, current high temperature energy storage fluids, such as molten salts, are relatively limited in terms of their thermal energy storage capacity and thermal conductivity.more » The current work explores possibility of boosting the thermal storage capacity of molten salts through latent heat of added phase change materials. We studied the advantage Of adding coated Zn micron-sized particles to alkali chloride salt eutectic for enhanced thermal energy storage. Zinc particles (0.6 mu m and 5 mu m) obtained from commercial source were coated with an organo-phosphorus shell to improve chemical stability and to prevent individual particles from coalescing with one another during melt/freeze cycles. Thermal cycling tests (200 melt/freeze cycles) showed that coated Zn particles have good thermal stability and are chemically inert to alkali chloride salt eutectic in both N-2 and in air atmospheres. Elemental mapping of the cross-sectional view of coated Zn particles from the composite after thermal cycles showed no signs of oxidation, agglomeration or other type of particle degradation. The measured enhancement in volumetric thermal storage capacity of the composite with just similar to 10 vol% of coated Zn particles over the base chloride salt eutectic varies from 15% to 34% depending on cycling temperature range (Delta T = 50 degrees C -100 degrees C. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.« less

  9. Effect of Tamarindus indica leaf powder on plasma concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in fluorotic cows

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Pinaki; Patra, R. C.; Gupta, A. R.; Mishra, S. K.; Jena, D.; Satapathy, D.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The main objective of the study was to determine the deleterious effect of fluoride on plasma trace minerals of fluorotic cattle and to evaluate the effect of Tamarindus indica leaf powder toward correction of the same. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 cattle exhibiting chronic sign of fluorosis and 10 healthy cattle from nonfluorotic area were incorporated in this study. Fluorotic cattle were divided into three equal groups consisting of 10 cattle each. Group I from fluoride free area served as healthy control. The Group II received no treatment and served as disease control. Groups III and IV were supplemented with tamarind leaf powder at 15 g and 30 g/day with feed for 60 days. Plasma mineral status was evaluated after 60 days of treatment with double beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Statistical analysis of data revealed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in mean plasma copper (Cu) (0.344±0.007 ppm), zinc (Zn) (0.692±0.06 ppm), and iron (Fe) concentration (1.100±0.01 ppm) in fluorotic cattle in comparison to healthy cattle (0.58±0.010, 2.342±0.04, 1.406±0.04 ppm, respectively). Significant (p<0.05) increase in Cu, Zn, and Fe was recorded after supplementation of tamarind leaf powder to the fluorotic cattle. Conclusion: It was concluded that fluorotic cattle might be supplemented with T. indica leaf powder with feed for the correction of the decreased level of certain plasma minerals. PMID:27847422

  10. Effect of Tamarindus indica leaf powder on plasma concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in fluorotic cows.

    PubMed

    Samal, Pinaki; Patra, R C; Gupta, A R; Mishra, S K; Jena, D; Satapathy, D

    2016-10-01

    The main objective of the study was to determine the deleterious effect of fluoride on plasma trace minerals of fluorotic cattle and to evaluate the effect of Tamarindus indica leaf powder toward correction of the same. A total of 30 cattle exhibiting chronic sign of fluorosis and 10 healthy cattle from nonfluorotic area were incorporated in this study. Fluorotic cattle were divided into three equal groups consisting of 10 cattle each. Group I from fluoride free area served as healthy control. The Group II received no treatment and served as disease control. Groups III and IV were supplemented with tamarind leaf powder at 15 g and 30 g/day with feed for 60 days. Plasma mineral status was evaluated after 60 days of treatment with double beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis of data revealed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in mean plasma copper (Cu) (0.344±0.007 ppm), zinc (Zn) (0.692±0.06 ppm), and iron (Fe) concentration (1.100±0.01 ppm) in fluorotic cattle in comparison to healthy cattle (0.58±0.010, 2.342±0.04, 1.406±0.04 ppm, respectively). Significant (p<0.05) increase in Cu, Zn, and Fe was recorded after supplementation of tamarind leaf powder to the fluorotic cattle. It was concluded that fluorotic cattle might be supplemented with T. indica leaf powder with feed for the correction of the decreased level of certain plasma minerals.

  11. Genetic Variability, Genotype × Environment Interaction, Correlation, and GGE Biplot Analysis for Grain Iron and Zinc Concentration and Other Agronomic Traits in RIL Population of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    PubMed Central

    Phuke, Rahul M.; Anuradha, Kotla; Radhika, Kommineni; Jabeen, Farzana; Anuradha, Ghanta; Ramesh, Thatikunta; Hariprasanna, K.; Mehtre, Shivaji P.; Deshpande, Santosh P.; Anil, Gaddameedi; Das, Roma R.; Rathore, Abhishek; Hash, Tom; Reddy, Belum V. S.; Kumar, Are Ashok

    2017-01-01

    The low grain iron and zinc densities are well documented problems in food crops, affecting crop nutritional quality especially in cereals. Sorghum is a major source of energy and micronutrients for majority of population in Africa and central India. Understanding genetic variation, genotype × environment interaction and association between these traits is critical for development of improved cultivars with high iron and zinc. A total of 336 sorghum RILs (Recombinant Inbred Lines) were evaluated for grain iron and zinc concentration along with other agronomic traits for 2 years at three locations. The results showed that large variability exists in RIL population for both micronutrients (Iron = 10.8 to 76.4 mg kg−1 and Zinc = 10.2 to 58.7 mg kg−1, across environments) and agronomic traits. Genotype × environment interaction for both micronutrients (iron and zinc) was highly significant. GGE biplots comparison for grain iron and zinc showed greater variation across environments. The results also showed that G × E was substantial for grain iron and zinc, hence wider testing needed for taking care of G × E interaction to breed micronutrient rich sorghum lines. Iron and zinc concentration showed high significant positive correlation (across environment = 0.79; p < 0.01) indicating possibility of simultaneous effective selection for both the traits. The RIL population showed good variability and high heritabilities (>0.60, in individual environments) for Fe and Zn and other traits studied indicating its suitability to map QTL for iron and zinc. PMID:28529518

  12. Relationships between serum selenium and zinc concentrations versus profibrotic and proangiogenic cytokines (FGF-19 and endoglin) in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Prystupa, Andrzej; Kiciński, Paweł; Luchowska-Kocot, Dorota; Błażewicz, Anna; Kurys-Denis, Ewa; Niedziałek, Jarosław; Sak, Jarosław; Panasiuk, Lech

    2017-09-21

    Liver cirrhosis is a disease involving the liver parenchyma, which is characterised by fibrosis and impaired architectonics of the parenchyma with regenerative nodules. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between stage of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, concentrations of selenium, zinc and profibrotic and proangiogenic cytokines (FGF-19, ENG). The study included 99 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 healthy subjects. Ion chromatography with UV/VIS detection was used for determination of zinc ions in the previously mineralized serum samples. The measurements of selenium were performed with the ContrAA700 high-resolution continuum source graphite tube atomic absorption spectrometer. ELISA was used to determine concentration of FGF-19 and ENG in serum samples. Concentrations of zinc and selenium were significantly decreased in cirrhotic patients (p<0.001 for both). The highest concentration of FGF-19 was found in Child-Pugh stage C liver cirrhosis patients (806.9±650.3 pg/ml), and was significantly higher than observed in controls (p=0.005) and stage A patients (compensated cirrhosis) (p=0.02). The highest concentration of ENG was demonstrated in the control group (3.24±148 ng/ml) while the lowest in patients with decompensated cirrhosis (7.32±5.39 ng/ml and 7.92±4.18 ng/ml for stage B and C; p=0.03 and p=0.02, respectively). The use of the multiple-variable model demonstrated that the independent factors affecting the concentration of ENG were the concentration of bilirubin (p=0.02), INR (p=0.01) and duration of alcohol abuse (p=0.02). The independent determinants of FGF-19 concentrations were found to be the stage (severity) of liver cirrhosis (p=0.04) and INR (p=0.03). Concentrations of zinc and selenium in serum of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis are not independently related to concentrations of FGF-19 and ENG.

  13. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  14. Estimating nitrate concentrations in groundwater at selected wells and springs in the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer, Dougherty Plain and Marianna Lowlands, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama, 2002-50

    Crandall, Christy A.; Katz, Brian G.; Berndt, Marian P.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater from the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer in the Dougherty Plain and Marianna Lowlands in southwestern Georgia, northwestern Florida, and southeastern Alabama is affected by elevated nitrate concentrations as a result of the vulnerability of the aquifer, irrigation water-supply development, and intensive agricultural land use. The region relies primarily on groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer for drinking-water and irrigation supply. Elevated nitrate concentrations in drinking water are a concern because infants under 6 months of age who drink water containing nitrate concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen can become seriously ill with blue baby syndrome. In response to concerns about water quality in domestic wells and in springs in the lower Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River Basin, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection funded a study in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey to examine water quality in groundwater and springs that provide base flow to the Chipola River. A three-dimensional, steady-state, regional-scale groundwater-flow model and two local-scale models were used in conjunction with particle tracking to identify travel times and areas contributing recharge to six groundwater sites—three long-term monitor wells (CP-18A, CP-21A, and RF-41) and three springs (Jackson Blue Spring, Baltzell Springs Group, and Sandbag Spring) in the lower Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River Basin. Estimated nitrate input to groundwater at land surface, based on previous studies of nitrogen fertilizer sales and atmospheric nitrate deposition data, were used in the advective transport models for the period 2002 to 2050. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater samples collected from the six sites during 1993 to 2007 and groundwater age tracer data were used to calibrate the transport aspect of the simulations

  15. Concentrations and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) in the atmosphere of North China, and the transformation from PAHs to NPAHs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Qiu, Xinghua; Ma, Yiqiu; Ma, Jin; Zheng, Mei; Shao, Min

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated derivatives (NPAHs), as well as their transformation may have significant health impacts on humans. To investigate the level, spatial distribution and the transformation process of PAHs and NPAHs in North China, we performed a griddedfield passive air sampling campaign in summer of 2011. The median concentration of 25 PAH congeners and 13 NPAHs was 294 ng m(-3) (or 26.7 mg sample(-1)) and 203 ng sample(-1), respectively. Relative higher level of PAHs in Shanxi Province and NPAHs in megacities was observed. In North China, coal/biomass combustion and photochemical formation was the predominant source of PAHs and NPAHs, respectively.To investigate the relationship between these pollutants, a model incorporating NPAHs, PAHs and NO(2) was established, and the result indicated that NO(2) will promote the transformation processes from PAHs to NPAHs, which may increase the total toxicity of PAH-NPAH mixtures.

  16. A suite of microplate reader-based colorimetric methods to quantify ammonium, nitrate, orthophosphate and silicate concentrations for aquatic nutrient monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ringuet, Stephanie; Sassano, Lara; Johnson, Zackary I

    2011-02-01

    A sensitive, accurate and rapid analysis of major nutrients in aquatic systems is essential for monitoring and maintaining healthy aquatic environments. In particular, monitoring ammonium (NH(4)(+)) concentrations is necessary for maintenance of many fish stocks, while accurate monitoring and regulation of ammonium, orthophosphate (PO(4)(3-)), silicate (Si(OH)(4)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) concentrations are required for regulating algae production. Monitoring of wastewater streams is also required for many aquaculture, municipal and industrial wastewater facilities to comply with local, state or federal water quality effluent regulations. Traditional methods for quantifying these nutrient concentrations often require laborious techniques or expensive specialized equipment making these analyses difficult. Here we present four alternative microcolorimetric assays that are based on a standard 96-well microplate format and microplate reader that simplify the quantification of each of these nutrients. Each method uses small sample volumes (200 µL), has a detection limit ≤ 1 µM in freshwater and ≤ 2 µM in saltwater, precision of at least 8% and compares favorably with standard analytical procedures. Routine use of these techniques in the laboratory and at an aquaculture facility to monitor nutrient concentrations associated with microalgae growth demonstrates that they are rapid, accurate and highly reproducible among different users. These techniques offer an alternative to standard nutrient analyses and because they are based on the standard 96-well format, they significantly decrease the cost and time of processing while maintaining high precision and sensitivity.

  17. Determination of intracellular nitrate.

    PubMed Central

    Romero, J M; Lara, C; Guerrero, M G

    1989-01-01

    A sensitive procedure has been developed for the determination of intracellular nitrate. The method includes: (i) preparation of cell lysates in 2 M-H3PO4 after separation of cells from the outer medium by rapid centrifugation through a layer of silicone oil, and (ii) subsequent nitrate analysis by ion-exchange h.p.l.c. with, as mobile phase, a solution containing 50 mM-H3PO4 and 2% (v/v) tetrahydrofuran, adjusted to pH 1.9 with NaOH. The determination of nitrate is subjected to interference by chloride and sulphate when present in the samples at high concentrations. Nitrite also interferes, but it is easily eliminated by treatment of the samples with sulphamic acid. The method has been successfully applied to the study of nitrate transport in the unicellular cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans. PMID:2497740

  18. Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004

    Donato, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow

  19. Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

  20. [Effects of Different Modifier Concentrations on Lead-Zinc Tolerance, Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms for Four Kinds of Woody Plants].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-hua; Zhang, Fu-yun; Wu, Xiao-fu; Liang, Xi; Yuan, Si-wen

    2015-10-01

    Four kinds of lead-zinc tolerant woody plants: Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia and Boehmeria were used as materials to estimate their enrichment and transferable capacity of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and analyze the subcellular distribution and chemical speciation of Zn and Ph in different parts of plants, under different modifier concentrations (CK group: 100% lead-zinc slag plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved one: 85% of lead-zinc slag ± 10% peat ± 5% bacterial manure plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved two: 75% lead-zinc slag ± 20% peat ± 5% bacterial manure ± a small amount of phosphate). Results showed that: (1) The content of Pb, Zn in matrix after planting four kinds of plants was lower than before, no significant difference between improved one and improved two of Nerium oleander and Boehmeria was found, but improved two was better than improved one of Paulownia, while improved one was better than improved two of Koelreuteria paniculata; Four plants had relatively low aboveground enrichment coefficient of Pb and Zn, but had a high transfer coefficient, showed that the appropriate modifier concentration was able to improve the Pb and Zn enrichment and transfer ability of plants. (2) In subcellular distribution, most of Pb and Zn were distributed in plant cell wall components and soluble components while the distribution in cell organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus component were less. Compared with CK group, two improved group made soluble components of the cell walls of Pb fixation and retention of zinc role in the enhancement. (3) As for the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in plants, the main chemical forms of Pb were hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and ethanol extractable forms, while other chemical form contents were few, the main chemical forms of Zn were different based on plant type. Compared with CK group, the proportion of the active Pb chemical form in different plant

  1. Modelling the future distribution of ammonium nitrate concentrations in The Netherlands for 2020: The sensitivity to meteorological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. E.; van der Swaluw, E.; de Vries, W. J.; Sauter, F. J.; van Pul, W. A. J.; Hoogerbrugge, R.

    2015-08-01

    We present a parameterization developed to simulate Ammonium particle (NH4+) concentrations in the Operational Priority Substances (OPS) source-receptor model, without the necessity of using a detailed chemical scheme. By using the ratios of the main pre-cursor gases SO2, NO2 and NH3, and utilising calculations performed using a chemical box-model, we show that the parameterization can simulate annual mean NH4+ concentration fields to within ∼15% of measured values at locations throughout the Netherlands. Performing simulations for different decades, we find a strong correlation of simulated NH4+ distributions for both past (1993-1995) and present (2009-2012) time periods. Although the total concentration of NH4+ has decreased over the period, we find that the fraction of NH4+ transported into the Netherlands has increased from around 40% in the past to 50% for present-day. This is due to the variable efficiency of mitigation practises across economic sectors. Performing simulations for the year 2020 using associated emission estimates, we show that there are generally decreases of ∼8-25% compared to present day concentrations. By altering the meteorological fields applied in the future simulations, we show that a significant uncertainty of between ∼50 and 100% exists on this estimated NH4+ distribution as a result of variability in the temperature dependent emission terms and relative humidity. Therefore, any projections of future NH4+ distributions should be performed using well chosen meteorological fields representing recent meteorological situations.

  2. Can Infrared Spectroscopy Be Used to Measure Change in Potassium Nitrate Concentration as a Proxy for Soil Particle Movement?

