Science.gov

Sample records for zinc production facility

  1. 40 CFR 63.11164 - What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary zinc production facilities? 63.11164 Section 63.11164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Zinc Production Facilities § 63.11164 What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities? (a) If you own or...

  2. 40 CFR 63.11164 - What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary zinc production facilities? 63.11164 Section 63.11164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Zinc Production Facilities § 63.11164 What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities? (a) If you own or...

  3. 40 CFR 63.11164 - What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities? 63.11164 Section 63.11164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  4. 40 CFR 63.11164 - What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities? 63.11164 Section 63.11164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  5. 40 CFR 63.11164 - What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What General Provisions apply to primary zinc production facilities? 63.11164 Section 63.11164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  6. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  7. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  8. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate. ...

  9. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate. ...

  10. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? (a) You must... primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section 63.11166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  11. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfate production subcategory. 415.630 Section 415.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate. ...

  12. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfate production subcategory. 415.630 Section 415.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate. ...

  13. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfate production subcategory. 415.630 Section 415.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate. ...

  14. Effects of Zinc Chelators on Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Josephine; Day, Devin M.; Linz, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc concentrations strongly influence aflatoxin accumulation in laboratory media and in food and feed crops. The presence of zinc stimulates aflatoxin production, and the absence of zinc impedes toxin production. Initial studies that suggested a link between zinc and aflatoxin biosynthesis were presented in the 1970s. In the present study, we utilized two zinc chelators, N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) to explore the effect of zinc limitation on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. TPEN but not DMPS decreased aflatoxin biosynthesis up to six-fold depending on whether A. parasiticus was grown on rich or minimal medium. Although we observed significant inhibition of aflatoxin production by TPEN, no detectable changes were observed in expression levels of the aflatoxin pathway gene ver-1 and the zinc binuclear cluster transcription factor, AflR. Treatment of growing A. parasiticus solid culture with a fluorescent zinc probe demonstrated an increase in intracellular zinc levels assessed by increases in fluorescent intensity of cultures treated with TPEN compared to controls. These data suggest that TPEN binds to cytoplasmic zinc therefore limiting fungal access to zinc. To investigate the efficacy of TPEN on food and feed crops, we found that TPEN effectively decreases aflatoxin accumulation on peanut medium but not in a sunflower seeds-derived medium. From an application perspective, these data provide the basis for biological differences that exist in the efficacy of different zinc chelators in various food and feed crops frequently contaminated by aflatoxin. PMID:27271668

  15. Production Facility SCADA Design Report

    SciT

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Baily, Scott A.

    2015-03-23

    The following report covers FY 14 activities to develop supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the Northstar Moly99 production facility. The goal of this effort is to provide Northstar with a baseline system design.

  16. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  17. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride... of pollutants into treatment works which are publicly owned resulting from the production of zinc...

  18. 44 CFR 331.5 - Production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production facilities. 331.5... AND FACILITIES IN LABOR SURPLUS AREAS § 331.5 Production facilities. All Federal departments and... production facilities, including expansion, to the extent that such selection is consistent with existing law...

  19. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chloride production subcategory. 415.670 Section 415.670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride... chloride. ...

  20. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  1. Zinc

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  2. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at the...

  3. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at the...

  4. Zinc Regulation of Aminopeptidase B Involved in Neuropeptide Production

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Shin-Rong; Hook, Vivian

    2009-01-01

    Aminopeptidase B (AP-B) is a metallopeptidase that removes basic residues from the N-termini of neuropeptide substrates in secretory vesicles. This study assessed zinc regulation of AP-B activity, since secretory vesicles contain endogenous zinc. AP-B was inhibited by zinc at concentrations typically present in secretory vesicles. Zinc effects were dependent on concentration, incubation time, and the molar ratio of zinc to enzyme. AP-B activity was recovered upon removal of zinc. AP-B with zinc became susceptible to degradation by trypsin, suggesting that zinc alters enzyme conformation. Zinc regulation demonstrates the metallopeptidase property of AP-B. PMID:18571504

  5. Facile Route to Rare Heterobimetallic Aluminum-Copper and Aluminum-Zinc Selenide Clusters.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Li, Jiancheng; Liu, Rui; Zhu, Hongping; Roesky, Herbert W

    2017-03-20

    Heterobimetallic aluminum-copper and aluminum-zinc clusters were prepared from the reaction of LAl(SeH) 2 [1; L = HC(CMeNAr) 2 and Ar = 2,6-iPr 2 C 6 H 3 ] with (MesCu) 4 and ZnEt 2 , respectively. The resulting clusters with the core structures of Al 2 Se 4 Cu 4 and Al 2 Se 4 Zn 3 exhibit unique metal-organic frameworks. This is a novel pathway for the synthesis of aluminum-copper and aluminum-zinc selenides. The products have been characterized by spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray structural characterization.

  6. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21 Section 215.21 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw...

  7. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21 Section 215.21 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw...

  8. Appendix E - Sample Production Facility Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This sample Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan in Appendix E is intended to provide examples and illustrations of how a production facility could address a variety of scenarios in its SPCC Plan.

  9. 44 CFR 331.5 - Production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production facilities. 331.5 Section 331.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... and essential economic and strategic factors. ...

  10. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21 Section 215.21 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and...

  11. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415.670 Section 415.670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production...

  12. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415.670 Section 415.670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production...

  13. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415.670 Section 415.670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production...

  14. Natural products as zinc-dependent histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shuai; Liu, Zhao-Peng

    2015-03-01

    Zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs), a family of hydrolases that remove acetyl groups from lysine residues, play an important role in the regulation of multiple processes, from gene expression to protein activity. The dysregulation of HDACs is associated with many diseases including cancer, neurological disorders, cellular metabolism disorders, and inflammation. Molecules that act as HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) exhibit a variety of related bioactivities. In particular, HDACi have been applied clinically for the treatment of cancers. Inhibition through competitive binding of the catalytic domain of these enzymes has been achieved by a diverse array of small-molecule chemotypes, including a number of natural products. This review provides a systematic introduction of natural HDACi, with an emphasis on their enzyme inhibitory potency, selectivity, and biological activities, highlighting their various binding modes with HDACs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Production of zinc oxide nanowires power with precisely defined morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mičová, Júlia; Remeš, Zdeněk; Chan, Yu-Ying

    2017-12-01

    The interest about zinc oxide is increasing thanks to its unique chemical and physical properties. Our attention has focused on preparation powder of 1D nanostructures of ZnO nanowires with precisely defined morphology include characterization size (length and diameter) and shape controlled in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We have compared results of SEM with dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. We have found out that SEM method gives more accurate results. We have proposed transformation process from ZnO nanowires on substrates to ZnO nanowires powder by ultrasound peeling to colloid followed by lyophilization. This method of the mass production of the ZnO nanowires powder has some advantages: simplicity, cost effective, large-scale and environment friendly.

  16. Byproduct-free mass production of compound semiconductor nanowires: zinc phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yixi; Polinnaya, Rakesh; Vaddiraju, Sreeram

    2018-05-01

    A method for the mass production of compound semiconductor nanowires that involves the direct reaction of component elements in a chemical vapor deposition chamber (CVD) is presented. This method results in nanowires, without the associated production of any other byproducts such as nanoparticles or three-dimensional (3D) bulk crystals. Furthermore, no unreacted reactants remain mixed with the nanowire product in this method. This byproduct-free nanowire production thus circumvents the need to tediously purify and collect nanowires from a mixture of products/reactants after their synthesis. Demonstration made using zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) material system as an example indicated that the direct reaction of zinc microparticles with phosphorus supplied via the vapor phase results in the production of gram quantities of nanowires. To enhance thermal transport and achieve the complete reaction of zinc microparticles, while simultaneously ensuring that the microparticles do not agglomerate into macroscale zinc particles and partly remain unreacted (owing to diffusion limitations), pellets composed of mixtures of zinc and a sacrificial salt, NH4Cl, were employed as the starting material. The sublimation by decomposition of NH4Cl in the early stages of the reaction leaves a highly porous pellet of zinc composed of only zinc microparticles, which allows for inward diffusion of phosphorus/outward diffusion of zinc and the complete conversion of zinc into Zn3P2 nanowires. NH4Cl also aids in removal of any native oxide layer present on the zinc microparticles that may prevent their reaction with phosphorus. This method may be used to mass produce many other nanowires in a byproduct-free manner, besides Zn3P2.

  17. Dedicated nuclear facilities for electrolytic hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foh, S. E.; Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced technology, fully dedicated nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen production facility is presented. This plant will produce hydrogen and oxygen only and no electrical power will be generated for off-plant use. The conceptual design was based on hydrogen production to fill a pipeline at 1000 psi and a 3000 MW nuclear base, and the base-line facility nuclear-to-shaftpower and shaftpower-to-electricity subsystems, the water treatment subsystem, electricity-to-hydrogen subsystem, hydrogen compression, efficiency, and hydrogen production cost are discussed. The final conceptual design integrates a 3000 MWth high-temperature gas-cooled reactor operating at 980 C helium reactor-out temperature, direct dc electricity generation via acyclic generators, and high-current density, high-pressure electrolyzers based on the solid polymer electrolyte approach. All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced and pipeline hydrogen is produced at 1000 psi. Hydrogen costs were about half of the conventional nuclear electrolysis process.

  18. Development of a Medical Cyclotron Production Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Danny R.

    2003-08-01

    Development of a Cyclotron manufacturing facility begins with a business plan. Geographics, the size and activity of the medical community, the growth potential of the modality being served, and other business connections are all considered. This business used the customer base established by NuTech, Inc., an independent centralized nuclear pharmacy founded by Danny Allen. With two pharmacies in operation in Tyler and College Station and a customer base of 47 hospitals and clinics the existing delivery system and pharmacist staff is used for the cyclotron facility. We then added cyclotron products to contracts with these customers to guarantee a supply. We partnered with a company in the process of developing PET imaging centers. We then built an independent imaging center attached to the cyclotron facility to allow for the use of short-lived isotopes.

  19. Development of a Medical Cyclotron Production Facility

    SciT

    Allen, Danny R.

    Development of a Cyclotron manufacturing facility begins with a business plan. Geographics, the size and activity of the medical community, the growth potential of the modality being served, and other business connections are all considered. This business used the customer base established by NuTech, Inc., an independent centralized nuclear pharmacy founded by Danny Allen. With two pharmacies in operation in Tyler and College Station and a customer base of 47 hospitals and clinics the existing delivery system and pharmacist staff is used for the cyclotron facility. We then added cyclotron products to contracts with these customers to guarantee a supply.more » We partnered with a company in the process of developing PET imaging centers. We then built an independent imaging center attached to the cyclotron facility to allow for the use of short-lived isotopes.« less

  20. Implementation of a solid target production facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochon-Danguy, H. J.; Poniger, S. S.; Sachinidis, J. I.; Panopoulos, H. P.; Scott, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The desire to utilize long-lived PET isotopes in Australia has significantly increased over the years and several research projects for labelling of peptides, proteins and biomolecules, including labelling of recombinant antibodies has been restricted due to the limited availability of suitable isotopes. This need has led to the recent installation and commissioning of a new facility dedicated to fully automated solid target isotope production, including 24I, 64Cu, 89Zr and 86Y at the Austin Health Centre for PET.

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt. GGGGGG, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt. GGGGGG, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc...

  3. Study of oxygen gas production phenomenon during stand and discharge in silver-zinc batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Standard production procedures for manufacturing silver zinc batteries are evaluated and modified to reduce oxygen generation during open circuit stand and discharge. Production predictions of several variable combinations using analysis models are listed for minimum gassing, with emphasis on the concentration of potassium hydroxide in plate formation. A recommendation for work optimizing the variables involved in plate processing is included.

  4. Effects of Zinc Glycinate on Productive and Reproductive Performance, Zinc Concentration and Antioxidant Status in Broiler Breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yong-Xia; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Qian; Li, Kai-Xuan; Guo, Tian-Yu; Zhan, Xiu-An

    2017-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc glycinate (Zn-Gly) supplementation as an alternative for zinc sulphate (ZnSO 4 ) on productive and reproductive performance, zinc (Zn) concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders. Six hundred 39-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 groups consisting of 4 replicates with 25 birds each. Breeders were fed a basal diet (control group, 24 mg Zn/kg diet), basal diet supplemented with 80 mg Zn/kg diet from ZnSO 4 or basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg Zn/kg diet from Zn-Gly. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks after a 4-week pre-test with the basal diet, respectively. Results showed that Zn supplementation, regardless of sources, improved (P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio (kilogram of feed/kilogram of egg) and decreased broken egg rate, and elevated (P < 0.05) the qualified chick rate. Compared with the ZnSO 4 group, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly increased (P < 0.05) average egg weight, fertility, hatchability and qualified chick rate, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) broken egg rate. The Zn concentrations in liver and muscle were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group than that in ZnSO 4 group. Compared with ZnSO 4 group, 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly elevated (P < 0.05) the mRNA abundances of metallothionein (MT) and copper-zinc superoxide (Cu-Zn SOD), as well as the Cu-Zn SOD activity and MT concentration in liver. Moreover, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group had higher (P < 0.05) serum T-SOD and Cu-Zn SOD activities than that in the ZnSO 4 group. This study indicated that supplementation of Zn in basal diet improved productive and reproductive performance, Zn concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders, and the 80 mg Zn/kg from Zn-Gly was the optimum choice for broiler breeders compared with other levels of Zn from Zn-Gly and 80 mg/kg Zn from ZnSO 4 .

  5. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report

    SciT

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunatemore » that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.« less

  6. Bioavailability of zinc in two zinc sulfate by-products of the galvanizing industry.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H M; Boling, S D; Emmert, J L; Baker, D H

    1998-10-01

    Two Zn depletion/repletion assays were conducted with chicks to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of Zn from two new by-products of the galvanizing industry. Using a soy concentrate-dextrose diet, slope-ratio methodology was employed to evaluate two different products: Fe-ZnSO4 x H2O with 20.2% Fe and 13.0% Zn, and Zn-FeSO4 x H2O with 14.2% Fe and 20.2% Zn. Feed-grade ZnSO4 x H2O was used as a standard. Weight gain, tibia Zn concentration, and total tibia Zn responded linearly (P < 0.01) to Zn supplementation from all three sources. Slope-ratio calculations based on weight gain established average Zn RBV values of 98% for Fe-ZnSO4 x H2O and 102% for Zn-FeSO4 x H2O, and these values were not different (P > 0.10) from the ZnSO4 standard (100%). Slope-ratio calculations based on total tibia Zn established average Zn RBV values of 126% for Fe-ZnSO4 x H2O and 127% for Zn-FeSO4 x H2O, and these values were greater (P < 0.01) than those of the ZnSO4 standard (100%). It is apparent that both mixed sulfate products of Fe and Zn are excellent sources of bioavailable Zn.

  7. Sorption of copper, zinc and cobalt by oat and oat products.

    PubMed

    Górecka, Danuta; Stachowiak, Jadwiga

    2002-04-01

    We determined copper, zinc and cobalt sorption by oat and its products under variable pH conditions as well as the content of neutral dietary fiber (NDF) and its fractional composition. Adsorbents in a model sorption system were: oat, dehulled oat, oats bran and oats flakes. Three various buffers (pH 1.8, 6.6 and 8.7) were used as dispersing solutions. Results collected during this study indicate that copper, zinc and cobalt sorption is significantly affected by the type of cereal raw material. Zinc and copper ions are subjected to higher sorption than cobalt ions. Examined metal ions were subjected to high sorption under conditions corresponding to the duodenum environment (pH 8.7), regardless of the kind of adsorbent. A little lower sorption capacity is observed under conditions close to the neutral environment, while the lowest one is found in environment reflecting conditions of stomach juice (pH 1.8). Zinc ions are bound intensively by dehulled oat, while oats flakes bound mostly copper and cobalt, independently on environmental conditions. Contents of dietary fiber in oat, dehulled oat, oat bran and oat flakes were: 40.1, 19.3, 20.3 and 14.3%, respectively. The dominating fraction in all oat products was the fraction of hemicelluloses. The content of remaining fractions varies in dependence on the product.

  8. Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These standards limits emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from new and reconstructed synthetic fiber production facilities that use solvent-spinning processes. Includes rule history and summary.

