Science.gov

Sample records for zinc oxide nanocrystals

  1. Low capping group surface density on zinc oxide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carolyn N; Schimpf, Alina M; Gamelin, Daniel R; Mayer, James M

    2014-09-23

    The ligand shell of colloidal nanocrystals can dramatically affect their stability and reaction chemistry. We present a methodology to quantify the dodecylamine (DDA) capping shell of colloidal zinc oxide nanocrystals in a nonpolar solvent. Using NMR spectroscopy, three different binding regimes are observed: strongly bound, weakly associated, and free in solution. The surface density of bound DDA is constant over a range of nanocrystal sizes, and is low compared to both predictions of the number of surface cations and maximum coverages of self-assembled monolayers. The density of strongly bound DDA ligands on the as-prepared ZnO NCs is 25% of the most conservative estimate of the maximum surface DDA density. Thus, these NCs do not resemble the common picture of a densely capped surface ligand layer. Annealing the ZnO NCs in molten DDA for 12 h at 160 °C, which is thought to remove surface hydroxide groups, resulted in a decrease of the weakly associated DDA and an increase in the density of strongly bound DDA, to ca. 80% of the estimated density of a self-assembled monolayer on a flat ZnO surface. These findings suggest that as-prepared nanocrystal surfaces contain hydroxide groups (protons on the ZnO surfaces) that inhibit strong binding of DDA.

  2. Eco-friendly approach towards green synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals and its potential applications.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Yi, Young-Joo; Cho, Min; Jang, Jum-Suk; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated a novel green route for synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals using Prunus × yedoensis Matsumura leaf extract as a reducing agent without using any surfactant or external energy. Standard characterization studies were carried out to confirm the obtained product using UV-Vis spectra, SEM-EDS, FTIR, TEM, and XRD. In addition, the synthesized ZnO nanocrystals were coated onto fabric and leather samples to study their bacteriostatic effect against odor-causing bacteria Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Zinc oxide nanocrystal-coated fabric and leather showed good activity against both bacteria.

  3. Colloidal infrared reflective and transparent conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Buonsanti, Raffaella; Milliron, Delia J

    2015-02-24

    The present invention provides a method of preparing aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) injecting a precursor mixture of a zinc precursor, an aluminum precursor, an amine, and a fatty acid in a solution of a vicinal diol in a non-coordinating solvent, thereby resulting in a reaction mixture, (2) precipitating the nanocrystals from the reaction mixture, thereby resulting in a final precipitate, and (3) dissolving the final precipitate in an apolar solvent. The present invention also provides a dispersion. In an exemplary embodiment, the dispersion includes (1) nanocrystals that are well separated from each other, where the nanocrystals are coated with surfactants and (2) an apolar solvent where the nanocrystals are suspended in the apolar solvent. The present invention also provides a film. In an exemplary embodiment, the film includes (1) a substrate and (2) nanocrystals that are evenly distributed on the substrate.

  4. Tunable infrared absorption and visible transparency of colloidal aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Buonsanti, Raffaella; Llordes, Anna; Aloni, Shaul; Helms, Brett A; Milliron, Delia J

    2011-11-09

    Plasmonic nanocrystals have been attracting a lot of attention both for fundamental studies and different applications, from sensing to imaging and optoelectronic devices. Transparent conductive oxides represent an interesting class of plasmonic materials in addition to metals and vacancy-doped semiconductor quantum dots. Herein, we report a rational synthetic strategy of high-quality colloidal aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals. The presence of substitutional aluminum in the zinc oxide lattice accompanied by the generation of free electrons is proved for the first time by tunable surface plasmon absorption in the infrared region both in solution and in thin films.

  5. Atmospheric-pressure glow plasma synthesis of plasmonic and photoluminescent zinc oxide nanocrystals

    SciT

    Bilik, N., E-mail: bilik006@umn.edu, E-mail: kortshagen@umn.edu; Greenberg, B. L.; Yang, J.

    In this paper, we present a large-volume (non-micro) atmospheric pressure glow plasma capable of rapid, large-scale zinc oxide nanocrystal synthesis and deposition (up to 400 μg/min), whereas in the majority of the literature, nanoparticles are synthesized using micro-scale or filamentary plasmas. The reactor is an RF dielectric barrier discharge with a non-uniform gap spacing. This design encourages pre-ionization during the plasma breakdown, making the discharge uniform over a large volume. The produced zinc oxide nanocrystals typically have diameters ranging from 4 to 15 nm and exhibit photoluminescence at ≈550 nm and localized surface plasmon resonance at ≈1900 cm{sup −1} due to oxygen vacancies. Themore » particle size can be tuned to a degree by varying the gas temperature and the precursor mixing ratio.« less

  6. Phytofabrication of bioinspired zinc oxide nanocrystals for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Jang, Jum-Suk; Yi, Young-Joo; Han, Sang-Sub; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Kwang-Min; Cho, Min; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated a novel green route for synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using the extract of young cones of Pinus densiflora as a reducing agent. Standard characterization studies were carried out to confirm the obtained product using UV-Vis spectra, SEM-EDS, FTIR, and XRD. TEM images showed that various shapes of ZnO NPs were synthesized, including hexagonal (wurtzite), triangular, spherical, and oval-shaped particles, with average sizes between 10 and 100 nm. The synthesized ZnO NPs blended with the young pine cone extract have very good activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens, similar to that of commercial ZnO NPs.

  7. Nanocrystal floating gate memory with solution-processed indium-zinc-tin-oxide channel and colloidal silver nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Quanli; Ha, Sang-Hyub; Lee, Hyun Ho; Yoon, Tae-Sik

    2011-12-01

    A nanocrystal (NC) floating gate memory with solution-processed indium-zinc-tin-oxide (IZTO) channel and silver (Ag) NCs embedded in thin gate dielectric layer (SiO2(30 nm)/Al2O3(3 nm)) was fabricated. Both the IZTO channel and colloidal Ag NC layers were prepared by spin-coating and subsequent annealing, and dip-coating process, respectively. A threshold voltage shift up to ~0.9 V, corresponding to the electron density of 6.5 × 1011 cm-2, at gate pulsing <=10 V was achieved by the charging of high density NCs. These results present the successful non-volatile memory characteristics of an oxide-semiconductor transistor fabricated through solution processes.

  8. Enhanced biostability and cellular uptake of zinc oxide nanocrystals shielded with a phospholipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Dumontel, B; Canta, M; Engelke, H; Chiodoni, A; Racca, L; Ancona, A; Limongi, T; Canavese, G; Cauda, V

    2017-11-28

    The widespread use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, including therapeutic drug delivery or stimuli-responsive activation, as well as imaging, imposes a careful control over the colloidal stability and long-term behaviour of ZnO in biological media. Moreover, the effect of ZnO nanostructures on living cells, in particular cancer cells, is still under debate. This paper discusses the role of surface chemistry and charge of zinc oxide nanocrystals, of around 15 nm in size, which influence their behaviour in biological fluids and effect on cancer cells. In particular, we address this problem by modifying the surface of pristine ZnO nanocrystals (NCs), rich of hydroxyl groups, with positively charged amino-propyl chains or, more innovatively, by self-assembling a double-lipidic membrane, shielding the ZnO NCs. Our findings show that the prolonged immersion in simulated human plasma and in the cell culture medium leads to highly colloidally dispersed ZnO NCs only when coated by the lipidic bilayer. In contrast, the pristine and amine-functionalized NCs form huge aggregates after already one hour of immersion. Partial dissolution of these two samples into potentially cytotoxic Zn 2+ cations takes place, together with the precipitation of phosphate and carbonate salts on the NCs' surface. When exposed to living HeLa cancer cells, higher amounts of lipid-shielded ZnO NCs are internalized with respect to the other samples, thus showing a reduced cytotoxicity, based on the same amount of internalized NCs. These results pave the way for the development of novel theranostic platforms based on ZnO NCs. The new formulation of ZnO shielded with a lipid-bilayer will prevent strong aggregation and premature degradation into toxic by-products, and promote a highly efficient cell uptake for further therapeutic or diagnostic functions.

  9. Effect of protons on the redox chemistry of colloidal zinc oxide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carolyn N; Braten, Miles; Soria, Ashley; Gamelin, Daniel R; Mayer, James M

    2013-06-12

    Electron transfer (ET) reactions of colloidal 3-5 nm diameter ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) with molecular reagents are explored in aprotic solvents. Addition of an excess of the one-electron reductant Cp*2Co (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) gives NCs that are reduced by up to 1-3 electrons per NC. Protons can be added stoichiometrically to the NCs by either a photoreduction/oxidation sequence or by addition of acid. The added protons facilitate the reduction of the ZnO NCs. In the presence of acid, NC reduction by Cp*2Co can be increased to over 15 electrons per NC. The weaker reductant Cp*2Cr transfers electrons only to ZnO NCs in the presence of protons. Cp*2M(+) counterions are much less effective than protons at stabilizing reduced NCs. With excess Cp*2Co or Cp*2Cr, the extent of reduction increases roughly linearly with the number of protons added. Some of the challenges in understanding these results are discussed.

  10. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  11. Tracing of Zinc Nanocrystals in the Anterior Pituitary of Zinc-Deficient Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kuldeep, Anjana; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to trace zinc nanocrystals in the anterior pituitary of zinc-deficient Wistar rats by using autometallographic technique. Male Wistar rats (30-40 days of age, pre-pubertal period) of 40-50 g body weight were divided into the following: the ZC (zinc control) group-fed with 100 ppm zinc in diet, the ZD (zinc-deficient) group-fed with zinc-deficient (1.00 ppm) diet and the PF (pair-fed) group-received 100 ppm zinc in diet. The experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. Pituitary was removed and processed for the autometallographic technique. The control and pair-fed groups retained their normal morphological features. However, male Wistar rats fed on zinc-deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks displayed a wide range of symptoms such as significant (P < 0.05) decrease in diet consumption, body weight and pituitary weight and decrease in gradation of intensity of zinc nanocrystals in the nuclei. The present findings suggest that the dietary zinc deficiency causes decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals localization and their distribution in the pituitary thereby contributing to the dysfunction of the pituitary of the male Wistar rats. The severity of zinc deficiency symptoms progressed after the second week of the experiment. Decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals attenuates the pituitary function which would exert its affect on other endocrine organs impairing their functions indicating that the metabolic regulation of pituitary is mediated to a certain extent by zinc and/or hypothalamus-hypophysial system which also reflects its essentiality during the period of growth.

  12. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  13. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  14. Direct observation of narrow mid-infrared plasmon linewidths of single metal oxide nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Johns, Robert W.; Bechtel, Hans A.; Runnerstrom, Evan L.; ...

    2016-05-13

    Infrared-responsive doped metal oxide nanocrystals are an emerging class of plasmonic materials whose localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) can be resonant with molecular vibrations. This presents a distinctive opportunity to manipulate light-matter interactions to redirect chemical or spectroscopic outcomes through the strong local electric fields they generate. Here we report a technique for measuring single nanocrystal absorption spectra of doped metal oxide nanocrystals, revealing significant spectral inhomogeneity in their mid-infrared LSPRs. Our analysis suggests dopant incorporation is heterogeneous beyond expectation based on a statistical distribution of dopants. The broad ensemble linewidths typically observed in these materials result primarily from sammore » ple heterogeneity and not from strong electronic damping associated with lossy plasmonic materials. In fact, single nanocrystal spectra reveal linewidths as narrow as 600 cm -1 in aluminium-doped zinc oxide, a value less than half the ensemble linewidth and markedly less than homogeneous linewidths of gold nanospheres.« less

  15. Iron Oxide Nanocrystals for Magnetic Hyperthermia Applications

    PubMed Central

    Armijo, Leisha M.; Brandt, Yekaterina I.; Mathew, Dimple; Yadav, Surabhi; Maestas, Salomon; Rivera, Antonio C.; Cook, Nathaniel C.; Withers, Nathan J.; Smolyakov, Gennady A.; Adolphi, Natalie; Monson, Todd C.; Huber, Dale L.; Smyth, Hugh D. C.; Osiński, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic nanocrystals have been investigated extensively in the past several years for several potential applications, such as information technology, MRI contrast agents, and for drug conjugation and delivery. A specific property of interest in biomedicine is magnetic hyperthermia—an increase in temperature resulting from the thermal energy released by magnetic nanocrystals in an external alternating magnetic field. Iron oxide nanocrystals of various sizes and morphologies were synthesized and tested for specific losses (heating power) using frequencies of 111.1 kHz and 629.2 kHz, and corresponding magnetic field strengths of 9 and 25 mT. Polymorphous nanocrystals as well as spherical nanocrystals and nanowires in paramagnetic to ferromagnetic size range exhibited good heating power. A remarkable 30 °C temperature increase was observed in a nanowire sample at 111 kHz and magnetic field of 25 mT (19.6 kA/m), which is very close to the typical values of 100 kHz and 20 mT used in medical treatments. PMID:28348300

  16. Synthesis of ligand-stabilized metal oxide nanocrystals and epitaxial core/shell nanocrystals via a lower-temperature esterification process.

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Shun; Zaikova, Tatiana; Masuko, Keiichiro; Hutchison, James E

    2014-01-28

    The properties of metal oxide nanocrystals can be tuned by incorporating mixtures of matrix metal elements, adding metal ion dopants, or constructing core/shell structures. However, high-temperature conditions required to synthesize these nanocrystals make it difficult to achieve the desired compositions, doping levels, and structural control. We present a lower temperature synthesis of ligand-stabilized metal oxide nanocrystals that produces crystalline, monodisperse nanocrystals at temperatures well below the thermal decomposition point of the precursors. Slow injection (0.2 mL/min) of an oleic acid solution of the metal oleate complex into an oleyl alcohol solvent at 230 °C results in a rapid esterification reaction and the production of metal oxide nanocrystals. The approach produces high yields of crystalline, monodisperse metal oxide nanoparticles containing manganese, iron, cobalt, zinc, and indium within 20 min. Synthesis of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) can be accomplished with good control of the tin doping levels. Finally, the method makes it possible to perform epitaxial growth of shells onto nanocrystal cores to produce core/shell nanocrystals.

  17. Structural phase transitions in niobium oxide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvakkumar, R.; Hong, Sun Ig

    2015-09-01

    Niobium oxide nanocrystals were successfully synthesized employing the green synthesis method. Phase formation, microstructure and compositional properties of 1, 4 and 7 days incubation treated samples after calcinations at 450 °C were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman, photoluminescence (PL), infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectra and transmission electron microscopic characterizations. It was observed that phase formation of Nb2O5 nanocrystals was dependent upon the incubation period required to form stable metal oxides. The characteristic results clearly revealed that with increasing incubation and aging, the transformation of cubic, orthorhombic and monoclinic phases were observed. The uniform heating at room temperature (32 °C) and the ligation of niobium atoms due to higher phenolic constituents of utilized rambutan during aging processing plays a vital role in structural phase transitions in niobium oxide nanocrystals. The defects over a period of incubation and the intensities of the PL spectra changing over a period of aging were related to the amount of the defects induced by the phase transition.

  18. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-07-27

    Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  19. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  20. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. The importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications is discussed. PMID:25436035

  1. Living Nanocrystals: Synthesis of Precisely Defined Metal Oxide Nanocrystals Through a Continuous Growth Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansons, Adam Wayne

    Colloidal nanocrystals offer new and improved performance in applications as well as less environmental impact when compared to traditional device fabrication methods. The important properties that enable improved applications are a direct result of nanocrystal structure. While there have been many great advances in the production of colloidal nanocrystals over the past three decades, precise, atomic-level control of the size, composition, and structure of the inorganic core remains challenging. Rather than dictate these material aspects through traditional synthetic routes, this dissertation details the development and exploitation of a colloidal nanocrystal synthetic method inspired by polymerization reactions. Living polymerization reactions offer precise control of polymer size and structure and have tremendously advanced polymer science, allowing the intuitive production of polymers and block co-polymers of well-defined molecular weights. Similarly, living nanocrystal synthetic methods allow an enhanced level of structural control, granting the synthesis of binary, doped, and core/shell nanocrystals of well-defined size, composition, and structure. This improved control in turn grants enhanced nanocrystal property performance and deepens our understanding of structure/property relationships. This dissertation defines living nanocrystal growth and demonstrates the potential of the living methods in the colloidal production of oxide nanocrystals. After a brief introduction, living growth is defined and discussed in the context of synthetic prerequisites, attributes, and outcomes. Living growth is also compared to more traditional colloidal nanocrystal synthetic methods. The following chapters then demonstrate the precise control living approaches offer in three separate studies; the first highlights sub-nanometer control of nanocrystal size from 2-22+ nm in diameter. Next the improvement in nanocrystal composition is illustrated using several transition metal

  2. In vitro cytotoxicity effect and antibacterial performance of human lung epithelial cells A549 activity of Zinc oxide doped TiO2 nanocrystals: Investigation of bio-medical application by chemical method.

    PubMed

    Kaviyarasu, K; Geetha, N; Kanimozhi, K; Maria Magdalane, C; Sivaranjani, S; Ayeshamariam, A; Kennedy, J; Maaza, M

    2017-05-01

    We report the synthesis of high quality ZnO doped TiO 2 nanocrystals by chemical method at room temperature (RT), it can cause serious oxidative stress and DNA damage to human lung epithelial cells (A549) lines. Our aim in this study, to reduce the cytotoxicity effect of ZnO doped TiO 2 nanocrystals are widely in biological fields. Several studies have been performed to understand the influence of ZnO doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 -NPs) on cell function; however the effects of nanoparticle against to exposure on the cell membrane have been duly addressed fascinatingly so far. However, In this interaction, which may alter cell metabolism and integrity, it is one of the importance to understand the modifications of the cell membrane, mechanisms of pulmonary A549 cell lines nanoparticles were uptake and the molecular pathway during the initial cell responses are still unclear and much more investigative efforts are need to properly characterize the ZnO doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were reported successfully. In particular of the epithelial cells, upon particles are exposed human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) to various concentrations of composition, structure and morphology of the nanocrystals were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD assessed the crystal structure of the nanocrystals which identified peaks associated with (002), (100) and (101) planes of hexagonal wurtzite-type ZnO with lattice constants of a=b=3.249Å and c=5.219Å. The IR results showed high purity of products and indicated that the nanocrystals are made up of TiO and ZnO bonds. The Photoluminescence (PL) spectra are dominated by a strong narrow band edge emission tunable in the blue region of the visible spectra indicating a narrow size distribution of ZnO/TiO 2 nanocrystals which exhibits antibacterial activity over a broad range of bacterial species and in particular against Stre. Mut where it out competes four other

  3. Charge transport in metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnerstrom, Evan Lars

    There is probably no class of materials more varied, more widely used, or more ubiquitous than metal oxides. Depending on their composition, metal oxides can exhibit almost any number of properties. Of particular interest are the ways in which charge is transported in metal oxides: devices such as displays, touch screens, and smart windows rely on the ability of certain metal oxides to conduct electricity while maintaining visible transparency. Smart windows, fuel cells, and other electrochemical devices additionally rely on efficient transport of ionic charge in and around metal oxides. Colloidal synthesis has enabled metal oxide nanocrystals to emerge as a relatively new but highly tunable class of materials. Certain metal oxide nanocrystals, particularly highly doped metal oxides, have been enjoying rapid development in the last decade. As in myriad other materials systems, structure dictates the properties of metal oxide nanocrystals, but a full understanding of how nanocrystal synthesis, the processing of nanocrystal-based materials, and the structure of nanocrystals relate to the resulting properties of nanocrystal-based materials is still nascent. Gaining a fundamental understanding of and control over these structure-property relationships is crucial to developing a holistic understanding of metal oxide nanocrystals. The unique ability to tune metal oxide nanocrystals by changing composition through the introduction of dopants or by changing size and shape affords a way to study the interplay between structure, processing, and properties. This overall goal of this work is to chemically synthesize colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, process them into useful materials, characterize charge transport in materials based on colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, and develop ways to manipulate charge transport. In particular, this dissertation characterizes how the charge transport properties of metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials depend on their processing and

  4. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use...

  5. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in...

  6. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  9. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.1991...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. Inhibition of palm oil oxidation by zeolite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Awala, Hussein; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Rigaud, Baptiste; Ling, Tau Chuan; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Koleva, Iskra Z; Vayssilov, Georgi N; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-05-13

    The efficiency of zeolite X nanocrystals (FAU-type framework structure) containing different extra-framework cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)) in slowing the thermal oxidation of palm oil is reported. The oxidation study of palm oil is conducted in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals (0.5 wt %) at 150 °C. Several characterization techniques such as visual analysis, colorimetry, rheometry, total acid number (TAN), FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and Karl Fischer analyses are applied to follow the oxidative evolution of the oil. It was found that zeolite nanocrystals decelerate the oxidation of palm oil through stabilization of hydroperoxides, which are the primary oxidation product, and concurrently via adsorption of the secondary oxidation products (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters). In addition to the experimental results, periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to elucidate further the oxidation process of the palm oil in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals. The DFT calculations show that the metal complexes formed with peroxides are more stable than the complexes with alkenes with the same ions. The peroxides captured in the zeolite X nanocrystals consequently decelerate further oxidation toward formation of acids. Unlike the monovalent alkali metal cations in the zeolite X nanocrystals (K(+), Na(+), and Li(+)), Ca(2+) reduced the acidity of the oil by neutralizing the acidic carboxylate compounds to COO(-)(Ca(2+))1/2 species.

  13. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc...). It is principally composed of Zn. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with zinc oxide may...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc...

  16. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; ...

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λ excit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton ismore » observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.« less

  17. Defect Chemistry and Plasmon Physics of Colloidal Metal Oxide Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Lounis, Sebastien D; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Llordés, Anna; Milliron, Delia J

    2014-05-01

    Plasmonic nanocrystals of highly doped metal oxides have seen rapid development in the past decade and represent a class of materials with unique optoelectronic properties. In this Perspective, we discuss doping mechanisms in metal oxides and the accompanying physics of free carrier scattering, both of which have implications in determining the properties of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in these nanocrystals. The balance between activation and compensation of dopants limits the free carrier concentration of the most common metal oxides, placing a ceiling on the LSPR frequency. Furthermore, because of ionized impurity scattering of the oscillating plasma by dopant ions, scattering must be treated in a fundamentally different way in semiconductor metal oxide materials when compared with conventional metals. Though these effects are well-understood in bulk metal oxides, further study is needed to understand their manifestation in nanocrystals and corresponding impact on plasmonic properties, and to develop materials that surpass current limitations in free carrier concentration.

  18. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  20. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  1. On the formation of nanocrystalline active zinc oxide from zinc hydroxide carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; Dowd, Annette; McDonagh, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    The decomposition of zinc hydroxide carbonate, Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 (ZHC), into the high surface area form of ZnO known as "active zinc oxide" is examined. In particular, the nucleation and evolution of the ZnO nanocrystals is of interest as the size of these particles controls the activity of the product. The decomposition process was studied using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and BET surface area measurements. At about 240 °C ZHC decomposes to porous ZnO in a single step. The product material has a specific surface area in the range of 47-65 m2 g-1 and initially has a crystallite size that is of the order of 10 nm. A further increase in temperature, however, causes the particles to coarsen to over 25 nm in diameter. In principle, the coarsening phenomenon may be interrupted to control the particle size.

  2. Directed spatial organization of zinc oxide nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Julia [Albuquerque, NM; Liu, Jun [Richland, WA

    2009-02-17

    A method for controllably forming zinc oxide nanostructures on a surface via an organic template, which is formed using a stamp prepared from pre-defined relief structures, inking the stamp with a solution comprising self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecules, contacting the stamp to the surface, such as Ag sputtered on Si, and immersing the surface with the patterned SAM molecules with a zinc-containing solution with pH control to form zinc oxide nanostructures on the bare Ag surface.

  3. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications. Zinc oxide shall conform to the following...

  4. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.1991...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product...

  7. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The... (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Zinc oxide may be safely used in cosmetics, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice...

  8. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  9. Processing of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanocrystal Dispersions for Thin Film Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Bryce Arthur

    A scalable and inexpensive renewable energy source is needed to meet the expected increase in electricity demand throughout the developed and developing world in the next 15 years without contributing further to global warming through CO2 emissions. Photovoltaics may meet this need but current technologies are less than ideal requiring complex manufacturing processes and/or use of toxic, rare-earth materials. Copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu 2ZnSnS4, CZTS) solar cells offer a true "green" alternative based upon non-toxic and abundant elements. Solution-based processes utilizing CZTS nanocrystal dispersions followed by high temperature annealing have received significant research attention due to their compatibility with traditional roll-to-roll coating processes. In this work, CZTS nanocrystal (5-35 nm diameters) dispersions were utilized as a production pathway to form solar absorber layers. Aerosol-based coating methods (aerosol jet printing and ultrasonic spray coating) were optimized for formation of dense, crack-free CZTS nanocrystal coatings. The primary variables underlying determination of coating morphology within the aerosol-coating parameter space were investigated. It was found that the liquid content of the aerosol droplets at the time of substrate impingement play a critical role. Evaporation of the liquid from the aerosol droplets during coating was altered through changes to coating parameters as well as to the CZTS nanocrystal dispersions. In addition, factors influencing conversion of CZTS nanocrystal coatings into dense, large-grained polycrystalline films suitable for solar cell development during thermal annealing were studied. The roles nanocrystal size, carbon content, sodium uptake, and sulfur pressure were found to have pivotal roles in film microstructure evolution. The effects of these parameters on film morphology, grain growth rates, and chemical makeup were analyzed from electron microscopy images as well as compositional analysis

  10. Solvothermal crystallization of nanocrystals of metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, S.; Amino, H.; Iwamoto, S.; Inoue, M.

    2008-07-01

    Solvothermal crystallization of the hydroxide gels obtained by hydrolysis of alkoxides (Zr, Ta, Nb, ln, Sn, Ti and Al) was examined. Nanocrystals having high surface areas (SBET > 170 m2 g-1) were obtained except for the product derived from indium isopropoxide. The effect of water in organic solvent upon the crystallinity of the product was investigated. The increase in the activity of water by using high concentration of alkoxide or intentional addition of water to the solvothermal medium led to crystal growth of the products. In contrast, decrease in activity of water by adding ethylene glycol before solvothermal treatment caused a decrease in crystallinity of the product.

  11. The impact of sintering temperature on structural, morphological and thermoelectric properties of zinc titanate nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, P.; Murugu thiruvalluvan, T. M. V.; Arivanandhan, M.; Jayakumari, T.; Anandan, P.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of sintering temperature and Ti:Zn ratio of precursor solutions on the structural, morphological and thermoelectric properties of Zinc titanate (TZO) nanocrystals have been investigated. TZO nanocrystals were synthesized by changing the molar ratio of precursors of Zn and Ti sources by sol-gel method. The synthesized materials were sintered at different temperatures and the formation of multi phases of TZO were analysed by x-ray diffraction studies. The morphological properties and composition of TZO samples were studied by FESEM, TEM and XPS analysis. The thermoelectric properties of the TZO have been studied by measuring the Seebeck coefficient of the materials at various temperature. It was observed that the Seebeck coefficient of TZO sample increases with increasing Zn content in the sample especially at high temperature.

  12. Novel green synthetic strategy to prepare ZnO nanocrystals using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) peel extract and its antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Nathanael, A Joseph; Sundrarajan, M; Hong, S I

    2014-08-01

    In the present investigation, we report a sustainable novel green synthetic strategy to synthesis zinc oxide nanocrystals. This is the first report on sustainable biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals employing Nephelium lappaceum L., peel extract as a natural ligation agent. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals was carried out via zinc-ellagate complex formation using rambutan peel wastes. The successful formation of zinc oxide nanocrystals was confirmed employing standard characterisation studies. A possible mechanism for the formation of ZnO nanocrystals with rambutan peel extract was also proposed. The prepared ZnO nanocrystals were coated on the cotton fabric and their antibacterial activity were analyzed. ZnO nanocrystals coated cotton showed good antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), gram positive bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Volumetric flame synthesis of well-defined molybdenum oxide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Merchan-Merchan, Wilson; Saveliev, Alexei V; Desai, Milind

    2009-11-25

    Well-defined faceted inorganic Mo oxide nanocrystals are synthesized in the gas phase using a solid-fed-precursor flame synthesis method. The solid crystals have rectangular cross-section with characteristic size of 10-20 nm and with lengths ranging from 50 nm to a few hundred nanometres. A 1 mm diameter high purity Mo probe introduced in the oxygen-rich part of the flame serves as the material source. A combination of the strong temperature gradient and varying chemical species concentrations within the flame volume provides the ideal conditions for the rapid and direct formation of these unique nanocrystals. Oxidation and evaporation of MoO3 in the oxygen-rich zone are followed by reduction to MoO2 in the lower temperature, more fuel-rich zone. The MoO3 vapours formed are pushed in the direction of the gas flow and transformed into mature well-defined convex polyhedron nanocrystals bounded with six faces resembling rectangular parallelepipeds.

  14. A feasible strategy to balance the crystallinity and specific surface area of metal oxide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. P.; Xu, X. N.; Liu, Y. T.; Xu, M.; Deng, S. H.; Chen, Y.; Yuan, H.; Yu, F.; Huang, Y.; Zhao, K.; Xu, S.; Xiong, G.

    2017-04-01

    Practical, efficient synthesis of metal oxide nanocrystals with good crystallinity and high specific surface area by a modified polymer-network gel method is demonstrated, taking ZnO nanocrystals as an example. A novel stepwise heat treatment yields significant improvement in crystal quality. Such nanophase materials can effectively degrade common organic dyes under solar radiation and can perform very well in photo-assisted detection of NO2 gas. Other typical metal oxide nanocrystals with good crystallinity and high specific surface area were also synthesized successfully under similar conditions. This work provides a general strategy for the synthesis of metal oxide nanocrystals, balancing the crystallinity and specific surface area.

  15. Computational predictions of zinc oxide hollow structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuoc, Vu Ngoc; Huan, Tran Doan; Thao, Nguyen Thi

    2018-03-01

    Nanoporous materials are emerging as potential candidates for a wide range of technological applications in environment, electronic, and optoelectronics, to name just a few. Within this active research area, experimental works are predominant while theoretical/computational prediction and study of these materials face some intrinsic challenges, one of them is how to predict porous structures. We propose a computationally and technically feasible approach for predicting zinc oxide structures with hollows at the nano scale. The designed zinc oxide hollow structures are studied with computations using the density functional tight binding and conventional density functional theory methods, revealing a variety of promising mechanical and electronic properties, which can potentially find future realistic applications.

  16. Nanocrystal structures

    DOEpatents

    Eisler, Hans J [Stoneham, MA; Sundar, Vikram C [Stoneham, MA; Walsh, Michael E [Everett, MA; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM; Bawendi, Moungi G [Cambridge, MA; Smith, Henry I [Sudbury, MA

    2008-12-30

    A structure including a grating and a semiconductor nanocrystal layer on the grating, can be a laser. The semiconductor nanocrystal layer can include a plurality of semiconductor nanocrystals including a Group II-VI compound, the nanocrystals being distributed in a metal oxide matrix. The grating can have a periodicity from 200 nm to 500 nm.

  17. Nanocrystal structures

    DOEpatents

    Eisler, Hans J.; Sundar, Vikram C.; Walsh, Michael E.; Klimov, Victor I.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Smith, Henry I.

    2006-12-19

    A structure including a grating and a semiconductor nanocrystal layer on the grating, can be a laser. The semiconductor nanocrystal layer can include a plurality of semiconductor nanocrystals including a Group II–VI compound, the nanocrystals being distributed in a metal oxide matrix. The grating can have a periodicity from 200 nm to 500 nm.

  18. Phase Stability and Transformations in Vanadium Oxide Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergerud, Amy Jo

    Vanadium oxides are both fascinating and complex, due in part to the many compounds and phases that can be stabilized as well as the phase transformations which occur between them. The metal to insulator transitions (MITs) that take place in vanadium oxides are particularly interesting for both fundamental and applied study as they can be induced by a variety of stimuli ( i.e., temperature, pressure, doping) and utilized in many applications (i.e., smart windows, sensors, phase change memory). Nanocrystals also tend to demonstrate interesting phase behavior, due in part to the enhanced influence of surface energy on material thermodynamics. Vanadium oxide nanocrystals are thus expected to demonstrate very interesting properties in regard to phase stability and phase transformations, although synthesizing vanadium oxides in nanocrystal form remains a challenge. Vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) is an example of a material that undergoes a MIT. For decades, the low temperature monoclinic phase and high temperature corundum phase were the only known crystal structures of V2O3. However, in 2011, a new metastable polymorph of V2O3 was reported with a cubic, bixbyite crystal structure. In Chapter 2, a colloidal route to bixbyite V2O 3 nanocrystals is presented. In addition to being one of the first reported observations of the bixbyite phase in V2O3, it is also one of the first successful colloidal syntheses of any of the vanadium oxides. The nanocrystals possess a flower-like morphology, the size and shape of which are dependent on synthesis time and temperature, respectively. An aminolysis reaction mechanism is determined from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data and the bixbyite crystal structure is confirmed by Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. Phase stability is assessed in both air and inert environments, confirming the metastable nature of the material. Upon heating in an inert atmosphere above 700°C, the nanocrystals irreversibly transform

  19. Preparation of core-shell Ti-Nb oxide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, David S. A.; Tsur, Yoed

    2008-01-01

    Nanosized powders of Ti-Nb oxide core-shell nanocrystals with atomic ratios of Nb/Ti = 0.11, 0.25, and 0.38 have been prepared by two preparation routes. The first route was co-precipitation, followed by␣annealing, using NbCl5 as a source of Nb. The second route was coating of pure TiO2 nanocrystals by Nb-isopropoxide in liquid medium, followed by impregnation of the Nb into the nanoparticles by annealing. Both methods yielded anatase nanocrystals with a Nb-rich shell and a core, which had much lower Nb loadings. The anatase structure solid solution (with Nb incorporated) was stable under annealing up to 760°C. The particle size remained within the nanometric scale ( <50 nm) under heat-treatment up to 760°C. It has been shown that the fabricated powders can be redispersed in aqueous media by simple ultrasound treatment, resulting in nanosized dispersions. Using a variety of analytical techniques, including depth profiling of single nanocrystallites by AES combined with sputtering by Ar ions, the mechanism of the core-shell structure creation was studied. It is proposed that the formation of the core-shell structure is governed by solubility limitations in the co-precipitation route and by solubility and diffusion limitations in the coating-incorporation route.

  20. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  1. Zinc oxide hierarchical nanostructures for photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukhnovets, O.; Semenova, A. A.; Levkevich, E. A.; Maximov, A. I.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we perform the study of zinc oxide hierarchical structures synthesized by the low-temperature hydrothermal method. The paper considers morphological properties of obtained structures. Photocatalytic activity of samples was analysed by methyl orange degradation under UV irradiation. The sufficient decrease in methyl orange has been demonstrated.

  2. Colloidal chemical synthesis and formation kinetics of uniformly sized nanocrystals of metals, oxides, and chalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Gu; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2008-12-01

    Nanocrystals exhibit interesting electrical, optical, magnetic, and chemical properties not achieved by their bulk counterparts. Consequently, to fully exploit the potential of nanocrystals, the synthesis of nanocrystals must focus on producing materials with uniform size and shape. Top-down physical processes can produce large quantities of nanocrystals, but controlling the size is difficult with these methods. On the other hand, colloidal chemical synthetic methods can produce uniform nanocrystals with a controlled particle size. In this Account, we present our synthesis of uniform nanocrystals of various shapes and materials, and we discuss the kinetics of nanocrystal formation. We employed four different synthetic approaches including thermal decomposition, nonhydrolytic sol-gel reactions, thermal reduction, and use of reactive chalcogen reagents. We synthesized uniform oxide nanocrystals via heat-up methods. This method involved slowly heat-up reaction mixtures composed of metal precursors, surfactants, and solvents from room temperature to high temperature. We then held reaction mixtures at an aging temperature for a few minutes to a few hours. Kinetics studies revealed a three-step mechanism for the synthesis of nanocrystals through the heat-up method with size distribution control. First, as metal precursors thermally decompose, monomers accumulate. At the aging temperature, burst nucleation occurs rapidly; at the end of this second phase, nucleation stops, but continued diffusion-controlled growth leads to size focusing to produce uniform nanocrystals. We used nonhydrolytic sol-gel reactions to synthesize various transition metal oxide nanocrystals. We employed ester elimination reactions for the synthesis of ZnO and TiO(2) nanocrystals. Uniform Pd nanoparticles were synthesized via a thermal reduction reaction induced by heating up a mixture of Pd(acac)(2), tri-n-octylphosphine, and oleylamine to the aging temperature. Similarly, we synthesized

  3. Alternate current magnetic property characterization of nonstoichiometric zinc ferrite nanocrystals for inductor fabrication via a solution based process

    SciT

    Yun, Hongseok; Kim, Jungkwun; Allen, Mark G.

    2016-03-21

    We investigate the ac magnetic behavior of solution processable, non-stoichiometric zinc ferrite nanocrystals with a series of sizes and zinc concentrations. Nearly monodisperse Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} nanocrystals (x = 0–0.25) with an average size ranging from 7.4 nm to 13.8 nm are synthesized by using a solvothermal method. All the nanocrystals are in a superparamagnetic state at 300 K, which is confirmed by Superconductive Quantum Interference Device magnetometry. Due to the doping of non-magnetic Zn{sup 2+} into A site of ferrite, the saturation magnetization of nanocrystals increases as the size and Zn concentration increases. The ac magnetic permeability measurements at radio frequencies reveal thatmore » the real part of the magnetic permeability of similarly sized ferrite nanocrystals can be enhanced by almost twofold as the Zn{sup 2+} doping level increases from 0 to 0.25. The integration of 12.3 nm Zn{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 2.75}O{sub 4} nanocrystals into a toroidal inductor and a solenoid inductor prepared via a simple solution cast process yields a higher quality factors than air core inductors with the same geometries up to 5 MHz and 9 MHz, respectively, which is in the regime of the switching frequencies for the advanced integrated power converters.« less

  4. Process for preparing zinc oxide-based sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar [Cary, NC; Turk, Brian Scott [Durham, NC; Gupta, Raghubir Prasad [Durham, NC

    2011-06-07

    The disclosure relates to zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  5. Monodispersed Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle-Dye Dyads and Triads

    SciT

    Gladfelter, Wayne L.; Blank, David A.; Mann, Kent R.

    The overall energy conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells depends on the combined efficiencies of light absorption, charge separation and charge transport. Dye-sensitized solar cells are photovoltaic devices in which a molecular dye absorbs light and uses this energy to initiate charge separation. The most efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) use nanocrystal titanium dioxide films to which are attached ruthenium complexes. Numerous studies have provided valuable insight into the dynamics of these and analogous photosystems, but the lack of site homogeneity in binding dye molecules to metal oxide films and nanocrystals (NCs) is a significant impediment to extracting fundamental details aboutmore » the electron transfer across the interface. Although zinc oxide is emerging as a potential semiconducting component in DSSCs, there is less known about the factors controlling charge separation across the dye/ZnO interface. Zinc oxide crystallizes in the wurtzite lattice and has a band gap of 3.37 eV. One of the features that makes ZnO especially attractive is the remarkable ability to control the morphology of the films. Using solution deposition processes, one can prepare NCs, nanorods and nanowires having a variety of shapes and dimensions. This project solved problems associated with film heterogeneity through the use of dispersible sensitizer/ZnO NC ensembles. The overarching goal of this research was to study the relationship between structure, energetics and dynamics in a set of synthetically controlled donor-acceptor dyads and triads. These studies provided access to unprecedented understanding of the light absorption and charge transfer steps that lie at the heart of DSSCs, thus enabling significant future advances in cell efficiencies. The approach began with the construction of well-defined dye-NC dyads that were sufficiently dispersible to allow the use of state of the art pulsed laser spectroscopic and kinetic methods to understand the charge

  6. Synthesis and characterization of some metal oxide nanocrystals by microwave irradiation

    SciT

    Rashad, M.; Gaber, A.; Abdelrahim, M. A.

    2013-12-16

    Copper oxide and cobalt oxide (CuO, Co3O4) nanocrystals (NCs) have been successfully prepared in a short time using microwave irradiation. The resulted powders of nanocrystals (NCs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements are also studied. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV–visible absorption spectroscopy of both kind of nanoparticels are illustrated. Optical absorption analysis indicated the direct band gap for both kinds of nanocrystals.

  7. Synthesis, Deposition, and Microstructure Development of Thin Films Formed by Sulfidation and Selenization of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernomordik, Boris David

    Significant reduction in greenhouse gas emission and pollution associated with the global power demand can be accomplished by supplying tens-of-terawatts of power with solar cell technologies. No one solar cell material currently on the market is poised to meet this challenge due to issues such as manufacturing cost, material shortage, or material toxicity. For this reason, there is increasing interest in efficient light-absorbing materials that are comprised of abundant and non-toxic elements for thin film solar cell. Among these materials are copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4, or CZTS), copper zinc tin selenide (Cu2ZnSnSe4, or CZTSe), and copper zinc tin sulfoselenide alloys [Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x )4, or CZTSSe]. Laboratory power conversion efficiencies of CZTSSe-based solar cells have risen to almost 13% in less than three decades of research. Meeting the terawatt challenge will also require low cost fabrication. CZTSSe thin films from annealed colloidal nanocrystal coatings is an example of solution-based methods that can reduce manufacturing costs through advantages such as high throughput, high material utilization, and low capital expenses. The film microstructure and grain size affects the solar cell performance. To realize low cost commercial production and high efficiencies of CZTSSe-based solar cells, it is necessary to understand the fundamental factors that affect crystal growth and microstructure evolution during CZTSSe annealing. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals were synthesized via thermolysis of single-source cation and sulfur precursors copper, zinc and tin diethyldithiocarbamates. The average nanocrystal size could be tuned between 2 nm and 40 nm, by varying the synthesis temperature between 150 °C and 340 °C. The synthesis is rapid and is completed in less than 10 minutes. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm that the nanocrystals are nominally

  8. The hemocompatibility of oxidized diamond nanocrystals for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Hung-Cheng; Hsieh, Feng-Jen; Chen, Ching-Pin; Chang, Ming-Yao; Hsieh, Patrick C H; Chen, Chia-Chun; Hung, Shain-Un; Wu, Che-Chih; Chang, Huan-Cheng

    2013-10-25

    Low-dimensional carbon-based nanomaterials have recently received enormous attention for biomedical applications. However, increasing evidence indicates that they are cytotoxic and can cause inflammatory responses in the body. Here, we show that monocrystalline nanodiamonds (NDs) synthesized by high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) methods and purified by air oxidation and strong oxidative acid treatments have excellent hemocompatibility with negligible hemolytic and thrombogenic activities. Cell viability assays with human primary endothelial cells suggested that the oxidized HPHT-NDs (dimensions of 35-500 nm) are non-cytotoxic. No significant elevation of the inflammatory cytokine levels of IL-1β and IL-6 was detected in mice after intravenous injection of the nanocrystals in vivo. Using a hindlimb-ischemia mouse model, we demonstrated that 35-nm NDs after covalent conjugation with polyarginine are useful as a drug delivery vehicle of heparin for prolonged anticoagulation treatment. The present study lays a solid foundation for further therapeutic applications of NDs in biomedicine.

  9. Selective epitaxial growth of zinc blende-derivative on wurtzite-derivative: the case of polytypic Cu2CdSn(S1-xSex)4 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liang; Fan, Feng-Jia; Gong, Ming; Ge, Jin; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Polytypic nanocrystals with zinc blende (ZB) cores and wurtzite (WZ) arms, such as tetrapod and octopod nanocrystals, have been widely reported. However, polytypic nanocrystals with WZ cores and ZB arms or ends have been rarely reported. Here, we report a facile, solution-based approach to the synthesis of polytypic Cu2CdSn(S1-xSex)4 (CCTSSe) nanocrystals with ZB-derivative selectively engineered on (000+/-2)WZ facets of WZ-derived cores. Accordingly, two typical morphologies, i.e., bullet-like nanocrystals with a WZ-derivative core and one ZB-derivative end, and rugby ball-like nanocrystals with a WZ-derivative core and two ZB-derivative ends, can be selectively prepared. The epitaxial growth mechanism is confirmed by the time-dependent experiments. The ratio of rugby ball-like and bullet-like polytypic CCTSSe nanocrystals can be tuned through changing the amount of Cd precursor to adjust the reactivity difference between (0002)WZ and (000-2)WZ facets. These unique polytypic CCTSSe nanocrystals may find applications in energetic semiconducting materials for energy conversion in the future.Polytypic nanocrystals with zinc blende (ZB) cores and wurtzite (WZ) arms, such as tetrapod and octopod nanocrystals, have been widely reported. However, polytypic nanocrystals with WZ cores and ZB arms or ends have been rarely reported. Here, we report a facile, solution-based approach to the synthesis of polytypic Cu2CdSn(S1-xSex)4 (CCTSSe) nanocrystals with ZB-derivative selectively engineered on (000+/-2)WZ facets of WZ-derived cores. Accordingly, two typical morphologies, i.e., bullet-like nanocrystals with a WZ-derivative core and one ZB-derivative end, and rugby ball-like nanocrystals with a WZ-derivative core and two ZB-derivative ends, can be selectively prepared. The epitaxial growth mechanism is confirmed by the time-dependent experiments. The ratio of rugby ball-like and bullet-like polytypic CCTSSe nanocrystals can be tuned through changing the amount of Cd precursor

  10. In situ functionalization and PEO coating of iron oxide nanocrystals using seeded emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kloust, Hauke; Schmidtke, Christian; Feld, Artur; Schotten, Theo; Eggers, Robin; Fittschen, Ursula E A; Schulz, Florian; Pöselt, Elmar; Ostermann, Johannes; Bastús, Neus G; Weller, Horst

    2013-04-16

    Herein we demonstrate that seeded emulsion polymerization is a powerful tool to produce multiply functionalized PEO coated iron oxide nanocrystals. Advantageously, by simple addition of functional surfactants, functional monomers, or functional polymerizable linkers-solely or in combinations thereof-during the seeded emulsion polymerization process, a broad range of in situ functionalized polymer-coated iron oxide nanocrystals were obtained. This was demonstrated by purposeful modulation of the zeta potential of encapsulated iron oxide nanocrystals and conjugation of a dyestuff. Successful functionalization was unequivocally proven by TXRF. Furthermore, the spatial position of the functional groups can be controlled by choosing the appropriate spacers. In conclusion, this methodology is highly amenable for combinatorial strategies and will spur rapid expedited synthesis and purposeful optimization of a broad scope of nanocrystals.

  11. Effect of Zinc Incorporation on the Performance of Red Light Emitting InP Core Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Xi, Lifei; Cho, Deok-Yong; Besmehn, Astrid; Duchamp, Martial; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lam, Yeng Ming; Kardynał, Beata E

    2016-09-06

    This report presents a systematic study on the effect of zinc (Zn) carboxylate precursor on the structural and optical properties of red light emitting InP nanocrystals (NCs). NC cores were assessed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). When moderate Zn:In ratios in the reaction pot were used, the incorporation of Zn in InP was insufficient to change the crystal structure or band gap of the NCs, but photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) increased dramatically compared with pure InP NCs. Zn was found to incorporate mostly in the phosphate layer on the NCs. PL, PLQY, and time-resolved PL (TRPL) show that Zn carboxylates added to the precursors during NC cores facilitate the synthesis of high-quality InP NCs by suppressing nonradiative and sub-band-gap recombination, and the effect is visible also after a ZnS shell is grown on the cores.

  12. Zinc oxide nanowire networks for macroelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unalan, Husnu Emrah; Zhang, Yan; Hiralal, Pritesh; Dalal, Sharvari; Chu, Daping; Eda, Goki; Teo, K. B. K.; Chhowalla, Manish; Milne, William I.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.

    2009-04-01

    Highly transparent zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire networks have been used as the active material in thin film transistors (TFTs) and complementary inverter devices. A systematic study on a range of networks of variable density and TFT channel length was performed. ZnO nanowire networks provide a less lithographically intense alternative to individual nanowire devices, are always semiconducting, and yield significantly higher mobilites than those achieved from currently used amorphous Si and organic TFTs. These results suggest that ZnO nanowire networks could be ideal for inexpensive large area electronics.

  13. Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide123

    PubMed Central

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnić, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6–71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6–71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9–57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  14. Zinc oxide doped graphene oxide films for gas sensing applications

    SciT

    Chetna,, E-mail: chetna2288@gmail.com; Kumar, Shani; Chaudhary, S.

    Graphene Oxide (GO) is analogous to graphene, but presence of many functional groups makes its physical and chemical properties essentially different from those of graphene. GO is found to be a promising material for low cost fabrication of highly versatile and environment friendly gas sensors. Selectivity, reversibility and sensitivity of GO based gas sensor have been improved by hybridization with Zinc Oxide nanoparticles. The device is fabricated by spin coating of deionized water dispersed GO flakes (synthesized using traditional hummer’s method) doped with Zinc Oxide on standard glass substrate. Since GO is an insulator and functional groups on GO nanosheetsmore » play vital role in adsorbing gas molecules, it is being used as an adsorber. Additionally, on being exposed to certain gases the electric and optical characteristics of GO material exhibit an alteration in behavior. For the conductivity, we use Zinc Oxide, as it displays a high sensitivity towards conduction. The effects of the compositions, structural defects and morphologies of graphene based sensing layers and the configurations of sensing devices on the performances of gas sensors were investigated by Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Keithley Sourcemeter.« less

  15. Surface oxidation of tin chalcogenide nanocrystals revealed by 119Sn-Mössbauer spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Kergommeaux, Antoine; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Pron, Adam; de Bettignies, Rémi; Malaman, Bernard; Reiss, Peter

    2012-07-18

    Narrow band gap tin(II) chalcogenide (SnS, SnSe, SnTe) nanocrystals are of high interest for optoelectronic applications such as thin film solar cells or photodetectors. However, charge transfer and charge transport processes strongly depend on nanocrystals' surface quality. Using (119)Sn-Mössbauer spectroscopy, which is the most sensitive tool for probing the Sn oxidation state, we show that SnS nanocrystals exhibit a Sn((IV))/Sn((II)) ratio of around 20:80 before and 40:60 after five minutes exposure to air. Regardless of the tin or sulfur precursors used, similar results are obtained using six different synthesis protocols. The Sn((IV)) content before air exposure arises from surface related SnS(2) and Sn(2)S(3) species as well as from surface Sn atoms bound to oleic acid ligands. The increase of the Sn((IV)) content upon air exposure results from surface oxidation. Full oxidation of the SnS nanocrystals without size change is achieved by annealing at 500 °C in air. With the goal to prevent surface oxidation, SnS nanocrystals are capped with a cadmium-phosphonate complex. A broad photoluminescence signal centered at 600 nm indicates successful capping, which however does not reduce the air sensitivity. Finally we demonstrate that SnSe nanocrystals exhibit a very similar behavior with a Sn((IV))/Sn((II)) ratio of 43:57 after air exposure. In the case of SnTe nanocrystals, the ratio of 55:45 is evidence of a more pronounced tendency for oxidation. These results demonstrate that prior to their use in optoelectronics further surface engineering of tin chalcogenide nanocrystals is required, which otherwise have to be stored and processed under inert atmosphere.

  16. Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials for Biomedical Fluorescence Detection

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Jong-in

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional zinc oxide nanomaterials have been recently developed into novel, extremely effective, optical signal-enhancing bioplatforms. Their usefulness has been demonstrated in various biomedical fluorescence assays. Fluorescence is extensively used in biology and medicine as a sensitive and noninvasive detection method for tracking and analyzing biological molecules. Achieving high sensitivity via improving signal-to-noise ratio is of paramount importance in fluorescence-based, trace-level detection. Recent advances in the development of optically superior one-dimensional materials have contributed to this important biomedical area of detection. This review article will discuss major research developments that have so far been made in this emerging and exciting topical field. The discussion will cover a broad range of subjects including synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs), various properties differentiating them as suitable optical biodetection platforms, their demonstrated applicability in DNA and protein detection, and the nanomaterial characteristics relevant for biomolecular fluorescence enhancement. This review will then summarize the current status of ZnO NR-based biodetection and further elaborate future utility of ZnO NR platforms for advanced biomedical assays, based on their proven advantages. Lastly, present challenges experienced in this topical area will be identified and focal subject areas for future research will be suggested as well. PMID:24730276

  17. Intense pulsed light annealing of copper zinc tin sulfide nanocrystal coatings

    SciT

    Williams, Bryce A.; Smeaton, Michelle A.; Holgate, Collin S.

    2016-09-15

    A promising method for forming the absorber layer in copper zinc tin sulfide [Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS)] thin film solar cells is thermal annealing of coatings cast from dispersions of CZTS nanocrystals. Intense pulsed light (IPL) annealing utilizing xenon flash lamps is a potential high-throughput, low-cost, roll-to-roll manufacturing compatible alternative to thermal annealing in conventional furnaces. The authors studied the effects of flash energy density (3.9–11.6 J/cm{sup 2}) and number of flashes (1–400) during IPL annealing on the microstructure of CZTS nanocrystal coatings cast on molybdenum-coated soda lime glass substrates (Mo-coated SLG). The annealed coatings exhibited cracks with two distinct linearmore » crack densities, 0.01 and 0.2 μm{sup −1}, depending on the flash intensity and total number of flashes. Low density cracking (0.01 μm{sup −1}, ∼1 crack per 100 μm) is caused by decomposition of CZTS at the Mo-coating interface. Vapor decomposition products at the interface cause blisters as they escape the coating. Residual decomposition products within the blisters were imaged using confocal Raman spectroscopy. In support of this hypothesis, replacing the Mo-coated SLG substrate with quartz eliminated blistering and low-density cracking. High density cracking is caused by rapid thermal expansion and contraction of the coating constricted on the substrate as it is heated and cooled during IPL annealing. Finite element modeling showed that CZTS coatings on low thermal diffusivity materials (i.e., SLG) underwent significant differential heating with respect to the substrate with rapid rises and falls of the coating temperature as the flash is turned on and off, possibly causing a build-up of tensile stress within the coating prompting cracking. Use of a high thermal diffusivity substrate, such as a molybdenum foil (Mo foil), reduces this differential heating and eliminates the high-density cracking. IPL annealing in presence

  18. Supported versus colloidal zinc oxide for advanced oxidation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxman, Karthik; Al Rashdi, Manal; Al Sabahi, Jamal; Al Abri, Mohammed; Dutta, Joydeep

    2017-07-01

    Photocatalysis is a green technology which typically utilizes either supported or colloidal catalysts for the mineralization of aqueous organic contaminants. Catalyst surface area and surface energy are the primary factors determining its efficiency, but correlation between the two is still unclear. This work explores their relation and hierarchy in a photocatalytic process involving both supported and colloidal catalysts. In order to do this the active surface areas of supported zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NR's) and colloidal zinc oxide nanoparticles (having different surface energies) were equalized and their phenol oxidation mechanism and capacity was analyzed. It was observed that while surface energy had subtle effects on the oxidation rate of the catalysts, the degradation efficiency was primarily a function of the surface area; which makes it a better parameter for comparison when studying different catalyst forms of the same material. Thus we build a case for the use of supported catalysts, wherein their catalytic efficiency was tested to be unaltered over several days under both natural and artificial light, suggesting their viability for practical applications.

  19. Unravelling the surface chemistry of metal oxide nanocrystals, the role of acids and bases.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Jonathan; Van den Broeck, Freya; De Keukeleere, Katrien; Martins, José C; Van Driessche, Isabel; Hens, Zeger

    2014-07-09

    We synthesized HfO2 nanocrystals from HfCl4 using a surfactant-free solvothermal process in benzyl alcohol and found that the resulting nanocrystals could be transferred to nonpolar media using a mixture of carboxylic acids and amines. Using solution (1)H NMR, FTIR, and elemental analysis, we studied the details of the transfer reaction and the surface chemistry of the resulting sterically stabilized nanocrystals. As-synthesized nanocrystals are charge-stabilized by protons, with chloride acting as the counterion. Treatment with only carboxylic acids does not lead to any binding of ligands to the HfO2 surface. On the other hand, we find that the addition of amines provides the basic environment in which carboxylic acids can dissociate and replace chloride. This results in stable, aggregate-free dispersions of HfO2 nanocrystals, sterically stabilized by carboxylate ligands. Moreover, titrations with deuterated carboxylic acid show that the charge on the carboxylate ligands is balanced by coadsorbed protons. Hence, opposite from the X-type/nonstoichiometric nanocrystals picture prevailing in literature, one should look at HfO2/carboxylate nanocrystals as systems where carboxylic acids are dissociatively adsorbed to bind to the nanocrystals. Similar results were obtained with ZrO2 NCs. Since proton accommodation on the surface is most likely due to the high Brønsted basicity of oxygen, our model could be a more general picture for the surface chemistry of metal oxide nanocrystals with important consequences on the chemistry of ligand exchange reactions.

  20. Zinc

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  1. Chalcogenide and pnictide nanocrystals from the silylative deoxygenation of metal oxides

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Chia-Cheng; Tan, Shannon J.; Vela, Javier

    2017-09-11

    Transition metal chalcogenide and pnictide nanocrystals are of interest for optoelectronic and catalytic applications. In this paper, we present a generalized route to the synthesis of these materials from the silylative deoxygenation of metal oxides with trimethylsilyl reagents. Specific nanophases produced in this way include Ni 3S 2, Ni 5Se 5, Ni 2P, Co 9S 8, Co 3Se 4, CoP, Co 2P, and heterobimetallic (Ni/Co) 9S 8. The resulting chalcogenide nanocrystals are hollow, likely due to differential rates of ion diffusion during the interfacial phase transformation reaction (Kirkendall-type effect). In contrast, the phosphide nanocrystals are solid, likely because they formmore » at higher reaction temperatures. Finally, in all cases, simultaneous partial decomposition of the deoxygenating silyl reagent produces a coating of amorphous silica around the newly formed nanocrystals, which could impact their stability and recyclability.« less

  2. Microwave Synthesis of Zinc Hydroxy Sulfate Nanoplates and Zinc Oxide Nanorods in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziedzic, Rafal M.; Gillian-Daniel, Anne Lynn; Peterson, Greta M.; Martínez-Herna´ndez, Kermin J.

    2014-01-01

    In this hands-on, inquiry-based lab, high school and undergraduate students learn about nanotechnology by synthesizing their own nanoparticles in a single class period. This simple synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods and zinc hydroxy sulfate nanoplates can be done in 15 min using a household microwave oven. Reagent concentration, reaction…

  3. Nanostructured zinc oxide platform for mycotoxin detection.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Anees A; Kaushik, Ajeet; Solanki, Pratima R; Malhotra, B D

    2010-02-01

    Nanostructured zinc oxide (Nano-ZnO) film has been deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass plate for co-immobilization of rabbit-immunoglubin antibodies (r-IgGs) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for ochratoxin-A (OTA) detection. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies reveal the formation of Nano-ZnO with average particle size as ~5.0nm. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques have been used to characterize Nano-ZnO/ITO electrode and BSA/r-IgGs/Nano-ZnO/ITO immunoelectrode. Electrochemical impedimetric response of BSA/r-IgGs/Nano-ZnO/ITO immunoelectrode obtained as a function of OTA concentration exhibits linearity as 0.006-0.01nM/dm(3), detection limit of 0.006nM/dm(3), response time as 25s and sensitivity of 189Omega/nM/dm(3)cm(-2) with a regression coefficient of 0.997. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Zinc-doping enhanced cadmium sulfide electrochemiluminescence behavior based on Au-Cu alloy nanocrystals quenching for insulin detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Wang, Chao; Li, Xiaojian; Khan, Malik Saddam; Sun, Xu; Ma, Hongmin; Fan, Dawei; Wei, Qin

    2017-11-15

    Novel and sensitive sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was fabricated for insulin detection. Au-ZnCd 14 S combined nitrogen doping mesoporous carbons (Au-ZnCd 14 S/NH 2 -NMCs) acted as sensing platform and Au-Cu alloy nanocrystals were employed as labels to quench the ECL of Au-ZnCd 14 S/NH 2 -NMCs. Zinc-doping promoted the ECL behavior of CdS nanocrystals, with the best ECL emission obtained when the molar ratio of Zn/Cd was 1:14. Simultaneously, the modification of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and combination with NH 2 -NMC further enhanced the ECL emission of ZnCd 14 S due to its excellent conductivity and large specific surface area, which is desirable for the immunosensor construction. Au-Cu alloy nanocrystals were employed in the ECL system of ZnCd 14 S/K 2 S 2 O 8 triggering ECL quenching effects. The ECL spectra of ZnCd 14 S, acting as the energy donor, exhibited well overlaps with the absorption band of Au-Cu alloy nanocrystals which acted as the energy acceptor, leading to an effective ECL resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET). On the basis of the ECL quenching effects, a sensitive ECL immunosensor for insulin detection was successfully constructed with a linear response range of insulin concentration from 0.1pg/mL to 30ng/mL and the limit of detection was calculated to be 0.03pg/mL (S/N = 3). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2014-01-01

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p < 0.05). However, no differences were observed (p > 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification. PMID:24932657

  6. A review of zinc oxide mineral beneficiation using flotation method.

    PubMed

    Ejtemaei, Majid; Gharabaghi, Mahdi; Irannajad, Mehdi

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, extraction of zinc from low-grade mining tailings of oxidized zinc has been a matter of discussion. This is a material which can be processed by flotation and acid-leaching methods. Owing to the similarities in the physicochemical and surface chemistry of the constituent minerals, separation of zinc oxide minerals from their gangues by flotation is an extremely complex process. It appears that selective leaching is a promising method for the beneficiation of this type of ore. However, with the high consumption of leaching acid, the treatment of low-grade oxidized zinc ores by hydrometallurgical methods is expensive and complex. Hence, it is best to pre-concentrate low-grade oxidized zinc by flotation and then to employ hydrometallurgical methods. This paper presents a critical review on the zinc oxide mineral flotation technique. In this paper, the various flotation methods of zinc oxide minerals which have been proposed in the literature have been detailed with the aim of identifying the important factors involved in the flotation process. The various aspects of recovery of zinc from these minerals are also dealt with here. The literature indicates that the collector type, sulfidizing agent, pH regulator, depressants and dispersants types, temperature, solid pulp concentration, and desliming are important parameters in the process. The range and optimum values of these parameters, as also the adsorption mechanism, together with the resultant flotation of the zinc oxide minerals reported in the literature are summarized and highlighted in the paper. This review presents a comprehensive scientific guide to the effectiveness of flotation strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Zinc oxide nanoflowers make new blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barui, Ayan Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Mukherjee, Sudip; Manna, Joydeb; Patel, Ajay Kumar; Patra, Sujata; Pal, Krishnendu; Murali, Shruthi; Rana, Rohit K.; Chatterjee, Suvro; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2012-11-01

    It is well established that angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. It is a complex process, involving both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, and plays a significant role in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as embryonic development, atherosclerosis, post-ischemic vascularization of the myocardium, tumor growth and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. This is the first report of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers that show significant pro-angiogenic properties (formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels), observed by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The egg yolk angiogenesis assay using ZnO nanoflowers indicates the presence of matured blood vessels formation. Additionally, it helps to promote endothelial cell (EA.hy926 cells) migration in wound healing assays. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)--a redox signaling molecule, might be the plausible mechanism for nanoflower-based angiogenesis. Angiogenesis by nanoflowers may provide the basis for the future development of new alternative therapeutic treatment strategies for cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, where angiogenesis plays a significant role.It is well established that angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. It is a complex process, involving both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, and plays a significant role in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as embryonic development, atherosclerosis, post-ischemic vascularization of the myocardium, tumor growth and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. This is the first report of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers that show significant pro-angiogenic properties (formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels), observed by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The egg yolk angiogenesis assay using ZnO nanoflowers indicates the presence of matured blood

  8. Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Activity Against Microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin; ur Rahman, Aziz; Tajuddin; Husen, Azamal

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide is an essential ingredient of many enzymes, sun screens, and ointments for pain and itch relief. Its microcrystals are very efficient light absorbers in the UVA and UVB region of spectra due to wide bandgap. Impact of zinc oxide on biological functions depends on its morphology, particle size, exposure time, concentration, pH, and biocompatibility. They are more effective against microorganisms such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas vulgaris, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. Mechanism of action has been ascribed to the activation of zinc oxide nanoparticles by light, which penetrate the bacterial cell wall via diffusion. It has been confirmed from SEM and TEM images of the bacterial cells that zinc oxide nanoparticles disintegrate the cell membrane and accumulate in the cytoplasm where they interact with biomolecules causing cell apoptosis leading to cell death.