    PubMed Central

    Luleva, Mila Ivanova; van der Werff, Harald; Jetten, Victor; van der Meer, Freek

    2011-01-01

    Displacement of soil particles caused by erosion influences soil condition and fertility. To date, the cesium 137 isotope (137Cs) technique is most commonly used for soil particle tracing. However when large areas are considered, the expensive soil sampling and analysis present an obstacle. Infrared spectral measurements would provide a solution, however the small concentrations of the isotope do not influence the spectral signal sufficiently. Potassium (K) has similar electrical, chemical and physical properties as Cs. Our hypothesis is that it can be used as possible replacement in soil particle tracing. Soils differing in texture were sampled for the study. Laboratory soil chemical analyses and spectral sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify the wavelength range related to K concentration. Different concentrations of K fertilizer were added to soils with varying texture properties in order to establish spectral characteristics of the absorption feature associated with the element. Changes in position of absorption feature center were observed at wavelengths between 2,450 and 2,470 nm, depending on the amount of fertilizer applied. Other absorption feature parameters (absorption band depth, width and area) were also found to change with K concentration with coefficient of determination between 0.85 and 0.99. Tracing soil particles using K fertilizer and infrared spectral response is considered suitable for soils with sandy and sandy silt texture. It is a new approach that can potentially grow to a technique for rapid monitoring of soil particle movement over large areas. PMID:22163843

  3. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The eastern Bernalillo County study area consists of about 150 square miles and includes all of Bernalillo County east of the crests of the Sandia and Manzanita Mountains. Soil and unconsolidated alluvial deposits overlie fractured and solution-channeled limestone in most of the study area. North of Interstate Highway 40 and east of New Mexico Highway 14, the uppermost consolidated geologic units are fractured sandstones and shales. Average annual precipitation at three long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration precipitation and snowfall data-collection sites was 14.94 inches at approximately 6,300 feet (Sandia Ranger Station), 19.06 inches at about 7,020 feet (Sandia Park), and 23.07 inches at approximately 10,680 feet (Sandia Crest). The periods of record at these sites are 1933-74, 1939-2001, and 1953-79, respectively. Average annual snowfall during these same periods of record was 27.7 inches at Sandia Ranger Station, 60.8 inches at Sandia Park, and 115.5 inches at Sandia Crest. Seven precipitation data-collection sites were established during December 2000-March 2001. Precipitation during 2001-03 at three U.S. Geological Survey sites ranged from 66 to 94 percent of period-of-record average annual precipitation at corresponding National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration long-term sites in 2001, from 51 to 75 percent in 2002, and from 34 to 81 percent during January through September 2003. Missing precipitation records for one site resulted in the 34-percent value in 2003. Analyses of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 in ground-water samples from nine wells and one spring were used to estimate when the sampled water entered the ground-water system. Apparent ages of ground water ranged from as young as about 10 to 16 years to as old as about 20 to 26 years. Concentrations of dissolved nitrates in samples collected from 24 wells during 2001-02 were similar to concentrations in samples collected from the same

  4. Zinc source and concentration altered physiological responses of beef heifers during a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge

    Three treatments were evaluated in feedlot heifers to determine the effects of zinc supplementation on the immune response to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge. Thirty-two beef heifers (255+/-15 kg) were subjected to a 30d period of Zn depletion, then randomly assigned to one ...

  5. Digital spatial data for observed, predicted, and misclassification errors for observations in the training dataset for nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area

    McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This product "Digital spatial data for observed, predicted, and misclassification errors for observations in the training dataset for nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area" is a 1:250,000-scale point spatial dataset developed as part of a regional Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study (Anning and others, 2012). The study examined the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid that represents local- and basin-scale measures of source, aquifer susceptibility, and geochemical conditions.

  6. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  7. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  8. Molecular mapping of the grain iron and zinc concentration, protein content and thousand kernel weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Krishnappa, Gopalareddy; Chaudhary, Swati; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Shukla, Ram Bihari; Jaiswal, Jai Prakash; Singh, Gyanendra Pratap; Solanki, Ishwar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Genomic regions responsible for accumulation of grain iron concentration (Fe), grain zinc concentration (Zn), grain protein content (PC) and thousand kernel weight (TKW) were investigated in 286 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between an old Indian wheat variety WH542 and a synthetic derivative (Triticum dicoccon PI94624/Aegilops squarrosa [409]//BCN). RILs were grown in six environments and evaluated for Fe, Zn, PC, and TKW. The population showed the continuous distribution for all the four traits, that for pooled Fe and PC was near normal, whereas, for pooled Zn, RILs exhibited positively skewed distribution. A genetic map spanning 2155.3cM was constructed using microsatellite markers covering the 21 chromosomes and used for QTL analysis. 16 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified in this study. Four QTLs (QGFe.iari-2A, QGFe.iari-5A, QGFe.iari-7A and QGFe.iari-7B) for Fe, five QTLs (QGZn.iari-2A, QGZn.iari-4A, QGZn.iari-5A, QGZn.iari-7A and QGZn.iari-7B) for Zn, two QTLs (QGpc.iari-2A and QGpc.iari-3A) for PC, and five QTLs (QTkw.iari-1A, QTkw.iari-2A, QTkw.iari-2B, QTkw.iari-5B and QTkw.iari-7A) for TKW were identified. The QTLs together explained 20.0%, 32.0%, 24.1% and 32.3% phenotypic variation, respectively, for Fe, Zn, PC and TKW. QGpc.iari-2A was consistently expressed in all the six environments, whereas, QGFe.iari-7B and QGZn.iari-2A were identified in two environments each apart from pooled mean. QTkw.iari-2A and QTkw.iari-7A, respectively, were identified in four and three environments apart from pooled mean. A common region in the interval of Xgwm359-Xwmc407 on chromosome 2A was associated with Fe, Zn, and PC. One more QTL for TKW was identified on chromosome 2A but in a different chromosomal region (Xgwm382-Xgwm359). Two more regions on 5A (Xgwm126-Xgwm595) and 7A (Xbarc49-Xwmc525) were found to be associated with both Fe and Zn. A QTL for TKW was identified (Xwmc525-Xbarc222) in a different chromosomal region on the same

  9. The concentration, source and deposition flux of ammonium and nitrate in atmospheric particles during dust events at a coastal site in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jianhua; Liu, Xiaohuan; Yao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Ruifeng; Chen, Xiaojing; Lin, Xuehui; Gao, Huiwang; Liu, Ruhai

    2018-01-01

    Asian dust has been reported to carry anthropogenic reactive nitrogen during transport from source areas to the oceans. In this study, we attempted to characterize NH4+ and NO3- in atmospheric particles collected at a coastal site in northern China during spring dust events from 2008 to 2011. Based on the mass concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in each total suspended particle (TSP) sample, the samples can be classified into increasing or decreasing types. In Category 1, the concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- were 20-440 % higher in dust day samples relative to samples collected immediately before or after a dust event. These concentrations decreased by 10-75 % in the dust day samples in Categories 2 and 3. Back trajectory analysis suggested that multiple factors, such as the transport distance prior to the reception site, the mixing layer depth on the transport route and the residence time across highly polluted regions, might affect the concentrations of NH4+ and NO3-. NH4+ in the dust day samples was likely either in the form of ammonium salts existing separately to dust aerosols or as the residual of incomplete reactions between ammonium salts and carbonate salts. NO3- in the dust day samples was attributed to various formation processes during the long-range transport. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model results showed that the contribution of soil dust increased from 23 to 36 % on dust days, with decreasing contributions from local anthropogenic inputs and associated secondary aerosols. The estimated deposition flux of NNH4++NO3- varied greatly from event to event; e.g., the dry deposition flux of NNH4++NO3- increased by 9-285 % in Category 1 but decreased by 46-73 % in Category 2. In Category 3, the average dry deposition fluxes of particulate nitrate and ammonium decreased by 46 % and increased by 10 %, respectively, leading to 11-48 % decrease in the fluxes of NNH4++NO3-.

  10. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    PubMed

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  11. Effects of sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron applications on sunflower yield and plant nutrient concentration

    SciT

    Hilton, B.R.; Zubriski, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron application did not affect the seed yield or oil percentage of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on both dryland and irrigated soils in North Dakota in 1981. Field averages indicated significant Zn, Mn, and B uptake by sunflower at the 12-leaf stage as a result of fertilization with these elements. Increased Zn uptake was also observed in the uppermost mature leaf at anthesis from zinc fertilization. Although sunflower yield from boron fertilization was not significantly different from the check, a trend was observed in which boron fertilization seemed to decrease sunflower yield. Sunflower yieldsmore » from the boron treatment were the lowest out of seven treatments in three out of four fields. Also, sunflower yield from the boron treatment was significantly lower than both iron and sulfur treatments when all fields were combined.« less

  12. Irrigation Water and Nitrate Loss Characterization in South Florida Nurseries: Cumulative Volumes, Runoff Rates, NO3-N Concentrations and Loadings, and Implications for Management

    Enrichment of surface water with nitrate-nitrogen is a significant problem throughout the world. In support of developing a method for removing nitrate from water using denitrification, this project characterized runoff events at two nurseries in South Florida to provide information needed for desi...

  13. Nutrient concentrations in surface water and groundwater, and nitrate source identification using stable isotope analysis, in the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor watershed, New Jersey, 2010–11

    Wieben, Christine M.; Baker, Ronald J.; Nicholson, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Five streams in the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor (BB-LEH) watershed in southern New Jersey were sampled for nutrient concentrations and stable isotope composition under base-flow and stormflow conditions, and during the growing and nongrowing seasons, to help quantify and identify sources of nutrient loading. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrate plus nitrite, organic nitrogen, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate, and for nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios. Concentrations of total nitrogen in the five streams appear to be related to land use, such that streams in subbasins characterized by extensive urban development (and historical agricultural land use)—North Branch Metedeconk and Toms Rivers—exhibited the highest total nitrogen concentrations (0.84–1.36 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in base flow). Base-flow total nitrogen concentrations in these two streams were dominated by nitrate; nitrate concentrations decreased during storm events as a result of dilution by storm runoff. The two streams in subbasins with the least development—Cedar Creek and Westecunk Creek—exhibited the lowest total nitrogen concentrations (0.16–0.26 mg/L in base flow), with organic nitrogen as the dominant species in both base flow and stormflow. A large proportion of these subbasins lies within forested parts of the Pinelands Area, indicating the likelihood of natural inputs of organic nitrogen to the streams that increase during periods of storm runoff. Base-flow total nitrogen concentrations in Mill Creek, in a moderately developed basin, were 0.43 to 0.62 mg/L and were dominated by ammonia, likely associated with leachate from a landfill located upstream. Total phosphorus and orthophosphate were not found at detectable concentrations in most of the surface-water samples, with the exception of samples collected from the North Branch Metedeconk River, where concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.09 mg/L for total phosphorus and 0

  14. How to avoid eutrophication in coastal seas? A new approach to derive river-specific combined nitrate and phosphate maximum concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ménesguen, Alain; Desmit, Xavier; Dulière, Valérie; Lacroix, Geneviève; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Thieu, Vincent; Dussauze, Morgan

    2018-07-01

    Since 1950, increase in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) river loadings in the North-East Atlantic (NEA) continental seas has induced a deep change in the marine coastal ecosystems, leading to eutrophication symptoms in some areas. In order to recover a Good Ecological Status (GES) in the NEA, as required by European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), reductions in N- and P-river loadings are necessary but they need to be minimal due to their economic impact on the farming industry. In the frame of the "EMoSEM" European project, we used two marine 3D ecological models (ECO-MARS3D, MIRO&CO) covering the Bay of Biscay, the English Channel and the southern North Sea to estimate the contributions of various sources (riverine, oceanic and atmospheric) to the winter nitrate and phosphate marine concentrations. The various distributed descriptors provided by the simulations allowed also to find a log-linear relationship between the 90th percentile of satellite-derived chlorophyll concentrations and the "fully bioavailable" nutrients, i.e. simulated nutrient concentrations weighted by light and stoichiometric limitation factors. Any GES threshold on the 90th percentile of marine chlorophyll concentration can then be translated in maximum admissible 'fully bioavailable' DIN and DIP concentrations, from which an iterative linear optimization method can compute river-specific minimal abatements of N and P loadings. The method has been applied to four major river groups, assuming either a conservative (8μgChlL -1 ) or a more socially acceptable (15μgChlL -1 ) GES chlorophyll concentration threshold. In the conservative case, maximum admissible winter concentrations for nutrients correspond to marine background values, whereas in the lenient case, they are close to values recommended by the WFD/MSFD. Both models suggest that to reach chlorophyll GES, strong reductions of DIN and DIP are required in the Eastern French and Belgian

  15. X-Ray Microanalytic Concentration Measurements in Unsectioned Specimens: a Technique and its Application to Zinc, Manganese, and Iron Enriched Mechanical Structures of Organisms from Three Phyla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Robert M. S.

    A method for measuring concentrations of minor elements in microscopic volumes of heterogeneous, unsectioned biological specimens using an ion microprobe is developed. The element quantity is obtained from PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and the total quantity of material is derived from STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy) energy loss measurements. Sources of error, including changes in x-ray production cross section with proton energy and absorption of induced x-rays, are discussed and a method of calculating the total measurement uncertainty, typically about 25% here, is developed. The measurement accuracy is shown to be improved for symmetric specimens, and a method of using the bremsstrahlung background to correct for x-ray attenuation within irregular specimens is developed. Methods for measuring local concentrations in internal features are also discussed. With this technique, scorpions were found to contain cuticular accumulations of one or more heavy metals (manganese up to 5% of dry weight, iron up to 8%, zinc up to 24%) in the chelicera, pedipalp denticles, tarsal claws, and stingers; different region soften contained different metals. The stingers are argued to be of particular interest because they are not homologous to legs. Similar accumulations were found in spiders, some other chelicerates and crustaceans. Previous reports of manganese and zinc accumulations in insect and worm mouth parts were augmented with local concentration measurements and with the detection of other enrichment features (such as 6% iron in the paragnaths of the worm Nereis vexillosa). Zinc accumulations (up to only 0.1%) were also found in the tips of the teeth of a hagfish, Myxine + glutinosa. X-ray images of several of these features are presented. It is argued that the extreme magnitude of some concentration values suggests that some metals are incorporated in unusual biominerals rather than organically bound. Results of x-ray diffractometry and Vickers

  16. Calcium, potassium, iron, copper and zinc concentrations in the white and gray matter of the cerebellum and corpus callosum in brain of four genetic mouse strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M. H.; Devès, G.; Guillou, F.

    2005-04-01

    In the central nervous system, metallic cations are involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelinogenesis. Moreover, the metallic cations have been associated with pathogenesis, particularly multiple sclerosis and malignant gliomas. The brain is vulnerable to either a deficit or an excess of available trace elements. Relationship between trace metals and myelinogenesis is important in understanding a severe human pathology : the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. One approach to understand this disease has used mutant or transgenic mice presenting myelin deficiency or excess. But to date, the concentration of trace metals and mineral elements in white and gray matter areas in wild type brain is unknown. The aim of this study is to establish the reference concentrations of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) in the white and gray matter of the mouse cerebellum and corpus callosum. The brains of four different genetic mouse strains (C57Black6/SJL, C57Black6/D2, SJL and C3H) were analyzed. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow PIXE (Proton-induced X-ray emission) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. The results obtained give the first reference values. Furthermore, one species out of the fours testes exhibited differences in calcium, iron and zinc concentrations in the white matter.

  17. Comparison of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations of elements in 24-h urine and spot urine in hypertensive patients with healthy renal function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianjing; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Faxuan; Huang, Liping; Liao, Sha; Liu, Xiuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron are associated with the sequela of hypertension. The most reliable method for testing those elements is by collecting 24-h urine samples. However, this is cumbersome and collection of spot urine is more convenient in some circumstance. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different elements in 24-h urine and spot urine. Data was collected from a sub-study of China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. 240 participants were recruited randomly from 12 villages in two counties in Ningxia, China. Both spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected from each patient. Routine urine test was conducted, and concentration of elements was measured using microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Partial correlation analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used to investigate the concentration of different elements and the relationship between 24- h urine and spot urine. A partial correlation in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron was found between paired 24-h urine and spot urine samples except copper and zinc: 0.430, 0.426, 0.550, 0.221 and 0.191 respectively. Spot urine can replace 24-h urine for estimating some of the elements in hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of accelerated net nitrate uptake. [Zea mays L

    SciT

    MacKown, C.T.; McClure, P.R.