  9. Facile synthesis and photocatalytic activity of ZnO/zinc titanate core-shell nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ding-Chao; Fu, Qiu-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Bin; Zhao, Hong-Yang; Tu, Ya-Fang; Tian, Yu; Zhou, Di; Zheng, Guang; Lu, Hong-Bing

    2018-02-01

    ZnO/zinc titanate core-shell nanorod arrays (CSNRs) were successfully prepared via a simple synthesis process by combining hydrothermal synthesis and liquid phase deposition (LPD). The surface morphologies, crystalline characteristics, optical properties and surface electronic states of the ZnO/zinc titanate CSNRs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffractometer, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, PL and ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectra. By controlling the reaction time of LPD, the shell thickness could vary with the reaction time. Furthermore, the impacts of the reaction time and post-annealing temperature on the crystalline structure and chemical composition of the CSNRs were also investigated. The studies of photocatalytic activity under UV light irradiation revealed that the ZnO/zinc titanate CSNRs annealed at 700 °C with 30 min deposition exhibited the best photocatalytic activity and good stability for degradation of methylene blue. It had been found that the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the CSNRs led to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the ZnO/zinc titanate CSNRs grown on quartz glass substrate could be easily recycled for reuse with almost unchanged photocatalytic activity.

  10. Production and Injection data for NV Binary facilities

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mines, Greg

    2013-12-24

    Excel files are provided with well production and injection data for binary facilities in Nevada. The files contain the data that reported montly to the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG) by the facility operators. this data has been complied into Excel spreadsheets for each of the facilities given on the NBMG web site.

  11. Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles by pyrolysis of alkaline and Zn-C battery waste.

    PubMed

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles from alkaline and zinc-carbon battery black mass was studied by a pyrolysis process at 850-950°C with various residence times under 1L/minN2(g) flow rate conditions without using any additive. The particular and chemical properties of the battery waste were characterized to investigate the possible reactions and effects on the properties of the reaction products. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process were studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. The carbothermic reduction reaction of battery black mass takes place and makes it possible to produce fine zinc particles by a rapid condensation, after the evaporation of zinc from a pyrolysis batch. The amount of zinc that can be separated from the black mass is increased by both pyrolysis temperature and residence time. Zinc recovery of 97% was achieved at 950°C and 1h residence time using the proposed alkaline battery recycling process. The pyrolysis residue is mainly MnO powder with a low amount of zinc, iron and potassium impurities and has an average particle size of 2.9μm. The obtained zinc particles have an average particle size of about 860nm and consist of hexagonal crystals around 110nm in size. The morphology of the zinc particles changes from a hexagonal shape to s spherical morphology by elevating the pyrolysis temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thyroid hormone upregulates zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in the liver but not in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Simó, Rafael; Hernández, Cristina; Sáez-López, Cristina; Soldevila, Berta; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Selva, David M

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein by adipose tissue is crucial in accounting for the lipolysis occurring in cancer cachexia of certain malignant tumors. The main aim of this study was to explore whether thyroid hormone could enhance zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in adipose tissue. In addition, the regulation of zinc-α2-glycoprotein by thyroid hormone in the liver was investigated. We performed in vitro (HepG2 cells and primary human adipocytes) and in vivo (C57BL6/mice) experiments addressed to examine the effect of thyroid hormone on zinc-α2-glycoprotein production (mRNA and protein levels) in liver and visceral adipose tissue. We also measured the zinc-α2-glycoprotein serum levels in a cohort of patients before and after controlling their hyperthyroidism. Our results showed that thyroid hormone up-regulates zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the zinc-α2-glycoprotein proximal promoter contains functional thyroid hormone receptor binding sites that respond to thyroid hormone treatment in luciferase reporter gene assays in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, zinc-α2-glycoprotein induced lipolysis in HepG2 in a dose-dependent manner. Our in vivo experiments in mice confirmed the up-regulation of zinc-α2-glycoprotein induced by thyroid hormone in the liver, thus leading to a significant increase in zinc-α2-glycoprotein circulating levels. However, thyroid hormone did not regulate zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in either human or mouse adipocytes. Finally, in patients with hyperthyroidism a significant reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein serum levels was detected after treatment but was unrelated to body weight changes. We conclude that thyroid hormone up-regulates the production of zinc-α2-glycoprotein in the liver but not in the adipose tissue. The neutral effect of thyroid hormones on zinc-α2-glycoprotein expression in adipose tissue could be the reason why zinc-α2-glycoprotein is not related to weight

  13. Thyroid Hormone Upregulates Zinc-α2-glycoprotein Production in the Liver but Not in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Rafael; Hernández, Cristina; Sáez-López, Cristina; Soldevila, Berta; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Selva, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein by adipose tissue is crucial in accounting for the lipolysis occurring in cancer cachexia of certain malignant tumors. The main aim of this study was to explore whether thyroid hormone could enhance zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in adipose tissue. In addition, the regulation of zinc-α2-glycoprotein by thyroid hormone in the liver was investigated. We performed in vitro (HepG2 cells and primary human adipocytes) and in vivo (C57BL6/mice) experiments addressed to examine the effect of thyroid hormone on zinc-α2-glycoprotein production (mRNA and protein levels) in liver and visceral adipose tissue. We also measured the zinc-α2-glycoprotein serum levels in a cohort of patients before and after controlling their hyperthyroidism. Our results showed that thyroid hormone up-regulates zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the zinc-α2-glycoprotein proximal promoter contains functional thyroid hormone receptor binding sites that respond to thyroid hormone treatment in luciferase reporter gene assays in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, zinc-α2-glycoprotein induced lipolysis in HepG2 in a dose-dependent manner. Our in vivo experiments in mice confirmed the up-regulation of zinc-α2-glycoprotein induced by thyroid hormone in the liver, thus leading to a significant increase in zinc-α2-glycoprotein circulating levels. However, thyroid hormone did not regulate zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in either human or mouse adipocytes. Finally, in patients with hyperthyroidism a significant reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein serum levels was detected after treatment but was unrelated to body weight changes. We conclude that thyroid hormone up-regulates the production of zinc-α2-glycoprotein in the liver but not in the adipose tissue. The neutral effect of thyroid hormones on zinc-α2-glycoprotein expression in adipose tissue could be the reason why zinc-α2-glycoprotein is not related to weight

  14. Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones: synthesis, facile morphological and structural modification, and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wei; Ma, Renzhi; Liang, Jianbo; Wang, Chengxiang; Liu, Xiaohe; Zhou, Kechao; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2014-10-01

    Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones intercalated with DS- have been synthesized for the first time via a convenient synthetic approach, using homogeneous precipitation in the presence of urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS plays a significant role in controlling the morphologies of as-synthesized samples. Conical samples intercalated with various anions were transformed through an anion-exchange route in ethanol solution, and the original conical structure was perfectly maintained. Additionally, these DS--inserted nanocones can be transformed into square-like nanoplates in aqueous solution at room temperature, fulfilling the need for different morphology-dependent properties. Corresponding ZnO nanocones and nanoplates have been further obtained through the thermal calcination of NO3--intercalating zinc hydroxide nanocones/nanoplates. These ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies exhibit promising photocatalytic properties.Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones intercalated with DS- have been synthesized for the first time via a convenient synthetic approach, using homogeneous precipitation in the presence of urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS plays a significant role in controlling the morphologies of as-synthesized samples. Conical samples intercalated with various anions were transformed through an anion-exchange route in ethanol solution, and the original conical structure was perfectly maintained. Additionally, these DS--inserted nanocones can be transformed into square-like nanoplates in aqueous solution at room temperature, fulfilling the need for different morphology-dependent properties. Corresponding ZnO nanocones and nanoplates have been further obtained through the thermal calcination of NO3--intercalating zinc hydroxide nanocones/nanoplates. These ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies exhibit promising photocatalytic properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Typical SEM images, TGA curves and XRD patterns of

  15. 15 CFR 712.4 - New Schedule 1 production facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.4 New Schedule 1 production facility. (a) Establishment of a...) of the CWCR, and you intend to begin production of Schedule 1 chemicals at your facility in...

  16. 15 CFR 712.4 - New Schedule 1 production facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.4 New Schedule 1 production facility. (a) Establishment of a...) of the CWCR, and you intend to begin production of Schedule 1 chemicals at your facility in...

  17. Preferential depletion of zinc within Costa Rica upwelling dome creates conditions for zinc co-limitation of primary production

    PubMed Central

    Dreux Chappell, P.; Vedmati, Jagruti; Selph, Karen E.; Cyr, Heather A.; Jenkins, Bethany D.; Landry, Michael R.; Moffett, James W.

    2016-01-01

    The Costa Rica Dome (CRD) is a wind-driven feature characterized by high primary production and an unusual cyanobacterial bloom in surface waters. It is not clear whether this bloom arises from top-down or bottom-up processes. Several studies have argued that trace metal geochemistry within the CRD contributes to the composition of the phytoplankton assemblages, since cyanobacteria and eukaryotic phytoplankton have different transition metal requirements. Here, we report that total dissolved zinc (Zn) is significantly depleted relative to phosphate (P) and silicate (Si) within the upper water column of the CRD compared with other oceanic systems, and this may create conditions favorable for cyanobacteria, which have lower Zn requirements than their eukaryotic competitors. Shipboard grow-out experiments revealed that while Si was a limiting factor under our experimental conditions, additions of Si and either iron (Fe) or Zn led to higher biomass than Si additions alone. The addition of Fe and Zn alone did not lead to significant enhancements. Our results suggest that the depletion of Zn relative to P in upwelled waters may create conditions in the near-surface waters that favor phytoplankton with low Zn requirements, including cyanobacteria. PMID:27275028

  18. Overview of Particle Production Facilities Available in the Czech Republic

    SciT

    Kugler, Andrej

    2007-11-26

    A brief overview of particle production facilities available in Czech Republic is given. In particular are described the facilities at the Nuclear Physics Institute in Rez near Prague, namely: an isochronous cyclotron, an electrostatic accelerator tandetron and a microtron. An outline of the main research projects carried out is included.

  19. Effect of zinc compounds on Fusarium verticillioides growth, hyphae alterations, conidia, and fumonisin production.

    PubMed

    Savi, Geovana D; Vitorino, Vinícius; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Scussel, Vildes M

    2013-10-01

    Several strategies are used to eliminate toxigenic fungi that produce fumonisins in grains. Fusarium verticillioides can be controlled by the application of synthetic fungicides in the field or during storage. However, there may also be residuals, which may remain in the foods. Inorganic compounds such as zinc are cheap, stable and could present strong antifungal activity. Some Zn compounds can be utilized as dietary supplements and are authorized for the fortification of foods. Knowing the advantages and that low concentrations of Zn can have antimicrobial activity, our objective was to evaluate the effects of Zn compounds on the growth of F. verticillioides and the production of fumonisin and conidia. In addition, we aimed to verify that Zn compounds cause morphological alterations of the hyphae, mortality and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds efficiently reduced fungal growth and fumonisin production. Treatment using zinc perchlorate gave the best results. All treatments inhibited conidia production and caused morphological alterations of the hyphae. It was possible to observe cell death and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds have advantages compared to other antifungal compounds. In particular, they are non-toxic for the organism in appropriate amounts. They could be studied further as potential fungicides in agriculture. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. [Consumptions of Meat and Dairy Products, Zinc Intake and Pubertal Development in Adolescents in Chengdu].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiao; Yang, Ming-zhe; Duan, Ruo-nan; Tian, Guo; Bao, Yu-xin; Chen, Yan-rong; Xue, Hong-mei; Liu, Yan; Cheng, Guo

    2015-09-01

    To determine the associations between meat, dairy and zinc intake and pubertal development in adolescents in Chengdu. A total of 1320 children and adolescents aged 9-15 years in Chengdu were recruited using a stratified cluster sampling strategy. Dietary intake was assessed by the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 3-day 24-hour dietary recall. Pubertal development was evaluated through physical examinations. Consumptions of meat and dairy, and zinc intake were compared between groups with different levels of pubertal development according to the Tanner criteria. The median age of spermarche was 13. 00 years. The boys who had had spermarche consumed more meat (including red meat) and dairy products than those who had not yet (P<0. 05). Daily consumption of total meat was positively correlated with the level of pubertal development (P<0. 05). The median age of menarche was 12. 11 years. The girls who had had menarche consumed more meat and less diiry products than those who had not yet (P<0. 05). Daily consumption of dairy products was negatively associated with breast development and the level of pubertal development (P < 0. 05). Consumptions of meat, red meat and dairy products are associated with pubertal development in adolescents in Chengdu. However, the differences between boys and girls warrant further studies.

  1. Facile Synthesis of Self-Assembled Flower-Like Mesoporous Zinc Oxide Nanoflakes for Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saranya, P. E.; Selladurai, S.

    Flower-shaped self-assembled zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via a temperature-controlled hydrothermal method. The crystallinity and phase formation of the compound were determined from powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) result. Surface morphology investigations reveal the self-assembled ZnO nanoflakes to form a spherical flower-like structure. In addition, the particle size was determined from high-resolution transmission electron microscope measurement as 18nm which is in accord with XRD and UV results. X-ray photo electron spectroscopy studies reveal the chemical composition and oxidation state of the ZnO nanoparticle. The specific surface area was calculated, and mesoporous nature was confirmed using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. Results support the superior interaction between the electrode and electrolyte ions through surface pores. Capacitive performance of the ZnO electrode material was determined using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge studies, and a maximum specific capacitance of 322F/g was obtained at 5mV/sec. Electrochemical impedance spectrum reveals the materials fast charge transfer kinetics.

  2. Production of 64Cu and 67Cu radiopharmaceuticals using zinc target irradiated with accelerator neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Masako; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Saeki, Hideya; Sato, Nozomi; Motoishi, Shoji; Nagai, Yasuki

    2014-09-01

    Copper radioisotopes have gained a lot of attention in radiopharmaceuticals owing to their unique decay characteristics. The longest half-life β emitter, 67Cu, is thought to be suitable for targeted radio-immunotherapy. Adequate production of 67Cu to meet the demands of clinical studies has not been fully established. Another attractive copper isotope, 64Cu has possible applications as a diagnostic imaging tracer combined with a therapeutic effect. This work proposes a production method using accelerator neutrons in which two copper radioisotopes can be produced: 1) 68Zn(n,x)67Cu and 2) 64Zn(n,p)64Cu using ~14 MeV neutrons generated by natC(d, n) reaction, both from natural or enriched zinc oxides. The generated 64,67Cu were separated from the target zinc oxide using a chelating and an anion exchange columns and were labelled with two widely studied chelators where the labelling efficiency was found to be acceptably good. The major advantage of this method is that a significant amount of 64,67Cu with a very few impurity radionuclides are produced which also makes the separation procedure simple. Provided an accelerator supplying an Ed = ~ 40 MeV, a wide application of 64,67Cu based drugs in nuclear medicine is feasible in the near future. We will present the characteristics of this production method using accelerator neutrons including the chemical separation processes.

  3. PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT CHANGES FOR CLEANER PRODUCTION IN FEDERAL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses process and equipment changes for cleaner production in federal facilities. During the 1990s, DoD and EPA conducted joint research and development, aimed at reducing the discharge of hazardous and toxic pollutants from military production and maintenance faci...

  4. 77 FR 48992 - Tobacco Product Manufacturing Facility Visits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... manufacturing operations--from the receipt of raw materials to the distribution of finished products, and Learn... Manufacturing facilities for materials used for further processing in finished tobacco products (including, but..., parts, accessories, and Manufacturers of materials used for further processing in finished tobacco...

  5. The effect of polymers onto the size of zinc layered hydroxide salt and its calcined product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mohd Zobir bin; Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh; Yahaya, Asmah Hj; Abd Rahman, Mohd Zaki

    2009-02-01

    Zinc hydroxide nitrate, a brucite-like layered material was synthesized using pH control method. Poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(ethylene glycol) were used at various percentages as size decreasing agents during the synthesis of zinc hydroxide nitrate. SEM and PXRD showed the decrease of size and thickness of the resultant zinc hydroxide nitrates. TG and surface area data confirmed the decrease of the particle sizes, too. When zinc hydroxide nitrates were heat treated at 500 °C, the physical properties of nano zinc oxides obtained depended on the parent material, zinc hydroxide nitrate.

  6. Initial utilization of the CVIRB video production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Russell V.; Busquets, Anthony M.; Hogge, Thomas W.