  9. Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Activity Against Microbes.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin; Ur Rahman, Aziz; Tajuddin; Husen, Azamal

    2018-05-08

    Zinc oxide is an essential ingredient of many enzymes, sun screens, and ointments for pain and itch relief. Its microcrystals are very efficient light absorbers in the UVA and UVB region of spectra due to wide bandgap. Impact of zinc oxide on biological functions depends on its morphology, particle size, exposure time, concentration, pH, and biocompatibility. They are more effective against microorganisms such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas vulgaris, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. Mechanism of action has been ascribed to the activation of zinc oxide nanoparticles by light, which penetrate the bacterial cell wall via diffusion. It has been confirmed from SEM and TEM images of the bacterial cells that zinc oxide nanoparticles disintegrate the cell membrane and accumulate in the cytoplasm where they interact with biomolecules causing cell apoptosis leading to cell death.

  10. Acetone sensor based on zinc oxide hexagonal tubes

    SciT

    Hastir, Anita, E-mail: anitahastir@gmail.com; Singh, Onkar, E-mail: anitahastir@gmail.com; Anand, Kanika, E-mail: anitahastir@gmail.com

    2014-04-24

    In this work hexagonal tubes of zinc oxide have been synthesized by co-precipitation method. For structural, morphological, elemental and optical analysis synthesized powders were characterized by using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning microscope, EDX, UV-visible and FTIR techniques. For acetone sensing thick films of zinc oxide have been deposited on alumina substrate. The fabricated sensors exhibited maximum sensing response towards acetone vapour at an optimum operating temperature of 400°C.

  11. Copper Doping of Zinc Oxide by Nuclear Transmutation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    Copper Doping of Zinc Oxide by Nuclear Transmutation THESIS Matthew C. Recker, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENP-14-M-30 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Physics Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force...COPPER DOPING OF ZINC OXIDE BY NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATION Matthew C. Recker, BS Captain, USAF Approved: //signed// 27 February 2014 John W. McClory, PhD

  12. Biomedical Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Nayak, Tapas R.; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement over the last several decades. Zinc oxide (ZnO), which can exhibit a wide variety of nanostructures, possesses unique semiconducting, optical, and piezoelectric properties hence has been investigated for a wide variety of applications. One of the most important features of ZnO nanomaterials is low toxicity and biodegradability. Zn2+ is an indispensable trace element for adults (~10 mg of Zn2+ per day is recommended) and it is involved in various aspects of metabolism. Chemically, the surface of ZnO is rich in -OH groups, which can be readily functionalized by various surface decorating molecules. In this review article, we summarized the current status of the use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, such as biomedical imaging (which includes fluorescence, magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography, as well as dual-modality imaging), drug delivery, gene delivery, and biosensing of a wide array of molecules of interest. Research in biomedical applications of ZnO nanomaterials will continue to flourish over the next decade, and much research effort will be needed to develop biocompatible/biodegradable ZnO nanoplatforms for potential clinical translation. PMID:24206130

  13. Iridescent cellulose nanocrystal/polyethylene oxide composite films with low coefficient of thermal expansion

    Jairo A. Diaz; Julia L. Braun; Robert J. Moon; Jeffrey P. Youngblood

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous control over optical and thermal properties is particularly challenging and highly desired in fields like organic electronics. Here we incorporated cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) into polyethylene oxide (PEO) in an attempt to preserve the iridescent CNC optical reflection given by their chiral nematic organisation, while reducing the composite thermal...

  14. Photoswitching in azobenzene self-assembled monolayers capped on zinc oxide: nanodots vs nanorods.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Martini, Cyril; Ackermann, Jörg; Fages, Frédéric

    2012-02-01

    We report the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of nanohybrid structures consisting of an azobenzene compound grafted on the surface of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Characteristic bathochromic shifts indicate that the azobenzene photochromic molecules self-assemble onto the surface of the nanocrystals. The extent of packing is dependent on the shape of the nanoparticle. ZnO nanorods, with flat facets, enable a tighter organization of the molecules in the self-assembled monolayer than in the case of nanodots that display a more curvated shape. Consistently, the efficiency of photochromic switching of the self-assembled monolayer on ZnO nanoparticles is also shown to be strongly affected by nanoparticle shape. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphological Control of Metal Oxide-Doped Zinc Oxide and Application to Cosmetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Takehiro; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio; Tanaka, Takumi

    2012-06-01

    Zinc oxide shows excellent transparency and ultraviolet radiation shielding ability, and is used for various cosmetics.1-3 However, it possesses high catalytic activity and lower dispersibility. Therefore, spherical particles of zinc oxide have been synthesized by soft solution reaction using zinc nitrate, ethylene glycol, sodium hydroxide and triethanolamine as starting materials. After dissolving these compounds in water, the solution was heated at 90°C for 1 h to form almost mono-dispersed spherical zinc oxide particles. The particle size changed depending on zinc ion concentration, ethylene glycol concentration and so on. Furthermore, with doping some metal ions, the phtocatalytic activity could be decreased. The obtained monodispersed metal ion-doped spherical zinc oxides showed excellent UV shielding ability and low photocatalytic activity. Therefore, they are expected to be used as cosmetics ingredients.

  16. Zinc-oxide-based nanostructured materials for heterostructure solar cells

    SciT

    Bobkov, A. A.; Maximov, A. I.; Moshnikov, V. A., E-mail: vamoshnikov@mail.ru

    Results obtained in the deposition of nanostructured zinc-oxide layers by hydrothermal synthesis as the basic method are presented. The possibility of controlling the structure and morphology of the layers is demonstrated. The important role of the procedure employed to form the nucleating layer is noted. The faceted hexagonal nanoprisms obtained are promising for the fabrication of solar cells based on oxide heterostructures, and aluminum-doped zinc-oxide layers with petal morphology, for the deposition of an antireflection layer. The results are compatible and promising for application in flexible electronics.

  17. Plasma in-liquid method for reduction of zinc oxide in zinc nanoparticle synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaliyah, Novriany; Mukasa, Shinobu; Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Kitamae, Tomohide

    2015-02-01

    Metal air-batteries with high-energy density are expected to be increasingly applied in electric vehicles. This will require a method of recycling air batteries, and reduction of metal oxide by generating plasma in liquid has been proposed as a possible method. Microwave-induced plasma is generated in ethanol as a reducing agent in which zinc oxide is dispersed. Analysis by energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the reduction of zinc oxide. According to images by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cubic and hexagonal metallic zinc particles are formed in sizes of 30 to 200 nm. Additionally, spherical fiber flocculates approximately 180 nm in diameter are present.

  18. Crystal Structure Characterization of Thin Layer Zinc Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyan, Aris; Susilawati; Azizatul Fitri, Siti; Ahzan, Sukainil

    2017-05-01

    In this research the characterization of the crystal structure of a thin layer of ZnO (zinc oxide) were synthesized by sol - gel method and spin coating deposited on a glass substrate. The samples were divided into three sol concentrations of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 Molar and two deposition temperature is 350 °C, and 550 °C. UV-Vis. spectrophotometer results showed that in the spectrum of visible light (wavelength range 300-800 nm) has a transmittance value of which increases with increasing concentration and temperature deposition of zinc oxide, otherwise the value of the absorption and the band gap energy decreases with the addition of concentration and deposition temperature. The transmittances value of the highest and lowest absorption was 93.5% and 0.03 is at a concentration of 0.1 M and zinc oxide deposition temperature of 550 °C, with a value of band gap energy of 2.98 eV. The XRD results showed that the zinc oxide crystal orientation in the field of 013 with a crystal grain size 14.4472 nm. SEM results showed the surface morphology of zinc oxide such as rod-like.

  19. Hybrid zinc oxide/graphene electrodes for depleted heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Aashuri, Hossein; Simchi, Abdolreza; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-10-07

    Recently, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of graphene/nanomaterial heterostructures have emerged as promising candidates for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we have employed a facile and in situ solution-based process to prepare zinc oxide/graphene quantum dots (ZnO/G QDs) in a hybrid structure. The prepared hybrid dots are composed of a ZnO core, with an average size of 5 nm, warped with graphene nanosheets. Spectroscopic studies show that the graphene shell quenches the photoluminescence intensity of the ZnO nanocrystals by about 72%, primarily due to charge transfer reactions and static quenching. A red shift in the absorption peak is also observed. Raman spectroscopy determines G-band splitting of the graphene shell into two separated sub-bands (G(+), G(-)) caused by the strain induced symmetry breaking. It is shown that the hybrid ZnO/G QDs can be used as a counter-electrode for heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells for efficient charge-carrier collection, as evidenced by the external quantum efficiency measurement. Under the solar simulated spectrum (AM 1.5G), we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (35%) with higher short current circuit (80%) for lead sulfide-based solar cells as compared to devices prepared by pristine ZnO nanocrystals.

  20. Synthesis of optimized indium phosphide/zinc sulfide core/shell nanocrystals and titanium dioxide nanotubes for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungyong

    Synthesis of InP/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals and TiO 2 nanotubes and the optimization study to couple them together were explored for quantum dot sensitized solar cells. Its intrinsic nontoxicity makes the direct band gap InP/ZnS core/shell be one of the most promising semiconductor nanocrystals for optoelectric applications, with the advantage of tuning the optical absorption range in the desired solar spectrum region. Highly luminescent and monodisperse InP/ZnS nanocrystals were synthesized in a non-coordinating solvent. By varying the synthesis scheme, different size InP/ZnS nanocrystals with emission peaks ranging from 520 nm to 620 nm were grown. For the purpose of ensuring air stability, a ZnS shell was grown. The ZnS shell improves the chemical stability in terms of oxidation prevention. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image shows that the nanocrystals are highly crystalline and monodisperse. Free-standing TiO2 nanotubes were produced by an anodization method using ammonium fluoride. The free-standing nanotubes were formed under the condition that the chemical dissolution speed associated with fluoride concentration was faster than the speed of Ti oxidation. Highly ordered free-standing anatase form TiO2 nanotubes, which are transformed by annealing at the optimized temperature, are expected to be ideal for coupling with the prepared InP/ZnS nanocrystals. Electrophoretic deposition was carried out to couple the InP/ZnS nanocrystals with the TiO2 nanotubes. Under the adjusted applied voltage condition, the current during the electrophoretic deposition decreased continuously with time. The amount of the deposited nanocrystals was estimated by calculation and the evenly deposited nanocrystals on the TiO2 nanotubes were observed by TEM.

  1. Nanomagnetism study of highly-ordered iron oxide nanocrystal assemblies fabricated by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, HaiTao; Bao, NiNa; Yuan, Du; Ding, Jun

    2013-09-21

    Iron oxide nanocrystals are ideal building blocks for the construction of flexible nanodevices whose performance can be modulated by controlling the morphology of isolated particles and their organizational form. This work demonstrates the fabrication of high quality Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) nanocrystal assemblies with limited overlapping and higher coverage by systemically and combinatorially optimizing the parameters of compression pressure and quantity of spread nanocrystals. Monodispersed iron oxide nanocrystals with a diameter of 11.8 nm were synthesized by thermal decomposition of Fe(CO)5 in trioctylamine with the presence of oleic acid. Multilayer nanocrystal assemblies were obtained through a layer-by-layer (LBL) process by repeating the transfer procedure after their hydrophilicity had been improved via treatment in a UV-ozone oven. The quality of nanocrystal assemblies was investigated by UV-vis spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. The nanomagnetism for the nanostructures of different combination manners was studied systemically by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). A lower superparamagnetic blocking temperature was found in the monolayer Fe3O4 nanocrystal assembly. The superparamagnetic blocking temperature in magnetic nanocrystal assemblies could be tuned through modifying the interparticle interactions among the interlayer and intralayers by controlling the layer number of the assemblies.

  2. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Revolutionizing Agriculture: Synthesis and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Sidra; Arshad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the most innovative field of 21st century. Extensive research is going on for commercializing nanoproducts throughout the world. Due to their unique properties, nanoparticles have gained considerable importance compared to bulk counterparts. Among other metal nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles are very much important due to their utilization in gas sensors, biosensors, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems, and so forth. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) also have remarkable optical, physical, and antimicrobial properties and therefore have great potential to enhance agriculture. As far as method of formation is concerned, ZnO NPs can be synthesized by several chemical methods such as precipitation method, vapor transport method, and hydrothermal process. The biogenic synthesis of ZnO NPs by using different plant extracts is also common nowadays. This green synthesis is quite safe and ecofriendly compared to chemical synthesis. This paper elaborates the synthesis, properties, and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles. PMID:25436235

  3. Photoluminescence of Porous Silicon-Zinc Oxide Hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenych, I. B.; Monastyrskii, L. S.; Luchechko, A. P.

    2017-03-01

    Arrays of ZnO nanostructures, which are optically transparent in the visible range, were grown on the surface of porous silicon by electrochemical deposition. Photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra of the obtained hybrid structures were investigated in 220-450 and 400-800 nm regions, respectively. It is established that multicolor emission is formed by combining the luminescence bands of porous silicon and zinc oxide. The possibility of controlling the photoluminescence spectra by changing the excitation energy is demonstrated. It is revealed that thermal annealing has an effect on the luminescent properties of porous silicon/zinc oxide hybrid structures. Thermal processing at 500°C leads to a sharp decrease of long-wavelength luminescence associated with porous silicon and to an increase of short-wavelength luminescence intensity related to zinc oxide.

  4. Zinc oxide nanoparticles for revolutionizing agriculture: synthesis and applications.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Sidra; Arshad, Muhammad; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the most innovative field of 21st century. Extensive research is going on for commercializing nanoproducts throughout the world. Due to their unique properties, nanoparticles have gained considerable importance compared to bulk counterparts. Among other metal nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles are very much important due to their utilization in gas sensors, biosensors, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems, and so forth. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) also have remarkable optical, physical, and antimicrobial properties and therefore have great potential to enhance agriculture. As far as method of formation is concerned, ZnO NPs can be synthesized by several chemical methods such as precipitation method, vapor transport method, and hydrothermal process. The biogenic synthesis of ZnO NPs by using different plant extracts is also common nowadays. This green synthesis is quite safe and ecofriendly compared to chemical synthesis. This paper elaborates the synthesis, properties, and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  5. Heterostructured nanohybrid of zinc oxide-montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Hur, Su Gil; Kim, Tae Woo; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Hwang, Sung-Ho; Yang, Jae Hun; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2006-02-02

    We have synthesized heterostructured zinc oxide-aluminosilicate nanohybrids through a hydrothermal reaction between the colloidal suspension of exfoliated montmorillonite nanosheets and the sol solution of zinc acetate. According to X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, and field emission-scanning electron microscopic analyses, it was found that the intercalation of zinc oxide nanoparticles expands the basal spacing of the host montmorillonite clay, and the crystallites of the nanohybrids are assembled to form a house-of-cards structure. From UV-vis spectroscopic investigation, it becomes certain that calcined nanohybrid contains two kinds of the zinc oxide species in the interlayer space of host lattice and in mesopores formed by the house-of-cards type stacking of the crystallites. Zn K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure/extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses clearly demonstrate that guest species in the nanohybrids exist as nanocrystalline zinc oxides with wurzite-type structure.

  6. Mechanochemistry of Chitosan-Coated Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) Nanocrystals for Bio-imaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Bujňáková, Zdenka; Dutková, Erika; Kello, Martin; Mojžiš, Ján; Baláž, Matej; Baláž, Peter; Shpotyuk, Oleh

    2017-12-01

    The ZnS nanocrystals were prepared in chitosan solution (0.1 wt.%) using a wet ultra-fine milling. The obtained suspension was stable and reached high value of zeta potential (+57 mV). The changes in FTIR spectrum confirmed the successful surface coating of ZnS nanoparticles by chitosan. The prepared ZnS nanocrystals possessed interesting optical properties verified in vitro. Four cancer cells were selected (CaCo-2, HCT116, HeLa, and MCF-7), and after their treatment with the nanosuspension, the distribution of ZnS in the cells was studied using a fluorescence microscope. The particles were clearly seen; they passed through the cell membrane and accumulated in cytosol. The biological activity of the cells was not influenced by nanoparticles, they did not cause cell death, and only the granularity of cells was increased as a consequence of cellular uptake. These results confirm the potential of ZnS nanocrystals using in bio-imaging applications.

  7. Mechanochemistry of Chitosan-Coated Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) Nanocrystals for Bio-imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujňáková, Zdenka; Dutková, Erika; Kello, Martin; Mojžiš, Ján; Baláž, Matej; Baláž, Peter; Shpotyuk, Oleh

    2017-05-01

    The ZnS nanocrystals were prepared in chitosan solution (0.1 wt.%) using a wet ultra-fine milling. The obtained suspension was stable and reached high value of zeta potential (+57 mV). The changes in FTIR spectrum confirmed the successful surface coating of ZnS nanoparticles by chitosan. The prepared ZnS nanocrystals possessed interesting optical properties verified in vitro. Four cancer cells were selected (CaCo-2, HCT116, HeLa, and MCF-7), and after their treatment with the nanosuspension, the distribution of ZnS in the cells was studied using a fluorescence microscope. The particles were clearly seen; they passed through the cell membrane and accumulated in cytosol. The biological activity of the cells was not influenced by nanoparticles, they did not cause cell death, and only the granularity of cells was increased as a consequence of cellular uptake. These results confirm the potential of ZnS nanocrystals using in bio-imaging applications.

  8. Selective Sensitization of Zinc Finger Protein Oxidation by Reactive Oxygen Species through Arsenic Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xixi; Cooper, Karen L.; Sun, Xi; Liu, Ke J.; Hudson, Laurie G.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine oxidation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) on redox-sensitive targets such as zinc finger proteins plays a critical role in redox signaling and subsequent biological outcomes. We found that arsenic exposure led to oxidation of certain zinc finger proteins based on arsenic interaction with zinc finger motifs. Analysis of zinc finger proteins isolated from arsenic-exposed cells and zinc finger peptides by mass spectrometry demonstrated preferential oxidation of C3H1 and C4 zinc finger configurations. C2H2 zinc finger proteins that do not bind arsenic were not oxidized by arsenic-generated ROS in the cellular environment. The findings suggest that selectivity in arsenic binding to zinc fingers with three or more cysteines defines the target proteins for oxidation by ROS. This represents a novel mechanism of selective protein oxidation and demonstrates how an environmental factor may sensitize certain target proteins for oxidation, thus altering the oxidation profile and redox regulation. PMID:26063799

  9. Fruit peel extract mediated green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, O. J.; Soto-Robles, C. A.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, C. M.; Vilchis-Nestor, A. R.; Castro-Beltrán, A.; Olivas, A.; Luque, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a study of the effects on the photocatalytic capabilities of zinc oxide nanoparticles when prepared via green synthesis using different fruit peel extracts as reducing agents. Zinc nitrate was used as a source of the zinc ions, while Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Citrus sinensis (orange), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) and Citrus aurantifolia (lemon) contributed their peels for extracts. The Synthesized Samples were studied and characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). All samples presented a band at 618 cm-1, indicating the presence of the Znsbnd O bond. The different samples all presented the same hexagonal crystal growth in their structure, the Wurtzite phase. The surface morphology of the nanoparticles showed that, depending on the extract used, the samples vary in size and shape distribution due to the chemical composition of the extracts. The photocatalytic properties of the zinc oxide samples were tested through UV light aided degradation of methylene blue. Most samples exhibited degradation rates at 180 min of around 97%, a major improvement when compared to chemically synthesized commercially available zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  10. Silicon-nanocrystal Optoelectronic Kerr Effect for Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Compatible Optical Switching

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    changes the material’s index of refraction via dispersion . This absorption requires carrier transport and, in present implementations, suffers from slow...designed to take advantage of the large Kerr effect that has been reported in Si-nanocrystals imbedded in oxide (Si-nc). The expected refractive index ...estimate of the expected refractive index change versus applied voltage. An index change of ~2 x 10–4 is enough to modulate the light, corresponding to a

  11. Effect of modifying agents on the hydrophobicity and yield of zinc borate synthesized by zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acarali, Nil Baran; Bardakci, Melek; Tugrul, Nurcan; Derun, Emek Moroydor; Piskin, Sabriye

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize zinc borate using zinc oxide, reference boric acid, and reference zinc borate (reference ZB) as the seed, and to investigate the effects of modifying agents and reaction parameters on the hydrophobicity and yield, respectively. The reaction parameters include reaction time (1-5 h), reactant ratio (H3BO3/ZnO by mass: 2-5), seed ratio (seed crystal/(H3BO3+ZnO) by mass: 0-2wt%), reaction temperature (50-120°C), cooling temperature (10-80°C), and stirring rate (400-700 r/min); the modifying agents involve propylene glycol (PG, 0-6wt%), kerosene (1wt%-6wt%), and oleic acid (OA, 1wt%-6wt%) with solvents (isopropyl alcohol (IPA), ethanol, and methanol). The results of reaction yield obtained from either magnetically or mechanically stirred systems were compared. Zinc borate produced was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and contact angle tests to identify the hydrophobicity. In conclusion, zinc borate is synthesized successfully under the optimized reaction conditions, and the different modifying agents with various solvents affect the hydrophobicity of zinc borate.

  12. Mn-doped Zinc Sulphide nanocrystals for immunofluorescent labeling of epidermal growth factor receptors on cells and clinical tumor tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J, Aswathy; V, Seethalekshmy N.; R, Hiran K.; R, Bindhu M.; K, Manzoor; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Menon, Deepthy

    2014-11-01

    The field of molecular detection and targeted imaging has evolved considerably with the introduction of fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Manganese-doped zinc sulphide nanocrystals (ZnS:Mn NCs), which are widely used in electroluminescent displays, have been explored for the first time for direct immunofluorescent (IF) labeling of clinical tumor tissues. ZnS:Mn NCs developed through a facile wet chemistry route were capped using amino acid cysteine, conjugated to streptavidin and thereafter coupled to biotinylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody utilizing the streptavidin-biotin linkage. The overall conjugation yielded stable EGFR antibody conjugated ZnS:Mn NCs (EGFR ZnS:Mn NCs) with a hydrodynamic diameter of 65 ± 15 nm, and having an intense orange-red fluorescence emission at 598 nm. Specific labeling of EGF receptors on EGFR+ve A431 cells in a co-culture with EGFR-ve NIH3T3 cells was demonstrated using these nanoprobes. The primary antibody conjugated fluorescent NCs could also clearly delineate EGFR over-expressing cells on clinical tumor tissues processed by formalin fixation as well as cryopreservation with a specificity of 86% and accuracy of 88%, in comparison to immunohistochemistry. Tumor tissues labeled with EGFR ZnS:Mn NCs showed good fluorescence emission when imaged after storage even at 15 months. Thus, ZnS nanobioconjugates with dopant-dependent and stable fluorescence emission show promise as an efficient, target-specific fluorophore that would enable long term IF labeling of any antigen of interest on clinical tissues.

  13. Heterojunction PbS nanocrystal solar cells with oxide charge-transport layers.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Choi, Joshua J; Seyler, Kyle L; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W

    2013-12-23

    Oxides are commonly employed as electron-transport layers in optoelectronic devices based on semiconductor nanocrystals, but are relatively rare as hole-transport layers. We report studies of NiO hole-transport layers in PbS nanocrystal photovoltaic structures. Transient fluorescence experiments are used to verify the relevant energy levels for hole transfer. On the basis of these results, planar heterojunction devices with ZnO as the photoanode and NiO as the photocathode were fabricated and characterized. Solution-processed devices were used to systematically study the dependence on nanocrystal size and achieve conversion efficiency as high as 2.5%. Optical modeling indicates that optimum performance should be obtained with thinner oxide layers than can be produced reliably by solution casting. Room-temperature sputtering allows deposition of oxide layers as thin as 10 nm, which enables optimization of device performance with respect to the thickness of the charge-transport layers. The best devices achieve an open-circuit voltage of 0.72 V and efficiency of 5.3% while eliminating most organic material from the structure and being compatible with tandem structures.

  14. Process for fabricating doped zinc oxide microsphere gel

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1991-11-05

    Disclosed are a new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  15. Process for fabricating doped zinc oxide microsphere gel

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  16. Investigation of Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chism, Tyler

    UV photodetection devices have many important applications for uses in biological detection, gas sensing, weaponry detection, fire detection, chemical analysis, and many others. Today's photodetectors often utilize semiconductors such as GaAs to achieve high responsivity and sensitivity. Zinc oxide, unlike many other semiconductors, is cheap, abundant, non-toxic, and easy to grow different morphologies at the micro and nano scale. With the proliferation of these devices also comes the impending need to further study optics and photonics in relation to phononics and plasmonics, and the general principles underlying the interaction of photons with solid state matter and, specifically, semiconductors. For this research a metal-semiconductor-metal UV photodetector has been fabricated by using a quartz substrate on top of which was deposited micropatterned gold in an interdigitated electrode design. On this, sparsely coated zinc oxide nano trees were hydrothermally grown. The UV photodetection device showed promise for detection applications, especially because zinc oxide is also very thermally stable, a quality which is highly sought after in today's UV photodetectors. Furthermore, the newly synthesized photodetector was used to investigate optical properties and how they respond to different stimuli. It was discovered that the photons transmitted through the sparsely coated zinc oxide nano trees decreased as the voltage across the device increased. This research is aimed at better understanding photons interaction with matter and also to open the door for new devices with tunable optical properties such as transmission.

  17. Zinc oxide nanorods functionalized paper for protein preconcentration in biodiagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sadhana; Vinchurkar, Madhuri; Rao, V. Ramgopal; Garnier, Gil

    2017-03-01

    Distinguishing a specific biomarker from a biofluid sample containing a large variety of proteins often requires the selective preconcentration of that particular biomarker to a detectable level for analysis. Low-cost, paper-based device is an emerging opportunity in diagnostics. In the present study, we report a novel Zinc oxide nanorods functionalized paper platform for the preconcentration of Myoglobin, a cardiac biomarker. Zinc oxide nanorods were grown on a Whatman filter paper no. 1 via the standard hydrothermal route. The growth of Zinc oxide nanorods on paper was confirmed by a combination of techniques consisting of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS,) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The Zinc oxide nanorods modified Whatman filter paper (ZnO-NRs/WFP) was further tested for use as a protein preconcentrator. Paper-based ELISA was performed for determination of pre-concentration of cardiac marker protein Myoglobin using the new ZnO-NRs/WFP platform. The ZnO-NRs/WFP could efficiently capture the biomarker even from a very dilute solution (Myoglobin < 50 nM). Our ELISA results show a threefold enhancement in protein capture with ZnO-NRs/WFP compared to unmodified Whatman filter paper, allowing accurate protein analysis and showing the diagnostic concept.

  18. Application of zinc oxide quantum dots in food safety

    Zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) are nanoparticles of purified powdered ZnO. The ZnO QDs were directly added into liquid foods or coated on the surface of glass jars using polylactic acid (PLA) as a carrier. The antimicrobial activities of ZnO QDs against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteriti...

  19. Zinc oxide nanoparticles as selective killers of proliferating cells

    PubMed Central

    Taccola, Liuba; Raffa, Vittoria; Riggio, Cristina; Vittorio, Orazio; Iorio, Maria Carla; Vanacore, Renato; Pietrabissa, Andrea; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    Background: It has recently been demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) induce death of cancerous cells whilst having no cytotoxic effect on normal cells. However, there are several issues which need to be resolved before translation of zinc oxide nanoparticles into medical use, including lack of suitable biocompatible dispersion protocols and a better understanding being needed of the mechanism of their selective cytotoxic action. Methods: Nanoparticle dose affecting cell viability was evaluated in a model of proliferating cells both experimentally and mathematically. The key issue of selective toxicity of ZnO NPs toward proliferating cells was addressed by experiments using a biological model of noncancerous cells, ie, mesenchymal stem cells before and after cell differentiation to the osteogenic lineage. Results: In this paper, we report a biocompatible protocol for preparation of stable aqueous solutions of monodispersed zinc oxide nanoparticles. We found that the threshold of intracellular ZnO NP concentration required to induce cell death in proliferating cells is 0.4 ± 0.02 mM. Finally, flow cytometry analysis revealed that the threshold dose of zinc oxide nanoparticles was lethal to proliferating pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells but exhibited negligible cytotoxic effects to osteogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells. Conclusion: Results confirm the ZnO NP selective cytotoxic action on rapidly proliferating cells, whether benign or malignant. PMID:21698081

  20. Zinc oxide nanoparticles as selective killers of proliferating cells.

    PubMed

    Taccola, Liuba; Raffa, Vittoria; Riggio, Cristina; Vittorio, Orazio; Iorio, Maria Carla; Vanacore, Renato; Pietrabissa, Andrea; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) induce death of cancerous cells whilst having no cytotoxic effect on normal cells. However, there are several issues which need to be resolved before translation of zinc oxide nanoparticles into medical use, including lack of suitable biocompatible dispersion protocols and a better understanding being needed of the mechanism of their selective cytotoxic action. Nanoparticle dose affecting cell viability was evaluated in a model of proliferating cells both experimentally and mathematically. The key issue of selective toxicity of ZnO NPs toward proliferating cells was addressed by experiments using a biological model of noncancerous cells, ie, mesenchymal stem cells before and after cell differentiation to the osteogenic lineage. In this paper, we report a biocompatible protocol for preparation of stable aqueous solutions of monodispersed zinc oxide nanoparticles. We found that the threshold of intracellular ZnO NP concentration required to induce cell death in proliferating cells is 0.4 ± 0.02 mM. Finally, flow cytometry analysis revealed that the threshold dose of zinc oxide nanoparticles was lethal to proliferating pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells but exhibited negligible cytotoxic effects to osteogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells. Results confirm the ZnO NP selective cytotoxic action on rapidly proliferating cells, whether benign or malignant.

  1. Chemical vapor deposition of fluorine-doped zinc oxide

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kramer, Keith; Liang, Haifan

    2000-06-06

    Fims of fluorine-doped zinc oxide are deposited from vaporized precursor compounds comprising a chelate of a dialkylzinc, such as an amine chelate, an oxygen source, and a fluorine source. The coatings are highly electrically conductive, transparent to visible light, reflective to infrared radiation, absorbing to ultraviolet light, and free of carbon impurity.

  2. Shrinking of silicon nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous silicon oxide matrix during rapid thermal annealing in a forming gas atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sebille, M.; Fusi, A.; Xie, L.; Ali, H.; van Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.; Leifer, K.; Zeman, M.

    2016-09-01

    We report the effect of hydrogen on the crystallization process of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon oxide matrix. We show that hydrogen gas during annealing leads to a lower sub-band gap absorption, indicating passivation of defects created during annealing. Samples annealed in pure nitrogen show expected trends according to crystallization theory. Samples annealed in forming gas, however, deviate from this trend. Their crystallinity decreases for increased annealing time. Furthermore, we observe a decrease in the mean nanocrystal size and the size distribution broadens, indicating that hydrogen causes a size reduction of the silicon nanocrystals.

  3. The development of latent fingerprints by zinc oxide and tin oxide nanoparticles prepared by precipitation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthra, Deepali; Kumar, Sacheen

    2018-05-01

    Fingerprints are the very important evidence at the crime scene which must be developed clearly with shortest duration of time to solve the case. Metal oxide nanoparticles could be the mean to develop the latent fingerprints. Zinc oxide and Tin Oxide Nanoparticles were prepared by using chemical precipitation technique which were dried and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible spectroscopy and FTIR. The size of zinc oxide crystallite was found to be 14.75 nm with minimum reflectance at 360 nm whereas tin oxide have the size of 90 nm and reflectance at minimum level 321 nm. By using these powdered samples on glass, plastic and glossy cardboard, latent fingerprints were developed. Zinc oxide was found to be better candidate than tin oxide for the fingerprint development on all the three types of substrates.

  4. Analysis of cellular responses of macrophages to zinc ions and zinc oxide nanoparticles: a combined targeted and proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Triboulet, Sarah; Aude-Garcia, Catherine; Armand, Lucie; Gerdil, Adèle; Diemer, Hélène; Proamer, Fabienne; Collin-Faure, Véronique; Habert, Aurélie; Strub, Jean-Marc; Hanau, Daniel; Herlin, Nathalie; Carrière, Marie; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rabilloud, Thierry

    2014-06-07

    Two different zinc oxide nanoparticles, as well as zinc ions, are used to study the cellular responses of the RAW 264 macrophage cell line. A proteomic screen is used to provide a wide view of the molecular effects of zinc, and the most prominent results are cross-validated by targeted studies. Furthermore, the alteration of important macrophage functions (e.g. phagocytosis) by zinc is also investigated. The intracellular dissolution/uptake of zinc is also studied to further characterize zinc toxicity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles dissolve readily in the cells, leading to high intracellular zinc concentrations, mostly as protein-bound zinc. The proteomic screen reveals a rather weak response in the oxidative stress response pathway, but a strong response both in the central metabolism and in the proteasomal protein degradation pathway. Targeted experiments confirm that carbohydrate catabolism and proteasome are critical determinants of sensitivity to zinc, which also induces DNA damage. Conversely, glutathione levels and phagocytosis appear unaffected at moderately toxic zinc concentrations.

  5. Photoexcited emission efficiencies of zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, John Vincent

    Optoelectronic properties of the II-VI semiconductor zinc oxide (ZnO) have been studied scientifically for almost 60 years; however, many fundamental questions remain unanswered about its two primary emission bands--the exciton-related luminescence in the ultraviolet and the defect-related emission band centered in the green portion of the visible spectrum. The work in this dissertation was motivated by the surprising optical properties of a ZnO nanowire sample grown by the group of Prof. Jie Liu, Department of Chemistry, Duke University. We found that this nanowire sample exhibited defect-related green/white emission of unprecedented intensity relative to near-band-edge luminescence. The experimental work comprising this dissertation was designed to explain the optical properties of this ZnO nanowire sample. Understanding the physics underlying such exceptional intensity of green emission addresses many of the open questions of ZnO research and assesses the possibility of using ZnO nanostructures as an ultraviolet-excited, broadband visible phosphor. The goal of this dissertation is to provide insight into what factors influence the radiative and nonradiative recombination efficiencies of ZnO by characterizing simultaneously the optical properties of the near-band-edge ultraviolet and the defect-related green emission bands. Specifically, we seek to understand the mechanisms of ultraviolet and green emission, the mechanism of energy transfer between them, and the evolution of their emission efficiencies with parameters such as excitation density and sample temperature. These fundamental but unanswered questions of ZnO emission are addressed here by using a novel combination of ultrafast spectroscopic techniques in conjunction with a systematic set of ZnO samples. Through this systematic investigation, ZnO may be realistically assessed as a potential green/white light phosphor. Photoluminescence techniques are used to characterize the thermal quenching behavior of

  6. Solution-processed zinc oxide field-effect transistors based on self-assembly of colloidal nanorods.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baoquan; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2005-12-01

    Colloidal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals are attractive candidates for a low-temperature and solution-processible semiconductor for high-performance thin-film field-effect transistors (TFTs). Here we show that by controlling the shape of the nanocrystals from spheres to rods the semiconducting properties of spin-coated ZnO films can be much improved as a result of increasing particle size and self-alignment of the nanorods along the substrate. Postdeposition hydrothermal growth in an aqueous zinc ion solution has been found to further enhance grain size and connectivity and improve device performance. TFT devices made from 65-nm-long and 10-nm-wide nanorods deposited by spin coating have been fabricated at moderate temperatures of 230 degrees C with mobilities of 0.61 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) and on/off ratios of 3 x 10(5) after postdeposition growth, which is comparable to the characteristics of TFTs fabricated by traditional sputtering methods.

  7. Size and composition-controlled fabrication of thermochromic metal oxide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavero, César; Slack, Jonathan L.; Anders, André

    2013-09-01

    Finding new methods for the fabrication of metal oxide nanocrystals with high control on their composition, size and crystallinity is paramount for making large-area and low-cost optical coatings. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of thermochromic VO2 nanocrystals using a physical vapour deposition-based route, with high control over their composition, size and crystallinity. This technique presents great potential to be scaled up and integrated with in-line coaters, commonly used for large-area deposition. Optimum crystallization of the VO2 nanoparticles is achieved after post-growth annealing at 350 °C, a temperature drastically lower than that required by chemical or implantation fabrication methods. The obtained nanoparticle thin films exhibit superior modulation of the transmittance in the visible and near IR portion of the spectrum as compared to conventional VO2 thin films due to plasmonic effects, opening up a new horizon in applications such as smarts windows.

  8. Tailoring indium oxide nanocrystal synthesis conditions for air-stable high-performance solution-processed thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Swisher, Sarah L; Volkman, Steven K; Subramanian, Vivek

    2015-05-20

    Semiconducting metal oxides (ZnO, SnO2, In2O3, and combinations thereof) are a uniquely interesting family of materials because of their high carrier mobilities in the amorphous and generally disordered states, and solution-processed routes to these materials are of particular interest to the printed electronics community. Colloidal nanocrystal routes to these materials are particularly interesting, because nanocrystals may be formulated with tunable surface properties into stable inks, and printed to form devices in an additive manner. We report our investigation of an In2O3 nanocrystal synthesis for high-performance solution-deposited semiconductor layers for thin-film transistors (TFTs). We studied the effects of various synthesis parameters on the nanocrystals themselves, and how those changes ultimately impacted the performance of TFTs. Using a sintered film of solution-deposited In2O3 nanocrystals as the TFT channel material, we fabricated devices that exhibit field effect mobility of 10 cm(2)/(V s) and an on/off current ratio greater than 1 × 10(6). These results outperform previous air-stable nanocrystal TFTs, and demonstrate the suitability of colloidal nanocrystal inks for high-performance printed electronics.

  9. Low-temperature solution-processed zinc oxide field effect transistor by blending zinc hydroxide and zinc oxide nanoparticle in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyeonwoo; Kang, Chan-mo; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Kim, Jun Young; Do, Lee-Mi; Lee, Changhee

    2018-05-01

    We present a novel methods of fabricating low-temperature (180 °C), solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) transistors using a ZnO precursor that is blended with zinc hydroxide [Zn(OH)2] and zinc oxide hydrate (ZnO • H2O) in an ammonium solution. By using the proposed method, we successfully improved the electrical performance of the transistor in terms of the mobility (μ), on/off current ratio (I on/I off), sub-threshold swing (SS), and operational stability. Our new approach to forming a ZnO film was systematically compared with previously proposed methods. An atomic forced microscopic (AFM) image and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that our method increases the ZnO crystallite size with less OH‑ impurities. Thus, we attribute the improved electrical performance to the better ZnO film formation using the blending methods.

  10. Electrocontact material based on silver dispersion-strengthened by nickel, titanium, and zinc oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeer, G. M.; Zelenkova, E. G.; Belousov, O. V.; Beletskii, V. V.; Nikolaev, S. V.; Ledyaeva, O. N.

    2017-09-01

    Samples of a composite electrocontact material based on silver strengthened by the dispersed phases of zinc and titanium oxides have been investigated by the electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A uniform distribution of the oxide phases containing 2 wt % zinc oxide in the initial charge has been revealed. The increase in the amount of zinc oxide leads to an increase of the size of the oxide phases. It has been shown that at the zinc oxide content of 2 wt %, the minimum wear is observed in the process of electroerosion tests; at 3 wt %, an overheating and welding of the contacts are observed.

  11. Ion beam synthesis of indium-oxide nanocrystals for improvement of oxide resistive random-access memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonafos, C.; Benassayag, G.; Cours, R.; Pécassou, B.; Guenery, P. V.; Baboux, N.; Militaru, L.; Souifi, A.; Cossec, E.; Hamga, K.; Ecoffey, S.; Drouin, D.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the direct ion beam synthesis of a delta-layer of indium oxide nanocrystals (In2O3-NCs) in silica matrices by using ultra-low energy ion implantation. The formation of the indium oxide phase can be explained by (i) the affinity of indium with oxygen, (ii) the generation of a high excess of oxygen recoils generated by the implantation process in the region where the nanocrystals are formed and (iii) the proximity of the indium-based nanoparticles with the free surface and oxidation from the air. Taking advantage of the selective diffusivity of implanted indium in SiO2 with respect to Si3N4, In2O3-NCs have been inserted in the SiO2 switching oxide of micrometric planar oxide-based resistive random access memory (OxRAM) devices fabricated using the nanodamascene process. Preliminary electrical measurements show switch voltage from high to low resistance state. The devices with In2O3-NCs have been cycled 5 times with identical operating voltages and RESET current meanwhile no switch has been observed for non implanted devices. This first measurement of switching is very promising for the concept of In2O3-NCs based OxRAM memories.

  12. Combinatorial study of zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, M. G.; Sanderson, R. J.; Hill, I. G.

    2008-01-01

    Groups of thin-film transistors using a zinc tin oxide semiconductor layer have been fabricated via a combinatorial rf sputtering technique. The ZnO :SnO2 ratio of the film varies as a function of position on the sample, from pure ZnO to SnO2, allowing for a study of zinc tin oxide transistor performance as a function of channel stoichiometry. The devices were found to have mobilities ranging from 2to12cm2/Vs, with two peaks in mobility in devices at ZnO fractions of 0.80±0.03 and 0.25±0.05, and on/off ratios as high as 107. Transistors composed predominantly of SnO2 were found to exhibit light sensitivity which affected both the on/off ratios and threshold voltages of these devices.

  13. Threshold pressure for mechanoluminescence of macrocrystals, microcrystals and nanocrystals of doped zinc sulphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, B. P.; Chandra, V. K.; Jha, Piyush; Sonwane, V. D.

    2016-06-01

    The threshold pressure for elastico-mechanoluminescence (EML) of ZnS:Mn macrocrystals is 20 MPa, and ZnS:Cu,Al macrocrystals do not show ML during elastic deformation. However, the threshold pressure for EML of ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Cu,Cl microcrystals and nanocrystals is nearly 1 MPa. Thus, it seems that high concentration of defects in microcrystalline and nanocrystalline ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Cu,Cl produces disorder and distortion in lattice and changes the local crystal-structure near impurities, and consequently, the enhanced piezoelectric constant of local region produces EML for low value of applied pressure. The threshold pressure for the ML of ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Cu,Al single macrocrystals is higher because such crystals possess comparatively less number of defects near the impurities where the phase-transition is not possible and their ML is caused for high value of stress because the bulk piezoelectric constant is less. Thus, size-dependent threshold pressure for ML supports the origin of EML from piezoelectricity in local region of the crystals. The finding of present investigation may be useful in tailoring phosphors emitting intense EML of different colours.

  14. Process for making surfactant capped metal oxide nanocrystals, and products produced by the process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Rockenberger, Joerg

    2006-01-10

    Disclosed is a process for making surfactant capped nanocrystals of metal oxides which are dispersable in organic solvents. The process comprises decomposing a metal cupferron complex of the formula MXCupX, wherein M is a metal, and Cup is a N-substituted N-Nitroso hydroxylamine, in the presence of a coordinating surfactant, the reaction being conducted at a temperature ranging from about 150 to about 400.degree. C., for a period of time sufficient to complete the reaction. Also disclosed are compounds made by the process.

  15. Room temperature ferromagnetism of tin oxide nanocrystal based on synthesis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthiraj, K.; Hema, M.; Balachandrakumar, K.

    2016-04-01

    The experimental conditions used in the preparation of nanocrystalline oxide materials play an important role in the room temperature ferromagnetism of the product. In the present work, a comparison was made between sol-gel, microwave assisted sol-gel and hydrothermal methods for preparing tin oxide nanocrystal. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the formation of tetragonal rutile phase structure for all the samples. The crystallite size was estimated from the HRTEM images and it is around 6-12 nm. Using optical absorbance measurement, the band gap energy value of the samples has been calculated. It reveals the existence of quantum confinement effect in all the prepared samples. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra confirms that the luminescence process originates from the structural defects such as oxygen vacancies present in the samples. Room temperature hysteresis loop was clearly observed in M-H curve of all the samples. But the sol-gel derived sample shows the higher values of saturation magnetization (Ms) and remanence (Mr) than other two samples. This study reveals that the sol-gel method is superior to the other two methods for producing room temperature ferromagnetism in tin oxide nanocrystal.

  16. The optical and structural properties of graphene nanosheets and tin oxide nanocrystals composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farheen, Parveen, Azra; Azam, Ameer

    2018-05-01

    A nanocomposite material consisting of metal oxide and reduced graphene oxide was prepared via simple, economic, and effective chemical reduction method. The synthesis strategy was based on the reduction of GO with Sn2+ ion that combines tin oxidation and GO reduction in one step, which provides a simple, low-cost and effective way to prepare graphene nanosheets/SnO2 nanocrystals composites because no additional chemicals were needed. SEM and TEM images shows the uniform distribution of the SnO2 nanocrystals on the Graphene nanosheets (GNs) surface and transmission electron microscope shows an average particle size of 2-4 nm. The mean crystallite size was calculated by Debye Scherrer formula and was found to be about 4.0 nm. Optical analysis was done by using UV-Visible spectroscopy technique and the band gap energy of the GNs/SnO2 nanocomposite was calculated by Tauc relation and came out to be 3.43eV.

  17. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1996-01-01

    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  18. Zinc oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    DOEpatents

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasad

    2005-10-04

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided, wherein the sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents contain an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2 O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, containing a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  19. Zinc-oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    DOEpatents

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasael

    2010-03-23

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  20. Highly efficient one-step synthesis of carbon encapsulated nanocrystals by the oxidation of metal π-complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Boyang; Shao, Yingfeng; Xiang, Xin; Zhang, Fuhua; Yan, Shengchang; Li, Wenge

    2017-08-01

    Various carbon encapsulated nanocrystals, including MnS and MnO, Cr2O3, MoO2, Fe7S8 and Fe3O4, and ZrO2, are prepared in one step and in situ by a simple and highly efficient synthesis approach. The nanocrystals have an equiaxed morphology and a median size smaller than 30 nm. Tens and hundreds of these nanocrystals are entirely encapsulated by a wormlike amorphous carbon shell. The formation of a core-shell structure depends on the strongly exothermic reaction of metal π-complexes with ammonium persulfate in an autoclave at below 200 °C. During the oxidation process, the generated significant amounts of heat will destroy the molecular structure of the metal π-complex and cleave the ligands into small carbon fragments, which further transform into an amorphous carbon shell. The central metal atoms are oxidized to metal oxide/sulfide nanocrystals. The formation of a core-shell structure is independent of the numbers of ligands and carbon atoms as well as the metal types, implying that any metal π-complex can serve as a precursor and that various carbon encapsulated nanocrystals can be synthesized by this method.

  1. Enhancement of room temperature ferromagnetism in tin oxide nanocrystal using organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthiraj, K.; Hema, M.; Balachandra Kumar, K.

    2017-10-01

    The effect of organic solvents (ethanol & ethylene glycol) on the room temperature ferromagnetism in nanocrystalline tin oxide has been studied. The samples were synthesized using sol-gel method with the mixture of water & organic liquid as solvent. It is found that pristine SnO2 nanocrystal contain two different types of paramagnetic centres over their surface:(i) surface chemisorbed oxygen species and (ii) Sn interstitial & oxygen vacancy defect pair. The magnetic moment induced in the as-prepared samples is mainly contributed by the alignment of local spin moments resulting from these defects. These surface defect states are highly activated by the usage of ethylene glycol solvent rather than ethylene in tin oxide nanostructure synthesis. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope imaging, energy dispersive spectrometry, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer measurement and electron spin resonance spectroscopy were employed to characterize the nanostructured tin oxide materials.

  2. Comparative Study of Antidiabetic Activity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Zinc Sulfate in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Nazarizadeh, Ali; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak

    2016-08-01

    In the current study, antidiabetic activity and toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) were investigated in diabetic rats compared to zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) with particular emphasis on oxidative stress parameters. One hundred and twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two healthy and diabetic groups, randomly. Each major group was further subdivided into five subgroups and then orally supplemented with various doses of ZnO (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) and ZnSO4 (30 mg/kg) for 56 consecutive days. ZnO showed greater antidiabetic activity compared to ZnSO4 evidenced by improved glucose disposal, insulin levels, and zinc status. The altered activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes as well as raised levels of lipid peroxidation and a marked reduction of total antioxidant capacity were observed in rats receiving ZnO. ZnO nanoparticles acted as a potent antidiabetic agent, however, severely elicited oxidative stress particularly at higher doses.

  3. Rare earth doped zinc oxide varistors

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, April D.; Modine, Frank A.; Lauf, Robert J.; Alim, Mohammad A.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Bartkowiak, Miroslaw

    1998-01-01

    A varistor includes a Bi-free, essentially homogeneous sintered body of a ceramic composition including, expressed as nominal weight %, 0.2-4.0% oxide of at least one rare earth element, 0.5-4.0% Co.sub.3 O.sub.4, 0.05-0.4% K.sub.2 O, 0.05-0.2% Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3, 0-0.2% CaO, 0.00005-0.01% Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, 0-2% MnO, 0-0.05% MgO, 0-0.5% TiO.sub.3, 0-0.2% SnO.sub.2, 0-0.02% B.sub.2 O.sub.3, balance ZnO.

  4. Rare earth doped zinc oxide varistors

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, A.D.; Modine, F.A.; Lauf, R.J.; Alim, M.A.; Mahan, G.D.; Bartkowiak, M.

    1998-12-29

    A varistor includes a Bi-free, essentially homogeneous sintered body of a ceramic composition including, expressed as nominal weight %, 0.2--4.0% oxide of at least one rare earth element, 0.5--4.0% Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, 0.05--0.4% K{sub 2}O, 0.05--0.2% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--0.2% CaO, 0.00005--0.01% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--2% MnO, 0--0.05% MgO, 0--0.5% TiO{sub 3}, 0--0.2% SnO{sub 2}, 0--0.02% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, balance ZnO. 4 figs.

  5. Electrocatalysis using transition metal carbide and oxide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regmi, Yagya N.

    Carbides are one of the several families of transition metal compounds that are considered economic alternatives to catalysts based on noble metals and their compounds. Phase pure transition metal carbides of group 4-6 metals, in the first three periods, were synthesized using a common eutectic salt flux synthesis method, and their electrocatalytic activities compared under uniform electrochemical conditions. Mo2C showed highest hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities among the nine metal carbides investigated, but all other metal carbides also showed substantial activities. All the metal carbides showed remarkable enhancement in catalytic activities as supports, when compared to traditional graphitic carbon as platinum support. Mo2C, the most active transition metal carbide electrocatalyst, was prepared using four different synthesis routes, and the synthesis route dependent activities compared. Bifunctional Mo 2C that is HER as well as oxygen evolution reaction (OER) active, was achieved when the carbide was templated on a multiwalled carbon nanotube using carbothermic reduction method. Bimetallic carbides of Fe, Co, and Ni with Mo or W were prepared using a common carbothermic reduction method. Two different stoichiometries of bimetallic carbides were obtained for each system within a 60 °C temperature window. While the bimetallic carbides showed relatively lower electrocatalytic activities towards HER and ORR in comparison to Mo2C and WC, they revealed remarkably higher OER activities than IrO2 and RuO2, the state-of-the-art OER catalysts. Bimetallic oxides of Fe, Co, and Ni with Mo and W were also prepared using a hydrothermal synthesis method and they also revealed OER activities that are much higher than RuO2 and IrO2. Additionally, the OER activities were dependent on the degree and nature of hydration in the bimetallic oxide crystal lattice, with the completely hydrated, as synthesized, cobalt molybdate and nickel

  6. Reduction in the Band Gap of Manganese-Doped Zinc Oxide: Role of the Oxidation State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sonia; Ramesh, Pranith; Swaminathan, P.

    2015-12-01

    Manganese-doped zinc oxide powders were synthesized by solid state reaction of the respective oxides. The high-temperature conditions were chosen such that multiple valence states of manganese were doped in the host zinc oxide lattice. Structural characterization was carried out to confirm the doping and to find the maximum amount of manganese that can be incorporated. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was used to measure the optical band gap of the doped sample and the lowering with respect to pure ZnO was attributed to the presence of higher oxidation states of manganese. The presence of these oxidation states was confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The study shows that a solid state reaction is a viable route for synthesizing doped metal oxides with desired optical properties.

  7. One-Step Synthesis of Monodisperse In-Doped ZnO Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing Ling; Yang, Ye Feng; He, Hai Ping; Chen, Dong Dong; Ye, Zhi Zhen; Jin, Yi Zheng

    2010-05-01

    A method for the synthesis of high quality indium-doped zinc oxide (In-doped ZnO) nanocrystals was developed using a one-step ester elimination reaction based on alcoholysis of metal carboxylate salts. The resulting nearly monodisperse nanocrystals are well-crystallized with typically crystal structure identical to that of wurtzite type of ZnO. Structural, optical, and elemental analyses on the products indicate the incorporation of indium into the host ZnO lattices. The individual nanocrystals with cubic structures were observed in the 5% In-ZnO reaction, due to the relatively high reactivity of indium precursors. Our study would provide further insights for the growth of doped oxide nanocrystals, and deepen the understanding of doping process in colloidal nanocrystal syntheses.

  8. Time-resolved fluorescence and ultrafast energy transfer in a zinc (hydr)oxide-graphite oxide mesoporous composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secor, Jeff; Narinesingh, Veeshan; Seredych, Mykola; Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A.; Bandosz, Teresa; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast energy decay kinetics of a zinc (hydr)oxide-graphite oxide (GO) composite is studied via time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The time-resolved emission is spectrally decomposed into emission regions originating from the zinc (hydr)oxide optical gap, surface, and defect states of the composite material. The radiative lifetime of deep red emission becomes an order of magnitude longer than that of GO alone while the radiative lifetime of the zinc optical gap is shortened in the composite. An energy transfer scheme from the zinc (hydr)oxide to GO is considered.

  9. Sulfur-Doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanostars: Synthesis and Simulation of Growth Mechanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Zinc Oxide ( ZnO ) Nanostars: Synthesis and Simulation of Growth Mechanism Jinhyun Cho1, Qiubao Lin2,3, Sungwoo...characterization, and ab initio simulations of star-shaped hexagonal zinc oxide ( ZnO ) nanowires. The ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a low...Introduction Zinc oxide ( ZnO ) is a wide bandgap (3.37 eV), Ⅱ–Ⅵ semiconductor of great interest for optoelectronic applications [1–3]. Its

  10. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  11. Surface grafting of cellulose nanocrystals with poly(ethylene oxide) in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Kloser, Elisabeth; Gray, Derek G

    2010-08-17

    Aqueous suspensions of poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted nanocrystalline cellulose (PEO-grafted NCC) were prepared in order to achieve steric instead of electrostatic stabilization. A two-step process was employed: in the first step NCC suspensions prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis were desulfated with sodium hydroxide, and in the second step the surfaces of the crystals were functionalized with epoxy-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO epoxide) under alkaline conditions. The PEO-grafted samples were analyzed by conductometric titration, ATR-IR, solid-state NMR, MALDI-TOF MS, SEC MALLS, and AFM. The covalent nature of the linkage was confirmed by weight increase and MALDI-TOF analysis. The PEO-grafted cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) formed a stable colloidal suspension that remained well dispersed, while the desulfated nanoparticles aggregated and precipitated. Upon concentration of the PEO-grafted aqueous NCC suspension, a chiral nematic phase was observed.

  12. The influence of oxidation time on the properties of oxidized zinc films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambu, A. P.

    2012-09-01

    The effect of oxidation time on the structural characteristics and electronic transport mechanism of zinc oxide thin films prepared by thermal oxidation, have been investigated. Zinc metallic films were deposited by thermal evaporation under vacuum, the subsequent oxidation of Zn films being carried out in open atmosphere. XRD and AFM analysis indicate that obtained films posses a polycrystalline structure, the crystallites having a preferential orientation. Structural analysis reveals that microstructure of the films (crystallite size, surface roughness, internal stress) is depending on the oxidation time of metallic films. The electrical behavior of ZnO films was investigated, during a heat treatment (two heating/cooling cycles). It was observed that after the first heating, the temperature dependences of electrical conductivity become reversible. Mott variable range hopping model was proposed to analyze the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity, in low temperature ranges. Values of some characteristic parameters were calculated.

  13. Zinc oxide hollow microstructures and nanostructures formed under hydrothermal conditions

    SciT

    Dem'yanets, L. N., E-mail: demianets@ns.crys.ras.ru; Artemov, V. V.; Li, L. E.

    Zinc oxide low-dimensional hollow structures in the form of hexagonal plates with holes at the center of the {l_brace}0001{r_brace} facets are synthesized in the course of the low-temperature interaction of ZnO precursors with aqueous solutions of potassium fluoride under hydrothermal conditions. Crystals have the shape of single-walled or multiwalled 'nuts.' The high optical quality of the structures is confirmed by cathodoluminescence data at room temperature. The mechanism of the formation of ZnO 'nanonuts' and products of the interaction of the ZnO precursors with KF is proposed.

  14. On the optical band gap of zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikant, V.; Clarke, D. R.

    1998-05-01

    Three different values (3.1, 3.2, and 3.3 eV) have been reported for the optical band gap of zinc oxide single crystals at room temperature. By comparing the optical properties of ZnO crystals using a variety of optical techniques it is concluded that the room temperature band gap is 3.3 eV and that the other values are attributable to a valence band-donor transition at ˜3.15 eV that can dominate the optical absorption when the bulk of a single crystal is probed.

  15. Zinc oxide nano-rods based glucose biosensor devices fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, H. A.; Salama, A. A.; El Saeid, A. A.; Willander, M.; Nur, O.; Battisha, I. K.

    2018-06-01

    ZnO is distinguished multifunctional material that has wide applications in biochemical sensor devices. For extracellular measurements, Zinc oxide nano-rods will be deposited on conducting plastic substrate with annealing temperature 150 °C (ZNRP150) and silver wire with annealing temperature 250 °C (ZNRW250), for the extracellular glucose concentration determination with functionalized ZNR-coated biosensors. It was performed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) over the range from 1 μM to 10 mM and on human blood plasma. The prepared samples crystal structure and surface morphologies were characterized by XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope FESEM respectively.

  16. Excitons in strongly correlated oxide nanocrystals NicMg1-cO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, V. I.; Churmanov, V. N.; Pustovarov, V. A.; Gruzdev, N. B.; Uimin, M. A.; Byzov, I. V.; Zatsepin, A. F.; Kuznetsova, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports about excitons in strongly correlated oxide nanocrystals NicMg1-cO (c = 0.008 and c = 1). At 8 K two weak peaks were firstly observed in the optical density spectrum of NiO nanocrystals at the energies of 3.510 eV and 3.543 eV. The intensity of the peaks subsides with an increase of temperature and a decrease of nanoparticle sizes from 25 nm to 10 nm. The peaks were attributed to the formation of p-d charge transfer excitons {d9h}. A tunneling annihilation for {d9h} excitons diminishes their lifetime drastically, even at low temperatures. This fact is considered as an inherent feature in the p-d charge transfer excitons {d9h}, which makes them significantly different from the Wannier-Mott excitons for semiconductors with direct allowed transitions. We believe that energy shift between two peaks originates due to the spin-orbit splitting of the top of the valence band, equals 33 meV. In p-d charge transfer photoluminescence excitation spectrum of NicMg1-cO (c = 0.008), we have revealed two [d9h] exciton lines near the charge transfer band edge. Energy shift of these lines (equals 25 meV) is due to the spin-orbit splitting of MgO valence band top.

  17. Hierarchical structured tungsten oxide nanocrystals via hydrothermal route: microstructure, formation mechanism and humidity sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Hua-Feng; Li, Zhi-Jie; Xiang, Xia; Fu, Yong-Qing; Placido, Frank; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2013-09-01

    Hierarchical structured tungsten oxide nanocrystals were synthesized via the hydrothermal route assisted by a capping agent of ammonium benzoate (AB). The products were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the crystal microstructures could be changed from flower-shape to star-shape by changing the mole ratio of ammonium benzoate to sodium tungstate (AB/ST). The crystal phases were changed from orthorhombic WO3ṡ0.33H2O to hexagonal WO3 with the increase in the concentration of AB. Based on the results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and time-dependent growth analysis, a self-assembly growth mechanism has been proposed for the formation of flower, spherical, and star-netted microstructures at different mole ratios of the AB/ST. The star-netted WO3 nanocrystals were applied as a sensitive layer for humidity sensing performed using a Love-mode ZnO/36∘ Y-cut LiTaO3 surface acoustic wave device, and a stable and sensitive response to the change of relative humidity was obtained.

  18. Impact of Silicon Nanocrystal Oxidation on the Nonmetallic Growth of Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Rocks, Conor; Mitra, Somak; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Maguire, Paul; Svrcek, Vladimir; Levchenko, Igor; Ostrikov, Kostya; Mariotti, Davide

    2016-07-27

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) growth has been demonstrated recently using a number of nonmetallic semiconducting and metal oxide nanoparticles, opening up pathways for direct CNT synthesis from a number of more desirable templates without the need for metallic catalysts. However, CNT growth mechanisms using these nonconventional catalysts has been shown to largely differ and reamins a challenging synthesis route. In this contribution we show CNT growth from partially oxidized silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) that exhibit quantum confinement effects using a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. On the basis of solvent and a postsynthesis frgamentation process, we show that oxidation of our Si NCs can be easily controlled. We determine experimentally and explain with theoretical simulations that the Si NCs morphology together with a necessary shell oxide of ∼1 nm is vital to allow for the nonmetallic growth of CNTs. On the basis of chemical analysis post-CNT-growth, we give insight into possible mechanisms for CNT nucleation and growth from our partially oxidized Si NCs. This contribution is of significant importance to the improvement of nonmetallic catalysts for CNT growth and the development of Si NC/CNT interfaces.

  19. Zinc oxide nanoparticles as novel alpha-amylase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhobale, Sandip; Thite, Trupti; Laware, S. L.; Rode, C. V.; Koppikar, Soumya J.; Ghanekar, Ruchika-Kaul; Kale, S. N.

    2008-11-01

    Amylase inhibitors, also known as starch blockers, contain substances that prevent dietary starches from being absorbed by the body via inhibiting breakdown of complex sugars to simpler ones. In this sense, these materials are projected as having potential applications in diabetes control. In this context, we report on zinc oxide nanoparticles as possible alpha-amylase inhibitors. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized using soft-chemistry approach and 1-thioglycerol was used as a surfactant to yield polycrystalline nanoparticles of size ˜18 nm, stabilized in wurtzite structure. Conjugation study and structural characterization have been done using x-ray diffraction technique, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Cytotoxicity studies on human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080) and skin carcinoma (A-431) cell lines as well as mouse primary fibroblast cells demonstrate that up to a dose of 20 μg/ml, ZnO nanoparticles are nontoxic to the cells. We report for the first time the alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of ZnO nanoparticles wherein an optimum dose of 20 μg/ml was sufficient to exhibit 49% glucose inhibition at neutral pH and 35 °C temperature. This inhibitory activity was similar to that obtained with acarbose (a standard alpha-amylase inhibitor), thereby projecting ZnO nanoparticles as novel alpha-amylase inhibitors.

  20. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of zinc-cyanide complex.