    1988-05-01

    Upon initial nitrate exposure, net nitrate uptake rates in roots of a wide variety of plants accelerate within 6 to 8 hours to substantially greater rates. Effects of solution nitrate concentrations and short pulses of nitrate ({le}1 hour) upon nitrate-induced acceleration of nitrate uptake in maize (Zea mays L.) were determined. Root cultures of dark-grown seedlings, grown without nitrate, were exposed to 250 micromolar nitrate for 0.25 to 1 hour or to various solution nitrate concentration (10-250 micromolar) for 1 hour before returning them to a nitrate-free solution. Net nitrate uptake rates were assayed at various periods following nitrate exposuremore » and compared to rates of roots grown either in the absence of nitrate (CaSO{sub 4}-grown) or with continuous nitrate for at least 20 hours. Three hours after initial nitrate exposure, nitrate pulse treatments increased nitrate uptake rates three- to four-fold compared to the rates of CaSO{sub 4}-grown roots. When cycloheximide (5 micrograms per milliliter) was included during a 1-hour pulse with 250 micromolar nitrate, development of the accelerated nitrate uptake state was delayed. Otherwise, nitrate uptake rates reached maximum values within 6 hours before declining. Maximum rates, however, were significantly less than those of roots exposed continuously for 20, 32, or 44 hours. Pulsing for only 0.25 hour with 250 micromolar nitrate and for 1 hour with 10 micromolar caused acceleration of nitrate uptake, but the rates attained were either less than or not sustained for a duration comparable to those of roots pulsed for 1 hour with 250 micromolar nitrate. These results indicate that substantial development of nitrate-induced accelerated nitrate uptake state can be achieved by small endogenous accumulations of nitrate, which appear to moderate the activity or level of root nitrate uptake.« less

  19. Leaching of Zinc Sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Bacterial Oxidation of the Sulfur Product Layer Increases the Rate of Zinc Sulfide Dissolution at High Concentrations of Ferrous Ions

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, T. A.; Crundwell, F. K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the results of leaching experiments conducted with and without Thiobacillus ferrooxidans at the same conditions in solution. The extent of leaching of ZnS with bacteria is significantly higher than that without bacteria at high concentrations of ferrous ions. A porous layer of elemental sulfur is present on the surfaces of the chemically leached particles, while no sulfur is present on the surfaces of the bacterially leached particles. The analysis of the data using the shrinking-core model shows that the chemical leaching of ZnS is limited by the diffusion of ferrous ions through the sulfur product layer at high concentrations of ferrous ions. The analysis of the data shows that diffusion through the product layer does not limit the rate of dissolution when bacteria are present. This suggests that the action of T. ferrooxidans in oxidizing the sulfur formed on the particle surface is to remove the barrier to diffusion by ferrous ions. PMID:10583978

  20. Modeling nitrate removal in a denitrification bed

    Denitrification beds are being promoted to reduce nitrate concentrations in agricultural drainage water to alleviate the adverse environmental effects associated with nitrate pollution in surface water. In this system, water flows through a trench filled with a carbon media where nitrate is transfor...

  1. Mortality of nitrate fertiliser workers.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dabbagh, S; Forman, D; Bryson, D; Stratton, I; Doll, R

    1986-01-01

    An epidemiological cohort study was conducted to investigate the mortality patterns among a group of workers engaged in the production of nitrate based fertilisers. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals exposed to high concentrations of nitrates might be at increased risk of developing cancers, particularly gastric cancer. A total of 1327 male workers who had been employed in the production of fertilisers between 1946 and 1981 and who had been occupationally exposed to nitrates for at least one year were followed up until 1 March 1981. In total, 304 deaths were observed in this group and these were compared with expected numbers calculated from mortality rates in the northern region of England, where the factory was located. Analysis was also carried out separately for a subgroup of the cohort who had been heavily exposed to nitrates--that is, working in an environment likely to contain more than 10 mg nitrate/m3 for a year or longer. In neither the entire cohort nor the subgroup was any significant excess observed for all causes of mortality or for mortality from any of five broad categories of cause or from four specific types of cancer. A small excess of lung cancer was noted more than 20 years after first exposure in men heavily exposed for more than 10 years. That men were exposed to high concentrations of nitrate was confirmed by comparing concentrations of nitrates in the saliva of a sample of currently employed men with control men, employed at the same factory but not in fertiliser production. The men exposed to nitrate had substantially raised concentrations of nitrate in their saliva compared with both controls within the industry and with men in the general population and resident nearby. The results of this study therefore weight against the idea that exposure to nitrates in the environment leads to the formation in vivo of material amounts of carcinogens. PMID:3015194

  2. The effect of zinc injection on the increasing of Inconel 600 TT corrosion resistances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febrianto; Sriyono; Widodo, Surip; Sunaryo, Geni Rina

    2018-02-01

    Many failures were found in reactor pressure vessel head penetration (RPV) head material. Those failures caused by boric acid corrosion, and from visual examination were found a big hole and white deposit crystal of boric acid during shutdown maintenance at David Besse reactor. Zinc Oxide addition in BWR reactor known as Zinc Injection that has purposed to reduce radiation exposure cause of Hydrogen addition. Beside reducing the radiation exposure, Zinc injection also has an effect in reducing material corrosion. The purpose of study is to determine the effect of zinc addition, boric acid, temperature also the effects of Cobalt Nitrate and Zinc Oxide addition to Inconel 600 TT as RPV head penetration material. The result in the BWR reactor experience will be implementated at PWR reactor, weather zinc oxide addition also has an effect in reducing the corrosion of Inconel 600. The method that used in this research is to observe the corrosion rates for Inconel 600 material using Potentiostat. Examination were conducted in 30, 40, 60, 70, 80 and 80 °C using 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 ppm boric acid concentration. The results showed that the corrosion rate for the material were very small, but the highest corrosion rate occurred in 3000 ppm boric acid concentration at 90 °C with Cobalt Nitrate addition, around 5.210 x 10-1 mpy. In the same condition at 3000 ppm boric acid concentration for temperature at 90 °C, Inconel 600 TT corrosion rate is smaller with Zinc oxide addition, around 4.631 x 10-1 mpy.

  3. Respiration of Nitrate and Nitrite.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jeffrey A; Richardson, David J

    2008-09-01

    Nitrate reduction to ammonia via nitrite occurs widely as an anabolic process through which bacteria, archaea, and plants can assimilate nitrate into cellular biomass. Escherichia coli and related enteric bacteria can couple the eight-electron reduction of nitrate to ammonium to growth by coupling the nitrate and nitrite reductases involved to energy-conserving respiratory electron transport systems. In global terms, the respiratory reduction of nitrate to ammonium dominates nitrate and nitrite reduction in many electron-rich environments such as anoxic marine sediments and sulfide-rich thermal vents, the human gastrointestinal tract, and the bodies of warm-blooded animals. This review reviews the regulation and enzymology of this process in E. coli and, where relevant detail is available, also in Salmonella and draws comparisons with and implications for the process in other bacteria where it is pertinent to do so. Fatty acids may be present in high levels in many of the natural environments of E. coli and Salmonella in which oxygen is limited but nitrate is available to support respiration. In E. coli, nitrate reduction in the periplasm involves the products of two seven-gene operons, napFDAGHBC, encoding the periplasmic nitrate reductase, and nrfABCDEFG, encoding the periplasmic nitrite reductase. No bacterium has yet been shown to couple a periplasmic nitrate reductase solely to the cytoplasmic nitrite reductase NirB. The cytoplasmic pathway for nitrate reduction to ammonia is restricted almost exclusively to a few groups of facultative anaerobic bacteria that encounter high concentrations of environmental nitrate.

  4. Methods for evaluating temporal groundwater quality data and results of decadal-scale changes in chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the United States, 1988-2010

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Rupert, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Decadal-scale changes in groundwater quality were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Samples of groundwater collected from wells during 1988-2000 - a first sampling event representing the decade ending the 20th century - were compared on a pair-wise basis to samples from the same wells collected during 2001-2010 - a second sampling event representing the decade beginning the 21st century. The data set consists of samples from 1,236 wells in 56 well networks, representing major aquifers and urban and agricultural land-use areas, with analytical results for chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate. Statistical analysis was done on a network basis rather than by individual wells. Although spanning slightly more or less than a 10-year period, the two-sample comparison between the first and second sampling events is referred to as an analysis of decadal-scale change based on a step-trend analysis. The 22 principal aquifers represented by these 56 networks account for nearly 80 percent of the estimated withdrawals of groundwater used for drinking-water supply in the Nation. Well networks where decadal-scale changes in concentrations were statistically significant were identified using the Wilcoxon-Pratt signed-rank test. For the statistical analysis of chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate concentrations at the network level, more than half revealed no statistically significant change over the decadal period. However, for networks that had statistically significant changes, increased concentrations outnumbered decreased concentrations by a large margin. Statistically significant increases of chloride concentrations were identified for 43 percent of 56 networks. Dissolved solids concentrations increased significantly in 41 percent of the 54 networks with dissolved solids data, and nitrate concentrations increased significantly in 23 percent of 56 networks. At least one of the three - chloride, dissolved solids, or

  5. Effects of low-temperature (120 °C) annealing on the carrier concentration and trap density in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors

    SciT

    Kim, Jae-sung; Piao, Mingxing; Jang, Ho-Kyun

    2014-12-28

    We report an investigation of the effects of low-temperature annealing on the electrical properties of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the charge carrier concentration, which is related to the density of oxygen vacancies. The field-effect mobility was found to decrease as a function of the charge carrier concentration, owing to the presence of band-tail states. By employing the transmission line method, we show that the contact resistance did not significantly contribute to the changes in device performance after annealing. In addition, using low-frequency noise analyses, we found that themore » trap density decreased by a factor of 10 following annealing at 120 °C. The switching operation and on/off ratio of the a-IGZO TFTs improved considerably after low-temperature annealing.« less

  6. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciT

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remainedmore » constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.« less

  7. Correlations in distribution and concentration of calcium, copper and iron with zinc in isolated extracellular deposits associated with age-related macular degeneration

    Flinn, Jane M; Kakalec, Peter; Tappero, Ryan; Jones, Blair F.; Lengyel, Imre

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is abundantly enriched in sub-retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) deposits, the hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and is thought to play a role in the formation of these deposits. However, it is not known whether Zn is the only metal relevant for sub-RPE deposit formation. Because of their involvement in the pathogenesis of AMD, we determined the concentration and distribution of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) and compared these with Zn in isolated and sectioned macular (MSD), equatorial (PHD) and far peripheral (FPD) sub-RPE deposits from an 86 year old donor eye with post mortem diagnosis of early AMD. The sections were mounted on Zn free microscopy slides and analyzed by microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μSXRF). Metal concentrations were determined using spiked sectioned sheep brain matrix standards, prepared the same way as the samples. The heterogeneity of metal distributions was examined using pixel by pixel comparison. The orders of metal concentrations were Ca ⋙ Zn > Fe in all three types of deposits but Cu levels were not distinguishable from background values. Zinc and Ca were consistently present in all deposits but reached highest concentration in MSD. Iron was present in some but not all deposits and was especially enriched in FPD. Correlation analysis indicated considerable variation in metal distribution within and between sub-RPE deposits. The results suggest that Zn and Ca are the most likely contributors to deposit formation especially in MSD, the characteristic risk factor for the development of AMD in the human eye.

  8. Changes in magnesium, zinc, calcium, potassium, cholesterol, and creatine kinase concentrations in patients from pre-infarction syndrome to fatal myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Speich, M; Gelot, S; Arnaud, P; Nicolas, G

    1988-10-01

    We measured changes in concentrations of magnesium, zinc, calcium, potassium, cholesterol [total and high-density lipoproteins (HDL)], total creatine kinase (CK), and CK isoenzyme-MB in plasma (PI) and/or erythrocytes (Erc) from apparently healthy subjects and from patients with either pre-infarction syndrome (PIS) or myocardial infarction (MI) with a favorable (MI1) or fatal (MI2) outcome, to assess the relationship of these changes to the increasing severity of ischemic disease. Significant sex-related differences led us to study men and women separately. In MI1 and MI2 patients, concentrations of Mg in PI and Erc were increased as a function of time since the infarct, confirming the cardiac Mg leaves the heart and enters the circulatory compartment. Compared with concentrations in MI2 patients, Zn concentrations in PI were lower in MI2 patients in the days before death. Significant negative correlations between Zn in PI in MI1 men or Zn in Erc in MI2 men and CK or CK isoenzyme MB suggest that circulating Zn is taken up by non-necrotic myocardial tissue as part of the repair process. MI2 patients had gradually decreasing Ca concentrations in PI even more marked than those observed in PIS and MI1 patients. We also noted a marked decrease in total and HDL cholesterol concentrations in both MI2 men and MI2 women shortly before death.

  9. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained <12% of the total variation. Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet

  10. Development of a Highly Biocompatible Antituberculosis Nanodelivery Formulation Based on Para-Aminosalicylic Acid—Zinc Layered Hydroxide Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Arulselvan, Palanisamy; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J.; Geilich, Benjamin; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a lethal epidemic, difficult to control disease, claiming thousands of lives every year. We have developed a nanodelivery formulation based on para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and zinc layered hydroxide using zinc nitrate salt as a precursor. The developed formulation has a fourfold higher efficacy of PAS against mycobacterium tuberculosis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) found to be at 1.40 μg/mL compared to the free drug PAS with a MIC of 5.0 μg/mL. The newly developed formulation was also found active against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. The formulation was also found to be biocompatible with human normal lung cells MRC-5 and mouse fibroblast cells-3T3. The in vitro release of PAS from the formulation was found to be sustained in a human body simulated phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution at pH values of 7.4 and 4.8. Most importantly the nanocomposite prepared using zinc nitrate salt was advantageous in terms of yield and free from toxic zinc oxide contamination and had higher biocompatibility compared to one prepared using a zinc oxide precursor. In summary, these promising in vitro results are highly encouraging for the continued investigation of para-aminosalicylic acid and zinc layered hydroxide nanocomposites in vivo and eventual preclinical studies. PMID:25050392

  11. Dietary fat subgroups, zinc and vegetable components are related to urine F2a-isoprostane concentration, a measure of oxidative stress, in midlife women1

    PubMed Central

    Tomey, Kristin M.; Sowers, MaryFran R.; Li, Xizhao; McConnell, Daniel S.; Crawford, Sybil; Gold, Ellen B.; Lasley, Bill; Randolph, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking, diet and physical activity may impact chronic diseases, in part, by promoting or attenuating oxidative stress. We evaluated associations between lifestyle factors and urine F2a-isoprostanes, a marker of oxidative stress among 1610 participants of Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed at baseline and year 05 (Y05). These data were related to Y05 urinary F2a-isoprostane concentration with regression analyses. Median urine F2a-isoprostane concentration was 433 ng/L overall, 917 ng/L in smokers (inter-quartile range: 467, 1832 ng/L) and 403 ng/L in non-smokers (inter-quartile range: 228, 709 ng/L; P<0.0001 for difference). Higher trans fat intake was associated with higher urine F2a-isoprostane concentration; partial Spearman correlations (ρx|y) between Y05 urine F2a-isoprostane concentration and trans fatty acids were 0.19 (P=0.03) and 0.13 (P <0.0001) in smokers and non-smokers, respectively. Increased log trans fat intake from baseline to Y05 was associated with higher concentration of logurine F2a-isoprostanes in non-smokers (β=0.131, SE=0.04, P =0.0003). In non-smokers, the partial correlation (ρx|y) between lutein and urine F2a-isoprostane concentration was −0.13 (P <0.0001). Increased intake of log lutein from baseline to Y05 was also associated with lower log urine F2a-isoprostane concentration (β= −0.096, SE=0.03, P =0.0005) in non-smokers. Increased zinc intake from baseline to Y05 was associated with lower log urine F2a-isoprostane concentration in smokers and non-smokers (β= −0.346, SE=0.14, P =0.01), and −0.117, 0.04 (P =0.001), respectively]. In conclusion, diet (fat subtypes, zinc, vegetable components) and smoking were associated with urine F2a-isoprostanes, a marker of oxidative stress. PMID:17951478

  12. Mechanochemical Nitration of Aromatic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagoviyer, Oleg S.; Krishtopa, Larisa; Schoenitz, Mirko; Trivedi, Nirupam J.; Dreizin, Edward L.

    2018-04-01

    Nitration of organic compounds is necessary to produce many energetic materials, such as TNT and nitrocellulose. The conventional nitration process uses a mixture of concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids as nitrating agents and multiple solvents. The chemicals are corrosive and require special handling and disposal procedures. In this study, aromatic nitration has been achieved using solvent-free mechanochemical processing of environmentally benign precursors. Mononitrotoluene was synthesized by milling toluene with sodium nitrate and molybdenum trioxide as a Lewis acid catalyst. Several parameters affecting the desired product yield were identified and varied. A number of byproducts, i.e., dimers of toluene were also produced, but the selectivity was observed to increase with increasing mononitrotoluene yield. Both absolute mononitrotoluene yields and selectivity of its production increased with the increase in the energy transferred to the material from the milling tools.