    1987-01-01

    Video disk technology is one of the central themes of a technology demonstrator workstation being assembled as a man/machine interface for the Space Station Data Management Test Bed at Johnson Space Center. Langley Research Center personnel involved in the conception and implementation of this workstation have assembled a video production facility to allow production of video disk material for this propose. This paper documents the initial familiarization efforts in the field of video production for those personnel and that facility. Although the entire video disk production cycle was not operational for this initial effort, the production of a simulated disk on video tape did acquaint the personnel with the processes involved and with the operation of the hardware. Invaluable experience in storyboarding, script writing, audio and video recording, and audio and video editing was gained in the production process.

  7. Facile fabrication and characterization of chitosan-based zinc oxide nanoparticles and evaluation of their antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Kaur, Surinder; Brar, Satinder Kaur

    2014-06-01

    The present investigation deals with the facile synthesis and characterization of chitosan (CTS)-based zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) and their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic microorganisms. ZnO-CTS NPs were synthesized through two different methods: nano spray drying and precipitation, using various organic compounds (citric acid, glycerol, starch and whey powder) as stabilizers. Both the synthesis methods were simple and were devoid of any chemical usage. The detailed characterization of the NPs was carried out using UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering particle size analysis, zeta potential measurements and scanning electron microscopy, which confirmed the fabrication of NPs with different shapes and sizes. Antimicrobial assay of synthesized ZnO-CTS NPs was carried out against different pathogenic microbial strains ( Candida albicans, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus). The significant ( p < 0.05) inhibition of growth was observed for both M. luteus and S. aureus with ZnO-CTS NPs (with a concentration ranging from 0.625 to 0.156 mg/ml) as compared to control treatment. ZnO-CTS NPs also showed significant biofilm inhibition activity ( p < 0.05) against M. luteus and S. aureus. The study demonstrated the potential of ZnO-CTS NPs as antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents.

  8. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  9. Recent Productivity Improvements to the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popernack, Thomas G., Jr.; Sydnor, George H.

    1998-01-01

    Productivity gains have recently been made at the National Transonic Facility wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. A team was assigned to assess and set productivity goals to achieve the desired operating cost and output of the facility. Simulations have been developed to show the sensitivity of selected process productivity improvements in critical areas to reduce overall test cycle times. The improvements consist of an expanded liquid nitrogen storage system, a new fan drive, a new tunnel vent stack heater, replacement of programmable logic controllers, an increased data communications speed, automated test sequencing, and a faster model changeout system. Where possible, quantifiable results of these improvements are presented. Results show that in most cases, improvements meet the productivity gains predicted by the simulations.

  10. Synthetic fiber production facilities: Background information for proposed standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, D. R.

    1982-10-01

    Standards of performance to control emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from new, modified, and reconstructed synthetic fiber production facilities are being proposed under section III of the Clean Air Act. This document contains information on the background and authority, regulatory alternatives considered, and environmental and economic impacts of the regulatory alternatives.

  11. Medical Isotope Production Analyses In KIPT Neutron Source Facility

    SciT

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    Medical isotope production analyses in Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) neutron source facility were performed to include the details of the irradiation cassette and the self-shielding effect. An updated detailed model of the facility was used for the analyses. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven system (ADS), which has a subcritical assembly using low-enriched uranium fuel elements with a beryllium-graphite reflector. The beryllium assemblies of the reflector have the same outer geometry as the fuel elements, which permits loading the subcritical assembly with different number of fuel elements without impacting the reflector performance. The subcritical assembly is drivenmore » by an external neutron source generated from the interaction of 100-kW electron beam with a tungsten target. The facility construction was completed at the end of 2015, and it is planned to start the operation during the year of 2016. It is the first ADS in the world, which has a coolant system for removing the generated fission power. Argonne National Laboratory has developed the design concept and performed extensive design analyses for the facility including its utilization for the production of different radioactive medical isotopes. 99Mo is the parent isotope of 99mTc, which is the most commonly used medical radioactive isotope. Detailed analyses were performed to define the optimal sample irradiation location and the generated activity, for several radioactive medical isotopes, as a function of the irradiation time.« less

  12. Enhancement of emulsifier production by Curvularia lunata in cadmium, zinc and lead presence.

    PubMed

    Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Frycie, Aleksandra; Słaba, Mirosława; Długoński, Jerzy

    2007-10-01

    The influence of cadmium, zinc and lead on fungal emulsifier synthesis and on the growth of filamentous fungus Curvularia lunata has been studied. Tolerance to heavy metals established for C. lunata was additionally compared with the sensitivity exhibited by strains of Curvularia tuberculata and Paecilomyces marquandii-fungi which do not secrete compounds of emulsifying activity. Although C. lunata, as the only one out of all studied fungi, exhibited the lowest tolerance to heavy metals when grown on a solid medium (in conditions preventing emulsifier synthesis), it manifested the highest tolerance in liquid culture - in conditions allowing exopolymer production. Cadmium, zinc and lead presented in liquid medium up to a concentration of 15 mM had no negative effect on C. lunata growth and stimulated emulsifier synthesis. In the presence of 15 mM of heavy metals, both the emulsifier and 24-h-old growing mycelium exhibited maximum sorption capacities, which were determined as 18.2 +/- 2.67, 156.1 +/- 10.32 mg g(-1) for Cd2+, 22.2 +/- 3.40, 95.2 +/- 14.21 mg g(-1) for Zn2+ and 51.1 +/- 1.85, 230.0 +/- 28.47 mg g(-1) for Pb2+ respectively. The results obtained by us in this work indicate that the emulsifier acts as a protective compound increasing the ability of C. lunata to survive in heavy metal polluted environment. Enhancement of exopolymer synthesis in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ may also suggest, at least to some extent, a metal-specific nature of emulsifier production in C. lunata. Due to accumulation capability and tolerance to heavy metals, C. lunata mycelium surrounded by the emulsifier could be applied for toxic metal removal.

  13. AMS data production facilities at science operations center at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choutko, V.; Egorov, A.; Eline, A.; Shan, B.

    2017-10-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a high energy physics experiment on the board of the International Space Station (ISS). This paper presents the hardware and software facilities of Science Operation Center (SOC) at CERN. Data Production is built around production server - a scalable distributed service which links together a set of different programming modules for science data transformation and reconstruction. The server has the capacity to manage 1000 paralleled job producers, i.e. up to 32K logical processors. Monitoring and management tool with Production GUI is also described.

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIE...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIE...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIE...

  17. Influence of zinc on biogas production and antibiotic resistance gene profiles during anaerobic digestion of swine manure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Xiaojuan; Gu, Jie; Zhang, Yajun

    2017-11-01

    This study determined the accumulated biogas, methane content, and absolute abundances (AAs) of 14 common antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and two integrons during the anaerobic digestion of swine manure for 52days with different amounts of added zinc. The accumulated biogas increased by 51.2% and 56.0% with 125mgL -1 (L) and 1250mgL -1 (H) zinc, respectively, compared with the control with no added zinc (CK), but there was no significant difference between L and H. Compared with CK, excluding tetW and tetC, all the other ARGs detected in this study increased in the L and H reactors. However, the low concentration of zinc (L reactor) caused greater increases in the AAs of ARGs in the AD products. Redundancy analysis showed that NO 3 -N and bio-zinc significantly explained the changes in genes, where they accounted for 60.9% and 20.3% of the total variation in the environmental factors, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. 6 CFR 37.43 - Physical security of DMV production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Physical security of DMV production facilities... Identification Card Production Facilities § 37.43 Physical security of DMV production facilities. (a) States must ensure the physical security of facilities where driver's licenses and identification cards are produced...

  19. Environmental and public health related risk of veterinary zinc in pig production - Using Denmark as an example.

    PubMed

    Jensen, John; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Battisti, Antonio; Baptiste, Keith Edward

    2018-05-01

    At great economic cost, important steps have been taken over the last many decades to reduce and control emissions of heavy metals in order to protect the environment and public health. Monitoring has confirmed the success of these policies with progressive declines of heavy metals in for example air, sewage sludge and environmental samples. For zinc, such improvements may nevertheless be counter-acted by its widely usage as a feed additive and veterinary medicinal product to piglets in the post-weaning period resulting in reduced occurrence of diarrhea and improvement of daily weight gain. This review therefore focuses on two major concerns associated with veterinary use of zinc, namely the quantifiable risks to the environment and promotion of (multi) resistant bacteria like LA-MRSA in pig farms. Denmark is used as an informed and realistic worst-case scenario, representing the largest pig production per capita in Europe. It is furthermore, one of the countries where most recent information can be found regarding soil monitoring data and zinc consumption within the pig production. An average increase in soil concentration by >45% was recently reported within the period 1998-2014. In order to predict future risk, this review presents new and simplified model predictions using current soil concentrations, annual load rates and predicted accumulation rates. In conclusion, it is estimated that within 25 years, continued agricultural practice of current zinc loads may result in a situation where almost all soils receiving manure from intensive piglet production may be at risk, but also other pig production types may result in scenarios with predicted risk to soil dwelling species, especially in sandy soils. Besides the quantifiable risks to soil ecosystems, high levels of zinc furthermore co-select for the persistence of LA-MRSA CC398 and other resistant bacteria on pig farms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ergonomic Synthesis Suitable for Industrial Production of Silver-Festooned Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, G. R.; Khan, R. A.

    2015-07-01

    For maximizing productivity, minimizing cost, time-boxing process and optimizing human effort, a single-step, cost-effective, ultra-fast and environmentally benign synthesis suitable for industrial production of nanocrystalline ZnO, and Ag-doped ZnO has been reported in this paper. The synthesis based on microwave-supported aqueous solution method used zinc acetate dehydrate and silver nitrate as precursors for fabrication of nanorods. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. The undoped and Ag-doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in a hexagonal wurtzite structure having spindle-like morphology. The blue shift occurred at absorption edge of Ag-doped ZnO around 260 nm compared to 365 nm of bulk ZnO. The red shift occurred at Raman peak site of 434 cm-1 compared to characteristic wurtzite phase peak of ZnO (437 cm-1). The bandgap energies were found to be 3.10 eV, 3.11 eV and 3.18 eV for undoped, 1% Ag-doped, and 3% Ag-doped ZnO samples, respectively. The TEM results provided average particle sizes of 17 nm, 15 nm and 13 nm for undoped, and 1% and 3% Ag-doped ZnO samples, respectively.

  1. Influence of foliar fertilization on walnut foliar zinc levels and nut production in black walnut

    William R. Reid; Andrew L. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The impact of foliar zinc fertilizer application on nut-bearing black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) trees was studied. Foliar sprays were applied three times per season on two cultivars during four growing seasons by wetting the foliage of the entire crown using a tank mix containing 500 ppm zinc, starting at leaf burst and continuing at 2 week intervals...

  2. Zinc and Copper Differentially Modulate Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing by γ-Secretase and Amyloid-β Peptide Production.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Hermeto; Wu, Fang; Dimitrov, Mitko; Garcia Osuna, Guillermo M; Fraering, Patrick C

    2017-03-03

    Recent evidence suggests involvement of biometal homeostasis in the pathological mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). For example, increased intracellular copper or zinc has been linked to a reduction in secreted levels of the AD-causing amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). However, little is known about whether these biometals modulate the generation of Aβ. In the present study we demonstrate in both cell-free and cell-based assays that zinc and copper regulate Aβ production by distinct molecular mechanisms affecting the processing by γ-secretase of its Aβ precursor protein substrate APP-C99. We found that Zn 2+ induces APP-C99 dimerization, which prevents its cleavage by γ-secretase and Aβ production, with an IC 50 value of 15 μm Importantly, at this concentration, Zn 2+ also drastically raised the production of the aggregation-prone Aβ43 found in the senile plaques of AD brains and elevated the Aβ43:Aβ40 ratio, a promising biomarker for neurotoxicity and AD. We further demonstrate that the APP-C99 histidine residues His-6, His-13, and His-14 control the Zn 2+ -dependent APP-C99 dimerization and inhibition of Aβ production, whereas the increased Aβ43:Aβ40 ratio is substrate dimerization-independent and involves the known Zn 2+ binding lysine Lys-28 residue that orientates the APP-C99 transmembrane domain within the lipid bilayer. Unlike zinc, copper inhibited Aβ production by directly targeting the subunits presenilin and nicastrin in the γ-secretase complex. Altogether, our data demonstrate that zinc and copper differentially modulate Aβ production. They further suggest that dimerization of APP-C99 or the specific targeting of individual residues regulating the production of the long, toxic Aβ species, may offer two therapeutic strategies for preventing AD. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Zinc oxide as a new antimicrobial preservative of topical products: interactions with common formulation ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pasquet, Julia; Chevalier, Yves; Couval, Emmanuelle; Bouvier, Dominique; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine

    2015-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) appears as a promising preservative for pharmaceutical or cosmetic formulations. The other ingredients of the formulations may have specific interactions with ZnO that alter its antimicrobial properties. The influence of common formulation excipients on the antimicrobial efficacy of ZnO has been investigated in simple model systems and in typical topical products containing a complex formulation. A wide variety of formulation excipients have been investigated for their interactions with ZnO: antioxidants, chelating agents, electrolytes, titanium dioxide pigment. The antimicrobial activity of ZnO against Escherichia coli was partially inhibited by NaCl and MgSO4 salts. A synergistic influence of uncoated titanium dioxide has been observed. The interference effects of antioxidants and chelating agents were quite specific. The interactions of these substances with ZnO particles and with the soluble species released by ZnO were discussed so as to reach scientific guidelines for the choice of the ingredients. The preservative efficacy of ZnO was assessed by challenge testing in three different formulations: an oil-in-water emulsion; a water-in-oil emulsion and a dry powder. The addition of ZnO in complex formulations significantly improved the microbiological quality of the products, in spite of the presence of other ingredients that modulate the antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of zinc on the production of alcohol by Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 using model syngas.

    PubMed

    Li, Demao; Meng, Chunxiao; Wu, Guanxun; Xie, Bintao; Han, Yifan; Guo, Yaqiong; Song, Chunhui; Gao, Zhengquan; Huang, Zhiyong

    2018-01-01

    Renewable energy, including biofuels such as ethanol and butanol from syngas bioconversed by Clostridium carboxidivorans P7, has been drawing extensive attention due to the fossil energy depletion and global eco-environmental issues. Effects of zinc on the growth and metabolites of C. carboxidivorans P7 were investigated with model syngas as the carbon source. The cell concentration was doubled, the ethanol content increased 3.02-fold and the butanol content increased 7.60-fold, the hexanol content increased 44.00-fold in the medium with 280 μM Zn 2+ , when comparing with those in the control medium [Zn 2+ , (7 μM)]. Studies of the genes expression involved in the carbon fixation as well as acid and alcohol production in the medium with 280 μM Zn 2+ indicated that fdhII was up-regulated on the second day, acs A, fdhII, bdh35 and bdh50 were up-regulated on the third day and bdh35, acsB, fdhI, fdhIII, fdhIV, buk, bdh10, bdh35, bdh40 and bdh50 were up-regulated on the fourth day. The results indicated that the increased Zn 2+ content increased the alcohol production through increase in the gene expression of the carbon fixation and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  5. Production of no-carrier-added 64Cu from zinc metal irradiated under boron shielding.

    PubMed

    Zinn, K R; Chaudhuri, T R; Cheng, T P; Morris, J S; Meyer, W A

    1994-02-01

    Positron emission tomography offers advantages for radioimmunodiagnosis of cancer but requires radionuclides of appropriate half-life that have high specific activity and high radio-purity. This work was designed to develop a viable method to produce and purify 64Cu, which has high specific activity, for positron emission tomography. 64Cu was produced at the University of Missouri Research Reactor by the nuclear reaction, 64Zn(n,p)64Cu. Highly pure zinc metal (99.9999%) was irradiated in a specially designed boron nitrite lined container, which minimized thermal neutron reactions during irradiation. A new two-step procedure was developed to chemically separate the no-carrier-added 64Cu from the zinc metal target. 64Cu recovery for 24 runs averaged 0.393 (+/- 0.007) mCi per milligram of zinc irradiated. The boron-lined irradiation container reduced unwanted zinc radionuclides 14.3-fold. Zinc radionuclides and non-radioactive zinc were separated successfully from the 64Cu. The new separation technique was fast (2 hours total time) and highly efficient for removing the zinc. The zinc separation factor for this technique averaged 8.5 x 10(-8), indicating less than 0.0000085% of the zinc remained after separation. Thus far, the highest 64Cu specific activity at end of irradiation was 683 Ci/mg Cu, with an average of 512 Ci/mg Cu for the last six analyzed runs. The boron-lined irradiation container has sufficient capacity for 75-fold larger-sized zinc targets (up to 45 g). The new separation technique was excellent for separating 64Cu, which appears to be a radionuclide with great potential for positron emission tomography.