    PubMed

    Yngard, Ria; Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Osathaphan, Khemarath; Sharma, Virender K

    2007-10-01

    Zinc-cyanide complexes are found in gold mining effluents and in metal finishing rinse water. The effect of Zn(II) on the oxidation of cyanide by ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)O(4)(2-), Fe(VI)) was thus investigated by studying the kinetics of the reaction of Fe(VI) with cyanide present in a potassium salt of a zinc cyanide complex (K(2)Zn(CN)(4)) and in a mixture of Zn(II) and cyanide solutions as a function of pH (9.0-11.0). The rate-law for the oxidation of Zn(CN)(4)(2-) by Fe(VI) was found to be -d[Fe(VI)]/dt=k[Fe(VI)][Zn(CN)(4)(2-)](0.5). The rate constant, k, decreased with an increase in pH. The effect of temperature (15-45 degrees C) on the oxidation was studied at pH 9.0, which gave an activation energy of 45.7+/-1.5kJmol(-1). The cyanide oxidation rate decreased in the presence of the Zn(II) ions. However, Zn(II) ions had no effect on the cyanide removal efficiency by Fe(VI) and the stoichiometry of Fe(VI) to cyanide was approximately 1:1; similar to the stoichiometry in absence of Zn(II) ions. The destruction of cyanide by Fe(VI) resulted in cyanate. The experiments on removal of cyanide from rinse water using Fe(VI) demonstrated complete conversion of cyanide to cyanate.

  1. Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronical epithelial cells exposed to zinc

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to zincJenna M. Currier1,2, Wan-Yun Cheng1, Rory Conolly1, Brian N. Chorley1Zinc is a ubiquitous contaminant of ambient air that presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung...

  2. Scale-up synthesis of zinc borate from the reaction of zinc oxide and boric acid in aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılınç, Mert; Çakal, Gaye Ö.; Yeşil, Sertan; Bayram, Göknur; Eroğlu, İnci; Özkar, Saim

    2010-11-01

    Synthesis of zinc borate was conducted in a laboratory and a pilot scale batch reactor to see the influence of process variables on the reaction parameters and the final product, 2ZnO·3B 2O 3·3.5H 2O. Effects of stirring speed, presence of baffles, amount of seed, particle size and purity of zinc oxide, and mole ratio of H 3BO 3:ZnO on the zinc borate formation reaction were examined at a constant temperature of 85 °C in a laboratory (4 L) and a pilot scale (85 L) reactor. Products obtained from the reaction in both reactors were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The kinetic data for the zinc borate production reaction was fit by using the logistic model. The results revealed that the specific reaction rate, a model parameter, decreases with increase in particle size of zinc oxide and the presence of baffles, but increases with increase in stirring speed and purity of zinc oxide; however, it is unaffected with the changes in the amount of seed and reactants ratio. The reaction completion time is unaffected by scaling-up.

  3. Inhibiting Metal Oxide Atomic Layer Deposition: Beyond Zinc Oxide

    DOE PAGES

    Sampson, Matthew D.; Emery, Jonathan D.; Pellin, Michael J.; ...

    2017-04-05

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of several metal oxides is selectivity inhibited on alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au and the eventual nucleation mechanism is investigated. The inhibition ability of the SAM is significantly improved by the in situ H 2-plasma pretreatment of the Au substrate prior to gas-phase deposition of a long-chain alkanethiol, 1-dodecanethiol (DDT). This more rigorous surface preparation inhibits even aggressive oxide ALD precursors, including trimethylaluminum and water, for at least 20 cycles. We study the effect that ALD precursor purge times, growth temperature, alkanethiol chain length, alkanethiol deposition time, and plasma treatment time have on Almore » 2O 3 ALD inhibition. This is the first example of Al 2O 3 ALD inhibition from a vapor-deposited SAM. Inhibition of Al 2O 3, ZnO, and MnO ALD processes are compared, revealing the versatility of this selective surface treatment. As a result, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) further reveals insight into the mechanism by which the well-defined surface chemistry of ALD may eventually be circumvented to allow metal oxide nucleation and growth on SAM-modified surfaces.« less

  4. Inhibiting Metal Oxide Atomic Layer Deposition: Beyond Zinc Oxide

    SciT

    Sampson, Matthew D.; Emery, Jonathan D.; Pellin, Michael J.

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of several metal oxides is selectivity inhibited on alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au and the eventual nucleation mechanism is investigated. The inhibition ability of the SAM is significantly improved by the in situ H 2-plasma pretreatment of the Au substrate prior to gas-phase deposition of a long-chain alkanethiol, 1-dodecanethiol (DDT). This more rigorous surface preparation inhibits even aggressive oxide ALD precursors, including trimethylaluminum and water, for at least 20 cycles. We study the effect that ALD precursor purge times, growth temperature, alkanethiol chain length, alkanethiol deposition time, and plasma treatment time have on Almore » 2O 3 ALD inhibition. This is the first example of Al 2O 3 ALD inhibition from a vapor-deposited SAM. Inhibition of Al 2O 3, ZnO, and MnO ALD processes are compared, revealing the versatility of this selective surface treatment. As a result, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) further reveals insight into the mechanism by which the well-defined surface chemistry of ALD may eventually be circumvented to allow metal oxide nucleation and growth on SAM-modified surfaces.« less

  5. Virgin olive oil blended polyurethane micro/nanofibers ornamented with copper oxide nanocrystals for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Amna, Touseef; Hassan, M Shamshi; Yang, Jieun; Khil, Myung-Seob; Song, Ki-Duk; Oh, Jae-Don; Hwang, Inho

    2014-01-01

    Recently, substantial interest has been generated in using electrospun biomimetic nanofibers of hybrids, particularly organic/inorganic, to engineer different tissues. The present work, for the first time, introduced a unique natural and synthetic hybrid micronanofiber wound dressing, composed of virgin olive oil/copper oxide nanocrystals and polyurethane (PU), developed via facile electrospinning. The as-spun organic/inorganic hybrid micronanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The interaction of cells with scaffold was studied by culturing NIH 3T3 fibroblasts on an as-spun hybrid micronanofibrous mat, and viability, proliferation, and growth were assessed. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay results and SEM observation showed that the hybrid micronanofibrous scaffold was noncytotoxic to fibroblast cell culture and was found to benefit cell attachment and proliferation. Hence our results suggest the potential utilization of as-spun micronanoscaffolds for tissue engineering. Copper oxide-olive oil/PU wound dressing may exert its positive beneficial effects at every stage during wound-healing progression, and these micronanofibers may serve diverse biomedical applications, such as tissue regeneration, damaged skin treatment, wound healing applications, etc. Conclusively, the fabricated olive oil-copper oxide/PU micronanofibers combine the benefits of virgin olive oil and copper oxide, and therefore hold great promise for biomedical applications in the near future.

  6. Dielectric properties and carbothermic reduction of zinc oxide and zinc ferrite by microwave heating

    PubMed Central

    Fabritius, Timo; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Chen, Guo

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to study the dielectric properties and carbothermic reduction of zinc oxide (zincite, ZnO) and zinc ferrite (franklinite, ZnFe2O4) by microwave heating. To achieve this aim, the dielectric properties were measured with an open-ended coaxial method to understand the behaviour of the samples under microwave irradiation. The effects of microwave power, duration time and sample mass on the heating rate, and the effects of the stoichiometric amount of graphite on the reduction of ZnO and decomposition of ZnFe2O4 were investigated. The results show that ZnFe2O4 has significantly higher dielectric properties compared to ZnO. Generally, for both samples, the dielectric values at room temperature were quite low, indicating that both ZnO and ZnFe2O4 are poor microwave absorbers. It was found that the temperatures have a more significant effect on the imaginary permittivities than on the real permittivities. The heating rate showed that the sample temperature increased with increase in microwave power and sample mass. Using 700 W of microwave power and two times the stoichiometric amount of graphite, almost complete reduction of ZnO was achieved in 12 min, while ZnFe2O4 completely decomposed to zincite and wustite in 3 min. PMID:28989772

  7. Resistance of extremely halophilic archaea to zinc and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgaonkar, Bhakti B.; Das, Deepthi; Bragança, Judith Maria

    2016-02-01

    Industrialization as well as other anthropogenic activities have resulted in addition of high loads of metal and/or metal nanoparticles to the environment. In this study, the effect of one of the widely used heavy metal, zinc (Zn) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on extremely halophilic archaea was evaluated. One representative member from four genera namely Halococcus, Haloferax, Halorubrum and Haloarcula of the family Halobacteriaceae was taken as the model organism. All the haloarchaeal genera investigated were resistant to both ZnCl2 and ZnO NPs at varying concentrations. Halococcus strain BK6 and Haloferax strain BBK2 showed the highest resistance in complex/minimal medium of up to 2.0/1.0 mM ZnCl2 and 2.0/1.0-0.5 mM ZnO NP. Accumulation of ZnCl2/ZnO NPs was seen as Haloferax strain BBK2 (287.2/549.6 mg g-1) > Halococcus strain BK6 (165.9/388.5 mg g-1) > Haloarcula strain BS2 (93.2/28.5 mg g-1) > Halorubrum strain BS17 (29.9/16.2 mg g-1). Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analysis revealed that bulk ZnCl2 was sorbed at a higher concentration (21.77 %) on the cell surface of Haloferax strain BBK2 as compared to the ZnO NPs (14.89 %).

  8. Zinc oxide and related compounds: order within the disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, R.; Pereira, Luisa; Barquinha, P.; Ferreira, I.; Prabakaran, R.; Goncalves, G.; Goncalves, A.; Fortunato, E.

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses the effect of order and disorder on the electrical and optical performance of ionic oxide semiconductors based on zinc oxide. These materials are used as active thin films in electronic devices such as pn heterojunction solar cells and thin-film transistors. Considering the expected conduction mechanism in ordered and disordered semiconductors the role of the spherical symmetry of the s electron conduction bands will be analyzed and compared to covalent semiconductors. The obtained results show p-type c-Si/a-IZO/poly-ZGO solar cells exhibiting efficiencies above 14%, in device areas of about 2.34 cm2. Amorphous oxide TFTs based on the Ga-Zn-Sn-O system demonstrate superior performance than the polycrystalline TFTs based on ZnO, translated by ION/IOFF ratio exceeding 107, turn-on voltage below 1-2 V and saturation mobility above 25 cm2/Vs. Apart from that, preliminary data on p-type oxide TFT based on the Zn-Cu-O system will also be presented.

  9. A Comprehensive Study of Formic Acid Oxidation on Palladium Nanocrystals with Different Types of Facets and Twin Defects

    SciT

    Choi, Sang; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Scaranto, Jessica

    2015-07-13

    Palladium has been recognized as the best anodic, monometallic electrocatalyst for the formic acid oxidation (FAO) reaction in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Here we report a systematic study of FAO on a variety of Pd nanocrystals, including cubes, right bipyramids, octahedra, tetrahedra, decahedra, and icosahedra. These nanocrystals were synthesized with approximately the same size, but different types of facets and twin defects on their surfaces. Our measurements indicate that the Pd nanocrystals enclosed by {1 0 0} facets have higher specific activities than those enclosed by {1 1 1} facets, in agreement with prior observations for Pd single-crystalmore » substrates. If comparing nanocrystals predominantly enclosed by a specific type of facet, {1 0 0} or {1 1 1}, those with twin defects displayed greatly enhanced FAO activities compared to their single-crystal counterparts. To rationalize these experimental results, we performed periodic, self-consistent DFT calculations on model single-crystal substrates of Pd, representing the active sites present in the nanocrystals used in the experiments. The calculation results suggest that the enhancement of FAO activity on defect regions, represented by Pd(2 1 1) sites, compared to the activity of both Pd(1 0 0) and Pd(1 1 1) surfaces, could be attributed to an increased flux through the HCOO-mediated pathway rather than the COOH-mediated pathway on Pd(2 1 1). Since COOH has been identified as a precursor to CO, a site-poisoning species, a lower coverage of CO at the defect regions will lead to a higher activity for the corresponding nanocrystal catalysts, containing those defect regions.« less

  10. Colloidal synthesis of monodispersed ZnS and CdS nanocrystals from novel zinc and cadmium complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Mohammed, Aliyu D.; Strydom, Christien A.; Young, Desmond A.; Jordaan, Anine

    2014-06-01

    Monodispersed spherical and hexagonal shaped ZnS and CdS nanocrystals respectively, have been synthesized using novel heteroleptic complexes of xanthate (S2CObu) and dithiocarbamate (S2CNMePh). The nanocrystals were prepared via colloidal route and stabilized in hexadecylamine (HDA). The morphology of the as-prepared nanocrystals was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and powdered X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) analysis. An average diameter of 7.2 nm and 8.6 nm were obtained for the ZnS and CdS respectively. The optical properties of the nanoparticles studied by UV-vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy showed a blue shift in the absorption spectra, and band edge emission respectively.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Graphene oxide/Zinc oxide nanorods sandwich structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhoubza, I.; Khenfouch, M.; Achehboune, M.; Mouthudi, B.; Zorkani, I.; Jorio, A.

    2018-03-01

    Graphene-ZnO nanostructures composite materials have been used as very efficient candidates for various optoelectronic applications. Nowadays, the composite structure formation of ZnO nanostructures with graphene or graphene oxide is a novel, cost effective and efficient approach to control the morphology, surface defect states, band gap of ZnO nanocrystals. In this paper, we have prepared ZnO nanorods between two layers graphene oxide (GO/ZnO NRs/GO) via a simple hydrothermal method. Their morphology, structural and optical properties have been investigated. The obtained results of our composites GO/ZnO NRs/GO presented here showing an enhancement in the structural and optical properties. Thus may hold great promise to the development of the optoelectronic devices.

  12. Direct exchange between silicon nanocrystals and tunnel oxide traps under illumination on single electron photodetector

    SciT

    Chatbouri, S., E-mail: Samir.chatbouri@yahoo.com; Troudi, M.; Sghaier, N.

    2016-09-15

    In this paper we present the trapping of photogenerated charge carriers for 300 s resulted by their direct exchange under illumination between a few silicon nanocrystals (ncs-Si) embedded in an oxide tunnel layer (SiO{sub x} = 1.5) and the tunnel oxide traps levels for a single electron photodetector (photo-SET or nanopixel). At first place, the presence of a photocurrent limited in the inversion zone under illumination in the I–V curves confirms the creation of a pair electron/hole (e–h) at high energy. This photogenerated charge carriers can be trapped in the oxide. Using the capacitance-voltage under illumination (the photo-CV measurements) wemore » show a hysteresis chargement limited in the inversion area, indicating that the photo-generated charge carriers are stored at traps levels at the interface and within ncs-Si. The direct exchange of the photogenerated charge carriers between the interface traps levels and the ncs-Si contributed on the photomemory effect for 300 s for our nanopixel at room temperature.« less

  13. Virgin olive oil blended polyurethane micro/nanofibers ornamented with copper oxide nanocrystals for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Amna, Touseef; Hassan, M Shamshi; Yang, Jieun; Khil, Myung-Seob; Song, Ki-Duk; Oh, Jae-Don; Hwang, Inho

    2014-01-01

    Recently, substantial interest has been generated in using electrospun biomimetic nanofibers of hybrids, particularly organic/inorganic, to engineer different tissues. The present work, for the first time, introduced a unique natural and synthetic hybrid micronanofiber wound dressing, composed of virgin olive oil/copper oxide nanocrystals and polyurethane (PU), developed via facile electrospinning. The as-spun organic/inorganic hybrid micronanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The interaction of cells with scaffold was studied by culturing NIH 3T3 fibroblasts on an as-spun hybrid micronanofibrous mat, and viability, proliferation, and growth were assessed. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay results and SEM observation showed that the hybrid micronanofibrous scaffold was noncytotoxic to fibroblast cell culture and was found to benefit cell attachment and proliferation. Hence our results suggest the potential utilization of as-spun micronanoscaffolds for tissue engineering. Copper oxide–olive oil/PU wound dressing may exert its positive beneficial effects at every stage during wound-healing progression, and these micronanofibers may serve diverse biomedical applications, such as tissue regeneration, damaged skin treatment, wound healing applications, etc. Conclusively, the fabricated olive oil–copper oxide/PU micronanofibers combine the benefits of virgin olive oil and copper oxide, and therefore hold great promise for biomedical applications in the near future. PMID:24611006

  14. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of zinc molybdate nanocrystals and molybdate-doped epoxy/PDMS nanocomposite coatings for Mg alloy protection.

    PubMed

    Eduok, Ubong; Szpunar, Jerzy

    2018-06-01

    Zinc molybdate (ZM) is a safer anticorrosive additive for cooling systems when compared with chromates and lead salts, due to its insolubility in aqueous media. For most molybdate pigments, their molybdate anion (MoO 4 -2 ) acts as an anionic inhibitor and its passivation capacity is comparable with chromate anion (CrO 4 -2 ). To alleviate the environmental concerns involving chromates-based industrial protective coatings, we have proposed new alternative in this work. We have synthesized ZM nanocrystals via ultrasound-assisted process and encapsulated them within an epoxy/PDMS coating towards corrosion protection. The surface morphology and mechanical properties of these ZM doped epoxy/PDMS nanocomposite coatings is exhaustively discussed to show the effect of ZM content on protective properties. The presence of ZM nanocrystals significantly contributed to the corrosion barrier performance of the coating while the amount of ZM nanocrystals needed to prepare an epoxy coating with optimum barrier performance was established. Beyond 2 wt% ZM concentration, the siloxane-structured epoxy coating network became saturated with ZM pigments. This further broadened inherent pores channels, leading to the percolation of corrosion chloride ions through the coating. SEM evidence has revealed proof of surface delamination on ZM3 coating. A model mechanism of corrosion resistance has been proposed for ZM doped epoxy/PDMS nanocomposite coatings from exhaustive surface morphological investigations and evidence. This coating matrix may have emerging applications in cooling systems as anticorrosive surface paints as well as create an avenue for environmental corrosion remediation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Zinc oxide nanoparticles as a substitute for zinc oxide or colistin sulfate: Effects on growth, serum enzymes, zinc deposition, intestinal morphology and epithelial barrier in weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ligen; Su, Weipeng; Ying, Zhixiong; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Zhong, Xiang; Wang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) as a substitute for colistin sulfate (CS) and/or zinc oxide (ZnO) on growth performance, serum enzymes, zinc deposition, intestinal morphology and epithelial barrier in weaned piglets. A total of 216 crossbred Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire) piglets weaned at 23 days were randomly assigned into 3 groups, which were fed with basal diets supplemented with 20 mg/kg CS (CS group), 20mg/kg CS+3000 mg/kg ZnO (CS+ZnO group), and 1200 mg/kg nano-ZnOs (nano-ZnO group) for 14 days. Results indicated that compared to CS group, supplementation of 1200 mg/kg nano-ZnOs (about 30 nm) significantly increased final body weight and average daily gain, and 3000 mg/kg ZnO plus colistin sulfate significantly increased average daily gain and decreased diarrhea rate in weaned piglets. There was no significant difference in growth performance and diarrhea rate between nano-ZnO and CS+ZnO groups. Supplementation of nano-ZnOs did not affect serum enzymes (glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase), but significantly increased plasma and tissue zinc concentrations (liver, tibia), improved intestinal morphology (increased duodenal and ileal villus length, crypt depth, and villus surface), enhanced mRNA expression of ZO-1 in ileal mucosa, and significantly decreased diamine oxidase activity in plasma, total aerobic bacterial population in MLN as compared to CS group. Effects of nano-ZnOs on serum enzymes, intestinal morphology, and mRNA expressions of tight junction were similar to those of high dietary ZnO plus colistin sulfate, while nano-ZnOs significantly reduced zinc concentrations of liver, tibia, and feces, and decreased total aerobic bacterial population in MLN as compared to CS+ZnO group. These results suggested that nano-ZnOs (1200 mg/kg) might be used as a substitute for colistin sulfate and high dietary ZnO in weaned piglets. PMID:28704517

  16. Zinc oxide nanoparticles as a substitute for zinc oxide or colistin sulfate: Effects on growth, serum enzymes, zinc deposition, intestinal morphology and epithelial barrier in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Ligen; Su, Weipeng; Ying, Zhixiong; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Zhong, Xiang; Wang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) as a substitute for colistin sulfate (CS) and/or zinc oxide (ZnO) on growth performance, serum enzymes, zinc deposition, intestinal morphology and epithelial barrier in weaned piglets. A total of 216 crossbred Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire) piglets weaned at 23 days were randomly assigned into 3 groups, which were fed with basal diets supplemented with 20 mg/kg CS (CS group), 20mg/kg CS+3000 mg/kg ZnO (CS+ZnO group), and 1200 mg/kg nano-ZnOs (nano-ZnO group) for 14 days. Results indicated that compared to CS group, supplementation of 1200 mg/kg nano-ZnOs (about 30 nm) significantly increased final body weight and average daily gain, and 3000 mg/kg ZnO plus colistin sulfate significantly increased average daily gain and decreased diarrhea rate in weaned piglets. There was no significant difference in growth performance and diarrhea rate between nano-ZnO and CS+ZnO groups. Supplementation of nano-ZnOs did not affect serum enzymes (glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase), but significantly increased plasma and tissue zinc concentrations (liver, tibia), improved intestinal morphology (increased duodenal and ileal villus length, crypt depth, and villus surface), enhanced mRNA expression of ZO-1 in ileal mucosa, and significantly decreased diamine oxidase activity in plasma, total aerobic bacterial population in MLN as compared to CS group. Effects of nano-ZnOs on serum enzymes, intestinal morphology, and mRNA expressions of tight junction were similar to those of high dietary ZnO plus colistin sulfate, while nano-ZnOs significantly reduced zinc concentrations of liver, tibia, and feces, and decreased total aerobic bacterial population in MLN as compared to CS+ZnO group. These results suggested that nano-ZnOs (1200 mg/kg) might be used as a substitute for colistin sulfate and high dietary ZnO in weaned piglets.

  17. Topical zinc oxide vs. salicylic acid-lactic acid combination in the treatment of warts.

    PubMed

    Khattar, Joe A; Musharrafieh, Umayya M; Tamim, Hala; Hamadeh, Ghassan N

    2007-04-01

    Warts are a common dermatologic problem. Treatment is painful, prolonged, and can cause scarring. To evaluate topical zinc oxide for the treatment of warts. This was a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of 44 patients. Twenty-two patients were given topical zinc oxide 20% ointment, and the other 22 received salicylic acid 15% + lactic acid 15% ointment twice daily. All patients were followed up for 3 months or until cure, whichever occurred first. All patients were observed for side-effects. Sixteen patients in the zinc group and 19 in the salicylic acid-lactic acid group completed the study. In the zinc oxide-treated group, 50% of the patients showed complete cure and 18.7% failed to respond, compared with 42% and 26%, respectively, in the salicylic acid-lactic acid-treated group. No patients developed serious side-effects. Topical zinc oxide is an efficacious, painless, and safe therapeutic option for wart treatment.

  18. Photophysical Behaviors of Single Fluorophores Localized on Zinc Oxide Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy has now been widely used to investigate complex dynamic processes which would normally be obscured in an ensemble-averaged measurement. In this report we studied photophysical behaviors of single fluorophores in proximity to zinc oxide nanostructures by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC). Single fluorophores on ZnO surfaces showed enhanced fluorescence brightness to various extents compared with those on glass; the single-molecule time trajectories also illustrated pronounced fluctuations of emission intensities, with time periods distributed from milliseconds to seconds. We attribute fluorescence fluctuations to the interfacial electron transfer (ET) events. The fluorescence fluctuation dynamics were found to be inhomogeneous from molecule to molecule and from time to time, showing significant static and dynamic disorders in the interfacial electron transfer reaction processes. PMID:23109903

  19. Gas sensing performance of nano zinc oxide sensors

    SciT

    Sharma, Shiva, E-mail: shivasharmaau@gmail.com; Chauhan, Pratima, E-mail: mangu167@yahoo.co.in

    We report nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO) synthesized by sol-gel method possessing the crystallite size which varies from 25.17 nm to 47.27 nm. The Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image confirms the uniform distribution of nanograins with high porosity. The Energy dispersion X-ray (EDAX) spectrum gives the atomic composition of Zn and O in ZnO powders and confirms the formation of nano ZnO particles. These factors reveals that Nano ZnO based gas sensors are highly sensitive to Ammonia gas (NH{sub 3}) at room temperature, indicating the maximum response 86.8% at 800 ppm with fast response time and recovery time of 36 sec and 23 secmore » respectively.« less

  20. Intrinsic defect oriented visible region absorption in zinc oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhesh, V.; Shankar, Balakrishnan

    2018-05-01

    Zinc Oxide films were deposited on the glass substrate using vacuum arc sputtering technology. Films were prepared in oxygen ambience for 10mA and 15 mA deposition current separately. The UV-Visible spectroscopy of the samples showed that both samples possess sharp absorption near 3.5eV which is the characteristic band gap absorption energy of ZnO films. The absorption coefficient were calculated for the samples and the (αℎϑ)2 vs energy plot is drawn. The plot suggested that in addition to the sharp band edge absorption, the sample prepared at 10mA deposition current showed sharp absorption edge near 1.51eV and that at 15 mA showed absorption edge near 1.47eV. This refers to the presence of an intrinsic defect level which is likely to be deep in the band gap.

  1. Green Approach for Fabrication and Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in everyday applications. This study aims to fabricate ZnO-NPs using grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel extract with particle size ranging from 12 to 72 nm. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, TEM, DLS, and FTIR analysis. They show the significant photocatalytic degradation efficiency (>56%, 10 mg/L, 6 h) against methylene blue and antioxidant efficacy (≥80% for 1.2 mM) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green ZnO-NPs could be used effectively in environmental safety applications and also can address future medical concerns. PMID:25374484

  2. Green approach for fabrication and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in everyday applications. This study aims to fabricate ZnO-NPs using grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel extract with particle size ranging from 12 to 72 nm. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, TEM, DLS, and FTIR analysis. They show the significant photocatalytic degradation efficiency (>56%, 10 mg/L, 6 h) against methylene blue and antioxidant efficacy (≥80% for 1.2 mM) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green ZnO-NPs could be used effectively in environmental safety applications and also can address future medical concerns.

  3. Functionalization of textiles with silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulit-Prociak, Jolanta; Chwastowski, Jarosław; Kucharski, Arkadiusz; Banach, Marcin

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents a method for functionalization of textile materials using fabric dyes modified with silver or zinc oxide nanoparticles. Embedding of these nanoparticles into the structure of other materials makes that the final product is characterized by antimicrobial properties. Indigo and commercially available dye were involved in studies. It is worth to note that silver nanoparticles were obtained in-situ in the reaction of preparing indigo dye and in the process of preparing commercial dye baths. Such a method allows reducing technological steps. The modified dyes were used for dyeing of cotton fibers. The antimicrobial properties of final textile materials were studied. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was used in microbiological test. The results confirmed biocidal activity of prepared materials.

  4. Amino acid-assisted synthesis of zinc oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Baljinder; Moudgil, Lovika; Singh, Gurinder; Kaura, Aman

    2018-05-01

    In this manuscript we have used experimental approach that can provide a fundamental knowledge about the role played by biomolecules in designing the shape of nanostructure (NS) at a microscopic level. The three different amino acids (AAs) - Arginine (Arg), Aspartic acid (Asp) and Histidine (His) coated Zinc oxide (ZnO) NSs to explain the growth mechanism of nanoparticles of different shapes. Based on the experimental methodology we propose that AA-ZnO (Asp and Arg) nanomaterials could form of rod like configuration and His-ZnO NPs could form tablet like configuration. The synthesized samples are characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results reveal that AAs are responsible for formation of different NSs

  5. Production of zinc oxide nanowires power with precisely defined morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mičová, Júlia; Remeš, Zdeněk; Chan, Yu-Ying

    2017-12-01

    The interest about zinc oxide is increasing thanks to its unique chemical and physical properties. Our attention has focused on preparation powder of 1D nanostructures of ZnO nanowires with precisely defined morphology include characterization size (length and diameter) and shape controlled in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We have compared results of SEM with dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. We have found out that SEM method gives more accurate results. We have proposed transformation process from ZnO nanowires on substrates to ZnO nanowires powder by ultrasound peeling to colloid followed by lyophilization. This method of the mass production of the ZnO nanowires powder has some advantages: simplicity, cost effective, large-scale and environment friendly.

  6. Thermally induced growth of ZnO nanocrystals on mixed metal oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Inayat, Alexandra; Makky, Ayman; Giraldo, Jose; Kuhnt, Andreas; Busse, Corinna; Schwieger, Wilhelm

    2014-06-23

    An in situ method for the growth of ZnO nanocrystals on Zn/Al mixed metal oxide (MMO) surfaces is presented. The key to this method is the thermal treatment of Zn/Al layered double hydroxides (Zn/Al LDHs) in the presence of nitrate anions, which results in partial demixing of the LDH/MMO structure and the subsequent crystallization of ZnO crystals on the surface of the forming MMO layers. In a first experimental series, thermal treatment of Zn/Al LDHs with different fractions of nitrate and carbonate in the interlayer space was examined by thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry (TG-MS) and in situ XRD. In a second experimental series, Zn/Al LDHs with only carbonate in the interlayer space were thermally treated in the presence of different amounts of an external nitrate source (NH4NO3). All obtained Zn/Al MMO samples were analysed by electron microscopy, nitrogen physisorption and powder X-ray diffraction. The gas phase formed during nitrate decomposition turned out to be responsible for the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles. Accordingly, both interlayer nitrate and the presence of ammonium nitrate led to the formation of supported ZnO nanocrystals with mean diameters between 100 and 400 nm, and both methods offer the possibility to tailor the amount and size of the ZnO crystals by means of the amount of nitrate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Iron-doped nickel oxide nanocrystals as highly efficient electrocatalysts for alkaline water splitting.

    PubMed

    Fominykh, Ksenia; Chernev, Petko; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Sicklinger, Johannes; Stefanic, Goran; Döblinger, Markus; Müller, Alexander; Pokharel, Aneil; Böcklein, Sebastian; Scheu, Christina; Bein, Thomas; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, Dina

    2015-05-26

    Efficient electrochemical water splitting to hydrogen and oxygen is considered a promising technology to overcome our dependency on fossil fuels. Searching for novel catalytic materials for electrochemical oxygen generation is essential for improving the total efficiency of water splitting processes. We report the synthesis, structural characterization, and electrochemical performance in the oxygen evolution reaction of Fe-doped NiO nanocrystals. The facile solvothermal synthesis in tert-butanol leads to the formation of ultrasmall crystalline and highly dispersible FexNi1-xO nanoparticles with dopant concentrations of up to 20%. The increase in Fe content is accompanied by a decrease in particle size, resulting in nonagglomerated nanocrystals of 1.5-3.8 nm in size. The Fe content and composition of the nanoparticles are determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements, while Mössbauer and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses reveal a substitutional incorporation of Fe(III) into the NiO rock salt structure. The excellent dispersibility of the nanoparticles in ethanol allows for the preparation of homogeneous ca. 8 nm thin films with a smooth surface on various substrates. The turnover frequencies (TOF) of these films could be precisely calculated using a quartz crystal microbalance. Fe0.1Ni0.9O was found to have the highest electrocatalytic water oxidation activity in basic media with a TOF of 1.9 s(-1) at the overpotential of 300 mV. The current density of 10 mA cm(-2) is reached at an overpotential of 297 mV with a Tafel slope of 37 mV dec(-1). The extremely high catalytic activity, facile preparation, and low cost of the single crystalline FexNi1-xO nanoparticles make them very promising catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction.

  8. Comparative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and dissolved zinc on zebrafish embryos and eleuthero-embryos: importance of zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca; Lenz, Markus; Wehrli, Bernhard; Fent, Karl

    2014-04-01

    The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) and their associated environmental occurrence make it necessary to assess their potential effects on aquatic organisms. Upon water contact, nZnO dissolve partially to zinc (Zn(II)). To date it is not yet completely understood, whether effects of nZnO are solely or partly due to dissolved Zn(II). Here we compare potential effects of 0.2, 1 and 5mg/L nZnO and corresponding concentrations of released Zn(II) by water soluble ZnCl2 to two development stages of zebrafish, embryos and eleuthero-embryos, by analysing expressional changes by RT-qPCR. Another objective was to assess uptake and tissue distribution of Zn(II). Laser ablation-ICP-MS analysis demonstrated that uptake and tissue distribution of Zn(II) were identical for nZnO and ZnCl2 in eleuthero-embryos. Zn(II) was found particularly in the retina/pigment layer of eyes and brain. Both nZnO and dissolved Zn(II) derived from ZnCl2 had similar inhibiting effects on hatching, and they induced similar expressional changes of target genes. At 72hours post fertilization (hpf), both nZnO and Zn(II) delayed hatching at all doses, and inhibited hatching at 1 and 5 mg/L at 96 hpf. Both nZnO and Zn(II) lead to induction of metallothionein (mt2) in both embryos and eleuthero-embryos at all concentrations. Transcripts of oxidative stress related genes cat and Cu/Zn sod were also altered. Moreover, we show for the first time that nZnO exposure results in transcriptional changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα. Overall, transcriptional alterations were higher in embryos than eleuthero-embryos. The similarities of the effects lead to the conclusion that effects of nZnO are mainly related to the release of Zn(II). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Zinc oxide tetrapods as efficient photocatalysts for organic pollutant degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangzhou; Leung, Yu Hang; Djurisić, Aleksandra B.; Liao, Changzhong; Shih, Kaimin

    2014-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and other organic pollutants from industrial wastewater have drawn increasing concern in the past decades regarding their environmental and biological risks, and hence developing strategies of effective degradation of BPA and other organic pollutants is imperative. Metal oxide nanostructures, in particular titanium oxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO), have been demonstrated to exhibit efficient photodegradation of various common organic dyes. ZnO tetrapods are of special interest due to their low density of native defects which consequently lead to lower recombination losses and higher photocatalytic efficiency. Tetrapods can be obtained by relatively simple and low-cost vapor phase deposition in large quantity; the micron-scale size would also be advantageous for catalyst recovery. In this study, the photodegradation of BPA with ZnO tetrapods and TiO2 nanostructures under UV illumination were compared. The concentration of BPA dissolved in DI water was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at specified time intervals. It was observed that the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO tetrapods eventually surpassed Degussa P25 in free-standing form, and more than 80% of BPA was degraded after 60 min. Photodegradation of other organic dye pollutants by tetrapods and P25 were also examined. The superior photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO tetrapods for degradation of BPA and other organic dye pollutants and its correlation with the material properties were discussed.

  10. Folate receptor targeted, rare-earth oxide nanocrystals for bi-modal fluorescence and magnetic imaging of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Setua, Sonali; Menon, Deepthy; Asok, Adersh; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2010-02-01

    Targeted cancer imaging using rare-earth oxide nanocrystals, free from heavy metals (Cd, Se, Te, Hg and Pb), showing bright red-fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presented. Y(2)O(3) nanocrystals (YO NC) doped in situ with fluorescent (Eu(3+)) and paramagnetic (Gd(3+)) impurities and conjugated with a potential cancer targeting ligand, folic acid (FA), were prepared using an all-aqueous wet-chemical process. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of these multifunctional nanocrystals were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, photoluminescence and magnetization studies. Highly monodisperse nanocrystals of size approximately 20 nm with cubic bixbyite crystal structure showed bright red-fluorescence when doped with Eu(3+). Co-doping with Gd(3+) and mild air drying resulted significantly enhanced fluorescence quantum efficiency of approximately 60% together with paramagnetic functionality, enabling T(1)-weighted MR contrast with approximately 5 times higher spin-lattice relaxivity compared to the clinically used Gd(3+) contrast agent. Cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen stress studies show no toxicity by YO NC in both normal and cancer cells up to higher doses of 500 microm and longer incubation time, 48h. Cancer targeting capability of FA conjugated NCs was demonstrated on folate receptor positive (FR+) human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (KB) with FR depressed KB (FRd) and FR negative (FR-) lung cancer cells A549 as controls. Fluorescence microscopy and flow-cytometry data show highly specific binding and cellular uptake of large concentration of FA conjugated NCs on FR+ve cells compared to the controls. Thus, the present study reveals, unique bi-modal contrast imaging capability, non-toxicity and cancer targeting capability of multiple impurities doped rare-earth oxide nanocrystals that can find promising application in molecular imaging.

  11. A comprehensive toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles versus their bulk in Wistar rats: Toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, Anurag Kumar; Kumar, Mahadeo; Ansari, Nasreen Ghazi; Jain, Abhishek Kumar; Shankar, Jai; Arjaria, Nidhi; Jagdale, Pankaj; Singh, Dhirendra

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and their bulk counterpart in suspensions and to access the impact of their acute oral toxicity at doses of 300 and 2000 mg/kg in healthy female Wistar rats. The hematological, biochemical, and urine parameters were accessed at 24 and 48 h and 14 days posttreatment. The histopathological evaluations of tissues were also performed. The distribution of zinc content in liver, kidney, spleen, plasma, and excretory materials (feces and urine) at 24 and 48 h and 14 days posttreatment were accessed after a single exposure at dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. The elevated level of alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine were observed in ZnO-NPs at a dose of 2000 mg/kg at all time points. There was a decrease in iron levels in all the treated groups at 24 h posttreatment as compared to control groups but returned to their normal level at 14 days posttreatment. The hematological parameters red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, and haptoglobin were reduced at 48 h posttreatment at a dose of 2000 mg/kg ZnO-NPs and showed hemolytic condition. All the treated groups were comparable to control group at the end of 14 days posttreatment. The zinc concentration in the kidney, liver, plasma, feces, and urine showed a significant increase in both groups as compared to control. This study explained that ZnO-NPs produced more toxicological effect as compared to their bulk particles as evidenced through alteration in some hemato-biochemical parameters and with few histopathological lesions in liver and kidney tissues. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Salmonella enterica biofilm-mediated dispersal by nitric oxide donors in association with cellulose nanocrystal hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Durie, Ian A; McLamore, Eric S; Vanegas, Diana C; Chaturvedi, Prachee

    2015-01-01

    Protected by extracellular polymers, microbes within biofilms are significantly more resistant to disinfectants. Current research has been instrumental in identifying nitric oxide donors and hydrogels as potential disinfectant additives. Nitric oxide (NO) donors are considered a very promising molecule as biofilm dispersal agents and hydrogels have recently attracted a lot of interest due to their biocompatible properties and ability to form stable thin films. When the NO donor MAHMA NONOate was dissolved in phosphate saline buffer, it was able to reduce the biomass of well-established biofilms up to 15% for at least 24 h of contact time. Encapsulation of MAHMA NONOate and molsidomine within a hydrogel composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) has shown a synergistic effect in dispersing well-established biofilms: after 2 h of exposure, moderate but significant dispersion was measured. After 6 h of exposure, the number of cells transitioning from the biofilm to the planktonic state was up to 0.6 log higher when compared with non-treated biofilms. To further explore the transport processes of NO donors within hydrogels, we measured the nitric oxide flux from gels, at 25°C for a composite of 0.1 µM MAHMA NONOate-CNC. Nitric oxide diffuses up to 500 µm from the hydrogel surface, with flux decreasing according to Fick's law. 60% of NO was released from the hydrogel composite during the first 23 min. These data suggest that the combined treatments with nitric oxide donor and hydrogels may allow for new sustainable cleaning strategies.

  13. Superparamagnetic magnetite nanocrystals-graphene oxide nanocomposites: facile synthesis and their enhanced electric double-layer capacitor performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qihua; Wang, Dewei; Li, Yuqi; Wang, Tingmei

    2012-06-01

    Superparamagnetic magnetite nanocrystals-graphene oxide (FGO) nanocomposites were successfully synthesized through a simple yet versatile one-step solution-processed approach at ambient conditions. Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanocrystals (NCs) with a size of 10-50 nm were uniformly deposited on the surfaces of graphene oxide (GO) sheets, which were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission election microscopy (HAADF-STEM) studies. FGO with different Fe3O4 loadings could be controlled by simply manipulating the initial weight ratio of the precursors. The M-H measurements suggested that the as-prepared FGO nanocomposites have a large saturation magnetizations that made them can move regularly under an external magnetic field. Significantly, FGO nanocomposites also exhibit enhanced electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) activity compared with pure Fe3O4 NCs and GO in terms of specific capacitance and high-rate charge-discharge.

  14. Ultrafast synthesis of flower-like ordered Pd3Pb nanocrystals with superior electrocatalytic activities towards oxidation of formic acid and ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Rajkumar; Subbarao, Udumula; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2016-01-01

    Ordered intermetallic nanocrystals with high surface area are highly promising as efficient catalysts for fuel cell applications because of their unique electrocatalytic properties. The present work discusses about the controlled synthesis of ordered intermetallic Pd3Pb nanocrystals in different morphologies at relatively low temperature for the first time by polyol and hydrothermal methods both in presence and absence of surfactant. Here for the first time we report surfactant free synthesis of ordered flower-like intermetallic Pd3Pb nanocrystals in 10 s. The structural characteristics of the nanocrystals are confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The as synthesized ordered Pd3Pb nanocrystals exhibit far superior electrocatalytic activity and durability towards formic acid and ethanol oxidation over commercially available Pd black (Pd/C). The morphological variation of nanocrystals plays a crucial role in the electrocatalytic oxidation of formic acid and ethanol. Among the catalysts, the flower-like Pd3Pb shows enhanced activity and stability in electrocatalytic formic acid and ethanol oxidation. The current density and mass activity of flower-like Pd3Pb catalyst are higher by 2.5 and 2.4 times than that of Pd/C for the formic acid oxidation and 1.5 times each for ethanol oxidation.

  15. Large-scale and green synthesis of octahedral flower-like cupric oxide nanocrystals with enhanced photochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shi-Kuo; Pan, Yu-Yi; Wu, Mi; Huang, Fang-Zhi; Li, Chuan-Hao; Shen, Yu-Hua

    2014-10-01

    In this work, a large-scale and green method is reported for the facile synthesis of octahedral flower-like CuO nanocrystals via a coordination-deposition route by using Fehling regents. Not any harmful organic chemicals were used during the reaction period. The obtained hierarchical nanostructure can be rationally tailored by varying the concentration of tartrate ions and reaction time. The typical flower-like CuO nanocrystals in the range of 200-250 nm are consisted of numerous small crystalline whiskers, which present a porous surface with a specific surface area of 32.12 m2/g and a narrow band gap of 1.5 eV. Importantly, the flower-like CuO nanocrystals show an enhanced photocatalytic activity toward decomposing Rhodamine B (RhB) molecules. The degradation rate is about 87.9% in 40 min under visible light irradiation, which is about 2.5 times for the commercial CuO powers (35.2%). Moreover, the uniform flower-like monolayered CuO film exhibits an excellent photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance with a maximum photocurrent density of 58.8 μA/cm2, which is nearly five times higher than the commercial CuO film. This novel synthesis approach provides a large-scale and green protocol for synthesizing hierarchical metal oxide nanocrystals that are useful for photocatalysis, PEC water splitting and photovoltaic device.

  16. Limonia acidissima L. leaf mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles: A potent tool against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Taranath, Tarikere C; Patil, Bheemanagouda N

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles using Limonia acidissima L. and to test their efficacy against the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed with UV-visible spectrophotometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows the presence of bio-molecules involved in the stabilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The shape and size was confirmed with atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, and high resolution transmission electron microscope. These nanoparticles were tested for their effect on the growth of M. tuberculosis through the microplate alamar blue assay technique. The UV-visible data reveal that an absorbance peak at 374nm confirms formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles and they are spherical in shape with sizes between 12nm and 53nm. These nanoparticles control the growth of M. tuberculosis at 12.5μg/mL. Phytosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles is a green, eco-friendly technology because it is inexpensive and pollution free. In the present investigation, based on our results we conclude that the aqueous extract of leaves of L. acidissima can be used for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. These nanoparticles control the growth of M. tuberculosis and this was confirmed with the microplate alamar blue method. The potential of biogenic zinc oxide nanoparticles may be harnessed as a novel medicine ingredient to combat tuberculosis disease. Copyright © 2016 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of morphology and solvent on two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide

    SciT

    Kavitha, M.K.; Haripadmam, P.C.; Gopinath, Pramod

    Highlights: ► ZnO nanospheres and triangular structures synthesis by novel precipitation technique. ► The effect of precursor concentration on the size and shape of nano ZnO. ► Open aperture Z-scan measurements of the ZnO nanoparticle dispersions. ► Nanospheres exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than triangular nanostructures. ► Nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than its dispersion in 2-propanol. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the effect of morphology and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide. Zinc oxide nanoparticles in two different morphologies like nanospheres and triangular nanostructures are synthesized by novelmore » precipitation technique and their two-photon absorption coefficient is measured using open aperture Z-scan technique. Experimental results show that the zinc oxide nanospheres exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than the zinc oxide triangular nanostructures. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than that of its dispersion in 2-propanol. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water shows a decrease in two-photon absorption coefficient with an increase in on-axis irradiance. The result confirms the dependence of shape and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide.« less

  18. Graphene oxide/metal nanocrystal multilaminates as the atomic limit for safe and selective hydrogen storage

    DOE PAGES

    Cho, Eun Seon; Ruminski, Anne M.; Aloni, Shaul; ...

    2016-02-23

    Interest in hydrogen fuel is growing for automotive applications; however, safe, dense, solid-state hydrogen storage remains a formidable scientific challenge. Metal hydrides offer ample storage capacity and do not require cryogens or exceedingly high pressures for operation. However, hydrides have largely been abandoned because of oxidative instability and sluggish kinetics. We report a new, environmentally stable hydrogen storage material constructed of Mg nanocrystals encapsulated by atomically thin and gas-selective reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. This material, protected from oxygen and moisture by the rGO layers, exhibits exceptionally dense hydrogen storage (6.5 wt% and 0.105 kg H 2 per litre inmore » the total composite). As rGO is atomically thin, this approach minimizes inactive mass in the composite, while also providing a kinetic enhancement to hydrogen sorption performance. In conclusion, these multilaminates of rGO-Mg are able to deliver exceptionally dense hydrogen storage and provide a material platform for harnessing the attributes of sensitive nanomaterials in demanding environments.« less

  19. Graphene oxide/metal nanocrystal multilaminates as the atomic limit for safe and selective hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Seon; Ruminski, Anne M; Aloni, Shaul; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Guo, Jinghua; Urban, Jeffrey J

    2016-02-23

    Interest in hydrogen fuel is growing for automotive applications; however, safe, dense, solid-state hydrogen storage remains a formidable scientific challenge. Metal hydrides offer ample storage capacity and do not require cryogens or exceedingly high pressures for operation. However, hydrides have largely been abandoned because of oxidative instability and sluggish kinetics. We report a new, environmentally stable hydrogen storage material constructed of Mg nanocrystals encapsulated by atomically thin and gas-selective reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. This material, protected from oxygen and moisture by the rGO layers, exhibits exceptionally dense hydrogen storage (6.5 wt% and 0.105 kg H2 per litre in the total composite). As rGO is atomically thin, this approach minimizes inactive mass in the composite, while also providing a kinetic enhancement to hydrogen sorption performance. These multilaminates of rGO-Mg are able to deliver exceptionally dense hydrogen storage and provide a material platform for harnessing the attributes of sensitive nanomaterials in demanding environments.

  20. Wet chemical synthesis of zinc-iron oxide nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Honami; Amagasa, Shota; Nishida, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2017-11-01

    Zinc-iron oxide nanoparticles (ZnxFe3-xO4 and δ-ZnxFe1-xOOH) were successfully synthesized by room temperature chemical reaction of a solution containing ZnCl2 and FeCl2 in the presence of gelatin. The composition of products could be controlled by variation of the Zn/Fe mixture ratio of the starting material. ZnxFe3-xO4 nanoparticles were obtained from a solution with a high Zn/Fe ratio, whereas Zn-doped feroxyhyte ( δ-ZnxFe1-xOOH) nanoparticles were obtained from a solution with a low Zn/Fe ratio. The ZnxFe3-xO4 nanoparticles were spherical with diameters of approximately 10 nm, and the δ-ZnxFe1-xOOH particles were needle-like with lengths of approximately 100 nm. Mössbauer spectra measured at room temperature indicated superparamagnetic behavior of the nanoparticles, whereas the magnetic components were observed at low temperature. The Zn content of the intermediate species (( {Zn}^{ {II}}x {Fe}^{ {II}}_{1-x} {Fe}^{ {III}}2O4)) plays an important role in the oxidation process. When the Zn concentration was high, the content of Fe2+ in the intermediate species was small, and Zn2+ prevented further oxidation of the nanoparticles. When the starting material had low Zn concentration, the amount of Fe2+ in the intermediate species became large and was rapidly oxidized into δ-ZnxFe1-xOOH while rinsing under the ambient atmosphere.

  1. In situ observation of the formation of hollow zinc oxide shells

    DOE PAGES

    Tringe, J. W.; Levie, H. W.; El-Dasher, B. S.; ...

    2011-06-14

    Single crystal zinc particles, 1–2 μm1–2 μm in diameter, were observed in situ with transmission electron microscopy during sublimation. The rate of sublimation is strongly dependent on the presence of a surface oxide layer. Near 375°, minimally oxidized Zn surfaces sublime in tens of seconds, consistent with a model in which the particle behaves similarly to an isolated microscale effusion cell. By contrast, zinc particles fully enclosed by oxide sublime less than one-tenth as quickly. Here these results provide new insight into the synthesis mechanisms of hollow ZnO microspheres and related structures formed from metallic zinc at elevated temperatures.

  2. Zinc oxide crystal whiskers as a novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Licheng; Shangguan, Yangnan; Hou, Xiudan; Jia, Yong; Liu, Shujuan; Sun, Yingxin; Guo, Yong

    2017-08-15

    As a novel solid-phase extraction material, zinc oxide crystal whiskers were used to extract flavonoid compounds and showed good extraction abilities. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and surface area/pore volume characterized the sorbent. The zinc oxide was packed into a solid-phase extraction micro-column and its extraction ability was evaluated by four model flavonoid compounds. The sample loading and elution parameters were optimized and the zinc oxide based analytical method for flavonoids was established. It showed that the method has wide linearities from 1 to 150μg/L and low limits of detection at 0.25μg/L. The relative standard deviations of a single column repeatability and column to column reproducibility were less than 6.8% and 10.6%. Several real samples were analyzed by the established method and satisfactory results were obtained. The interactions between flavonoids and zinc oxide were calculated and proved to be from the Van der Waals' forces between the 4p and 5d orbitals from zinc atom and the neighboring π orbitals from flavonoid phenyl groups. Moreover, the zinc oxide crystal whiskers showed good stability and could be reused more than 50 times under the operation conditions. This work proves that the zinc oxide crystal whiskers are a good candidate for flavonoids enrichment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Preliminary investigations on the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramani, Meghana; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we present a systematic investigation on the evolution of nanorods of diameter 35-40 nm and 1-2 μm length from nanoparticles of diameter 30-35 nm by varying the concentration of 2,6-lutidine which acts as a shape-directing agent in the synthesis process. This variation in morphology was studied using transmission electron microscopy. The surface capping agent was subsequently removed by heating during the synthesis process and confirmed using Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy. Sufficient quantity of surface defects in the form of oxygen vacancies was observed from the photoluminescence analysis of the synthesized nanostructures. The concentration of defects decreased as the shape transits from nanoparticles to nanorods. The synthesized samples were preliminarily studied for their antibacterial activity against four model (gram-positive and gram-negative) pathogens by disk diffusion method and growth curve analysis. The calculated generation time indicates higher activity for nanoparticles than nanorods. However, the difference in the activity against different pathogens and their dependence on the concentration of defects indicate oxidative stress in addition to mechanical membrane damage as the major toxicity mechanism. Overall, the experimental findings are preliminary evidence supporting the possibility of developing zinc oxide nanostructures as antibacterial agents against a wide range of microorganisms to control and prevent the spreading of bacterial infections.

  4. Human skin penetration and local effects of topical nano zinc oxide after occlusion and barrier impairment.

    PubMed

    Leite-Silva, V R; Sanchez, W Y; Studier, H; Liu, D C; Mohammed, Y H; Holmes, A M; Ryan, E M; Haridass, I N; Chandrasekaran, N C; Becker, W; Grice, J E; Benson, H A E; Roberts, M S

    2016-07-01

    Public health concerns continue to exist over the safety of zinc oxide nanoparticles that are commonly used in sunscreen formulations. In this work, we assessed the effects of two conditions which may be encountered in everyday sunscreen use, occlusion and a compromised skin barrier, on the penetration and local toxicity of two topically applied zinc oxide nanoparticle products. Caprylic/capric triglyceride (CCT) suspensions of commercially used zinc oxide nanoparticles, either uncoated or with a silane coating, were applied to intact and barrier impaired skin of volunteers, without and with occlusion for a period of six hours. The exposure time was chosen to simulate normal in-use conditions. Multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging was used to noninvasively assess zinc oxide penetration and cellular metabolic changes that could be indicative of toxicity. We found that zinc oxide nanoparticles did not penetrate into the viable epidermis of intact or barrier impaired skin of volunteers, without or with occlusion. We also observed no apparent toxicity in the viable epidermis below the application sites. These findings were validated by ex vivo human skin studies in which zinc penetration was assessed by multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging as well as Zinpyr-1 staining and toxicity was assessed by MTS assays in zinc oxide treated skin cryosections. In conclusion, applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles under occlusive in-use conditions to volunteers are not associated with any measurable zinc oxide penetration into, or local toxicity in the viable epidermis below the application site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comprehensive Study of Formic Acid Oxidation on Palladium Nanocrystals with Different Types of Facets and Twin Defects

    DOE PAGES

    Choi, Sang-Il; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Scaranto, Jessica; ...

    2015-04-13

    Palladium has been recognized as the best anodic, monometallic electrocatalyst for the formic acid oxidation (FAO) reaction in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Here we report a systematic study of FAO on a variety of Pd nanocrystals, including cubes, right bipyramids, octahedra, tetrahedra, decahedra, and icosahedra. These nanocrystals were synthesized with approximately the same size, but different types of facets and twin defects on their surfaces. Our measurements indicate that the Pd nanocrystals enclosed by {100} facets have higher specific activities than those enclosed by {111} facets, in agreement with prior observations for Pd single-crystal substrates. If comparing nanocrystalsmore » predominantly enclosed by a specific type of facet, {100} or {111}, those with twin defects displayed greatly enhanced FAO activities compared to their single-crystal counterparts. To rationalize these experimental results, we performed periodic, self-consistent DFT calculations on model single-crystal substrates of Pd, representing the active sites present in the nanocrystals used in the experiments. The calculation results suggest that the enhancement of FAO activity on defect regions, represented by Pd(211) sites, compared to the activity of both Pd(100) and Pd(111) surfaces, could be attributed to an increased flux through the HCOO-mediated pathway rather than the COOH-mediated pathway on Pd(211). Since COOH has been identified as a precursor to CO, a site-poisoning species, a lower coverage of CO at the defect regions will lead to a higher activity for the corresponding nanocrystal catalysts, containing those defect regions.« less

  6. Nanostructure of aluminium (Al) - Doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussin, Rosniza; Husin, M. Asri

    2017-12-01

    Aluminium (Al)-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) was deposited on glass substrates by using the sol-gel dip coating technique. Next, AZO sol-gel solution was produced via sol-gel method. Al was used as doped element with molar ratios of 1%, 2%, and 3%, while the calcination temperatures were set at 400°C, 500°C, and 600°C for 2 hours. In fact, characterization was carried out in order to determine the effect of calcination temperature and molar ratio of doping by using several techniques, such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). XRD was performed to investigate the crystal structure in which the ZnO was in wurtzite hexagonal form. Next, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the composition of thin films where the result revealed the existence of zinc, oxygen, and aluminium. The roughness of the deposited film was later measured by using the AFM approach where the findings indicated increment in RMS from 8.496 nm to 35.883 nm as the temperature was increased. Additionally, FESEM was carried out to look into the microstructure surfaces of the deposited AZO thin film for increased temperature caused the particle to grow bigger for all molar ratio of dopant. Lastly, UV-Vis was conducted to study the optical properties of AZO, in which the result demonstrated that AZO thin film possessed the highest transmittance percentage among all samples above 90% with band gap value that ranged from 3.25 eV to 3.32 eV.

  7. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Miri; Chung, Hae-Eun; Yu, Jin; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Min; Lee, Won-Jae; Paek, Seung-Min; Lee, Jong Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Choy, Jin-Ho; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background This study explored the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion profile of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with respect to their particle size in rats. Methods Two ZnO nanoparticles of different size (20 nm and 70 nm) were orally administered to male and female rats, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve, tissue distribution, excretion, and the fate of the nanoparticles in organs were analyzed. Results The plasma zinc concentration of both sizes of ZnO nanoparticles increased during the 24 hours after administration in a dose-dependent manner. They were mainly distributed to organs such as the liver, lung, and kidney within 72 hours without any significant difference being found according to particle size or rat gender. Elimination kinetics showed that a small amount of ZnO nanoparticles was excreted via the urine, while most of nanoparticles were excreted via the feces. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies in the tissues showed no noticeable ZnO nanoparticles, while new Zn-S bonds were observed in tissues. Conclusion ZnO nanoparticles of different size were not easily absorbed into the bloodstream via the gastrointestinal tract after a single oral dose. The liver, lung, and kidney could be possible target organs for accumulation and toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles was independent of particle size or gender. ZnO nanoparticles appear to be absorbed in the organs in an ionic form rather than in a particulate form due to newly formed Zn-S bonds. The nanoparticles were mainly excreted via the feces, and smaller particles were cleared more rapidly than the larger ones. ZnO nanoparticles at a concentration below 300 mg/kg were distributed in tissues and excreted within 24 hours. These findings provide crucial information on possible acute and chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in potential target organs. PMID:22811602

  8. Phosphate-enhanced cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles and agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Everett, W Neil; Chern, Christina; Sun, Dazhi; McMahon, Rebecca E; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Wei-Jung A; Hahn, Mariah S; Sue, H-J

    2014-02-10

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been found to readily react with phosphate ions to form zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2) crystallites. Because phosphates are ubiquitous in physiological fluids as well as waste water streams, it is important to examine the potential effects that the formation of Zn3(PO4)2 crystallites may have on cell viability. Thus, the cytotoxic response of NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells was assessed following 24h of exposure to ZnO NPs suspended in media with and without the standard phosphate salt supplement. Both particle dosage and size have been shown to impact the cytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs, so doses ranging from 5 to 50 μg/mL were examined and agglomerate size effects were investigated by using the bioinert amphiphilic polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to generate water-soluble ZnO ranging from individually dispersed 4 nm NPs up to micron-sized agglomerates. Cell metabolic activity measures indicated that the presence of phosphate in the suspension media can led to significantly reduced cell viability at all agglomerate sizes and at lower ZnO dosages. In addition, a reduction in cell viability was observed when agglomerate size was decreased, but only in the phosphate-containing media. These metabolic activity results were reflected in separate measures of cell death via the lactate dehydrogenase assay. Our results suggest that, while higher doses of water-soluble ZnO NPs are cytotoxic, the presence of phosphates in the surrounding fluid can lead to significantly elevated levels of cell death at lower ZnO NP doses. Moreover, the extent of this death can potentially be modulated or offset by tuning the agglomerate size. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how nanoscale materials can interact with the components of surrounding fluids so that potential adverse effects of such interactions can be controlled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence Of pH On The Transport Of Nanoscale Zinc Oxide In Saturated Porous Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread use of nanoscale zinc oxide (nZnO) in various fields causes subsurface environment contamination. Even though the transport of dissolved zinc ions in subsurface environments such as soils and sediments has been widely studied, the transport mechanism of nZnO in such e...

  10. Bioavailability of zinc oxide added to corn tortilla is similar to that of zinc sulfate and is not affected by simultaneous addition of iron

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Jorge L.; Díaz, Margarita; Muñoz, Elsa; Westcott, Jamie L.; González, Karla E.; Krebs, Nancy F.; Caamaño, María C.; Hambidge, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Corn tortilla is the staple food of Mexico and its fortification with zinc, iron, and other micronutrients is intended to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. However, no studies have been performed to determine the relative amount of zinc absorbed from the fortified product and whether zinc absorption is affected by the simultaneous addition of iron. Objective To compare zinc absorption from corn tortilla fortified with zinc oxide versus zinc sulfate and to determine the effect of simultaneous addition of two doses of iron on zinc bioavailability. Methods A randomized, double-blind, crossover design was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, 10 adult women received corn tortillas with either 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added, 20 mg/kg of zinc sulfate added, or no zinc added. In the second phase, 10 adult women received corn tortilla with 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added and either with no iron added or with iron added at one of two different levels. Zinc absorption was measured by the stable isotope method. Results The mean (± SEM) fractional zinc absorption from unfortified tortilla, tortilla fortified with zinc oxide, and tortilla fortified with zinc sulfate did not differ among treatments: 0.35 ± 0.07, 0.36 ± 0.05, and 0.37 ± 0.07, respectively. The three treatment groups with 0, 30, and 60 mg/kg of added iron had similar fractional zinc absorption (0.32 ± 0.04, 0.33 ± 0.02, and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively) and similar amounts of zinc absorbed (4.8 ± 0.7, 4.5 ± 0.3, and 4.8 ± 0.7 mg/day, respectively). Conclusions Since zinc oxide is more stable and less expensive and was absorbed equally as well as zinc sulfate, we suggest its use for corn tortilla fortification. Simultaneous addition of zinc and iron to corn tortilla does not modify zinc bioavailability at iron doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg of corn flour. PMID:23424892

  11. Dual-step synthesis of 3-dimensional niobium oxide - Zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Rozina Abdul; Zoolfakar, Ahmad Sabirin; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    A facile fabrication process for constructing 3-dimensional (3D) structure of Niobium oxide - Zinc oxide (Nb2O5-ZnO) consisting of branched ZnO microrods on top of nanoporous Nb2O5 films was developed based on dual-step synthesis approach. The preliminary procedure was anodization of sputtered niobium metal on Fluorine doped Tin Oxide (FTO) to produce nanoporous Nb2O5, and continued with the growth of branched microrods of ZnO by hydrothermal process. This approach offers insight knowledge on the development of novel 3D metal oxide films via dual-step synthesis process, which might potentially use for multi-functional applications ranging from sensing to photoconversion.

  12. Zinc ion enhances GABA tea-mediated oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Show-Mei; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Hsiao, Ching-Chuan; Cherng, Shur-Hueih

    2012-02-15

    GABA tea is a tea product that contains a high level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous study has demonstrated a synergistic effect of GABA tea and copper ions on DNA breakage. This study further explored whether zinc (Zn), a nonredox metal, modulated DNA cleavage induced by GABA tea extract. In a cell-free system, Zn(2+) significantly enhanced GABA tea extract and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)- or H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage at 24 h of incubation. Additionally, low dosages of GABA tea extract (1-10 μg/mL) possessed pro-oxidant activity to increase H(2)O(2)/Zn(2+)-induced DNA cleavage in a dose-dependent profile. By use of various reactive oxygen scavengers, it was observed that glutathione, catalase, and potassium iodide effectively inhibited DNA degradation caused by the GABA tea extract/H(2)O(2)/Zn(2+) system. Moreover, the data showed that the GABA tea extract itself (0.5-5 mg/mL) could induce DNA cleavage in a long-term exposure (48 h). EGCG, but not the GABA tea extract, enhanced H(2)O(2)-induced DNA cleavage. In contrast, GABA decreased H(2)O(2)- and EGCG-induced DNA cleavage, suggesting that GABA might contribute the major effect on the antioxidant activity of GABA tea extract. Furthermore, a comet assay revealed that GABA tea extract (0.25 mg/mL) and GABA had antioxidant activity on H(2)O(2)-induced DNA breakage in human peripheral lymphocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that GABA tea has the potential of both pro-oxidant and antioxidant. It is proposed that a balance between EGCG-induced pro-oxidation and GABA-mediated antioxidation may occur in a complex mixture of GABA tea extract.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using rice as soft biotemplate.