  13. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  14. Nitrate Utilization by the Diatom Skeletonema costatum

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Juan L.; Llama, Maria J.; Cadenas, Eduardo

    1978-01-01

    Nitrate uptake has been studied in nitrogen-deficient cells of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum. When these cells are incubated in the presence of nitrate, this ion is quickly taken up from the medium, and nitrite is excreted by the cells. Nitrite is excreted following classical saturation kinetics, its rate being independent of nitrate concentration in the incubation medium for nitrate concentration values higher than 3 micromolar. Nitrate uptake shows mixed-transfer kinetics, which can be attributed to the simultaneous contributions of mediated and diffusion transfer. Cycloheximide and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate inhibit the carrier-mediated contribution to nitrate uptake, without affecting the diffusion component. When cells are preincubated with nitrate, the net nitrogen uptake is increased. PMID:16660652

  15. Ecosystem and human health impacts from increased corn production: vulnerability assessment of exposure to high nitrate concentrations in groundwater and blue baby syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, V.; Cooter, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requires oil refiners to reach a target of 15 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol by 2022. However, there are concerns that the broad-scale use of corn as a source of ethanol may lead to unintended economic and environmental consequences. This study applies the geophysical relationships captured with linked meteorological, air quality and agriculture models to examine the impact of corn production before enactment of the RFS in 2002 and at the height of the RFS targets in 2022. In particular, we investigate the probability of high-levels of nitrate in groundwater resulting from increased corn production and then relate this vulnerability to the potential for infants to acquire Methemoglobinemia, or 'Blue Baby Syndrome'. Blue Baby Syndrome (BBS) is a potentially fatal condition that occurs when the hemoglobin (Fe2+) in an infant's red blood cells is oxidized to methemoglobin (Fe3+), preventing the uptake of oxygen from the baby's blood. Exposure to high levels of nitrate in groundwater occur near the intersection of areas where surface water can more readily leach into shallow aquifers, wells are the main source of drinking water, and high nitrogen inputs exist. We use a coupled meteorological, agricultural and air quality model to identify areas vulnerable to increased nitrate contamination and associated risk to acquiring BBS. We first verify the relationship between predictive variables (e.g., nitrogen deposition and fertilization rates, landcover, soils and aquifer type) and nitrate groundwater levels by applying a regression model to over 800 nitrate measurements taken from wells located throughout the US (Figure 1). We then apply the regression coefficients to the coupled model output to identify areas that are at an increased risk for high nitrate groundwater levels in 2022. Finally, we examine the potential change in risk for acquiring BBS resulting from increased corn production by applying an Oral Reference Dose (Rf

  16. Nitrate photolysis in salty snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, D. J.; Morenz, K.; Shi, Q.; Murphy, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate photolysis from snow can have a significant impact on the oxidative capacity of the local atmosphere, but the factors affecting the release of gas phase products are not well understood. Here, we report the first systematic study of the amounts of NO, NO2, and total nitrogen oxides (NOy) emitted from illuminated snow samples as a function of both nitrate and total salt (NaCl and Instant Ocean) concentration. We show that the release of nitrogen oxides to the gas phase is directly related to the expected nitrate concentration in the brine at the surface of the snow crystals, increasing to a plateau value with increasing nitrate, and generally decreasing with increasing NaCl or Instant Ocean (I.O.). In frozen mixed nitrate (25 mM) - salt (0-500 mM) solutions, there is an increase in gas phase NO2 seen at low added salt amounts: NO2 production is enhanced by 35% at low prefreezing [NaCl] and by 70% at similar prefreezing [I.O.]. Raman microscopy of frozen nitrate-salt solutions shows evidence of stronger nitrate exclusion to the air interface in the presence of I.O. than with added NaCl. The enhancement in nitrogen oxides emission in the presence of salts may prove to be important to the atmospheric oxidative capacity in polar regions.

  17. Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Chicory and Milk Thistle on Serum Concentrations of Copper, Zinc, and Manganese in Tamoxifen-Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Nasiri, Abolfazl; Behrouj, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Some medications may change trace element levels in the body. Extracts of various plants, due to having the several elements, can have beneficial effects. Consumption of herbal extracts with chemical drugs may reduce adverse effects of medication. The goal of this study was to evaluate copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) concentrations in serum of rats treated with tamoxifen, chicory, and/or milk thistle extracts. Therefore, 36 adult female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: normal control, chicory control, milk thistle control, tamoxifen, tamoxifen-chicory, and tamoxifen-milk thistle. At the end of the study, the blood samples were collected and sera isolated by centrifugation and analyzed by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry for Cu, Zn, and Mn levels. The Zn concentration increased in milk thistle-supplemented groups. The Cu level increased in the chicory control group only. Tamoxifen had no affect on Cu, Zn, and Mn levels, but seed extract of milk thistle increased Zn concentration, and chicory root extract increased Cu concentration. Although elevated levels of Cu in rats receiving tamoxifen-chicory were milder than rats treated only with chicory, it seems that the extract and tamoxifen impact on the Cu are in conflict with each other.

  18. Zinc Regulation of Aminopeptidase B Involved in Neuropeptide Production

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Shin-Rong; Hook, Vivian

    2009-01-01

    Aminopeptidase B (AP-B) is a metallopeptidase that removes basic residues from the N-termini of neuropeptide substrates in secretory vesicles. This study assessed zinc regulation of AP-B activity, since secretory vesicles contain endogenous zinc. AP-B was inhibited by zinc at concentrations typically present in secretory vesicles. Zinc effects were dependent on concentration, incubation time, and the molar ratio of zinc to enzyme. AP-B activity was recovered upon removal of zinc. AP-B with zinc became susceptible to degradation by trypsin, suggesting that zinc alters enzyme conformation. Zinc regulation demonstrates the metallopeptidase property of AP-B. PMID:18571504

  19. Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L−1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the

  20. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  1. Weather, landscape, and management effects on nitrate and soluble phosphorus concentrations in subsurface drainage discharge in the western Lake Erie basin

    Subsurface drainage, while an important and necessary agricultural production practice in the Midwest, contributes nitrate (NO3) and soluble phosphorus (P) to surface waters. Eutrophication (i.e., excessive enrichment of waters by NO3 and soluble P) supports harmful algal blooms (HABs) in receiving ...

  2. A FIELD STUDY TO COMPARE PERFORMANCE OF STAINLESS STEEL RESEARCH MONITORING WELLS WITH EXISTING ON-FARM DRINKING WATER WELLS IN MEASURING PESTICIDE AND NITRATE CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Existing drinking wells are widely used for the collection of ground water samples to evaluate chemical contamination. A well comparison study was conducted to compare pesticide and nitrate-N data from specially designed stainless steel research monitoring wells with data from ne...

  3. Zinc and its transporters, pancreatic beta cells, and insulin metabolism

    Zinc is an essential trace metal for life. Two families of zinc transporters, SLC30A (ZnT) and SLC39A (ZIP) are required for maintaining cellular zinc homeostasis. ZnTs function to decrease cytoplasmic zinc concentrations whereas ZIPs do the opposite. Expression of zinc transporters can be tissue/ce...

  4. Serum zinc concentration in cystic fibrosis patients with CFTR I1234V mutation associated with pancreatic sufficiency.

    PubMed

    AbdulWahab, Atqah; Abushahin, Ahmed; Allangawi, Mona; Chandra, Prem; Abdel Rahman, Mohamed Osman; Soliman, Ashraf

    2017-05-01

    To determine serum zinc (Zn) level among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with homozygous CFTR I1234V mutation associated with pancreatic sufficiency (PS). A cross-sectional study was conducted including both pediatric and adult CF patients. Data on age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, FEV1, and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection were collected. Serum Zn, albumin, and total proteins were measured and analyzed. Forty-five CF patients with homozygous CFTR I1234V mutation belonging to a large Arab kindred tribe and eight CF patients with other mutations associated with pancreatic insufficiency (PI). Patient's age ranged from 2 to 49 years with a mean age of 15.1 ± 9.1 years and mean plasma Zn of 0.78 ± 0.15 mcg/mL. Seven (13.2%) patients with CFTR I1234V and PS had low Zn levels (<0.6 mcg/mL). Mean age among Zn deficient group was significantly older. The mean FEV1 in the deficient group was found to be insignificant low. Persistent P. aeruginosa colonization was more prevalent in Zn deficient group. BMI Z-scosre of CF patients were positively correlated with Zn levels. Forty-five healthy subjects belonging to the same Arab tribe were selected in order to assess their Zn levels and their mean plasma Zn of 0.84 ± 0.11 mcg/mL (range 0.65-1.1 mcg/mL) with mean age 20.4 ± 10.1 years (range 6-40 years). These findings suggest that Zn deficiency can occur in CF patients with PS. The association of Zn levels and the frequency of P. aeruginosa isolated in CF patients need further investigation. © 2015 The Authors. The Clinical Respiratory Journal Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A dynamic model for predicting growth in zinc-deficient stunted infants given supplemental zinc.

    PubMed

    Wastney, Meryl E; McDonald, Christine M; King, Janet C

    2018-05-01

    Zinc deficiency limits infant growth and increases susceptibility to infections, which further compromises growth. Zinc supplementation improves the growth of zinc-deficient stunted infants, but the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc supplementation required to restore growth in an individual child is unknown. A dynamic model of zinc metabolism that predicts changes in weight and length of zinc-deficient, stunted infants with dietary zinc would be useful to define effective zinc supplementation regimens. The aims of this study were to develop a dynamic model for zinc metabolism in stunted, zinc-deficient infants and to use that model to predict the growth response when those infants are given zinc supplements. A model of zinc metabolism was developed using data on zinc kinetics, tissue zinc, and growth requirements for healthy 9-mo-old infants. The kinetic model was converted to a dynamic model by replacing the rate constants for zinc absorption and excretion with functions for these processes that change with zinc intake. Predictions of the dynamic model, parameterized for zinc-deficient, stunted infants, were compared with the results of 5 published zinc intervention trials. The model was then used to predict the results for zinc supplementation regimes that varied in the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc dosing. Model predictions agreed with published changes in plasma zinc after zinc supplementation. Predictions of weight and length agreed with 2 studies, but overpredicted values from a third study in which other nutrient deficiencies may have been growth limiting; the model predicted that zinc absorption was impaired in that study. The model suggests that frequent, smaller doses (5-10 mg Zn/d) are more effective for increasing growth in stunted, zinc-deficient 9-mo-old infants than are larger, less-frequent doses. The dose amount affects the duration of dosing necessary to restore and maintain plasma zinc concentration and growth.

  6. Aminoethyl nitrate – the novel super nitrate?

    PubMed Central

    Bauersachs, Johann

    2009-01-01

    Long-term use of most organic nitrates is limited by development of tolerance, induction of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. In this issue of the BJP, Schuhmacher et al. characterized a novel class of organic nitrates with amino moieties (aminoalkyl nitrates). Aminoethyl nitrate was identified as a novel organic mononitrate with high potency but devoid of induction of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Cross-tolerance to nitroglycerin or the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine after in vivo treatment was not observed. Like all nitrates, aminoethyl nitrate induced vasorelaxation by activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. Thus, in contrast to the prevailing view, high potency in an organic nitrate is not necessarily accompanied by induction of oxidative stress or endothelial dysfunction. This work from Daiber's group is an important step forward in the understanding of nitrate bioactivation, tolerance phenomena and towards the development of better organic nitrates for clinical use. PMID:19732062

  7. Zinc: an essential but elusive nutrient123

    PubMed Central

    King, Janet C

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is essential for multiple aspects of metabolism. Physiologic signs of zinc depletion are linked with diverse biochemical functions rather than with a specific function, which makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of zinc nutrition. Nutrients, such as zinc, that are required for general metabolism are called type 2 nutrients. Protein and magnesium are examples of other type 2 nutrients. Type 1 nutrients are required for one or more specific functions: examples include iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate, and copper. When dietary zinc is insufficient, a marked reduction in endogenous zinc loss occurs immediately to conserve the nutrient. If zinc balance is not reestablished, other metabolic adjustments occur to mobilize zinc from small body pools. The location of those pools is not known, but all cells probably have a small zinc reserve that includes zinc bound to metallothionein or zinc stored in the Golgi or in other organelles. Plasma zinc is also part of this small zinc pool that is vulnerable to insufficient intakes. Plasma zinc concentrations decline rapidly with severe deficiencies and more moderately with marginal depletion. Unfortunately, plasma zinc concentrations also decrease with a number of conditions (eg, infection, trauma, stress, steroid use, after a meal) due to a metabolic redistribution of zinc from the plasma to the tissues. This redistribution confounds the interpretation of low plasma zinc concentrations. Biomarkers of metabolic zinc redistribution are needed to determine whether this redistribution is the cause of a low plasma zinc rather than poor nutrition. Measures of metallothionein or cellular zinc transporters may fulfill that role. PMID:21715515

  8. Analysis of Blood Concentrations of Zinc, Germanium, and Lead and Relevant Environmental Factors in a Population Sample from Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Long; Xu, Guang; Shao, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hu; Pan, Xing-Fu; Li, Jin-Ye

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements, including zinc (Zn) and germanium (Ge), are essential for health; deficiency or excess levels of trace elements results is harmful. As a result of industrial and agricultural production, Pb widely exists in people’s living environment. It is absorbed mainly through the respiratory and digestive tracts, producing systemic harm. Reference values for a normal, healthy population are necessary for health assessment, prevention and treatment of related diseases, and evaluation of occupational exposures. Reference ranges for the Chinese population have not been established. From March 2009 to February 2010; we collected data and blood samples (n = 1302) from residents aged 6–60 years living in Shandong Province, China. We measured blood concentrations of Zn, Ge, and Pb using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine reference ranges. Results were stratified by factors likely to affect the concentrations of these trace elements: sex, use of cosmetics or hair dye, age, alcohol intake, smoking habits, and consumption of fried food. The overall geometric mean (GM) concentrations (95% confidence interval) were 3.14 (3.08–3.20) mg/L for Zn, 19.9 (19.3–20.6) μg/L for Ge, and 24.1 (23.2–25.1) μg/L for Pb. Blood Zn concentrations were higher in women than in men (p < 0.001), while the opposite was found for Pb (p < 0.001) and sex did not influence Ge (p = 0.095). Alcohol use was associated with higher blood concentrations of Zn (p = 0.002), Ge (p = 0.002), and Pb (p = 0.001). The GM concentration of Zn was highest in 20–30-year-olds (p < 0.001), while Pb concentrations were highest in 12–16-year-olds (p < 0.001). Use of hair dye was associated with lower blood concentrations of Ge (p < 0.05). GM blood concentrations of Pb differed significantly between those who consumed fried foods 1–2 times/month (18.7 μg/L), 1–2 times/week (20.9 μg/L), and every day (28.5 μg/L; p < 0.001). Blood Pb concentrations were higher in subjects

  9. Skeletal muscle as an endogenous nitrate reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Piknova, Barbora; Park, Ji Won; Swanson, Kathryn M.; Dey, Soumyadeep; Noguchi, Constance Tom; Schechter, Alan N

    2015-01-01

    The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family of enzymes form nitric oxide (NO) from arginine in the presence of oxygen. At reduced oxygen availability NO is also generated from nitrate in a two step process by bacterial and mammalian molybdopterin proteins, and also directly from nitrite by a variety of five-coordinated ferrous hemoproteins. The mammalian NO cycle also involves direct oxidation of NO to nitrite, and both NO and nitrite to nitrate by oxy-ferrous hemoproteins. The liver and blood are considered the sites of active mammalian NO metabolism and nitrite and nitrate concentrations in the liver and blood of several mammalian species, including human, have been determined. However, the large tissue mass of skeletal muscle had not been generally considered in the analysis of the NO cycle, in spite of its long-known presence of significant levels of active neuronal NOS (nNOS or NOS1). We hypothesized that skeletal muscle participates in the NO cycle and, due to its NO oxidizing heme protein, oxymyoglobin, has high concentrations of nitrate ions. We measured nitrite and nitrate concentrations in rat and mouse leg skeletal muscle and found unusually high concentrations of nitrate but similar levels of nitrite, when compared to the liver. The nitrate reservoir in muscle is easily accessible via the bloodstream and therefore nitrate is available for transport to internal organs where it can be reduced to nitrite and NO. Nitrate levels in skeletal muscle and blood in nNOS−/− mice were dramatically lower when compared with controls, which support further our hypothesis. Although the nitrate reductase activity of xanthine oxidoreductase in muscle is less than that of liver, the residual activity in muscle could be very important in view of its total mass and the high basal level of nitrate. We suggest that skeletal muscle participates in overall NO metabolism, serving as a nitrate reservoir, for direct formation of nitrite and NO, and for determining levels of nitrate

  10. Concentration dependence of luminescence efficiency of Dy3+ ions in strontium zinc phosphate glasses mixed with Pb3 O4.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Valluri Ravi; Giridhar, G; Veeraiah, N

    2017-02-01

    In this work we synthesized SrO-ZnO-P 2 O 5 glasses mixed with Pb 3 O 4 (heavy metal oxide) and doped with different amounts of Dy 2 O 3 (0.1 to 1.0 mol%). Subsequently their emission and decay characteristics were investigated as a function of Dy 2 O 3 concentration. The emission spectra exhibited three principal emission bands in the visible region corresponding to 4 F 9 /2  →  6 H 15 /2 (482 nm), 6 H 13 /2 (574 nm) and 6 H 11 /2 (663 nm) transitions. With increase in the concentration of Dy 2 O 3 (upto 0.8 mol%) a considerable increase in the intensity of these bands was observed and, for further increase, quenching of photoluminescence (PL) output was observed. Using emission spectra, various radiative parameters were evaluated and all these parameters were found to increase with increase in Dy 2 O 3 concentration. The Y/B integral emission intensity ratio of Dy 3 + ions evaluated from these spectra exhibited a decreasing trend with increase in the Dy 2 O 3 concentration up to 0.8 mol%. Quenching of luminescence observed in the case of the glasses doped with 1.0 mol% is attributed to clustering of Dy 3 + ions. The quantitative analysis of these results together with infra-red (IR) spectral studies indicated that 0.8 mol% is the optimum concentration of Dy 3 + ions needed to achieve maximum luminescence efficiency. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. High performance zinc anode for battery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, John E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved zinc anode for use in a high density rechargeable alkaline battery is disclosed. A process for making the zinc electrode comprises electrolytic loading of the zinc active material from a slightly acidic zinc nitrate solution into a substrate of nickel, copper or silver. The substrate comprises a sintered plaque having very fine pores, a high surface area, and 80-85 percent total initial porosity. The residual porosity after zinc loading is approximately 25-30%. The electrode of the present invention exhibits reduced zinc mobility, shape change and distortion, and demonstrates reduced dendrite buildup cycling of the battery. The disclosed battery is useful for applications requiring high energy density and multiple charge capability.