  6. Impact of zinc supplementation on the improved fructose/xylose utilization and butanol production during acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass and dedicated energy crops such as Jerusalem artichoke are promising alternatives for biobutanol production by solventogenic clostridia. However, fermentable sugars such as fructose or xylose released from the hydrolysis of these feedstocks were subjected to the incomplete utilization by the strains, leading to relatively low butanol production and productivity. When 0.001 g/L ZnSO4·7H2O was supplemented into the medium containing fructose as sole carbon source, 12.8 g/L of butanol was achieved with butanol productivity of 0.089 g/L/h compared to only 4.5 g/L of butanol produced with butanol productivity of 0.028 g/L/h in the control without zinc supplementation. Micronutrient zinc also led to the improved butanol production up to 8.3 g/L derived from 45.2 g/L xylose as sole carbon source with increasing butanol productivity by 31.7%. Moreover, the decreased acids production was observed under the zinc supplementation condition, resulting in the increased butanol yields of 0.202 g/g-fructose and 0.184 g/g-xylose, respectively. Similar improvements were also observed with increasing butanol production by 130.2 % and 8.5 %, butanol productivity by 203.4% and 18.4%, respectively, in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations from sugar mixtures of fructose/glucose (4:1) and xylose/glucose (1:2) simulating the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and corn stover. The results obtained from transcriptional analysis revealed that zinc may have regulatory mechanisms for the sugar transport and metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum L7. Therefore, micronutrient zinc supplementation could be an effective way for economic development of butanol production derived from these low-cost agricultural feedstocks. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the egg quality, immune response, zinc retention, and blood parameters of laying hens in the late phase of production.

    PubMed

    Abedini, M; Shariatmadari, F; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Ahmadi, H

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on the performance, egg quality, Zn retention, immunity responses, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), egg malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and serum parameters in laying hens in the late phase of production. A total of 288 laying hens at 64 weeks of age were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 6 replicates, and 12 birds within each group. Experimental diets included a corn-soybean meal-based diet (without Zn supplementation) and a basal diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg of Zn-oxide, ZnO-NPs, and Zn-methionine. The results indicated that egg production and egg mass were significantly higher in the Zn-methionine and ZnO-NPs groups (p < .05). Also, eggshell thickness and shell strength increased in the ZnO-NPs group as compared with the other groups (p < .05). Moreover, Zn supplementation decreased egg loss (p < .05). There were significant differences among treatments in Zn deposition in tibiotarsus, liver, pancreas, eggs, and excreta (p < .01). Antibody titre, heterophil (%(, and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were significantly higher in birds fed with Zn-supplemented diets (p < .05). In treatments supplemented with ZnO-NPs and Zn-methionine, the SOD activity in the liver, pancreas, and plasma was greater as compared with the other treatments (p < .05). The MDA content in eggs was significantly reduced in groups supplemented with Zn (p < .01). Moreover, dietary Zn supplementation significantly affected serum total protein, albumin, glucose, alkaline phosphatase activity, carbonic anhydrase activity, and Zn level (p < .05). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that dietary supplementation with ZnO-NPs can improve the performance of laying hens. Therefore, ZnO-NPs can enhance zinc absorption in the intestine of aged layers and can be a more suitable source of zinc than regular Zn-oxide in diets. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. 18 CFR 292.204 - Criteria for qualifying small power production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY... production capacity of any other small power production facilities that use the same energy resource, are... production facilities within one mile of such facilities. (b) Fuel use. (1)(i) The primary energy source of...

  9. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    SciT

    Sivaraman, C.

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for Value-Added Products (VAPs) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun; (2) progress on existing VAPs; (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved; (4) other work that leads to a VAP; (5) top requested VAPs from the ARM Data Archive; and (6) a summary of VAP and data releases to production and evaluation. New information is highlighted in blue text. New information about processed data by the developermore » is highlighted in red text. The upcoming milestones and dates are highlighted in green.« less

  10. Understanding the mechanisms of zinc bacitracin and avilamycin on animal production: linking gut microbiota and growth performance in chickens.

    PubMed

    Crisol-Martínez, Eduardo; Stanley, Dragana; Geier, Mark S; Hughes, Robert J; Moore, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Unravelling the mechanisms of how antibiotics influence growth performance through changes in gut microbiota can lead to the identification of highly productive microbiota in animal production. Here we investigated the effect of zinc bacitracin and avilamycin on growth performance and caecal microbiota in chickens and analysed associations between individual bacteria and growth performance. Two trials were undertaken; each used 96 individually caged 15-day-old Cobb broilers. Trial 1 had a control group (n = 48) and a zinc bacitracin (50 ppm) treatment group (n = 48). Trial 2 had a control group (n = 48) and an avilamycin (15 ppm) treatment group (n = 48). Chicken growth performance was evaluated over a 10-day period, and caecal microbiota was characterised by sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Avilamycin produced no effect on growth performance and exhibited little significant disturbance of the microbiota structure. However, zinc bacitracin reduced the feed conversion ratio (FCR) in treated birds, changed the composition and increased the diversity of their caecal microbiota by reducing dominant species. Avilamycin only produced minor reductions in the abundance of two microbial taxa, whereas zinc bacitracin produced relatively large shifts in a number of taxa, primarily Lactobacillus species. Also, a number of phylotypes closely related to lactobacilli species were positively or negatively correlated with FCR values, suggesting contrasting effects of Lactobacillus spp. on chicken growth performance. By harnessing such bacteria, it may be possible to develop high-productivity strategies in poultry that rely on the use of probiotics and less on in-feed antibiotics.

  11. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  12. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  13. Ethanol production in small- to medium-size facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiler, E. A.; Coble, C. G.; Oneal, H. P.; Sweeten, J. M.; Reidenbach, V. G.; Schelling, G. T.; Lawhon, J. T.; Kay, R. D.; Lepori, W. A.; Aldred, W. H.

    1982-04-01

    In early 1980 system design criteria were developed for a small-scale ethanol production plant. The plant was eventually installed on November 1, 1980. It has a production capacity of 30 liters per hour; this can be increased easily (if desired) to 60 liters per hour with additional fermentation tanks. Sixty-six test runs were conducted to date in the alcohol production facility. Feedstocks evaluated in these tests include: corn (28 runs); grain sorghum (33 runs); grain sorghum grits (1 run); half corn/half sorghum (1 run); and sugarcane juice (3 runs). In addition, a small bench-scale fermentation and distillation system was used to evaluate sugarcane and sweet sorghum feedstocks prior to their evaluation in the larger unit. In each of these tests, evaluation of the following items was conducted: preprocessing requirements; operational problems; conversion efficiency (for example, liters of alcohol produced per kilogram of feedstock); energy balance and efficiency; nutritional recovery from stillage; solids separation by screw press; chemical characterization of stillage including liquid and solids fractions; wastewater requirements; and air pollution potential.

  14. NFL Films audio, video, and film production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Russ; Schrag, Richard C.; Ridings, Jason J.

    2003-04-01

    The new NFL Films 200,000 sq. ft. headquarters is home for the critically acclaimed film production that preserves the NFL's visual legacy week-to-week during the football season, and is also the technical plant that processes and archives football footage from the earliest recorded media to the current network broadcasts. No other company in the country shoots more film than NFL Films, and the inclusion of cutting-edge video and audio formats demands that their technical spaces continually integrate the latest in the ever-changing world of technology. This facility houses a staggering array of acoustically sensitive spaces where music and sound are equal partners with the visual medium. Over 90,000 sq. ft. of sound critical technical space is comprised of an array of sound stages, music scoring stages, audio control rooms, music writing rooms, recording studios, mixing theaters, video production control rooms, editing suites, and a screening theater. Every production control space in the building is designed to monitor and produce multi channel surround sound audio. An overview of the architectural and acoustical design challenges encountered for each sophisticated listening, recording, viewing, editing, and sound critical environment will be discussed.

  15. Production Facility Prototype Blower 1000 Hour Test Results II

    SciT

    Wass, Alexander Joseph; Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.

    Long duration tests of the Aerzen GM 12.4 roots style blower in a closed loop configuration provides valuable data and lessons learned for long-term operation at the Mo-99 production facility. The blower was operated in a closed loop configuration with the flow conditions anticipated in plant operation with a Mo-100 target inline. The additional thermal energy generated from beam heating of the Mo-100 disks were not included in these tests. Five 1000 hour tests have been completed since the first test was performed in January of 2016. All five 1000 hour tests have proven successful in exposing preventable issues relatedmore » to oil and helium leaks. All blower tests to this date have resulted in stable blower performance and consistency. A summary of the results for each test, including a review of the first and second tests, are included in this report.« less

  16. 7 CFR 1424.10 - Succession and control of facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Succession and control of facilities and production... § 1424.10 Succession and control of facilities and production. A person who obtains a facility that is... grant such request if it is determined that permitting such succession would serve the purposes of the...

  17. 7 CFR 1424.10 - Succession and control of facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Succession and control of facilities and production... § 1424.10 Succession and control of facilities and production. A person who obtains a facility that is... grant such request if it is determined that permitting such succession would serve the purposes of the...

  18. 7 CFR 1424.10 - Succession and control of facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Succession and control of facilities and production... § 1424.10 Succession and control of facilities and production. A person who obtains a facility that is... grant such request if it is determined that permitting such succession would serve the purposes of the...

  19. 7 CFR 1424.10 - Succession and control of facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Succession and control of facilities and production... § 1424.10 Succession and control of facilities and production. A person who obtains a facility that is... grant such request if it is determined that permitting such succession would serve the purposes of the...

  20. 7 CFR 1424.10 - Succession and control of facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Succession and control of facilities and production... § 1424.10 Succession and control of facilities and production. A person who obtains a facility that is... grant such request if it is determined that permitting such succession would serve the purposes of the...

  1. A Facile Droplet-Chip-Time-Resolved Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Online System for Determination of Zinc in Single Cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2017-05-02

    Single cell analysis is a significant research field in recent years reflecting the heterogeneity of cells in a biological system. In this work, a facile droplet chip was fabricated and online combined with time-resolved inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) via a microflow nebulizer for the determination of zinc in single HepG2 cells. On the focusing geometric designed PDMS microfluidic chip, the aqueous cell suspension was ejected and divided by hexanol to generate droplets. The droplets encapsulated single cells remain intact during the transportation into ICP for subsequent detection. Under the optimized conditions, the frequency of droplet generation is 3-6 × 10 6 min -1 , and the injected cell number is 2500 min -1 , which can ensure the single cell encapsulation. ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were used for the quantification of zinc in single cells, and the accuracy was validated by conventional acid digestion-ICPMS method. The ZnO NPs incubated HepG2 cells were analyzed as model samples, and the results exhibit the heterogeneity of HepG2 cells in the uptake/adsorption of ZnO NPs. The developed online droplet-chip-ICPMS analysis system achieves stable single cell encapsulation and has high throughput for single cell analysis. It has the potential in monitoring the content as well as distribution of trace elements/NPs at the single cell level.

  2. Optimization of method for zinc analysis in several bee products on renewable mercury film silver based electrode.

    PubMed

    Opoka, Włodzimierz; Szlósarczyk, Marek; Maślanka, Anna; Piech, Robert; Baś, Bogusław; Włodarczyk, Edyta; Krzek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an interesting target for detection as it is one of the elements necessary for the proper functioning of the human body, its excess and deficiency can cause several symptoms. Several techniques including electrochemistry have been developed but require laboratory equipment, preparative steps and mercury or complex working electrodes. We here described the development of a robust, simple and commercially available electrochemical system. Differential pulse (DP) voltammetry was used for this purpose with the cyclic renewable mercury film silver based electrode (Hg(Ag)FE) and 0.05 M KNO3 solution as a supporting electrolyte. The effect of various factors such as: preconcentration potential and time, pulse amplitude and width, step potential and supporting electrolyte composition are optimized. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 1.62 ng/mL and 4.85 ng/mL, respectively. The repeatability of the method at a concentration level of the analyte as low as 3 ng/mL, expressed as RSD is 3.5% (n = 6). Recovery was determined using certified reference material: Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2). The recovery of zinc ranged from 96.6 to 106.5%. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of zinc in bee products (honey, propolis and diet supplements) after digestion procedure.

  3. Contamination issues in a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility

    Low ethanol yields and poor yeast viability were investigated at a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility. Using starch slurries and recycle streams from a commercial ethanol facility, laboratory hydrolysates were prepared by reproducing starch liquefaction and saccharification ste...

  4. Projected Salt Waste Production from a Commercial Pyroprocessing Facility

    SciT

    Simpson, Michael F.

    Pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel inevitably produces salt waste from electrorefining and/or oxide reduction unit operations. Various process design characteristics can affect the actual mass of such waste produced. This paper examines both oxide and metal fuel treatment, estimates the amount of salt waste generated, and assesses potential benefit of process options to mitigate the generation of salt waste. For reference purposes, a facility is considered in which 100 MT/year of fuel is processed. Salt waste estimates range from 8 to 20 MT/year from considering numerous scenarios. It appears that some benefit may be derived from advanced processes for separatingmore » fission products from molten salt waste, but the degree of improvement is limited. Waste form production is also considered but appears to be economically unfavorable. Direct disposal of salt into a salt basin type repository is found to be the most promising with respect to minimizing the impact of waste generation on the economic feasibility and sustainability of pyroprocessing.« less

  5. Moly99 Production Facility: Report on Beamline Components, Requirements, Costs

    SciT

    Bishofberger, Kip A.

    2015-12-23

    In FY14 we completed the design of the beam line for the linear accelerator production design concept. This design included a set of three bending magnets, quadrupole focusing magnets, and octopoles to flatten the beam on target. This design was generic and applicable to multiple different accelerators if necessary. In FY15 we built on that work to create specifications for the individual beam optic elements, including power supply requirements. This report captures the specification of beam line components with initial cost estimates for the NorthStar production facility.This report is organized as follows: The motivation of the beamline design is introducedmore » briefly, along with renderings of the design. After that, a specific list is provided, which accounts for each beamline component, including part numbers and costs, to construct the beamline. After that, this report details the important sections of the beamline and individual components. A final summary and list of follow-on activities completes this report.« less

  6. Automatic polymerase chain reaction product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger protein fused to luciferase.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Wataru; Kezuka, Aki; Murakami, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Jinhee; Abe, Koichi; Motoki, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Takafumi; Shimura, Nobuaki; Noda, Mamoru; Igimi, Shizunobu; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2013-11-01

    An automatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger (ZF) protein fused to luciferase was developed. ZF protein fused to luciferase specifically binds to target double stranded DNA sequence and has luciferase enzymatic activity. Therefore, PCR products that comprise ZF protein recognition sequence can be detected by measuring the luciferase activity of the fusion protein. We previously reported that PCR products from Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 genomic DNA were detected by Zif268, a natural ZF protein, fused to luciferase. In this study, Zif268-luciferase was applied to detect the presence of Salmonella and coliforms. Moreover, an artificial zinc finger protein (B2) fused to luciferase was constructed for a Norovirus detection system. In the luciferase activity detection assay, several bound/free separation process is required. Therefore, an analyzer that automatically performed the bound/free separation process was developed to detect PCR products using the ZF-luciferase fusion protein. By means of the automatic analyzer with ZF-luciferase fusion protein, target pathogenic genomes were specifically detected in the presence of other pathogenic genomes. Moreover, we succeeded in the detection of 10 copies of E. coli BL21 without extraction of genomic DNA by the automatic analyzer and E. coli was detected with a logarithmic dependency in the range of 1.0×10 to 1.0×10(6) copies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mineral resource of the month: zinc

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2009-01-01

    The article provides information on zinc, the fourth most-widely consumed metal. It traces the first use of zinc with the Romans' production of brass. It describes the presence of zinc in Earth's crust and the importance of sphalerite as a source of zinc and other some minor metal production. The production and consumption of zinc as well as the commercial and industrial uses of this metal are also discussed.

  8. A facile synthesis of zinc oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite lithium ion battery anodes by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köse, Hilal; Karaal, Şeyma; Aydın, Ali Osman; Akbulut, Hatem

    2015-11-01

    Free standing zinc oxide (ZnO) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposite materials are prepared by a sol gel technique giving a new high capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries. Free-standing ZnO/MWCNT nanocomposite anodes with two different chelating agent additives, triethanolamine (TEA) and glycerin (GLY), yield different electrochemical performances. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses reveal the produced anode electrodes exhibit a unique structure of ZnO coating on the MWCNT surfaces. Li-ion cell assembly using a ZnO/MWCNT/GLY free-standing anode and Li metal cathode possesses the best discharge capacity, remaining as high as 460 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. This core-shell structured anode can offer increased energy storage and performance over conventional anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  9. 12 CFR 7.5002 - Furnishing of products and services by electronic means and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Furnishing of products and services by... products and services by electronic means and facilities. (a) Use of electronic means and facilities. A... a collection of links to web sites of third-party vendors, organized by-product type and made...