    PubMed

    Ramimoghadam, Donya; Bin Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2013-01-01

    Rice as a renewable, abundant bio-resource with unique characteristics can be used as a bio-template to synthesize various functional nanomaterials. Therefore, the effect of uncooked rice flour as bio-template on physico-chemical properties, especially the morphology of zinc oxide nanostructures was investigated in this study. The ZnO particles were synthesized through hydrothermal-biotemplate method using zinc acetate-sodium hydroxide and uncooked rice flour at various ratios as precursors at 120°C for 18 hours. The results indicate that rice as a bio-template can be used to modify the shape and size of zinc oxide particles. Different morphologies, namely flake-, flower-, rose-, star- and rod-like structures were obtained with particle size at micro- and nanometer range. Pore size and texture of the resulting zinc oxide particles were found to be template-dependent and the resulting specific surface area enhanced compared to the zinc oxide synthesized without rice under the same conditions. However, optical property particularly the band gap energy is generally quite similar. Pure zinc oxide crystals were successfully synthesized using rice flour as biotemplate at various ratios of zinc salt to rice. The size- and shape-controlled capability of rice to assemble the ZnO particles can be employed for further useful practical applications.

  14. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  15. Transport of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in a Simulated Gastric Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, Ryan T.

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the use of many types of nano sized materials in the consumer sector. Potential uses include encapsulation of nutrients, providing antimicrobial activity, altering texture, or changing bioavailability of nutrients. Engineered nanoparticles (ENP) possess properties that are different than larger particles made of the same constituents. Properties such as solubility, aggregation state, and toxicity can all be changed as a function of size. The gastric environment is an important area for study of engineered nanoparticles because of the varied physical, chemical, and enzymatic processes that are prevalent there. These all have the potential to alter those properties of ENP that make them different from their bulk counterparts. The Human Gastric Simulator (HGS) is an advanced in vitro model that can be used to study many facets of digestion. The HGS consists of a plastic lining that acts as the stomach cavity with two sets of U-shaped arms on belts that provide the physical forces needed to replicate peristalsis. Altering the position of the arms or changing the speed of the motor which powers them allows one to tightly hone and replicate varied digestive conditions. Gastric juice, consisting of salts, enzymes, and acid levels which replicate physiological conditions, is introduced to the cavity at a controllable rate. The release of digested food from the lumen of simulated stomach is controlled by a peristaltic pump. The goal of the HGS is to accurately and repeatedly simulate human digestion. This study focused on introducing foods spiked with zinc oxide ENP and bulk zinc oxide into the HGS and then monitoring how the concentration of each changed at two locations in the HGS over a two hour period. The two locations chosen were the highest point in the lumen of the stomach, which represented the fundus, and a point just beyond the equivalent of the pylorus, which represented the antrum of the stomach. These points were

  16. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube or Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays for Optical Diffraction Gratings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong; Kim, Sun Il; Cho, Seong-Ho; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Young Hee; Hur, Jaehyun

    2015-11-01

    We report on new fabrication methods for a transparent, hierarchical, and patterned electrode comprised of either carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorods. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorod arrays were fabricated by either chemical vapor deposition or hydrothermal growth, in combination with photolithography. A transparent conductive graphene layer or zinc oxide seed layer was employed as the transparent electrode. On the patterned surface defined using photoresist, the vertically grown carbon nanotubes or zinc oxides could produce a concentrated electric field under applied DC voltage. This periodic electric field was used to align liquid crystal molecules in localized areas within the optical cell, effectively modulating the refractive index. Depending on the material and morphology of these patterned electrodes, the diffraction efficiency presented different behavior. From this study, we established the relationship between the hierarchical structure of the different electrodes and their efficiency for modulating the refractive index. We believe that this study will pave a new path for future optoelectronic applications.

  17. Zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited seaweed cellulose sheet for antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Bhutiya, Priyank L; Mahajan, Mayur S; Abdul Rasheed, M; Pandey, Manoj; Zaheer Hasan, S; Misra, Nirendra

    2018-06-01

    Seaweed cellulose was isolated from green seaweed Ulva fasciata using a common bleaching agent. Sheet containing porous mesh was prepared from the extracted seaweed crystalline cellulose along with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod clusters grown over the sheet by single step hydrothermal method. Seaweed cellulose and zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited seaweed cellulose sheet was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA, and SEM-EDX. Morphology showed that the diameter of zinc oxide nanorods were around 70nm. Zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited on seaweed cellulose sheet gave remarkable antibacterial activity towards gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus ceresus, Streptococcus thermophilis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginous) microbes. Such deposited sheet has potential applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, food packaging, water treatment and biotechnological industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultra-small plutonium oxide nanocrystals: an innovative material in plutonium science.

    PubMed

    Hudry, Damien; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Janssen, Arne; Manara, Dario; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Vitova, Tonya; Prüssmann, Tim; Wang, Di; Kübel, Christian; Meyer, Daniel

    2014-08-11

    Apart from its technological importance, plutonium (Pu) is also one of the most intriguing elements because of its non-conventional physical properties and fascinating chemistry. Those fundamental aspects are particularly interesting when dealing with the challenging study of plutonium-based nanomaterials. Here we show that ultra-small (3.2±0.9 nm) and highly crystalline plutonium oxide (PuO2 ) nanocrystals (NCs) can be synthesized by the thermal decomposition of plutonyl nitrate ([PuO2 (NO3 )2 ]⋅3 H2 O) in a highly coordinating organic medium. This is the first example reporting on the preparation of significant quantities (several tens of milligrams) of PuO2 NCs, in a controllable and reproducible manner. The structure and magnetic properties of PuO2 NCs have been characterized by a wide variety of techniques (powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), TEM, IR, Raman, UV/Vis spectroscopies, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry). The current PuO2 NCs constitute an innovative material for the study of challenging problems as diverse as the transport behavior of plutonium in the environment or size and shape effects on the physics of transuranium elements. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Chemical stability and electrical performance of dual-active-layered zinc-tin-oxide/indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors using a solution process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Ho; Rim, You Seung; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2013-07-10

    We investigated the chemical stability and electrical properties of dual-active-layered zinc-tin-oxide (ZTO)/indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) structures (DALZI) with the durability of the chemical damage. The IGZO film was easily corroded or removed by an etchant, but the DALZI film was effectively protected by the high chemical stability of ZTO. Furthermore, the electrical performance of the DALZI thin-film transistor (TFT) was improved by densification compared to the IGZO TFT owing to the passivation of the pin holes or pore sites and the increase in the carrier concentration due to the effect of Sn(4+) doping.

  20. Analysis of Zinc Oxide Thin Films Synthesized by Sol-Gel via Spin Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolgamott, Jon Carl

    Transparent conductive oxides are gaining an increasingly important role in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. Doped zinc oxide is a candidate as a low cost and nontoxic alternative to tin doped indium oxide. Lab results have shown that both n-type and p-type zinc oxide can be created on a small scale. This can allow zinc oxide to be used as either an electrode as well as a buffer layer to increase efficiency and protect the active layer in solar cells. Sol-gel synthesis is emerging as a low temperature, low cost, and resource efficient alternative to producing transparent conducting oxides such as zinc oxide. For sol-gel derived zinc oxide thin films to reach their potential, research in this topic must continue to optimize the known processing parameters and expand to new parameters to tighten control and create novel processing techniques that improve performance. The processing parameters of drying and annealing temperatures as well as cooling rate were analyzed to see their effect on the structure of the prepared zinc oxide thin films. There were also preliminary tests done to modify the sol-gel process to include silver as a dopant to produce a p-type thin film. The results from this work show that the pre- and post- heating temperatures as well as the cooling rate all play their own unique role in the crystallization of the film. Results from silver doping show that more work needs to be done to create a sol-gel derived p-type zinc oxide thin film.

  1. Graphene quantum dots, graphene oxide, carbon quantum dots and graphite nanocrystals in coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yongqiang; Lin, Jianpeng; Chen, Yingmei; Fu, Fengfu; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan

    2014-06-01

    Six coal samples of different ranks have been used to prepare single-layer graphene quantum dots (S-GQDs). After chemical oxidation and a series of centrifugation separation, every coal could be treated into two fractions, namely, CoalA and CoalB. According to the characterization results of TEM, AFM, XRD, Raman and FTIR, CoalA was revealed to be mainly composed of S-GQDs, which have an average height of about 0.5 nm and an average plane dimension of about 10 nm. The obtained S-GQDs showed excitation-dependent fluorescence and excellent electrochemiluminescence. CoalB was found to be some other carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs), including agglomerated GQDs, graphene oxide, carbon quantum dots and agglomerated carbon nanocrystals. Generally, low-ranked coals might be more suitable for the preparation of S-GQDs. The production yield of S-GQDs from the six investigated coals decreased from 56.30% to 14.66% when the coal rank increased gradually. In contrast, high-ranked coals had high production yield of CoalB and might be more suitable for preparing other CNMs that were contained in CoalB, although those CNMs were difficult to separate from each other in our experiment.Six coal samples of different ranks have been used to prepare single-layer graphene quantum dots (S-GQDs). After chemical oxidation and a series of centrifugation separation, every coal could be treated into two fractions, namely, CoalA and CoalB. According to the characterization results of TEM, AFM, XRD, Raman and FTIR, CoalA was revealed to be mainly composed of S-GQDs, which have an average height of about 0.5 nm and an average plane dimension of about 10 nm. The obtained S-GQDs showed excitation-dependent fluorescence and excellent electrochemiluminescence. CoalB was found to be some other carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs), including agglomerated GQDs, graphene oxide, carbon quantum dots and agglomerated carbon nanocrystals. Generally, low-ranked coals might be more suitable for the preparation of

  2. Indium hydroxide to oxide decomposition observed in one nanocrystal during in situ transmission electron microscopy studies

    SciT

    Miehe, Gerhard; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim

    The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) is used to study, in situ, spatially resolved decomposition in individual nanocrystals of metal hydroxides and oxyhydroxides. This case study reports on the decomposition of indium hydroxide (c-In(OH){sub 3}) to bixbyite-type indium oxide (c-In{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The electron beam is focused onto a single cube-shaped In(OH){sub 3} crystal of {l_brace}100{r_brace} morphology with ca. 35 nm edge length and a sequence of HR-TEM images was recorded during electron beam irradiation. The frame-by-frame analysis of video sequences allows for the in situ, time-resolved observation of the shape and orientation of the transformed crystals, which in turnmore » enables the evaluation of the kinetics of c-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallization. Supplementary material (video of the transformation) related to this article can be found online at (10.1016/j.jssc.2012.09.022). After irradiation the shape of the parent cube-shaped crystal is preserved, however, its linear dimension (edge) is reduced by the factor 1.20. The corresponding spotted selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern representing zone [001] of c-In(OH){sub 3} is transformed to a diffuse strongly textured ring-like pattern of c-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} that indicates the transformed cube is no longer a single crystal but is disintegrated into individual c-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} domains with the size of about 5-10 nm. The induction time of approximately 15 s is estimated from the time-resolved Fourier transforms. The volume fraction of the transformed phase (c-In{sub 2}O{sub 3}), calculated from the shrinkage of the parent c-In(OH){sub 3} crystal in the recorded HR-TEM images, is used as a measure of the kinetics of c-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallization within the framework of Avrami-Erofeev formalism. The Avrami exponent of {approx}3 is characteristic for a reaction mechanism with fast nucleation at the beginning of the reaction and subsequent three

  3. Mechanical properties of bioplastics cassava starch film with Zinc Oxide nanofiller as reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harunsyah; Yunus, M.; Fauzan, Reza

    2017-06-01

    This study focuses on investigating the influence of zinc oxide nanofiller on the mechanical properties of bioplastic cassava starch films. Bioplastic cassava starch film-based zinc oxide reinforced composite biopolymeric films were prepared by casting technique. The content of zinc oxide in the bioplastic films was varied from 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% (w/w) by weight of starch. Surface morphologies of the composites bioplastic films were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM).The result showed that the Tensile strength (TS) was improved significantly with the additional of zinc oxide but the elongation at break (EB %) of the composites was decreased. The maximum tensile strength obtained was 22.30 kgf / mm on the additional of zinc oxide by 0.6% and plastilizer by 25%. Based on data of FTIR, the produced film plastic did not change the group function and it can be concluded that theinteraction in film plastic produced was only a physical interaction. Biodegradable plastic film based on cassava starch-zinc oxide and plasticizer glycerol showed that interesting mechanical properties being transparent, clear, homogeneous, flexible, and easily handled.

  4. Electron spectroscopy imaging and surface defect configuration of zinc oxide nanostructures under different annealing ambient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ann, Ling Chuo; Mahmud, Shahrom; Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    In this study, electron spectroscopy imaging was used to visualize the elemental distribution of zinc oxide nanopowder. Surface modification in zinc oxide was done through annealing treatment and type of surface defect was also inferred from the electron spectroscopy imaging investigation. The micrographs revealed the non-stoichiometric distribution of the elements in the unannealed samples. Annealing the samples in nitrogen and oxygen ambient at 700 °C would alter the density of the elements in the samples as a result of removal or absorption of oxygen. The electrical measurement showed that nitrogen annealing treatment improved surface electrical conductivity, whereas oxygen treatment showed an adverse effect. Observed change in the photoluminescence green emission suggested that oxygen vacancies play a significant role as surface defects. Structural investigation carried out through X-ray diffraction revealed the polycrystalline nature of both zinc oxide samples with hexagonal phase whereby annealing process increased the crystallinity of both zinc oxide specimens. Due to the different morphologies of the two types of zinc oxide nanopowders, X-ray diffraction results showed different stress levels in their structures and the annealing treatment give significant effect to the structural stress. Electron spectroscopy imaging was a useful technique to identify the elemental distribution as well as oxygen defect in zinc oxide nanopowder.

  5. Attachment of Quantum Dots on Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seay, Jared; Liang, Huan; Harikumar, Parameswar

    2011-03-01

    ZnO nanorods grown by hydrothermal technique are of great interest for potential applications in photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. In this study we investigate the optimization of the optical absorption properties by a low temperature, chemical bath deposition technique. Our group fabricated nanorods on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate with precursor solution of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetramine (1:1 molar ratio) at 95C for 9 hours. In order to optimize the light absorption characteristics of ZnO nanorods, CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) of various diameters were attached to the surface of ZnO nanostructures grown on ITO and gold-coated silicon substrates. Density of quantum dots was varied by controlling the number drops on the surface of the ZnO nanorods. For a 0.1 M concentration of QDs of 10 nm diameter, the PL intensity at 385 nm increased as the density of the quantum dots on ZnO nanostructures was increased. For quantum dots at 1 M concentration, the PL intensity at 385 nm increased at the beginning and then decreased at higher density. We will discuss the observed changes in PL intensity with QD concentration with ZnO-QD band structure and recombination-diffusion processes taking place at the interface.

  6. The calculation of band gap energy in zinc oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Ali; Belahssen, Okba; Gareh, Salim; Benramache, Said

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the optical properties of undoped zinc oxide thin films as the n-type semiconductor; the thin films were deposited at different precursor molarities by ultrasonic spray and spray pyrolysis techniques. The thin films were deposited at different substrate temperatures ranging between 200 and 500 °C. In this paper, we present a new approach to control the optical gap energy of ZnO thin films by concentration of the ZnO solution and substrate temperatures from experimental data, which were published in international journals. The model proposed to calculate the band gap energy with the Urbach energy was investigated. The relation between the experimental data and theoretical calculation suggests that the band gap energies are predominantly estimated by the Urbach energies, film transparency, and concentration of the ZnO solution and substrate temperatures. The measurements by these proposal models are in qualitative agreements with the experimental data; the correlation coefficient values were varied in the range 0.96-0.99999, indicating high quality representation of data based on Equation (2), so that the relative errors of all calculation are smaller than 4%. Thus, one can suppose that the undoped ZnO thin films are chemically purer and have many fewer defects and less disorder owing to an almost complete chemical decomposition and contained higher optical band gap energy.

  7. Zinc oxide nanostructured layers for gas sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricato, A. P.; Cretí, A.; Luches, A.; Lomascolo, M.; Martino, M.; Rella, R.; Valerini, D.

    2011-03-01

    Various kinds of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures, such as columns, pencils, hexagonal pyramids, hexagonal hierarchical structures, as well as smooth and rough films, were grown by pulsed laser deposition using KrF and ArF excimer lasers, without use of any catalyst. ZnO films were deposited at substrate temperatures from 500 to 700°C and oxygen background pressures of 1, 5, 50, and 100 Pa. Quite different morphologies of the deposited films were observed using scanning electron microscopy when different laser wavelengths (248 or 193 nm) were used to ablate the bulk ZnO target. Photoluminescence studies were performed at different temperatures (down to 7 K). The gas sensing properties of the different nanostructures were tested against low concentrations of NO2. The variation in the photoluminescence emission of the films when exposed to NO2 was used as transduction mechanism to reveal the presence of the gas. The nanostructured films with higher surface-to-volume ratio and higher total surface available for gas adsorption presented higher responses, detecting NO2 concentrations down to 3 ppm at room temperature.

  8. Biochemical responses of duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza) to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changwei; Liu, Yimeng; Li, Xiuling; Li, Mei

    2013-05-01

    The present study focuses on the biochemical responses of the aquatic plant duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L.) to zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Laboratory experiments were performed using a 96-h exposure to 25-nm NPs at different concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 50 mg/L). Growth, chlorophyll-to-pheophytin ratio (D665/D665a) and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase (POD), and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase were determined as indices to evaluate the toxicity of NPs in the culture medium. To understand better whether the Zn(2+) released from the ZnO NP suspensions plays a key role in toxicity of the NPs, we investigated particle aggregation and dissolution in the medium. Furthermore, two exposure treatments for the group with the highest concentration (50 mg/L) were performed: (1) exposure for the full 96 h (50a treatment) and (2) the medium being replaced with culture medium without NPs after 12 h (50b treatment). Our results indicate that ZnO NPs induced adverse effects in S. polyrhiza at the concentration of 50 mg/L in the culture medium. Zn(2+) released from the NPs might be the main source of its toxicity to this species.

  9. Preparation of Diatomite Supported Nano Zinc Oxide Composite Photocatalytic Material and Study on its Formaldehyde Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liguang; Pang, Bo

    2017-09-01

    This experiment used zinc nitrate as precursor, ethanol as solvent and polyethylene glycol as dispersant, diatomite as carrier, diatomite loaded nano Zinc Oxide was prepared by sol-gel method, in addition, the formaldehyde degradation was studied by two kinds of experimental methods: preparation and loading, preparation and post loading, The samples were characterized by SEM, XRD, BET and IR. Experimental results showed that: Diatomite based nano Zinc Oxide had a continuous adsorption and degradation of formaldehyde, formaldehyde gas with initial concentration was 0.7mg/m3, after 36h degradation, the concentration reached 0.238mg/m3, the degradation rate reached to 66%.

  10. Zinc oxide nanowire gamma ray detector with high spatiotemporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Daniel C.; Nolen, J. Ryan; Cook, Andrew; Mu, Richard R.; Haglund, Richard F.

    2016-03-01

    Conventional scintillation detectors are typically single crystals of heavy-metal oxides or halides doped with rare-earth ions that record the recombination of electron-hole pairs by photon emission in the visible to ultraviolet. However, the light yields are typically low enough to require photomultiplier detection with the attendant instrumental complications. Here we report initial studies of gamma ray detection by zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, grown by vapor-solid deposition. The nanowires grow along the c-axis in a wurtzite structure; they are typically 80 nm in diameter and have lengths of 1- 2 μm. The nanowires are single crystals of high quality, with a photoluminescence (PL) yield from band-edge exciton emission in the ultraviolet that is typically one hundred times larger than the PL yield from defect centers in the visible. Nanowire ensembles were irradiated by 662 keV gamma rays from a Cs-137 source for periods of up to ten hours; gamma rays in this energy range interact by Compton scattering, which in ZnO creates F+ centers that relax to form singly-charged positive oxygen vacancies. Following irradiation, we fit the PL spectra of the visible emission with a sum of Gaussians at the energies of the known defects. We find highly efficient PL from the irradiated area, with a figure of merit approaching 106 photons/s/MeV of deposited energy. Over a period of days, the singly charged O+ vacancies relax to the more stable doubly charged O++ vacancies. However, the overall defect PL returns to pre-irradiation values after about a week, as the vacancies diffuse to the surface of these very thin nanowires, indicating that a self-healing process restores the nanowires to their original state.

  11. Adsorption of poly(vinyl formamide-co-vinyl amine) (PVFA-co-PVAm) polymers on zinc, zinc oxide, iron, and iron oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Susan; Simon, Frank; Baumann, Giesela; Hietschold, Michael; Seifert, Andreas; Spange, Stefan

    2011-12-06

    The adsorption of poly(vinyl formamide) (PVFA) and the statistic copolymers poly(vinyl formamide-co-vinyl amine) (PVFA-co-PVAm) onto zinc and iron metal particles as well as their oxides was investigated. The adsorbates were characterized by means of XPS, DRIFT spectroscopy, wet chemical analysis, and solvatochromic probes. Dicyano-bis-(1,10-phenanthroline)-iron(II) (1), 3-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-7-phenyl-benzo-[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran-2,6-dione (2), and 4-tert-butyl-2-(dicyano-methylene)-5-[4-(diethylamino)-benzylidene]-Δ(3)-thiazoline (3) as solvatochromic probes were coadsorbed onto zinc oxide to measure various effects of surface polarity. The experimental findings showed that the adsorption mechanism of PVFA and PVFA-co-PVAm strongly depends on the degree of hydrolysis of PVFA and pH values and also on the kind of metal or metal oxide surfaces that were employed as adsorbents. The adsorption mechanism of PVFA/PVFA-co-PVAm onto zinc oxide and iron oxide surfaces is mainly affected by electrostatic interactions. Particularly in the region of pH 5, the adsorption of PVFA/PVFA-co-PVAm onto zinc and iron metal particles is additionally influenced by redox processes, dissolution, and complexation reactions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Self-assembled pit arrays as templates for the integration of Au nanocrystals in oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Konstantinović, Z; Sandiumenge, F; Santiso, J; Balcells, Ll; Martínez, B

    2013-02-07

    We report on the fabrication of long-range ordered arrays of Au nanocrystals (sub-50 nm range) on top of manganite (La(2/3)Sr(1/3)MnO(3)) thin films achieving area densities around 2 × 10(10) gold nanocrystals per cm(2), well above the densities achievable by using conventional nanofabrication techniques. The gold-manganite interface exhibits excellent conduction properties. Long-range order is achieved by a guided self-assembling process of Au nanocrystals on self-organized pit-arrays acting as a template for the nucleation of gold nanocrystals. Self-organization of pits on the manganite film surface promoted by the underlying stepped SrTiO(3) substrate is achieved by a fine tuning of the growth kinetic pathway, taking advantage of the unusual misfit strain relaxation behaviour of manganite films.

  13. Systematic Identification of Promoters for Methane Oxidation Catalysts Using Size- and Composition-Controlled Pd-Based Bimetallic Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Willis, Joshua J; Goodman, Emmett D; Wu, Liheng; Riscoe, Andrew R; Martins, Pedro; Tassone, Christopher J; Cargnello, Matteo

    2017-08-30

    Promoters enhance the performance of catalytic active phases by increasing rates, stability, and/or selectivity. The process of identifying promoters is in most cases empirical and relies on testing a broad range of catalysts prepared with the random deposition of active and promoter phases, typically with no fine control over their localization. This issue is particularly relevant in supported bimetallic systems, where two metals are codeposited onto high-surface area materials. We here report the use of colloidal bimetallic nanocrystals to produce catalysts where the active and promoter phases are colocalized to a fine extent. This strategy enables a systematic approach to study the promotional effects of several transition metals on palladium catalysts for methane oxidation. In order to achieve these goals, we demonstrate a single synthetic protocol to obtain uniform palladium-based bimetallic nanocrystals (PdM, M = V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Sn, and potentially extendable to other metal combinations) with a wide variety of compositions and sizes based on high-temperature thermal decomposition of readily available precursors. Once the nanocrystals are supported onto oxide materials, thermal treatments in air cause segregation of the base metal oxide phase in close proximity to the Pd phase. We demonstrate that some metals (Fe, Co, and Sn) inhibit the sintering of the active Pd metal phase, while others (Ni and Zn) increase its intrinsic activity compared to a monometallic Pd catalyst. This procedure can be generalized to systematically investigate the promotional effects of metal and metal oxide phases for a variety of active metal-promoter combinations and catalytic reactions.

  14. Tuning the Magnetic Properties of Metal Oxide Nanocrystal Heterostructures by Cation Exchange

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    For three types of colloidal magnetic nanocrystals, we demonstrate that postsynthetic cation exchange enables tuning of the nanocrystal’s magnetic properties and achieving characteristics not obtainable by conventional synthetic routes. While the cation exchange procedure, performed in solution phase approach, was restricted so far to chalcogenide based semiconductor nanocrystals, here ferrite-based nanocrystals were subjected to a Fe2+ to Co2+ cation exchange procedure. This allows tracing of the compositional modifications by systematic and detailed magnetic characterization. In homogeneous magnetite nanocrystals and in gold/magnetite core shell nanocrystals the cation exchange increases the coercivity field, the remanence magnetization, as well as the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. For core/shell nanoheterostructures a selective doping of either the shell or predominantly of the core with Co2+ is demonstrated. By applying the cation exchange to FeO/CoFe2O4 core/shell nanocrystals the Neél temperature of the core material is increased and exchange-bias effects are enhanced so that vertical shifts of the hysteresis loops are obtained which are superior to those in any other system. PMID:23362940

  15. Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvakkumar, R.; Suresh, J.; Saravanakumar, B.; Joseph Nathanael, A.; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V.

    2015-02-01

    A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ∼40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment.

  16. Immobilization Effect of Morphological, Thermal and Optical Properties in Biotemplate on Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite from Chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpuraranjith, M.; Thambidurai, S.

    Biotemplate-based zinc oxide nanocomposite was effectively prepared via simple chemical precipitation route. The functional groups of amino (-NH2), hydroxyl (-OH) and O-Zn-O were confirmed and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The structural and morphological properties were confirmed by XRD, UV-Vis DRS, HR-SEM and TEM analyses. The elemental composition of carbon, nitrogen, zinc and oxygen was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller high surface area of materials was estimated to be 52.49m2/g, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that biotemplate on zinc oxide nanocomposite has higher thermal stability than chitosan matrix. The results demonstrate that biotemplate on zinc oxide matrix causes immobilization effect among the two components. Therefore, chitosan-ZnO nanocomposite has a microcrystalline morphological structure and also good thermal stability, so it can be a promising material for sensors, medical, tissue engineering and wastewater treatment applications.

  17. Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Saravanakumar, B; Joseph Nathanael, A; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V

    2015-02-25

    A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ∼40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of zinc oxide amounts on the properties and antibacterial activities of zeolite/zinc oxide nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Alswat, Abdullah A; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Saleh, Tawfik A; Hussein, Mohd Zobir Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2016-11-01

    Nanocomposites of zinc oxide loaded on a zeolite (Zeolite/ZnO NCs) were prepared using co-precipitation method. The ratio effect of ZnO wt.% to the Zeolite on the antibacterial activities was investigated. Various techniques were used for the nanocomposite characterization, including UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, EDX, FESEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed that ZnO peak intensity increased while the intensities of Zeolite peaks decreased. TEM images indicated a good distribution of ZnO-NPs onto the Zeolite framework and the cubic structure of the zeolite was maintained. The average particle size of ZnO-nanoparticles loaded on the surface of the Zeolite was in the range of 1-10nm. Moreover, Zeolite/ZnO NCs showed noticeable antibacterial activities against the tested bacteria; Gram- positive and Gram- negative bacteria, under normal light. The efficiency of the antibacterial increased with increasing the wt.% from 3 to 8 of ZnO NPs, and it reached 87% against Escherichia coli E266. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of intrinsic zinc oxide coating on the properties of Al-doped zinc oxide nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, S. A.; Mamat, M. H.; Ismail, A. S.; Malek, M. F.; Yusoff, M. M.; Sin, N. D. Md.; Zoolfakar, A. S.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of intrinsic zinc oxide (ZnO) coating fabricated by a simple immersion method. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the Al-doped ZnO nanorod arrays films had a hexagonal wurtzite structure, similar to that of an intrinsic ZnO coating. Structural properties of the samples were characterised using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM; JEOL JSM-7600F) and optical properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results showed that all films were crystallized under hexagonal wurtzite structure and presented a preferential orientation along the c-axis (002) was obtained. The XRD results showed that the intrinsic ZnO coating material had a strong orientation, whereas the ZnO was randomly oriented. Overall these results indicate that intrinsic ZnO coating are pontetial for the creation of functional materials such as barrier protection, optoelectronic devices, humidity sensor and ultraviolet photoconductive sensor.

  20. Respiratory Symptoms and Pulmonary Function Tests among Galvanized Workers Exposed To Zinc Oxide.

    PubMed

    Aminian, Omid; Zeinodin, Hamidreza; Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Izadi, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    Galvanization is the process of coating steel or cast iron pieces with a thin layer of zinc allowing protection against corrosion. One of the important hazards in this industry is exposure to zinc compounds specially zinc oxide fumes and dusts. In this study, we evaluated chronic effects of zinc oxide on the respiratory tract of galvanizers. Overall, 188 workers were selected from Arak galvanization plant in 2012, 71 galvanizers as exposed group and 117 workers from other departments of plants as control group. Information was collected using American Thoracic Society (ATS) standard questionnaire, physical examination and demographic data sheet. Pulmonary function tests were measured for all subjects. Exposure assessment was done with NIOSH 7030 method. The Personal Breathing Zone (PBZ) air sampling results for zinc ranged from 6.61 to 8.25 mg/m³ above the permissible levels (Time weighted average; TWA:2 mg/m³). The prevalence of the respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, throat and nose irritation in the exposed group was significantly (P<0.01) more than the control group. Decreasing in average percent in all spirometric parameters were seen in the galvanizers who exposed to zinc oxide fumes and dusts. The prevalence of obstructive respiratory disease was significantly (P=0.034) higher in the exposed group. High workplace zinc levels are associated with an increase in respiratory morbidity in galvanizers. Therefore administrators should evaluate these workers with periodic medical examinations and implement respiratory protection program in the working areas.

  1. Recent Progress in Photocatalysis Mediated by Colloidal II-VI Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Wilker, Molly B; Schnitzenbaumer, Kyle J; Dukovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    The use of photoexcited electrons and holes in semiconductor nanocrystals as reduction and oxidation reagents is an intriguing way of harvesting photon energy to drive chemical reactions. This review focuses on recent research efforts to understand and control the photocatalytic processes mediated by colloidal II-VI nanocrystalline materials, such as cadmium and zinc chalcogenides. First, we highlight how nanocrystal properties govern the rates and efficiencies of charge-transfer processes relevant to photocatalysis. We then describe the use of nanocrystal catalyst heterostructures for fuel-forming reactions, most commonly H2 generation. Finally, we review the use of nanocrystal photocatalysis as a synthetic tool for metal–semiconductor nano-heterostructures. PMID:24115781

  2. Assembling metal oxide nanocrystals into dense, hollow, porous nanoparticles for lithium-ion and lithium-oxygen battery application.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Wu, Yingqiang; Park, Jin-Bum; Lee, Joong Kee; Zhao, Fengyu; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2013-11-07

    New dense hollow porous (DHP) metal oxide nanoparticles that are smaller than 100 nm and composed of Co3O4, FeOx, NiO and MnOx were prepared by densely assembling metal oxide nanocrystals based on the hard-template method using a carbon colloid as a sacrificial core. These nanoparticles are quite different from the traditional particles as their hollow interior originates from the stacking of nanocrystals rather than a spherical shell. The DHP nanoparticles preserve the intriguing properties of nanocrystals and possess desirable surface area and pore volume that enhance the active surface, which ultimately benefits applications such as lithium-ion batteries. The DHP Co3O4 nanoparticles demonstrated an enhanced capacity of 1168 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1)vs. 590 mA h g(-1) of powders and stable cycling performance greater than 250 cycles when used as an anode material. Most importantly, the electrochemical performance of DHP Co3O4 nanoparticles in a lithium-O2 battery was also investigated for the first time. A low charge potential of ∼4.0 V, a high discharge voltage near 2.74 V and a long cycle ability greater than 100 cycles at a delivered capacity of 2000 mA h g(-1) (current density, 200 mA g(-1)) were observed. The performances were considerably improved compared to recent results of mesoporous Co3O4, Co3O4 nanoparticles and a composite of Co3O4/RGO and Co3O4/Pd. Therefore, it would be promising to investigate such properties of DHP nanoparticles or other hollow metal (oxide) particles for the popular lithium-air battery.

  3. Electron transport within transparent assemblies of tin-doped indium oxide colloidal nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisolia, J.; Decorde, N.; Gauvin, M.; Sangeetha, N. M.; Viallet, B.; Ressier, L.

    2015-08-01

    Stripe-like compact assemblies of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) are fabricated by stop-and-go convective self-assembly (CSA). Systematic evaluation of the electron transport mechanisms in these systems is carried out by varying the length of carboxylate ligands protecting the NCs: butanoate (C4), octanoate (C8) and oleate (C18). The interparticle edge-to-edge distance L0, along with a number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of the coating ligand, are deduced from small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements and exhibit a linear relationship with a slope of 0.11 nm per carbon pair unit. Temperature-dependent resistance characteristics are analyzed using several electron transport models: Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping (ES-VRH), inelastic cotunneling (IC), regular island array and percolation. The analysis indicated that the first two models (ES-VRH and IC) fail to explain the observed behavior, and that only simple activated transport takes place in these systems under the experimental conditions studied (T = 300 K to 77 K). Related transport parameters were then extracted using the regular island array and percolation models. The effective tunneling decay constant βeff of the ligands and the Coulomb charging energy EC are found to be around 5.5 nm-1 and 25 meV, respectively, irrespective of ligand lengths. The theoretical tunneling decay constant β calculated using the percolation model is in the range 9 nm-1. Electromechanical tests on the ITO nanoparticle assemblies indicate that their sensitivities are as high as ˜30 and remain the same regardless of ligand lengths, which is in agreement with the constant effective βeff extracted from regular island array and percolation models.

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Dental Composites Containing Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sevinç, Berdan Aydin; Hanley, Luke

    2010-01-01

    The resin-based dental composites commonly used in restorations result in more plaque accumulation than other materials. Bacterial biofilm growth contributes to secondary caries and failure of resin-based dental composites. Methods to inhibit biofilm growth on dental composites have been sought for several decades. It is demonstrated here that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) blended at 10% (w/w) fraction into dental composites display antimicrobial activity and reduce growth of bacterial biofilms by roughly 80% for a single-species model dental biofilm. Antibacterial effectiveness of ZnO-NPs was assessed against Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 27352 grown both planktonically and as biofilms on composites. Direct contact inhibition was observed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy while biofilm formation was quantified by viable counts. An 80% reduction in bacterial counts was observed with 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites compared with their unmodified counterpart, indicating a statistically significant suppression of biofilm growth. Although, 20% of the bacterial population survived and could form a biofilm layer again, 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites maintained at least some inhibitory activity even after the third generation of biofilm growth. Microscopy demonstrated continuous biofilm formation for unmodified composites after one day growth, but only sparsely distributed biofilms formed on 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ZnO-NPs suspended in S. sobrinus planktonic culture was 50 μg/ml. 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites qualitatively showed less biofilm after one day anaerobic growth of a three-species initial colonizer biofilm after when compared to unmodified composites, but did not significantly reduce growth after three days. PMID:20225252

  5. Novel Magnetic Zinc Oxide Nanotubes for Phenol Adsorption: Mechanism Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Elkady, Marwa F.; Hassan, Hassan Shokry; Amer, Wael A.; Salama, Eslam; Algarni, Hamed; Shaaban, Essam Ramadan

    2017-01-01

    Considering the great impact of a material’s surface area on adsorption processes, hollow nanotube magnetic zinc oxide with a favorable surface area of 78.39 m2/g was fabricated with the assistance of microwave technology in the presence of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) as a stabilizing agent followed by sonic precipitation of magnetite nano-particles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs identified the nanotubes’ morphology in the synthesized material with an average aspect ratio of 3. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis verified the combination of magnetite material with the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO in the prepared material. The immobilization of magnetite nanoparticles on to ZnO was confirmed using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The sorption affinity of the synthesized magnetic ZnO nanotube for phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions was examined as a function of various processing factors. The degree of acidity of the phenolic solution has great influence on the phenol sorption process on to magnetic ZnO. The calculated value of ΔH0 designated the endothermic nature of the phenol uptake process on to the magnetic ZnO nanotubes. Mathematical modeling indicated a combination of physical and chemical adsorption mechanisms of phenolic compounds on to the fabricated magnetic ZnO nanotubes. The kinetic process correlated better with the second-order rate model compared to the first-order rate model. This result indicates the predominance of the chemical adsorption process of phenol on to magnetic ZnO nanotubes. PMID:29186853

  6. Study of Perfluorophosphonic Acid Surface Modifications on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Rosalynn; Shoup, Deben; Behnke, Grayce; Peck, Cynthia; Agarwal, Sushant; Gupta, Rakesh K; Fagan, Jonathan W; Mueller, Karl T; Iuliucci, Robbie J; Wang, Qiang

    2017-11-28

    In this study, perfluorinated phosphonic acid modifications were utilized to modify zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles because they create a more stable surface due to the electronegativity of the perfluoro head group. Specifically, 12-pentafluorophenoxydodecylphosphonic acid, 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzylphosphonic acid, and (1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorododecyl)phosphonic acid have been used to form thin films on the nanoparticle surfaces. The modified nanoparticles were then characterized using infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were utilized to determine the particle size of the nanoparticles before and after modification, and to analyze the film coverage on the ZnO surfaces, respectively. Zeta potential measurements were obtained to determine the stability of the ZnO nanoparticles. It was shown that the surface charge increased as the alkyl chain length increases. This study shows that modifying the ZnO nanoparticles with perfluorinated groups increases the stability of the phosphonic acids adsorbed on the surfaces. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to distinguish between chemically and physically bound films on the modified nanoparticles. The higher weight loss for 12-pentafluorophenoxydodecylphosphonic acid and (1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorododecyl)phosphonic acid modifications corresponds to a higher surface concentration of the modifications, and, ideally, higher surface coverage. While previous studies have shown how phosphonic acids interact with the surfaces of ZnO, the aim of this study was to understand how the perfluorinated groups can tune the surface properties of the nanoparticles.

  7. Zinc oxide piezoelectric nano-generators for low frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nour, E. S.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2017-06-01

    Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanogenerators (NGs) have been fabricated for low frequency (<100 Hz) energy harvesting applications. Different types of NGs based on ZnO nanostructures have been carefully developed, and studied for testing under different kinds of low frequency mechanical deformations. Well aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) possessing high piezoelectric coefficient were synthesized on flexible substrates using the low temperature hydrothermal route. These ZnO NWs were then used in different configurations to demonstrate different low frequency energy harvesting devices. Using piezoelectric ZnO NWs, we started with the fabrication of a sandwiched NG for a handwriting enabled energy harvesting device based on a thin silver layer coated paper substrate. Such device configurations can be used for the development of electronic programmable smart paper. Further, we developed this NG to work as a triggered sensor for a wireless system using footstep pressure. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using a ZnO NWs piezoelectric NG as a low-frequency self- powered sensor, with potential applications in wireless sensor networks. After that, we investigated and fabricated a sensor on a PEDOT: PSS plastic substrate using a one-sided growth and double-sided growth technique. For the first growth technique, the fabricated NG has been used as a sensor for an acceleration system; while the fabricated NG by the second technique works as an anisotropic direction sensor. This fabricated configuration showed stability for sensing and can be used in surveillance, security, and auto-Mobil applications. In addition to that, we investigated the fabrication of a sandwiched NG on plastic substrates. Finally, we demonstrated that doping ZnO NWs with extrinsic elements (such as Ag) will lead to the reduction of the piezoelectric effect due to the loss of crystal symmetry. A brief summary into future opportunities and challenges is also presented.

  8. Green Synthesis of Formulated Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Chemical Protection of Skin Care and Related Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppolu, Ramya

    Nanomaterials have diversified applications based on the unique properties. These nanoparticles and functionalized nanocomposites have been studied in the health care filed. Nanoparticles are mostly used in sunscreens which are a part of human life. These sunscreens consist of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. Due to the higher band crevices, they help the skin to protect from ultraviolet rays, for instance, ultraviolet B and ultraviolet A. A series of nanostructured zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by cost-effective chemical and bioinspired methods and variables were optimized. Highly stable and spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles were formulated by aloe vera ( Aloe barbadensis) plant extract and avocado (Persea americana Mill) fruit extract. The state-of-the-art instrumentation was used to characterize the morphology, elemental composition, and particle size distribution. X-ray diffraction data indicated highly crystalline and ultrafine nanoparticles were obtained from the colloidal methods. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed the chemical state of zinc, carbon, and oxygen atoms were well-indexed and are used as fingerprint identification of the elements. Transmission electron microscopy images show the shape of particles were cubic and fiber shape contingent upon the protecting operators and heat treatment conditions. The toxicity studies of zinc oxide nanoparticles were found to cause an increase in nitric oxide, which is protecting against further oxidative stress and appears to be nontoxic.

  9. Viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity of aluminum oxide and zinc oxide nanolubricants

    PubMed Central

    Kedzierski, M.A.; Brignoli, R.; Quine, K.T.; Brown, J.S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents liquid kinematic viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity measurements of eleven different synthetic polyolester-based nanoparticle nanolubricants (dispersions) at atmospheric pressure over the temperature range 288 K to 318 K. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with nominal diameters of 127 nm and 135 nm, respectively, were investigated. A good dispersion of the spherical and non-spherical nanoparticles in the lubricant was maintained with a surfactant. Viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity measurements were made for the neat lubricant along with eleven nanolubricants with differing nanoparticle and surfactant mass fractions. Existing models were used to predict kinematic viscosity (±20%), thermal conductivity (±1%), and specific volume (±6%) of the nanolubricant as a function of temperature, nanoparticle mass fraction, surfactant mass fraction, and nanoparticle diameter. The liquid viscosity, density and thermal conductivity were shown to increase with respect to increasing nanoparticle mass fraction. PMID:28736463

  10. Synaptic plasticity and oscillation at zinc tin oxide/silver oxide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, Billy J.; McCulloch, Dougal G.; Partridge, James G.

    2017-02-01

    Short-term plasticity, long-term potentiation, and pulse interval dependent plasticity learning/memory functions have been observed in junctions between amorphous zinc-tin-oxide and silver-oxide. The same junctions exhibited current-controlled negative differential resistance and when connected in an appropriate circuit, they behaved as relaxation oscillators. These oscillators produced voltage pulses suitable for device programming. Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electrical measurements suggest that the characteristics of these junctions arise from Ag+/O- electromigration across a highly resistive interface layer. With memory/learning functions and programming spikes provided in a single device structure, arrays of similar devices could be used to form transistor-free neuromorphic circuits.

  11. Incorporation of polydimethylsiloxane with reduced graphene oxide and zinc oxide for tensile and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danial, N. S.; Ramli, Muhammad. M.; Halin, D. S. C.; Hong, H. C.; Isa, S. Salwa M.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Anhar, N. A. M.; Talip, L. F. A.; Mazlan, N. S.

    2017-09-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an organosilicon polymer that is commonly used to incorporate with other fillers. PDMS in high viscous liquid form is mechanically stirred with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and mixed with zinc oxide (ZnO) with specific ratio, thus rendering into two types of samples. The mechanical and electrical properties of both samples are characterized. The result shows that PDMS sample with 50 mg rGO has the highest tensile strength with the value of 9.1 MPa. For electrical properties, sample with the lowest resistance is PDMS with 50 mg rGO and ZnO with the value of l.67×l05 Ω. This experiment shows the significant role of conductive fillers like rGO and ZnO incorporated in polymeric material such as PDMS to improve its electrical properties.

  12. Feeding Low or Pharmacological Concentrations of Zinc Oxide Changes the Hepatic Proteome Profiles in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Bondzio, Angelika; Pieper, Robert; Gabler, Christoph; Weise, Christoph; Schulze, Petra; Zentek, Juergen; Einspanier, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological levels of zinc oxide can promote growth and health of weaning piglets, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are yet not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine changes in the global hepatic protein expression in response to dietary zinc oxide in weaned piglets. Nine half-sib piglets were allocated to three dietary zinc treatment groups (50, 150, 2500 mg/kg dry matter). After 14 d, pigs were euthanized and liver samples taken. The increase in hepatic zinc concentration following dietary supplementation of zinc was accompanied by up-regulation of metallothionein mRNA and protein expression. Global hepatic protein profiles were obtained by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis following matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 15 proteins were differentially (P<0.05) expressed between groups receiving control (150 mg/kg) or pharmacological levels of zinc (2500 mg/kg) with 7 down- (e.g. arginase1, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase, HSP70) and 8 up-regulated (e.g. apolipoprotein AI, transferrin, C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase) proteins. Additionally, three proteins were differentially expressed with low zinc supply (50 mg/kg Zn) in comparison to the control diet. The identified proteins were mainly associated with functions related to cellular stress, transport, metabolism, and signal transduction. The differential regulation was evaluated at the mRNA level and a subset of three proteins of different functional groups was selected for confirmation by western blotting. The results of this proteomic study suggest that zinc affects important liver functions such as blood protein secretion, protein metabolism, detoxification and redox homeostasis, thus supporting the hypothesis of intermediary effects of pharmacological levels of zinc oxide fed to pigs. PMID:24282572

  13. The interaction of zinc oxide-based dental cements with aqueous solutions of potassium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Pawluk, K; Booth, S E; Coleman, N J; Nicholson, J W

    2008-09-01

    The ability of zinc oxide-based dental cements (zinc phosphate and zinc polycarboxylate) to take up fluoride from aqueous solution has been studied. Only zinc phosphate cement was found to take up any measurable fluoride after 5 h exposure to the solutions. The zinc oxide filler of the zinc phosphate also failed to take up fluoride from solution. The key interaction for this uptake was thus shown to involve the phosphate groups of the set cement. However, whether this took the form of phosphate/fluoride exchange, or the formation of oxyfluoro-phosphate groups was not clear. Fluoride uptake followed radicaltime kinetics for about 2 h in some cases, but was generally better modelled by the Elovich equation, dq(t)/dt = alpha exp(-betaq(t)). Values for alpha varied from 3.80 to 2.48 x 10(4), and for beta from 7.19 x 10(-3) to 0.1946, though only beta showed any sort of trend, becoming smaller with increasing fluoride concentration. Fluoride was released from the zinc phosphate cements in processes that were diffusion based up to M(t)/M(infinity) of about 0.4. No further release occurred when specimens were placed in fresh volumes of deionised water. Only a fraction of the fluoride taken up was re-released, demonstrating that most of the fluoride taken up becomes irreversibly bound within the cement.

  14. Solubility of nano-zinc oxide in environmentally and biologically important matrices

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Robert B.; Ladner, David A.; Higgins, Christopher P.; Westerhoff, Paul; Ranville, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing manufacture and use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) is leading to a greater probability for release of ENPs into the environment and exposure to organisms. In particular, zinc oxide (ZnO) is toxic, although it is unclear whether this toxicity is due to the zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO), dissolution to Zn2+, or some combination thereof. The goal of this study was to determine the relative solubilites of both commercially available and in-house synthesized ZnO in matrices used for environmental fate and transport or biological toxicity studies. Dissolution of ZnO was observed in nanopure water (7.18– 7.40 mg/L dissolved Zn, as measured by filtration) and Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI-1640) (~5 mg/L), but much more dissolution was observed in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM), where the dissolved Zn concentration exceeded 34 mg/L. Moderately hard water exhibited low zinc solubility, likely due to precipitation of a zinc carbonate solid phase. Precipitation of a zinc-containing solid phase in RPMI also appeared to limit zinc solubility. Equilibrium conditions with respect to ZnO solubility were not apparent in these matrices, even after more than 1,000 h of dissolution. These results suggest that solution chemistry exerts a strong influence on ZnO dissolution and can result in limits on zinc solubility due to precipitation of less soluble solid phases. PMID:21994124

  15. [Efficacy of using zinc oxide nanoparticles in nutrition. Experiments on the laboratory animal].

    PubMed

    Raspopov, R V; Trushina, E N; Mustafina, O K; Tananova, O N; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Khotimchenko, S A

    2011-01-01

    In experiments on rats there was researched bioavailability of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. There were determined the content of Zn in blood serum and tibia, intestinal uptake of macromolecules of egg albumin, some hematological, biochemical and immune indices, liver cells apoptosis. The results obtained show that the uptake of nanoparticles of ZnO enables restoration of this microelement status damaged by zinc deficit diet.

  16. Anticancer activity of fungal L-asparaginase conjugated with zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baskar, G; Chandhuru, J; Sheraz Fahad, K; Praveen, A S; Chamundeeswari, M; Muthukumar, T

    2015-01-01

    Demand for developing novel delivery system for cancer treatment has increased due to the side effects present in intravenous injection of L-asparaginase. Nanoparticles are used for delivering the drugs to its destination in cancer cure. Nanobiocomposite of zinc oxide nanoparticles conjugated with L-asparaginase was produced by Aspergillus terreus and was confirmed using maximum UV-Vis absorption at 340 nm in the present work. The presence of functional groups like OH, C-H, -C=N and C=O on the surface of nanobiocomposite was found from Fourier transform infrared spectrum analysis. Size of the produced nanocomposite was found in the range of 28-63 nm using scanning electron microscope. The crystalline nature of the synthesized nanobiocomposites was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of zinc oxide on synthesized nanobiocomposite was confirmed by energy dispersive spectrum analysis. The anti-cancerous nature of the synthesized zinc oxide conjugated L-asparaginase nanobiocomposite on MCF-7 cell line was studied using MTT assay. The viability of the MCF-7 cells was decreased to 35.02 % when it was treated with L-asparaginase conjugated zinc oxide nanobiocomposite. Hence it is proved that the synthesized nanobiocomposites of zinc oxide conjugated L-asparaginase has good anti-cancerous activity.

  17. Enhancement in sensitivity of graphene-based zinc oxide assisted bimetallic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kushwaha, Angad S.; Srivastava, Monika; Mishra, H.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    In the present communication, a highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with Kretschmann configuration having alternate layers, prism/zinc oxide/silver/gold/graphene/biomolecules (ss-DNA) is presented. The optimization of the proposed configuration has been accomplished by keeping the constant thickness of zinc oxide (32 nm), silver (32 nm), graphene (0.34 nm) layer and biomolecules (100 nm) for different values of gold layer thickness (1, 3 and 5 nm). The sensitivity of the proposed SPR biosensor has been demonstrated for a number of design parameters such as gold layer thickness, number of graphene layer, refractive index of biomolecules and the thickness of biomolecules layer. SPR biosensor with optimized geometry has greater sensitivity (66 deg/RIU) than the conventional (52 deg/RIU) as well as other graphene-based (53.2 deg/RIU) SPR biosensor. The effect of zinc oxide layer thickness on the sensitivity of SPR biosensor has also been analysed. From the analysis, it is found that the sensitivity increases significantly by increasing the thickness of zinc oxide layer. It means zinc oxide intermediate layer plays an important role to improve the sensitivity of the biosensor. The sensitivity of SPR biosensor also increases by increasing the number of graphene layer (upto nine layer).

  18. Extracellular synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticle using seaweeds of gulf of Mannar, India.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Sangeetha; Arumugam Kuppusamy, Kumaraguru

    2013-12-03

    The biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles by marine resources is thought to be clean, nontoxic, and environmentally acceptable "green procedures". Marine ecosystems are very important for the overall health of both marine and terrestrial environments. The use of natural sources like Marine biological resources essential for nanotechnology. Seaweeds constitute one of the commercially important marine living renewable resources. Seaweeds such as green Caulerpa peltata, red Hypnea Valencia and brown Sargassum myriocystum were used for synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles. The preliminary screening of physico-chemical parameters such as concentration of metals, concentration of seaweed extract, temperature, pH and reaction time revealed that one seaweed S. myriocystum were able to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles. It was confirmed through the, initial colour change of the reaction mixture and UV visible spectrophotometer. The extracellular biosynthesized clear zinc oxide nanoparticles size 36 nm through characterization technique such as DLS, AFM, SEM -EDX, TEM, XRD and FTIR. The biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles are effective antibacterial agents against Gram-positive than the Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the FTIR results, fucoidan water soluble pigments present in S. myriocystum leaf extract is responsible for reduction and stabilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles. by this approach are quite stable and no visible changes were observed even after 6 months. These soluble elements could have acted as both reduction and stabilizing agents preventing the aggregation of nanoparticles in solution, extracellular biological synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles of size 36 nm.

  19. Preliminary study on zinc-air battery using zinc regeneration electrolysis with propanol oxidation as a counter electrode reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yue-Hua; Cheng, Jie; Ning, Shang-Qi; Yang, Yu-Sheng

    A zinc-air battery using zinc regeneration electrolysis with propanol oxidation as a counter electrode reaction is reported in this paper. It possesses functions of both zincate reduction and electrochemical preparation, showing the potential for increasing the electronic energy utilization. Charge/discharge tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs reveal that when a nickel sheet plated with the high-H 2-overpotential metal, cadmium, was used as the negative substrate electrode, the dendritic formation and hydrogen evolution are suppressed effectively, and granular zinc deposits become larger but relatively dense with the increase of charge time. The performance of batteries is favorable even if the charge time is as long as 5 h at the current density of 20 mA cm -2. Better discharge performance is achieved using a 'cavity-opening' configuration for the discharge cell rather than a 'gas-introducing' configuration. The highest energy efficiency is up to 59.2%. That is, the energy consumed by organic electro-synthesis can be recovered by 59.2%. Cyclic voltammograms show that the sintered nickel electrode exhibits a good electro-catalysis activity for the propanol oxidation. The increase of propanol concentration conduces to an enhancement in the organic electro-synthesis efficiency. The organic electro-synthesis current efficiency of 82% can be obtained.

  20. Sorption behavior of microamounts of zinc on titanium oxide from aqueous solutions

    SciT

    Hasany, S.M.; Ghaffar, A.; Chughtai, F.A.

    1991-08-01

    To correlate soil response toward zinc, it is necessary to study its adsorption in detail on soils or on their constituents. The adsorption of microamounts of zinc on titanium oxide, prepared and characterized in this laboratory, has been studied in detail. Zinc adsorption has been found to be dependent on the pH of the aqueous solution, amount of oxide, and zinc concentration. Maximum adsorption is from pH 10 buffer. EDTA and cyanide ions inhibit adsorption significantly. The adsorption of other elements under optimal conditions has also been measured on this oxide. Sc(III) and Cs(I) show almost negligible adsorption. Zinc adsorptionmore » follows the linear form of the Freundlich adsorption isotherm: log C{sub Ads} = log A + (1/n) log C{sub Bulk} with A = 0.48 mol/g and n = 1. Except at a very low bulk concentration (3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} mol/dm{sup 3}), Langmuir adsorption isotherm is also linear for the entire zinc concentration investigated. The limiting adsorbed concentration is estimated to be 0.18 mol/g.« less

  1. Zinc (hydr)oxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites: role of surface features in H₂S reactive adsorption.

    PubMed

    Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2014-12-15

    Zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites with various levels of complexity were synthesized using an in situ precipitation method. Then they were used as H2S adsorbents in visible light. The materials' surfaces were characterized before and after H2S adsorption by various physical and chemical methods (XRD, FTIR, thermal analysis, potentiometric titration, adsorption of nitrogen and SEM/EDX). Significant differences in surface features and synergistic effects were found depending on the materials' composition. Addition of graphite oxide and the deposition of gold nanoparticles resulted in a marked increase in the adsorption capacity in comparison with that on the zinc hydroxide and zinc hydroxide/AuNP. Addition of AuNPs to zinc hydroxide led to a crystalline ZnO/AuNP composite while the zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNP composite was amorphous. The ZnOH/GO/AuNPs composite exhibited the greatest H2S adsorption capacity due to the increased number of OH terminal groups and the conductive properties of GO that facilitated the electron transfer and consequently the formation of superoxide ions promoting oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. AuNPs present in the composite increased the conductivity, helped with electron transfer to oxygen, and prevented the fast recombination of the electrons and holes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined flame and solution synthesis of nanoscale tungsten-oxide and zinc/tin-oxide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhizhong; Huo, Di; Kear, Bernard H.; Tse, Stephen D.

    2015-12-01

    Heterostructures of tungsten-oxide nanowires decorated with zinc/tin-oxide nanostructures are synthesized via a combined flame and solution synthesis approach. Vertically well-aligned tungsten-oxide nanowires are grown on a tungsten substrate by a flame synthesis method. Here, tetragonal WO2.9 nanowires (diameters of 20-50 nm, lengths >10 μm, and coverage density of 109-1010 cm-2) are produced by the vapor-solid mechanism at 1720 K. Various kinds of Zn/Sn-oxide nanostructures are grown or deposited on the WO2.9 nanowires by adjusting the Sn2+ : Zn2+ molar ratio in an aqueous ethylenediamine solution at 65 °C. With WO2.9 nanowires serving as the base structures, sequential growth or deposition on them of hexagonal ZnO nanoplates, Zn2SnO4 nanocubes, and SnO2 nanoparticles are attained for Sn2+ : Zn2+ ratios of 0 : 1, 1 : 10, and 10 : 1, respectively, along with different saturation conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of the interfaces at the nanoheterojunctions shows abrupt interfaces for ZnO/WO2.9 and Zn2SnO4/WO2.9, despite lattice mismatches of >20%.

  3. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Affect Biomass Accumulation and Photosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoping; Yang, Xiyu; Chen, Siyu; Li, Qianqian; Wang, Wei; Hou, Chunjiang; Gao, Xiao; Wang, Li; Wang, Shucai

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic increase in the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in a variety of applications greatly increased the likelihood of the release of NPs into the environment. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are among the most commonly used NPs, and it has been shown that ZnO NPs were harmful to several different plants. We report here the effects of ZnO NPs exposure on biomass accumulation and photosynthesis in Arabidopsis. We found that 200 and 300 mg/L ZnO NPs treatments reduced Arabidopsis growth by ∼20 and 80%, respectively, in comparison to the control. Pigments measurement showed that Chlorophyll a and b contents were reduced more than 50%, whereas carotenoid contents remain largely unaffected in 300 mg/L ZnO NPs treated Arabidopsis plants. Consistent with this, net rate of photosynthesis, leaf stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate were all reduced more than 50% in 300 mg/L ZnO NPs treated plants. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that expression levels of chlorophyll synthesis genes including CHLOROPHYLL A OXYGENASE (CAO), CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE (CHLG), COPPER RESPONSE DEFECT 1 (CRD1), MAGNESIUM-PROTOPORPHYRIN IX METHYLTRANSFERASE (CHLM) and MG-CHELATASE SUBUNIT D (CHLD), and photosystem structure gene PHOTOSYSTEM I SUBUNIT D-2 (PSAD2), PHOTOSYSTEM I SUBUNIT E-2 (PSAE2), PHOTOSYSTEM I SUBUNIT K (PSAK) and PHOTOSYSTEM I SUBUNIT K (PSAN) were reduced about five folds in 300 mg/L ZnO NPs treated plants. On the other hand, elevated expression, though to different degrees, of several carotenoids synthesis genes including GERANYLGERANYL PYROPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE 6 (GGPS6), PHYTOENE SYNTHASE (PSY) PHYTOENE DESATURASE (PDS), and ZETA-CAROTENE DESATURASE (ZDS) were observed in ZnO NPs treated plants. Taken together, these results suggest that toxicity effects of ZnO NPs observed in Arabidopsis was likely due to the inhibition of the expression of chlorophyll synthesis genes and photosystem structure genes, which results in the inhibition of

  4. Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of zinc oxide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, S. J.

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) exhibits a plethora of physical properties potentially advantageous in many roles and is why it one of the most studied semiconductor compounds. When doped or in its intrinsic state ZnO demonstrates a multitude of electronic, optical and magnetic properties in a large variety of manufacturable morphologies. Thus it is inherently important to understand why these properties arise and the impact potentially invasive sample preparation methods have for both the function and durability of the material and its devices. Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging (CXDI) is a recently established non-destructive technique which can probe the whole three dimensional structure of small crystalline materials and has the potential for sub angstrom strain resolution. The iterative methods employed to overcome the `phase problem' are described fully. CXDI studies of wurtzite ZnO crystals in the rod morphology with high aspect ratio are presented. ZnO rods synthesised via Chemical Vapour Transport Deposition were studied in post growth state and during in-situ modification via metal evaporation processing and annealing. Small variations in post growth state were observed, the physical origin of which remains unidentified. The doping of a ZnO crystal with Iron, Nickel and Cobalt by thermal evaporation and subsequent annealing was studied. The evolution of diffusing ions into the crystal lattice from was not observed, decomposition was found to be the dominant process. Improvements in experimental technique allowed multiple Bragg reflections from a single ZnO crystal to be measured for the first time. Large aspect ratio ZnO rods were used to probe the coherence properties of the incident beam. The longitudinal coherence function of the illuminating radiation was mapped using the visibility of the interference pattern at each bragg reflection and an accurate estimate of the longitudinal coherence length obtained, xi(L) = 0.66pm 0.02 mu m. The consequences for data analysis

  5. Controlling the formation of rodlike V2O5 nanocrystals on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Meili; Sun, Guoying; Yin, Pingping; Ruan, Changping; Ai, Kelong

    2013-11-13

    Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) has attracted much attention for energy storage application because of its high Faradaic activity and stable crystal structure, which make it a promising electrode material for supercapacitors. However, the low electronic conductivity and small lithium-ion diffusion coefficient of V2O5 limit its practical applications. To overcome these limitations, a facile and efficient method is here demonstrated for the fabrication of V2O5/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites as electrode materials for supercapacitors. With this method, the reduction of graphene oxide can be achieved in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly solvent, without the addition of any other toxic reducing agent. Importantly, this solvent can control the formation of the uniform rodlike V2O5 nanocrystals on the surface of rGO. Compared to pure V2O5 microspheres, the V2O5/rGO nanocomposites exhibited a higher specific capacitance of 537 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) in neutral aqueous electrolytes, a higher energy density of 74.58 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 500 W kg(-1), and better stability even after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. Their excellent performances can be attributed to the synergistic effect of rGO and rodlike V2O5 nanocrystals. Such impressive results may promote new opportunities for these electrode materials in high-energy-density storage systems.

  6. BIOCHEMISTRY OF MOBILE ZINC AND NITRIC OXIDE REVEALED BY FLUORESCENT SENSORS

    PubMed Central

    Pluth, Michael D.; Tomat, Elisa; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Biologically mobile zinc and nitric oxide (NO) are two prominent examples of inorganic compounds involved in numerous signaling pathways in living systems. In the past decade, a synergy of regulation, signaling, and translocation of these two species has emerged in several areas of human physiology, providing additional incentive for developing adequate detection systems for Zn(II) ions and NO in biological specimens. Fluorescent probes for both of these bioinorganic analytes provide excellent tools for their detection, with high spatial and temporal resolution. We review the most widely used fluorescent sensors for biological zinc and nitric oxide, together with promising new developments and unmet needs of contemporary Zn(II) and NO biological imaging. The interplay between zinc and nitric oxide in the nervous, cardiovascular, and immune systems is highlighted to illustrate the contributions of selective fluorescent probes to the study of these two important bioinorganic analytes. PMID:21675918

  7. Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide-neem oil-chitosan bionanocomposite for food packaging application.