  12. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard

  13. Blood plasma response and urinary excretion of nitrite and nitrate in milk-fed calves after oral nitrite and nitrate administration.

    PubMed

    Hüsler, B R.; Blum, J W.

    2001-05-01

    There is marked endogenous production of nitrate in young calves. Here we have studied the contribution of exogenous nitrate and nitrite to plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of nitrite and nitrate in milk-fed calves. In experiment 1, calves were fed 0 or 200 &mgr;mol nitrate or nitrite/kg(0.75) or 100 &mgr;mol nitrite plus 100 &mgr;mol nitrate/kg(0.75) with milk for 3 d. In experiment 2, calves were fed 400 &mgr;mol nitrate or nitrite/kg(0.75) with milk for 1 d. Plasma nitrate rapidly and comparably increased after feeding nitrite, nitrate or nitrite plus nitrate. The rise of plasma nitrate was greater if 400 than 200 &mgr;mol nitrate or nitrite/kg(0.75) were fed. Plasma nitrate decreased slowly after the 3-d administration of 200 &mgr;mol nitrate or nitrite/kg(0.75) and reached pre-experimental concentrations 4 d later. Urinary nitrate excretions nearly identically increased if nitrate, nitrite or nitrite plus nitrate were administered and excreted amounts were greater if 400 than 200 &mgr;mol nitrate or nitrite/kg(0.75) were fed. After nitrite ingestion plasma nitrite only transiently increased after 2 and 4 h and urinary excretion rates remained unchanged. Plasma nitrate concentration remained unchanged if milk was not supplemented with nitrite or nitrate. Nitrate concentrations were stable for 24 h after addition of nitrite to full blood in vitro, whereas nitrite concentrations decreased within 2 h. In conclusion, plasma nitrate concentrations and urinary nitrate excretions are enhanced dose-dependently by feeding low amounts of nitrate and nitrite, whereas after ingested nitrite only a transient and small rise of plasma nitrite is observed because of rapid conversion to nitrate.

  14. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in fish from mining-influenced waters of northeastern Oklahoma: Sampling of blood, carcass, and liver for aquatic biomonitoring

    Brumbaugh, W.G.; Schmitt, C.J.; May, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    The Tri-States Mining District (TSMD) of Missouri (MO), Kansas (KS), and Oklahoma (OK), USA, was mined for lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) for more than a century. Mining ceased more than 30 years ago, but wastes remain widely distributed in the region, and there is evidence of surface- and groundwater contamination in the Spring River-Neosho River (SR-NR) system of northeastern OK. In October 2001, we collected a total of 74 fish from six locations in the SR-NR system that included common carp (Cyprinus carpio), channel- and flathead catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth- and spotted bass (Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus punctulatus), and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis). We obtained additional fish from locations in MO that included three reference sites and one site that served as a "positive control" (heavily contaminated by Pb). Blood, carcass (headed, eviscerated, and scaled) and liver (carp only) samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), Pb, and Zn. Our objectives were to assess the degree to which fish from the OK portion of the SR-NR system are contaminated by these elements and to evaluate fish blood sampling for biomonitoring. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in carp and catfish from OK sites were elevated and Pb concentrations of some approached those of the highly contaminated site in MO, but concentrations in bass and crappie were relatively low. For Zn, correlations were weak among concentrations in the three tissues and none of the samples appeared to reflect site contamination. Variability was high for Cd in all three tissues of carp; differences between sites were statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for blood even though mean liver concentrations were at least 100-fold greater than those in blood. Blood concentrations of Cd and Pb were positively correlated (r 2 = 0.49 to 0.84) with the concentration of the same element in carp and catfish carcasses or in carp livers, and the corresponding multiple regression models were

  15. Detection of quantitative trait loci controlling grain zinc concentration using Australian wild rice, Oryza meridionalis, a potential genetic resource for biofortification of rice.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Iwata, Masahide; Taniko, Kenta; Monden, Gotaro; Miyazaki, Naoya; Orn, Chhourn; Tsujimura, Yuki; Yoshida, Shusaku; Ma, Jian Feng; Ishii, Takashige

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is one of the essential mineral elements for both plants and humans. Zn deficiency in human is one of the major causes of hidden hunger, a serious health problem observed in many developing countries. Therefore, increasing Zn concentration in edible part is an important issue for improving human Zn nutrition. Here, we found that an Australian wild rice O. meridionalis showed higher grain Zn concentrations compared with cultivated and other wild rice species. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was then performed to identify the genomic regions controlling grain Zn levels using backcross recombinant inbred lines derived from O. sativa 'Nipponbare' and O. meridionalis W1627. Four QTLs responsible for high grain Zn were detected on chromosomes 2, 9, and 10. The QTL on the chromosome 9 (named qGZn9), which showed the largest effect on grain Zn concentration was confirmed with the introgression line, which had a W1627 chromosomal segment covering the qGZn9 region in the genetic background of O. sativa 'Nipponbare'. Fine mapping of this QTL resulted in identification of two tightly linked loci, qGZn9a and qGZn9b. The candidate regions of qGZn9a and qGZn9b were estimated to be 190 and 950 kb, respectively. Furthermore, we also found that plants having a wild chromosomal segment covering qGZn9a, but not qGZn9b, is associated with fertility reduction. qGZn9b, therefore, provides a valuable allele for breeding rice with high Zn in the grains.

  16. Concentration-dependent studies of Nd3+ -doped zinc phosphate glasses for NIR photoluminescence at 1.05 μm.

    PubMed

    Reddy Prasad, V; Seshadri, M; Babu, S; Ratnakaram, Y C

    2017-05-01

    Nd 3 + -doped lead-free zinc phosphate glasses with the chemical compositions (60-x) NH 4 H 2 PO 4  + 20ZnO + 10BaF 2  + 10NaF + xNd 2 O 3 (where x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%) were prepared using a melt quenching technique. Vibrational bands were assigned and clearly elucidated by Raman spectral profiles for all the glass samples. Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters (Ω λ : λ = 2, 4, 6) were obtained from the spectral intensities of different absorption bands of Nd 3 + ions. Radiative properties such as radiative transition probabilities (A R ), radiative lifetimes (τ R ) and branching ratios (β R ) for different excited states were calculated using J-O parameters. The near infrared (NIR) photoluminescence spectra exhibited three emission bands ( 4 F 3 /2 level to 4 I 13 /2 , 4 I 11 /2 and 4 I 9 /2 states) for all the concentrations of Nd 3 + ions. Various luminescence properties were studied by varying the Nd 3 + concentration for the three spectral profiles. Fluorescence decay curves of the 4 F 3 /2 level were recorded. The energy transfer mechanism that leads to quenching of the 4 F 3 /2 state lifetimes was discussed at higher concentration of Nd 3 + ions. These glasses are suggested as suitable hosts to produce efficient lasing action in NIR region at 1.05 μm. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Effect of precursor solutions stirring on deep level defects concentration and spatial distribution in low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods

    SciT

    Alnoor, Hatim, E-mail: hatim.alnoor@liu.se; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Pozina, Galia

    Hexagonal c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with 120-300 nm diameters are synthesized via the low temperature aqueous chemical route at 80 °C on silver-coated glass substrates. The influence of varying the precursor solutions stirring durations on the concentration and spatial distributions of deep level defects in ZnO NRs is investigated. Room temperature micro-photoluminesnce (μ-PL) spectra were collected for all samples. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of the as-synthesized NRs reveal a significant change in the intensity ratio of the near band edge emission (NBE) to the deep-level emission (DLE) peaks with increasing stirring durations. This is attributed to the variation inmore » the concentration of the oxygen-deficiency with increasing stirring durations as suggested from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Spatially resolved CL spectra taken along individual NRs revealed that stirring the precursor solutions for relatively short duration (1-3 h), which likely induced high super saturation under thermodynamic equilibrium during the synthesis process, is observed to favor the formation of point defects moving towards the tip of the NRs. In contrary, stirring for longer duration (5-15 h) will induce low super saturation favoring the formation of point defects located at the bottom of the NRs. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to control the concentration and spatial distribution of deep level defects in ZnO NRs by varying the stirring durations of the precursor solutions.« less

  18. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ∼3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

  19. Nitrate Trends in Minnesota Rivers

    Wall, Dave; Christopherson, Dave; Lorenz, Dave; Martin, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess long-term trends (30 to 35 years) of flow-adjusted concentrations of nitrite+nitrate-N (hereinafter referred to as nitrate) in a way that would allow us to discern changing trends. Recognizing that these trends are commonly different from one river to another river and from one part of the state to another, our objective was to examine as many river monitoring sites across the state as possible for which sufficient long term streamflow and concentration data were available.

  20. Rheological Analysis of Binary Eutectic Mixture of Sodium and Potassium Nitrate and the Effect of Low Concentration CuO Nanoparticle Addition to Its Viscosity.

    PubMed

    Lasfargues, Mathieu; Cao, Hui; Geng, Qiao; Ding, Yulong

    2015-08-11

    This paper is focused on the characterisation and demonstration of Newtonian behaviour of salt at both high and low shear rate for sodium and potassium nitrate eutectic mixture (60/40) ranging from 250 °C to 500 °C. Analysis of published and experimental data was carried out to correlate all the numbers into one meaningful 4th order polynomial equation. Addition of a low amount of copper oxide nanoparticles to the mixture increased viscosity of 5.0%-18.0% compared to the latter equation.

  1. Rheological Analysis of Binary Eutectic Mixture of Sodium and Potassium Nitrate and the Effect of Low Concentration CuO Nanoparticle Addition to Its Viscosity

    PubMed Central

    Lasfargues, Mathieu; Cao, Hui; Geng, Qiao; Ding, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on the characterisation and demonstration of Newtonian behaviour of salt at both high and low shear rate for sodium and potassium nitrate eutectic mixture (60/40) ranging from 250 °C to 500 °C. Analysis of published and experimental data was carried out to correlate all the numbers into one meaningful 4th order polynomial equation. Addition of a low amount of copper oxide nanoparticles to the mixture increased viscosity of 5.0%–18.0% compared to the latter equation. PMID:28793498

  2. Legacy Nitrate Impacts on Groundwater and Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesoriero, A. J.; Juckem, P. F.; Miller, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    Decades of recharge of high-nitrate groundwater have created a legacy—a mass of high-nitrate groundwater—that has implications for future nitrate concentrations in groundwater and in streams. In the United States, inorganic nitrogen fertilizer applications to the land surface have increased ten-fold since 1950, resulting in sharp increases in nitrate concentrations in recharging groundwater, which pose a risk to deeper groundwater and streams. This study assesses the factors that control time lags and eventual concentrations of legacy nitrate in groundwater and streams. Results from the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Project are presented which elucidate nitrate trends in recharging groundwater, delineate redox zones and assess groundwater and stream vulnerability to legacy nitrate sources on a regional scale. This study evaluated trends and transformations of agricultural chemicals based on groundwater age and water chemistry data along flow paths from recharge areas to streams at 20 study sites across the United States. Median nitrate recharge concentrations in these agricultural areas have increased markedly over the last 50 years, from 4 to 7.5 mg N/L. The effect that nitrate accumulation in shallow aquifers will have on drinking water quality and stream ecosystems is dependent on the redox zones encountered along flow paths and on the age distribution of nitrate discharging to supply wells and streams. Delineating redox zones on a regional scale is complicated by the spatial variability of reaction rates. To overcome this limitation, we applied logistic regression and machine learning techniques to predict the probability of a specific redox condition in groundwater in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and the Fox-Wolf-Peshtigo study area in Wisconsin. By relating redox-active constituent concentrations in groundwater samples to indicators of residence time and/or electron donor availability, we were able to delineate redox zones on a regional scale

  3. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  4. Contamination of houses by workers occupationally exposed in a lead-zinc-copper mine and impact on blood lead concentrations in the families.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaradia, M; Gulson, B L; MacDonald, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pathway of leaded dust from a lead-zinc-copper mine to houses of employees, and the impact on blood lead concentrations (PbB) of children. METHODS: High precision lead isotope and lead concentration data were obtained on venous blood and environmental samples (vacuum cleaner dust, interior dustfall accumulation, water, paint) for eight children of six employees (and the employees) from a lead-zinc-copper mine. These data were compared with results for 11 children from occupationally unexposed control families living in the same city. RESULTS: The median (range) concentrations of lead in vacuum cleaner dust was 470 (21-1300) ppm. In the houses of the mine employees, vacuum cleaner dust contained varying higher proportions of mine lead than did airborne particulate matter measured as dustfall accumulated over a three month period. The median (range) concentrations of lead in soil were 30 (5-407) ppm and these showed no evidence of any mine lead. Lead in blood of the mine employees varied from 7 to 25 micrograms/dl and was generally dominated by mine lead (> 60%). The mean (SD) PbB in the children of the mine employees was 5.7 (1.7) micrograms/dl compared with 4.1 (1.4) micrograms/dl for the control children (P = 0.02). The PbB of all children was always < 10 micrograms/dl, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council goal for all Australians. Some of the control children had higher PbB than the children of mine employees, probably from exposure to leaded paint as six of the eight houses of the control children were > 50 years old. In five of the eight children of mine employees > 20% of PbB was from the lead mine. However, in the other three cases of children of mine employees, their PbB was from sources other than mine lead (paint, petrol, background sources). CONCLUSIONS: Houses of employees from a lead mine can be contaminated by mine lead even if they are not situated in the same place as the mine. Delineation of the mine

  5. Zinc Signal in Brain Diseases.

    PubMed

    Portbury, Stuart D; Adlard, Paul A

    2017-11-23

    The divalent cation zinc is an integral requirement for optimal cellular processes, whereby it contributes to the function of over 300 enzymes, regulates intracellular signal transduction, and contributes to efficient synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Given the critical role of zinc in a breadth of cellular processes, its cellular distribution and local tissue level concentrations remain tightly regulated via a series of proteins, primarily including zinc transporter and zinc import proteins. A loss of function of these regulatory pathways, or dietary alterations that result in a change in zinc homeostasis in the brain, can all lead to a myriad of pathological conditions with both acute and chronic effects on function. This review aims to highlight the role of zinc signaling in the central nervous system, where it may precipitate or potentiate diverse issues such as age-related cognitive decline, depression, Alzheimer's disease or negative outcomes following brain injury.