  10. Production and characterization of hydrophobic zinc borate by using palm oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acarali, Nil Baran; Tugrul, Nurcan; Derun, Emek Moroydor; Piskin, Sabriye

    2013-11-01

    Zinc borate (ZB) was synthesized using zinc oxide, boric acid synthesized from colemanite, and reference ZB as seed. The effects of reaction parameters such as reaction time, reactant ratio, and seed ratio on its yield were examined. Then, the effects of palm oil with solvents (isopropyl alcohol (IPA), ethanol, and methanol) added to the reaction on its hydrophobicity were explored. Reactions were carried out under determined reaction conditions with magnetically and mechanically stirred systems. The produced ZB was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and measurements of contact angle identified hydrophobicity. The results showed that hydrophobic ZB was successfully produced under determined reaction conditions. The change of process parameters influenced its yield and the usage of palm oil provided hydrophobicity.

  11. Risk-based maintenance of ethylene oxide production facilities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal I; Haddara, Mahmoud R

    2004-05-20

    This paper discusses a methodology for the design of an optimum inspection and maintenance program. The methodology, called risk-based maintenance (RBM) is based on integrating a reliability approach and a risk assessment strategy to obtain an optimum maintenance schedule. First, the likely equipment failure scenarios are formulated. Out of many likely failure scenarios, the ones, which are most probable, are subjected to a detailed study. Detailed consequence analysis is done for the selected scenarios. Subsequently, these failure scenarios are subjected to a fault tree analysis to determine their probabilities. Finally, risk is computed by combining the results of the consequence and the probability analyses. The calculated risk is compared against known acceptable criteria. The frequencies of the maintenance tasks are obtained by minimizing the estimated risk. A case study involving an ethylene oxide production facility is presented. Out of the five most hazardous units considered, the pipeline used for the transportation of the ethylene is found to have the highest risk. Using available failure data and a lognormal reliability distribution function human health risk factors are calculated. Both societal risk factors and individual risk factors exceeded the acceptable risk criteria. To determine an optimal maintenance interval, a reverse fault tree analysis was used. The maintenance interval was determined such that the original high risk is brought down to an acceptable level. A sensitivity analysis is also undertaken to study the impact of changing the distribution of the reliability model as well as the error in the distribution parameters on the maintenance interval.

  12. Improved ethanol production at high temperature by consolidated bioprocessing using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain engineered with artificial zinc finger protein.

    PubMed

    Khatun, M Mahfuza; Yu, Xinshui; Kondo, Akihiko; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MNII/cocδBEC3 was transformed by an artificial zinc finger protein (AZFP) library to improve its thermal tolerance, and the strain MNII-AZFP with superior growth at 42°C was selected. Improved degradation of acid swollen cellulose by 45.9% led to an increase in ethanol production, when compared to the control strain. Moreover, the fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke stalk (JAS) by MNII-AZFP was shortened by 12h at 42°C with a concomitant improvement in ethanol production. Comparative transcriptomics analysis suggested that the AZFP in the mutant exerted beneficial effect by modulating the expression of multiple functional genes. These results provide a feasible strategy for efficient ethanol production from JAS and other cellulosic biomass through CBP based-fermentation at elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... Production Facilities C Appendix C to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...—Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities (1) Alcohol production facility. An...

  14. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... Production Facilities C Appendix C to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...—Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities (1) Alcohol production facility. An...

  15. Facile fabrication of wire-type indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors applicable to ultrasensitive flexible sensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong-Gyu; Tak, Young Jun; Kim, Hee Jun; Kim, Won-Gi; Yoo, Hyukjoon; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2018-04-03

    We fabricated wire-type indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) using a self-formed cracked template based on a lift-off process. The electrical characteristics of wire-type IGZO TFTs could be controlled by changing the width and density of IGZO wires through varying the coating conditions of template solution or multi-stacking additional layers. The fabricated wire-type devices were applied to sensors after functionalizing the surface. The wire-type pH sensor showed a sensitivity of 45.4 mV/pH, and this value was an improved sensitivity compared with that of the film-type device (27.6 mV/pH). Similarly, when the wire-type device was used as a glucose sensor, it showed more variation in electrical characteristics than the film-type device. The improved sensing properties resulted from the large surface area of the wire-type device compared with that of the film-type device. In addition, we fabricated wire-type IGZO TFTs on flexible substrates and confirmed that such structures were very resistant to mechanical stresses at a bending radius of 10 mm.

  16. The ATOVS and AVHRR product processing facility for EPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaes, D.; Ackermann, J.; Schraidt, R.; Patterson, T.; Schlüssel, P.; Phillips, P.; Arriaga, A.; Grandell, J.

    The ATOVS/AVHRR Product Processing Facility (PPF) of the EPS (EUMETSAT Polar System) Core Ground Segment comprises the Level 1 processing of the data from the ATOVS sounding instruments AMSU-A, MHS and HIRS/4, and the imager AVHRR/3 into calibrated and navigated radiances. A second component includes the level 2 processing, which uses as input the level 1 products of the aforementioned instruments. The specification of the PPF is based on two well-known and well-established software packages, which have been used by the international community for some years: The AAPP (ATOVS and AVHRR Pre-processing Package) and ICI (Inversion Coupled with Imager). The PPF is able to process data from instruments flown on the Metop and NOAA satellites. For the level 1 processing of the sounding instruments' data (HIRS, AMSU-A and MHS), the basic functionality of AAPP has been kept; however, the individual chains for each instrument have been separated and additional functionality has been integrated. For HIRS a global calibration, as performed by NOAA/NESDIS today, has been included. For AMSU-A and MHS the moon contamination of the calibration space view can be corrected for. Additional functionality has also been included in the AVHRR processing. In particular, an enhanced navigation by landmark processing has been implemented to ensure accurate geo-location. Additionally, the PPF can digest and process the global AVHRR data either at full pixel resolution (1 km at nadir), which is the nominal mode for the Metop processing, or at the reduced resolution of the NOAA/GAC (Global Area Coverage) data (about 4 km resolution at nadir). For the level 2 processing the ICI had to be modified to include the most recent improvement in fast radiative transfer modelling as included in the RTTOV-7. As a first step towards the realisation of the PPF a prototype has been generated for the purpose to help specifying the details of the PPF, and for verification of the latter by generation of

  17. 43 CFR 3212.24 - How will the production incentive apply to a new facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL... Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.24 How will the production incentive apply to a new facility? (a) If BLM... electricity from the new facility. (b) The amount of the production incentive is established in MMS...

  18. 43 CFR 3212.24 - How will the production incentive apply to a new facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL... Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.24 How will the production incentive apply to a new facility? (a) If BLM... electricity from the new facility. (b) The amount of the production incentive is established in MMS...

  19. 43 CFR 3212.24 - How will the production incentive apply to a new facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL... Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.24 How will the production incentive apply to a new facility? (a) If BLM... electricity from the new facility. (b) The amount of the production incentive is established in MMS...

  20. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate...

  1. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate...

  2. Simple mass production of zinc oxide nanostructures via low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasaban, Samaneh; Atai, Mohammad; Imani, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    The specific properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have attracted much attention within the scientific community as a useful material for biomedical applications. Hydrothermal synthesis is known as a useful method to produce nanostructures with certain particle size and morphology however, scaling up the reaction is still a challenging task. In this research, large scale hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanostructures (60 g) was performed in a 5 l stainless steel autoclave by reaction between anionic (ammonia or sodium hydroxide) and cationic (zinc acetate dehydrate) precursors in low temperature. Hydrothermal reaction temperature and time were decreased to 115 °C and 2 or 6 h. In batch repetitions, the same morphologies (plate- and needle-like) with reproducible particle size were obtained. The nanostructures formed were analyzed by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy and BET analysis. The nanostructures formed were antibacterially active against Staphylococcus aureus.

  3. Optimization of production conditions for activated carbons from Tamarind wood by zinc chloride using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Sahu, J N; Acharya, Jyotikusum; Meikap, B C

    2010-03-01

    The low-cost activated carbon was prepared from Tamarind wood an agricultural waste material, by chemical activation with zinc chloride. Activated carbon adsorption is an effective means for reducing organic chemicals, chlorine, heavy metals and unpleasant tastes and odours in effluent or colored substances from gas or liquid streams. Central composite design (CCD) was applied to study the influence of activation temperature, chemical ratio of zinc chloride to Tamarind wood and activation time on the chemical activation process of Tamarind wood. Two quadratic models were developed for yield of activated carbon and adsorption of malachite green oxalate using Design-Expert software. The models were used to calculate the optimum operating conditions for production of activated carbon providing a compromise between yield and adsorption of the process. The yield (45.26 wt.%) and adsorption (99.9%) of the activated carbon produced at these operating conditions showed an excellent agreement with the amounts predicted by the models. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of the impact of automation on productivity in bus-maintenance facilities. Final report

    SciT

    Sumanth, D.J.; Weiss, H.J.; Adya, B.

    1988-12-01

    Whether or not the various types of automation and new technologies introduced in a bus-transit system really have an impact on productivity is the question addressed in the study. The report describes a new procedure of productivity measurement and evaluation for a county-transit system and provides an objective perspective on the impact of automation on productivity in bus maintenance facilities. The research objectives were: to study the impact of automation on total productivity in transit maintenance facilities; to develop and apply a methodology for measuring the total productivity of a Floridian transit maintenance facility (Bradenton-Manatee County bus maintenance facility whichmore » has been introducing automation since 1983); and to develop a practical step-by-step implementation scheme for the total productivity-based productivity measurement system that any bus manager can use. All 3 objectives were successfully accomplished.« less

  5. Zinc triggers microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, “amoeboid” morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 μM zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 – 30 μM zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-κB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-κB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders. PMID:18509044

  6. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  7. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  8. A facile and selective approach for enrichment of l-cysteine in human plasma sample based on zinc organic polymer: Optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Bahrani, Sonia; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Ostovan, Abbas; Javadian, Hamedreza; Mansoorkhani, Mohammad Javad Khoshnood; Taghipour, Tahere

    2018-02-05

    In this research, a facile and selective method was described to extract l-cysteine (l-Cys), an essential α-amino acid for anti-ageing playing an important role in human health, from human blood plasma sample. The importance of this research was the mild and time-consuming synthesis of zinc organic polymer (Zn-MOP) as an adsorbent and evaluation of its ability for efficient enrichment of l-Cys by ultrasound-assisted dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (UA-DMSPE) method. The structure of Zn-MOP was investigated by FT-IR, XRD and SEM. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for the experimental data to reach the best optimum conditions. The quantification of l-Cys was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection set at λ=230nm. The calibration graph showed reasonable linear responses towards l-Cys concentrations in the range of 4.0-1000μg/L (r 2 =0.999) with low limit of detection (0.76μg/L, S/N=3) and RSD≤2.18 (n=3). The results revealed the applicability and high performance of this novel strategy in detecting trace l-Cys by Zn-MOP in complicated matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced cellulase production from Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 by engineering with an artificial zinc finger protein library.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2016-10-01

    Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 is a well-known cellulase producer, and improvement of its cellulase production is of great interest. An artificial zinc finger protein (AZFP) library is constructed for expression in T. reesei Rut-C30, and a mutant strain T. reesei U3 is selected based on its enhanced cellulase production. The U3 mutant shows a 55% rise in filter paper activity and 8.1-fold increased β-glucosidase activity, when compared to the native strain T. reesei Rut-C30. It is demonstrated that enhanced β-glucosidase activity was due to elevated transcription level of β-glucosidase gene in the U3 mutant. Moreover, significant elevation in transcription levels of several putative Azfp-U3 target genes is detected in the U3 mutant, including genes encoding hypothetical transcription factors and a putative glycoside hydrolase. Furthermore, U3 cellulase shows 115% higher glucose yield from pretreated corn stover, when compared to the cellulase of T. reesei Rut-C30. These results demonstrate that AZFP can be used to improve cellulase production in T. reesei Rut-C30. Our current work offers the establishment of an alternative strategy to develop fungal cell factories for improved production of high value industrial products. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. 7 CFR 4288.25 - Succession and control of facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Succession and control of facilities and production... Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries § 4288.25 Succession and control of facilities and... that, the party is eligible, and permitting such succession would serve the purposes of the program. If...

  11. 7 CFR 4288.25 - Succession and control of facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Succession and control of facilities and production... Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries § 4288.25 Succession and control of facilities and... that, the party is eligible, and permitting such succession would serve the purposes of the program. If...

  12. 7 CFR 4288.25 - Succession and control of facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Succession and control of facilities and production... Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries § 4288.25 Succession and control of facilities and... that, the party is eligible, and permitting such succession would serve the purposes of the program. If...

  13. 18 CFR 292.204 - Criteria for qualifying small power production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... primary energy source of the facility must be biomass, waste, renewable resources, geothermal resources... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY... production facilities that use the same energy resource, are owned by the same person(s) or its affiliates...

  14. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... facilities necessary for the production and storage of alcohol and the processing of the by-products of alcohol production. The intent is to limit the alcohol and by-products processing facilities to those... alcohol or by-products in another manufacturing process, are not considered part of the alcohol production...

  15. Response of Xylella fastidiosa to zinc: decreased culturability, increased exopolysaccharide production, and formation of resilient biofilms under flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Fernando; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2014-02-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa produces biofilm that accumulates in the host xylem vessels, affecting disease development in various crops and bacterial acquisition by insect vectors. Biofilms are sensitive to the chemical composition of the environment, and mineral elements being transported in the xylem are of special interest for this pathosystem. Here, X. fastidiosa liquid cultures were supplemented with zinc and compared with nonamended cultures to determine the effects of Zn on growth, biofilm, and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production under batch and flow culture conditions. The results show that Zn reduces growth and biofilm production under both conditions. However, in microfluidic chambers under liquid flow and with constant bacterial supplementation (closer to conditions inside the host), a dramatic increase in biofilm aggregates was seen in the Zn-amended medium. Biofilms formed under these conditions were strongly attached to surfaces and were not removed by medium flow. This phenomenon was correlated with increased EPS production in stationary-phase cells grown under high Zn concentrations. Zn did not cause greater adhesion to surfaces by individual cells. Additionally, viability analyses suggest that X. fastidiosa may be able to enter the viable but nonculturable state in vitro, and Zn can hasten the onset of this state. Together, these findings suggest that Zn can act as a stress factor with pleiotropic effects on X. fastidiosa and indicate that, although Zn could be used as a bactericide treatment, it could trigger the undesired effect of stronger biofilm formation upon reinoculation events.

  16. A Statistical Review of Alternative Zinc and Copper Extraction from Mineral Fertilizers and Industrial By-Products.

    PubMed

    Cenciani de Souza, Camila Prado; Aparecida de Abreu, Cleide; Coscione, Aline Renée; Alberto de Andrade, Cristiano; Teixeira, Luiz Antonio Junqueira; Consolini, Flavia

    2018-01-01

    Rapid, accurate, and low-cost alternative analytical methods for micronutrient quantification in fertilizers are fundamental in QC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) content in mineral fertilizers and industrial by-products determined by the alternative methods USEPA 3051a, 10% HCl, and 10% H2SO4 are statistically equivalent to the standard method, consisting of hot-plate digestion using concentrated HCl. The commercially marketed Zn and Cu sources in Brazil consisted of oxides, carbonate, and sulfate fertilizers and by-products consisting of galvanizing ash, galvanizing sludge, brass ash, and brass or scrap slag. The contents of sources ranged from 15 to 82% and 10 to 45%, respectively, for Zn and Cu. The Zn and Cu contents refer to the variation of the elements found in the different sources evaluated with the concentrated HCl method as shown in Table 1. A protocol based on the following criteria was used for the statistical analysis assessment of the methods: F-test modified by Graybill, t-test for the mean error, and linear correlation coefficient analysis. In terms of equivalents, 10% HCl extraction was equivalent to the standard method for Zn, and the results of the USEPA 3051a and 10% HCl methods indicated that these methods were equivalents for Cu. Therefore, these methods can be considered viable alternatives to the standard method of determination for Cu and Zn in mineral fertilizers and industrial by-products in future research for their complete validation.