    PubMed

    Sanuja, S; Agalya, A; Umapathy, M J

    2015-03-01

    Nano zinc oxide at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5%) and neem essential oil were incorporated into the chitosan polymer by solution cast method to enhance the properties of the bionanocomposite film. The functional groups, crystalline particle size, thermal stability and morphology were determined using FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM, respectively. The results showed that 0.5% nano zinc oxide incorporated composite film have improved tensile strength, elongation, film thickness, film transparency and decreased water solubility, swelling and barrier properties due to the presence of neem oil and nano zinc oxide in the polymer matrix. Further antibacterial activity by well diffusion assay method was followed against Escherichia coli which were found to have good inhibition effect. In addition to this food quality application were carried against carrot and compared with the commercial film. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Study on the pre-treatment of oxidized zinc ore prior to flotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dong-sheng; Chen, Yun; Xiang, Ping; Yu, Zheng-jun; Potgieter, J. H.

    2018-02-01

    The pre-treatment of zinc oxide bearing ores with high slime content is important to ensure that resources are utilized optimally. This paper reports an improved process using hydrocyclone de-sliming, dispersion reagents, and magnetic removal of iron minerals for the pre-treatment of zinc oxide ore with a high slime and iron content, and the benefits compared to traditional technologies are shown. In addition, this paper investigates the damage related to fine slime and iron during zinc oxide flotation, the necessity of using hydrocyclone de-sliming together with dispersion reagents to alleviate the influence of slime, and interactions among hydrocyclone de-sliming, reagent dispersion, and magnetic iron removal. Results show that under optimized operating conditions the entire beneficiation technology results in a flotation concentrate with a Zn grade of 34.66% and a recovery of 73.41%.

  9. Bandgap-Engineered Zinc-Tin-Oxide Thin Films for Ultraviolet Sensors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tien-Hung; Chang, Sheng-Po; Chang, Shoou-Jinn

    2018-07-01

    Zinc-tin-oxide thin-film transistors were prepared by radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering, while an identical zinc-tin-oxide thin film was deposited simultaneously on a clear glass substrate to facilitate measurements of the optical properties. When we adjusted the deposition power of ZnO and SnO2, the bandgap of the amorphous thin film was dominated by the deposition power of SnO2. Since the thin-film transistor has obvious absorption in the ultraviolet region owing to the wide bandgap, the drain current increases with the generation of electron-hole pairs. As part of these investigations, a zinc-tin-oxide thin-film transistor has been fabricated that appears to be very promising for ultraviolet applications.

  10. Effect of the temperature on structural and optical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hadia, N M A; García-Granda, Santiago; García, José R

    2014-07-01

    Zinc nitrate hexahydrate, Zn(NO3)2 x 6H2O was used as a precursor with urea NH2CONH2 to prepare hydrozincite Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 powder using hydrothermal method for 8 h at 90 degrees C. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by thermal annealing of hydrozincite powder at different annealing temperatures, i.e., 350, 550 750 and 950 degrees C in air for 2 h. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The optical properties of the products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. It was found that the particle size increased from - 33 to 250 nm with increasing in the annealing temperatures. FTIR results showed that the standard peaks of zinc oxide were presented at 428.17 and 532.32 cm(-1). Thermal analysis study showed that the primary weight loss starts at - 93 degrees C is due to solvent evaporation. The secondary weight loss, observed at - 378 degrees C, is due to phase transition from hydrated zinc oxide to zinc oxide. The band gaps of the products were in the range - 3.26-3.30 eV. The PL spectrum showed that the as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had UV (381 nm) and green (537 nm) emissions.

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of zinc oxide nanorods synthesized by solid-state reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Virendra; D'Souza, Charlene; Yadav, Deepti; Shaikh, A. J.; Vigneshwaran, Nadanathangam

    2006-09-01

    Well-crystallized zinc oxide nanorods have been fabricated by single step solid-state reaction using zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide, at room temperature. The sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) stabilized zinc oxide nanorods were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction revealed the wurtzite structure of zinc oxide. The size estimation by XRD and TEM confirmed that the ZnO nanorods are made of single crystals. The growth of zinc oxide crystals into rod shape was found to be closely related to its hexagonal nature. The mass ratio of SLS:ZnO in the nanorods was found to be 1:10 based on the thermogravimetric analysis. Blue shift of photoluminescence emission was noticed in the ZnO nanorods when compared to that of ZnO bulk. FT-IR analysis confirmed the binding of SLS with ZnO nanorods. Apart from ease of preparation, this method has the advantage of eco-friendliness since the solvent and other harmful chemicals were eliminated in the synthesis protocol.

  12. EXAMINATION OF THE OXIDATION PROTECTION OF ZINC COATINGS FORMED ON COPPER ALLOYS AND STEEL SUBSTRATES

    SciT

    Papazoglou, M.; Chaliampalias, D.; Vourlias, G.

    2010-01-21

    The exposure of metallic components at aggressive high temperature environments, usually limit their usage at similar application because they suffer from severe oxidation attack. Copper alloys are used in a wide range of high-quality indoor and outdoor applications, statue parts, art hardware, high strength and high thermal conductivity applications. On the other hand, steel is commonly used as mechanical part of industrial set outs or in the construction sector due to its high mechanical properties. The aim of the present work is the examination of the oxidation resistance of pack cementation zinc coatings deposited on copper, leaded brass and steelmore » substrates at elevated temperature conditions. Furthermore, an effort made to make a long-term evaluation of the coated samples durability. The oxidation results showed that bare substrates appear to have undergone severe damage comparing with the coated ones. Furthermore, the mass gain of the uncoated samples was higher than this of the zinc covered ones. Particularly zinc coated brass was found to be more resistant to oxidation conditions in which it was exposed as it has the lower mass gain as compared to the bare substrates and zinc coated copper. Zinc coated steel was also proved to be more resistive than the uncoated steel.« less

  13. Indium hydroxide to oxide decomposition observed in one nanocrystal during in situ transmission electron microscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miehe, Gerhard; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Gurlo, Aleksander

    2013-02-01

    The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) is used to study, in situ, spatially resolved decomposition in individual nanocrystals of metal hydroxides and oxyhydroxides. This case study reports on the decomposition of indium hydroxide (c-In(OH)3) to bixbyite-type indium oxide (c-In2O3). The electron beam is focused onto a single cube-shaped In(OH)3 crystal of {100} morphology with ca. 35 nm edge length and a sequence of HR-TEM images was recorded during electron beam irradiation. The frame-by-frame analysis of video sequences allows for the in situ, time-resolved observation of the shape and orientation of the transformed crystals, which in turn enables the evaluation of the kinetics of c-In2O3 crystallization. Supplementary material (video of the transformation) related to this article can be found online at 10.1016/j.jssc.2012.09.022. After irradiation the shape of the parent cube-shaped crystal is preserved, however, its linear dimension (edge) is reduced by the factor 1.20. The corresponding spotted selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern representing zone [001] of c-In(OH)3 is transformed to a diffuse strongly textured ring-like pattern of c-In2O3 that indicates the transformed cube is no longer a single crystal but is disintegrated into individual c-In2O3 domains with the size of about 5-10 nm. The induction time of approximately 15 s is estimated from the time-resolved Fourier transforms. The volume fraction of the transformed phase (c-In2O3), calculated from the shrinkage of the parent c-In(OH)3 crystal in the recorded HR-TEM images, is used as a measure of the kinetics of c-In2O3 crystallization within the framework of Avrami-Erofeev formalism. The Avrami exponent of ˜3 is characteristic for a reaction mechanism with fast nucleation at the beginning of the reaction and subsequent three-dimensional growth of nuclei with a constant growth rate. The structural transformation path in reconstructive decomposition of c-In(OH)3 to c

  14. Fabrication of visible light-triggered photocatalytic materials from the coupling of n-type zinc oxide and p-type copper oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorospe, A. B.; Herrera, M. U.

    2017-04-01

    Coupling of copper oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was done by chemical precipitation method. In this method, copper sulfate pentahydrate and zinc sulfate heptahydrate salt precursors were separately dissolved in distilled water; then were mixed together. The copper sulfate-zinc sulfate solution was then combined with a sodium hydroxide solution. The precipitates were collected and washed in distilled water and ethanol several times, then filtered and dried. The dried sample was grounded, and then undergone heat treatment. After heating, the sample was grounded again. Zinc oxide powder and copper oxide powder were also fabricated using chemical precipitation method. X-Ray Diffraction measurements of the coupled CuO/ZnO powder showed the presence of CuO and ZnO in the fabricated sample. Furthermore, other peaks shown by XRD were also identified corresponding to copper, copper (II) oxide, copper sulfate and zinc sulfate. Results of the photocatalytic activity investigation show that the sample exhibited superior photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under visible light illumination compared to copper oxide powder and zinc oxide powder. This may be attributed to the lower energy gap at the copper oxide-zinc oxide interface, compared to zinc oxide, allowing visible light to trigger its photocatalytic activity.

  15. Formation of ZnO at zinc oxidation by near- and supercritical water under the constant electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkin, A. V.; Sokol, M. Ya.; Shatrova, A. V.; Fedyaeva, O. N.; Vostrikov, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The work has detected an influence of a constant electric field (up to E = 300 kV/m) on the structure of a nanocrystalline layer of zinc oxide, formed on the surface of a planar zinc anode in water under supercritical (673 K and 23 MPa) and near-critical (673 K and 17. 5 MPa) conditions. The effect of an increase of zinc oxidation rate with an increase in E is observed under supercritical conditions and is absent at near-critical ones. Increase in the field strength leads to the formation of a looser structure in the inner part of the zinc oxide layer.

  16. Development of zinc oxide nanoparticle by sonochemical method and study of their physical and optical properties

    SciT

    Khan, Samreen Heena, E-mail: samreen.heena.khan@gmail.com; Suriyaprabha, R.; Pathak, Bhawana, E-mail: bhawana.pathak@cug.ac.in

    With the miniaturization of crystal size, the fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms becomes dominant, and hence, materials in the nano-regime behave very differently from the similar material in a bulk. Zinc oxide (ZnO), particularly, exhibits extraordinary properties such as a wide direct band gap (3.37 eV), large excitation binding energy (60 meV), low refractive index (1.9), stability to intense ultraviolet (UV) illumination, resistance to high-energy irradiation, and lower toxicity as compared to other semiconductors. This very property makes Zinc Oxide a potential candidate in many application fields, particularly as a prominent semiconductor. Zinc Oxide plays a significant role in manymore » technological advances with its application in semiconductor mediated photocatalytic processes and sensor, solar cells and others. In present study, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) has been synthesized using three different precursors by sonochemical method. Zinc Acetate Dihydrate, Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate and Zinc Sulphate Heptahydrate used as a precursor for the synthesis process. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticle has been found under the range of ∼50 nm. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized using different characterizing tools. The as-synthesized ZnO was characterized by Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) for the determination of functional group; Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for Morphology and elemental detection respectively, Transmission Electron Microscopy for Particle size distribution and morphology and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for the confirmation of crystal structure of the nanomaterial. The optical properties of the ZnO were examined by UV-VIS spectroscopy equipped with Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) confirmed the optical band gap of ZnO-3 around 3.23 eV resembles with the band gap of bulk ZnO (3.37eV). The TEM micrograph of the as-synthesized material showed perfectly spherical

  17. Photocatalysis of zinc oxide nanotip array/titanium oxide film heterojunction prepared by aqueous solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Kwei; Lee, Bo-Wei; Kao, Chen-Yu

    2017-05-01

    A TiO2 film was prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass by aqueous solution deposition (ASD) with precursors of ammonium hexafluoro-titanate and boric acid at 40 °C. The photocatalysis of annealed TiO2 film increases with increasing growth time and decreases with increasing growth times longer than 60 min. A ZnO nanotip array was prepared on ZnO seed layer/TiO2 film/glass by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of zinc nitrate and ammonium hydroxide at 70 °C. The photocatalysis of ASD-ZnO/ASD-TiO2 film/ITO glass can be better than that of P25.

  18. On Controlling the Hydrophobicity of Nanostructured Zinc-Oxide Layers Grown by Pulsed Electrodeposition

    SciT

    Klochko, N. P., E-mail: klochko-np@mail.ru; Klepikova, K. S.; Kopach, V. R.

    The possibility of fabricating highly hydrophobic nanostructured zinc-oxide layers by the inexpensive method of pulsed electrodeposition from aqueous solutions without water-repellent coatings, adapted for large-scale production, is shown. The conditions of the deposition of highly hydrophobic nanostructured zinc-oxide layers exhibiting the “rose-petal” effect with specific morphology, optical properties, crystal structure and texture are determined. The grown ZnO nanostructures are promising for micro- and nanoelectronics as an adaptive material able to reversibly transform to the hydrophilic state upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

  19. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial activity of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shaalan, Mohamed Ibrahim; El-Mahdy, Magdy Mohamed; Theiner, Sarah; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Saleh, Mona

    2017-07-21

    Antibiotic resistance is a global issue that threatens public health. The excessive use of antibiotics contributes to this problem as the genes of antibiotic resistance can be transferred between the bacteria in humans, animals and aquatic organisms. Metallic nanoparticles could serve as future substitutes for some conventional antibiotics because of their antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against major fish pathogens and assess their safety in vitro. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction and characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and zeta sizer. The concentrations of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Subsequently, silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Edwardsiella tarda, Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, Yersinia ruckeri and Aphanomyces invadans and the minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. MTT assay was performed on eel kidney cell line (EK-1) to determine the cell viability after incubation with nanoparticles. The interaction between silver nanoparticles and A. salmonicida was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The tested nanoparticles exhibited marked antimicrobial activity. Silver nanoparticles inhibited the growth of both A. salmonicida and A. invadans at a concentration of 17 µg/mL. Zinc oxide nanoparticles inhibited the growth of A. salmonicida, Y. ruckeri and A. invadans at concentrations of 15.75, 31.5 and 3.15 µg/mL respectively. Silver nanoparticles showed higher cell viability when compared to zinc oxide nanoparticles in the MTT assay. Transmission electron microscopy showed the attachment of silver nanoparticles to the bacterial membrane and disruption of its

  20. Comparison of porous and nano zinc oxide for replacing high-dose dietary regular zinc oxide in weaning piglets

    PubMed Central

    Long, Lina; Chen, Jiashun; Zhang, Yonggang; Liang, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of dietary supplementation with low dose of porous and nano zinc oxide (ZnO) on weaning piglets, and to evaluate the possibility of using them as an alternative to high dose of regular ZnO. Piglets were randomly allocated into four treatment groups fed with four diets: (1) basal diet (NC), (2) NC+ 3000 mg/kg ZnO (PC), (3) NC + 500 mg/kg porous ZnO (HiZ) and (4) NC + 500 mg/kg nano ZnO (ZNP). The result showed that piglets in HiZ group had less diarrhea than ZNP group (P < 0.05). Besides, there was no significant difference between PC, HiZ and ZNP groups in terms of serum malondialdeyhde (MDA) concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (P > 0.05). Analysis of trace metal elements revealed that piglets fed with high dose of regular ZnO had the highest Zn level in kidney (P < 0.05), which may induce kidney stone formation. Additionally, a decrease in ileal crypt depth was observed in PC, HiZ and ZNP group, suggesting an effective protection against intestinal injury. Results of mRNA analysis in intestine showed that ZNP supplementation had better effects on up-regulated trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) levels in duodenum and jejunum than HiZ did (P < 0.05), implying that nano ZnO may possess higher anti-inflammatory capacity than porous ZnO. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with low dose of porous and nano ZnO had similar (even better) effect on improving growth performance and intestinal morphology, reducing diarrhea and intestinal inflammatory as high dose of regular ZnO in weaning piglets. Compared with nano ZnO, porous ZnO had better performance on reducing diarrhea but less effect on up-regulation of intestinal TFF3 and Nrf2. PMID:28792520

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Zinc Oxide-Coated Nanoporous Alumina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    microorganisms, including Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, E. coli, methicillin - sensitive S. aureus , methicillin - resistant S. aureus , S... Staphylococcus aureus , and Staphylococcus epidermidis. On the other hand, zinc 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY...alumina membranes against several bacteria found on the skin surface, including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus , and

  2. Comparison between Cellulose Nanocrystal and Cellulose Nanofibril Reinforced Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanofibers and Their Novel Shish-Kebab-Like Crystalline Structures

    Xuezhu Xu; Haoran Wang; Long Jiang; Xinnan Wang; Scott A. Payne; J.Y. Zhu; Ruipeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofiber mats were produced by electrospinning. Biobased cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) as reinforcement nanofillers were also added to the polymer to produce composite nanofiber mats. The effects of the two cellulose nanofillers on the rheological properties of the PEO solutions and the microstructure,...

  3. Goat red blood cells as precursor for iron oxide nanocrystal synthesis to develop nuclear targeted lung cancer therapy

    SciT

    Sreevani, Vellingiri; Shanthi, Krishnamurthy; Kannan, Soundarapandian, E-mail: sk_protein@buc.edu.in

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Molecular approach of synthesis of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC using goat blood as a bio-precursor. • The method is simple, efficient and environment friendly. • Synthesized nanocrystals were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, XRD, SEM, TEM, DLS and EDS. • Nanocrystals exhibited potent cytotoxicity against A549 cancer cell. • Nuclear targeting with expression of caspase-3, caspase-7 and Bcl-2 in A549 cancer cells. - Abstract: In this study, we synthesised iron oxide nanocrystals (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC) from goat blood (bio-precursor) using red blood cells (RBC) lysis method (a molecular level approach) for the first time. The formation ofmore » Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC was achieved through a single-phase chemical reduction method. The size distribution of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC falls between 20–30 nm for pellet and 100–200 nm for lysate and were found to be crystalline. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC demonstrated significant cytotoxicity on A549. We report the direct visualization of interactions between Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC and the cancer cell nucleus. The active transport of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC to the nucleus induces major changes to nuclear phenotype via nuclear envelope invaginations. We further examined the root cause for the involvement of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC on the expression of caspase-3, caspase-7 and Bcl-2 in A549 cancer cells. This functional proteomic analysis clearly implies that the lung cancer cell proliferation is perfectly targeted by the biosynthesised Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC which could provide new insight for nuclear-targeted cancer therapy.« less

  4. Zinc regulates iNOS-derived nitric oxide formation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Kulakov, Larissa; Opländer, Christian; Kolb-Bachofen, Victoria; Kröncke, Klaus-D; Suschek, Christoph V

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Mechanisms responsible for the fine-tuning of iNOS activity in inflammation are still not fully understood. Zinc is an important structural element of NOS enzymes and is known to inhibit its catalytical activity. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of zinc on iNOS activity and expression in endothelial cells. We found that zinc down-regulated the expression of iNOS (mRNA+protein) and decreased cytokine-mediated activation of the iNOS promoter. Zinc-mediated regulation of iNOS expression was due to inhibition of NF-κB transactivation activity, as determined by a decrease in both NF-κB-driven luciferase reporter activity and expression of NF-κB target genes, including cyclooxygenase 2 and IL-1β. However, zinc did not affect NF-κB translocation into the nucleus, as assessed by Western blot analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Taken together our results demonstrate that zinc limits iNOS-derived high output NO production in endothelial cells by inhibiting NF-κB-dependent iNOS expression, pointing to a role of zinc as a regulator of iNOS activity in inflammation.

  5. Zinc regulates iNOS-derived nitric oxide formation in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Kulakov, Larissa; Opländer, Christian; Kolb-Bachofen, Victoria; Kröncke, Klaus-D.; Suschek, Christoph V.

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Mechanisms responsible for the fine-tuning of iNOS activity in inflammation are still not fully understood. Zinc is an important structural element of NOS enzymes and is known to inhibit its catalytical activity. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of zinc on iNOS activity and expression in endothelial cells. We found that zinc down-regulated the expression of iNOS (mRNA+protein) and decreased cytokine-mediated activation of the iNOS promoter. Zinc-mediated regulation of iNOS expression was due to inhibition of NF-κB transactivation activity, as determined by a decrease in both NF-κB-driven luciferase reporter activity and expression of NF-κB target genes, including cyclooxygenase 2 and IL-1β. However, zinc did not affect NF-κB translocation into the nucleus, as assessed by Western blot analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Taken together our results demonstrate that zinc limits iNOS-derived high output NO production in endothelial cells by inhibiting NF-κB-dependent iNOS expression, pointing to a role of zinc as a regulator of iNOS activity in inflammation. PMID:25180171

  6. Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Chemical Spray Technique, Starting from Zinc Acetylacetonate and Indium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Rajesh; Maldonado, Arturo; Vega-Pérez, Jaime; Acosta, Dwight Roberto; Olvera, María De La Luz

    2014-01-01

    The physical characteristics of ultrasonically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films, with electrical resistivity as low as 3.42 × 10−3 Ω·cm and high optical transmittance, in the visible range, of 50%–70% is presented. Zinc acetylacetonate and indium chloride were used as the organometallic zinc precursor and the doping source, respectively, achieving ZnO:In thin films with growth rate in the order of 100 nm/min. The effects of both indium concentration and the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical characteristics were measured. All the films were polycrystalline, fitting well with hexagonal wurtzite type ZnO. A switching in preferential growth, from (002) to (101) planes for indium doped samples were observed. The surface morphology of the films showed a change from hexagonal slices to triangle shaped grains as the indium concentration increases. Potential applications as transparent conductive electrodes based on the resulting low electrical resistance and high optical transparency of the studied samples are considered. PMID:28788118

  7. Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Chemical Spray Technique, Starting from Zinc Acetylacetonate and Indium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Rajesh; Maldonado, Arturo; Vega-Pérez, Jaime; Acosta, Dwight Roberto; De La Luz Olvera, María

    2014-07-04

    The physical characteristics of ultrasonically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films, with electrical resistivity as low as 3.42 × 10 -3 Ω·cm and high optical transmittance, in the visible range, of 50%-70% is presented. Zinc acetylacetonate and indium chloride were used as the organometallic zinc precursor and the doping source, respectively, achieving ZnO:In thin films with growth rate in the order of 100 nm/min. The effects of both indium concentration and the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical characteristics were measured. All the films were polycrystalline, fitting well with hexagonal wurtzite type ZnO. A switching in preferential growth, from (002) to (101) planes for indium doped samples were observed. The surface morphology of the films showed a change from hexagonal slices to triangle shaped grains as the indium concentration increases. Potential applications as transparent conductive electrodes based on the resulting low electrical resistance and high optical transparency of the studied samples are considered.

  8. Zinc stable isotope fractionation upon accelerated oxidative weathering of sulfidic mine waste.

    PubMed

    Matthies, R; Krahé, L; Blowes, D W

    2014-07-15

    Accelerated oxidative weathering in a reaction cell (ASTM D 5744 standard protocol) was performed over a 33 week period on well characterized, sulfidic mine waste from the Kidd Creek Cu-Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Canada. The cell leachate was monitored for physicochemical parameters, ion concentrations and stable isotope ratios of zinc. Filtered zinc concentrations (<0.45 μm) in the leachate ranged between 4.5 mg L(-1) and 1.9 g L(-1)-potentially controlled by pH, mineral solubility kinetics and (de)sorption processes. The zinc stable isotope ratios varied mass-dependently within +0.1 and +0.52‰ relative to IRMM 3702, and were strongly dependent on the pH (rpH-d66Zn=0.65, p<0.005, n=31). At a pH below 5, zinc mobilization was governed by sphalerite oxidation and hydroxide dissolution-pointing to the isotope signature of sphalerite (+0.1 to +0.16‰). Desorption processes resulted in enrichment of (66)Zn in the leachate reaching a maximum offset of +0.32‰ compared to the proposed sphalerite isotope signature. Over a period characterized by pH=6.1 ± 0.6, isotope ratios were significantly more enriched in (66)Zn with an offset of ≈ 0.23‰ compared to sphalerite, suggesting that zinc release may have been derived from a second zinc source, such as carbonate minerals, which compose 8 wt.% of the tailings. This preliminary study confirms the benefit of applying zinc isotopes alongside standard monitoring parameters to track principal zinc sources and weathering processes in complex multi-phase matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Solution-processed phase-change VO(2) metamaterials from colloidal vanadium oxide (VO(x)) nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Paik, Taejong; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Gaulding, E Ashley; Caglayan, Humeyra; Gordon, Thomas R; Engheta, Nader; Kagan, Cherie R; Murray, Christopher B

    2014-01-28

    We demonstrate thermally switchable VO2 metamaterials fabricated using solution-processable colloidal nanocrystals (NCs). Vanadium oxide (VOx) NCs are synthesized through a nonhydrolytic reaction and deposited from stable colloidal dispersions to form NC thin films. Rapid thermal annealing transforms the VOx NC thin films into monoclinic, nanocrystalline VO2 thin films that show a sharp, reversible metal-insulator phase transition. Introduction of precise concentrations of tungsten dopings into the colloidal VOx NCs enables the still sharp phase transition of the VO2 thin films to be tuned to lower temperatures as the doping level increases. We fabricate "smart", differentially doped, multilayered VO2 films to program the phase and therefore the metal-insulator behavior of constituent vertically structured layers with temperature. With increasing temperature, we tailored the optical response of multilayered films in the near-IR and IR regions from that of a strong light absorber, in a metal-insulator structure, to that of a Drude-like reflector, characteristic of a pure metallic structure. We demonstrate that nanocrystal-based nanoimprinting can be employed to pattern multilayered subwavelength nanostructures, such as three-dimensional VO2 nanopillar arrays, that exhibit plasmonic dipolar responses tunable with a temperature change.

  10. Silver oxide nanocrystals anchored on titanate nanotubes and nanofibers: promising candidates for entrapment of radioactive iodine anions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongjiang; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Long; Sarina, Sarina; Zheng, Zhanfeng; Zhu, Huaiyong

    2013-11-21

    Iodine radioisotopes are released into the environment by the nuclear industry and medical research institutions using radioactive materials. The (129)I(-) anion is one of the more mobile radioactive species due to a long half-life, and it is a great challenge to design long-term management solutions for such radioactive waste. In this study, a new adsorbent structure with the potential to efficiently remove radioactive iodine anions (I(-)) from water is devised: silver oxide (Ag2O) nanocrystals firmly anchored on the surface of titanate nanotubes and nanofibers via coherent interfaces between Ag2O and titanate phases. I(-) anions in fluids can easily access the Ag2O nanocrystals and be efficiently trapped by forming AgI precipitate that firmly attaches to the adsorbent. Due to their one-dimensional morphology, the new adsorbents can be readily dispersed in liquids and easily separated after purification; and the adsorption beds loaded with the adsorbents can permit high flux. This significantly enhances the adsorption efficiency and reduces the separation costs. The proposed structure reveals a new direction in developing efficient adsorbents for the removal of radioactive anions from wastewater.

  11. Comparison of the effects and distribution of zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc ions in activated sludge reactors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongqing; Trzcinski, Antoine P; Oh, Hyun-Suk; Chew, Evelyn; Liu, Yu; Tan, Soon Keat; Ng, Wun Jern

    2017-09-19

    Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being increasingly applied in the industry, which results inevitably in the release of these materials into the hydrosphere. In this study, simulated waste-activated sludge experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of Zinc Oxide NPs and to compare it with its ionic counterpart (as ZnSO 4 ). It was found that even 1 mg/L of ZnO NPs could have a small impact on COD and ammonia removal. Under 1, 10 and 50 mg/L of ZnO NP exposure, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiencies decreased from 79.8% to 78.9%, 72.7% and 65.7%, respectively. The corresponding ammonium (NH 4 + N) concentration in the effluent significantly (P < 0.05) increased from 11.9 mg/L (control) to 15.3, 20.9 and 28.5 mg/L, respectively. Under equal Zn concentration, zinc ions were more toxic towards microorganisms compared to ZnO NPs. Under 50 mg/L exposure, the effluent Zn level was 5.69 mg/L, implying that ZnO NPs have a strong affinity for activated sludge. The capacity for adsorption of ZnO NPs onto activated sludge was found to be 2.3, 6.3, and 13.9 mg/g MLSS at influent ZnO NP concentrations of 1.0, 10 and 50 mg/L respectively, which were 1.74-, 2.13- and 2.05-fold more than under Zn ion exposure.

  12. Long-range ordering effect in electrodeposition of zinc and zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Sheng; Shi, Zi-Liang; Ma, Guo-Bin; Wang, Mu; Peng, Ru-Wen; Hao, Xi-Ping; Ming, Nai-Ben

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, we report the long-range ordering effect observed in the electro-crystallization of Zn and ZnO from an ultrathin aqueous electrolyte layer of ZnSO4 . The deposition branches are regularly angled, covered with random-looking, scalelike crystalline platelets of ZnO. Although the orientation of each crystalline platelet of ZnO appears random, transmission electron microscopy shows that they essentially possess the same crystallographic orientation as the single-crystalline zinc electrodeposit underneath. Based on the experimental observations, we suggest that this unique long-range ordering effect results from an epitaxial nucleation effect in electrocrystallization.

  13. Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide and zinc tin oxide using tetraethyltin and ozone

    SciT

    Warner, Ellis J.; Gladfelter, Wayne L., E-mail: wlg@umn.edu; Johnson, Forrest

    Silicon or glass substrates exposed to sequential pulses of tetraethyltin (TET) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were coated with thin films of SnO{sub 2}. Self-limiting deposition was found using 8 s pulse times, and a uniform thickness per cycle (TPC) of 0.2 nm/cycle was observed in a small, yet reproducible, temperature window from 290 to 320 °C. The as-deposited, stoichiometric SnO{sub 2} films were amorphous and transparent above 400 nm. Interspersing pulses of diethylzinc and O{sub 3} among the TET:O{sub 3} pulses resulted in deposition of zinc tin oxide films, where the fraction of tin, defined as [at. % Sn/(at. % Sn + at. %more » Zn)], was controlled by the ratio of TET pulses, specifically n{sub TET}:(n{sub TET} + n{sub DEZ}) where n{sub TET} and n{sub DEZ} are the number of precursor/O{sub 3} subcycles within each atomic layer deposition (ALD) supercycle. Based on film thickness and composition measurements, the TET pulse time required to reach saturation in the TPC of SnO{sub 2} on ZnO surfaces was increased to >30 s. Under these conditions, film stoichiometry as a function of the TET pulse ratio was consistent with the model devised by Elliott and Nilsen. The as-deposited zinc tin oxide (ZTO) films were amorphous and remained so even after annealing at 450 °C in air for 1 h. The optical bandgap of the transparent ZTO films increased as the tin concentration increased. Hall measurements established that the n-type ZTO carrier concentration was 3 × 10{sup 17} and 4 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} for fractional tin concentrations of 0.28 and 0.63, respectively. The carrier mobility decreased as the concentration of tin increased. A broken gap pn junction was fabricated using ALD-deposited ZTO and a sputtered layer of cuprous oxide. The junction demonstrated ohmic behavior and low resistance consistent with similar junctions prepared using sputter-deposited ZTO.« less

  14. The cytotoxic effects of titanium oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles oh Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironava, Tatsiana; Applebaum, Ariella; Applebaum, Eliana; Guterman, Shoshana; Applebaum, Kayla; Grossman, Daniel; Gordon, Chris; Brink, Peter; Wang, H. Z.; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2013-03-01

    The importance of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO), inorganic metal oxides nanoparticles (NPs) stems from their ubiquitous applications in personal care products, solar cells and food whitening agents. Hence, these NPs come in direct contact with the skin, digestive tracts and are absorbed into human tissues. Currently, TiO2 and ZnO are considered safe commercial ingredients by the material safety data sheets with no reported evidence of carcinogenicity or ecotoxicity, and do not classify either NP as a toxic substance. This study examined the direct effects of TiO2 and ZnO on HeLa cells, a human cervical adenocarcinonma cell line, and their membrane mechanics. The whole cell patch-clamp technique was used in addition to immunohistochemistry staining, TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Additionally, we examined the effects of dexamethasone (DXM), a glucocorticoid steroid known to have an effect on cell membrane mechanics. Overall, TiO2 and ZnO seemed to have an adverse effect on cell membrane mechanics by effecting cell proliferation, altering cellular structure, decreasing cell-cell adhesion, activating existing ion channels, increasing membrane permeability, and possibly disrupting cell signaling.

  15. The Enhancement Of UV Sensor Response By Zinc Oxide Nanorods / Reduced Graphene Oxide Bilayer Nanocomposites Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Ali A. A.; Suriani, AB; Jabur, Akram R.

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) / reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites assisted by sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant (ZnO NRs/rGO-SDS) showed a good response for UV sensor application that has sensitivity of around ∼32.54. Whereas, the UV sensor response on pristine ZnO NRs showed almost 15 times lower response than the ZnO NRs/rGO-SDS nanocomposites. The pristine ZnO NRs were prepared by sol-gel immersion method before rGO solution was sprayed on the ZnO films using spraying method. The GO solution was produced via electrochemical exfoliation method at 0.1 M SDS electrolyte then the solution was reduced using hydrazine hydrate under 24 hours magnetic stirring at a temperature of around ∼100 °C. The samples were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray, field emission scanning electron microscope, micro-Raman, ultraviolet visible, X-ray diffraction, UV lamp and four-point probe measurement. The aim of this study was to improve the UV sensor response based on ZnO/rGO-SDS nanocomposites. In conclusion, the fabricated ZnO NRs/rGO-SDS nanocomposites assisted with SDS is a good candidate for the use in UV sensor applications as compared to pristine ZnO NRs films.

  16. The effects of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant on alumina modified zinc oxides

    SciT

    Gac, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.gac@umcs.lublin.pl; Zawadzki, Witold; Słowik, Grzegorz

    Highlights: • Synthesis of novel ZnO−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides in the presence of CTAB surfactant. • Determination of the structural, surface and optical properties. • Nanocrystalline, high-surface area ZnO−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides. • ZnO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials of different gap energy. - Abstract: Novel alumina modified zinc oxide materials were prepared by co-precipitation method in the presence of different amounts of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. X-ray diffraction, {sup 27}Al magic-angle spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy studies evidenced formation of 10–15 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles in the presence of the small amounts of surfactant. Amorphous alumina andmore » zinc aluminate phases of different coordination environment of Al sites were identified. An increase of surfactant concentration led to the elongation of nanoparticles and changes of the nature of hydroxyl groups. Precipitation in the high CTAB concentration conditions facilitated formation of mesoporous materials of high specific surface area. The materials were composed of very small (2–3 nm) zinc aluminate spinel nanoparticles. High concentration of CTAB induced widening of band gap energy.« less

  17. Ternary and coupled binary zinc tin oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and potential application in photocatalytic processes

    SciT

    Ivetić, T.B., E-mail: tamara.ivetic@df.uns.ac.rs; Finčur, N.L.; Đačanin, Lj. R.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO) powders. • Photocatalytic degradation of alprazolam in the presence of ZTO water suspensions. • Coupled binary ZTO exhibits enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to ternary ZTO. - Abstract: In this paper, ternary and coupled binary zinc tin oxide nanocrystalline powders were prepared via simple solid-state mechanochemical method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman and reflectance spectroscopy were used to study the structure and optical properties of the obtained powder samples. The thermal behavior of zinc tin oxide system was examined through simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetric analysis. The efficiencies of ternary (Zn{sub 2}SnO{submore » 4} and ZnSnO{sub 3}) and coupled binary (ZnO/SnO{sub 2}) zinc tin oxide water suspensions in the photocatalytic degradation of alprazolam, short-acting anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs, under UV irradiation were determined and compared with the efficiency of pure ZnO and SnO{sub 2}.« less

  18. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  19. An Atomistic View of the Incipient Growth of Zinc Oxide Nanolayers

    DOE PAGES

    Chu, Manh Hung; Tian, Liang; Chaker, Ahmad; ...

    2016-08-09

    The growth of zinc oxide thin films by atomic layer deposition is believed to proceed through an embryonic step in which three-dimensional nanoislands form and then coalesce to trigger a layer-by-layer growth mode. This transient initial state is characterized by a poorly ordered atomic structure, which may be inaccessible by X-ray diffraction techniques. Here in this work, we apply X-ray absorption spectroscopy in situ to address the local structure of Zn after each atomic layer deposition cycle, using a custom-built reactor mounted at a synchrotron beamline, and we shed light on the atomistic mechanisms taking place during the first stagesmore » of the growth. We find that such mechanisms are surprisingly different for zinc oxide growth on amorphous (silica) and crystalline (sapphire) substrate. Ab initio simulations and quantitative data analysis allow the formulation of a comprehensive growth model, based on the different effects of surface atoms and grain boundaries in the nanoscale islands, and the consequent induced local disorder. From a comparison of these spectroscopy results with those from X-ray diffraction reported recently, we observe that the final structure of the zinc oxide nanolayers depends strongly on the mechanisms taking place during the initial stages of growth. Finally, the approach followed here for the case of zinc oxide will be of general interest for characterizing and optimizing the growth and properties of more complex nanostructures.« less

  20. An innovative zinc oxide-coated zeolite adsorbent for removal of humic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)-coated zeolite adsorbents were developed by both nitric acid modification and Zn(NO3)2•6H2O functionalization of zeolite. The developed adsorbents were used for the removal of humic acid (HA) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbents at 21...

  1. Zinc oxide eugenol paste jeopardises the adhesive bonding to primary dentine.

    PubMed

    Pires, C W; Lenzi, T L; Soares, F Z M; Rocha, R O

    2018-05-12

    This was to evaluate the influence of root canal filling pastes on microshear bond strength (µSBS) of an adhesive system to primary dentine. Human (32) primary molars were randomly assigned into four experimental groups (n = 8): zinc oxide eugenol paste (ZOE); iodoform paste (Guedes-Pinto paste); calcium hydroxide paste thickened with zinc oxide; and no filling paste (control). Flat dentine surfaces were covered with a 1 mm-thick layer of the pastes for 15 min at 37 °C. The pastes were mechanically removed from dentine surfaces, followed by rinsing and drying. After adhesive application (Adper Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE), starch tubes were placed over pre-treated dentine and filled with composite resin (Z250, 3M ESPE). The µSBS test was performed after 24 h of water storage at 37 °C. The failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. The µSBS values (MPa) were analysed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests (α = 0.05). The lowest µSBS values were achieved when ZOE was used. No difference was found among other filling pastes compared with control group. All specimens showed adhesive/mixed failures. Zinc oxide eugenol paste negatively influenced the bond strength of adhesive systems to primary dentine. Iodoform-based Guedes-Pinto paste and calcium hydroxide paste thickened with zinc oxide did not influence the microshear bond strength values.

  2. An Atomistic View of the Incipient Growth of Zinc Oxide Nanolayers

    SciT

    Chu, Manh Hung; Tian, Liang; Chaker, Ahmad

    The growth of zinc oxide thin films by atomic layer deposition is believed to proceed through an embryonic step in which three-dimensional nanoislands form and then coalesce to trigger a layer-by-layer growth mode. This transient initial state is characterized by a poorly ordered atomic structure, which may be inaccessible by X-ray diffraction techniques. Here in this work, we apply X-ray absorption spectroscopy in situ to address the local structure of Zn after each atomic layer deposition cycle, using a custom-built reactor mounted at a synchrotron beamline, and we shed light on the atomistic mechanisms taking place during the first stagesmore » of the growth. We find that such mechanisms are surprisingly different for zinc oxide growth on amorphous (silica) and crystalline (sapphire) substrate. Ab initio simulations and quantitative data analysis allow the formulation of a comprehensive growth model, based on the different effects of surface atoms and grain boundaries in the nanoscale islands, and the consequent induced local disorder. From a comparison of these spectroscopy results with those from X-ray diffraction reported recently, we observe that the final structure of the zinc oxide nanolayers depends strongly on the mechanisms taking place during the initial stages of growth. Finally, the approach followed here for the case of zinc oxide will be of general interest for characterizing and optimizing the growth and properties of more complex nanostructures.« less

  3. Study on Zinc Oxide-Based Electrolytes in Low-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chen; Qiao, Zheng; Feng, Chu; Kim, Jung-Sik; Wang, Baoyuan; Zhu, Bin

    2017-12-28

    Semiconducting-ionic conductors have been recently described as excellent electrolyte membranes for low-temperature operation solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs). In the present work, two new functional materials based on zinc oxide (ZnO)-a legacy material in semiconductors but exceptionally novel to solid state ionics-are developed as membranes in SOFCs for the first time. The proposed ZnO and ZnO-LCP (La/Pr doped CeO₂) electrolytes are respectively sandwiched between two Ni 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 Li-oxide (NCAL) electrodes to construct fuel cell devices. The assembled ZnO fuel cell demonstrates encouraging power outputs of 158-482 mW cm -2 and high open circuit voltages (OCVs) of 1-1.06 V at 450-550 °C, while the ZnO-LCP cell delivers significantly enhanced performance with maximum power density of 864 mW cm -2 and OCV of 1.07 V at 550 °C. The conductive properties of the materials are investigated. As a consequence, the ZnO electrolyte and ZnO-LCP composite exhibit extraordinary ionic conductivities of 0.09 and 0.156 S cm -1 at 550 °C, respectively, and the proton conductive behavior of ZnO is verified. Furthermore, performance enhancement of the ZnO-LCP cell is studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which is found to be as a result of the significantly reduced grain boundary and electrode polarization resistances. These findings indicate that ZnO is a highly promising alternative semiconducting-ionic membrane to replace the electrolyte materials for advanced LT-SOFCs, which in turn provides a new strategic pathway for the future development of electrolytes.

  4. Study on Zinc Oxide-Based Electrolytes in Low-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Zheng; Feng, Chu; Wang, Baoyuan; Zhu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Semiconducting-ionic conductors have been recently described as excellent electrolyte membranes for low-temperature operation solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs). In the present work, two new functional materials based on zinc oxide (ZnO)—a legacy material in semiconductors but exceptionally novel to solid state ionics—are developed as membranes in SOFCs for the first time. The proposed ZnO and ZnO-LCP (La/Pr doped CeO2) electrolytes are respectively sandwiched between two Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05Li-oxide (NCAL) electrodes to construct fuel cell devices. The assembled ZnO fuel cell demonstrates encouraging power outputs of 158–482 mW cm−2 and high open circuit voltages (OCVs) of 1–1.06 V at 450–550 °C, while the ZnO-LCP cell delivers significantly enhanced performance with maximum power density of 864 mW cm−2 and OCV of 1.07 V at 550 °C. The conductive properties of the materials are investigated. As a consequence, the ZnO electrolyte and ZnO-LCP composite exhibit extraordinary ionic conductivities of 0.09 and 0.156 S cm−1 at 550 °C, respectively, and the proton conductive behavior of ZnO is verified. Furthermore, performance enhancement of the ZnO-LCP cell is studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which is found to be as a result of the significantly reduced grain boundary and electrode polarization resistances. These findings indicate that ZnO is a highly promising alternative semiconducting-ionic membrane to replace the electrolyte materials for advanced LT-SOFCs, which in turn provides a new strategic pathway for the future development of electrolytes. PMID:29283395

  5. Skin changes induced by a zinc oxide dressing compared with a hydrocolloid dressing in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lene Feldskov; Blume, Niels; Romme, Tina; Samuelsen, Peter; Everland, Hanne; Ifversen, Peter; Karlsmark, Tonny

    2005-05-01

    Incidence of skin complications in ostomy patients constitutes a well-known and well-described problem. The reasons are, however, very difficult to describe because of the many factors contributing to the problem. This article describes the skin changes derived exclusively from the adhesives used in a carefully controlled, long-term study using two fundamentally different types of adhesives: a hydrocolloid adhesive and a zinc oxide adhesive. The adhesives were changed daily on the volar forearm of 11 volunteers for a 4-week period. Once a week, transepidermal water-loss (TEWL), water content of the skin, erythema and the peel force applied for removal of the adhesives were measured. On the last day of the study, a replica of the skin surface was obtained to determine changes in the skin topography, and a biopsy was taken to study changes at the cellular level. We found increased TEWL and decreased water content in skin treated with the zinc oxide adhesive, but increased water-loss and water content when the hydrocolloid adhesive was used. In addition, the area treated with zinc oxide adhesive showed significant increase of epidermal thickness, scaly appearance and parakeratosis with similarities to pathological dry skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, changes that were not found when using the hydrocolloid adhesive. The skin response seems to be the result of the content of zinc oxide and the mechanical interaction of the zinc oxide adhesive. We conclude that the nature of the adhesive plays an important role in the skin response to repeated application of adhesives, as seen in peristomal skin.

  6. Extracellular synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticle using seaweeds of gulf of Mannar, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles by marine resources is thought to be clean, nontoxic, and environmentally acceptable “green procedures”. Marine ecosystems are very important for the overall health of both marine and terrestrial environments. The use of natural sources like Marine biological resources essential for nanotechnology. Seaweeds constitute one of the commercially important marine living renewable resources. Seaweeds such as green Caulerpa peltata, red Hypnea Valencia and brown Sargassum myriocystum were used for synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles. Result The preliminary screening of physico-chemical parameters such as concentration of metals, concentration of seaweed extract, temperature, pH and reaction time revealed that one seaweed S. myriocystum were able to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles. It was confirmed through the, initial colour change of the reaction mixture and UV visible spectrophotometer. The extracellular biosynthesized clear zinc oxide nanoparticles size 36 nm through characterization technique such as DLS, AFM, SEM –EDX, TEM, XRD and FTIR. The biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles are effective antibacterial agents against Gram-positive than the Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion Based on the FTIR results, fucoidan water soluble pigments present in S. myriocystum leaf extract is responsible for reduction and stabilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles. by this approach are quite stable and no visible changes were observed even after 6 months. These soluble elements could have acted as both reduction and stabilizing agents preventing the aggregation of nanoparticles in solution, extracellular biological synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles of size 36 nm. PMID:24298944

  7. Assembling tungsten oxide hydrate nanocrystal colloids formed by laser ablation in liquid into fast-response electrochromic films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shalong; Dou, Kang; Zou, Yousheng; Dong, Yuhang; Li, Jubin; Ju, Dan; Zeng, Haibo

    2017-03-01

    High-performance electrochromic films based on tungsten oxide hydrate ([WO 2 (O 2 )H 2 O]·1.66H 2 O) colloidal nanocrystals with fast switching speed were fabricated by laser ablation in a mixture of water and hydrogen peroxide followed by electrophoretic methods. Through electrophoretic deposition, the nanoparticles in the colloids synthesized by laser ablation aggregated onto the FTO coated glass substrate forming a lager cell with a uniform size of around 200nm, which subsequently self-assembled into a porous tungsten oxide hydrate film. By optimizing the electrophoretic time (800s) and voltage (-0.5V), the mesh-like porous tungsten oxide hydrate film achieved a wide optical modulation of 32% at 632nm, fast coloration and bleaching response speed of 7.8 s and 1.7s respectively due to the synergetic effect of the unique atomic structure of [WO 2 (O 2 )H 2 O]·1.66H 2 O and porous structure with large surface area that facilitates the ion insertion/extraction. Thus the tungsten oxide hydrate can be a promising electrochromic material for practical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrical properties of zinc-oxide-based thin-film transistors using strontium-oxide-doped semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shao-Hang; Zhang, Nan; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Hong; Jiang, Da-Peng; Liu, Xing-Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Strontium-zinc-oxide (SrZnO) films forming the semiconductor layers of thin-film transistors (TFTs) are deposited by using ion-assisted electron beam evaporation. Using strontium-oxide-doped semiconductors, the off-state current can be dramatically reduced by three orders of magnitude. This dramatic improvement is attributed to the incorporation of strontium, which suppresses carrier generation, thereby improving the TFT. Additionally, the presence of strontium inhibits the formation of zinc oxide (ZnO) with the hexagonal wurtzite phase and permits the formation of an unusual phase of ZnO, thus significantly changing the surface morphology of ZnO and effectively reducing the trap density of the channel. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 6140031454) and the Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications.

  9. Role of manganese dioxide in the recovery of oxide-sulphide zinc ore.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Zhang, Libo; Zhu, Xingcai; Peng, Jinhui; Li, Shiwei; Ma, Aiyuan; Li, Haoyu; Zhu, Fei

    2018-02-05

    In this article, the role of MnO 2 in the recovery of oxide-sulphide zinc ore discussed. Through adopting various modern analysis techniques (such as X-ray diffraction pattern, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), the function and mechanism of MnO 2 during the phase transformation process is found out. Thermodynamic mechanisms involved in the phase transformation process with or without addition of manganese dioxide investigated by exploiting the Equilib module of FactSage. What's more, XRD patterns, XPS spectra and SEM-EDAX analyses of zinc calcines verify well the calculations of FactSage. Results reveal that the addition of MnO 2 will produce an aggregation of ZnMn 2 O 4 , a valuable energy material, while roasting on its own, results in generating undesirable Zn 2 SiO 4 , the oxidation degree being relatively low. Moreover, XRD pattern of zinc calcine and FT-IR spectrum of yellow product collected in the calcination process prove that the sulphur-fixing value of the additive MnO 2 , which can promote transforming to the elemental sulphur. The volatile S can be collected through a simple guiding device. In this process, the emission of SO 2 effectively avoids, thus MnO 2 deems as a potential additive in the recovery of oxide-sulphide zinc ore. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A zinc oxide nanorod ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    A zinc oxide nanorod ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip fabricated using the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process was investigated. The structure of the ammonia sensor is composed of a sensitive film and polysilicon electrodes. The ammonia sensor requires a post-process to etch the sacrificial layer, and to coat the sensitive film on the polysilicon electrodes. The sensitive film that is prepared by a hydrothermal method is made of zinc oxide. The sensor resistance changes when the sensitive film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. Experiments show that the ammonia sensor has a sensitivity of about 1.5 mV/ppm at room temperature.

  11. Characterization of zinc oxide thin film for pH detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Uda; Fathil, M. F. M.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Uda, M. N. A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the fabrication process of the zinc oxide thin films for using to act as pH detection by using different PH solution. Sol-gel solution technique is used for preparing zinc oxide seed solution, followed by metal oxide deposition process by using spin coater on the silicon dioxide. Silicon dioxide layer is grown on the silicon wafer, then, ZnO seed solution is deposited on the silicon layer, baked, and annealing process carried on to undergo the characterization of its surface morphology, structural and crystalline phase. Electrical characterization is showed by using PH 4, 7, and 10 is dropped on the surface of the die, in addition, APTES solution is used as linker and also as a references of the electrical characterization.

  12. Preparation of Graphene-Zinc Oxide Nanostructure Composite for Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchtar, Ahmad Rifqi; Septiani, Ni Luh Wulan; Iqbal, Muhammad; Nuruddin, Ahmad; Yuliarto, Brian

    2018-03-01

    A simple method to synthesize graphene-zinc oxide nanocomposite has been developed. A reduced graphene oxide-ZnO nanocomposite was prepared using a reflux method with ethylene glycol as medium. X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements were used to characterize the resulting composite materials. The highest response of about 98% was observed when using pure ZnO at 300°C, while the second highest sensor response of about 96% was achieved by graphene-ZnO with 1:3 composition. It was found that the graphene-zinc oxide hybrid has potential to improve sensor performance at low temperature. The graphene-ZnO hybrid with 1:3 composition showed good response of 36% at 125°C, an operating temperature at which pure ZnO showed no response.

  13. Preparation of Graphene-Zinc Oxide Nanostructure Composite for Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchtar, Ahmad Rifqi; Septiani, Ni Luh Wulan; Iqbal, Muhammad; Nuruddin, Ahmad; Yuliarto, Brian

    2018-07-01

    A simple method to synthesize graphene-zinc oxide nanocomposite has been developed. A reduced graphene oxide-ZnO nanocomposite was prepared using a reflux method with ethylene glycol as medium. X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements were used to characterize the resulting composite materials. The highest response of about 98% was observed when using pure ZnO at 300°C, while the second highest sensor response of about 96% was achieved by graphene-ZnO with 1:3 composition. It was found that the graphene-zinc oxide hybrid has potential to improve sensor performance at low temperature. The graphene-ZnO hybrid with 1:3 composition showed good response of 36% at 125°C, an operating temperature at which pure ZnO showed no response.

  14. Efficient inverted polymer solar cells based on conjugated polyelectrolyte and zinc oxide modified ITO electrode

    SciT

    Yuan, Tao; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Tu, Guoli, E-mail: tgl@hust.edu.cn

    Efficient inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) were constructed by utilizing a conjugated polyelectrolyte PF{sub EO}SO{sub 3}Na and zinc oxide to modify the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The ITO electrode modified by PF{sub EO}SO{sub 3}Na and zinc oxide possesses high transparency, increased electron mobility, smoothened surface, and lower work function. PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM inverted PSCs containing the modified ITO electrode achieved a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.49%, exceeding that of the control device containing a ZnO modified ITO electrode (7.48%). Especially, PCE-10:PC{sub 71}BM inverted polymer solar cells achieved a high PCE up to 9.4%. These results demonstrate a usefulmore » approach to improve the performance of inverted polymer solar cells.« less

  15. Germanium–Tin/Cadmium Sulfide Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Enhanced Near-Infrared Photoluminescence

    DOE PAGES

    Boote, Brett W.; Men, Long; Andaraarachchi, Himashi P.; ...

    2017-06-27

    Ge 1–xSn x alloy nanocrystals and Ge 1–xSn x/CdS core/shell nanocrystals were prepared via solution phase synthesis, and their size, composition, and optical properties were characterized. We found that the diameter of the nanocrystal samples ranged from 6 to 13 nm. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the Ge 1–xSn x materials was consistent with a cubic diamond phase, while the CdS shell was consistent with the zinc blende polytype. Inclusion of Sn alone does not result in enhanced photoluminescence intensity; however, adding an epitaxial CdS shell onto the Ge 1–xSn x nanocrystals does enhance the photoluminescence up to 15-fold versusmore » that of Ge/CdS nanocrystals with a pure Ge core. There is more effective passivation of surface defects, and a consequent decrease in the level of surface oxidation, by the CdS shell as a result of improved epitaxy (smaller lattice mismatch) is the most likely explanation for the increased photoluminescence observed for the Ge 1–xSn x/CdS materials. With enhanced photoluminescence in the near-infrared region, Ge 1–xSn x core/shell nanocrystals might be useful alternatives to other materials for energy capture and conversion applications and as imaging probes.« less

  16. Evaluation of growth and biochemical indicators of Salvinia natans exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc accumulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changwei; Liu, Xu; Li, Xiuling; Zhao, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) with an average diameter of 25 nm on the aquatic plant Salvinia natans (L.) All. were determined. Growth, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, peroxidase activity, and chlorophyll content of the plants were measured after 7 days of exposure to different concentrations of ZnO NPs (1 to 50 mg L(-1)). The particle distribution in the culture medium (without plants) during the first 24 h was determined using a Nanotrac 250 particle analyzer. We also investigated the zinc accumulation in leaves and roots of the plant after 7 days of exposure. Exposure to 50 mg L(-1) ZnO NPs significantly increased SOD and CAT activities (P < 0.05) and significantly depressed photosynthetic pigments (P < 0.05). However, plant growth was not significantly affected (P > 0.05). NPs completely precipitated at the bottom of the container at 8 h except for the portions of dissolution and aggregation on the roots. ZnO NPs at a concentration of 50 mg L(-1) can adversely affect S. natans, and their stress is affected by their aggregation and dissolution.

  17. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szikszai, Z.; Kertész, Zs.; Bodnár, E.; Major, I.; Borbíró, I.; Kiss, Á. Z.; Hunyadi, J.

    2010-06-01

    Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the small particle size makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. In the present work the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin was investigated using nuclear microprobe techniques, such as proton induced X-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission ion microscopy. Our results indicate that the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide, in a hydrophobic basis gel with 48 h application time, is limited to the stratum corneum layer of the intact skin. Removing the stratum corneum partially or entirely by tape-stripping did not cause the penetration of the particles into the deeper dermal layers; the zinc particles remained on the surface of the skin.

  18. Nickel oxide decorated zinc oxide composite nanorods: Excellent catalyst for photoreduction of hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Singh, Simranjeet; Ahmed, Imtiaz; Haldar, Krishna Kanta

    2018-08-01

    In light of the growing interest and ability to search for new materials, we have synthesized Nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles decorated Zinc (ZnO) nanorods composite (NiO/ZnO) nanostructure. The NiO/ZnO heterostructure formation was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The fabricated environmental friendly NiO/ZnO composite nanostructure shows a well-defined photoreduction characteristic of hexavalent Chromium (Cr) (VI) to tri-valent Chromium (Cr) (III) under UV-light. Such an enhanced photoreduction property is attributed due to the decreased electron-hole recombination process which was proved by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, photocurrent study, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity rate of the NiO decorated ZnO nanorods was much higher than that of bare ZnO nanorods for the reduction of chromium (VI) and the rate is found to be 0.306 min -1 . These results have demonstrates that suitable surface engineering may open up new opportunities in the development of high-performance photocatalyst. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nitric oxide interferes with islet cell zinc homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tartler, U; Kröncke, K D; Meyer, K L; Suschek, C V; Kolb-Bachofen, V

    2000-12-01

    Zinc is crucial for the biosynthesis, storage, and secretion of insulin in pancreatic islet cells. We have previously presented evidence that NO interferes with cellular Zn(2+) homeostasis and we therefore investigated the influence of chronic NO exposure on the labile islet cell Zn(2+) content. A strong fluorescence activity in a large islet cell subpopulation was found after staining with the Zn(2+)-specific fluorophore Zinquin. Culture for 24 h in the presence of nontoxic concentrations of the slow-releasing NO donor DETA/NO resulted in a significantly reduced Zn(2+)-dependent fluorescence. This appears to be islet specific as in endothelial cells DETA/NO exposure enhanced the Zn(2+)-dependent fluorescence activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that NO interferes with cellular Zn(2+) homeostasis, which in islet cells is crucial for proper hormone delivery and thus special cell function. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    SciT

    Kumar, Vinod; Sonia,; Suman,

    La doped ZnO (Zn{sub 1-x}La{sub x}O, x = 0, 3, 6 and 9) were prepared via chemical co-precipitation method using Zinc Acetate, Lanthanum Acetate and Sodium Hydroxide at 50°C. Hydrate nanoparticles were annealed in air at 300°C for 3 hours. The synthesized samples have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and UV–Visible spectrophotometer. The XRD measurement revealsthat the prepared nanoparticles have different microstructure without changing a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The result shows the change in nanoparticles size with the increment of lanthanum concentration for lower concentration for x = 0 to 6 and decreases at x = 9.

  1. The synthesis, characterization and application of iron oxide nanocrystals in magnetic separations for arsenic and uranium removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, John Thomas

    Arsenic and uranium in the environment are hazardous to human health and require better methods for detection and remediation. Nanocrystalline iron oxides offer a number of advantages as sorbents for water purification and environmental remediation. First, highly uniform and crystalline iron oxide nanocrystals (nMAG) were prepared using thermal decomposition of iron salts in organic solutions; for the applications of interest in this thesis, a central challenge was the adaptation of these conventional synthetic methods to the needs of low infrastructure and economically disadvantaged settings. We show here that it is possible to form highly uniform and magnetically responsive nanomaterials using starting reagents and equipment that are readily available and economical. The products of this approach, termed the 'Kitchen Synthesis', are of comparable quality and effectiveness to laboratory materials. The narrow size distributions of the iron oxides produced in the laboratory synthesis made it possible to study the size-dependence of the magnetic separation efficiency of nanocrystals; generally as the diameter of particles increased they could be removed under lower applied magnetic fields. In this work we take advantage of this size-dependence to use magnetic separation as a tool to separate broadly distributed populations of magnetic materials. Such work makes it possible to use these materials in multiplexed separation and sensing schemes. With the synthesis and magnetic separation studies of these materials completed, it was possible to optimize their applications in water purification and environmental remediation. These materials removed both uranium and arsenic from contaminated samples, and had remarkably high sorption capacities --- up to 12 wt% for arsenic and 30 wt% for uranium. The contaminated nMAG is removed from the drinking water by either retention in a sand column, filter, or by magnetic separation. The uranium adsorption process was also utilized

  2. Effect of Zinc Oxide Film Deposition Position on the Characteristics of Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistors Fabricated by Low-Temperature Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takechi, Kazushige; Nakata, Mitsuru; Eguchi, Toshimasa; Otsuki, Shigeyoshi; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Kaneko, Setsuo

    2008-09-01

    We report on the effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) film deposition position on the characteristics of ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by magnetron sputtering with no intentional heating of the substrate. We evaluate the properties of ZnO (channel semiconductor) films deposited at various positions with respect to the target position. We show that the film deposition at a position off-centered from the target results in good TFT characteristics. This might be due to the fact that the off-centered deposition position is effective for suppressing the effect of energetic negative ions in the plasma.

  3. Paramagnetic dysprosium-doped zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed-laser deposition

    SciT

    Lo, Fang-Yuh, E-mail: fangyuhlo@ntnu.edu.tw; Ting, Yi-Chieh; Chou, Kai-Chieh

    2015-06-07

    Dysprosium(Dy)-doped zinc oxide (Dy:ZnO) thin films were fabricated on c-oriented sapphire substrate by pulsed-laser deposition with doping concentration ranging from 1 to 10 at. %. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman-scattering, optical transmission spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry revealed incorporation of Dy into ZnO host matrix without secondary phase. Solubility limit of Dy in ZnO under our deposition condition was between 5 and 10 at. % according to XRD and Raman-scattering characteristics. Optical transmission spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry also showed increase in both transmittance in ultraviolet regime and band gap of Dy:ZnO with increasing Dy density. Zinc vacancies and zinc interstitials were identified by photoluminescencemore » spectroscopy as the defects accompanied with Dy incorporation. Magnetic investigations with a superconducting quantum interference device showed paramagnetism without long-range order for all Dy:ZnO thin films, and a hint of antiferromagnetic alignment of Dy impurities was observed at highest doping concentration—indicating the overall contribution of zinc vacancies and zinc interstitials to magnetic interaction was either neutral or toward antiferromagnetic. From our investigations, Dy:ZnO thin films could be useful for spin alignment and magneto-optical applications.« less

  4. Evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, and changes in the expression of apoptosis regulatory proteins induced by cerium oxide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shahanavaj; Ansari, Anees A.; Rolfo, Christian; Coelho, Andreia; Abdulla, Maha; Al-Khayal, Khayal; Ahmad, Rehan

    2017-12-01

    Cerium oxide nanocrystals (CeO2-NCs) exhibit superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic activities. Based on these catalytic activities, CeO2-NCs have been suggested to have the potential to treat various diseases. The crystalline size of these materials is an important factor that influences the performance of CeO2-NCs. Previous reports have shown that several metal-based nanocrystals, including CeO2-NCs, can induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms have remained unclear. To characterize the anticancer activities of CeO2-NCs, several assays related to the mechanism of cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis has been performed. Here, we have carried out a systematic study to characterize CeO2-NCs phase purity (X-ray diffraction), morphology (electron microscopy), and optical features (optical absorption, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence) to better establish their potential as anticancer drugs. Our study revealed anticancer effects of CeO2-NCs in HT29 and SW620 colorectal cancer cell lines with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 2.26 and 121.18 μg ml-1, respectively. Reductions in cell viability indicated the cytotoxic potential of CeO2-NCs in HT29 cells based on inverted and florescence microscopy assessments. The mechanism of cytotoxicity confirmed by estimating possible changes in the expression levels of Bcl2, BclxL, Bax, PARP, cytochrome c, and β-actin (control) proteins in HT29 cells. Down-regulation of Bcl2 and BclxL and up-regulation of Bax, PARP, and cytochrome c proteins suggested the significant involvement of CeO2-NCs exposure in the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, biocompatibility assay showed minimum effect of CeO2-NCs on human red blood cells.

  5. Enhanced photo-catalytic activity of ordered mesoporous indium oxide nanocrystals in the conversion of CO2 into methanol.