  6. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in juvenile Chinook salmon and selected fish-forage organisms (aquatic insects) in the upper Sacramento River, California

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; Thompson, Larry D.; Walsh, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the downstream extent andseverity of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn)contamination from acid mine drainage on juvenile chinook salmon(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and aquatic insects over aroughly 270-km reach of the Sacramento River below KeswickReservoir. During April–May 1998, salmon were collected fromfour sites in the river and from a fish hatchery that receiveswater from Battle Creek. Salmon from river sites were examinedfor gut contents to document their consumption of variousinvertebrate taxa, whereas salmon from river sites and thehatchery were used for metal determinations. Midge(Chironomidae) and caddisfly (Trichoptera) larvae and mayfly(Ephemeroptera) nymphs were collected for metal determinationsduring April–June from river sites and from Battle and Buttecreeks. The fish hatchery and Battle and Butte creeks served asreference sites because they had no history of receiving minedrainage. Salmon consumed mostly midge larvae and pupae (44.0%,damp-dry biomass), caddisfly larvae (18.9%), Cladocera (5.8%),and mayfly nymphs (5.7%). These results demonstrated thatinsects selected for metal determinations were important as fishforage. Dry-weight concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn weregenerally far higher in salmon and insects from the river thanfrom reference sites. Within the river, high metalconcentrations persisted as far downstream as South Meridian (thelowermost sampling site). Maximum concentrations of Cd (30.7 μg g-1) and Zn (1230 μg g-1),but not Cu (87.4 μg g-1), in insects exceeded amounts that other investigators reported as toxic when fed for prolonged periods to juvenile salmonids.

  7. Groundwater nitrate contamination: Factors and indicators

    PubMed Central

    Wick, Katharina; Heumesser, Christine; Schmid, Erwin

    2012-01-01

    Identifying significant determinants of groundwater nitrate contamination is critical in order to define sensible agri-environmental indicators that support the design, enforcement, and monitoring of regulatory policies. We use data from approximately 1200 Austrian municipalities to provide a detailed statistical analysis of (1) the factors influencing groundwater nitrate contamination and (2) the predictive capacity of the Gross Nitrogen Balance, one of the most commonly used agri-environmental indicators. We find that the percentage of cropland in a given region correlates positively with nitrate concentration in groundwater. Additionally, environmental characteristics such as temperature and precipitation are important co-factors. Higher average temperatures result in lower nitrate contamination of groundwater, possibly due to increased evapotranspiration. Higher average precipitation dilutes nitrates in the soil, further reducing groundwater nitrate concentration. Finally, we assess whether the Gross Nitrogen Balance is a valid predictor of groundwater nitrate contamination. Our regression analysis reveals that the Gross Nitrogen Balance is a statistically significant predictor for nitrate contamination. We also show that its predictive power can be improved if we account for average regional precipitation. The Gross Nitrogen Balance predicts nitrate contamination in groundwater more precisely in regions with higher average precipitation. PMID:22906701

  8. Assessments of serum copper and zinc concentration, and the Cu/Zn ratio determination in patients with multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Gnogbo Alexis; Boyvin, Lydie; Méité, Souleymane; M'Boh, Gervais Melaine; Yeo, Kadjowely; N'Guessan, Kouassi Raymond; Bidié, Alain Dit Philippe; Djaman, Allico Joseph

    2017-04-11

    In Côte d'Ivoire, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious public health problem with a prevalence estimated at 2.5% in 2006. Zinc and copper are essential Trace element needed to strengthen the immune system and also useful in the fight against tuberculosis. The Cu / Zn ratio is a good indicator of oxidative stress. The principal aim of this study was to evaluate the serum concentration of some trace element and determine the Cu / Zn ratio in patients with multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR-TB) before and after second line treatment of TB. Blood samples were obtained from 100 MDR-TB patients after confirmation of their status through the microscopic and molecular diagnosis of resistance to Isoniazid and Rifampicin by GeneXpert. The concentration level of zinc and copper were determined using flame air / acetylene atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) Type Varian Spectr AA-20 Victoria, Australlia. A significant decrease in zinc levels (P < 0.05) and an increased Cu / Zn ratio (P < 0.05) was observed in MDR-TB patients compared to controls TB free. During treatment a significant reduction in Cu / Zn ratio (P < 0.05) was observed compared to the initial result. The decrease in serum zinc level and the high Cu / Zn ratio could explain the immune system dysfunction and the high level of oxidative stress in patients with MDR-TB. Therefore the evaluation of the zinc and copper status could represent essential parameters in monitoring of TB second line treatment for better treatment management.

  9. Techniques for Measurement of Nitrate Movement in Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broadbent, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Contamination of surface and ground waters with nitrate usually involves leaching through soil of nitrate produced by mineralization of soil organic matter, decomposition of animal wastes or plant residues, or derived from fertilizers. Nitrate concentrations in the soil solution may be measured by several chemical procedures or by the nitrate electrode. since nitrate is produced throughout the soil mass it is difficult to identify a source of nitrate contamination by conventional means. This problem can be solved by use of N-15-enriched or N-15-depleted materials as tracers. The latter is particularly attractive because of the negligible possibility of the tracer hazardous to health.

  10. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  11. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

  12. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

  13. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

  14. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

  15. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

  16. Cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc concentrations in kidneys of grey wolves, Canis lupus, from Alaska, Idaho, Montana (USA) and the Northwest Territories (Canada).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S R; Blunck, S A; Petersen, K N; Jones, E M; Koval, J C; Misek, R; Frick, J A; Cluff, H D; Sime, C A; McNay, M; Beckman, K B; Atkinson, M W; Drew, M; Collinge, M D; Bangs, E E; Harper, R G

    2010-11-01

    Cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc levels were measured in the kidneys of 115 grey wolves (Canis lupus) from Idaho, Montana and Alaska (United States), and from the Northwest Territories (Canada). No significant differences in the levels of iron or copper were observed between locations, but wolf kidneys from more northern locations had significantly higher cadmium levels (Alaska > Northwest Territories > Montana ≈ Idaho), and wolves from Alaska showed significantly higher zinc than other locations. Additionally, female wolves in Alaska had higher iron levels than males, and adult wolves in Montana had higher copper levels than subadults.

  17. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...

  18. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...

  19. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33... nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued... potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and cured poultry products. [48 FR 1705, Jan...

  20. Pseudo-constitutivity of nitrate-responsive genes in nitrate reductase mutants

    PubMed Central

    Schinko, Thorsten; Gallmetzer, Andreas; Amillis, Sotiris; Strauss, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    In fungi, transcriptional activation of genes involved in NO3- assimilation requires the presence of an inducer (nitrate or nitrite) and low intracellular concentrations of the pathway products ammonium or glutamine. In Aspergillus nidulans, the two transcription factors NirA and AreA act synergistically to mediate nitrate/nitrite induction and nitrogen metabolite derepression, respectively. In all studied fungi and in plants, mutants lacking nitrate reductase (NR) activity express nitrate-metabolizing enzymes constitutively without the addition of inducer molecules. Based on their work in A. nidulans, Cove and Pateman proposed an “autoregulation control” model for the synthesis of nitrate metabolizing enzymes in which the functional nitrate reductase molecule would act as co-repressor in the absence and as co-inducer in the presence of nitrate. However, NR mutants could simply show “pseudo-constitutivity” due to induction by nitrate which accumulates over time in NR-deficient strains. Here we examined this possibility using strains which lack flavohemoglobins (fhbs), and are thus unable to generate nitrate internally, in combination with nitrate transporter mutations (nrtA, nrtB) and a GFP-labeled NirA protein. Using different combinations of genotypes we demonstrate that nitrate transporters are functional also in NR null mutants and show that the constitutive phenotype of NR mutants is not due to nitrate accumulation from intracellular sources but depends on the activity of nitrate transporters. However, these transporters are not required for nitrate signaling because addition of external nitrate (10 mM) leads to standard induction of nitrate assimilatory genes in the nitrate transporter double mutants. We finally show that NR does not regulate NirA localization and activity, and thus the autoregulation model, in which NR would act as a co-repressor of NirA in the absence of nitrate, is unlikely to be correct. Results from this study instead suggest

  1. CARBON-BASED REACTIVE BARRIER FOR NITRATE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nitrate (NO3-) is a common ground water contaminant related to agricultural activity, waste water disposal, leachate from landfills, septic systems, and industrial processes. This study reports on the performance of a carbon-based permeable reactive barrier (PRB) that was constructed for in-situ bioremediation of a ground water nitrate plume caused by leakage from a swine CAFO (concentrated animal feeding operation) lagoon. The swine CAFO, located in Logan County, Oklahoma, was in operation from 1992-1999. The overall site remediation strategy includes an ammonia recovery trench to intercept ammonia-contaminated ground water and a hay straw PRB which is used to intercept a nitrate plume caused by nitrification of sorbed ammonia. The PRB extends approximately 260 m to intercept the nitrate plume. The depth of the trench averages 6 m and corresponds to the thickness of the surficial saturated zone; the width of the trench is 1.2 m. Detailed quarterly monitoring of the PRB began in March, 2004, about 1 year after construction activities ended. Nitrate concentrations hydraulically upgradient of the PRB have ranged from 23 to 77 mg/L N, from 0 to 3.2 mg/L N in the PRB, and from 0 to 65 mg/L N hydraulically downgradient of the PRB. Nitrate concentrations have generally decreased in downgradient locations with successive monitoring events. Mass balance considerations indicate that nitrate attenuation is dominantly from denitrification but with some component of

  2. Improved colorimetric determination of serum zinc.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D J; Djuh, Y Y; Bruton, J; Williams, H L

    1977-07-01

    We show how zinc may easily be quantified in serum by first using an optimum concentration of guanidine hydrochloride to cause release of zinc from proteins, followed by complexation of released metals with cyanide. The cyanide complex of zinc is preferentially demasked with chloral hydrate, followed by a colorimetric reaction between zinc and 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. This is a sensitive water-soluble ligand; its complex with zinc has an absorption maximum at 497 nm. Values found by this technique compare favorably with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  3. The nitrate time bomb: a numerical way to investigate nitrate storage and lag time in the unsaturated zone.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Butcher, A S; Stuart, M E; Gooddy, D C; Bloomfield, J P

    2013-10-01

    Nitrate pollution in groundwater, which is mainly from agricultural activities, remains an international problem. It threatens the environment, economics and human health. There is a rising trend in nitrate concentrations in many UK groundwater bodies. Research has shown it can take decades for leached nitrate from the soil to discharge into groundwater and surface water due to the 'store' of nitrate and its potentially long travel time in the unsaturated and saturated zones. However, this time lag is rarely considered in current water nitrate management and policy development. The aim of this study was to develop a catchment-scale integrated numerical method to investigate the nitrate lag time in the groundwater system, and the Eden Valley, UK, was selected as a case study area. The method involves three models, namely the nitrate time bomb-a process-based model to simulate the nitrate transport in the unsaturated zone (USZ), GISGroundwater--a GISGroundwater flow model, and N-FM--a model to simulate the nitrate transport in the saturated zone. This study answers the scientific questions of when the nitrate currently in the groundwater was loaded into the unsaturated zones and eventually reached the water table; is the rising groundwater nitrate concentration in the study area caused by historic nitrate load; what caused the uneven distribution of groundwater nitrate concentration in the study area; and whether the historic peak nitrate loading has reached the water table in the area. The groundwater nitrate in the area was mainly from the 1980s to 2000s, whilst the groundwater nitrate in most of the source protection zones leached into the system during 1940s-1970s; the large and spatially variable thickness of the USZ is one of the major reasons for unevenly distributed groundwater nitrate concentrations in the study area; the peak nitrate loading around 1983 has affected most of the study area. For areas around the Bowscar, Beacon Edge, Low Plains, Nord Vue

  4. Do nitrates differ?

    PubMed Central

    Fung, H.-L.

    1992-01-01

    1 The organic nitrates all share a common biochemical and physiological mechanism of action. 2 The organic nitrates differ substantially in their pharmacologic potency and pharmacokinetics. In vitro potency differences appear larger than the corresponding in vivo activities. 3 The duration of action of organic nitrates, after a single immediate-release dose, is governed by the pharmacokinetics of the drug. However, the duration of action of available sustained-release preparations, whatever the nitrate or formulation, is limited to about 12 h, due to the development of pharmacologic tolerance. 4 Nitrates do not appear to differ in their production of undesirable effects. PMID:1633079

  5. Association between Maternal Zinc Status, Dietary Zinc Intake and Pregnancy Complications: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rebecca L.; Grieger, Jessica A.; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Roberts, Claire T.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate zinc stores in the body are extremely important during periods of accelerated growth. However, zinc deficiency is common in developing countries and low maternal circulating zinc concentrations have previously been associated with pregnancy complications. We reviewed current literature assessing circulating zinc and dietary zinc intake during pregnancy and the associations with preeclampsia (PE); spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB); low birthweight (LBW); and gestational diabetes (GDM). Searches of MEDLINE; CINAHL and Scopus databases identified 639 articles and 64 studies were reviewed. In 10 out of 16 studies a difference was reported with respect to circulating zinc between women who gave birth to a LBW infant (≤2500 g) and those who gave birth to an infant of adequate weight (>2500 g), particularly in populations where inadequate zinc intake is prevalent. In 16 of our 33 studies an association was found between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and circulating zinc; particularly in women with severe PE (blood pressure ≥160/110 mmHg). No association between maternal zinc status and sPTB or GDM was seen; however; direct comparisons between the studies was difficult. Furthermore; only a small number of studies were based on women from populations where there is a high risk of zinc deficiency. Therefore; the link between maternal zinc status and pregnancy success in these populations cannot be established. Future studies should focus on those vulnerable to zinc deficiency and include dietary zinc intake as a measure of zinc status. PMID:27754451

  6. Regulation of nitrate assimilation in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Yoshitake; Shi, Wei; Takatani, Nobuyuki; Aichi, Makiko; Maeda, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Satoru; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Omata, Tatsuo

    2011-02-01

    Nitrate assimilation by cyanobacteria is inhibited by the presence of ammonium in the growth medium. Both nitrate uptake and transcription of the nitrate assimilatory genes are regulated. The major intracellular signal for the regulation is, however, not ammonium or glutamine, but 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), whose concentration changes according to the change in cellular C/N balance. When nitrogen is limiting growth, accumulation of 2-OG activates the transcription factor NtcA to induce transcription of the nitrate assimilation genes. Ammonium inhibits transcription by quickly depleting the 2-OG pool through its metabolism via the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase cycle. The P(II) protein inhibits the ABC-type nitrate transporter, and also nitrate reductase in some strains, by an unknown mechanism(s) when the cellular 2-OG level is low. Upon nitrogen limitation, 2-OG binds to P(II) to prevent the protein from inhibiting nitrate assimilation. A pathway-specific transcriptional regulator NtcB activates the nitrate assimilation genes in response to nitrite, either added to the medium or generated intracellularly by nitrate reduction. It plays an important role in selective activation of the nitrate assimilation pathway during growth under a limited supply of nitrate. P(II) was recently shown to regulate the activity of NtcA negatively by binding to PipX, a small coactivator protein of NtcA. On the basis of accumulating genome information from a variety of cyanobacteria and the molecular genetic data obtained from the representative strains, common features and group- or species-specific characteristics of the response of cyanobacteria to nitrogen is summarized and discussed in terms of ecophysiological significance.

  7. Is beetroot juice more effective than sodium nitrate? The effects of equimolar nitrate dosages of nitrate-rich beetroot juice and sodium nitrate on oxygen consumption during exercise.

    PubMed

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Bogdanova, Anna; Mettler, Samuel; Perret, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Dietary nitrate has been reported to lower oxygen consumption in moderate- and severe-intensity exercise. To date, it is unproven that sodium nitrate (NaNO3(-); NIT) and nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) have the same effects on oxygen consumption, blood pressure, and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations or not. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different dosages of NIT and BR on oxygen consumption in male athletes. Twelve healthy, well-trained men (median [minimum; maximum]; peak oxygen consumption: 59.4 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1) [40.5; 67.0]) performed 7 trials on different days, ingesting different nitrate dosages and placebo (PLC). Dosages were 3, 6, and 12 mmol nitrate as concentrated BR or NIT dissolved in plain water. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured before, 3 h after ingestion, and postexercise. Participants cycled for 5 min at moderate intensity and further 8 min at severe intensity. End-exercise oxygen consumption at moderate intensity was not significantly different between the 7 trials (p = 0.08). At severe-intensity exercise, end-exercise oxygen consumption was ~4% lower in the 6-mmol BR trial compared with the 6-mmol NIT (p = 0.003) trial as well as compared with PLC (p = 0.010). Plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations were significantly increased after the ingestion of BR and NIT with the highest concentrations in the 12-mmol trials. Plasma nitrite concentration between NIT and BR did not significantly differ in the 6-mmol (p = 0.27) and in the 12-mmol (p = 0.75) trials. In conclusion, BR might reduce oxygen consumption to a greater extent compared with NIT.