  17. Response of Xylella fastidiosa to Zinc: Decreased Culturability, Increased Exopolysaccharide Production, and Formation of Resilient Biofilms under Flow Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa produces biofilm that accumulates in the host xylem vessels, affecting disease development in various crops and bacterial acquisition by insect vectors. Biofilms are sensitive to the chemical composition of the environment, and mineral elements being transported in the xylem are of special interest for this pathosystem. Here, X. fastidiosa liquid cultures were supplemented with zinc and compared with nonamended cultures to determine the effects of Zn on growth, biofilm, and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production under batch and flow culture conditions. The results show that Zn reduces growth and biofilm production under both conditions. However, in microfluidic chambers under liquid flow and with constant bacterial supplementation (closer to conditions inside the host), a dramatic increase in biofilm aggregates was seen in the Zn-amended medium. Biofilms formed under these conditions were strongly attached to surfaces and were not removed by medium flow. This phenomenon was correlated with increased EPS production in stationary-phase cells grown under high Zn concentrations. Zn did not cause greater adhesion to surfaces by individual cells. Additionally, viability analyses suggest that X. fastidiosa may be able to enter the viable but nonculturable state in vitro, and Zn can hasten the onset of this state. Together, these findings suggest that Zn can act as a stress factor with pleiotropic effects on X. fastidiosa and indicate that, although Zn could be used as a bactericide treatment, it could trigger the undesired effect of stronger biofilm formation upon reinoculation events. PMID:24271184

  18. Lean coding machine. Facilities target productivity and job satisfaction with coding automation.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Genna

    2010-07-01

    Facilities are turning to coding automation to help manage the volume of electronic documentation, streamlining workflow, boosting productivity, and increasing job satisfaction. As EHR adoption increases, computer-assisted coding may become a necessity, not an option.

  19. Facility for generating crew waste water product for ECLSS testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buitekant, Alan; Roberts, Barry C.

    1990-01-01

    An End-use Equipment Facility (EEF) has been constructed which is used to simulate water interfaces between the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and man systems. The EEF is used to generate waste water to be treated by ECLSS water recovery systems. The EEF will also be used to close the water recovery loop by allowing test subjects to use recovered hygiene and potable water during several phases of testing. This paper describes the design and basic operation of the EEF.

  20. Copper and Zinc Deficiency in a Patient Receiving Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition During a Shortage of Parenteral Trace Element Products.

    PubMed

    Palm, Eric; Dotson, Bryan

    2015-11-01

    Drug shortages in the United States, including parenteral nutrition (PN) components, have been common in recent years and can adversely affect patient care. Here we report a case of copper and zinc deficiency in a patient receiving PN during a shortage of parenteral trace element products. The management of the patient's deficiencies, including the use of an imported parenteral multi-trace element product, is described. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  1. Performance Characterization of the Production Facility Prototype Helium Flow System

    SciT

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Dalmas, Dale Allen

    2015-12-16

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was need for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GMmore » 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. This report describes this blower/motor/pressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations. Blower performance (mass flow rate as a function of loop pressure drop) was measured at 4 blower speeds. Results are reported below.« less

  2. Microwave assisted facile hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide flower grown on graphene oxide sheets for enhanced photodegradation of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashinath, L.; Namratha, K.; Byrappa, K.

    2015-12-01

    Microwave assisted hydrothermal process of synthesis of ZnO-GO nanocomposite by using ZnCl2 and NaOH as precursors is being reported first time. In this investigation, a novel route to study on synthesis, interaction, kinetics and mechanism of hybrid zinc oxide-graphene oxide (ZnO-GO) nanocomposite using microwave assisted facile hydrothermal method has been reported. The results shows that the ZnO-GO nanocomposite exhibits an enhancement and acts as stable photo-response degradation performance of Brilliant Yellow under the UV light radiation better than pure GO and ZnO nanoparticles. The microwave exposure played a vital role in the synthesis process, it facilitates with well define crystalline structure, porosity and fine morphology of ZnO/GO nanocomposite. Different molar concentrations of ZnO precursors doped to GO sheets were been synthesized, characterized and their photodegradation performances were investigated. The optical studies by UV-vis and Photo Luminescence shows an increase in band gap of nanocomposite, which added an advantage in photodegradation performance. The in situ flower like ZnO nano particles are were densely decorated and anchored on the surfaces of graphene oxide sheets which aids in the enhancement of the surface area, adsorption, mass transfer of dyes and evolution of oxygen species. The nanocomposite having high surface area and micro/mesoporous in nature. This structure and morphology supports significantly in increasing photo catalytic performance legitimate to the efficient photosensitized electron injection and repressed electron recombination due to electron transfer process with GO as electron collector and transporter dependent on the proportion of GO in ZnO/GO composite.

  3. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE... animal production facility means a hatchery, fish farm, or other facility which meets the criteria in... any warm or cold water aquatic animal production facility as a concentrated aquatic animal production...

  4. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE... animal production facility means a hatchery, fish farm, or other facility which meets the criteria in... any warm or cold water aquatic animal production facility as a concentrated aquatic animal production...

  5. 18 CFR 292.208 - Special requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.208 Section... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. (a) A hydroelectric small power production facility that impounds or diverts the water of a natural watercourse by...

  6. 18 CFR 292.208 - Special requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.208 Section... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. (a) A hydroelectric small power production facility that impounds or diverts the water of a natural watercourse by...

  7. 18 CFR 292.208 - Special requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.208 Section... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. (a) A hydroelectric small power production facility that impounds or diverts the water of a natural watercourse by...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc...

  10. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix C: Alternate product facility designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The study of the production of methane, methanol, gasoline, and hydrogen by an add-on facility to a Koppers-Totzek based MBG plant is presented. Applications to a Texaco facility are inferred by evaluation of delta effects from the K-T cases. The production of methane from an add-on facility to a Lurgi based MBG plant and the co-production of methane and methanol from a Lurgi based system is studied. Studies are included of the production of methane from up to 50 percent of the MBG produced in an integrated K-T based plant and the production of methane from up to 50 percent of the MBG produced from an integrated plant in which module 1 is based on K-T technology and modules 2, 3, and 4 are based on Texaco technology.

  11. A comparative study of zinc protoporphyrin IX-forming properties of animal by-products as sources for improving the color of meat products.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Murakami, Naoko; Nishimura, Takanori

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain fundamental data for improving the color of meat products by using animal by-products. We investigated zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP)-forming properties of various internal organs from pigs and chickens. ZnPP was formed in the liver, heart and kidney, whereas the porcine spleen and bile, which are involved in the metabolism of heme, did not have ZnPP-forming properties. The optimum pH values were different among the internal organs and the ZnPP-forming properties of porcine organs were better than those of chicken organs. The porcine liver showed the greatest ZnPP-forming properties among all of the internal organs investigated in this study. The optimum pH value for ZnPP formation in the liver was lower than that of skeletal muscle. Oxygen did not inhibit the formation of ZnPP in the liver, unlike in skeletal muscle. Animal by-products such as the liver have good ability for the formation of ZnPP and might be useful for improving the color of meat products. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Facile green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Ulva lactuca seaweed extract and evaluation of their photocatalytic, antibiofilm and insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Ishwarya, Ramachandran; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Kalyani, Subramanian; Banumathi, Balan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Al-Anbr, Mohammed N; Khaled, Jamal M; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    The bioactivity of semiconductor nanocomplexes has been poorly studied in the field of pesticide science. In this research, the synthesis of zinc nanoparticles was accomplished through new effortless green chemistry process, using the Ulva lactuca seaweed extract as a reducing and capping agent. The production of U. lactuca-fabricated ZnO nanoparticles (Ul-ZnO Nps) was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The U. lactuca-fabricated ZnO NPs were tested for their photodegradative action against organic dyes, as well as for antibiofilm and larvicidal activities. The UV visible absorbance spectrum of Ul-ZnO NPs exhibited the absorbance band at 325nm and TEM highlighted average crystallite sizes of nanoparticles of 10-50nm. Methylene blue (MB) dye was efficiently corrupted under sunlight in presence of Ul-ZnO NPs. Excellent bactericidal activity was shown by the Ul-ZnO Nps on Gram positive (Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilis) and Gram negative (Escherichia coliand Proteus vulgaris) bacteria. High antibiofilm potential was noted under both dark and sunlight conditions. The impact of a single treatment with Ul-ZnO NPs on biofilm architecture was also analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) on both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Moreover, Ul-ZnO NPs led to 100% mortality of Aedes aegypti fourth instar larvae at the concentration of 50μg/ml within 24h. The effects of ZnO nanoparticle-based treatment on mosquito larval morphology and histology were monitored. Overall, based on our results, we believe that the synthesis of multifunctional Ul-ZnO Nps using widely available seaweed products can be promoted as a potential eco-friendly option to chemical methods currently used for nanosynthesis of antimicrobials and insecticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Control of Listeria species food safety at a poultry food production facility.

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward M; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance and control of food-borne human pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, is a critical aspect of modern food safety programs at food production facilities. This study evaluated contamination patterns of Listeria species at a poultry food production facility, and evaluated the efficacy of procedures to control the contamination and transfer of the bacteria throughout the plant. The presence of Listeria species was studied along the production chain, including raw ingredients, food-contact, non-food-contact surfaces, and finished product. All isolates were sub-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify possible entry points for Listeria species into the production chain, as well as identifying possible transfer routes through the facility. The efficacy of selected in-house sanitizers against a sub-set of the isolates was evaluated. Of the 77 different PFGE-types identified, 10 were found among two or more of the five categories/areas (ingredients, food preparation, cooking and packing, bulk packing, and product), indicating potential transfer routes at the facility. One of the six sanitizers used was identified as unsuitable for control of Listeria species. Combining PFGE data, together with information on isolate location and timeframe, facilitated identification of a persistent Listeria species contamination that had colonized the facility, along with others that were transient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio-fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Duncan

    Distributed mobile conversion facilities using either fast pyrolysis or torrefaction processes can be used to convert forest residues to more energy dense substances (bio-oil, bio-slurry or torrefied wood) that can be transported as feedstock for bio-fuel facilities. All feedstock are suited for gasification, which produces syngas that can be used to synthesise petrol or diesel via Fischer-Tropsch reactions, or produce hydrogen via water gas shift reactions. Alternatively, the bio-oil product of fast pyrolysis may be upgraded to produce petrol and diesel, or can undergo steam reformation to produce hydrogen. Implementing a network of mobile facilities reduces the energy content of forest residues delivered to a bio-fuel facility as mobile facilities use a fraction of the biomass energy content to meet thermal or electrical demands. The total energy delivered by bio-oil, bio-slurry and torrefied wood is 45%, 65% and 87% of the initial forest residue energy content, respectively. However, implementing mobile facilities is economically feasible when large transport distances are required. For an annual harvest of 1.717 million m3 (equivalent to 2000 ODTPD), transport costs are reduced to less than 40% of the total levelised delivered feedstock cost when mobile facilities are implemented; transport costs account for up to 80% of feedstock costs for conventional woodchip delivery. Torrefaction provides the lowest cost pathway of delivering a forest residue resource when using mobile facilities. Cost savings occur against woodchip delivery for annual forest residue harvests above 2.25 million m3 or when transport distances greater than 250 km are required. Important parameters that influence levelised delivered costs of feedstock are transport distances (forest residue spatial density), haul cost factors, thermal and electrical demands of mobile facilities, and initial moisture content of forest residues. Relocating mobile facilities can be optimised for lowest cost

  15. Production Facility Prototype Blower 1000 Hour Test Results

    SciT

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Romero, Frank Patrick

    2016-10-18

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was needed for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GMmore » 12.4 blower was selected, and is now installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. Two extended tests of >1000 hr operation have been completed. Those results and discussion thereof are reported herein. Also included in Appendix A is the detailed description of the blower and its installation, while Appendix B documents the pressure vessel design analysis. The blower has been operated for 1000 hours as a preliminary investigation of long-term performance, operation and possible maintenance issues. The blower performed well, with no significant change in blower head or mass flow rate developed under the operating conditions. Upon inspection, some oil had leaked out of the shaft seal of the blower. The shaft seal and bearing race have been replaced. Test results and conclusions are in Appendix B.« less

  16. Real-time Stack Monitoring at the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility

    SciT

    McIntyre, Justin I.; Agusbudiman, A.; Cameron, Ian M.

    2016-04-01

    Radioxenon emissions from radiopharmaceutical production are a major source of background concentrations affecting the radioxenon detection systems of the International Monitoring System (IMS). Collection of real-time emissions data from production facilities makes it possible to screen out some medical isotope signatures from the IMS radioxenon data sets. This paper describes an effort to obtain and analyze real-time stack emissions data with the design, construction and installation of a small stack monitoring system developed by a joint CTBTO-IDC, BATAN, and PNNL team at the BaTek medical isotope production facility near Jakarta, Indonesia.

  17. 9 CFR 314.1 - Disposition of condemned products at official establishments having tanking facilities; sealing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of condemned products at official establishments having tanking facilities; sealing of tanks. 314.1 Section 314.1 Animals and Animal... § 314.3 before leaving such establishment. (b) The seals of tanks shall be broken only by a Program...

  18. 9 CFR 314.1 - Disposition of condemned products at official establishments having tanking facilities; sealing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of condemned products at official establishments having tanking facilities; sealing of tanks. 314.1 Section 314.1 Animals and Animal... § 314.3 before leaving such establishment. (b) The seals of tanks shall be broken only by a Program...

  19. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pork Production Shower Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Leedom Larson, Kerry R.; Harper, Abby L.; Hanson, Blake M.; Male, Michael J.; Wardyn, Shylo E.; Dressler, Anne E.; Wagstrom, Elizabeth A.; Tendolkar, Shaliesh; Diekema, Daniel J.; Donham, Kelley J.; Smith, Tara C.

    2011-01-01

    As methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been found in pigs, we sought to determine if MRSA is present in pork production shower facilities. In two production systems tested, 3% and 26% of shower samples were positive for MRSA. spa types identified included t034, t189, t753, and t1746. PMID:21097587

  20. 18 CFR 292.204 - Criteria for qualifying small power production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Criteria for qualifying small power production facilities. 292.204 Section 292.204 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... OF 1978 WITH REGARD TO SMALL POWER PRODUCTION AND COGENERATION Qualifying Cogeneration and Small...

  1. 18 CFR 292.204 - Criteria for qualifying small power production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Criteria for qualifying small power production facilities. 292.204 Section 292.204 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... OF 1978 WITH REGARD TO SMALL POWER PRODUCTION AND COGENERATION Qualifying Cogeneration and Small...

  2. 18 CFR 292.204 - Criteria for qualifying small power production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Criteria for qualifying small power production facilities. 292.204 Section 292.204 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... OF 1978 WITH REGARD TO SMALL POWER PRODUCTION AND COGENERATION Qualifying Cogeneration and Small...

  3. Modeling fission product vapor transport in the Falcon facility

    SciT

    Shepherd, I.M.; Drossinos, Y.; Benson, C.G.

    1995-05-01

    An extensive database of aerosol Experiments exists and has been used for checking aerosol transport codes. Data for fission product vapor transport are harder to find. Some qualitative data are available, but the Falcon thermal gradient tube tests carried out at AEA Technology`s laboratories in Winfrith, England, mark the first serious attempt to provide a set of experiments suitable for the validation of codes that predict the transport and condensation of realistic mixtures of fission product vapors. Four of these have been analyzed to check how well the computer code VICTORIA can predict the most important phenomena. Of the fourmore » experiments studied, two are reference cases (FAL-17 and FAL-19), one is a case without boric acid (FAL-18), and the other is run in a reducing atmosphere (FAL-20). The results show that once the vapors condense onto aerosols, VICTORIA can predict their deposition rather well. The dominant mechanism is thermophoresis, and each element deposits with more or less the same deposition velocity. The behavior of the vapors is harder to interpret. Essentially, it is important to know the temperature at which each element condenses. It is clear from the measurements that this temperature changed from test to test-caused mostly by the different speciation as the composition of the carrier gas and the relative concentration of other fission products changed. Only in the test with a steam atmosphere and without boric acid was the assumption valid that most of the iodine is cesium iodide and most of the cesium is cesium hydroxide. In general, VICTORIA predicts that, with the exception of cesium, there will be less variation in the speciation-and, hence, variation in the deposition-between tests than is in fact observed. VICTORIA underpredicts the volatility of most elements, and this is partly a consequence of the ideal solution assumption and partly an overestimation of vapor/aerosol interactions.« less

  4. Carbonyl Emissions From Oil and Gas Production Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, S. N.; O'Neil, T.; Tran, T.