    PubMed

    Gondal, M A; Dastageer, M A; Oloore, L E; Baig, U; Rashid, S G

    2017-07-03

    Ordered mesoporous indium oxide nanocrystal (m-In 2 O 3 ) was synthesized by nanocasting technique, in which highly ordered mesoporous silca (SBA-15) was used as structural matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halanda (BJH) studies were carried out on m-In 2 O 3 and the results revealed that this material has a highly ordered mesoporous surface with reduced grain size, increased surface area and surface volume compared to the non porous indium oxide. The diffuse reluctance spectrum exhibited substantially improved light absorption efficiency in m-In 2 O 3 compared to normal indium oxide, however, no considerable change in the band gap energies of these materials was observed. When m-In 2 O 3 was used as a photo-catalyst in the photo-catalytic process of converting carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into methanol under the pulsed laser radiation of 266-nm wavelengths, an enhanced photo-catalytic activity with the quantum efficiency of 4.5% and conversion efficiency of 46.3% were observed. It was found that the methanol production yield in this chemical process is as high as 485 µlg -1 h -1 after 150 min of irradiation, which is substantially higher than the yields reported in the literature. It is quite clear from the results that the introduction of mesoporosity in indium oxide, and the consequent enhancement of positive attributes required for a photo-catalyst, transformed photo-catalytically weak indium oxide into an effective photo-catalyst for the conversion of CO 2 into methanol.

  6. Simple biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using nature's source, and it's in vitro bio-activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Elham; Pourseyedi, Shahram; Khatami, Mehrdad; Darezereshki, Esmaeel

    2017-10-01

    Nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity, especially as a new class of biomedical materials for use in increasing the level of public health in daily life have emerged. In this study, green synthesis of zinc oxide) ZnO(nanoparticles was studied by Cuminum cyminum (cumin) as novel natural source and zinc nitrate [Zn(NO3)2] as Zn2+ source. The results showed that parameters such as concentration, time, temperature and pH have a direct impact on the synthesis of zinc nanoparticles and change in any of the factors causing the change in the process of synthesis. The properties of synthesized nanoparticles were examined by UV-visible Spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The UV-visible spectroscopy presented the absorption peak in the range of 370 nm. Transmission electron microscopy images of synthesized nanoparticles are mainly spherical or oval with an average size of about 7 nm. The effect of antimicrobial nanoparticles calculated using disk diffusion method and broth MIC and MBC in different strains of bacteria, which showed that gram positive and negative were sensitive to zinc oxide nanoparticles. The sensitivity of gram-negative bacteria was more.

  7. Multifunctional superparamagnetic nanocrystals for imaging and targeted drug delivery to the lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijo, Leisha M.; Brandt, Yekaterina I.; Withers, Nathan J.; Plumley, John B.; Cook, Nathaniel C.; Rivera, Antonio C.; Yadav, Surabhi; Smolyakov, Gennady A.; Monson, Todd; Huber, Dale L.; Smyth, Hugh D. C.; Osiński, Marek

    2012-03-01

    Iron oxide colloidal nanocrystals (ferrofluids) are investigated for application in the treatment of cystic fibrosis lung infections, the leading cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. We investigate the use of iron oxide nanocrystals to increase the effectiveness of inhalation aerosol antibiotics therapy through two mechanisms: directed particle movement in the presence of a static external magnetic field and magnetic hyperthermia. Magnetic hyperthermia is an effective method for decreasing the viscosity of the mucus and biofilm thereby increasing drug, immune cell, and antibody penetration to the affected area. Iron oxide nanocrystals of various sizes and morphologies were synthesized and tested for specific losses (heating power) using frequencies of 111.1 kHz and 629.2 kHz, and corresponding magnetic field strengths of 9 and 25 mT. Nanocrystals in the superparamagnetic to ferromagnetic size range exhibited excellent heating power. Additionally, iron oxide-zinc selenide core-shell nanoparticles were prepared in parallel in order to allow imaging of the iron oxide nanoparticles.

  8. Room-temperature processed films of colloidal carved rod-shaped nanocrystals of reduced tungsten oxide as interlayers for perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Masi, Sofia; Mastria, Rosanna; Scarfiello, Riccardo; Carallo, Sonia; Nobile, Concetta; Gambino, Salvatore; Sibillano, Teresa; Giannini, Cinzia; Colella, Silvia; Listorti, Andrea; Cozzoli, P Davide; Rizzo, Aurora

    2018-04-25

    Thanks to their high stability, good optoelectronic and extraordinary electrochromic properties, tungsten oxides are among the most valuable yet underexploited materials for energy conversion applications. Herein, colloidal one-dimensional carved nanocrystals of reduced tungsten trioxide (WO3-x) are successfully integrated, for the first time, as a hole-transporting layer (HTL) into CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells with a planar inverted device architecture. Importantly, the use of such preformed nanocrystals guarantees the facile solution-cast-only deposition of a homogeneous WO3-x thin film at room temperature, allowing achievement of the highest power conversion efficiency ever reported for perovskite solar cells incorporating raw and un-doped tungsten oxide based HTL.

  9. Synthesis of three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide layer supported cobalt nanocrystals and their high catalytic activity in F-T CO2 hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fei; Niu, Na; Qu, Fengyu; Wei, Shuquan; Chen, Yujin; Gai, Shili; Gao, Peng; Wang, Yan; Yang, Piaoping

    2013-08-01

    The reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported cobalt nanocrystals have been synthesized through an in situ crystal growth method using Co(acac)2 under solvothermal conditions by using DMF as the solvent. By carefully controlling the reaction temperature, the phase transition of the cobalt nanocrystals from the cubic phase to the hexagonal phase has been achieved. Moreover, the microscopic structure and morphology as well as the reduction process of the composite have been investigated in detail. It is found that oxygen-containing functional groups on the graphene oxide (GO) can greatly influence the formation process of the Co nanocrystals by binding the Co2+ cations dissociated from the Co(acac)2 in the initial reaction solution at 220 °C, leading to the 3D reticular structure of the composite. Furthermore, this is the first attempt to use a Co/rGO composite as the catalyst in the F-T CO2 hydrogenation process. The catalysis testing results reveal that the as-synthesized 3D structured composite exhibits ideal catalytic activity and good stability, which may greatly extend the scope of applications for this kind of graphene-based metal hybrid material.The reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported cobalt nanocrystals have been synthesized through an in situ crystal growth method using Co(acac)2 under solvothermal conditions by using DMF as the solvent. By carefully controlling the reaction temperature, the phase transition of the cobalt nanocrystals from the cubic phase to the hexagonal phase has been achieved. Moreover, the microscopic structure and morphology as well as the reduction process of the composite have been investigated in detail. It is found that oxygen-containing functional groups on the graphene oxide (GO) can greatly influence the formation process of the Co nanocrystals by binding the Co2+ cations dissociated from the Co(acac)2 in the initial reaction solution at 220 °C, leading to the 3D reticular structure of the composite. Furthermore, this is the

  10. Electrochemistry of the Zinc-Silver Oxide System. Part 2: Practical Measurements of Energy Conversion Using Commercial Miniature Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.; Vincent, Colin A.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes the quantitative relationships pertaining to the operation of electrochemical cells. Energy conversion efficiency, cycle efficiency, battery power, and energy/power density of two types of zinc-silver oxide cells are discussed. (YP)

  11. A New Member of Electrocatalysts Based on Nickel Metaphosphate Nanocrystals for Efficient Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianwen; Sun, Yinghui; Zhang, Yadong; Zou, Guifu; Yan, Chaoyi; Cong, Shan; Lei, Tianyu; Dai, Xiao; Guo, Jun; Lu, Ruifeng; Li, Yanrong; Xiong, Jie

    2018-02-01

    High-performance electrocatalysts are desired for electrochemical energy conversion, especially in the field of water splitting. Here, a new member of phosphate electrocatalysts, nickel metaphosphate (Ni 2 P 4 O 12 ) nanocrystals, is reported, exhibiting low overpotential of 270 mV to generate the current density of 10 mA cm -2 and a superior catalytic durability of 100 h. It is worth noting that Ni 2 P 4 O 12 electrocatalyst has remarkable oxygen evolution performance operating in basic media. Further experimental and theoretical analyses demonstrate that N dopant boosts the catalytic performance of Ni 2 P 4 O 12 due to optimizing the surface electronic structure for better charge transfer and decreasing the adsorption energy for the oxygenic intermediates. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Improved oxidation resistance of organic/inorganic composite atomic layer deposition coated cellulose nanocrystal aerogels

    SciT

    Smith, Sean W.; Matthews, David J.; Conley, John F., E-mail: jconley@eecs.oregonstate.edu

    2014-07-01

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) aerogels are coated with thin conformal layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using atomic layer deposition to form hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposites. Electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} penetrated more than 1500 μm into the aerogel for extended precursor pulse and exposure/purge times. The measured profile of coated fiber radius versus depth from the aerogel surface agrees well with simulations of precursor penetration depth in modeled aerogel structures. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated CNC aerogel nanocomposites do not show significant thermal degradation below 295 °C as compared with 175 °C for uncoatedmore » CNC aerogels, an improvement of over 100 °C.« less

  13. Zinc oxide nanoparticles decrease the expression and activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dadong; Bi, Hongsheng; Wang, Daoguang; Wu, Qiuxin

    2013-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticle is one of the most important materials with diverse applications. However, it has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to organisms, and that oxidative stress is often hypothesized to be an important factor in cytotoxicity mediated by zinc oxide nanoparticles. Nevertheless, the mechanism of toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles has not been completely understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles and the possible molecular mechanism involved in calcium homeostasis mediated by plasma membrane calcium ATPase in rat retinal ganglion cells. Real-time cell electronic sensing assay showed that zinc oxide nanoparticles could exert cytotoxic effect on rat retinal ganglion cells in a concentration-dependent manner; flow cytometric analysis indicated that zinc oxide nanoparticles could lead to cell damage by inducing the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, zinc oxide nanoparticles could also apparently decrease the expression level and their activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, which finally disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis and result in cell death. Taken together, zinc oxide nanoparticles could apparently decrease the plasma membrane calcium ATPase expression, inhibit their activity, cause the elevated intracellular calcium ion level and disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis. Further, the disrupted calcium homeostasis will trigger mitochondrial dysfunction, generate excessive reactive oxygen species, and finally initiate cell death. Thus, the disrupted calcium homeostasis is involved in the zinc oxide nanoparticle-induced rat retinal ganglion cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Removal of Fluorides and Chlorides from Zinc Oxide Fumes by Microwave Sulfating Roasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Libo; Chen, Guo; Peng, Jinhui; Zhou, Liexing; Yin, Shaohua; Liu, Chenhui

    2015-10-01

    Dechlorination and defluorination from zinc oxide dust by microwave sulfating roasting was investigated in this study. According to proposed reactions in the process, detailed experiments were systematically conducted to study the effect of roasting temperature, holding time, air and steam flow rates on the efficiency of the removal of F and Cl. The results show that 92.3% of F and 90.5% of Cl in the fume could be purified when the condition of the roasting temperature of 650 °C, holding time at 60 min, air flow of 300 L/h and steam flow of 8 ml/min was optimized. Our investigation indicates that microwave sulfating roasting could be a promising new way for the dechlorination and defluorination from zinc oxide dust.

  15. Sonochemically synthesized iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles: Influence of precursor composition on characteristics

    SciT

    Roy, Anirban; Maitra, Saikat; Ghosh, Sobhan

    Highlights: • Sonochemical synthesis of iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. • Green synthesis without alkali at room temperature. • Characterization by UV–vis spectroscopy, FESEM, XRD and EDX. • Influence of precursor composition on characteristics. • Composition and characteristics are correlated. - Abstract: Iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized sonochemically from aqueous acetyl acetonate precursors of different proportions. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and microscopy. Influences of precursor mixture on the characteristics have been examined and modeled. Linear correlations have been proposed between dopant dosing, extent of doping and band gap energy. Experimental data corroborated with themore » proposed models.« less

  16. Synthesis and dielectric properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles using a biotemplate

    SciT

    P, Sharmila P, E-mail: sharmilavishram@gmail.com; Tharayil, Nisha J., E-mail: nishajohntharayil@gmail.com

    Zinc Oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using DNA as capping agent. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using DNA as a capping agent. Structural and morphological characterizations are done using SEM, FTIR and XRD. The particle size and lattice parameters are calculated from the diffraction data. The optical properties are studied using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and bandgap variation with temperature is determined. The dielectric property of nanoparticles is studied by varying temperature and frequency. The dielectric constant and dispersion parameters are found out. Method of Cole-Cole analysis is used to study the high temperature dispersion of relaxation time. The variation of bothmore » AC and DC conductivity are studied and activation energy calculated.« less

  17. High Mobility Thin Film Transistors Based on Amorphous Indium Zinc Tin Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Noviyana, Imas; Lestari, Annisa Dwi; Putri, Maryane; Won, Mi-Sook; Bae, Jong-Seong; Heo, Young-Woo; Lee, Hee Young

    2017-01-01

    Top-contact bottom-gate thin film transistors (TFTs) with zinc-rich indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO) active layer were prepared at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Sintered ceramic target was prepared and used for deposition from oxide powder mixture having the molar ratio of In2O3:ZnO:SnO2 = 2:5:1. Annealing treatment was carried out for as-deposited films at various temperatures to investigate its effect on TFT performances. It was found that annealing treatment at 350 °C for 30 min in air atmosphere yielded the best result, with the high field effect mobility value of 34 cm2/Vs and the minimum subthreshold swing value of 0.12 V/dec. All IZTO thin films were amorphous, even after annealing treatment of up to 350 °C. PMID:28773058

  18. Subtractive Plasma-Assisted-Etch Process for Developing High Performance Nanocrystalline Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film-Transistors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    THIN - FILM - TRANSISTORS THESIS Thomas M. Donigan, First Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-027 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR...DEVELOPING HIGH PERFORMANCE NANOCRYSTALLINE ZINC-OXIDE THIN - FILM - TRANSISTORS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and...15-M-027 SUBTRACTIVE PLASMA-ASSISTED-ETCH PROCESS FOR DEVELOPING HIGH PERFORMANCE NANOCRYSTALLINE ZINC-OXIDE THIN - FILM - TRANSISTORS

  19. Mechanistic study on antibacterial action of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using green route.

    PubMed

    Happy Agarwal; Soumya Menon; Venkat Kumar, S; Rajeshkumar, S

    2018-04-25

    A large array of diseases caused by bacterial pathogens and origination of multidrug resistance in their gene provokes the need of developing new vectors or novel drug molecules for effective drug delivery and thus, better treatment of disease. The nanoparticle has emerged as a novel drug molecule in last decade and has been used in various industrial fields like cosmetics, healthcare, agricultural, pharmaceuticals due to their high optical, electronic, medicinal properties. Use of nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent remain in current studies with metal nanoparticles like silver, gold, copper, iron and metal oxide nanoparticles like zinc oxide, copper oxide, titanium oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles. The high anti-bacterial activity of nanoparticles is due to their large surface area to volume ratio which allows binding of a large number of ligands on nanoparticle surface and hence, its complexation with receptors present on the bacterial surface. Green synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle (ZnO NP) and its anti-bacterial application has been particularly discussed in the review literature. The present study highlights differential nanoparticle attachment to gram + and gram - bacterial surface and different mechanism adopted by nanoparticle for bacterial control. Pharmacokinetics and applications of ZnO NP are also discussed briefly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bio-inspired band gap engineering of zinc oxide by intracrystalline incorporation of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Brif, Anastasia; Ankonina, Guy; Drathen, Christina; Pokroy, Boaz

    2014-01-22

    Bandgap engineering of zinc oxide semiconductors can be achieved using a bio-inspired method. During a bioInspired crystallization process, incorporation of amino acids into the crystal structure of ZnO induces lattice strain that leads to linear bandgap shifts. This allows for fine tuning of the bandgap in a bio-inspired route. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Effect of doping with nickel ions on the structural state of a zinc oxide crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, S. F.; Sokolov, V. I.; Parkhomenko, V. D.; Maksimov, V. I.; Gruzdev, N. B.

    2009-10-01

    The fine structure of a hexagonal zinc oxide crystal doped with nickel ions of the composition Zn1 - x Ni x O has been studied using neutron diffraction and magnetic measurements. It is established that even at very low doping levels ( x = 0.0004), the crystal undergoes local distortions in basal planes of the initial hexagonal lattice. The local distortions are assumed to be sources of the formation of ferromagnetism in compounds of this class.

  2. Weatherability and leach resistance of wood impregnated with nano-zinc oxide

    Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green; S. Nami Kartal

    2010-01-01

    Southern pine specimens vacuum-treated with nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) dispersions were evaluated for leach resistance and UV protection. Virtually, no leaching occurred in any of the nano-ZnO–treated specimens in a laboratory leach test, even at the highest retention of 13 kg/m3. However, specimens treated with high concentrations of nano-ZnO...

  3. Evaluation of the optical axis tilt of zinc oxide films via noncollinear second harmonic generation

    SciT

    Bovino, F. A.; Larciprete, M. C.; Belardini, A.

    2009-06-22

    We investigated noncollinear second harmonic generation form zinc oxide films, grown on glass substrates by dual ion beam sputtering technique. At a fixed incidence angle, the generated signal is investigated by scanning the polarization state of both fundamental beams. We show that the map of the generated signal as a function of polarization states of both pump beams, together with the analytical curves, allows to retrieve the orientation of the optical axis and eventually, its angular tilt, with respect to the surface normal.

  4. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on dielectric behavior of nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit; Kumar, Pankaj; Malik, Praveen

    2018-05-01

    In this work, phase transition and dielectric behavior of nematic liquid crystal (NLC), E7 and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) doped nematic liquid crystals are investigated. Effect of nano-particles dispersion is analyzed and compared with the dielectric behavior of E7 and E7-ZnO. Frequency dependent dielectric permittivity at various temperatures in nematic phase for E7 and E7-ZnO sample is also studied.

  5. Fully transparent thin film transistors based on zinc oxide channel layer and molybdenum doped indium oxide electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MÄ dzik, Mateusz; Elamurugu, Elangovan; Viegas, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report the fabrication of thin film transistors (TFT) with zinc oxide channel and molybdenum doped indium oxide (IMO) electrodes, achieved by room temperature sputtering. A set of devices was fabricated, with varying channel width and length from 5μm to 300μm. Output and transfer characteristics were then extracted to study the performance of thin film transistors, namely threshold voltage and saturation current, enabling to determine optimal fabrication process parameters. Optical transmission in the UV-VIS-IR are also reported.

  6. Hybrid structure of biotemplate-zinc-tin oxide for better optical, morphological and photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpuraranjith, M.; Thambidurai, S.

    2017-03-01

    A new chitosan (as biotemplate)-zinc-tin oxide hybrid structure was successfully synthesized by a chemical precipitation method and annealed at 500 °C. We studied the structural changes, optical, thermal and photo catalytic properties. The chemical bonding of the Zn-O and Sn-O-Sn functional groups were confirmed by FT-IR absorption peaks appearing at 538 and 635 cm-1. The different ratio of ZnO to SnO2 particles on the biotemplate matrix altered the morphology of the hybrids from an agglomerated state to a microcrystalline form confirmed by HR-SEM and TEM analysis. The formation of a Zn0.15Sn0.85O hybrid structure was observed in the visible light region, with an energy band gap of ˜3.19 eV and higher surface area of 98 m2 g-1. The thermal property shows that CS-Zn0.15Sn0.85O has a higher thermal stability than a CS-Zn0.25Sn0.75O hybrid structure. The results demonstrate that the biotemplate-zinc-tin oxide hybrid structure has a reinforced effect compared to the other components. Therefore, a biotemplate-based zinc-tin oxide hybrid structure could be a promising material for better dye removal efficiency, which was obtained for ˜100 and 96% with MB and RY-15 dyes.

  7. New CVD-based method for the growth of high-quality crystalline zinc oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Florian; Madel, Manfred; Reiser, Anton; Bauer, Sebastian; Thonke, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    High-quality zinc oxide (ZnO) layers were grown using a new chemical vapour deposition (CVD)-based low-cost growth method. The process is characterized by total simplicity, high growth rates, and cheap, less hazardous precursors. To produce elementary zinc vapour, methane (CH4) is used to reduce a ZnO powder. By re-oxidizing the zinc with pure oxygen, highly crystalline ZnO layers were grown on gallium nitride (GaN) layers and on sapphire substrates with an aluminum nitride (AlN) nucleation layer. Using simple CH4 as precursor has the big advantage of good controllability and the avoidance of highly toxic gases like nitrogen oxides. In photoluminescence (PL) measurements the samples show a strong near-band-edge emission and a sharp line width at 5 K. The good crystal quality has been confirmed in high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. This new growth method has great potential for industrial large-scale production of high-quality single crystal ZnO layers.

  8. Weatherability and Leach Resistance of Wood Impregnated with Nano-Zinc Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Carol A.; Green, Frederick; Nami Kartal, S.

    2010-09-01

    Southern pine specimens vacuum-treated with nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) dispersions were evaluated for leach resistance and UV protection. Virtually, no leaching occurred in any of the nano-ZnO-treated specimens in a laboratory leach test, even at the highest retention of 13 kg/m3. However, specimens treated with high concentrations of nano-ZnO showed 58-65% chemical depletion after 12 months of outdoor exposure. Protection from UV damage after 12 months exposure is visibly obvious on both exposed and unexposed surfaces compared to untreated controls. Graying was markedly diminished, although checking occurred in all specimens. Nano-zinc oxide treatment at a concentration of 2.5% or greater provided substantial resistance to water absorption following 12 months of outdoor exposure compared to untreated and unweathered southern pine. We conclude that nano-zinc oxide can be utilized in new wood preservative formulations to impart resistance to leaching, water absorption and UV damage of wood.

  9. Zinc oxide nanocolloids prepared by picosecond pulsed laser ablation in water at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, Luisa; Spadaro, Salvatore; Bonsignore, Martina; Santangelo, Saveria; Compagnini, Giuseppe; Neri, Fortunato; Fazio, Enza

    2018-01-01

    Zinc oxide with wide direct band gap and high exciton binding energy is one of the most promising materials for ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting devices. It further exhibits good performance in the degradation of non-biodegradable pollutants under UV irradiation. In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc oxide/gold (ZnO/Au) nanocolloids are prepared by picosecond pulsed laser ablation (ps-PLA), using a Zn and Au metallic targets in water media at room temperature (RT) and 80°C. ZnO and Au nanoparticles (NPs) with size in the 10-50 nm range are obtained at RT, while ZnO nanorods (NRs) are formed when water is maintained at 80°C during the ps-PLA process. Au NPs, added to ZnO colloids after the ablation process, decorate ZnO NRs. The crystalline phase of all ZnO nanocolloids is wurtzite. Methylene blue dye is used to investigate the photo-catalytic activity of all the synthesised nanocolloids, under UV light irradiation.

  10. Gaseous species as reaction tracers in the solvothermal synthesis of the zinc oxide terephthalate MOF-5.

    PubMed

    Hausdorf, Steffen; Baitalow, Felix; Seidel, Jürgen; Mertens, Florian O R L

    2007-05-24

    Gaseous species emitted during the zinc oxide/zinc hydroxide 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate metal organic framework synthesis (MOF-5, MOF-69c) have been used to investigate the reaction scheme that leads to the framework creation. Changes of the gas-phase composition over time indicate that the decomposition of the solvent diethylformamide occurs at least via two competing reaction pathways that can be linked to the reaction's overall water and pH management. From isotope exchange experiments, we deduce that one of the decomposition pathways leads to the removal of water from the reaction mixture, which sets the conditions when the synthesis of an oxide-based (MOF-5) instead of an hydroxide-based MOF (MOF-69c) occurs. A quantitative account of most reactants and byproducts before and after the MOF-5/MOF-69c synthesis is presented. From the investigation of the reaction intermediates and byproducts, we derive a proposal of a basic reaction scheme for the standard synthesis zinc oxide carboxylate MOFs.

  11. Optimization of the Solution-Based Indium-Zinc Oxide/Zinc-Tin Oxide Channel Layer for Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kiwon; Choi, Pyungho; Kim, Sangsub; Kim, Hyunki; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Jeonghyun; Hyeon, Younghwan; Koo, Kwangjun; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2018-09-01

    Double stacked indium-zinc oxide (IZO)/zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) active layers were employed in amorphous-oxide-semiconductor thin-film transistors (AOS TFTs). Channel layers of the TFTs were optimized by varying the molarity of ZTO back channel layers (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 M) and the electrical properties of IZO/ZTO double stacked TFTs were compared to single IZO and ZTO TFTs with varying the molarity and molar ratio. On the basis of the results, IZO/ZTO (0.1 M) TFTs showed the excellent electrical properties of saturation mobility (13.6 cm2/V·s), on-off ratio (7×106), and subthreshold swing (0.223 V/decade) compared to ZTO (0.1 M) of 0.73 cm2/V · s, 1 × 107, 0.416 V/decade and IZO (0.04 M) of 0.10 cm2/V · s, 5 × 106, 0.60 V/decade, respectively. This may be attributed to diffusing Sn into front layer during annealing process. In addition, with varying molarity of ZTO back channel layer, from 0.1 M to 0.3 M ZTO back channel TFTs, electrical properties and positive bias stability deteriorated with increasing molarity of back channel layer because of increasing total trap states. On the other hand, 0.05 M ZTO back channel TFT had inferior electrical properties than that of 0.1 M ZTO back channel TFT. It was related to back channel effect because of having thin thickness of channel layer. Among these devices, 0.1 M ZTO back channel TFT had a lowest total trap density, outstanding electrical properties and stability. Therefore, we recommended IZO/ZTO (0.1 M) TFT as a promising channel structure for advanced display applications.

  12. Toxicity to woodlice of zinc and lead oxides added to soil litter

    Beyer, W.N.; Anderson, A.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that high concentrations of metals in soil are associated with reductions in decomposer populations. We have here determined the relation between the concentrations of lead and zinc added as oxides to soil litter and the survival and reproduction of a decomposer population under controlled conditions. Laboratory populations of woodlice (Porcellio scaber Latr) were fed soil litter treated with lead or zinc at concentrations that ranged from 100 to 12,800 ppm. The survival of the adults, the maximum number of young alive, and the average number of young alive, were recorded over 64 weeks. Lead at 12,800 ppm and zinc at 1,600 ppm or more had statistically significant (p < 0.05) negative effects on the populations. These results agree with field observations suggesting that lead and zinc have reduced populations of decomposers in contaminated forest soil litter, and concentrations are similar to those reported to be associated with reductions in natural populations of decomposers. Poisoning of decomposers may disrupt nutrient cycling, reduce the numbers of invertebrates available to other wildlife for food, and contribute to the contamination of food chains.

  13. Atomic Layer Deposited Oxide-Based Nanocomposite Structures with Embedded CoPtx Nanocrystals for Resistive Random Access Memory Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai-Guo; Cao, Zheng-Yi; Qian, Xu; Zhu, Lin; Cui, Da-Peng; Li, Ai-Dong; Wu, Di

    2017-02-22

    Al 2 O 3 - or HfO 2 -based nanocomposite structures with embedded CoPt x nanocrystals (NCs) on TiN-coated Si substrates have been prepared by combination of thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma-enhanced ALD for resistive random access memory (RRAM) applications. The impact of CoPt x NCs and their average size/density on the resistive switching properties has been explored. Compared to the control sample without CoPt x NCs, ALD-derived Pt/oxide/100 cycle-CoPt x NCs/TiN/SiO 2 /Si exhibits a typical bipolar, reliable, and reproducible resistive switching behavior, such as sharp distribution of RRAM parameters, smaller set/reset voltages, stable resistance ratio (≥10 2 ) of OFF/ON states, better switching endurance up to 10 4 cycles, and longer data retention over 10 5 s. The possible resistive switching mechanism based on nanocomposite structures of oxide/CoPt x NCs has been proposed. The dominant conduction mechanisms in low- and high-resistance states of oxide-based device units with embedded CoPt x NCs are Ohmic behavior and space-charge-limited current, respectively. The insertion of CoPt x NCs can effectively improve the formation of conducting filaments due to the CoPt x NC-enhanced electric field intensity. Besides excellent resistive switching performances, the nanocomposite structures also simultaneously present ferromagnetic property. This work provides a flexible pathway by combining PEALD and TALD compatible with state-of-the-art Si-based technology for multifunctional electronic devices applications containing RRAM.

  14. Copper and Zinc Oxide Composite Nanostructures for Solar Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fei

    Solar energy is a clean and sustainable energy source to counter global environmental issues of rising atmospheric CO2 levels and depletion of natural resources. To extract useful work from solar energy, silicon-based photovoltaic devices are extensively used. The technological maturity and the high quality of silicon (Si) make it a material of choice. However limitations in Si exist, ranging from its indirect band gap to low light absorption coefficient and energy and capital intensive crystal growth schemes. Therefore, alternate materials that are earth-abundant, benign and simpler to process are needed for developing new platforms for solar energy harvesting applications. In this study, we explore oxides of copper (CuO and Cu2O) in a nanowire morphology as alternate energy harvesting materials. CuO has a bandgap of 1.2 eV whereas Cu2O has a bandgap of 2.1 eV making them ideally suited for absorbing solar radiation. First, we develop a method to synthesize vertical, single crystalline CuO and Cu2O nanowires of ~50 microm length and aspect ratios of ~200. CuO nanowire arrays are synthesized by thermal oxidation of Cu foils. Cu2O nanowire arrays are synthesized by thermal reduction of CuO nanowires. Next, surface engineering of these nanowires is achieved using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO. By depositing 1.4 nm of ZnO, a highly defective surface is produced on the CuO nanowires. These defects are capable of trapping charge as is evident through persistent photoconductivity measurements of ZnO coated CuO nanowires. The same nanowires serve as efficient photocatalysts reducing CO2 to CO with a yield of 1.98 mmol/g-cat/hr. Finally, to develop a robust platform for flexible solar cells, a protocol to transfer vertical CuO nanowires inside flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is demonstrated. Embedded CuO nanowires-ZnO pn junctions show a VOC of 0.4 V and a JSC of 10.4 microA/cm2 under white light illumination of 5.7 mW/cm2. Thus, this research provides broad

  15. Semipolar III-nitride laser diodes with zinc oxide cladding.

    PubMed

    Myzaferi, Anisa; Reading, Arthur H; Farrell, Robert M; Cohen, Daniel A; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P

    2017-07-24

    Incorporating transparent conducting oxide (TCO) top cladding layers into III-nitride laser diodes (LDs) improves device design by reducing the growth time and temperature of the p-type layers. We investigate using ZnO instead of ITO as the top cladding TCO of a semipolar (202¯1) III-nitride LD. Numerical modeling indicates that replacing ITO with ZnO reduces the internal loss in a TCO clad LD due to the lower optical absorption in ZnO. Lasing was achieved at 453 nm with a threshold current density of 8.6 kA/cm 2 and a threshold voltage of 10.3 V in a semipolar (202¯1) III-nitride LD with ZnO top cladding.

  16. Synthesis of three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide layer supported cobalt nanocrystals and their high catalytic activity in F-T CO2 hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Niu, Na; Qu, Fengyu; Wei, Shuquan; Chen, Yujin; Gai, Shili; Gao, Peng; Wang, Yan; Yang, Piaoping

    2013-09-21

    The reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported cobalt nanocrystals have been synthesized through an in situ crystal growth method using Co(acac)2 under solvothermal conditions by using DMF as the solvent. By carefully controlling the reaction temperature, the phase transition of the cobalt nanocrystals from the cubic phase to the hexagonal phase has been achieved. Moreover, the microscopic structure and morphology as well as the reduction process of the composite have been investigated in detail. It is found that oxygen-containing functional groups on the graphene oxide (GO) can greatly influence the formation process of the Co nanocrystals by binding the Co(2+) cations dissociated from the Co(acac)2 in the initial reaction solution at 220 °C, leading to the 3D reticular structure of the composite. Furthermore, this is the first attempt to use a Co/rGO composite as the catalyst in the F-T CO2 hydrogenation process. The catalysis testing results reveal that the as-synthesized 3D structured composite exhibits ideal catalytic activity and good stability, which may greatly extend the scope of applications for this kind of graphene-based metal hybrid material.

  17. Fabrication of polypyrrole-coated carbon nanotubes using oxidant-surfactant nanocrystals for supercapacitor electrodes with high mass loading and enhanced performance.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kaiyuan; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2013-12-26

    A conceptually new approach to the fabrication of polypyrrole (PPy)-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for application in electrodes of electrochemical supercapacitors (ES) is proposed. Cetrimonium persulfate (CTA)2S2O8 in the form of nanocrystals is used as an oxidant for the chemical polymerization of PPy. Ponceau S (PS) dye is investigated as a new anionic dopant. Testing results show that PS allows reduced PPy particle size and improved electrochemical performance, whereas (CTA)2S2O8 nanocrystals promote the formation of PPy nanofibers. We demonstrate for the first time that MWCNT can be efficiently dispersed using (CTA)2S2O8 nanocrystals. The analysis of the dispersion mechanism indicates that (CTA)2S2O8 dissociation is catalyzed by MWCNT. This new finding opens a new and promising strategy in MWCNT dispersion for colloidal processing of nanomaterials and electrophoretic nanotechnology. Uniformly coated MWCNT are obtained using (CTA)2S2O8 as a dispersant for MWCNT and oxidant for PPy polymerization and utilizing advantages of PS as an efficient dopant and nanostructure controlling agent. The analysis of the testing results provides an insight into the influence of PS molecular structure on PPy nanostructure and electrochemical properties. The PPy-coated MWCNT show superior electrochemical performance compared to PPy nanoparticles. The proof-of-principle is demonstrated by the fabrication of ES electrodes with excellent electrochemical performance at high active material loadings, good capacitance retention at high charge-discharge rates, and excellent cycling stability.

  18. MC3T3-E1 cell response of amorphous phase/TiO2 nanocrystal composite coating prepared by microarc oxidation on titanium.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Wei, Daqing; Yang, Haoyue; Feng, Wei; Cheng, Su; Li, Baoqiang; Wang, Yaming; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu

    2014-06-01

    Bioactive amorphous phase/TiO2 nanocrystal (APTN) composite coatings were fabricated by microarc oxidation (MAO) on Ti. The APTN coatings are composed of much amorphous phase with Si, Na, Ca, Ti and O elements and a few TiO2 nanocrystals. With increasing applied voltage, the micropore density of the APTN coating decreases and the micropore size of the APTN coating increases. The results indicate that less MC3T3-E1 cells attach on the APTN coatings as compared to Ti. However, the APTN coatings greatly enhance the cell proliferation ability and the activity of alkaline phosphatase. The amorphous phase and the concentrations of the released Ca and Si from the APTN coatings during cell culture have significant effects on the cell response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of size and surface of zinc oxide and aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles on cell viability inferred by proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Liu, Wen-Te; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Lin, I-Chan; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Ma, Chih-Ming; Lai, Ching-Huang; Chen, Mei-Chieh; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Although the health effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the respiratory system have been reported, the fate, potential toxicity, and mechanisms in biological cells of these particles, as related to particle size and surface characteristics, have not been well elucidated. To determine the physicochemical properties of ZnONPs that govern cytotoxicity, we investigated the effects of size, electronic properties, zinc concentration, and pH on cell viability using human alveolar-basal epithelial A549 cells as a model. We observed that a 2-hour or longer exposure to ZnONPs induced changes in cell viability. The alteration in cell viability was associated with the zeta potentials and pH values of the ZnONPs. Proteomic profiling of A549 exposed to ZnONPs for 2 and 4 hours was used to determine the biological mechanisms of ZnONP toxicity. p53-pathway activation was the core mechanism regulating cell viability in response to particle size. Activation of the Wnt and TGFβ signaling pathways was also important in the cellular response to ZnONPs of different sizes. The cadherin and Wnt signaling pathways were important cellular mechanisms triggered by surface differences. These results suggested that the size and surface characteristics of ZnONPs might play an important role in their observed cytotoxicity. This approach facilitates the design of more comprehensive systems for the evaluation of nanoparticles.

  20. Diatom frustules decorated with zinc oxide nanoparticles for enhanced optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamastra, F. R.; Grilli, M. L.; Leahu, G.; Belardini, A.; Li Voti, R.; Sibilia, C.; Salvatori, D.; Cacciotti, I.; Nanni, F.

    2017-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized on diatomite (DE) surface by a low temperature sol gel technique, starting from zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2 · 2H2O) solution in water/ethyl alcohol, in presence of triethanolamine (TEA) with functions of Zn2+ chelating agent, catalyst and mediator of nanoparticle growth on DE surface. Microstructural features were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. ZnO crystalline nanoparticles, well distributed both on the surface and into the porous architecture of diatomite, were obtained just after the synthesis carried out at 80 °C without the need of calcination treatments. The optical properties of ZnO/DE hybrid powders were measured for the first time by means of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). A new method to retrieve both the optical absorption and scattering coefficients from PAS is here discussed for powder aggregates. The fingerprint of the zinc oxide nanoparticles has been highlighted in the Mie scattering resonance in the UV-Vis range, and in the enhancement of the optical absorption with respect to diatomite.

  1. A Rapid Deposition of Fluorine Doped Zinc Oxide Using the Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Navid; Rozati, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    Fluorine-doped zinc oxide (FZO) (ZnO:F) thin films were manufactured by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) on glass substrates using zinc acetate dihydrate [C4H6O4Zn·2H2O, ZnAc] and ammonium fluoride (NH4F) as the source of fluorine with deposition duration of only 120 s for each sample. The effects of different amounts of fluorine as the dopant on the structural, electrical and optical properties of FZO thin films were investigated. The results show a polycrystalline structure at higher temperatures compared to amorphous structure at lower temperatures. The x-ray diffraction patterns of the polycrystalline films were identified as a hexagonal wurtzite structure of zinc oxide (ZnO) with the (002) preferred orientation. Also, the sheet resistance decreased from 17.8 MΩ/□ to 28.9 KΩ/□ for temperatures 325°C to 450°C, respectively. In order to further decrease the sheet resistance of the undoped ZnO thin films, fluorine was added using NH4F as the precursor, and again a drastic change in sheet resistance of only 17.7 Ω/□ was obtained. Based on the field emission scanning electron microscopy images, the fluorine concentration in CVD source is an important factor affecting the grain size and modifies electrical parameters. Ultraviolet-visible measurements revealed reduction of transparency of the layers with increasing fluorine as the dopant.

  2. Antibacterial and antioxidant properties of biosynthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles from Ceropegia candelabrum L. - An endemic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, M.; Mahendra, C.; Nagabhushan; Rajashekar, N.; Sudarshana, M. S.; Raveesha, K. A.; Amruthesh, K. N.

    2017-05-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were synthesized for the first time from any of the species of Ceropegia. Presently, ZnO-NPs were synthesized from the leaf extract of Ceropegia candelabrum with zinc nitrate using a simple hydrothermal process. The synthesized ZnO-NPs showed an absorption peak at 320 nm which is one of the characteristic features of ZnO-NPs. The FT-IR characterization revealed a spectrum band at 551.93 cm- 1 corresponding to the functional group metal oxide. SEM images showed agglomeration of nanoparticles with a hexagonal shape. XRD results are in corroboration with SEM images as the synthesized particles were of hexagonal wurtzite shape and the size of the particles was in the range of 12-35 nm calculated using Scherrer's formula. The elemental analysis using EDS confirmed high zinc content of 70.48% stating that the process of biosynthesis of nanoparticles was carried out in accordance. The biosynthesized ZnO-NPs offered significant antibacterial potential against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and S. typhi. The antioxidant results revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) RSA from 0% to 55.43% (IC50 = 95.09 μg mL- 1). The results affirm that biosynthesized ZnO-NPs can be used as an alternative to present-day chemical compounds.

  3. Alcohol vapor sensing by cadmium-doped zinc oxide thick films based chemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zargar, R. A.; Arora, M.; Chackrabarti, S.; Ahmad, S.; Kumar, J.; Hafiz, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were derived by simple chemical co-precipitation route using zinc acetate dihydrate and cadmium acetate dihydrate as precursor materials. The thick films were casted from chemical co-precipitation route prepared nanoparticles by economic facile screen printing method. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the film were characterized relevant to alcohol vapor sensing application by powder XRD, SEM, UV-VIS and DC conductivity techniques. The response and sensitivity of alcohol (ethanol) vapor sensor are obtained from the recovery curves at optimum working temperature range from 20∘C to 50∘C. The result shows that maximum sensitivity of the sensor is observed at 25∘C operating temperature. On varying alcohol vapor concentration, minor variation in resistance has been observed. The sensing mechanism of sensor has been described in terms of physical adsorption and chemical absorption of alcohol vapors on cadmium-doped zinc oxide film surface and inside film lattice network through weak hydrogen bonding, respectively.

  4. Manufacturing process, characterization and optical investigation of amorphous 1D zinc oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matysiak, Wiktor; Tański, Tomasz; Zaborowska, Marta

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to produce amorphous ZnO nanowires via the electrospinning process from a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(COOH)2)/dimethylformamide (DMF) and ethanol (EtOH) solution. The as obtained nanofibers were calcined at temperatures ranging from 400 to 600 °C to remove the organic phase. The one-dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures were studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to analyse the influence of the used temperature on the morphology and structures of the obtained ceramic nanomaterials. In order to examine the chemical structure of nanowires, the energy dispersive spectrometry (EDX) was used. Besides, a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to show the polymer concentration loss in a function of temperature in order to obtain pure zinc oxide nanowires. The optical property analysis was performed on the basis of UV-vis spectra of absorbance as a function of the wavelength. Using the modified Swanepoel method, which the authors proposed, and the recorded absorbance spectra determined the banded refractive index n, real n‧ and imaginary k part of the refractive index as a function of the wavelength, complex dielectric permeability ɛ, real and imaginary part εr and εi of the dielectric permeability as a function of the radiation energy of the produced ZnO nanowires.

  5. Proteus mirabilis alleviates zinc toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in maize (Zea mays) plants.

    PubMed

    Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Ali, Shafaqat; Raza, Syed Hammad

    2014-12-01

    Plant-associated bacteria can have beneficial effects on the growth and health of their host. However, the role of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), under metal stress, has not been widely investigated. The present study investigated the possible mandatory role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in protecting plants from zinc (Zn) toxicity. The exposure of maize plants to 50µM zinc inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll, total soluble protein and strongly increased accumulation of Zn in both root and shoot. Similarly, Zn enhanced hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondaldehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking with novel Zn tolerant bacterial strain Proteus mirabilis (ZK1) isolated zinc (Zn) contaminated soil, alleviated the negative effect of Zn on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Zn. Furthermore, strain ZK1 significantly enhanced the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid but lowered the Proline accumulation in Zn stressed plants. The results suggested that the inoculation of Zea mays plants with P. mirabilis during an earlier growth period could be related to its plant growth promoting activities and avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Zn, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxygen Vacancy Engineering of Co3 O4 Nanocrystals through Coupling with Metal Support for Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Jun; Wang, Hong-Hui; Zhao, Tian-Jian; Zhang, Ke-Xin; Wei, Xiao; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Li, Xin-Hao; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2017-07-21

    Oxygen vacancies can help to capture oxygen-containing species and act as active centers for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Unfortunately, effective methods for generating a high amount of oxygen vacancies on the surface of various nanocatalysts are rather limited. Here, we described an effective way to generate oxygen-vacancy-rich surface of transition metal oxides, exemplified with Co 3 O 4 , simply by constructing highly coupled interface of ultrafine Co 3 O 4 nanocrystals and metallic Ti. Impressively, the amounts of oxygen vacancy on the surface of Co 3 O 4 /Ti surpassed the reported values of the Co 3 O 4 modified even under highly critical conditions. The Co 3 O 4 /Ti electrode could provide a current density of 23 mA cm -2 at an OER overpotential of 570 mV, low Tafel slope, and excellent durability in neutral medium. Because of the formation of a large amount of oxygen vacancies as the active centers for OER on the surface, the TOF value of the Co 3 O 4 @Ti electrode was optimized to be 3238 h -1 at an OER overpotential of 570 mV, which is 380 times that of the state-of-the-art non-noble nanocatalysts in the literature. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Investigations into Recycling Zinc from Used Metal Oxide Varistors via pH Selective Leaching: Characterization, Leaching, and Residue Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gutknecht, Toni; Gustafsson, Anna; Forsgren, Christer; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxide varistors (MOVs) are a type of resistor with significantly nonlinear current-voltage characteristics commonly used in power lines to protect against overvoltages. If a proper recycling plan is developed MOVs can be an excellent source of secondary zinc because they contain over 90 weight percent zinc oxide. The oxides of antimony, bismuth, and to a lesser degree cobalt, manganese, and nickel are also present in varistors. Characterization of the MOV showed that cobalt, nickel, and manganese were not present in the varistor material at concentrations greater than one weight percent. This investigation determined whether a pH selective dissolution (leaching) process can be utilized as a starting point for hydrometallurgical recycling of the zinc in MOVs. This investigation showed it was possible to selectively leach zinc from the MOV without coleaching of bismuth and antimony by selecting a suitable pH, mainly higher than 3 for acids investigated. It was not possible to leach zinc without coleaching of manganese, cobalt, and nickel. It can be concluded from results obtained with the acids used, acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, and sulfuric, that sulfate leaching produced the most desirable results with respect to zinc leaching and it is also used extensively in industrial zinc production. PMID:26421313

  8. Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles by pyrolysis of alkaline and Zn-C battery waste.

    PubMed

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles from alkaline and zinc-carbon battery black mass was studied by a pyrolysis process at 850-950°C with various residence times under 1L/minN2(g) flow rate conditions without using any additive. The particular and chemical properties of the battery waste were characterized to investigate the possible reactions and effects on the properties of the reaction products. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process were studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. The carbothermic reduction reaction of battery black mass takes place and makes it possible to produce fine zinc particles by a rapid condensation, after the evaporation of zinc from a pyrolysis batch. The amount of zinc that can be separated from the black mass is increased by both pyrolysis temperature and residence time. Zinc recovery of 97% was achieved at 950°C and 1h residence time using the proposed alkaline battery recycling process. The pyrolysis residue is mainly MnO powder with a low amount of zinc, iron and potassium impurities and has an average particle size of 2.9μm. The obtained zinc particles have an average particle size of about 860nm and consist of hexagonal crystals around 110nm in size. The morphology of the zinc particles changes from a hexagonal shape to s spherical morphology by elevating the pyrolysis temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional zinc oxide nanostructures for electronic and energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Abhishek

    vacuum levels. We found that there exists a minimum Eth as we scale the threshold field with pressure. This behavior is explained by referring to Paschen's law.(4) We have studied the application of ZnO nanostructures for solar energy harvesting. First, as-grown and (CdSe) ZnS QDs decorated ZnO NBs and ZnONWs were tested for photocurrent generation. All these nanostructures offered fast response time to solar radiation. The decoration of QDs decreases the stable current level produced by ZnONWs but increases that generated by NBs. It is possible that NBs offer more stable surfaces for the attachment of QDs. In addition, our results suggests that performance degradation of solar cells made by growing ZnO NWs on ITO is due to the increase in resistance of ITO after the high temperature growth process. Hydrogen annealing also improve the efficiency of the solar cells by decreasing the resistance of ITO. Due to the issues on ITO, we use Ni foil as the growth substrates. Performance of solar cells made by growing ZnO NWs on Ni foils degraded after Hydrogen annealing at both low (300°C) and high (600°C) temperatures since annealing passivates native defects in ZnONWs and thus reduce the absorption of visible spectra from our solar simulator. Decoration of QDs improves the efficiency of such solar cells by increasing absorption of light in the visible region. Using a better electrolyte than phosphate buffer solution (PBS) such as KI also improves the solar cell efficiency. (5) Finally, we have attempted p-type doping of ZnO NWs using various growth precursors including phosphorus pentoxide, sodium fluoride, and zinc fluoride. We have also attempted to create p-type carriers via introducing interstitial fluorine by annealing ZnO nanostructures in diluted fluorine gas. In brief, we are unable to reproduce the growth of reported p-type ZnO nanostructures. However; we have identified the window of temperature and duration of post-growth annealing of ZnO NWs in dilute fluorine gas

  10. In vitro toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-03-01

    The toxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles is due to their solubility. ZnO nanoparticles dissolve in the extracellular region, which in turn increases the intracellular [Zn2+] level. The mechanism for increased intracellular [Zn2+] level and ZnO nanoparticles dissolution in the medium is still unclear. Cytotoxicity, increased oxidative stress, increased intracellular [Ca2+] level, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and interleukin-8 productions occur in the BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells and A549 alveolar adenocarcinoma cells following the exposure of ZnO nanoparticles. Confluent C2C12 cells are more resistant to ZnO nanoparticles compared to the sparse monolayer. Loss of 3T3-L1 cell viability, membrane leakage, and morphological changes occurs due to exposure of ZnO nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticle induces cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction in RKO colon carcinoma cells. The occurrence of apoptosis, increased ROS level, reduced mitochondrial activity and formation of tubular intracellular structures are reported following exposure of ZnO nanoparticles in skin cells. Macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are affected by ZnO nanoparticles. In addition, genotoxicity is also induced. The present review summarizes the literature on in vitro toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (10-100 nm) on various cell lines.

  11. The role of crystallographic texture in achieving low friction zinc oxide nanolaminate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojekwu, Nneoma

    Metal oxide nanolaminate films are potential high temperature solid lubricants due to their ability to exhibit significant plasticity when grain size is reduced to the nanometer scale, and defective growth structure is achieved by condensation of oxygen vacancies to form intrinsic stacking faults. This is in contrast to conventional microcrystalline and single crystal oxides that exhibit brittle fracture during loading in a sliding contact. This study emphasizes the additional effect of growth orientation, in particular crystallographic texture, on determining the sliding friction behavior in nanocolumnar grain zinc oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition. It was determined that zinc oxide low (0002) versus higher (101¯3) surface energy crystallographic planes influenced the sliding friction coefficient. Texturing of the (0002) grains resulted in a decreased adhesive component of friction thereby lowering the sliding friction coefficient to ˜0.25, while the friction coefficient doubled to ˜0.5 with increasing contribution of surface (101¯3) grains. In addition, the variation of the x-ray grazing incident angle from 0.5° to 5° was studied to better understand the surface grain orientation as a function of ZnO layer thickness in one versus four bilayer nanolaminates where the under layer (seed layer) was load-bearing Zn(Ti,Zr)O3.

  12. Multi-layered zinc oxide-graphene composite thin films for selective nitrogen dioxide sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Bhowmick, T.; Majumder, S. B.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, selective nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sensing characteristics of multi-layered graphene-zinc oxide (G-ZnO) thin films have been demonstrated at 150 °C. The response% of 5 ppm NO2 was measured to be 894% with response and recovery times estimated to be 150 s and 315 s, respectively. In these composite films, the interaction between graphene and zinc oxide is established through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with the analyses of photoluminescence spectra. Superior NO2 sensing of these films is due to simultaneous chemiadsorption of molecular oxygen and NO2 gases onto graphene and ZnO surfaces, resulting in an appreciable increase in the depletion layer width and thereby the sensor resistance. The sensor responses for other reducing gases (viz., CO, H2, and i-C4H10) are postulated to be due to their catalytic oxidation on the sensor surface, resulting in a decrease in the sensor resistance upon gas exposure. At lower operating temperature, due to the molecular nature of the chemiadsorbed oxygen, poor catalytic oxidation leads to a far lower sensor response for reducing gases as compared to NO2. For mixed NO2 and reducing gas sensing, we have reported that fast Fourier transformation of the resistance transients of all these gases in conjunction with principal component analyses forms a reasonably distinct cluster and, therefore, could easily be differentiated.

  13. Enhancement of the electrical characteristics of thin-film transistors with indium-zinc-tin oxide/Ag/indium-zinc-tin oxide multilayer electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Dohyun; Yun, Dong Yeol; Cho, Woon-Jo; Kim, Tae Whan

    2014-08-01

    Transparent indium-zinc-tin oxide (IZTO)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were fabricated on glass substrates using a tilted dual-target radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system. The IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes exhibited a high optical transmittance in a visible region. The threshold voltage, the mobility, and the on/off-current ratio of the TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were enhanced in comparison with those of the TFTs with ITO electrodes. The source/drain contact resistance of the IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes was smaller than that of the IZTO TFTs with ITO electrodes, resulting in enhancement of their electrical characteristics.

  14. Plasma Oxidation Of Silver And Zinc In Low-Emissivity Stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R. C.; Sherman, R.,; Bunger, R. A.; Nadel, S. J.

    1987-11-01

    The oxidation of silver and zinc films was studied by exposing metallic films to low-power 02 plasmas and analyzing the reacted films. This type of oxidation is an important phenomenon near the barrier layer in sputter-deposited metal-oxide/Ag/metal-oxide low-emissivity (low-e) coatings. Barrier layers generally are deposited on the Ag layer to prevent its degradation during subsequent 02 reactive sputtering. Both individual layers and complete stacks were studied. In addition, the thermal stability of plasma-oxidized Ag was examined. There are several important findings for the individual layers. Ag oxidizes rapidly in the plasma, forming Ag≍1.70 after complete reaction. Relative to the original Ag, the 9ide has -l.7 times greater thick-ness, >10 times higher electrical resistiv-ity (p), and increased surface roughness. Zn oxidizes slowly, at only -1% to 0.1% times the rate for Ag, and is thus more difficult to characterize. The results for individual layers are discussed as they relate to practical pro-perties of low-e stacks: the difficulty of obtaining complete barrier layer oxidation without partially degrading the Ag layer as well as the effects of heat treatment and aging.

  15. Enhanced antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Petroselinum crispum extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Manuela; Popa, Adriana; Toloman, Dana; Silipas, Teofil-Danut; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Katona, Gabriel

    2015-12-01

    The present contribution reports the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using aqueous leaf and root extracts of Petroselinum crispum (parsley) and characterization of as-prepared samples. ZnO NPs are subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies. The XRD studies reveal a hexagonal wurtzite structure without supplementary diffraction lines for all ZnO samples. TEM analysis shows that the particle size is influenced by the type of plant extract. The EPR spectra indicate the presence of Mn2+ ions in ZnO sample synthesized using P. crispum leaf extract, while zinc vacancy complexes and oxygen vacancies are evidenced in all analyzed samples. ZnO NPs synthesized using P. crispum extracts exhibit increased (2-16 times) antibacterial activity as compared to chemically synthesized ZnO NPs.

  16. Enhanced antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Petroselinum crispum extracts

    SciT

    Stan, Manuela, E-mail: manuela.stan@itim-cj.ro; Popa, Adriana; Toloman, Dana

    The present contribution reports the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using aqueous leaf and root extracts of Petroselinum crispum (parsley) and characterization of as-prepared samples. ZnO NPs are subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies. The XRD studies reveal a hexagonal wurtzite structure without supplementary diffraction lines for all ZnO samples. TEM analysis shows that the particle size is influenced by the type of plant extract. The EPR spectra indicate the presence of Mn{sup 2+} ions in ZnO sample synthesized using P. crispum leaf extract, while zinc vacancy complexes andmore » oxygen vacancies are evidenced in all analyzed samples. ZnO NPs synthesized using P. crispum extracts exhibit increased (2-16 times) antibacterial activity as compared to chemically synthesized ZnO NPs.« less

  17. Morphological impact of zinc oxide layers on the device performance in thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Faber, Hendrik; Klaumünzer, Martin; Voigt, Michael; Galli, Diana; Vieweg, Benito F; Peukert, Wolfgang; Spiecker, Erdmann; Halik, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    Zinc oxide thin-films are prepared either by spin coating of an ethanolic dispersion of nanoparticles (NP, diameter 5 nm) or by spray pyrolysis of a zinc acetate dihydrate precursor. High-resolution electron microscopy studies reveal a monolayer of particles for the low temperature spin coating approach and larger crystalline domains of more than 30 nm for the spray pyrolysis technique. Thin-film transistor devices (TFTs) based on spray pyrolysis films exhibit higher electron mobilities of up to 24 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) compared to 0.6 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) for NP based TFTs. These observations were dedicated to a reduced number of grain boundaries within the transistor channel.

  18. X-ray peak profile analysis of zinc oxide nanoparticles formed by simple precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelicano, Christian Mark; Rapadas, Nick Joaquin; Magdaluyo, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a simple precipitation method using zinc acetate and tetramethylammonium hydroxide. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray Diffraction analysis (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The XRD result revealed a hexagonal wurtzite structure for the ZnO nanoparticles. The TEM image showed spherical nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 6.70 nm. For x-ray peak analysis, Williamson-Hall (W-H) and Size-Strain Plot (SSP) methods were applied to examine the effects of crystallite size and lattice strain on the peak broadening of the ZnO nanoparticles. Based on the calculations, the estimated crystallite sizes and lattice strains obtained are in good agreement with each other.

  19. Removing Escherichia coli from water using zinc oxide-coated zeolite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Wu, Wenlin; Xie, Xiaolan; Chen, Hongbin; Lin, Jianming; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2018-05-11

    The removal of Escherichia coli (E. coli) from water by zinc oxide-coated zeolite (ZOCZ) and ZOCZ's antibacterial properties were examined in laboratory experiments using plate counting method and tests of cell apoptosis. Batch experiments showed that ZOCZ has a maximum removal capacity for E. coli of about 4.34 × 10 6  CFU g -1  at 25 °C. Element mappings confirm that zinc ions accumulate in the E. coli cells causing cell death. Pseudo-second-order kinetics and Freundlich isotherms were found to best describe the removal of E. coli, suggesting that a multilayer of E. coli cells forms on the surface of ZOCZ particles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Zinc-Containing Magnetic Oxides Stabilized by a Polymer: One Phase or Two?

    PubMed

    Baird, Nicholas; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Yuzik-Klimova, Ekaterina Yu; Kuchkina, Nina V; Shifrina, Zinaida B; Pink, Maren; Stein, Barry D; Morgan, David Gene; Wang, Tianhao; Rubin, Mikhail A; Sidorov, Alexander I; Sulman, Esther M; Bronstein, Lyudmila M

    2016-01-13

    Here we developed a new family of Zn-containing magnetic oxides of different structures by thermal decomposition of Zn(acac)2 in the reaction solution of preformed magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) stabilized by polyphenylquinoxaline. Upon an increase of the Zn(acac)2 loading from 0.15 to 0.40 mmol (vs 1 mmol of Fe(acac)3), the Zn content increases, and the Zn-containing magnetic oxide NPs preserve a spinel structure of magnetite and an initial, predominantly multicore NP morphology. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of these samples revealed that the surface of iron oxide NPs is enriched with Zn, although Zn species were also found deep under the iron oxide NP surface. For all the samples, XPS also demonstrates the atom ratio of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) = 2:1, perfectly matching Fe3O4, but not ZnFe2O4, where Fe(2+) ions are replaced with Zn(2+). The combination of XPS with other physicochemical methods allowed us to propose that ZnO forms an ultrathin amorphous layer on the surface of iron oxide NPs and also diffuses inside the magnetite crystals. At higher Zn(acac)2 loading, cubic ZnO nanocrystals coexist with magnetite NPs, indicating a homogeneous nucleation of the former. The catalytic testing in syngas conversion to methanol demonstrated outstanding catalytic properties of Zn-containing magnetic oxides, whose activities are dependent on the Zn loading. Repeat experiments carried out with the best catalyst after magnetic separation showed remarkable catalyst stability even after five consecutive catalytic runs.

  1. Investigation of the Genotoxicity of Aluminum Oxide, β-Tricalcium Phosphate, and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Akbaba, Giray Buğra; Türkez, Hasan

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxicity of aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) (Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ), and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) that were 4.175, 9.058, and 19.8 nm sized, respectively, on human peripheral blood lymphocytes using micronucleus (MN) and chromosome aberration (CA) techniques. Aluminum oxide and β-TCP NPs did not show genotoxic effects on human peripheral blood cultures in vitro, even at the highest concentrations; therefore, these materials may be suitable for use as biocompatible materials. It was observed that, even at a very low dose (≥12.5 ppm), ZnO NPs had led to genotoxicity. In addition, at high concentrations (500 ppm and above), ZnO NPs caused mortality of lymphocytes. For these reasons, it was concluded that ZnO NPs are not appropriate for using as a biocompatible biomaterial.

  2. Characterizing and simulation the scintillation properties of zinc oxide nanowires in AAO membrane for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfandi, F.; Saramad, S.; Rezaei Shahmirzadi, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a new method is proposed for extracting some X-ray detection properties of ZnO nanowires electrodeposited on Anodized Aluminum Oxide (AAO) nanoporous template. The results show that the detection efficiency for 12μm thickness of zinc oxide nano scintillator at an energy of 9.8 keV, near the K-edge of ZnO (9.65 keV), is 24%. The X-rays that interact with AAO can also generate electrons that reach the nano scintillator. The scintillation events of these electrons are seen as a low energy tail in the spectrum. In addition, it is found that all the X-rays that are absorbed in 300 nm thickness of the gold layer on the top of the zinc oxide nanowires can participate in the scintillation process with an efficiency of 6%. Hence, the scintillation detection efficiency of the whole detector for 9.8 keV X-ray energy is 30%. The simulation results from Geant4 and the experimental detected photons per MeV energy deposition are also used to extract the light yield of the zinc oxide nano scintillator. The results show that the light yield of the zinc oxide nanowires deposited by the electrochemical method is approximately the same as for single crystal zinc oxide scintillator (9000). Much better spatial resolution of this nano scintillator in comparison to the bulk ones is an advantage which candidates this nano scintillator for medical imaging applications.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of copper zinc oxide nanoparticles obtained via metathesis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoohinkong, Weerachon; Foophow, Tita; Pecharapa, Wisanu

    2017-09-01

    Copper-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by grinding copper acetate and zinc acetate powder with different starting molar ratios in combined with sodium hydroxide. The effect of initial copper and zinc molar ratios on the product samples was investigated and discussed. Relevant ligand coordination type of reactant acetate salt precursors and product samples were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The particle shapes and surface morphologies were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Phase structures of prepared samples were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was applied to investigate the local structure of Cu and Zn environment atoms. The results demonstrate that the, particle size of as-synthesized products affected by copper concentration in the precursor trend to gradually decreases from nanorod shape with diameter around 50-100 nm to irregular particle structure around 5 nm associated with an increase in the concentration of copper in precursor. Moreover, it is noticed that shape and morphology of the products are strongly dependent on Cu:Zn ratios during the synthesis. Nanocrystallines Cu-doped ZnO by the substitution in Zn site with a high crystallization degree of hexagonal wurtzite structure were obtained. This synthesis technique is suggested as a potential effective technique for preparing copper zinc oxide nanoparticles with various atomic ratio in wide range of applications. Contribution at the 4th Southeast Asia Conference on Thermoelectrics 2016 (SACT 2016), 15-18 December 2016, Da Nang City, Vietnam.

  4. Interface traps contribution on transport mechanisms under illumination in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures based on silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatbouri, S.; Troudi, M.; Kalboussi, A.; Souifi, A.

    2018-02-01

    The transport phenomena in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures having silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) inside the dielectric layer have been investigated, in dark condition and under visible illumination. At first, using deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), we find the presence of series electron traps having very close energy levels (comprised between 0.28 and 0.45 eV) for ours devices (with/without Si-NCs). And a single peak appears at low temperature only for MOS with Si-NCs related to Si-NCs DLTS response. In dark condition, the conduction mechanism is dominated by the thermionic fast emission/capture of charge carriers from the highly doped polysilicon layer to Si-substrate through interface trap states for MOS without Si-NCs. The tunneling of charge carriers from highly poly-Si to Si substrate trough the trapping/detrapping mechanism in the Si-NCs, at low temperature, contributed to the conduction mechanism for MOS with Si-NCs. The light effect on transport mechanisms has been investigated using current-voltage ( I- V), and high frequency capacitance-voltage ( C- V) methods. We have been marked the photoactive trap effect in inversion zone at room temperature in I- V characteristics, which confirm the contribution of photo-generated charge on the transport mechanisms from highly poly-Si to Si substrate trough the photo-trapping/detrapping mechanism in the Si-NCs and interfaces traps levels. These results have been confirmed by an increasing about 10 pF in capacity's values for the C- V characteristics of MOS with Si-NCs, in the inversion region for inverse high voltage applied under photoexcitation at low temperature. These results are helpful to understand the principle of charge transport in dark condition and under illumination, of MOS structures having Si-NCs in the SiO x = 1.5 oxide matrix.