  8. Test/QA Plan for Verification of Nitrate Sensors for Groundwater Remediation Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    A submersible nitrate sensor is capable of collecting in-situ measurements of dissolved nitrate concentrations in groundwater. Although several types of nitrate sensors currently exist, this verification test will focus on submersible sensors equipped with a nitrate-specific ion...

  9. Multi-scale measurements and modeling of denitrification in streams with varying flow and nitrate concentration in the upper Mississippi River basin, USA

    Böhlke, John Karl; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Harvey, Judson W.; Laursen, Andrew E.; Smith, Lesley K.; Smith, Richard L.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2009-01-01

    Denitrification is an important net sink for NO3− in streams, but direct measurements are limited and in situ controlling factors are not well known. We measured denitrification at multiple scales over a range of flow conditions and NO3− concentrations in streams draining agricultural land in the upper Mississippi River basin. Comparisons of reach-scale measurements (in-stream mass transport and tracer tests) with local-scale in situ measurements (pore-water profiles, benthic chambers) and laboratory data (sediment core microcosms) gave evidence for heterogeneity in factors affecting benthic denitrification both temporally (e.g., seasonal variation in NO3− concentrations and loads, flood-related disruption and re-growth of benthic communities and organic deposits) and spatially (e.g., local stream morphology and sediment characteristics). When expressed as vertical denitrification flux per unit area of streambed (Udenit, in μmol N m−2 h−1), results of different methods for a given set of conditions commonly were in agreement within a factor of 2–3. At approximately constant temperature (~20 ± 4°C) and with minimal benthic disturbance, our aggregated data indicated an overall positive relation between Udenit (~0–4,000 μmol N m−2 h−1) and stream NO3−concentration (~20–1,100 μmol L−1) representing seasonal variation from spring high flow (high NO3−) to late summer low flow (low NO3−). The temporal dependence of Udenit on NO3−was less than first-order and could be described about equally well with power-law or saturation equations (e.g., for the unweighted dataset, Udenit ≈26 * [NO3−]0.44 or Udenit≈640 * [NO3−]/[180 + NO3−]; for a partially weighted dataset, Udenit ≈14 * [NO3−]0.54 or Udenit ≈700 * [NO3−]/[320 + NO3−]). Similar parameters were derived from a recent spatial comparison of stream denitrification extending to lower NO3− concentrations (LINX2), and from the combined dataset

  10. Probability of detecting atrazine/desethyl-atrazine and elevated concentrations of nitrate (NO2+NO3-N) in ground water in the Idaho part of the upper Snake River basin

    Rupert, Michael G.

    1998-01-01

    the percent of actual detections were good; r-squared values were 0.91 and 0.96, respectively. Models were verified using a second set of groundwater quality data. Verification showed that wells with water containing atrazine/desethyl-atrazine had significantly higher probability ratings than wells with water containing no atrazine/desethylatrazine (p <0.002). Logistic regression also was used to develop a preliminary model to predict the probability of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations greater than background levels of 2 milligrams per liter. A direct comparison between the atrazine/ desethyl-atrazine and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen probability maps was possible because the same ground-water monitoring, hydrogeologic, and anthropogenic data were used to develop both maps. Land use, precipitation, soil hydrologic group, and well depth were significantly related with atrazine/desethyl-atrazine detections. Depth to water, land use, and soil drainage were signifi- cantly related with elevated nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations. The differences between atrazine/desethyl-atrazine and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen relations were attributed to differences in chemical behavior of these compounds in the environment and possibly to differences in the extent of use and rates of their application.

  11. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Cui; Qu, Ruijuan; Liang, Jinyan; Yang, Xi

    2010-11-01

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  12. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    SciT

    Meng Cui; Qu Ruijuan; Liang Jinyan

    2010-11-24

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  13. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  14. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  15. Zinc in Cellular Regulation: The Nature and Significance of "Zinc Signals".

    PubMed

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-10-31

    In the last decade, we witnessed discoveries that established Zn 2+ as a second major signalling metal ion in the transmission of information within cells and in communication between cells. Together with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ covers biological regulation with redox-inert metal ions over many orders of magnitude in concentrations. The regulatory functions of zinc ions, together with their functions as a cofactor in about three thousand zinc metalloproteins, impact virtually all aspects of cell biology. This article attempts to define the regulatory functions of zinc ions, and focuses on the nature of zinc signals and zinc signalling in pathways where zinc ions are either extracellular stimuli or intracellular messengers. These pathways interact with Ca 2+ , redox, and phosphorylation signalling. The regulatory functions of zinc require a complex system of precise homeostatic control for transients, subcellular distribution and traffic, organellar homeostasis, and vesicular storage and exocytosis of zinc ions.

  16. The sensitivity of the electron transport within bulk zinc-blende gallium nitride to variations in the crystal temperature, the doping concentration, and the non-parabolicity coefficient associated with the lowest energy conduction band valley

    SciT

    Siddiqua, Poppy; O'Leary, Stephen K., E-mail: stephen.oleary@ubc.ca

    2016-09-07

    Within the framework of a semi-classical three-valley Monte Carlo simulation approach, we analyze the steady-state and transient electron transport that occurs within bulk zinc-blende gallium nitride. In particular, we examine how the steady-state and transient electron transport that occurs within this material changes in response to variations in the crystal temperature, the doping concentration, and the non-parabolicity coefficient associated with the lowest energy conduction band valley. These results are then contrasted with those corresponding to a number of other compound semiconductors of interest.

  17. Growing patterns to produce 'nitrate-free' lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    PubMed

    Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Muntean, Daniela-Lucia; Fülöp, Ibolya; Modroiu, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables can contain significant amounts of nitrate and, therefore, may pose health hazards to consumers by exceeding the accepted daily intake for nitrate. Different hydroponic growing patterns were examined in this work in order to obtain 'nitrate-free lettuces'. Growing lettuces on low nitrate content nutrient solution resulted in a significant decrease in lettuces' nitrate concentrations (1741 versus 39 mg kg(-1)), however the beneficial effect was cancelled out by an increase in the ambient temperature. Nitrate replacement with ammonium was associated with an important decrease of the lettuces' nitrate concentration (from 1896 to 14 mg kg(-1)) and survival rate. An economically feasible method to reduce nitrate concentrations was the removal of all inorganic nitrogen from the nutrient solution before the exponential growth phase. This method led to lettuces almost devoid of nitrate (10 mg kg(-1)). The dried mass and calcinated mass of lettuces, used as markers of lettuces' quality, were not influenced by this treatment, but a small reduction (18%, p < 0.05) in the fresh mass was recorded. The concentrations of nitrite in the lettuces and their modifications are also discussed in the paper. It is possible to obtain 'nitrate-free' lettuces in an economically feasible way.

  18. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and...

  19. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and...

  20. Maternal and fetal plasma zinc in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Bassiouni, B A; Foda, A I; Rafei, A A

    1979-04-01

    Zinc is important for fetal growth and is involved in several important enzyme systems. Maternal and umbilical plasma zinc concentrations were determined in 52 parturient women with mild and severe pre-eclampsia, and were compared with those obtained from 20 women in labor whose pregnancies had progressed normally. A decrease in maternal as well as umbilical plasma zinc concentrations was observed in pre-eclamptic women, and this decrease was statistically significant in severe pre-eclampsia. The causes of these changes in plasma zinc concentrations in pre-eclampsia were discussed, and the possible adverse effects of zinc deficiency on the mother and fetus were mentioned. Low plasma zinc concentrations in pre-eclampsia may be a sign of zinc deficiency, implying possible risks to the mother and her fetus. It is recommended that maintenance of adequate dietary zinc nutrition during pregnancy, and particularly in pre-eclampsia, is important.

  1. 3. Right side of Zinc Plant, from Cell Room midpoint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Right side of Zinc Plant, from Cell Room midpoint to Plant Office (foreground) and #5 Roaster and Concentrate Handling (background). View is to the east. - Sullivan Electrolytic Zinc Plant, Government Gulch, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  2. Cylodextrin Polymer Nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosowski, Bernard; Ruebner, Anja; Statton, Gary; Robitelle, Danielle; Meyers, Curtis

    2000-01-01

    The development of the use of cyclodextrin nitrates as possible components of insensitive, high-energy energetics is outlined over a time period of 12 years. Four different types of cyclodextrin polymers were synthesized, nitrated, and evaluated regarding their potential use for the military and aerospace community. The synthesis of these novel cyclodextrin polymers and different nitration techniques are shown and the potential of these new materials is discussed.

  3. Zinc pharmacokinetic parameters in the determination of body zinc status in children.

    PubMed

    Vale, S H L; Leite, L D; Alves, C X; Dantas, M M G; Costa, J B S; Marchini, J S; França, M C; Brandão-Neto, J

    2014-02-01

    Serum or tissue zinc concentrations are often used to assess body zinc status. However, all of these methods are relatively inaccurate. Thus, we investigated three different kinetic methods for the determination of zinc clearance to establish which of these could detect small changes in the body zinc status of children. Forty apparently healthy children were studied. Renal handling of zinc was investigated during intravenous zinc administration (0.06537 mg Zn/kg of body weight), both before and after oral zinc supplementation (5 mg Zn/day for 3 months). Three kinetic methods were used to determine zinc clearance: CZn-Formula A and CZn-Formula B were both used to calculate systemic clearance; the first is a general formula and the second is used for the specific analysis of a single-compartment model; CZn-Formula C is widely used in medical practices to analyze kinetic routine. Basal serum zinc values, which were within the reference range for healthy children, increased significantly after oral zinc supplementation. The three formulas used gave different results for zinc clearance both before and after oral zinc supplementation. CZn-Formula B showed a positive correlation with basal serum zinc concentration after oral supplementation (R2=0.1172, P=0.0306). In addition, CZn-Formula B (P=0.0002) was more effective than CZn-Formula A (P=0.6028) and CZn-Formula C (P=0.0732) in detecting small variations in body zinc status. All three of the formulas used are suitable for studying zinc kinetics; however, CZn-Formula B is particularly effective at detecting small changes in body zinc status in healthy children.

  4. Simple biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using nature's source, and it's in vitro bio-activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Elham; Pourseyedi, Shahram; Khatami, Mehrdad; Darezereshki, Esmaeel

    2017-10-01

    Nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity, especially as a new class of biomedical materials for use in increasing the level of public health in daily life have emerged. In this study, green synthesis of zinc oxide) ZnO(nanoparticles was studied by Cuminum cyminum (cumin) as novel natural source and zinc nitrate [Zn(NO3)2] as Zn2+ source. The results showed that parameters such as concentration, time, temperature and pH have a direct impact on the synthesis of zinc nanoparticles and change in any of the factors causing the change in the process of synthesis. The properties of synthesized nanoparticles were examined by UV-visible Spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The UV-visible spectroscopy presented the absorption peak in the range of 370 nm. Transmission electron microscopy images of synthesized nanoparticles are mainly spherical or oval with an average size of about 7 nm. The effect of antimicrobial nanoparticles calculated using disk diffusion method and broth MIC and MBC in different strains of bacteria, which showed that gram positive and negative were sensitive to zinc oxide nanoparticles. The sensitivity of gram-negative bacteria was more.

  5. Zinc activates damage-sensing TRPA1 ion channels.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongzhen; Bandell, Michael; Petrus, Matt J; Zhu, Michael X; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2009-03-01

    Zinc is an essential biological trace element. It is required for the structure or function of over 300 proteins, and it is increasingly recognized for its role in cell signaling. However, high concentrations of zinc have cytotoxic effects, and overexposure to zinc can cause pain and inflammation through unknown mechanisms. Here we show that zinc excites nociceptive somatosensory neurons and causes nociception in mice through TRPA1, a cation channel previously shown to mediate the pungency of wasabi and cinnamon through cysteine modification. Zinc activates TRPA1 through a unique mechanism that requires zinc influx through TRPA1 channels and subsequent activation via specific intracellular cysteine and histidine residues. TRPA1 is highly sensitive to intracellular zinc, as low nanomolar concentrations activate TRPA1 and modulate its sensitivity. These findings identify TRPA1 as an important target for the sensory effects of zinc and support an emerging role for zinc as a signaling molecule that can modulate sensory transmission.

  6. Interaction of zinc with dental mineral.

    PubMed

    Ingram, G S; Horay, C P; Stead, W J

    1992-01-01

    As some currently available toothpastes contain zinc compounds, the reaction of zinc with dental mineral and its effect on crystal growth rates were studied using three synthetic calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites (HAP) as being representative of dental mineral. Zinc was readily acquired by all HAP samples in the absence of added calcium, the amount adsorbed being proportional to the HAP surface area; about 9 mumol Zn/m2 was adsorbed at high zinc concentrations. As zinc was acquired, calcium was released, consistent with 1:1 Ca:Zn exchange. Soluble calcium reduced zinc uptake and similarly, calcium post-treatment released zinc. Pretreatment of HAP with 0.5 mM zinc reduced its subsequent ability to undergo seeded crystal growth, as did extracts of a toothpaste containing 0.5% zinc citrate, even in the presence of saliva. The reverse reaction, i.e. displacement of adsorbed zinc by salivary levels of calcium, however, indicates the mechanism by which zinc can reduce calculus formation in vivo by inhibiting plaque mineralisation without adversely affecting the anti-caries effects of fluoride.

  7. Nitrate sources and sinks in Elkhorn Slough, California: Results from long-term continuous in situ nitrate analyzers

    Chapin, T.P.; Caffrey, J.M.; Jannasch, H.W.; Coletti, L.J.; Haskins, J.C.; Johnson, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    Nitrate and water quality parameters (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and depth) were measured continuously with in situ NO 3 analyzers and water quality sondes at two sites in Elkhorn Slough in Central California. The Main Channel site near the mouth of Elkhorn Slough was sampled from February to September 2001. Azevedo Pond, a shallow tidal pond bordering agricultural fields further inland, was sampled from December 1999 to July 2001. Nitrate concentrations were recorded hourly while salinity, temperature, depth, oxygen, and turbidity were recorded every 30 min. Nitrate concentrations at the Main Channel site ranged from 5 to 65 ??M. The propagation of an internal wave carrying water from ???100 m depth up the Monterey Submarine Canyon and into the lower section of Elkhorn Slough on every rising tide was a major source of nitrate, accounting for 80-90% of the nitrogen load during the dry summer period. Nitrate concentrations in Azevedo Pond ranged from 0-20 ??M during the dry summer months. Nitrate in Azevedo Pond increased to over 450 ??M during a heavy winter precipitation event, and interannual variability driven by differences in precipitation was observed. At both sites, tidal cycling was the dominant forcing, often changing nitrate concentrations by 5-fold or more within a few hours. Water volume flux estimates were combined with observed nitrate concentrations to obtain nitrate fluxes. Nitrate flux calculations indicated a loss of 4 mmol NO3 m -2 d-1 for the entire Elkhorn Slough and 1 mmol NO 3 m-2 d-1 at Azevedo Pond. These results suggested that the waters of Elkhorn Slough were not a major source of nitrate to Monterey Bay but actually a nitrate sink during the dry season. The limited winter data at the Main Channel site suggest that nitrate was exported from Elkhorn Slough during the wet season. Export of ammonium or dissolved organic nitrogen, which we did not monitor, may balance some or all of the NO 3 flux.

  8. Antibacterial activity of silver and zinc nanoparticles against Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Wesam; Leitner, Deborah R.; Zingl, Franz G.; Schratter, Gebhart; Prassl, Ruth; Goessler, Walter; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxic Escherichia coli (ETEC) remain two dominant bacterial causes of severe secretory diarrhea and still a significant cause of death, especially in developing countries. In order to investigate new effective and inexpensive therapeutic approaches, we analyzed nanoparticles synthesized by a green approach using corresponding salt (silver or zinc nitrate) with aqueous extract of Caltropis procera fruit or leaves. We characterized the quantity and quality of nanoparticles by UV–visible wavelength scans and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Nanoparticles could be synthesized in reproducible yields of approximately 108 particles/ml with mode particles sizes of approx. 90–100 nm. Antibacterial activity against two pathogens was assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration assays and survival curves. Both pathogens exhibited similar resistance profiles with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging between 5 × 105 and 107 particles/ml. Interestingly, zinc nanoparticles showed a slightly higher efficacy, but sublethal concentrations caused adverse effects and resulted in increased biofilm formation of V. cholerae. Using the expression levels of the outer membrane porin OmpT as an indicator for cAMP levels, our results suggest that zinc nanoparticles inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity. This consequently deceases the levels of this second messenger, which is a known inhibitor of biofilm formation. Finally, we demonstrated that a single oral administration of silver nanoparticles to infant mice colonized with V. cholerae or ETEC significantly reduces the colonization rates of the pathogens by 75- or 100-fold, respectively. PMID:25466205

  9. Supplemental levels of iron and calcium interfere with repletion of zinc status in zinc-deficient animals.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, S; Platel, Kalpana

    2016-05-18

    Negative interactions between minerals interfering with each other's absorption are of concern when iron and calcium supplements are given to pregnant women and children. We have previously reported that supplemental levels of iron and calcium inhibit the bioaccessibility of zinc, and compromise zinc status in rats fed diets with high levels of these two minerals. The present study examined the effect of supplemental levels of iron and calcium on the recovery of zinc status during a zinc repletion period in rats rendered zinc-deficient. Iron and calcium, both individually and in combination, significantly interfered with the recovery of zinc status in zinc deficient rats during repletion with normal levels of zinc in the diet. Rats maintained on diets containing supplemental levels of these two minerals had significantly lower body weight, and the concentration of zinc in serum and organs was significantly lower than in zinc-deficient rats not receiving the supplements. Iron and calcium supplementation also significantly inhibited the activity of zinc-containing enzymes in the serum as well as liver. Both iron and calcium independently exerted this negative effect on zinc status, while their combination seemed to have a more prominent effect, especially on the activities of zinc containing enzymes. This investigation is probably the first systematic study on the effect of these two minerals on the zinc status of zinc deficient animals and their recovery during repletion with normal amounts of zinc.