    2015-12-01

    A number of recent studies have targeted emissions of methane and other hydrocarbons from oil and gas exploration and production activity. These measurements are greatly increasing understanding of the atmospheric impacts of oil and gas development. Very few measurements exist, however, of emissions of formaldehyde and other carbonyls from oil and gas equipment. Carbonyls are toxic and serve as important ozone precursors, especially during winter ozone episodes in places like Utah's Uintah Basin. Current air quality models are only able to reproduce observed high wintertime ozone if they incorporate emissions inventories with very high carbonyl emissions. We measured carbonyl emissions from oil and gas equipment and facilities—including glycol dehydrators, liquid storage tanks, raw gas leaks, raw gas-burning engines, and produced water surface impoundments—in Rocky Mountain oil and gas fields. Carbonyl emissions from raw gas were below detection, but emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and other carbonyls were detected from liquid storage tanks, glycol dehydrators, and other oil and gas equipment. In some cases, carbonyls may be formed from the degradation of methanol and other chemicals used in oil and gas production, but the collected data provide evidence for other non-combustion formation pathways. Raw gas-burning engines also emitted carbonyls. Emissions from all measured sources were a small fraction of total volatile organic compound emissions. We incorporated our measurements into an emissions inventory, used that inventory in an air quality model (WRF-SMOKE-CAMx), and were unable to reproduce observed high wintertime ozone. This could be because (1) emission sources we have not yet measured, including compressors, gas processing plants, and others, are large; (2) non-carbonyl emissions, especially those that quickly degrade into carbonyls during photochemical processing, are underestimated in the inventory; or (3) the air quality model is unable

  5. A Productivity Measurement Model Application at an Aircraft Maintenance Facility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Thesis Advisor: John W. Creighton Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited -- .. .. . . . .... ’-....... ’ . .... I ) m i ll i li i l i i...Catwine 02. 18. 119CURITY CLASS. (00O Alpe e) Unclassified III& huCATIO14 001IN8RAOING Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. to. SIJPPL...collection process. 2 D1D4 r1 73 a ’~.f146O1g.VeV 46UAVWTW OF TWime P&wb i5 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited A Productivity Measurement

  6. Facility design consideration for continuous mix production of class 1.3 propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, K. L.; Schirk, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    In November of 1989, NASA awarded the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) contract to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) for production of advanced solid rocket motors using the continuous mix process. Aerojet ASRM division (AAD) was selected as the facility operator and RUST International Corporation provided the engineering, procurement, and construction management services. The continuous mix process mandates that the mix and cast facilities be 'close-coupled' along with the premix facilities, creating unique and challenging requirements for the facility designer. The classical approach to handling energetic materials-division into manageable quantities, segregation, and isolation-was not available due to these process requirements and quantities involved. This paper provides a description of the physical facilities, the continuous mix process, and discusses the monitoring and detection techniques used to mitigate hazards and prevent an incident.

  7. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular docking of Ugi products containing a zinc-chelating moiety as novel inhibitors of histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Grolla, Ambra A; Podestà, Valeria; Chini, Maria Giovanna; Di Micco, Simone; Vallario, Antonella; Genazzani, Armando A; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Tron, Gian Cesare; Sorba, Giovanni; Pirali, Tracey

    2009-05-14

    HDAC inhibitors show great promise for the treatment of cancer. As part of a broader effort to explore the SAR of HDAC inhibitors, synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular docking of novel Ugi products containing a zinc-chelating moiety are presented. One compound shows improved inhibitory potencies compared to SAHA, demonstrating that hindered lipophilic residues grafted on the peptide scaffold of the alpha-aminoacylamides can be favorable in the interaction with the enzyme.

  8. Zinc supplementation induces CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ antigen-specific regulatory T cells and suppresses IFN-γ production by upregulation of Foxp3 and KLF-10 and downregulation of IRF-1.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Martina; Rink, Lothar

    2017-08-01

    The essential trace element zinc plays a fundamental role in immune function and regulation since its deficiency is associated with autoimmunity, allergies, and transplant rejection. Thus, we investigated the influence of zinc supplementation on the Th1-driven alloreaction in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), on generation of antigen-specific T cells, and analyzed underlying molecular mechanisms. Cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production were monitored by [ 3 H]-thymidine proliferation assay and ELISA, respectively. Analysis of surface and intracellular T cell marker was performed by flow cytometry. Western blotting and mRNA analysis were used for Foxp3, KLF-10, and IRF-1 expression. Zinc supplementation on antigen-specific T cells in physiological doses (50 µM) provokes a significant amelioration of cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production after reactivation compared to untreated controls. Zinc administration on MLC results in an increased induction and stabilization of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + and CD4 + CD25 + CTLA-4 + T cells (p < 0.05). The effect is based on zinc-induced upregulation of Foxp3 and KLF-10 and downregulation of IRF-1. However, in resting lymphocytes zinc increases IRF-1. In summary, zinc is capable of ameliorating the allogeneic immune reaction by enhancement of antigen-specific iTreg cells due to modulation of essential molecular targets: Foxp3, KLF-10, and IRF-1. Thus, zinc can be seen as an auspicious tool for inducing tolerance in adverse immune reactions.

  9. Study of oxygen gas production phenomenon during stand and discharge in silver-zinc batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The effects of a number of cell process and performance variables upon the oxygen evolution rate of silver/silver oxide cathodes are studied to predict and measure the conditions which would result in the production of a minimum of oxygen. The following five tasks comprise the study: the design and fabrication of two pilot test cells to be used for electrode testing; the determination of the sensitivity and accuracy of the test cell; the determination of total volumes and rates of generation by cathodes of standard production procedures; the construction of a sequential test plan; and the construction of a series of positive formation cells in which formation process factors can be controlled.

  10. Blood Levels of Zinc in Creole Horses Used in Sera Production

    SciT

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Instituto Butantan, Av Vital Brasil 1500 05503-900 Sao Paulo, SP; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2010-08-04

    Using Neutron Activation Analysis Zn concentrations were determined in blood of horses (Creole breed). No significant difference was observed between male (0.0029{+-}.0007 gL{sup -1}) and female (0.0031{+-}.0011 gL{sup -1}) animals. These data are an important support to understand the physiological functions of Zn in blood during the process of sera production at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo, Brazil) using horses.

  11. Investigation of zinc oxide particles in cosmetic products by means of centrifugal and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Sogne, Vanessa; Meier, Florian; Klein, Thorsten; Contado, Catia

    2017-09-15

    The dimensional characterization of insoluble, inorganic particles, such as zinc oxide ZnO, dispersed in cosmetic or pharmaceutical formulations, is of great interest considering the current need of declaring the possible presence of nanomaterials on the label of commercial products. This work compares the separation abilities of Centrifugal- and Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation techniques (CF3 and AF4, respectively), equipped with UV-vis, MALS and DLS detectors, in size sorting ZnO particles, both as pristine powders and after their extraction from cosmetic matrices. ZnO particles, bare and superficially modified with triethoxycaprylyl silane, were used as test materials. To identify the most suitable procedure necessary to isolate the ZnO particles from the cosmetic matrix, two O/W and two W/O emulsions were formulated on purpose. The suspensions, containing the extracted particles ZnO, were separated by both Field-Flow Fractionation (FFF) techniques to establish a common analysis protocol, applicable for the analysis of ZnO particles extracted from three commercial products, sold in Europe for the baby skin care. Key aspects of this study were the selection of an appropriate dispersing agent enabling the particles to stay in stable suspensions (>24h)and the use of multiple detectors (UV-vis, MALS and DLS) coupled on-line with the FFF channels, to determine the particle dimensions without using the retention parameters. Between the two FFF techniques, CF3 revealed to be the most robust one, able to sort all suspensions created in this work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An integrated assessment of location-dependent scaling for microalgae biofuel production facilities

    DOE PAGES

    Coleman, André M.; Abodeely, Jared M.; Skaggs, Richard L.; ...

    2014-06-19

    Successful development of a large-scale microalgae-based biofuels industry requires comprehensive analysis and understanding of the feedstock supply chain—from facility siting and design through processing and upgrading of the feedstock to a fuel product. The evolution from pilot-scale production facilities to energy-scale operations presents many multi-disciplinary challenges, including a sustainable supply of water and nutrients, operational and infrastructure logistics, and economic competitiveness with petroleum-based fuels. These challenges are partially addressed by applying the Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF) – an integrated multi-scale modeling, analysis, and data management suite – to address key issues in developing and operating an open-pond microalgae production facility.more » This is done by analyzing how variability and uncertainty over space and through time affect feedstock production rates, and determining the site-specific “optimum” facility scale to minimize capital and operational expenses. This approach explicitly and systematically assesses the interdependence of biofuel production potential, associated resource requirements, and production system design trade-offs. To provide a baseline analysis, the IAF was applied in this paper to a set of sites in the southeastern U.S. with the potential to cumulatively produce 5 billion gallons per year. Finally, the results indicate costs can be reduced by scaling downstream processing capabilities to fit site-specific growing conditions, available and economically viable resources, and specific microalgal strains.« less

  13. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chickedema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chickedema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  13. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  14. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  20. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using copper doped zinc oxide nanocomposite as heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Baskar; Ravi, Aiswarya

    2015-01-01

    A novel CZO nanocomposite was synthesized and used as heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification of waste cooking oil into biodiesel using methanol as acyl acceptor. The synthesized CZO nanocomposite was characterized in FESEM with an average size of 80 nm as nanorods. The XRD patterns indicated the substitution of ZnO in the hexagonal lattice of Cu nanoparticles. The 12% (w/w) nanocatalyst concentration, 1:8 (v:v) O:M ratio, 55 °C temperature and 50 min of reaction time were found as optimum for maximum biodiesel yield of 97.71% (w/w). Hence, the use of CZO nanocomposite can be used as heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inert anode containing oxides of nickel, iron and zinc useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P.; Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A.; Liu, Xinghua

    2002-01-01

    An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO: 0.2 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.8 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.3 ZnO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

  2. Zinc irreversibly damages major enzymes of energy production and antioxidant defense prior to mitochondrial permeability transition.

    PubMed

    Gazaryan, Irina G; Krasinskaya, Inna P; Kristal, Bruce S; Brown, Abraham M

    2007-08-17

    Recent observations point to the role played by Zn2+ as an inducer of neuronal death. Two Zn2+ targets have been identified that result in inhibition of mitochondrial respiration: the bc1 center and, more recently, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. Zn2+ is also a mediator of oxidative stress, leading to mitochondrial failure, release of apoptotic peptides, and neuronal death. We now present evidence, by means of direct biochemical assays, that Zn2+ is imported through the Ca2+ uniporter and directly targets major enzymes of energy production (lipoamide dehydrogenase) and antioxidant defense (thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase). We demonstrate the following. (a) These matrix enzymes are rapidly inhibited by application of Zn2+ to intact mitochondria. (b) Delayed treatment with membrane-impermeable chelators has no effect, indicating rapid transport of biologically relevant quantities of Zn2+ into the matrix. (c) Membrane-permeable chelators stop but do not reverse enzyme inactivation. (d) Enzyme inhibition is rapid and irreversible and precedes the major changes associated with the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). (e) The extent and rate of enzyme inactivation linearly correlates with the MPT onset and propagation. (f) The Ca2+ uniporter blocker, Ruthenium Red, protects enzyme activities and delays pore opening up to 2 microm Zn2+. An additional, unidentified import route functions at higher Zn2+ concentrations. (g) No enzyme inactivation is observed for Ca2+-induced MPT. These observations strongly suggest that, unlike Ca2+, exogenous Zn2+ interferes with mitochondrial NADH production and directly alters redox protection in the matrix, contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction. Inactivation of these enzymes by Zn2+ is irreversible, and thus only their de novo synthesis can restore function, which may underlie persistent loss of oxidative carbohydrate metabolism following transient ischemia.

  3. Effect of in vitro zinc supplementation on HSPs expression and Interleukin 10 production in heat treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of transition Sahiwal and Karan Fries cows.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Aasif Ahmad; Aggarwal, Anjali; Aarif, Ovais

    2016-02-01

    The changing climatic scenario with apprehended rise in global temperature is likely to affect the livestock adversely vis-à-vis production and reproduction. This has prompted more focus in addressing the unfavorable effects of thermal stress in livestock system. Presuming that the trace element zinc is indispensible for cellular antioxidant system and immune function, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of zinc treatment on heat stress alleviation and immune modulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of indigenous and crossbred transition cows. Twelve cows, six each of Sahiwal and Karan Fries (KF) in their second parity with confirmed pregnancy were selected for the experiment. The blood samples were collected at -21, 0 and +21 days in relation to expected date of calving. The experiment was carried out in vitro after isolating PBMC from whole blood. The 48h cultured PBMC were subjected to assorted levels of exposures viz. 37°C, 42°C to impose heat stress and 42°C+zinc to alleviate heat stress and modulate immunity. The PBMC viability was 86%, 69% and 78%, respectively. The mRNA expression of heat shock proteins (HSP 40, 70 and 90α) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) production varied between the two breeds vis-à-vis days and levels of exposure. The mRNA expression of HSP40 and HSP70 was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Karan Fries than the Sahiwal cows. Both the breeds showed maximum expression of HSP on the day of parturition, more so in KF than Sahiwal. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference in the HSP mRNA expression at different levels of exposure. Zinc treatment to heat stressed PBMC caused a significant (P<0.05) down regulation of HSP. For immune status, anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 in the culture supernatant was accessed. The IL-10 was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Karan Fries (168.18±14.09pg/ml) than the Sahiwal cows (147.24±11.82pg/ml). The IL-10 concentration was highest on the day of calving. Zinc

  4. Comparison of ultrasonic-assisted and regular leaching of germanium from by-product of zinc metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Libo; Guo, Wenqian; Peng, Jinhui; Li, Jing; Lin, Guo; Yu, Xia

    2016-07-01

    A major source of germanium recovery and also the source of this research is the by-product of lead and zinc metallurgical process. The primary purpose of the research is to investigate the effects of ultrasonic assisted and regular methods on the leaching yield of germanium from roasted slag containing germanium. In the study, the HCl-CaCl2 mixed solution is adopted as the reacting system and the Ca(ClO)2 used as the oxidant. Through six single factor (leaching time, temperature, amount of Ca(ClO)2, acid concentration, concentration of CaCl2 solution, ultrasonic power) experiments and the comparison of the two methods, it is found the optimum collective of germanium for ultrasonic-assisted method is obtained at temperature 80 °C for a leaching duration of 40 min. The optimum concentration for hydrochloric acid, CaCl2 and oxidizing agent are identified to be 3.5 mol/L, 150 g/L and 58.33 g/L, respectively. In addition, 700 W is the best ultrasonic power and an over-high power is adverse in the leaching process. Under the optimum condition, the recovery of germanium could reach up to 92.7%. While, the optimum leaching condition for regular leaching method is same to ultrasonic-assisted method, except regular method consume 100 min and the leaching rate of Ge 88.35% is lower about 4.35%. All in all, the experiment manifests that the leaching time can be reduced by as much as 60% and the leaching rate of Ge can be increased by 3-5% with the application of ultrasonic tool, which is mainly thanks to the mechanical action of ultrasonic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An Integrated Assessment of Location-Dependent Scaling for Microalgae Biofuel Production Facilities

    SciT

    Coleman, Andre M.; Abodeely, Jared; Skaggs, Richard

    Successful development of a large-scale microalgae-based biofuels industry requires comprehensive analysis and understanding of the feedstock supply chain—from facility siting/design through processing/upgrading of the feedstock to a fuel product. The evolution from pilot-scale production facilities to energy-scale operations presents many multi-disciplinary challenges, including a sustainable supply of water and nutrients, operational and infrastructure logistics, and economic competitiveness with petroleum-based fuels. These challenges are addressed in part by applying the Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF)—an integrated multi-scale modeling, analysis, and data management suite—to address key issues in developing and operating an open-pond facility by analyzing how variability and uncertainty in space andmore » time affect algal feedstock production rates, and determining the site-specific “optimum” facility scale to minimize capital and operational expenses. This approach explicitly and systematically assesses the interdependence of biofuel production potential, associated resource requirements, and production system design trade-offs. The IAF was applied to a set of sites previously identified as having the potential to cumulatively produce 5 billion-gallons/year in the southeastern U.S. and results indicate costs can be reduced by selecting the most effective processing technology pathway and scaling downstream processing capabilities to fit site-specific growing conditions, available resources, and algal strains.« less

  6. 18 CFR 292.208 - Special requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.208 Section... 201 AND 210 OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 WITH REGARD TO SMALL POWER PRODUCTION AND COGENERATION Qualifying Cogeneration and Small Power Production Facilities § 292.208 Special...