  5. Zinc protects HepG2 cells against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by ochratoxin A

    SciT

    Zheng, Juanjuan; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Wentao, E-mail: xuwentaoboy@sina.com

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage are the most studied mechanisms by which ochratoxin A (OTA) induces its toxic effects, which include nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. Zinc, which is an essential trace element, is considered a potential antioxidant. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether zinc supplement could inhibit OTA-induced oxidative damage and DNA damage in HepG2 cells and the mechanism of inhibition. The results indicated that that exposure of OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration; zinc supplement significantly reduced the OTA-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity but did notmore » affect the OTA-induced decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ{sub m}). Meanwhile, the addition of the zinc chelator N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) strongly aggravated the OTA-induced oxidative damage. This study also demonstrated that zinc helped to maintain the integrity of DNA through the reduction of OTA-induced DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation and DNA hypomethylation. OTA increased the mRNA expression of metallothionein1-A (MT1A), metallothionein2-A (MT2A) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Zinc supplement further enhanced the mRNA expression of MT1A and MT2A, but it had no effect on the mRNA expression of SOD1 and catalase (CAT). Zinc was for the first time proven to reduce the cytotoxicity of OTA through inhibiting the oxidative damage and DNA damage, and regulating the expression of zinc-associated genes. Thus, the addition of zinc can potentially be used to reduce the OTA toxicity of contaminated feeds. - Highlights: ► OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration. ► OTA induced the formation of 8-OHdG in HepG2 cells. ► It was testified for the first time that OTA induced DNA hypomethylation. ► Zinc protects against the oxidative damage and DNA damage

  6. Incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles into chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds: Effect on morphology, mechanical properties and cytocompatibility of 3D porous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Saleem; Zainol, Ismail; Idrus, Ruszymah Hj

    2017-11-01

    The zinc oxide nanoparticles (particles size <50nm) incorporated into chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds and investigated the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation on microstructure, mechanical properties, biodegradation and cytocompatibility of 3D porous scaffolds. The 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% zinc oxide nanoparticles chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds were fabricated via freeze-drying technique. The zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation effects consisting in chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds were investigated by mechanical and swelling tests, and effect on the morphology of scaffolds examined microscopically. The biodegradation and cytocompatibility tests were used to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation on the ability of scaffolds to use for tissue engineering application. The mean pore size and swelling ratio of scaffolds were decreased upon incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles however, the porosity, tensile modulus and biodegradation rate were increased upon incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles. In vitro culture of human fibroblasts and keratinocytes showed that the zinc oxide nanoparticles facilitated cell adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds. It was found that the zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation enhanced porosity, tensile modulus and cytocompatibility of chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnostics of RF magnetron sputtering plasma for synthesizing transparent conductive Indium-Zinc-Oxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Takayuki; Inoue, Mari; Takota, Naoki; Ito, Masafumi; Higashijima, Yasuhiro; Kano, Hiroyuki; den, Shoji; Yamakawa, Koji; Hori, Masaru

    2009-10-01

    Transparent conductive Oxide film has been used as transparent conducting electrodes of optoelectronic devices such as flat panel display, solar cells, and so on. Indium-Zinc-Oxide (IZO) has been investigated as one of promising alternatives Indium Tin Oxide film, due to amorphous, no nodule and so on. In order to control a sputtering process with highly precise, RF magnetron sputtering plasma using IZO composite target was diagnosed by absorption and emission spectroscopy. We have developed a multi-micro hollow cathode lamp which can emit simultaneous multi-atomic lines for monitoring Zn and In densities simultaneously. Zn and In densities were measured to be 10^9 from 10^10 cm-3 at RF power from 40 to 100 W, pressure of 5Pa, and Ar flow rate of 300 sccm. The emission intensities of Zn, In, InO, and Ar were also observed.

  8. Metal Catalyst for Low-Temperature Growth of Controlled Zinc Oxide Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Baek Hyun; Kwon, Jae W.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanowires generated by hydrothermal method present superior physical and chemical characteristics. Quality control of the growth has been very challenging and controlled growth is only achievable under very limited conditions using homogeneous seed layers with high temperature processes. Here we show the controlled ZnO nanowire growth on various organic and inorganic materials without the requirement of a homogeneous seed layer and a high temperature process. We also report the discovery of an important role of the electronegativity in the nanowire growth on arbitrary substrates. Using heterogeneous metal oxide interlayers with low-temperature hydrothermal methods, we demonstrate well-controlled ZnO nanowire arrays and single nanowires on flat or curved surfaces. A metal catalyst and heterogeneous metal oxide interlayers are found to determine lattice-match with ZnO and to largely influence the controlled alignment. These findings will contribute to the development of novel nanodevices using controlled nanowires. PMID:24625584

  9. Zirconium-based conversion film formation on zinc, aluminium and magnesium oxides and their interactions with functionalized molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fockaert, L. I.; Taheri, P.; Abrahami, S. T.; Boelen, B.; Terryn, H.; Mol, J. M. C.

    2017-11-01

    Zirconium-based conversion treatment of zinc, aluminium and magnesium oxides have been studied in-situ using ATR-FTIR in a Kretschmann geometry. This set-up was coupled to an electrochemical cell, which allowed to obtain chemical and electrochemical information simultaneously as a function of conversion time. This elucidated the strong relation between physico-chemical surface properties and zirconium-based conversion kinetics. Whereas the surface hydroxyl density of zinc and aluminium increased during conversion, magnesium (hydr)oxide was shown to dissolve in the acid solution. Due to this dissolution, strong surface alkalization can be expected, explaining the rapid conversion kinetics. AES depth profiling was used to determine the final oxide thickness and elemental composition. This confirmed that magnesium is most active and forms a zirconium oxide layer approximately 10 times thicker than zinc. On the other hand, the presence of zirconium oxide on aluminium is very low and can be considered as not fully covering the metal oxide. Additionally, the converted oxide chemistry was related to the bonding mechanisms of amide functionalized molecules using ATR-FTIR and XPS. It was shown that inclusion of zirconium altered the acid-base properties, increasing the substrate proton donating capabilities in case of magnesium oxide and increasing hydrogen bonding and Bronsted interactions due to increased surface hydroxide fractions on zinc and aluminium substrates.

  10. Novel diluted magnetic semiconductor materials based on zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Deepayan

    The primary aim of this work was to develop a ZnO based diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) materials system which displays ferromagnetism above room temperature and to understand the origin of long-range ferromagnetic ordering in these systems. Recent developments in the field of spintronics (spin based electronics) have led to an extensive search for materials in which semiconducting properties can be integrated with magnetic properties to realize the objective of successful fabrication of spin-based devices. For these devices we require a high efficiency of spin current injection at room temperature. Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) can serve this role, but they should not only display room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) but also be capable of generating spin polarized carriers. Transition metal doped ZnO has proved to be a potential candidate as a DMS showing RTFM. The origin of ferromagnetic ordering in ZnO is still under debate. However, the presence of magnetic secondary phases, composition fluctuations and nanoclusters could also explain the observation of ferromagnetism in the DMS samples. This encouraged us to investigate Cu-doped(+ spin in the 2+ valence state) ZnO system as a probable candidate exhibiting RTFM because neither metallic Cu nor its oxides (Cu2O or CuO) are ferromagnetic. The role of defects and free carriers on the ferromagnetic ordering of Cu-doped ZnO thin films was studied to ascertain the origin of ferromagnetism in this system. A novel non-equilibrium Pulsed Laser Deposition technique has been used to grow high quality epitaxial thin films of Cu:ZnO and (Co,Cu):ZnO on c-plane Sapphire by domain matching epitxay. Both the systems showed ferromagnetic ordering above 300K but Cu ions showed a much stronger ferromagnetic ordering than Co, especially at low concentrations (1-2%) of Cu where we realized near 100% polarization. But, the incorporation of Cu resulted in a 2-order of magnitude rise in the resistivity from 10-1 to 101

  11. Involvement of l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in anxiolytic-like effects of zinc chloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Navabi, Seyedeh Parisa; Eshagh Harooni, Hooman; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Khajepour, Lotfolah; Fathinia, Kosar

    2016-10-01

    Zinc is crucial for normal development of the brain, and Zinc deficiency has been shown to associate with neurological disorders (e.g. anxiety) through interactions with several neurotransmitter systems such as nitric oxide (NO). In this regard, our study aimed to evaluate the possible involvement of l-arginine NO pathway on anxiolytic effects of zinc in adult male rats. Zinc chloride at doses of 2.5 and 10mg/kg (intraperitoneal or ip) or saline (1ml/kg, ip) were injected 30min before the anxiety test. Zinc administrated rats (10mg/kg) were pre-treated with intra-CA1 microinjection of l-arginine in sub-effective dose of 1μg/rat (dorsal hippocampus, vehicle: saline1μl/rat). In addition, zinc chloride and NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) were intraperitoneally co-administrated in sub-effective doses of 2.5mg/kg and 80mg/kg, respectively. The percentage of open arm time (OAT%), percentage of open arm entry (OAE%), as measures of anxiety, and total number of arm entries, as measures of locomotor activity, were recorded. Treatment with zinc (10mg/kg) markedly produced an increase in OAT% and OAE% in the Elevated plus maze test (EPM). A decrease of OAT% and OAE% was shown in groups which received zinc (10mg/kg) and l-arginine (1μg/rat) concomitantly as compared to the control group. Moreover, an increase of OAE% was revealed in the group exposed to Zinc (2.5mg/kg) and l-NAME (80mg/kg) co-administration. Although, Two-way ANOVA showed no significant differences of anxiety indices in rats received drug+zinc chloride in compare to the zinc pretreated with saline group. Anxiolytic- like effect of zinc reversed by nitric oxide precursor l-arginine. Additionally, the synergistic effects of l-NAME and ZnCl 2 were shown in the EPM. Thus our findings suggest that at least in part the anxiolytic effects of zinc can be mediated through the nitric oxide system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Solid solutions of gadolinium doped zinc oxide nanorods by combined microwave-ultrasonic irradiation assisted crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Armin; Dastafkan, Kamran; Obeydavi, Ali; Rahimi, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    Nanocrystalline solid solutions consisting of un-doped and gadolinium doped zinc oxide nanorods were fabricated by a modified sol-gel process utilizing combined ultrasonic-microwave irradiations. Polyvinylpyrrolidone, diethylene glycol, and triethylenetetramine respectively as capping, structure directing, and complexing agents were used under ultrasound dynamic aging and microwave heating to obtain crystalline nanorods. Crystalline phase monitoring, lattice parameters and variation, morphology and shape, elemental analysis, functional groups, reducibility, and the oxidation state of emerged species were examined by PXRD, FESEM, TEM, EDX, FTIR, micro Raman, H2-TPR, and EPR techniques. Results have verified that irradiation mechanism of gelation and crystallization reduces the reaction time, augments the crystal quality, and formation of hexagonal close pack structure of Wurtzite morphology. Besides, dissolution of gadolinium within host lattice involves lattice deformation, unit cell distortion, and angular position variation. Structure related shape and growth along with compositional purity were observed through microscopic and spectroscopic surveys. Furthermore, TPR and EPR studies elucidated more detailed behavior upon exposure to the exerted irradiations and subsequent air-annealing including the formed oxidation states and electron trapping centers, presence of gadolinium, zinc, and oxygen disarrays and defects, as well as alteration in the host unit cell via gadolinium addition.

  13. Characterization of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) piezoelectric properties for Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosydi Zakaria, Mohd; Johari, Shazlina; Hafiz Ismail, Mohd; Hashim, Uda

    2017-11-01

    In fabricating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) biosensors device, the substrate is one of important factors that affected to performance device. there are many types of piezoelectric substrate in the markets and the cheapest is zinc Oxide substrate. Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with its unique properties can be used as piezoelectric substrate along with SAW devices for detection of DNA in this research. In this project, ZnO thin film is deposited onto silicon oxide substrate using electron beam evaporation (E-beam) and Sol-Gel technique. Different material structure is used to compare the roughness and best piezoelectric substrate of ZnO thin film. Two different structures of ZnO target which are pellet and granular are used for e-beam deposition and one sol-gel liquid were synthesize and compared. Parameter for thickness of ZnO e-beam deposition is fixed to a 0.1kÅ for both materials structure and sol-gel was coat using spin coat technique. After the process is done, samples are annealed at temperature of 500°C for 2 hours. The structural properties of effect of post annealing using different material structure of ZnO are studied using Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) for surface morphology and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) for phase structure.

  14. Temperature Dependence of the Seebeck Coefficient in Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori, Amirreza; Masoumi, Saeed; Hashemi, Najmeh

    2017-12-01

    Thermoelectric devices are reliable tools for converting waste heat into electricity as they last long, produce no noise or vibration, have no moving elements, and their light weight makes them suitable for the outer space usage. Materials with high thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) have the most important role in the fabrication of efficient thermoelectric devices. Metal oxide semiconductors, specially zinc oxide has recently received attention as a material suitable for sensor, optoelectronic and thermoelectric device applications because of their wide direct bandgap, chemical stability, high-energy radiation endurance, transparency and acceptable zT. Understanding the thermoelectric properties of the undoped ZnO thin films can help design better ZnO-based devices. Here, we report the results of our experimental work on the thermoelectric properties of the undoped polycrystalline ZnO thin films. These films are deposited on alumina substrates by thermal evaporation of zinc in vacuum followed by a controlled oxidation process in air carried out at the 350-500 °C temperature range. The experimental setup including gradient heaters, thermometry system and Seebeck voltage measurement equipment for high resistance samples is described. Seebeck voltage and electrical resistivity of the samples are measured at different conditions. The observed temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient is discussed.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of single-crystalline zinc tin oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jen-Bin; Wu, Po-Feng; Lin, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Ya-Ting; Lee, Hsuan-Wei; Kao, Chia-Tze; Liao, Wei-Hsiang; Young, San-Lin

    2014-05-01

    Crystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO; zinc oxide with heavy tin doping of 33 at.%) nanowires were first synthesized using the electrodeposition and heat treatment method based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, which has an average diameter of about 60 nm. According to the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results, the synthesized ZTO nanowires are highly ordered and have high wire packing densities. The length of ZTO nanowires is about 4 μm, and the aspect ratio is around 67. ZTO nanowires with a Zn/(Zn + Sn) atomic ratio of 0.67 (approximately 2/3) were observed from an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns demonstrated that the ZTO nanowire is hexagonal single-crystalline. The study of ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/Vis/NIR) absorption showed that the ZTO nanowire is a wide-band semiconductor with a band gap energy of 3.7 eV.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of single-crystalline zinc tin oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jen-Bin; Wu, Po-Feng; Lin, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Ya-Ting; Lee, Hsuan-Wei; Kao, Chia-Tze; Liao, Wei-Hsiang; Young, San-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO; zinc oxide with heavy tin doping of 33 at.%) nanowires were first synthesized using the electrodeposition and heat treatment method based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, which has an average diameter of about 60 nm. According to the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results, the synthesized ZTO nanowires are highly ordered and have high wire packing densities. The length of ZTO nanowires is about 4 μm, and the aspect ratio is around 67. ZTO nanowires with a Zn/(Zn + Sn) atomic ratio of 0.67 (approximately 2/3) were observed from an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns demonstrated that the ZTO nanowire is hexagonal single-crystalline. The study of ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/Vis/NIR) absorption showed that the ZTO nanowire is a wide-band semiconductor with a band gap energy of 3.7 eV.

  17. Interactive Physics and Characteristics of Photons and Photoelectrons in Hyperbranched Zinc Oxide Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torix, Garrett

    As is commonly known, the world is full of technological wonders, where a multitude of electronic devices and instruments continuously help push the boundaries of scientific knowledge and discovery. These new devices and instruments of science must be utilized at peak efficiency in order to benefit humanity with the most advanced scientific knowledge. In order to attain this level of efficiency, the materials which make up these electronics, or possibly more important, the fundamental characteristics of these materials, must be fully understood. The following research attempted to uncover the properties and characteristics of a selected family of materials. Herein, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials were investigated and subjected to various, systematical tests, with the aim of discovering new and useful properties. The various nanostructures were grown on a quartz substrate, between a pair of gold electrodes, and subjected to an electrical bias which produced a measurable photocurrent under sufficient lighting conditions. This design formed a novel photodetector device, which, when combined with a simple solar cell and a methodical set of experimental trials, allowed several unique phenomena to be studied. Under various conditions, the device photocurrent as a function of applied voltage, as well as transmitted light, were measured and compared between devices of different ZnO morphologies. Zinc oxide is an absorber of ultraviolet (UV) light. UV absorbing materials and devices have uses in solar cells, long range communications, and astronomical observational equipment, hence, a better understanding of zinc oxide nanostructures and their properties can lead to more efficient utilization of UV light, improved solar cell technology, and a better understanding of the basic science in photon-to-electricity conversion.

  18. In-vitro antibacterial study of zinc oxide nanostructures on Streptococcus sobrinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Sirelkhatim, Amna; Hasan, Habsah; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Seeni, Azman; Rahman, Rosliza Abd

    2014-10-01

    Zinc oxide nanostructures were prepared using a pilot plant of zinc oxide boiling furnace. Generally, it produced two types of nanostructures different in morphology; one is rod-like shaped (ZnO-1) and a plate-like shape (ZnO-2). The properties of ZnO were studied by structural, optical and morphological using XRD, PL and FESEM respectively. The XRD patterns confirmed the wurtzite structures of ZnO with the calculated crystallite size of 41 nm (ZnO-1) and 42 nm (ZnO-2) using Scherrer formula. The NBE peaks were determined by photoluminescence spectra which reveal peak at 3.25 eV and 3.23 eV for ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 respectively. Prior to that, the morphologies for both ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 were demonstrated from FESEM micrographs. Subsequently the antibacterial study was conducted using in-vitro broth dilution technique towards a gram positive bacterium Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 33478) to investigate the level of antibacterial effect of zinc oxide nanostructures as antibacterial agent. Gradual increment of ZnO concentrations from 10-20 mM affected the inhibition level after twenty four hours of incubation. In conjunction with concentration increment of ZnO, the percentage inhibition towards Streptococcus sobrinus was also increased accordingly. The highest inhibition occurred at 20 mM of ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 for 98% and 77% respectively. It showed that ZnO has good properties as antibacterial agent and relevancy with data presented by XRD, PL and FESEM were determined.

  19. Ultrasound irradiation based in-situ synthesis of star-like Tragacanth gum/zinc oxide nanoparticles on cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Application of natural biopolymers for green and safe synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the textiles is a novel and interesting approach. The present study offers the use of natural biopolymer, Tragacanth gum, as the reducing, stabilizing and binding agent for in-situ synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the cotton fabric. Ultrasonic irradiation leads to clean and easy synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in short-time at low-temperature. FESEM/EDX, XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC, photocatalytic activities and antimicrobial assay are used to characterize Tragacanth gum/zinc oxide nanoparticles coated cotton fabric. The analysis confirmed synthesis of star-like zinc oxide nanoparticles with hexagonal wurtzite structure on the cotton fabric with the average particle size of 62nm. The finished cotton fabric showed a good photocatalytic activity on degradation of methylene blue and 100% antimicrobial properties with inhibition zone of 3.3±0.1, 3.1±0.1 and 3.0±0.1mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of zinc oxide nanoparticles toxicity on marine algae chlorella vulgaris through flow cytometric, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress analysis.

    PubMed

    Suman, T Y; Radhika Rajasree, S R; Kirubagaran, R

    2015-03-01

    The increasing industrial use of nanomaterials during the last decades poses a potential threat to the environment and in particular to organisms living in the aquatic environment. In the present study, the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was investigated in Marine algae Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris). High zinc dissociation from ZnONPs, releasing ionic zinc in seawater, is a potential route for zinc assimilation and ZnONPs toxicity. To examine the mechanism of toxicity, C. vulgaris were treated with 50mg/L, 100mg/L, 200mg/L and 300 mg/L ZnO NPs for 24h and 72h. The detailed cytotoxicity assay showed a substantial reduction in the viability dependent on dose and exposure. Further, flow cytometry revealed the significant reduction in C. vulgaris viable cells to higher ZnO NPs. Significant reductions in LDH level were noted for ZnO NPs at 300 mg/L concentration. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased in the C. vulgaris exposed to 200mg/L and 300 mg/L ZnO NPs. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) significantly decreased in the groups with a ZnO NPs concentration of higher than 100mg/L. The level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was found to increase as the ZnO NPs dose increased. The FT-IR analyses suggested surface chemical interaction between nanoparticles and algal cells. The substantial morphological changes and cell wall damage were confirmed through microscopic analyses (FESEM and CM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mild zinc deficiency in male and female rats: early postnatal alterations in renal nitric oxide system and morphology.

    PubMed

    Tomat, Analia Lorena; Veiras, Luciana Cecilia; Aguirre, Sofía; Fasoli, Héctor; Elesgaray, Rosana; Caniffi, Carolina; Costa, María Ángeles; Arranz, Cristina Teresa

    2013-03-01

    Fetal and postnatal zinc deficiencies induce an increase in arterial blood pressure and impair renal function in male adult rats. We therefore hypothesized that these renal alterations are present in early stages of life and that there are sexual differences in the adaptations to this nutritional injury. The aim was to study the effects of moderate zinc deficiency during fetal life and lactation on renal morphology, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and the nitric oxide system in male and female rats at 21 d of life. Female Wistar rats received low (8 ppm) or control (30 ppm) zinc diets from the beginning of pregnancy to weaning. Glomerulus number, morphology, oxidative stress, apoptotic cells, nitric oxide synthase activity, and protein expression were evaluated in the kidneys of offspring at 21 d. Zinc deficiency decreased the nephron number, induced glomerular hypertrophy, increased oxidative damage, and decreased nitric oxide synthase activity in the male and female rat kidneys. Nitric oxide synthase activity was not affected by inhibitors of the neuronal or inducible isoforms, so nitric oxide was mainly generated by the endothelial isoenzyme. Gender differences were observed in glomerular areas and antioxidant enzyme activities. Zinc deficiency during fetal life and lactation induces an early decrease in renal functional units, associated with a decrease in nitric oxide activity and an increase in oxidative stress, which would contribute to increased arterial blood pressure and renal dysfunction in adulthood. The sexual differences observed in this model may explain the dissimilar development of hypertension and renal diseases in adult life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of CO on the field emission properties of tetrapod zinc oxide cathode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinchan; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei; Mao, Fuming; Cui, Yunkang; Xiao, Mei

    2012-08-01

    Tetrapod zinc oxide (T-ZnO), being a kind of nano-material, has large specific surface area and surface binding energy, which will make it sensitive to the ambient gas condition. So the field emission properties will be influenced by the gas adsorption when being applied as the cathode materials of field emission devices. Carbon monoxide is the main residual gas in T-ZnO field emission devices. In this paper, carbon monoxide was introduced into a field emission device with T-ZnO emitters. The field emission currents of tetrapod ZnO were compared before and after exposure to CO.

  3. Green synthesis, characterization, and anticancer activity of hyaluronan/zinc oxide nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Namvar, Farideh; Azizi, Susan; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Rasedee, Abdullah; Soltani, Mozhgan; Rahim, Raha Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The study describes an in situ green biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanocomposite using the seaweed Sargassum muticum water extract and hyaluronan biopolymer. The morphology and optical properties of the hyaluronan/zinc oxide (HA/ZnO) nanocomposite were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and ultraviolet–vis analysis. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the zinc oxide nanoparticles were polydispersed with a mean size of 10.2±1.5 nm. The nanoparticles were mostly hexagonal in crystalline form. The HA/ZnO nanocomposite showed the absorption properties in the ultraviolet zone that is ascribed to the band gap of zinc oxide nanocomposite. In the cytotoxicity study, cancer cells, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PANC-1), ovarian adenocarcinoma (CaOV-3), colonic adenocarcinoma (COLO205), and acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells were treated with HA/ZnO nanocomposite. At 72 hours of treatment, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value via the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was 10.8±0.3 μg/mL, 15.4±1.2 μg/mL, 12.1±0.9 μg/mL, and 6.25±0.5 μg/mL for the PANC-1, CaOV-3, COLO-205, and HL-60 cells, respectively, showing that the composite is most toxic to the HL-60 cells. On the other hand, HA/ZnO nanocomposite treatment for 72 hours did not cause toxicity to the normal human lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cell line. Using fluorescent dyes and flow cytometry analysis, HA/ZnO nanocomposite caused G2/M cell cycle arrest and stimulated apoptosis-related increase in caspase-3 and -7 activities of the HL-60 cells. Thus, the study shows that the HA/ZnO nanocomposite produced through green synthesis has great potential to be developed into an efficacious therapeutic agent for cancers. PMID:27555781

  4. Fabrication and RF characterization of zinc oxide based Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Raju; Bansal, Deepak; Agrawal, Vimal Kumar; Rangra, Kamaljit; Boolchandani, Dharmendar

    2018-06-01

    This work reports fabrication and characterization of Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) to improve the performance characteristics for RF filter and sensing application. Zinc oxide as a piezoelectric (PZE) material was deposited on an aluminum bottom electrode using an RF magnetron sputtering, at room temperature, and gold as top electrode for the resonator. Tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) setup was used for bulk silicon etching to make back side cavity to confine the acoustic signals. The transmission characteristics show that the FBARs have a central frequency at 1.77 GHz with a return loss of -10.7 dB.

  5. Zinc oxide integrated area efficient high output low power wavy channel thin film transistor

    SciT

    Hanna, A. N.; Ghoneim, M. T.; Bahabry, R. R.

    2013-11-25

    We report an atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide channel material integrated thin film transistor using wavy channel architecture allowing expansion of the transistor width in the vertical direction using the fin type features. The experimental devices show area efficiency, higher normalized output current, and relatively lower power consumption compared to the planar architecture. This performance gain is attributed to the increased device width and an enhanced applied electric field due to the architecture when compared to a back gated planar device with the same process conditions.

  6. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    SciT

    Guo, Li Qiang, E-mail: guoliqiang@ujs.edu.cn; Ding, Jian Ning; Huang, Yu Kai

    2015-08-15

    Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO{sub 2} electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO{sub 2} electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) behaviors for the analogous information were mimicked. The temperature dependent PPF behaviors were also investigated systematically. The results indicate that the protonic/electronic hybrid IGZO synaptic transistors would be promising candidates for inorganic synapses in artificial neural network applications.

  7. Preparation of surface modified zinc oxide nanoparticle with high capacity dye removal ability

    SciT

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: nm_mahmoodi@yahoo.com; Najafi, Farhood

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ► Amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) was synthesized. ► Isotherm and kinetics data followed Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model, respectively. ► Q{sub 0} of ZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 20, 12 and 15 mg/g, respectively. ► Q{sub 0} of AFZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 1250, 1000 and 1429 mg/g, respectively. ► AFZON was regenerated at pH 12. -- Abstract: In this paper, the surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) by amine functionalization was studied to prepare high capacity adsorbent. Dye removal ability of amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) and zinc oxide nanoparticlemore » (ZON) was also investigated. The physical characteristics of AFZON were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Acid Blue 25 (AB25), Direct Red 23 (DR23) and Direct Red 31 (DR31) were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters such as dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and salt on dye removal was evaluated. The isotherm and kinetic of dye adsorption were studied. The maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q{sub 0}) was 20 mg/g AB25, 12 mg/g DR23 and 15 mg/g DR31 for ZON and 1250 mg/g AB25, 1000 mg/g DR23 and 1429 mg/g DR31 for AFZON. It was found that dye adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. Dye desorption tests (adsorbent regeneration) showed that the maximum dye release of 90% AB25, 86% for DR23 and 90% for DR31 were achieved in aqueous solution at pH 12. Based on the data of the present investigation, it can be concluded that the AFZON being an adsorbent with high dye adsorption capacity might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.« less

  8. Experimental confirmation of the predicted shallow donor hydrogen state in zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Cox, S F; Davis, E A; Cottrell, S P; King, P J; Lord, J S; Gil, J M; Alberto, H V; Vilão, R C; Piroto Duarte, J; Ayres de Campos, N; Weidinger, A; Lichti, R L; Irvine, S J

    2001-03-19

    We confirm the recent prediction that interstitial protium may act as a shallow donor in zinc oxide, by direct spectroscopic observation of its muonium counterpart. On implantation into ZnO, positive muons--chemically analogous to protons in this context--form paramagnetic centers below about 40 K. The muon-electron contact hyperfine interaction, as well as the temperature and activation energy for ionization, imply a shallow level. Similar results for the cadmium chalcogenides suggest that such shallow donor states are generic to the II-VI compounds. The donor level depths should serve as a guide for the electrical activity of interstitial hydrogen.

  9. Zinc oxide tetrapods inhibit herpes simplex virus infection of cultured corneas

    PubMed Central

    Duggal, Neil; Jaishankar, Dinesh; Yadavalli, Tejabhiram; Hadigal, Satvik; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar; Adelung, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Infection of the human cornea by herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) can cause significant vision loss. The purpose of this study was to develop an ex vivo model to visualize viral growth and spread in the cornea. The model was also used to analyze cytokine production and study the antiviral effects of zinc oxide tetrapods. Methods A β-galactosidase-expressing recombinant virus, HSV-1(KOS)tk12, was used to demonstrate the ability of the virus to enter and develop blue plaques on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells and corneal tissues. Freshly obtained porcine corneas were cultured and then scratched before infection with HSV-1(KOS)tk12. The blue plaques on the corneas were imaged using a stereomicroscope. Western blot analysis for HSV-1 proteins was performed to verify HSV-1 infection of the cornea. Using the ex vivo model, zinc oxide tetrapods were tested for their anti-HSV-1 potential, and a cytokine profile was developed to assess the effects of the treatment. Results Cultured corneas and the use of β-galactosidase-expressing HSV-1(KOS)tk12 virus can provide an attractive ex vivo model to visualize and study HSV-1 entry and spread of the infection in tissues. We found that unlike cultured HCE cells, which demonstrated nearly 100% infectivity, HSV-1 infection of the cultured cornea was more restrictive and took longer to develop. We also found that the zinc oxide tetrapod–shaped nano- and microstructures inhibited HSV infection of the cultured cells, as well as the cultured corneas. The cytokine profile of the infected samples was consistent with previous studies of HSV-1 corneal infection. Conclusions The ability to visualize HSV-1 growth and spread in corneal tissues can provide new details about HSV-1 infection of the cornea and the efficacy of new cornea-specific antiviral drug candidates. The ex vivo model also demonstrates antiviral effects of zinc oxide tetrapods and adequately portrays the drug delivery issues that cornea-specific treatments

  10. Adsorption of the diazo dye Direct Red 23 onto a zinc oxide surface: A spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucilha, Adriana Campano; Bonancêa, Carlos Eduardo; Barreto, Wagner José; Takashima, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of the diazo dye Direct Red 23 onto a zinc oxide surface at 30 °C in the dark was investigated. The color reduction was monitored by spectrophotometry at 503 nm. The FTIR and Raman spectra of the Direct Red 23 adsorption as a function of ZnO concentration were registered. From the PM3 semi-empirical calculations of the atomic charge density and dipole moment of the Direct Red 23 molecule, it was demonstrated that the azo dye molecule may be adsorbed onto the ZnO surface through molecule geometry modifications, enhancing the interfacial area causing a variation in the bonding frequencies.

  11. Ultraviolet electroluminescence from zinc oxide nanorods/deoxyribonucleic acid hybrid bio light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rohini Bhardwaj; Nagpal, Swati; Arora, Swati; Bhatnagar, Pramod Kumar; Mathur, Parmatma Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode using salmon deoxyribonucleic acid (sDNA)-cetyltrimethylammonium complex as an electron blocking layer and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods as emissive material was fabricated. UV emission, which was blue shifted up to 335 nm with respect to the band edge emission of 390 nm, was observed. This blue shift was caused due to accumulation of electrons in the conduction band of ZnO because of a high potential barrier existing at the sDNA/ZnO interface.

  12. Chemical Etching of Zinc Oxide for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hüpkes, Jürgen; Owen, Jorj I; Pust, Sascha E; Bunte, Eerke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Chemical etching is widely applied to texture the surface of sputter-deposited zinc oxide for light scattering in thin-film silicon solar cells. Based on experimental findings from the literature and our own results we propose a model that explains the etching behavior of ZnO depending on the structural material properties and etching agent. All grain boundaries are prone to be etched to a certain threshold, that is defined by the deposition conditions and etching solution. Additionally, several approaches to modify the etching behavior through special preparation and etching steps are provided. PMID:22162035

  13. Nanocrystal synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Tisdale, William; Prins, Ferry; Weidman, Mark; Beck, Megan

    2016-11-01

    A method of preparing monodisperse MX semiconductor nanocrystals can include contacting an M-containing precursor with an X donor to form a mixture, where the molar ratio between the M containing precursor and the X donor is large. Alternatively, if additional X donor is added during the reaction, a smaller ratio between the M containing precursor and the X donor can be used to prepare monodisperse MX semiconductor nanocrystals.

  14. Surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticle by PMAA and its dispersion in aqueous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Erjun; Cheng, Guoxiang; Ma, Xiaolu; Pang, Xingshou; Zhao, Qiang

    2006-05-01

    Commercial zinc oxide nanoparticles were modified by polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) in aqueous system. The hydroxyl groups of nano-ZnO particle surface can interact with carboxyl groups (COO-) of PMAA and form poly(zinc methacrylate) complex on the surface of nano-ZnO. The formation of poly(zinc methacrylate) complex was testified by Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that PMAA molecules were absorbed or anchored on the surface of nano-ZnO particle, which facilitated to hinder the aggregation of nano-ZnO particles. Through particle size analysis and transmission electron micrograph (TEM) observation, it was found that PMAA enhanced the dispersibility of nano-ZnO particles in water. The dispersion stabilization of modified ZnO nanoparticles in aqueous system was significantly improved due to the introduction of grafted polymer on the surface of nanoparticles. The modification did not alter the crystalline structure of the ZnO nanoparticles according to the X-ray diffraction patterns.

  15. Effects of natural organic matter properties on the dissolution kinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Jiang, Chuanjia; Aiken, George R.; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-01-01

    The dissolution of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) is a key step of controlling their environmental fate, bioavailability, and toxicity. Rates of dissolution often depend upon factors such as interactions of NPs with natural organic matter (NOM). We examined the effects of 16 different NOM isolates on the dissolution kinetics of ZnO NPs in buffered potassium chloride solution using anodic stripping voltammetry to directly measure dissolved zinc concentrations. The observed dissolution rate constants (kobs) and dissolved zinc concentrations at equilibrium increased linearly with NOM concentration (from 0 to 40 mg C L–1) for Suwannee River humic and fulvic acids and Pony Lake fulvic acid. When dissolution rates were compared for the 16 NOM isolates, kobs was positively correlated with certain properties of NOM, including specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), aromatic and carbonyl carbon contents, and molecular weight. Dissolution rate constants were negatively correlated to hydrogen/carbon ratio and aliphatic carbon content. The observed correlations indicate that aromatic carbon content is a key factor in determining the rate of NOM-promoted dissolution of ZnO NPs. The findings of this study facilitate a better understanding of the fate of ZnO NPs in organic-rich aquatic environments and highlight SUVA as a facile and useful indicator of NOM interactions with metal-based nanoparticles.

  16. Chondroprotective effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles in conjunction with hypoxia on bovine cartilage-matrix synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Eraj Humayun; Pan-Pan, Chong; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Azhar Bin; Djordjevic, Ivan; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2015-11-01

    Articular cartilage is a tissue specifically adapted to a specific niche with a low oxygen tension (hypoxia), and the presence of such conditions is a key factor in regulating growth and survival of chondrocytes. Zinc deficiency has been linked to cartilage-related disease, and presence of Zinc is known to provide antibacterial benefits, which makes its inclusion attractive in an in vitro system to reduce infection. Inclusion of 1% zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) in poly octanediol citrate (POC) polymer cultured in hypoxia has not been well determined. In this study we investigated the effects of ZnONP on chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis cultured under normoxia (21% O2 ) and hypoxia (5% O2 ). We report an upregulation of chondrocyte proliferation and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (S-GAG) in hypoxic culture. Results demonstrate a synergistic effect of oxygen concentration and 1% ZnONP in up-regulation of anabolic gene expression (Type II collagen and aggrecan), and a down regulation of catabolic (MMP-13) gene expression. Furthermore, production of transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF-1A) in response to hypoxic condition to regulate chondrocyte survival under hypoxia is not affected by the presence of 1% ZnONP. Presence of 1% ZnONP appears to act to preserve homeostasis of cartilage in its hypoxic environment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Analysis of indium zinc oxide thin films by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, A. C.; Beldjilali, S.; Socol, G.; Craciun, V.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Hermann, J.

    2011-10-01

    We have performed spectroscopic analysis of the plasma generated by Nd:YAG (λ = 266 nm) laser irradiation of thin indium zinc oxide films with variable In content deposited by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition on glass substrates. The samples were irradiated in 5 × 104 Pa argon using laser pulses of 5 ns duration and 10 mJ energy. The plasma emission spectra were recorded with an Echelle spectrometer coupled to a gated detector with different delays with respect to the laser pulse. The relative concentrations of indium and zinc were evaluated by comparing the measured spectra to the spectral radiance computed for a plasma in local thermal equilibrium. Plasma temperature and electron density were deduced from the relative intensities and Stark broadening of spectral lines of atomic zinc. Analyses at different locations on the deposited thin films revealed that the In/(In + Zn) concentration ratio significantly varies over the sample surface, from 0.4 at the borders to about 0.5 in the center of the film. The results demonstrate that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy allows for precise and fast characterization of thin films with variable composition.

  18. Nanocrystal grain growth and device architectures for high-efficiency CdTe ink-based photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Ryan W; Panthani, Matthew G; Rance, William L; Duenow, Joel N; Parilla, Philip A; Callahan, Rebecca; Dabney, Matthew S; Berry, Joseph J; Talapin, Dmitri V; Luther, Joseph M

    2014-09-23

    We study the use of cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanocrystal colloids as a solution-processable "ink" for large-grain CdTe absorber layers in solar cells. The resulting grain structure and solar cell performance depend on the initial nanocrystal size, shape, and crystal structure. We find that inks of predominantly wurtzite tetrapod-shaped nanocrystals with arms ∼5.6 nm in diameter exhibit better device performance compared to inks composed of smaller tetrapods, irregular faceted nanocrystals, or spherical zincblende nanocrystals despite the fact that the final sintered film has a zincblende crystal structure. Five different working device architectures were investigated. The indium tin oxide (ITO)/CdTe/zinc oxide structure leads to our best performing device architecture (with efficiency >11%) compared to others including two structures with a cadmium sulfide (CdS) n-type layer typically used in high efficiency sublimation-grown CdTe solar cells. Moreover, devices without CdS have improved response at short wavelengths.

  19. Monodispersed porous flowerlike PtAu nanocrystals as effective electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shumin; Xu, Hui; Xiong, Zhiping; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Caiqin; Yan, Bo; Guo, Jun; Du, Yukou

    2017-11-01

    Designing and tuning the bimetallic nanoparticles with desirable morphology and structure can embody them with greatly enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability towards liquid fuel oxidation. We herein reported a facile one-pot method for the controlled synthesis of monodispersed binary PtAu nanoflowers with abundant exposed surface area. Owing to its fantastic structure, synergistic and electronic effect, such as-prepared PtAu nanoflowers exhibited outstandingly high electrocatalytic activity with the mass activity of 6482 mA mg-1 towards ethanol oxidation, which is 28.3 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C (227 mA mg-1). More interesting, the present PtAu nanoflower catalysts are more stable for the ethanol oxidation reaction in the alkaline with lower current density decay and retained a much higher current density after successive CVs of 500 cycles than that of commercial Pt/C. This work may open a new way for maximizing the catalytic performance of electrocatalysts towards ethanol oxidation by synthesizing shape-controlled alloy nanoparticles with more surface active sites to enhance the performances of direct fuel cells reaction, chemical conversion, and beyond.

  20. Functionalization of magnetic nanocrystals by oligo (ethylene oxide) chains carrying diazonium and iniferter end groups.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Randa; Griffete, Nébéwia; Lamouri, Aazdine; Mangeney, Claire

    2013-10-01

    The water stability of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is a major issue for biomedical and biological applications. This paper presents a versatile approach for preparing water-soluble iron oxide nanoparticles coated by bifunctional oligo(ethylene oxide) (OEO) chains, carrying on the one side a diazonium end group for covalent grafting at the NP surface and on the other side an iniferter group (diethyl dithiocarbamate) for initiating the growing of poly(methacrylic acid). The nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation in basic media and functionalized in situ by adding the diazonium salt directly in the synthesis medium. Oligo(ethylene oxide) with various chain lengths (from one to three monomer units) was grafted at the NP surface using this approach. The length of the OEO spacer between the NP surface and the iniferter end group was found to be a critical parameter for controlling the colloidal stability of the hybrid NPs. The polymerization time was also shown to strongly influence their colloidal stability, emphasizing the interest to control the interfacial properties of the hybrids for obtaining stable dispersions in water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phosphorus Doping Effect in a Zinc Oxide Channel Layer to Improve the Performance of Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dong-Suk; Moon, Yeon-Keon; Lee, Sih; Kim, Kyung-Taek; Moon, Dae-Yong; Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Woong-Sun; Park, Jong-Wan

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we fabricated phosphorus-doped zinc oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) using direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering at a relatively low temperature of 100°C. To improve the TFT device performance, including field-effect mobility and bias stress stability, phosphorus dopants were employed to suppress the generation of intrinsic defects in the ZnO-based semiconductor. The positive and negative bias stress stabilities were dramatically improved by introducing the phosphorus dopants, which could prevent turn-on voltage ( V ON) shift in the TFTs caused by charge trapping within the active channel layer. The study showed that phosphorus doping in ZnO was an effective method to control the electrical properties of the active channel layers and improve the bias stress stability of oxide-based TFTs.

  2. Plasmon resonance and perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in gallium-doped zinc oxide film

    SciT

    Hendrickson, Joshua R., E-mail: joshua.hendrickson.4@us.af.mil; Leedy, Kevin; Cleary, Justin W.

    Near-perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films was experimentally observed in the mid infrared regime. At wavelengths corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface plasmons, up to 99% of impinging light is efficiently trapped and absorbed in the periodic trenches. Scattering cross sectional calculations reveal that each individual trench acts like a vertical split ring resonator with a broad plasmon resonance spectrum. The coupling of these individual plasmon resonators in the grating structure leads to enhanced photon absorption and significant resonant spectral linewidth narrowing. Ellipsometry measurements taken before and after device fabricationmore » result in different permittivity values for the doped zinc oxide material, indicating that localized annealing occurred during the plasma etching process due to surface heating. Simulations, which incorporate a 50 nm annealed region at the zinc oxide surface, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.« less

  3. Visible-light-enhanced interactions of hydrogen sulfide with composites of zinc (oxy)hydroxide with graphite oxide and graphene.

    PubMed

    Seredych, Mykola; Mabayoje, Oluwaniyi; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2012-01-17

    Composites of zinc(oxy)hydroxide-graphite oxide and of zinc(oxy)hydroxide-graphene were used as adsorbents of hydrogen sulfide under ambient conditions. The initial and exhausted samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, potentiometric titration, EDX, thermal analysis, and nitrogen adsorption. An increase in the amount of H(2)S adsorbed/oxidized on their surfaces in comparison with that of pure Zn(OH)(2) is linked to the structure of the composite, the relative number of terminal hydroxyls, and the kind of graphene-based phase used. Although terminal groups are activated by a photochemical process, the graphite oxide component owing to the chemical bonds with the zinc(oxy)hydroxide phase and conductive properties helps in electron transfer, leading to more efficient oxygen activation via the formation of superoxide ions. Elemental sulfur, zinc sulfide, sulfite, and sulfate are formed on the surface. The formation of sulfur compounds on the surface of zinc(oxy)hydroxide during the course of the breakthrough experiments and thus Zn(OH)(2)-ZnS heterojunctions can also contribute to the increased surface activity of our materials. The results show the superiority of graphite oxide in the formation of composites owing to its active surface chemistry and the possibility of interface bond formation, leading to an increase in the number of electron-transfer reactions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Composite materials with metal oxide attached to lead chalcogenide nanocrystal quantum dots with linkers

    DOEpatents

    Fuke, Nobuhiro; Koposov, Alexey Y; Sykora, Milan; Hoch, Laura

    2014-12-16

    Composite materials useful for devices such as photoelectrochemical solar cells include a substrate, a metal oxide film on the substrate, nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQDs) of lead sulfide, lead selenide, and lead telluride, and linkers that attach the NQDs to the metal oxide film. Suitable linkers preserve the 1s absorption peak of the NQDs. A suitable linker has a general structure A-B-C where A is a chemical group adapted for binding to a MO.sub.x and C is a chemical group adapted for binding to a NQD and B is a divalent, rigid, or semi-rigid organic spacer moiety. Other linkers that preserve the 1s absorption peak may also be used.

  5. Evaluating the oxidative, photothermal and electrical stability of colloidal nanocrystal solids

    SciT

    Law, Matt

    2016-02-16

    IV-VI quantum dot (QD) solids are a novel class of granular electronic materials with great technological potential (e.g., in photodetectors, field-effect transistors (FETs), and solar cells), but their oxidative and thermal instability present a barrier to practical applications [1]. Poor stability is a fundamental issue facing many nanoscale materials due to high surface area and surface energy. Basic studies are needed to elucidate the most important mechanisms of degradation and develop robust countermeasures if QD materials are to become technologically important. This project determined the degradation mechanisms of IV-VI QD solids (primarily PbSe and PbS) and introduced new chemical strategiesmore » to drastically improve their performance, stability, and operating lifetimes [2-5]. Our approach was based on (1) detailed testing of QD thin film materials (principally FETs and solar cells) as a function of oxidative and thermal stress, and (2) the use of organic and inorganic approaches to link the QDs into strongly electronically coupled, high-mobility films, prevent their oxidation, and eliminate internal degrees of freedom that lead to film instability and degradation in response to electrical and thermal stress. Stability against oxidation and thermal degradation was the major focus of this project. We have evaluated the stability of QD thin films and interfaces at temperatures less than 100°C (the regime most relevant to solar and transistor applications). Low-temperature oxidation and sintering of QD films have been investigated using optical absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), current-voltage scanning of transistors and solar cells, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM). SKPM was used to map the potential profiles of operating QD FETs and solar cells as a function of bias and illumination, which provides detailed information on how the work functions, potential drops and

  6. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Development, Zinc Metabolism and Biodistribution of Minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Lu, Jianjun; Zhou, Le; Li, Jun; Xu, Jiaman; Li, Weijian; Zhang, Lili; Zhong, Xiang; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) are widely used and possess great potentials in agriculture and biomedicine. It is inevitable for human exposure to these nanoparticles. However, no study had been conducted to investigate the long term effects of nano-ZnOs. This study aimed at investigating effects of nano-ZnOs on development, zinc metabolism and biodistribution of minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) in mice from week 3 to 35. After the characteristics of nano-ZnOs were determined, they were added into the basal diet at 0, 50, 500 and 5000 mg/kg. Results indicated that added 50 and 500 mg/kg nano-ZnOs showed minimal toxicity. However, 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnOs significantly decreased body weight (from week 4 to 16) and increased the relative weights of the pancreas, brain and lung. Added 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnOs significantly increased the serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity and zinc content, and significantly enhanced mRNA expression of zinc metabolism-related genes, including metallothionein 1(32.66 folds), metallothionein 2 (31.42 folds), ZIP8 (2.21folds), ZIP14 (2.45 folds), ZnT1 (4.76 folds), ZnT2 (6.19 folds) and ZnT4 (1.82 folds). The biodistribution determination showed that there was a significant accumulation of zinc in the liver, pancreas, kidney, and bones (tibia and fibula) after receiving 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnO diet, while no significant effects on Cu, Fe, and Mn levels, except for liver Fe content and pancreas Mn level. Our results demonstrated that long term exposure to 50 and 500 mg/kg nano-ZnO diets showed minimal toxicity. However, high dose of nano-ZnOs (5000 mg/kg) caused toxicity on development, and altered the zinc metabolism and biodistribution in mice. PMID:27732669

  7. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Development, Zinc Metabolism and Biodistribution of Minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn) in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Lu, Jianjun; Zhou, Le; Li, Jun; Xu, Jiaman; Li, Weijian; Zhang, Lili; Zhong, Xiang; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) are widely used and possess great potentials in agriculture and biomedicine. It is inevitable for human exposure to these nanoparticles. However, no study had been conducted to investigate the long term effects of nano-ZnOs. This study aimed at investigating effects of nano-ZnOs on development, zinc metabolism and biodistribution of minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) in mice from week 3 to 35. After the characteristics of nano-ZnOs were determined, they were added into the basal diet at 0, 50, 500 and 5000 mg/kg. Results indicated that added 50 and 500 mg/kg nano-ZnOs showed minimal toxicity. However, 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnOs significantly decreased body weight (from week 4 to 16) and increased the relative weights of the pancreas, brain and lung. Added 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnOs significantly increased the serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity and zinc content, and significantly enhanced mRNA expression of zinc metabolism-related genes, including metallothionein 1(32.66 folds), metallothionein 2 (31.42 folds), ZIP8 (2.21folds), ZIP14 (2.45 folds), ZnT1 (4.76 folds), ZnT2 (6.19 folds) and ZnT4 (1.82 folds). The biodistribution determination showed that there was a significant accumulation of zinc in the liver, pancreas, kidney, and bones (tibia and fibula) after receiving 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnO diet, while no significant effects on Cu, Fe, and Mn levels, except for liver Fe content and pancreas Mn level. Our results demonstrated that long term exposure to 50 and 500 mg/kg nano-ZnO diets showed minimal toxicity. However, high dose of nano-ZnOs (5000 mg/kg) caused toxicity on development, and altered the zinc metabolism and biodistribution in mice.

  8. Role of quercetin and arginine in ameliorating nano zinc oxide-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Faddah, Laila M; Abdel Baky, Nayira A; Al-Rasheed, Nouf M; Al-Rasheed, Nawal M; Fatani, Amal J; Atteya, Muhammad

    2012-05-02

    Nanoparticles are small-scale substances (<100 nm) with unique properties. Therefore, nanoparticles pose complex health risk implications. The objective of this study was to detect whether treatment with quercetin (Qur) and/or arginine (Arg) ameliorated nephrotoxicity induced by two different doses of nano zinc oxide (n-ZnO) particles. ZnO nanoparticles were administered orally in two doses (either 600 mg or 1 g/Kg body weight/day for 5 conscutive days) to Wister albino rats. In order to detect the protective effects of the studied antioxidants against n-ZnO induced nepherotoxicity, different biochemical parameters were investigated. Moreover, histopathological examination of kidney tissue was performed. Nano zinc oxide-induced nephrotoxicity was confirmed by the elevation in serum inflammatory markers including: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6); and C-reactive protein (CRP). Moreover, immunoglobulin (IGg), vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF), and nitric oxide (NO) were significantly increased in rat serum. Serum urea and creatinine levels were also significantly increased in rats intoxicated with n-ZnO particles compared with the control group. Additionally, a significant decrease in the non-enzymatic antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) was shown in kidney tissues and serum glucose levels were increased. These biochemical findings were supported by a histopathological examination of kidney tissues, which showed that in the animals that received a high dose of n-ZnO, numerous kidney glomeruli underwent atrophy and fragmentation. Moreover, the renal tubules showed epithelial desquamation, degeneration and necrosis. Some renal tubules showed casts in their lumina. Severe congestion was also observed in renal interstitium. These effects were dose dependent. Cotreatment of rats with Qur and/or Arg along with n-ZnO significantly improved most of the deviated tested parameters. The data show that Qur has a beneficial effect against

  9. Oxidative stress upregulates zinc uptake activity via Zrt/Irt-like protein 1 (ZIP1) in cultured mouse astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Takahiro; Ohshima, Chiaki; Matsumura, Mayu; Takebayashi, Naoto; Hirota, Emi; Mawaribuchi, Toshiki; Nishida, Kentaro; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2016-04-15

    Zinc released from glutamatergic boutons and astrocytes acts as neuro- and glio-transmitters, and thus its extracellular level has to be strictly regulated. We previously revealed that uptake of zinc by astrocytes plays a critical role in its clearance, and zinc transporter Zrt/Irt-like protein 1 (ZIP1) is the molecule responsible for the uptake. However, it is unknown whether or not the functionality of the zinc clearance system is altered under oxidative stress-loaded conditions. Here, we characterized zinc uptake by oxidative stress-loaded astrocytes. Cultured mouse astrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to load oxidative stress. Functional expression of ZIP1 in astrocytes was evaluated by means of (65)Zn uptake, Western blotting and immunocytochemical analysis. Treatment of astrocytes with 0.4mM H2O2 for 24h increased the expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein and 4-hydroxynonenal without significant decreases in their viability, indicating that induction of oxidative stress in astrocytes. Under oxidative stress-loaded conditions, astrocytes exhibited increased (65)Zn uptake activity, and the maximum uptake velocity for the uptake was significantly increased compared to that in the control group, while there was no change in the Michaelis constants, which were almost identical to that of mouse ZIP1. In the H2O2-treated astrocytes, the expression levels of ZIP1 were significantly increased in the cellular and plasma membrane fractions. It appears that under oxidative stress-loaded conditions, astrocytes exhibit increased zinc clearance activity and this is due, at least in part, to increased ZIP1 expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrogen plasma treatment for improved conductivity in amorphous aluminum doped zinc tin oxide thin films

    SciT

    Morales-Masis, M., E-mail: monica.moralesmasis@epfl.ch; Ding, L.; Dauzou, F.

    2014-09-01

    Improving the conductivity of earth-abundant transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) remains an important challenge that will facilitate the replacement of indium-based TCOs. Here, we show that a hydrogen (H{sub 2})-plasma post-deposition treatment improves the conductivity of amorphous aluminum-doped zinc tin oxide while retaining its low optical absorption. We found that the H{sub 2}-plasma treatment performed at a substrate temperature of 50 °C reduces the resistivity of the films by 57% and increases the absorptance by only 2%. Additionally, the low substrate temperature delays the known formation of tin particles with the plasma and it allows the application of the process to temperature-sensitivemore » substrates.« less

  11. Solar Light Responsive Photocatalytic Activity of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Zinc Selenide Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Ibrahim, Sk; Das, Poulomi; Ghosh, Surajit; Pal, Tanusri

    2017-10-01

    Solution processable reduced graphene oxide-zinc selenide (RGO-ZnSe) nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized by an easy one-pot single-step solvothermal reaction. The RGO-ZnSe composite was characterized structurally and morphologically by the study of XRD analysis, SEM and TEM imaging. Reduction in graphene oxide was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy analysis. Photocatalytic efficiency of RGO-ZnSe composite was investigated toward the degradation of Rhodamine B under solar light irradiation. Our study indicates that the RGO-ZnSe composite is catalytically more active compared to the controlled-ZnSe under the solar light illumination. Here, RGO plays an important role for photoinduced charge separation and subsequently hinders the electron-hole recombination probability that consequently enhances photocatalytic degradation efficiency. We expect that this type of RGO-based optoelectronics materials opens up a new avenue in the field of photocatalytic degradation of different organic water pollutants.

  12. Static and Dynamical Structural Investigations of Metal-Oxide Nanocrystals by Powder X-ray Diffraction: Colloidal Tungsten Oxide as a Case Study

    DOE PAGES

    Caliandro, Rocco; Sibillano, Teresa; Belviso, B. Danilo; ...

    2016-02-02

    In this study, we have developed a general X-ray powder diffraction (XPD) methodology for the simultaneous structural and compositional characterization of inorganic nanomaterials. The approach is validated on colloidal tungsten oxide nanocrystals (WO 3-x NCs), as a model polymorphic nanoscale material system. Rod-shaped WO 3-x NCs with different crystal structure and stoichiometry are comparatively investigated under an inert atmosphere and after prolonged air exposure. An initial structural model for the as-synthesized NCs is preliminarily identified by means of Rietveld analysis against several reference crystal phases, followed by atomic pair distribution function (PDF) refinement of the best-matching candidates (static analysis). Subtlemore » stoichiometry deviations from the corresponding bulk standards are revealed. NCs exposed to air at room temperature are monitored by XPD measurements at scheduled time intervals. The static PDF analysis is complemented with an investigation into the evolution of the WO 3-x NC structure, performed by applying the modulation enhanced diffraction technique to the whole time series of XPD profiles (dynamical analysis). Prolonged contact with ambient air is found to cause an appreciable increase in the static disorder of the O atoms in the WO 3-x NC lattice, rather than a variation in stoichiometry. Finally, the time behavior of such structural change is identified on the basis of multivariate analysis.« less

  13. Effect of Zinc Oxide Doping on Electroluminescence and Electrical Behavior of Metalloporphyrins-Doped Samarium Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janghouri, Mohammad; Amini, Mostafa M.

    2018-02-01

    Samarium complex [(Sm(III)] as a new host material was used for preparation of red organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Devices with configurations of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):(poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS (50 nm)/polyvinyl carbazole (PVK):[zinc oxide (ZnO)] (50 nm)/[(Sm(III)]:[zinc(II) 2,3-tetrakis(dihydroxyphenyl)-porphyrin and Pt(II) 2,3-dimethoxyporphyrin] (60 nm)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) (15 nm)/Al (150 nm) have been fabricated and investigated. An electroplex occurring at the (PVK/Sm: Pt(II) 2,3-dimethoxyporphyrin) interface has been suggested when ZnO nanoparticles were doped in PVK. OLED studies have revealed that the photophysical characteristics and electrical behavior of devices with ZnO nanoparticles are much better than those of devices with pure PVK. The efficiency of devices based on [(Sm(III)] was superior than that of known aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) and also our earlier reports on red OLEDs under the same conditions.

  14. Supplementing zinc oxide nanoparticles to cryopreservation medium minimizes the freeze-thaw-induced damage to spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Ann V; Kumari, Sandhya; Nair, Ramya; Urs, Deepak Raj; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar; Manikkath, Jyothsna; Mutalik, Srinivas; Sachdev, Divya; Pasricha, Renu

    2017-12-16

    The sperm DNA integrity post cryopreservation of human semen samples is one of the serious concerns in human infertility treatment. In the present study, the beneficial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles in preserving the functional ability of spermatozoa was explored. Ejaculates of normozoospermic men cryopreserved along with Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) exhibited non-significantly higher percentage of total and progressive motility in frozen-thawed samples compared to control. The sperm chromatin damage and malondialdehyde (MDA) level was significantly lower in ZnONPs group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 respectively) and the spermatozoa's ability to undergo acrosome reaction was also unaltered. Fluorescence microscopy and High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that the ZnONPs do not penetrate the membrane of spermatozoa but stay around the spermatozoa. In conclusion, the presence of ZnONPs during cryopreservation appears to be beneficial to the spermatozoa as they withstand freeze-thaw process competently better than control, without any adverse effect shown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and characterisation of zinc oxide nanoparticles using terpenoid fractions of Andrographis paniculata leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavitha, S.; Dhamodaran, M.; Prasad, Rajendra; Ganesan, M.

    2017-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been widely employed for various pharmacological applications. Several approaches were tried to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles. In this study, ZnO nanoparticles were biosynthesized using terpenoid (TAP) fractions isolated from Andrographis paniculata leaves. Subsequently, the ZnNO3 (0.1 N) is treated with the isolated TAP fractions to biosynthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles (Zn-TAP NPs). This nanoparticle preparation has been confirmed by the colour change from green to cloudy-white and the peak at 300 nm by UV-Visible spectra. FTIR analysis of Zn-TAP NPs showed the presence of functional group (i.e.) C=O which has further been confirmed by H1-NMR studies. From SEM and XRD analysis, it has been found that the hexagonal nanorod particle is 20.23 nm in size and +17.6 mV of zeta potential. Hence, it can be easily absorbed by negatively charged cellular membrane to contribute for efficient intracellular distribution. Therefore, it is suggested that the synthesised Zn-TAP NPs are more suitable in drug delivery processes.

  16. Graphene, carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide and gold as elite nanomaterials for fabrication of biosensors for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Ahlawat, Wandit; Kumar, Rajesh; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2015-08-15

    Technological advancements worldwide at rapid pace in the area of materials science and nanotechnology have made it possible to synthesize nanoparticles with desirable properties not exhibited by the bulk material. Among variety of available nanomaterials, graphene, carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide and gold nanopartilces proved to be elite and offered amazing electrochemical biosensing. This encourages us to write a review which highlights the recent achievements in the construction of genosensor, immunosensor and enzymatic biosensor based on the above nanomaterials. Carbon based nanomaterials offers a direct electron transfer between the functionalized nanomaterials and active site of bioreceptor without involvement of any mediator which not only amplifies the signal but also provide label free sensing. Gold shows affinity towards immunological molecules and is most routinely used for immunological sensing. Zinc oxide can easily immobilize proteins and hence offers a large group of enzyme based biosensor. Modification of the working electrode by introduction of these nanomaterials or combination of two/three of above nanomaterials together and forming a nanocomposite reflected the best results with excellent stability, reproducibility and enhanced sensitivity. Highly attractive electrochemical properties and electrocatalytic activity of these elite nanomaterials have facilitated achievement of enhanced signal amplification needed for the construction of ultrasensitive electrochemical affinity biosensors for detection of glucose, cholesterol, Escherichia coli, influenza virus, cancer, human papillomavirus, dopamine, glutamic acid, IgG, IgE, uric acid, ascorbic acid, acetlycholine, cortisol, cytosome, sequence specific DNA and amino acids. Recent researches for bedside biosensors are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved Electrochemical Detection of Zinc Ions Using Electrode Modified with Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Kudr, Jiri; Richtera, Lukas; Nejdl, Lukas; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Vitek, Petr; Rutkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Hynek, David; Kopel, Pavel; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Increasing urbanization and industrialization lead to the release of metals into the biosphere, which has become a serious issue for public health. In this paper, the direct electrochemical reduction of zinc ions is studied using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The graphene oxide (GO) was fabricated using modified Hummers method and was electrochemically reduced on the surface of GCE by performing cyclic voltammograms from 0 to −1.5 V. The modification was optimized and properties of electrodes were determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The determination of Zn(II) was performed using differential pulse voltammetry technique, platinum wire as a counter electrode, and Ag/AgCl/3 M KCl reference electrode. Compared to the bare GCE the modified GCE/ERGO shows three times better electrocatalytic activity towards zinc ions, with an increase of reduction current along with a negative shift of reduction potential. Using GCE/ERGO detection limit 5 ng·mL−1 was obtained. PMID:28787832

  18. Synchrotron speciation of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles aged in a kaolin suspension.

    PubMed

    Scheckel, Kirk G; Luxton, Todd P; El Badawy, Amro M; Impellitteri, Christopher A; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2010-02-15

    Assessments of the environmental fate and mobility of nanoparticles must consider the behavior of nanoparticles in relevant environmental systems that may result in speciation changes over time. Environmental conditions may act on nanoparticles to change their size, shape, and surface chemistry. Changing these basic characteristics of nanoparticles may result in a final reaction product that is significantly different than the initial nanomaterial. As such, basing long-term risk and toxicity on the initial properties of a nanomaterial may lead to erroneous conclusions if nanoparticles change upon release to the environment. The influence of aging on the speciation and chemical stability of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in kaolin suspensions was examined in batch reactors for up to 18 months. Silver nanoparticles remained unchanged in sodium nitrate suspensions; however, silver chloride was identified with the metallic silver nanoparticles in sodium chloride suspensions and may be attributed to an in situ silver chloride surface coating. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were rapidly converted via destabilization/dissolution mechanisms to Zn(2+) inner-sphere sorption complexes within 1 day of reaction and these sorption complexes were maintained through the 12 month aging processes. Chemical and physical alteration of nanomaterials in the environment must be examined to understand fate, mobility, and toxicology.