  10. Nitrate consumption in sediments of the German Bight (North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Andreas; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Holtappels, Moritz; Emeis, Kay-Christian

    2017-09-01

    Denitrification on continental margins and in coastal sediments is a major sink of reactive N in the present nitrogen cycle and a major ecosystem service of eutrophied coastal waters. We analyzed the nitrate removal in surface sediments of the Elbe estuary, Wadden Sea, and adjacent German Bight (SE North Sea) during two seasons (spring and summer) along a eutrophication gradient ranging from a high riverine nitrate concentrations at the Elbe Estuary to offshore areas with low nitrate concentrations. The gradient encompassed the full range of sediment types and organic carbon concentrations of the southern North Sea. Based on nitrate penetration depth and concentration gradient in the porewater we estimated benthic nitrate consumption rates assuming either diffusive transport in cohesive sediments or advective transport in permeable sediments. For the latter we derived a mechanistic model of porewater flow. During the peak nitrate discharge of the river Elbe in March, the highest rates of diffusive nitrate uptake were observed in muddy sediments (up to 2.8 mmol m- 2 d- 1). The highest advective uptake rate in that period was observed in permeable sediment and was tenfold higher (up to 32 mmol m- 2 d- 1). The intensity of both diffusive and advective nitrate consumption dropped with the nitrate availability and thus decreased from the Elbe estuary towards offshore stations, and were further decreased during late summer (minimum nitrate discharge) compared to late winter (maximum nitrate discharge). In summary, our rate measurements indicate that the permeable sediment accounts for up to 90% of the total benthic reactive nitrogen consumption in the study area due to the high efficiency of advective nitrate transport into permeable sediment. Extrapolating the averaged nitrate consumption of different sediment classes to the areas of Elbe Estuary, Wadden Sea and eastern German Bight amounts to an N-loss of 3.1 ∗ 106 mol N d- 1 from impermeable, diffusion

  11. Concentrations of nitrous acid, nitric acid, nitrite and nitrate in the gas and aerosol phase at a site in the emission zone during ESCOMPTE 2001 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, K.; Möller, D.; Auel, R.; Wieprecht, W.; Kalaß, D.

    2005-03-01

    Ground-based measurements were performed at the "Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphérique et de Transport d`Emissions" (ESCOMPTE) field site E3 (Realtor) about 30 km north of the urban environment of Marseille and east of the industrial centre Berre pond to investigate the formation of nitrous and nitric acid and to detect the distribution of reactive N-species between the gas and particle phase during photochemical pollution events. A wet denuder sampling for gases followed by a steam jet collection for aerosols was both coupled to anion chromatographic analysis. The analytical system provided data continuously with 30-min time resolution between June 13 and July 13, 2001. Indications for heterogeneous formation of nitrous acid during nighttime and daytime on ground and aerosol surfaces were found, the average HNO 2/NO 2 ratio was 6%. Highest concentrations were observed during two episodes of strong pollution accumulation when sea breeze transported industrial, traffic and urban pollution land-inwards. After nocturnal heterogeneous formation (about 0.1 ppb v h -1 were estimated corresponding to increasing HNO 2/NO 2 ratios) and accumulation processes up to 1.2 ppb v HNO 2 were observed. Their photolysis produces up to 5-9×10 6 OH cm -3 s -1 and will contribute significantly to initiation of the daily photochemistry in the lowest part of the troposphere. For the key tropospheric species, HNO 3 daily peaks up to 4 ppb v were detected.

  12. Molten nitrate salt technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, R. W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the experimental programs underway in support of the Thermal Energy Storage for Solar Thermal Applications (TESSTA) program. The experimental programs are concentrating on molten nitrate salts which have been proposed as heat transfer and energy storage medium. The salt composition of greatest interest is drawsalt, nominally a 50-50 molar mixture of NaNO3 and KNO3 with a melting point of 220 C. Several technical uncertainties have been identified that must be resolved before nitrate based solar plants can be commercialized. Research programs at Sandia National Laboratories, universities, and industrial suppliers have been implemented to resolve these technical uncertainties. The experimental programs involve corrosion, decomposition, physical properties, and environmental cracking. Summaries of each project and how they impact central receiver applications such as the repowering/industrial retrofit and cogeneration program are presented.

  13. Nitrate leaching index

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  14. Global distribution of peroxyacetyl nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H. B.; Salas, L. J.; Viezee, W.

    1986-01-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) atmospheric concentration samples were collected hourly from an ocean vessel 50 mi off the continental coast traveling from Seattle to Chile in 1984. Air concentration data for PAN and light hydrocarbons (LHC) were also taken by aircraft in the same period over Wyoming and Colorado and over the eastern Pacific. The PAN concentrations were higher and more variable in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere, increased with altitude, and were higher in the winter than in summer. The summer PAN concentrations were higher in the continental troposphere than in the marine troposphere. The results show that photochemical models of the atmosphere which do not account for the reaction between nonmethane hydrocarbons and PAN will probably overestimate the abundances of NO(x) and HNO3. The collection of further PAN concentration data is recommended as a means to characterizing the moderating role of PAN in the photochemistry of the troposphere.

  15. Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND)—Zinc Review12345

    PubMed Central

    King, Janet C; Brown, Kenneth H; Gibson, Rosalind S; Krebs, Nancy F; Lowe, Nicola M; Siekmann, Jonathan H; Raiten, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is required for multiple metabolic processes as a structural, regulatory, or catalytic ion. Cellular, tissue, and whole-body zinc homeostasis is tightly controlled to sustain metabolic functions over a wide range of zinc intakes, making it difficult to assess zinc insufficiency or excess. The BOND (Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development) Zinc Expert Panel recommends 3 measurements for estimating zinc status: dietary zinc intake, plasma zinc concentration (PZC), and height-for-age of growing infants and children. The amount of dietary zinc potentially available for absorption, which requires an estimate of dietary zinc and phytate, can be used to identify individuals and populations at risk of zinc deficiency. PZCs respond to severe dietary zinc restriction and to zinc supplementation; they also change with shifts in whole-body zinc balance and clinical signs of zinc deficiency. PZC cutoffs are available to identify individuals and populations at risk of zinc deficiency. However, there are limitations in using the PZC to assess zinc status. PZCs respond less to additional zinc provided in food than to a supplement administered between meals, there is considerable interindividual variability in PZCs with changes in dietary zinc, and PZCs are influenced by recent meal consumption, the time of day, inflammation, and certain drugs and hormones. Insufficient data are available on hair, urinary, nail, and blood cell zinc responses to changes in dietary zinc to recommend these biomarkers for assessing zinc status. Of the potential functional indicators of zinc, growth is the only one that is recommended. Because pharmacologic zinc doses are unlikely to enhance growth, a growth response to supplemental zinc is interpreted as indicating pre-existing zinc deficiency. Other functional indicators reviewed but not recommended for assessing zinc nutrition in clinical or field settings because of insufficient information are the activity or amounts of zinc-dependent enzymes

  16. Nitrate in groundwater of the United States, 1991-2003

    Burow, Karen R.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Rupert, Michael G.; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the United States indicates that concentrations are highest in shallow, oxic groundwater beneath areas with high N inputs. During 1991-2003, 5101 wells were sampled in 51 study areas throughout the U.S. as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The well networks reflect the existing used resource represented by domestic wells in major aquifers (major aquifer studies), and recently recharged groundwater beneath dominant land-surface activities (land-use studies). Nitrate concentrations were highest in shallow groundwater beneath agricultural land use in areas with well-drained soils and oxic geochemical conditions. Nitrate concentrations were lowest in deep groundwater where groundwater is reduced, or where groundwater is older and hence concentrations reflect historically low N application rates. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to identify the relative importance of N inputs, biogeochemical processes, and physical aquifer properties in explaining nitrate concentrations in groundwater. Factors ranked by reduction in sum of squares indicate that dissolved iron concentrations explained most of the variation in groundwater nitrate concentration, followed by manganese, calcium, farm N fertilizer inputs, percent well-drained soils, and dissolved oxygen. Overall, nitrate concentrations in groundwater are most significantly affected by redox conditions, followed by nonpoint-source N inputs. Other water-quality indicators and physical variables had a secondary influence on nitrate concentrations.

  17. A 5-day method for determination of soluble silicon concentrations in nonliquid fertilizer materials using a sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extractant followed by visible spectroscopy with heteropoly blue analysis: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Dennis; Rodrigues, Hugh; Kinsey, Charles; Korndörfer, Gaspar; Pereira, Hamilton; Buck, Guilherme; Datnoff, Lawrence; Miranda, Stephen; Provance-Bowley, Mary

    2013-01-01

    A 5-day method for determining the soluble silicon (Si) concentrations in nonliquid fertilizer products was developed using a sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)-ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) extractant followed by visible spectroscopy with heteropoly blue analysis at 660 nm. The 5-Day Na2CO3-NH4NO3 Soluble Si Extraction Method can be applied to quantify the plant-available Si in solid fertilizer products at levels ranging from 0.2 to 8.4% Si with an LOD of 0.06%, and LOQ of 0.20%. This Si extraction method for fertilizers correlates well with plant uptake of Si (r2 = 0.96 for a range of solid fertilizers) and is applicable to solid Si fertilizer products including blended products and beneficial substances. Fertilizer materials can be processed as received using commercially available laboratory chemicals and materials at ambient laboratory temperatures. The single-laboratory validation of the 5-Day Na2CO3-NH4NO3 Soluble Si Extraction Method has been approved by The Association of American Plant Food Control Officials for testing nonliquid Si fertilizer products.

  18. An unexpected truth: increasing nitrate loading can decrease nitrate export from watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarizadeh Bardsiri, A.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.

    2015-12-01

    The discharge of anthropogenic nitrate (e.g., from partially treated sewage, return flows from agricultural irrigation, and runoff from animal feeding operations) to streams can negatively impact both human and ecosystem health. Managing these many point and non-point sources to achieve some specific end-point—for example, reducing the annual mass of nitrate exported from a watershed—can be a challenge, particularly in rapidly growing urban areas. Adding to this complexity is the fact that streams are not inert: they too can add or remove nitrate through assimilation (e.g., by stream-associated plants and animals) and microbially-mediated biogeochemical reactions that occur in streambed sediments (e.g., respiration, ammonification, nitrification, denitrification). By coupling a previously published correlation for in-stream processing of nitrate [Mulholland et al., Nature, 2008, 452, 202-205] with a stream network model of the Jacksons Creek watershed (Victoria, Australia) I demonstrate that managing anthropogenic sources of stream nitrate without consideration of in-stream processing can result in a number of non-intuitive "surprises"; for example, wastewater effluent discharges that increase nitrate loading but decrease in-stream nitrate concentrations can reduce the mass of nitrate exported from a watershed.

  19. Zinc and its importance for human health: An integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Roohani, Nazanin; Hurrell, Richard; Kelishadi, Roya; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Since its first discovery in an Iranian male in 1961, zinc deficiency in humans is now known to be an important malnutrition problem world-wide. It is more prevalent in areas of high cereal and low animal food consumption. The diet may not necessarily be low in zinc, but its bio-availability plays a major role in its absorption. Phytic acid is the main known inhibitor of zinc. Compared to adults, infants, children, adolescents, pregnant, and lactating women have increased requirements for zinc and thus, are at increased risk of zinc depletion. Zinc deficiency during growth periods results in growth failure. Epidermal, gastrointestinal, central nervous, immune, skeletal, and reproductive systems are the organs most affected clinically by zinc deficiency. Clinical diagnosis of marginal Zn deficiency in humans remains problematic. So far, blood plasma/serum zinc concentration, dietary intake, and stunting prevalence are the best known indicators of zinc deficiency. Four main intervention strategies for combating zinc deficiency include dietary modification/diversification, supplementation, fortification, and bio-fortification. The choice of each method depends on the availability of resources, technical feasibility, target group, and social acceptance. In this paper, we provide a review on zinc biochemical and physiological functions, metabolism including, absorption, excretion, and homeostasis, zinc bio-availability (inhibitors and enhancers), human requirement, groups at high-risk, consequences and causes of zinc deficiency, evaluation of zinc status, and prevention strategies of zinc deficiency. PMID:23914218

  20. Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium, and lead in the liver and kidneys of dogs according to age, gender, and the occurrence of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb) in canine liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla, and the association of these concentrations with age, gender, and occurrence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Tissues from 50 dogs were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cu, Zn, and Mn levels were highest in the liver followed by the renal cortex and renal medulla. The highest Sr, Cd, and Se concentrations were measured in the renal cortex while lower levels were found in the renal medulla and liver. Female dogs had higher tissue concentrations of Sr (liver and renal medulla), Cd (liver), Zn (liver and renal cortex), Cr (liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla), and Pb (liver) than male animals. Except for Mn and Sb, age-dependent variations were observed for all element concentrations in the canine tissues. Hepatic Cd and Cr concentrations were higher in dogs with CKD. In conclusion, the present results provide new knowledge about the storage of specific elements in canine liver and kidneys, and can be considered important reference data for diagnostic methods and further investigations. PMID:25234328

  1. Sustainability of natural attenuation of nitrate in agricultural aquifers

    Green, Christopher T.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Increased concentrations of nitrate in groundwater in agricultural areas, coinciding with increased use of chemical and organic fertilizers, have raised concern because of risks to environmental and human health. At some sites, these problems are mitigated by natural attenuation of nitrate as a result of microbially mediated reactions. Results from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research under the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program show that reactions of dissolved nitrate with solid aquifer minerals and organic carbon help lower nitrate concentrations in groundwater beneath agricultural fields. However, increased fluxes of nitrate cause ongoing depletion of the finite pool of solid reactants. Consumption of the solid reactants diminishes the capacity of the aquifer to remove nitrate, calling into question the long-term sustainability of these natural attenuation processes.

  2. On-site semi-quantitative analysis for ammonium nitrate detection using digital image colourimetry.

    PubMed

    Choodum, Aree; Boonsamran, Pichapat; NicDaeid, Niamh; Wongniramaikul, Worawit

    2015-12-01

    Digital image colourimetry was successfully applied in the semi-quantitative analysis of ammonium nitrate using Griess's test with zinc reduction. A custom-built detection box was developed to enable reproducible lighting of samples, and was used with the built-in webcams of a netbook and an ultrabook for on-site detection. The webcams were used for colour imaging of chemical reaction products in the samples, while the netbook was used for on-site colour analysis. The analytical performance was compared to a commercial external webcam and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The relationship between Red-Green-Blue intensities and ammonium nitrate concentration was investigated. The green channel intensity (IG) was the most sensitive for the pink-violet products from ammonium nitrate that revealed a spectrometric absorption peak at 546 nm. A wide linear range (5 to 250 mgL⁻¹) with a high sensitivity was obtained with the built-in webcam of the ultrabook. A considerably lower detection limit (1.34 ± 0.05mgL⁻¹) was also obtained using the ultrabook, in comparison with the netbook (2.6 ± 0.2 mgL⁻¹), the external web cam (3.4 ± 0.1 mgL⁻¹) and the DSLR (8.0 ± 0.5 mgL⁻¹). The best inter-day precision (over 3 days) was obtained with the external webcam (0.40 to 1.34%RSD), while the netbook and the ultrabook had 0.52 to 3.62% and 1.25 to 4.99% RSDs, respectively. The relative errors were +3.6, +5.6 and -7.1%, on analysing standard ammonium nitrate solutions of known conce