  19. Electrical properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanoparticles synthesized by chemical vapor synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hartner, Sonja; Ali, Moazzam; Schulz, Christof; Winterer, Markus; Wiggers, Hartmut

    2009-11-04

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles have been prepared by chemical vapor synthesis, which facilitates the incorporation of a higher percentage of dopant atoms, far above the thermodynamic solubility limit of aluminum. The electrical properties of aluminum-doped and undoped zinc oxide nanoparticles were investigated by impedance spectroscopy. The impedance is measured under hydrogen and synthetic air between 323 and 673 K. The measurements under hydrogen as well as under synthetic air show transport properties depending on temperature and doping level. Under hydrogen atmosphere, a decreasing conductivity with increasing dopant content is observed, which can be explained by enhanced scattering processes due to an increasing disorder in the nanocrystalline material. The temperature coefficient for the doped samples switches from positive temperature coefficient behavior to negative temperature coefficient behavior with increasing dopant concentration. In the presence of synthetic air, the conductivity firstly increases with increasing dopant content by six orders of magnitude. The origin of the increasing conductivity is the generation of free charge carriers upon dopant incorporation. It reaches its maximum at a concentration of 7.7% of aluminum, and drops for higher doping levels. In all cases, the conductivity under hydrogen is higher than under synthetic air and can be changed reversibly by changing the atmosphere.

  20. Subcutaneous Connective Tissue Reaction to a New Nano Zinc-Oxide Eugenol Sealer in Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Salma; Javidi, Maryam; Zarei, Mina; Mushakhian, Siavash; Jafarian, Amirhossein

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the histological response of the new nano zinc-oxide eugenol (NZOE) sealer in comparison with Pulp Canal Sealer (ZOE based) and AH-26 (epoxy resin sealer). Methods and Materials: A total of 27 Wistar rats were used. Four polyethylene tubes were implanted in the back of each rat (three tubes containing the test materials and an empty tube as a control). Then, 9 animals were sacrificed at each interval of 15, 30 and 60 days, and the implants were removed with the surrounding tissues.Samples were evaluated for the presence of inflammatory cell (mononuclear cell), vascular changes, fibrous tissue formation and present of giant cell. Comparisons between groups and time-periods were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U non-parametric tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: No significant difference was observed in tissue reactions and biocompatibility pattern of three sealers during 3 experimental periods (P<0.05). In all groups the tissue behavior showed tendency to decrease the irritation effect over time. Conclusion: The new nano zinc-oxide eugenol sealer has histocompatibility properties comparable to conventional commercial sealers. PMID:28179927

  1. Protein Biosensors Based on Polymer Nanowires, Carbon Nanotubes and Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    M., Anish Kumar; Jung, Soyoun; Ji, Taeksoo

    2011-01-01

    The development of biosensors using electrochemical methods is a promising application in the field of biotechnology. High sensitivity sensors for the bio-detection of proteins have been developed using several kinds of nanomaterials. The performance of the sensors depends on the type of nanostructures with which the biomaterials interact. One dimensional (1-D) structures such as nanowires, nanotubes and nanorods are proven to have high potential for bio-applications. In this paper we review these three different kinds of nanostructures that have attracted much attention at recent times with their great performance as biosensors. Materials such as polymers, carbon and zinc oxide have been widely used for the fabrication of nanostructures because of their enhanced performance in terms of sensitivity, biocompatibility, and ease of preparation. Thus we consider polymer nanowires, carbon nanotubes and zinc oxide nanorods for discussion in this paper. We consider three stages in the development of biosensors: (a) fabrication of biomaterials into nanostructures, (b) alignment of the nanostructures and (c) immobilization of proteins. Two different methods by which the biosensors can be developed at each stage for all the three nanostructures are examined. Finally, we conclude by mentioning some of the major challenges faced by many researchers who seek to fabricate biosensors for real time applications. PMID:22163892

  2. Electrical and optical properties of molybdenum doped zinc oxide films prepared by reactive RF magnetron sputtering

    SciT

    Reddy, R. Subba; Sreedhar, A.; Uthanna, S., E-mail: uthanna@rediffmail.com

    Molybdenum doped zinc oxide (MZO) films were deposited on to glass substrates held at temperatures in the range from 303 to 673 K by reactive RF magnetron sputtering method. The chemical composition, crystallographic structure and surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of the films were determined. The films contained the molybdenum of 2.7 at. % in ZnO. The films deposited at 303 K were of X-ray amorphous. The films formed at 473 K were of nanocrystalline in nature with wurtzite structure. The crystallite size of the films was increased with the increase of substrate temperature. The optical transmittance of the films was inmore » the visible range was 80–85%. The molybdenum (2.7 at %) doped zinc oxide films deposited at substrate temperature of 573 K were of nanocrystalline with electrical resistivity of 7.2×10{sup −3} Ωcm, optical transmittance of 85 %, optical band gap of 3.35 eV and figure of merit 30.6 Ω{sup −1}cm{sup −1}.« less

  3. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle-Poly I:C RNA Complexes: Implication as Therapeutics against Experimental Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Meghana; Mudge, Miranda C; Morris, R Tyler; Zhang, Yuntao; Warcholek, Stanislaw A; Hurst, Miranda N; Riviere, Jim E; DeLong, Robert K

    2017-03-06

    There is current interest in harnessing the combined anticancer and immunological effect of nanoparticles (NPs) and RNA. Here, we evaluate the bioactivity of poly I:C (pIC) RNA, bound to anticancer zinc oxide NP (ZnO-NP) against melanoma. Direct RNA association to unfunctionalized ZnO-NP is shown by observing change in size, zeta potential, and absorption/fluorescence spectra upon complexation. RNA corona was visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the first time. Binding constant (K b = 1.6-2.8 g -1 L) was determined by modified Stern-Volmer, absorption, and biological surface activity index analysis. The pIC-ZnO-NP complex increased cell death for both human (A375) and mouse (B16F10) cell lines and suppressed tumor cell growth in BALB/C-B16F10 mouse melanoma model. Ex vivo tumor analysis indicated significant molecular activity such as changes in the level of phosphoproteins JNK, Akt, and inflammation markers IL-6 and IFN-γ. High throughput proteomics analysis revealed zinc oxide and poly I:C-specific and combinational patterns that suggested possible utility as an anticancer and immunotherapeutic strategy against melanoma.

  4. Zinc oxide nanoparticle suspensions and layer-by-layer coatings inhibit staphylococcal growth.

    PubMed

    McGuffie, Matthew J; Hong, Jin; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F; Kotov, Nicholas A; Younger, John G; VanEpps, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Despite a decade of engineering and process improvements, bacterial infection remains the primary threat to implanted medical devices. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have demonstrated antimicrobial properties. Their microbial selectivity, stability, ease of production, and low cost make them attractive alternatives to silver NPs or antimicrobial peptides. Here we sought to (1) determine the relative efficacy of ZnO-NPs on planktonic growth of medically relevant pathogens; (2) establish the role of bacterial surface chemistry on ZnO-NP effectiveness; (3) evaluate NP shape as a factor in the dose-response; and (4) evaluate layer-by-layer (LBL) ZnO-NP surface coatings on biofilm growth. ZnO-NPs inhibited bacterial growth in a shape-dependent manner not previously seen or predicted. Pyramid shaped particles were the most effective and contrary to previous work, larger particles were more effective than smaller particles. Differential susceptibility of pathogens may be related to their surface hydrophobicity. LBL ZnO-NO coatings reduced staphylococcal biofilm burden by >95%. From the Clinical Editor: The use of medical implants is widespread. However, bacterial colonization remains a major concern. In this article, the authors investigated the use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) to prevent bacterial infection. They showed in their experiments that ZnO-NPs significantly inhibited bacterial growth. This work may present a new alternative in using ZnO-NPs in medical devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Solvothermal synthesis of gallium-indium-zinc-oxide nanoparticles for electrolyte-gated transistors.

    PubMed

    Santos, Lídia; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomás; Branquinho, Rita; Salgueiro, Daniela; Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luís; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2015-01-14

    Solution-processed field-effect transistors are strategic building blocks when considering low-cost sustainable flexible electronics. Nevertheless, some challenges (e.g., processing temperature, reliability, reproducibility in large areas, and cost effectiveness) are requirements that must be surpassed in order to achieve high-performance transistors. The present work reports electrolyte-gated transistors using as channel layer gallium-indium-zinc-oxide nanoparticles produced by solvothermal synthesis combined with a solid-state electrolyte based on aqueous dispersions of vinyl acetate stabilized with cellulose derivatives, acrylic acid ester in styrene and lithium perchlorate. The devices fabricated using this approach display a ION/IOFF up to 1 × 10(6), threshold voltage (VTh) of 0.3-1.9 V, and mobility up to 1 cm(2)/(V s), as a function of gallium-indium-zinc-oxide ink formulation and two different annealing temperatures. These results validates the usage of electrolyte-gated transistors as a viable and promising alternative for nanoparticle based semiconductor devices as the electrolyte improves the interface and promotes a more efficient step coverage of the channel layer, reducing the operating voltage when compared with conventional dielectrics gating. Moreover, it is shown that by controlling the applied gate potential, the operation mechanism of the electrolyte-gated transistors can be modified from electric double layer to electrochemical doping.

  6. Zinc-induced differential oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus acuminatus.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Seham M; Zinta, Gaurav; Klöck, Gerd; Asard, Han; Selim, Samy; AbdElgawad, Hamada

    2017-06-01

    Algae are frequently exposed to toxic metals, and zinc (Zn) is one of the major toxicants present. We exposed two green microalgae, Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus acuminatus, to sub-lethal concentrations (1.0 and 0.6mM) of Zn for seven days. Algal responses were analysed at the level of growth, oxidative stress, and antioxidants. Growth parameters such as cell culture yield and pigment content were less affected by Zn in C. sorokiniana, despite the fact that this alga accumulated more zinc than S. acuminatus. Also, C. sorokiniana, but not S. acuminatus, was able to acclimatize during long-term exposure to toxic concentrations of the test metals (specific growth rate (µ) was 0.041/day and total chlorophyll was 14.6mg/mL). Although, Zn induced oxidative stress in both species, C. sorokiniana experienced less stress than S. acuminatus. This could be explained by a higher accumulation of antioxidants in C. sorokiniana, where flavonoids, polyphenols, tocopherols, glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (ASC) content increased. Moreover, antioxidant enzymes glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), showed increased activities in C. sorokiniana. In addition to, and probably also underlying, the higher Zn tolerance in C. sorokiniana, this alga also showed higher Zn biosorption capacity. Use of C. sorokiniana as a bio-remediator, could be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic detection of chlorine utilizing polyvinylpyrolidone supported zinc oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2015-03-21

    A highly sensitive chlorine sensor for an aqueous medium is fabricated using an optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (OFSPR) system. An OFSPR-based chlorine sensor is designed with a multilayer-type platform by zinc oxide (ZnO) and polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) film morphology manipulations. Among all the methodologies of transduction reported in the field of solid state chemical and biochemical sensing, our attention is focused on the Kretschmann configuration optical fiber sensing technique using the mechanism of surface plasmon resonance. The optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chlorine sensor is developed using a multimode optical fiber with the PVP-supported ZnO film deposited over a silver-coated unclad core of the fiber. A spectral interrogation mode of operation is used to characterize the sensor. In an Ag/ZnO/PVP multilayer system, the absorption of chlorine in the vicinity of the sensing region is performed by the PVP layer and the zinc oxide layer enhances the shift in resonance wavelength. It is, experimentally, demonstrated that the SPR wavelength shifts nonlinearly towards the red side of the visible region with an increase in the chlorine concentration in an aqueous medium while the sensitivity of the sensor decreases linearly with an increase in the chlorine concentration. As the proposed sensor utilizes an optical fiber, it possesses the additional advantages of fiber such as less signal degradation, less susceptibility to electromagnetic interference, possibility of remote sensing, probe miniaturization, probe re-usability, online monitoring, small size, light weight and low cost.

  8. Synthesis of zinc oxide thin films prepared by sol-gel for specific bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Tijjani; Basri, B.; Dhahi, Th. S.; Mohammed, Mohammed; Hashim, U.; Noriman, N. Z.; Dahham, Omar S.

    2017-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films this device to used for many application like chemical sensor, biosensor, solar energy, etc but my project to use for bioactivity(biosensor). Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been grown using sol-gel technique. Characterization was done using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray(EDX) and Electrical Measurement(I-V). ZnO thin film was successfully synthesized using low cost sol-gel spin coating method. The coupling of DNA probe to ZnO thin film supports modified with carboxylic acid (COOH) is certainly the best practical method to make DNA immobilization and it does not require any coupling agent which could be a source of variability during the spotting with an automatic device. So, selected this coupling procedure for further experiments. The sensor was tested with initial trial with low concentrated DNA and able to detect detection of the disease effectively. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer device with ZnO can detect at different concentration in order to valid the device capabilities for detecting development. The lowest concentration 1 µM HPV DNA probe can detect is 0.1 nM HPV target DNA.

  9. Transition metal-modified zinc oxides for UV and visible light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Bloh, J Z; Dillert, R; Bahnemann, D W

    2012-11-01

    In order to use photocatalysis with solar light, finding more active and especially visible light active photocatalysts is a very important challenge. Also, studies of these photocatalysts should employ a standardized test procedure so that their results can be accurately compared and evaluated with one another. A systematic study of transition metal-modified zinc oxide was conducted to determine whether they are suitable as visible light photocatalysts. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO modified with eight different transition metals (Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ru, Ti, Zr) in three different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 1 at.%) was investigated under irradiation with UV as well as with visible light. The employed activity test is the gas-phase degradation of acetaldehyde as described by the ISO standard 22197-2. The results suggest that the UV activity can be improved with almost any modification element and that there exists an optimal modification ratio at about 0.1 at.%. Additionally, Mn- and Ru-modified ZnO display visible light activity. Especially the Ru-modified ZnO is highly active and surpasses the visible light activity of all studied titania standards. These findings suggest that modified zinc oxides may be a viable alternative to titanium dioxide-based catalysts for visible light photocatalysis. Eventually, possible underlying mechanisms are proposed and discussed.

  10. Growth, intermixing, and surface phase formation for zinc tin oxide nanolaminates produced by atomic layer deposition

    SciT

    Hägglund, Carl, E-mail: carl.hagglund@angstrom.uu.se; Grehl, Thomas; Brongersma, Hidde H.

    2016-03-15

    A broad and expanding range of materials can be produced by atomic layer deposition at relatively low temperatures, including both oxides and metals. For many applications of interest, however, it is desirable to grow more tailored and complex materials such as semiconductors with a certain doping, mixed oxides, and metallic alloys. How well such mixed materials can be accomplished with atomic layer deposition requires knowledge of the conditions under which the resulting films will be mixed, solid solutions, or laminated. The growth and lamination of zinc oxide and tin oxide is studied here by means of the extremely surface sensitivemore » technique of low energy ion scattering, combined with bulk composition and thickness determination, and x-ray diffraction. At the low temperatures used for deposition (150 °C), there is little evidence for atomic scale mixing even with the smallest possible bilayer period, and instead a morphology with small ZnO inclusions in a SnO{sub x} matrix is deduced. Postannealing of such laminates above 400 °C however produces a stable surface phase with a 30% increased density. From the surface stoichiometry, this is likely the inverted spinel of zinc stannate, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}. Annealing to 800 °C results in films containing crystalline Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}, or multilayered films of crystalline ZnO, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}, and SnO{sub 2} phases, depending on the bilayer period.« less

  11. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Selective Destruction of Tumor Cells and Potential for Drug Delivery Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, John W.; Martinez, Ezequiel; Louka, Panagiota; Wingett, Denise G.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Metal oxide nanoparticles, including zinc oxide, are versatile platforms for biomedical applications and therapeutic intervention. There is an urgent need to develop new classes of anticancer agents, and recent studies demonstrate that ZnO nanomaterials hold considerable promise. Areas covered in this review This review analyzes the biomedical applications of metal oxide and ZnO nanomaterials under development at the experimental, preclinical, and clinical levels. A discussion regarding the advantages, approaches, and limitations surrounding the use of metal oxide nanoparticles for cancer applications and drug delivery is presented. The scope of this article is focused on ZnO, and other metal oxide nanomaterial systems, and their proposed mechanisms of cytotoxic action, as well as current approaches to improve their targeting and cytotoxicity against cancer cells. Take home message Through a better understanding of the mechanisms of action and cellular consequences resulting from nanoparticles interactions with cells, the inherent toxicity and selectivity of ZnO nanoparticles against cancer may be further improved to make them attractive new anti-cancer agents. PMID:20716019

  12. Dual operation characteristics of resistance random access memory in indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jyun-Bao; Chang, Ting-Chang; Huang, Jheng-Jie; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ting; Tseng, Hsueh-Chih; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Sze, Simon M.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors can be operated either as transistors or resistance random access memory devices. Before the forming process, current-voltage curve transfer characteristics are observed, and resistance switching characteristics are measured after a forming process. These resistance switching characteristics exhibit two behaviors, and are dominated by different mechanisms. The mode 1 resistance switching behavior is due to oxygen vacancies, while mode 2 is dominated by the formation of an oxygen-rich layer. Furthermore, an easy approach is proposed to reduce power consumption when using these resistance random access memory devices with the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor.

  13. Tuning the surface morphology of aluminium doped zinc oxide thin films by arrayed nanorods through chemical growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devasia, Sebin; Anila, E. I.

    2018-04-01

    Here we report the growth and characterization of chemically grown aluminium doped zinc oxide nanorods on seed layers. The seed layers were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis which acted as the growth centers. The growth duration of nanorods were varied from 3h to 12h in steps of 3h. Further, investigations on their structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties. The SEM images confirmed the hexagonal shaped nanorod arrays grown on the seed layers. Later, the x-ray diffraction measurements revealed the pure zinc oxide phase of the samples. Photoluminescence and photoconductivity studies were carried out to analyze the potential of its optoelectronic properties.

  14. Linearly arranged polytypic CZTSSe nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Feng-Jia; Wu, Liang; Gong, Ming; Chen, Shi You; Liu, Guang Yao; Yao, Hong-Bin; Liang, Hai-Wei; Wang, Yi-Xiu; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Even colloidal polytypic nanostructures show promising future in band-gap tuning and alignment, researches on them have been much less reported than the standard nano-heterostructures because of the difficulties involved in synthesis. Up to now, controlled synthesis of colloidal polytypic nanocrsytals has been only realized in II-VI tetrapod and octopod nanocrystals with branched configurations. Herein, we report a colloidal approach for synthesizing non-branched but linearly arranged polytypic I2-II-IV-VI4 nanocrystals, with a focus on polytypic non-stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnSxSe4−x nanocrystals. Each synthesized polytypic non-stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnSxSe4−x nanocrystal is consisted of two zinc blende-derived ends and one wurtzite-derived center part. The formation mechanism has been studied and the phase composition can be tuned through adjusting the reaction temperature, which brings a new band-gap tuning approach to Cu2ZnSnSxSe4-x nanocrystals. PMID:23233871

  15. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  16. Nitric Oxide Ameliorates Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Phytotoxicity in Wheat Seedlings: Implication of the Ascorbate–Glutathione Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Durgesh K.; Mishra, Rohit K.; Singh, Swati; Singh, Samiksha; Vishwakarma, Kanchan; Sharma, Shivesh; Singh, Vijay P.; Singh, Prashant K.; Prasad, Sheo M.; Dubey, Nawal K.; Pandey, Avinash C.; Sahi, Shivendra; Chauhan, Devendra K.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates ameliorative effects of nitric oxide (NO) against zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) phytotoxicity in wheat seedlings. ZnONPs exposure hampered growth of wheat seedlings, which coincided with reduced photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm and qP), due to increased accumulation of zinc (Zn) in xylem and phloem saps. However, SNP supplementation partially mitigated the ZnONPs-mediated toxicity through the modulation of photosynthetic activity and Zn accumulation in xylem and phloem saps. Further, the results reveal that ZnONPs treatments enhanced levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde; MDA) due to severely inhibited activities of the following ascorbate–glutatione cycle (AsA–GSH) enzymes: ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase, and its associated metabolites ascorbate and glutathione. In contrast to this, the addition of SNP together with ZnONPs maintained the cellular functioning of the AsA–GSH cycle properly, hence lesser damage was noticed in comparison to ZnONPs treatments alone. The protective effect of SNP against ZnONPs toxicity on fresh weight (growth) can be reversed by 2-(4carboxy-2-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl- imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, a NO scavenger, and thus suggesting that NO released from SNP ameliorates ZnONPs toxicity. Overall, the results of the present study have shown the role of NO in the reducing of ZnONPs toxicity through the regulation of accumulation of Zn as well as the functioning of the AsA–GSH cycle. PMID:28220127

  17. Long-term stabilization of sprayed zinc oxide thin film transistors by hexafluoropropylene oxide self assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortel, Marlis; Kalinovich, Nataliya; Röschenthaler, Gerd-Volker; Wagner, Veit

    2013-09-01

    Surface functionalization of solution processed zinc oxide layers was studied in transistors with bottom-gate bottom-contact configuration aiming at suppression of trapping processes to increase device stability. Saturation of electrically active surface sites and formation of a moisture barrier to decrease the impact of humid atmosphere was successfully shown by binding hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO) on the metal oxide semiconductor. Deep trap level related electrical parameters, i.e., stability, hysteresis, and on-set voltage, improved rapidly within 60 s of exposure which was attributed to occupation of sites characterized by low adsorption energies, e.g., at edges. In contrast, shallow trap level related parameters, i.e., mobility, showed a much slower process of improvement. Identical behavior was determined for the contact angle. A physical model is presented by applying first order reaction kinetics equation to Young's law and multiple trapping and release model which relates the dependence of the contact angle and the mobility to the hexafluoropropylene oxide deposition time. Consistent time constants of τ = ≪1 min, 2 min, and 250 min were extracted for mobility and contact angle which implies a direct dependence on the surface coverage. Mobility decreased at short deposition times, recovered at medium deposition times and improved strongly by 2.4 cm2 V-1 s-1 for long deposition times of 1400 min. A microscopic model of these phenomena is given with interpretation of the different time constants found in the experiment.

  18. The reduction of graphene oxide by zinc powder to produce a zinc oxide-reduced graphene oxide hybrid and its superior photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sanjit; Basak, Durga

    2013-03-01

    We have synthesized for the first time ZnO/rGO hybrids from metal zinc and GO using hydrothermal technique without adding further reducing agent. The photocatalytic property of ZnO-rGO reveals that the hybrid for 50 mg of GO has the highest activity, causing a 94% degradation of methyl orange compared to 70% by only ZnO. The consistent quenching and a gradual decrease in the decay life time of the emission at ˜500 nm as the rGO content increases indicates the interfacial charge transfer process between ZnO and rGO by the defect states responsible for green emission.

  19. Nanocrystal assembly for tandem catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor; Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-10-14

    The present invention provides a nanocrystal tandem catalyst comprising at least two metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. One embodiment utilizes a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling sub-10 nm platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO.sub.2--Pt and Pt--SiO.sub.2, can be used to catalyze two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO.sub.2--Pt interface catalyzed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H.sub.2, which were then subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalyzed by the nearby Pt--SiO.sub.2 interface. Consequently, propanal was selectively produced on this nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst.

  20. Experimental and theoretical approach on the optical properties of zinc borotellurite glass doped with dysprosium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimah, M. K.; Ami Hazlin, M. N.; Muhammad, F. D.

    2018-04-01

    A series of glass samples with chemical formula {[(TeO2)0.7(B2O3)0.3]0.7(ZnO)0.3}1 - x(Dy2O3)x where x = 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 M fraction were synthesized through conventional melt-quenching method. The most common way to fabricate a glass material is by fusion of two or more component oxides followed by their quenching. This technique is known as melt-quenching technique. Kaur et al. (2016) [1] highlighted that the melt-quenching method able to enhance the mechanical properties like hardness and flexural strength of the material. The nature of the glass systems is proven to be amorphous based on the XRD pattern. The FTIR spectra of the glass systems confirm the existence of five bands which are assigned for the BO4, BO3, TeO4 and TeO3 vibrational groups. The density of the glass systems is increased with the addition of Dy2O3 while the molar volume is found to be inversely proportional to the density of the proposed glass. The optical properties of the glasses are determined through the absorption spectra obtained from the UV-VIS spectrophotometer. From the absorption spectra, the indirect and direct optical band gaps and the Urbach energy are found to be inversely proportional to each other. As the molar fraction of the Dy2O3 increased, the optical band gaps are observed to increase as opposed to the Urbach energy. For this glass system, the values of refractive index, electronic polarizability, oxide ion polarizability and the optical basicity are found to decrease as the addition of the dysprosium oxide is increased. From the emission spectra, two intense blue and yellow emission bands are observed, which correspond to the 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 transitions of Dy3 + ions respectively. The CIE chromaticity coordinates of the zinc borotellurite glass systems are found to be located in the white light region. Generation of white light The generation of the white light can be achieved by using two emission bands which comprise of the yellow

  1. Effect of Dietary Zinc Oxide on Morphological Characteristics, Mucin Composition and Gene Expression in the Colon of Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Pieper, Robert; Rieger, Juliane; Vahjen, Wilfried; Davin, Roger; Plendl, Johanna; Meyer, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The trace element zinc is often used in the diet of weaned piglets, as high doses have resulted in positive effects on intestinal health. However, the majority of previous studies evaluated zinc supplementations for a short period only and focused on the small intestine. The hypothesis of the present study was that low, medium and high levels of dietary zinc (57, 164 and 2,425 mg Zn/kg from zinc oxide) would affect colonic morphology and innate host defense mechanisms across 4 weeks post-weaning. Histological examinations were conducted regarding the colonic morphology and neutral, acidic, sialylated and sulphated mucins. The mRNA expression levels of mucin (MUC) 1, 2, 13, 20, toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, interleukin (IL)-1β, 8, 10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were also measured. The colonic crypt area increased in an age-depending manner, and the greatest area was found with medium concentration of dietary zinc. With the high concentration of dietary zinc, the number of goblet cells containing mixed neutral-acidic mucins and total mucins increased. Sialomucin containing goblet cells increased age-dependently. The expression of MUC2 increased with age and reached the highest level at 47 days of age. The expression levels of TLR2 and 4 decreased with age. The mRNA expression of TLR4 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 were down-regulated with high dietary zinc treatment, while piglets fed with medium dietary zinc had the highest expression. It is concluded that dietary zinc level had a clear impact on colonic morphology, mucin profiles and immunological traits in piglets after weaning. Those changes might support local defense mechanisms and affect colonic physiology and contribute to the reported reduction of post-weaning diarrhea. PMID:24609095

  2. Properties of solid solutions, doped film, and nanocomposite structures based on zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkarev, G. V.; Shtepliuk, I. I.; Ievtushenko, A. I.; Khyzhun, O. Y.; Kartuzov, V. V.; Ovsiannikova, L. I.; Karpyna, V. A.; Myroniuk, D. V.; Khomyak, V. V.; Tkach, V. N.; Timofeeva, I. I.; Popovich, V. I.; Dranchuk, N. V.; Khranovskyy, V. D.; Demydiuk, P. V.

    2015-02-01

    A study of the properties of materials based on the wide bandgap zinc oxide semiconductor, which are promising for application in optoelectronics, photovoltaics and nanoplasmonics. The structural and optical properties of solid solution Zn1-xCdxO films with different cadmium content, are studied. The samples are grown using magnetron sputtering on sapphire backing. Low-temperature photoluminescence spectra revealed emission peaks associated with radiative recombination processes in those areas of the film that have varying amounts of cadmium. X-ray phase analysis showed the presence of a cadmium oxide cubic phase in these films. Theoretical studies of the solid solution thermodynamic properties allowed for a qualitative interpretation of the observed experimental phenomena. It is established that the growth of the homogeneous solid solution film is possible only at high temperatures, whereas regions of inhomogeneous composition can be narrowed through elastic deformation, caused by the mismatch of the film-backing lattice constants. The driving forces of the spinodal decomposition of the Zn1-xCdxO system are identified. Fullerene-like clusters of Znn-xCdxOn are used to calculate the bandgap and the cohesive energy of ZnCdO solid solutions. The properties of transparent conductive ZnO films, doped with Group III donor impurities (Al, Ga, In), are examined. It is shown that oxygen vacancies are responsible for the hole trap centers in the zinc oxide photoconductivity process. We also examine the photoluminescence properties of metal-ZnO nanocomposite structures, caused by surface plasmons.

  3. Cardiorespiratory toxicity of environmentally relevant zinc oxide nanoparticles in the freshwater fish Catostomus commersonii.

    PubMed

    Bessemer, Robin Anne; Butler, Kathryn Marie Alison; Tunnah, Louise; Callaghan, Neal Ingraham; Rundle, Amanda; Currie, Suzanne; Dieni, Christopher Anthony; MacCormack, Tyson James

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation of zinc oxide engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) has been linked to cardiorespiratory dysfunction in mammalian models but the effects of aquatic ENM exposure on fish have not been fully investigated. Nano-zinc oxide (nZnO) is widely used in consumer products such as sunscreens and can make its way into aquatic ecosystems from domestic and commercial wastewater. This study examined the impact of an environmentally relevant nZnO formulation on cardiorespiratory function and energy metabolism in the white sucker (Catostomus commersonii), a freshwater teleost fish. Evidence of oxidative and cellular stress was present in gill tissue, including increases in malondialdehyde levels, heat shock protein (HSP) expression, and caspase 3/7 activity. Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was also higher by approximately three-fold in nZnO-treated fish, likely in response to increased epithelial permeability or structural remodeling. Despite evidence of toxicity in gill, plasma cortisol and lactate levels did not change in animals exposed to 1.0 mg L(-1) nZnO. White suckers also exhibited a 35% decrease in heart rate during nZnO exposure, with no significant changes in resting oxygen consumption or tissue energy stores. Our results suggest that tissue damage or cellular stress resulting from nZnO exposure activates gill neuroepithelial cells, triggering a whole-animal hypoxic response. An increase in parasympathetic nervous signaling will decrease heart rate and may reduce energy demand, even in the face of an environmental toxicant. We have shown that acute exposure to nZnO is toxic to white suckers and that ENMs have the potential to negatively impact cardiorespiratory function in adult fish.

  4. Plasmonic Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals Doped with Boron and Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Nicolaas J; Schramke, Katelyn S; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2015-08-12

    Degenerately doped silicon nanocrystals are appealing plasmonic materials due to silicon's low cost and low toxicity. While surface plasmonic resonances of boron-doped and phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals were recently observed, there currently is poor understanding of the effect of surface conditions on their plasmonic behavior. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit a plasmon resonance immediately after their synthesis but may lose their plasmonic response with oxidation. In contrast, boron-doped nanocrystals initially do not exhibit plasmonic response but become plasmonically active through postsynthesis oxidation or annealing. We interpret these results in terms of substitutional doping being the dominant doping mechanism for phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals, with oxidation-induced defects trapping free electrons. The behavior of boron-doped silicon nanocrystals is more consistent with a strong contribution of surface doping. Importantly, boron-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit air-stable plasmonic behavior over periods of more than a year.

  5. Characteristics of zinc oxide nanorod array/titanium oxide film heterojunction prepared by aqueous solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Kwei; Hong, Min-Hsuan; Li, Bo-Wei

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a ZnO nanorod array/TiO2 film heterojunction were investigated. A TiO2 film was prepared on glass by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid at 40 °C. Then, a ZnO seed layer was prepared on a TiO2 film/glass substrate by RF sputtering. A vertically oriented ZnO nanorod array was grown on a ZnO seed layer/TiO2 film/glass substrate by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) at 70 °C. After thermal annealing in N2O ambient at 300 °C, this heterojunction used as an oxygen gas sensor shows much better rise time, decay time, and on/off current ratio than as-grown and annealed ZnO nanorods.

  6. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Ian N; Belley, Matthew D; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Therien, Michael J

    2014-05-21

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3; Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 ± 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 μm sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device

  7. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure†

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Ian N.; Belley, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2015-01-01

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2−xO3; Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2−xO3; Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40–220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2−xO3; Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 ± 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 μm sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605–617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radio transparent

  8. Characterization of copper oxides, iron oxides, and zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbents by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Poston, James A.

    1993-05-01

    Characterization of copper oxides, iron oxides, and zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbents was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy at temperatures of 298 to 823 K. Analysis of copper oxides indicated that the satellite structure of the Cu22p region was absent in the Cu(I) state but was present in the Cu(II) state. Reduction of CuO at room temperature was observed when the ion gauge was placed close to the sample. The satellite structure was absent in all the copper oxides at 823 K in vacuum. Differentiation of the oxidation state of copper utilizing both Cu(L 3M 4,5M 4,5) X-ray-induced Auger lines and Cu2p satellite structure, indicated that the copper in zinc copper ferrite was in the + 1 oxidation state at 823 K. This + 1 state of copper was not significantly changed after exposure to H 2, CO, and H 2O. There was an increase in Cu/Zn ratio and a decrease in Fe/Zn ratio on the surface of zinc copper ferrite at 823 K compared to that at room temperature. These conditions of copper offered the best sulfidation equilibrium for the zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Analysis of iron oxides indicated that there was some reduction of both Fe 2O 3 and FeO at 823K. The iron in zinc copper ferrite was similar to that of Fe 2O 3 at room temperature but there was some reduction of this Fe(III) state to Fe(II) at 823 K. This reduction was more enhanced in the presence of H 2 and CO. Reduction to Fe(II) may not be desirable for the lifetime of the sorbent.

  9. Sol-gel zinc oxide humidity sensors integrated with a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2014-10-28

    The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90%RH.

  10. Sol-Gel Zinc Oxide Humidity Sensors Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit On-a-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2014-01-01

    The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90 %RH. PMID:25353984

  11. Osteogenic activity and antibacterial effect of zinc oxide/carboxylated graphene oxide nanocomposites: Preparation and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junyu; Zhang, Xin; Cai, He; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Tong; Jia, Lingling; Wang, Jian; Wan, Qianbing; Pei, Xibo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare nanocomposites of carboxylated graphene oxide (GO-COOH) sheets decorated with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) and investigate their advantages in the field of bone tissue engineering. First, ZnO/GO-COOH nanocomposites were synthesized by facile reactions, including the carboxylation of graphene oxide (GO) and the nucleation of ZnO on GO-COOH sheets. The synthesized ZnO/GO-COOH nanocomposites were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectra, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The biocompatibility, osteogenic activity and antibacterial effect of ZnO/GO-COOH nanocomposites were further investigated. In the nanocomposites, ZnO nanoparticles with a size of approximately 12nm were uniformly decorated on GO-COOH sheets. Compared with GO-COOH and the control group, ZnO/GO-COOH nanocomposites significantly enhanced ALP activity, osteocalcin production and extracellular matrix mineralization as well as up-regulated osteogenic-related genes (ALP, OCN, and Runx2) in MG63 osteoblast-like cells. Moreover, ZnO/GO-COOH nanocomposites had an antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mutans. These results indicated that ZnO/GO-COOH nanocomposites exhibited both osteogenic activity and antibacterial effect and had great potential for designing new biomaterials in the field of bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Structure-property-composition relationships in doped zinc oxides: enhanced photocatalytic activity with rare earth dopants.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Josephine B M; Illsley, Derek; Lines, Robert; Makwana, Neel M; Darr, Jawwad A

    2015-02-09

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) technology to rapidly produce a library of 56 crystalline (doped) zinc oxide nanopowders and two undoped samples, each with different particle properties. Each sample was produced in series from the mixing of an aqueous stream of basic zinc nitrate (and dopant ion or modifier) solution with a flow of superheated water (at 450 °C and 24.1 MPa), whereupon a crystalline nanoparticle slurry was rapidly formed. Each composition was collected in series, cleaned, freeze-dried, and then characterized using analytical methods, including powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Photocatalytic activity of the samples toward the decolorization of methylene blue dye was assessed, and the results revealed that transition metal dopants tended to reduce the photoactivity while rare earth ions, in general, increased the photocatalytic activity. In general, low dopant concentrations were more beneficial to having greater photodecolorization in all cases.

  13. Synthesis of supported silver nano-spheres on zinc oxide nanorods for visible light photocatalytic applications

    SciT

    Saoud, Khaled; Alsoubaihi, Rola; Bensalah, Nasr

    Highlights: • Synthesis of supported Ag NPs on ZnO nanorods using open vessel microwave reactor. • Use of the Ag/ZnO NPs as an efficient visible light photocatalyst. • Complete degradation of methylene blue in 1 h with 0.5 g/L Ag/ZnO NPs. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of silver (Ag) nano-spheres (NS) supported on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods through two step mechanism, using open vessel microwave reactor. Direct reduction of ZnO from zinc nitrates was followed by deposition precipitation of the silver on the ZnO nanorods. The supported Ag/ZnO nanoparticles were then characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, photoluminescencemore » and UV–vis spectroscopy. The visible light photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO system was investigated using a test contaminant, methylene blue (MB). Almost complete removal of MB in about 60 min for doses higher than 0.5 g/L of the Ag/ZnO photocatalyst was achieved. This significant improvement in the photocatalytic efficiency of Ag/ZnO photocatalyst under visible light irradiation can be attributed to the presence of Ag nanoparticles on the ZnO nanoparticles which greatly enhances absorption in the visible range of solar spectrum enabled by surface plasmon resonance effect from Ag nanoparticles.« less

  14. Simple mass production of zinc oxide nanostructures via low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasaban, Samaneh; Atai, Mohammad; Imani, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    The specific properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have attracted much attention within the scientific community as a useful material for biomedical applications. Hydrothermal synthesis is known as a useful method to produce nanostructures with certain particle size and morphology however, scaling up the reaction is still a challenging task. In this research, large scale hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanostructures (60 g) was performed in a 5 l stainless steel autoclave by reaction between anionic (ammonia or sodium hydroxide) and cationic (zinc acetate dehydrate) precursors in low temperature. Hydrothermal reaction temperature and time were decreased to 115 °C and 2 or 6 h. In batch repetitions, the same morphologies (plate- and needle-like) with reproducible particle size were obtained. The nanostructures formed were analyzed by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy and BET analysis. The nanostructures formed were antibacterially active against Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. Gallium diffusion in zinc oxide via the paired dopant-vacancy mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sky, T. N.; Johansen, K. M.; Riise, H. N.; Svensson, B. G.; Vines, L.

    2018-02-01

    Isochronal and isothermal diffusion experiments of gallium (Ga) in zinc oxide (ZnO) have been performed in the temperature range of 900-1050 °C. The samples used consisted of a sputter-deposited and highly Ga-doped ZnO film at the surface of a single-crystal bulk material. We use a novel reaction diffusion (RD) approach to demonstrate that the diffusion behavior of Ga in ZnO is consistent with zinc vacancy (VZn) mediation via the formation and dissociation of GaZnVZn complexes. In the RD modeling, experimental diffusion data are fitted utilizing recent density-functional-theory estimates of the VZn formation energy and the binding energy of GaZnVZn. From the RD modeling, a migration energy of 2.3 eV is deduced for GaZnVZn, and a total/effective activation energy of 3.0 eV is obtained for the Ga diffusion. Furthermore, and for comparison, employing the so-called Fair model, a total/effective activation energy of 2.7 eV is obtained for the Ga diffusion, reasonably close to the total value extracted from the RD-modeling.

  16. Effect of zinc oxide on the electronic properties of carbonated hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refaat, Ahmed; Youness, Rasha A.; Taha, Mohammed A.; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2017-11-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)-doped carbonate substituted hydroxyapatite (CHA) was successfully prepared with different ZnO contents up to 3 wt% and then samples were subjected to study with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR indicated that the interaction is physical and consequently molecular modeling was consulted to understand the effect of ZnO upon CHA. A model molecule of Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2·14H2O was built then interacted with Zn with different schemes through 4 active sites namely O of (PO4); O of OH; Ca of Ca(OH)2 and P of (PO4). For each interaction, two possibilities were tried; one through oxygen and the other through zinc of ZnO. The interaction of ZnO with CHA resulted in changes in the physical properties such as the final heat of formation, ionization potential, and even molecular dimensions. This may be due to the change in the electronic distribution which in turn changes the total dipole moment and hence the reactivity that could also affect the physical properties.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of nanometric zinc oxide for a stationary phase in liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Soto-Barrera, C. C.; Plazas-Saldaña, J.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing demand for equipment to remove organic compounds in industry and research activity has led to evaluate nanometric zinc oxide (ZnO). In this work, we present the ZnO nanoparticles synthesis for reusing of discarded columns, as a low-cost alternative. The compound was obtained by sol-gel technique using zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide as precursors and a drying temperature of 169°C. An X-ray diffractometer was used to estimate the average particle size at 20.3±0.2nm the adsorption capacity was 0.0144L/g and the chemical resistance was tested with HCl and NaOH. The ZnO nanopowder was packed with 100psi pressure in an empty C-18 column cavity. The column packing resolution was evaluated using a high performance liquid chromatographer (HPLC-Thermo Scientific Dionex UltiMate 3000); using a caffeine standard, the following parameters were established: solvent flow: 1.2mL/min, average column temperature: 40°C, running time: 10 minutes, mobile phase acetonitrile-water composition (9:1). These results validate the potential of ZnO nanopowder as a column packing material in HPLC technique.

  18. A novel approach reveals that zinc oxide nanoparticles are bioavailable and toxic after dietary exposures

    Croteau, M.-N.; Dybowska, A.D.; Luoma, S.N.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2011-01-01

    If engineered nanomaterials are released into the environment, some are likely to end up associated with the food of animals due to aggregation and sorption processes. However, few studies have considered dietary exposure of nanomaterials. Here we show that zinc (Zn) from isotopically modified 67ZnO particles is efficiently assimilated by freshwater snails when ingested with food. The 67Zn from nano-sized 67ZnO appears as bioavailable as 67Zn internalized by diatoms. Apparent agglomeration of the zinc oxide (ZnO) particles did not reduce bioavailability, nor preclude toxicity. In the diet, ZnO nanoparticles damage digestion: snails ate less, defecated less and inefficiently processed the ingested food when exposed to high concentrations of ZnO. It was not clear whether the toxicity was due to the high Zn dose achieved with nanoparticles or to the ZnO nanoparticles themselves. Further study of exposure from nanoparticles in food would greatly benefit assessment of ecological and human health risks. ?? 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  19. Determination of zinc oxide nanoparticles toxicity in root growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Meppaloor G; Chung, Ill Min

    2016-09-01

    The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) was studied in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under in vitro exposure conditions. To avoid precipitation of nanoparticles, the seedlings were grown in half strength semisolid Murashige and Skoog medium containing 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Analysis of zinc (Zn) content showed significant increase in roots. In vivo detection using fluorescent probe Zynpyr-1 indicated accumulation of Zn in primary and lateral root tips. All concentrations of ZnONPs significantly reduced root growth. However, significant decrease in shoot growth was observed only after exposure to 400 and 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. The reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation levels significantly increased in roots. Significant increase in cell-wall bound peroxidase activity was observed after exposure to 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Histochemical staining with phloroglucinol-HCl showed lignification of root cells upon exposure to 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Treatment with propidium iodide indicated loss of cell viability in root tips of wheat seedlings. These results suggest that redox imbalances, lignification and cell death has resulted in reduction of root growth in wheat seedlings exposed to ZnONPs nanoparticles.

  20. Epitaxial growth of the zinc oxide nanorods, their characterization and in vitro biocompatibility studies.

    PubMed

    Gopikrishnan, Ramya; Zhang, Kai; Ravichandran, Prabakaran; Biradar, Santhoshkumar; Ramesh, Vani; Goornavar, Virupaxi; Jeffers, Robert B; Pradhan, Aswini; Hall, Joseph C; Baluchamy, Sudhakar; Ramesh, Govindarajan T

    2011-10-01

    Here, we have synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorods at room temperature using zinc acetate and hexamethylenetetramine as precursors followed by characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy. The growth of the synthesized ZnO was found to be very close to its hexagonal nature, which is confirmed by XRD. The nanorods were grown perpendicular to the long-axis and grew along the [001] direction, which is the nature of ZnO growth. The morphology of the synthesized ZnO nanorods was also confirmed by SEM. The size of the nanorod was estimated to be around 20-25 nm in diameter and approximately 50-60 nm in length. Our biocompatibility studies using synthesized ZnO showed no significant dose- or time-dependent increase in the formation of free radicals, accumulation of peroxidative products, antioxidant depletion or loss of cell viability on lung epithelial cells.

  1. Effects of nanoparticle zinc oxide on emotional behavior and trace elements homeostasis in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Amara, Salem; Slama, Imen Ben; Omri, Karim; El Ghoul, Jaber; El Mir, Lassaad; Rhouma, Khemais Ben; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    Over recent years, nanotoxicology and the potential effects on human body have grown in significance, the potential influences of nanosized materials on the central nervous system have received more attention. The aim of this study was to determine whether zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) exposure cause alterations in emotional behavior and trace elements homeostasis in rat brain. Rats were treated by intraperitoneal injection of ZnO NPs (20-30 nm) at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. Sub -: acute ZnO NPs treatment induced no significant increase in the zinc content in the homogenate brain. Statistically significant decreases in iron and calcium concentrations were found in rat brain tissue compared to control. However, sodium and potassium contents remained unchanged. Also, there were no significant changes in the body weight and the coefficient of brain. In the present study, the anxiety-related behavior was evaluated using the plus-maze test. ZnO NPs treatment modulates slightly the exploratory behaviors of rats. However, no significant differences were observed in the anxious index between ZnO NP-treated rats and the control group (p > 0.05). Interestingly, our results demonstrated minimal effects of ZnO NPs on emotional behavior of animals, but there was a possible alteration in trace elements homeostasis in rat brain. © The Author(s) 2012.

  2. Chromium and Ruthenium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films for Propane Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Pozos, Heberto; González-Vidal, José Luis; Torres, Gonzalo Alberto; Rodríguez-Baez, Jorge; Maldonado, Arturo; de la Luz Olvera, María; Acosta, Dwight Roberto; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Castañeda, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Chromium and ruthenium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Cr) and (ZnO:Ru) thin solid films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the sol-gel dip-coating method. A 0.6 M solution of zinc acetate dihydrate dissolved in 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine was used as basic solution. Chromium (III) acetylacetonate and Ruthenium (III) trichloride were used as doping sources. The Ru incorporation and its distribution profile into the films were proved by the SIMS technique. The morphology and structure of the films were studied by SEM microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements, respectively. The SEM images show porous surfaces covered by small grains with different grain size, depending on the doping element, and the immersions number into the doping solutions. The sensing properties of ZnO:Cr and ZnO:Ru films in a propane (C3H8) atmosphere, as a function of the immersions number in the doping solution, have been studied in the present work. The highest sensitivity values were obtained for films doped from five immersions, 5.8 and 900, for ZnO:Cr and ZnO:Ru films, respectively. In order to evidence the catalytic effect of the chromium (Cr) and ruthenium (Ru), the sensing characteristics of undoped ZnO films are reported as well. PMID:23482091

  3. Tailoring the optical and hydrophobic property of zinc oxide nanorod by coating with amorphous graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahari, D.; Das, N. S.; Das, B.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.; Banerjee, D.

    2016-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized at room temperature on potassium permanganate activated silicon and glass substrate by simple chemical method using zinc acetate as precursor. To modify the surface energy of the as prepared ZnO thin films the samples were coated with amorphous graphene (a-G) synthesized by un-zipping of chemically synthesized amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs). All the pure and coated samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The roughness analysis of the as prepared samples was done by atomic force microscopic analysis. The detail optical properties of all the samples were studied with the help of a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The surface energy of the as prepared pure and coated samples was calculated by measuring the contact angle of two different liquids. It is seen that the water repellence of ZnO nanorods got increased after they are being coated with a-Gs. Also even after UV irradiation the contact angle remain same unlike the case for the uncoated sample where the contact angle gets decreased significantly after UV irradiation. Existing Cassie-Wenzel model has been employed along with the Owen's approach to determine the different components of surface energy.

  4. Zinc oxide nanostructures and its nano-compounds for efficient visible light photo-catalytic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Rania E.; Alnoor, Hatim; Elhag, Sami; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2017-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) in its nanostructure form is a promising material for visible light emission/absorption and utilization in different energy efficient photocatalytic processes. We will first present our recent results on the effect of varying the molar ratio of the synthesis nutrients on visible light emission. Further we will use the optimized conditions from the molar ration experiments to vary the synthesis processing parameters like stirring time etc. and the effect of all these parameters in order to optimize the efficiency and control the emission spectrum are investigated using different complementary techniques. Cathodoluminescence (CL) is combined with photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) as the techniques to investigate and optimizes visible light emission from ZnO/GaN light emitting diodes. We will then show and discuss our recent finding of the use of high quality ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) for efficient photo-degradation of toxic dyes using the visible spectra, namely with a wavelength up to 800 nm. In the end, we show how ZnO nanorods (NRs) are used as the first template to be transferred to bismuth zinc vanadate (BiZn2VO6). The BiZn2VO6 is then used to demonstrate efficient and cost effective hydrogen production through photoelectrochemical water splitting using solar radiation.

  5. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of zinc oxide with aloe vera as an obturating material in pulpectomy: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Khairwa, Abhishek; Bhat, Manohar; Sharma, Rajesh; Satish, V; Maganur, Prabhadevi; Goyal, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Pulp therapy for pulpally involved primary teeth continues to be a challenge to clinicians. One of the major areas of continued research is in the area of finding obturating materials to suit the specific properties of these teeth. Zinc oxide eugenol is used frequently in pulpectomy for the obturation of the primary teeth. To evaluate clinically and radiographically a mixture of zinc oxide eugenol and aloe vera as an obturating material. A total of 50 children, aged between 4 and 9 years, who were screened for unilateral or bilateral carious deciduous molars were studied. Out of these, 15 children were randomly selected for endodontic treatment. Obturation was done with a mixture of zinc oxide powder and aloe vera gel. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was done after 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months. The data were statistically analyzed. Endodontic treatment using a mixture of zinc oxide powder and aloe vera gel in primary teeth has shown good clinical and radiographic success. A detailed observational study with longer follow-up will highlight the benefits of aloe vera in primary teeth as an obturating medium.

  6. Charge Transport in Low-Temperature Processed Thin-Film Transistors Based on Indium Oxide/Zinc Oxide Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Krausmann, Jan; Sanctis, Shawn; Engstler, Jörg; Luysberg, Martina; Bruns, Michael; Schneider, Jörg J

    2018-06-20

    The influence of the composition within multilayered heterostructure oxide semiconductors has a critical impact on the performance of thin-film transistor (TFT) devices. The heterostructures, comprising alternating polycrystalline indium oxide and zinc oxide layers, are fabricated by a facile atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, enabling the tuning of its electrical properties by precisely controlling the thickness of the individual layers. This subsequently results in enhanced TFT performance for the optimized stacked architecture after mild thermal annealing at temperatures as low as 200 °C. Superior transistor characteristics, resulting in an average field-effect mobility (μ sat. ) of 9.3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ( W/ L = 500), an on/off ratio ( I on / I off ) of 5.3 × 10 9 , and a subthreshold swing of 162 mV dec -1 , combined with excellent long-term and bias stress stability are thus demonstrated. Moreover, the inherent semiconducting mechanism in such multilayered heterostructures can be conveniently tuned by controlling the thickness of the individual layers. Herein, devices comprising a higher In 2 O 3 /ZnO ratio, based on individual layer thicknesses, are predominantly governed by percolation conduction with temperature-independent charge carrier mobility. Careful adjustment of the individual oxide layer thicknesses in devices composed of stacked layers plays a vital role in the reduction of trap states, both interfacial and bulk, which consequently deteriorates the overall device performance. The findings enable an improved understanding of the correlation between TFT performance and the respective thin-film composition in ALD-based heterostructure oxides.

  7. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    SciT

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu, E-mail: cfzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Wang, Zhizhe

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150 °C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100 °C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightlymore » improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.« less

  8. Visible-blind ultraviolet photodiode fabricated by UV oxidation of metallic zinc on p-Si

    SciT

    Zhang, Dongyuan; Uchida, Kazuo; Nozaki, Shinji, E-mail: nozaki@ee.uec.ac.jp

    A UV photodiode fabricated by the UV oxidation of a metallic zinc thin film on p-Si has manifested unique photoresponse characteristics. The electron concentration found by the Hall measurement was 3 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3}, and such a low electron concentration resulted in a low visible photoluminescence. UV illumination enhances the oxidation at low temperatures and decreases the concentration of the oxygen vacancies. The I-V characteristic showed a good rectification with a four-order magnitude difference in the forward and reverse currents at 2 V, and its linear and frequency independent C{sup −2}–V characteristic confirmed an abrupt pn junction. The photoresponse showed a visiblemore » blindness with a responsivity ratio of UV and visible light as high as 100. Such a visible-blind photoresponse was attributed to the optimum thickness of the SiO{sub 2} formed on the Si surface during the UV oxidation at 400 °C. A lower potential barrier to holes at the ZnO/SiO{sub 2} interface facilitates Fowler-Nordheim tunneling of the photo-generated holes during the UV illumination, while a higher potential barrier to electrons efficiently blocks transport of the photo-generated electrons to the ZnO during the visible light illumination. The presence of oxide resulted in a slow photoresponse to the turn-on and off of the UV light. A detailed analysis is presented to understand how the photo-generated carriers contribute step by step to the photocurrent. In addition to the slow photoresponse associated with the SiO{sub 2} interfacial layer, the decay of the photocurrent was found extremely slow after turn-off of the UV light. Such a slow decay of the photocurrent is referred to as a persistent photoconductivity, which is caused by metastable deep levels. It is hypothesized that Zn vacancies form such a deep level, and that the photo-generated electrons need to overcome a thermal-energy barrier for capture. The ZnO film by the UV oxidation at 400 °C was

  9. Green synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticle using insulin plant (Costus pictus D. Don) and investigation of its antimicrobial as well as anticancer activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Joghee; Pradheesh, Ganeshan; Alexramani, Vincent; Sundrarajan, Mahalingam; Hong, Sun Ig

    2018-03-01

    In this work we aim to synthesize biocompatible ZnO nanoparticles from the zinc nitrate via green process using leaf extracts of the Costus pictus D. Don medicinal plant. FTIR studies confirm the presence of biomolecules and metal oxides. X-ray diffraction (XRD) structural analysis reveals the formation of pure hexagonal phase structures of ZnO nanoparticles. The surface morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) suggest that most ZnO crystallites are hexagonal. EDX analysis confirms the presence of primarily zinc and oxygen. TEM images show that biosynthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles are hexagonal and spherical. The plausible formation mechanisms of zinc oxide nanoparticles are also predicted. The biosynthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibit strong antimicrobial behavior against bacterial and fungal species when employing the agar diffusion method. Synthesized ZnO nanoparticles exhibit anticancer activity against Daltons lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells as well as antimicrobial activity against some bacterial and fungal strains.

  10. High sensitive formaldehyde graphene gas sensor modified by atomic layer deposition zinc oxide films

    SciT

    Mu, Haichuan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Keke

    2014-07-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with various thicknesses were fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition on Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene films and their response to formaldehyde has been investigated. It was found that 0.5 nm ZnO films modified graphene sensors showed high response to formaldehyde with the resistance change up to 52% at the concentration of 9 parts-per-million (ppm) at room temperature. Meanwhile, the detection limit could reach 180 parts-per-billion (ppb) and fast response of 36 s was also obtained. The high sensitivity could be attributed to the combining effect from the highly reactive, top mounted ZnO thin films, and high conductivemore » graphene base network. The dependence of ZnO films surface morphology and its sensitivity on the ZnO films thickness was also investigated.« less

  11. Bidirectional reflectance measurement of zinc oxide in 0.25 to 2.5 microns spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental apparatus was designed and used to measure the bidirectional reflectance of zinc oxide in the spectrum 0.25 to 2.5 microns. The nonspecular reflectance is essentially Lambert for wavelengths above 0.40 microns with the most deviation occuring for large source zenith angles. Below 0.400 microns the nonspecular reflectance is greater than Lambert in all directions and is greatest in the forward and backscatter directions. The ratio of the specular component to the nonspecular component at a zenith of 0 degrees was found to increase with source zenith and wavelength for wavelengths above 0.400 microns. Below 0.400 microns this ratio increases as wavelengths decrease. The variation of bidirectional reflectance with wavelength was found to have the characteristics absorption for Zn0 for wavelength below 0.400 microns.

  12. The influence of visible light on transparent zinc tin oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görrn, P.; Lehnhardt, M.; Riedl, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-11-01

    The characteristics of transparent zinc tin oxide thin film transistors (TTFTs) upon illumination with visible light are reported. Generally, a reversible decrease of threshold voltage Vth, saturation field effect mobility μsat, and an increase of the off current are found. The time scale of the recovery in the dark is governed by the persistent photoconductivity in the semiconductor. Devices with tuned [Zn]:[Sn] ratio show a shift of Vth of less 2V upon illumination at 5mW/cm2 (brightness >30000cd/m2) throughout the visible spectrum. These results demonstrate TTFTs which are candidates as pixel drivers in transparent active-matrix organic light emitting diode displays.

  13. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Polygala tenuifolia root extract.

    PubMed

    Nagajyothi, P C; Cha, Sang Ju; Yang, In Jun; Sreekanth, T V M; Kim, Kwang Joong; Shin, Heung Mook

    2015-05-01

    The exploitation of various plant materials for the green synthesis of nanoparticles is considered an eco-friendly technology because it does not involve toxic chemicals. In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were synthesized using the root extract of Polygala tenuifolia. Synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, TGA, TEM, SEM and EDX. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, whereas antioxidant activity was examined using a DPPH free radical assay. ZnO NPs demonstrated moderate antioxidant activity by scavenging 45.47% DPPH at 1mg/mL and revealed excellent anti-inflammatory activity by dose-dependently suppressing both mRNA and protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Light induced instabilities in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Migliorato, Piero; Jang, Jin

    2010-10-01

    The effect of exposure to ultraviolet radiation on the characteristics of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by sputtering is investigated. After illumination with 1.5 mW cm-2 of 365 nm radiation, in the absence of any bias stress, a persistent negative shift in the characteristics is observed in the dark. The magnitude of the shift increases with exposure time, saturating after about 10 min. Under these conditions the subthreshold exhibits a rigid shift of around 3.6 V and 7.5 V for TFTs with an active layer thickness of 20 nm and 50 nm, respectively. The shift in the dark increases (decreases) when a negative (positive) bias stress is applied under illumination. The instability behavior caused by exposure to light, in the absence of any bias stress, can be explained on the basis of ionization of neutral oxygen vacancies.

  15. Acoustoelectric current saturation in c-axis fiber-textured polycrystalline zinc oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompe, T.; Srikant, V.; Clarke, D. R.

    1996-12-01

    Acoustoelectric current saturation, which until now has only been observed in piezoelectric single crystals, is observed in thin polycrystalline zinc oxide films. Epitaxial ZnO films on c-plane sapphire and textured ZnO polycrystalline films on fused silica both exhibit current saturation phenomenon. The values of the saturation current densities are in the range 105-106 A/cm2, depending on the carrier concentration in the film, with corresponding saturation electric fields of 3-5×103 V/cm. In addition to the current saturation, the electrical properties of the films degraded with the onset of the acoustoelectric effect but could be restored by annealing at 250 °C in a vacuum for 30 min.

  16. Coherent diffractive imaging of solid state reactions in zinc oxide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, Steven J.; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the doping of zinc oxide (ZnO) microcrystals with iron and nickel via in situ coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) in vacuum. Evaporated thin metal films were deposited onto the ZnO microcrystals. A single crystal was selected and tracked through annealing cycles. A solid state reaction was observed in both iron and nickel experiments using CXDI. A combination of the shrink wrap and guided hybrid-input-output phasing methods were applied to retrieve the electron density. The resolution was 33 nm (half order) determined via the phase retrieval transfer function. The resulting images are nevertheless sensitive to sub-angstrom displacements. The exterior of the microcrystal was found to degrade dramatically. The annealing of ZnO microcrystals coated with metal thin films proved an unsuitable doping method. In addition the observed defect structure of one crystal was attributed to the presence of an array of defects and was found to change upon annealing.

  17. Ionic liquid gating reveals trap-filled limit mobility in low temperature amorphous zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubel, S.; Meyer, S.; Kunze, F.; Chabinyc, M. L.

    2013-10-01

    In low-temperature solution processed amorphous zinc oxide (a-ZnO) thin films, we show the thin film transistor (TFT) characteristics for the trap-filled limit (TFL), when the quasi Fermi energy exceeds the conduction band edge and all tail-states are filled. In order to apply gate fields that are high enough to reach the TFL, we use an ionic liquid tape gate. Performing capacitance voltage measurements to determine the accumulated charge during TFT operation, we find the TFL at biases higher than predicted by the electronic structure of crystalline ZnO. We conclude that the density of states in the conduction band of a-ZnO is higher than in its crystalline state. Furthermore, we find no indication of percolative transport in the conduction band but trap assisted transport in the tail-states of the band.

  18. Water-soluble thin film transistors and circuits based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung Hun; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Cho, In-Tak; Han, Sang Youn; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dong Joon; Shin, Jongmin; Baek, Geun Woo; Kim, Tae-il; Lee, Jong-Ho; Rogers, John A

    2015-04-22

    This paper presents device designs, circuit demonstrations, and dissolution kinetics for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) comprised completely of water-soluble materials, including SiNx, SiOx, molybdenum, and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Collections of these types of physically transient a-IGZO TFTs and 5-stage ring oscillators (ROs), constructed with them, show field effect mobilities (∼10 cm2/Vs), on/off ratios (∼2×10(6)), subthreshold slopes (∼220 mV/dec), Ohmic contact properties, and oscillation frequency of 5.67 kHz at supply voltages of 19 V, all comparable to otherwise similar devices constructed in conventional ways with standard, nontransient materials. Studies of dissolution kinetics for a-IGZO films in deionized water, bovine serum, and phosphate buffer saline solution provide data of relevance for the potential use of these materials and this technology in temporary biomedical implants.

  19. Template-Assisted Hydrothermal Growth of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanowires for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Applications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A flexible and robust piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) based on a polymer-ceramic nanocomposite structure has been successfully fabricated via a cost-effective and scalable template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method. Vertically aligned arrays of dense and uniform zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) with high aspect ratio (diameter ∼250 nm, length ∼12 μm) were grown within nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) templates. The energy conversion efficiency was found to be ∼4.2%, which is comparable to previously reported values for ZnO NWs. The resulting NG is found to have excellent fatigue performance, being relatively immune to detrimental environmental factors and mechanical failure, as the constituent ZnO NWs remain embedded and protected inside the polymer matrix. PMID:27172933

  20. Efficient inverted bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells with self-assembled monolayer modified zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wook Hyun; Lyu, Hong-Kun; Han, Yoon Soo; Woo, Sungho

    2013-10-01

    The performance of poly(3-hexylthiophen) (P3HT) and [6, 6]phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester ([60]PCBM)-based inverted bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) is enhanced by the modification of zinc oxide (ZnO)/BHJ interface with carboxylic-acid-functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Under simulated solar illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm2), the inverted devices fabricated with SAM-modified ZnO achieved an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.34% due to the increased fill factor and photocurrent density as compared to unmodified cells with PCE of 2.60%. This result provides an efficient method for interface engineering in inverted BHJ PSCs.