  7. 18 CFR 292.208 - Special requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.208 Section... 201 AND 210 OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 WITH REGARD TO SMALL POWER PRODUCTION AND COGENERATION Qualifying Cogeneration and Small Power Production Facilities § 292.208 Special...

  8. An integrated prediction and optimization model of biogas production system at a wastewater treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Akbaş, Halil; Bilgen, Bilge; Turhan, Aykut Melih

    2015-11-01

    This study proposes an integrated prediction and optimization model by using multi-layer perceptron neural network and particle swarm optimization techniques. Three different objective functions are formulated. The first one is the maximization of methane percentage with single output. The second one is the maximization of biogas production with single output. The last one is the maximization of biogas quality and biogas production with two outputs. Methane percentage, carbon dioxide percentage, and other contents' percentage are used as the biogas quality criteria. Based on the formulated models and data from a wastewater treatment facility, optimal values of input variables and their corresponding maximum output values are found out for each model. It is expected that the application of the integrated prediction and optimization models increases the biogas production and biogas quality, and contributes to the quantity of electricity production at the wastewater treatment facility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 7 CFR 4288.137 - Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel... PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions § 4288.137 Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production. (a) Contract succession. An entity who becomes the eligible...

  10. 7 CFR 4288.137 - Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel... PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions Payment Provisions § 4288.137 Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production. (a) Contract succession. An entity who...

  11. 7 CFR 4288.137 - Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel... PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions § 4288.137 Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production. (a) Contract succession. An entity who becomes the eligible...

  12. Spatio-temporal distribution of stored-product inects around food processing and storage facilities

    Grain storage and processing facilities consist of a landscape of indoor and outdoor habitats that can potentially support stored-product insect pests, and understanding patterns of species diversity and spatial distribution in the landscape surrounding structures can provide insight into how the ou...

  13. Production facility site selection factors for Texas value-added wood producers

    Judd H. Michael; Joanna Teitel; James E. Granskog

    1998-01-01

    Value-added wood products manufacturers serve an important role in the economies of many U.S. regions and are therefore sought after by entities such as economic development agencies. The reasons why certain locations for a prospective prodution facility would be more attractive to secondary wood industry producers are not clearly understood. Therefore, this research...

  14. A novel sequential vegetable production facility for life support system in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming; Shao, Lingzhi; Erokhin, A. N.; Wang, Minjuan

    2012-07-01

    Vegetable cultivation plays a crucial role for dietary supplements and psychosocial benefits of the crew during manned space flight. The idea of onboard vegetables cultivation was generally proposed as the first step of food regeneration in life support system of space. Here a novel sequential vegetable production facility was developed, which was able to simulate microgravity conditions and carry out modularized-cultivation of leaf-vegetables. Its growth chamber (GC) had conic form and volume of 0.12 m ^{3}. Its planting surface of 0.154 m ^{2} was comprised of six ring-shaped root modules with a fibrous ion-exchange resin substrate. Root modules were fastened to a central porous tube supplying water, and moved on along with plant growth. The total illuminated crop area of 0.567 m ^{2} was provided by a combination of both red and white light emitting diodes distributed on the GC cone internal surface. In tests with a 24-hr photoperiod, the productivity of the facility at 0.3 kW for lettuce achieved 254.3 g eatable biomass per week. Compared to lettuce from market, the quality of lettuce of the facility did not change significantly during long-term cultivation. Our results demonstrate that the facility is high efficiency in vegetable production, and basically meets the application requirements of space microgravity environment. Keywords:, vegetable; modularized-cultivation; sequential production; life support system

  15. 12 CFR 7.5002 - Furnishing of products and services by electronic means and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Furnishing of products and services by electronic means and facilities. 7.5002 Section 7.5002 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Electronic Activities § 7.5002 Furnishing of...

  16. History of Zinc in Agriculture12

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Forrest H.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

  17. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc methionine sulfate. 172.399 Section 172.399... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate. Zinc methionine... conditions: (a) The additive is the product of the reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and DL...

  18. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  19. Analysis of federal and state policies and environmental issues for bioethanol production facilities.

    PubMed

    McGee, Chandra; Chan Hilton, Amy B

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate incentives and barriers to fuel ethanol production from biomass in the U.S. during the past decade (2000-2010). In particular, we examine the results of policies and economic conditions during this period by way of cellulosic ethanol activity in four selected states with the potential to produce different types of feedstocks (i.e., sugar, starch, and cellulosic crops) for ethanol production (Florida, California, Hawaii, and Iowa). Two of the four states, Iowa and California, currently have commercial ethanol production facilities in operation using corn feedstocks. While several companies have proposed commercial scale facilities in Florida and Hawaii, none are operating to date. Federal and state policies and incentives, potential for feedstock production and conversion to ethanol and associated potential environmental impacts, and environmental regulatory conditions among the states were investigated. Additionally, an analysis of proposed and operational ethanol production facilities provided evidence that a combination of these policies and incentives along with the ability to address environmental issues and regulatory environment and positive economic conditions all impact ethanol production. The 2000-2010 decade saw the rise of the promise of cellulosic ethanol. Federal and state policies were enacted to increase ethanol production. Since the initial push for development, expansion of cellulosic ethanol production has not happened as quickly as predicted. Government and private funding supported the development of ethanol production facilities, which peaked and then declined by the end of the decade. Although there are technical issues that remain to be solved to more efficiently convert cellulosic material to ethanol while reducing environmental impacts, the largest barriers to increasing ethanol production appear to be related to government policies, economics, and logistical issues. The numerous federal and state

  20. Facile production of ZnS quantum dot nanoparticles by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 2918.

    PubMed

    Sandana Mala, John Geraldine; Rose, Chellan

    2014-01-20

    Microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is a green route towards ecofriendly measures to overcome the toxicity and non-applicability of nanomaterials in clinical uses obtained by conventional physical and chemical approaches. Nanoparticles in the quantum regime have remarkable characteristics with excellent applicability in bioimaging. Yeasts have been commercially exploited for several industrial applications. ZnS nanoparticles as semiconductor quantum dots have mostly been synthesized by bacterial species. Here in, we have attempted to produce ZnS nanoparticles in quantum regime by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 2918 fungus and characterize its size and spectroscopic properties. Intracellular ZnS nanoparticles were produced by a facile procedure and freeze thaw extraction using 1mM zinc sulfate. The ZnS nanoparticles showed surface plasmon resonance band at 302.57nm. The ZnS nanoparticles were in low yield and in the size range of 30-40nm. Powder XRD analysis revealed that the nanoparticles were in the sphalerite phase. Photoluminescence spectra excited at 280nm and 325nm revealed quantum confinement effects. This suggests that yeasts have inherent sulfate metabolizing systems and are capable fungal sources to assimilate sulfate. Further insights are required to identify the transport/reducing processes that may have caused the synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles such as an oxidoreductase enzyme-mediated mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Facile fabrication of dual emissive nanospheres via the self-assembling of CdSe@CdS and zinc phthalocyanine and their application for silver ion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuning; Liu, Chenchen; Luan, Xinying; Yao, Rui; Feng, Yakai

    2017-09-01

    The far-red/near infrared photoluminescence of zinc phthalocyanines would be strongly quenched once they are aggregated, which will obviously hinder their wide applications in environmental, energy related and biomedical fields. Herein, the ultra-small sized semiconductor quantum dots with core-shell structures (CdSe@CdS) have been firstly synthesized and then assembled with a dendritic zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) in the H2O/DMF mixed solvent to obtain monodispersed nanospheres. Finally, it was found that the resultant ethanolic colloids can be employed as a sensitive and specific fluorescent nanoprobe for silver ions discrimination with a limit of detection (LOD) approaching to 10-8 mol/L.

  2. An outdoor test facility for the large-scale production of microalgae

    SciT

    Johnson, D.A.; Weissman, J.; Goebel, R.

    The goal of the US Department of EnergySolar Energy Research Institute's Aquatic Species Program is to develop the technology base to produce liquid fuels from microalgae. This technology is being initially developed for the desert Southwest. As part of this program an outdoor test facility has been designed and constructed in Roswell, New Mexico. The site has a large existing infrastructure, a suitable climate, and abundant saline groundwater. This facility will be used to evaluate productivity of microalgae strains and conduct large-scale experiments to increase biomass productivity while decreasing production costs. Six 3-m/sup 2/ fiberglass raceways were constructed. Several microalgaemore » strains were screened for growth, one of which had a short-term productivity rate of greater than 50 g dry wt m/sup /minus/2/ d/sup /minus/1/. Two large-scale, 0.1-ha raceways have also been built. These are being used to evaluate the performance trade-offs between low-cost earthen liners and higher cost plastic liners. A series of hydraulic measurements is also being carried out to evaluate future improved pond designs. Future plans include a 0.5-ha pond, which will be built in approximately 2 years to test a scaled-up system. This unique facility will be available to other researchers and industry for studies on microalgae productivity. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.« less

  3. Leaching of Zinc Sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Bacterial Oxidation of the Sulfur Product Layer Increases the Rate of Zinc Sulfide Dissolution at High Concentrations of Ferrous Ions

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, T. A.; Crundwell, F. K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the results of leaching experiments conducted with and without Thiobacillus ferrooxidans at the same conditions in solution. The extent of leaching of ZnS with bacteria is significantly higher than that without bacteria at high concentrations of ferrous ions. A porous layer of elemental sulfur is present on the surfaces of the chemically leached particles, while no sulfur is present on the surfaces of the bacterially leached particles. The analysis of the data using the shrinking-core model shows that the chemical leaching of ZnS is limited by the diffusion of ferrous ions through the sulfur product layer at high concentrations of ferrous ions. The analysis of the data shows that diffusion through the product layer does not limit the rate of dissolution when bacteria are present. This suggests that the action of T. ferrooxidans in oxidizing the sulfur formed on the particle surface is to remove the barrier to diffusion by ferrous ions. PMID:10583978

  4. 18 CFR 292.209 - Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.209... Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or... license or exemption is filed for a project located at a Government dam, as defined in section 3(10) of...

  5. 18 CFR 292.209 - Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.209... Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or... license or exemption is filed for a project located at a Government dam, as defined in section 3(10) of...

  6. 77 FR 64999 - Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility Registrations and... industry entitled ``Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility Registrations and... made available a draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food [[Page...

  7. 18 CFR 292.209 - Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.209... Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or... the Federal Power Act, at which non-Federal hydroelectric development is permissible; or (2) An...

  8. 18 CFR 292.209 - Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.209... Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or... the Federal Power Act, at which non-Federal hydroelectric development is permissible; or (2) An...

  9. 18 CFR 292.209 - Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.209... Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or... the Federal Power Act, at which non-Federal hydroelectric development is permissible; or (2) An...

  10. Identifying public water facilities with low spatial variability of disinfection by-products for epidemiological investigations

    PubMed Central

    Hinckley, A; Bachand, A; Nuckols, J; Reif, J

    2005-01-01

    Background and Aims: Epidemiological studies of disinfection by-products (DBPs) and reproductive outcomes have been hampered by misclassification of exposure. In most epidemiological studies conducted to date, all persons living within the boundaries of a water distribution system have been assigned a common exposure value based on facility-wide averages of trihalomethane (THM) concentrations. Since THMs do not develop uniformly throughout a distribution system, assignment of facility-wide averages may be inappropriate. One approach to mitigate this potential for misclassification is to select communities for epidemiological investigations that are served by distribution systems with consistently low spatial variability of THMs. Methods and Results: A feasibility study was conducted to develop methods for community selection using the Information Collection Rule (ICR) database, assembled by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The ICR database contains quarterly DBP concentrations collected between 1997 and 1998 from the distribution systems of 198 public water facilities with minimum service populations of 100 000 persons. Facilities with low spatial variation of THMs were identified using two methods; 33 facilities were found with low spatial variability based on one or both methods. Because brominated THMs may be important predictors of risk for adverse reproductive outcomes, sites were categorised into three exposure profiles according to proportion of brominated THM species and average TTHM concentration. The correlation between THMs and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in these facilities was evaluated to see whether selection by total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) corresponds to low spatial variability for HAAs. TTHMs were only moderately correlated with HAAs (r = 0.623). Conclusions: Results provide a simple method for a priori selection of sites with low spatial variability from state or national public water facility datasets as a means to reduce exposure

  11. In vitro solubility of calcium, iron and zinc in relation to phytic acid levels in rice-based consumer products in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jianfen; Han, Bei-Zhong; Nout, M J Robert; Hamer, Robert J

    2010-02-01

    In vitro solubility of calcium, iron and zinc in relation to phytic acid (PA) levels in 30 commercial rice-based foods from China was studied. Solubility of minerals and molar ratios of PA to minerals varied with degrees of processing. In primary products, [PA]/[Ca] values were less than 5 and [PA]/[Fe] and [PA]/[Zn] similarly ranged between 5 and 74, with most values between 20 and 30. [PA]/[mineral] molar ratios in intensively processed products were lower. Solubility of calcium ranged from 0% to 87%, with the lowest in brown rice (12%) and the highest in infant foods (50%). Iron solubility in two-thirds of samples was lower than 30%, and that of zinc narrowly ranged from 6% to 30%. Solubility of minerals was not significantly affected by [PA]/[mineral]. At present, neither primary nor intensively processed rice-based products are good dietary sources of minerals. Improvements should be attempted by dephytinization, mineral fortification or, preferably, combination of both.

  12. Abatement of Xenon and Iodine Emissions from Medical Isotope Production Facilities

    SciT

    Doll, Charles G.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Bowyer, Ted W.

    2014-04-01

    The capability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect xenon from underground nuclear explosions is dependent on the radioactive xenon background. Adding to the background, medical isotope production (MIP) by fission releases several important xenon isotopes including xenon-133 and iodine-133 that decays to xenon-133. The amount of xenon released from these facilities may be equivalent to or exceed that released from an underground nuclear explosion. Thus the release of gaseous fission products within days of irradiation makes it difficult to distinguish MIP emissions from a nuclear explosion. In addition, recent shortages in molybdenum-99 have created interest and investment opportunitiesmore » to design and build new MIP facilities in the United States and throughout the world. Due to the potential increase in the number of MIP facilities, a discussion of abatement technologies provides insight into how the problem of emission control from MIP facilities can be tackled. A review of practices is provided to delineate methods useful for abatement of medical isotopes.« less

  13. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  14. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  15. Commissioning of a CERN Production and Analysis Facility Based on xrootd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, Simone; van der Ster, Daniel C.; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Peters, Andreas J.; Duellmann, Dirk; Coelho Dos Santos, Miguel; Iven, Jan; Bell, Tim

    2011-12-01

    The CERN facility hosts the Tier-0 of the four LHC experiments, but as part of WLCG it also offers a platform for production activities and user analysis. The CERN CASTOR storage technology has been extensively tested and utilized for LHC data recording and exporting to external sites according to experiments computing model. On the other hand, to accommodate Grid data processing activities and, more importantly, chaotic user analysis, it was realized that additional functionality was needed including a different throttling mechanism for file access. This paper will describe the xroot-based CERN production and analysis facility for the ATLAS experiment and in particular the experiment use case and data access scenario, the xrootd redirector setup on top of the CASTOR storage system, the commissioning of the system and real life experience for data processing and data analysis.

  16. Efficiency and cost advantages of an advanced-technology nuclear electrolytic hydrogen-energy production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donakowski, T. D.; Escher, W. J. D.; Gregory, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of an advanced-technology (viz., 1985 technology) nuclear-electrolytic water electrolysis facility was assessed for hydrogen production cost and efficiency expectations. The facility integrates (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) operating a binary work cycle, (2) direct-current (d-c) electricity generation via acyclic generators, and (3) high-current-density, high-pressure electrolyzers using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced for hydrogen production alone (i.e., without separate production of electrical power). Pipeline-pressure hydrogen and oxygen are produced at 6900 kPa (1000 psi). We found that this advanced facility would produce hydrogen at costs that were approximately half those associated with contemporary-technology nuclear electrolysis: $5.36 versus $10.86/million Btu, respectively. The nuclear-heat-to-hydrogen-energy conversion efficiency for the advanced system was estimated as 43%, versus 25% for the contemporary system.

  17. New electron beam facility for R&D and production at acsion industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopata, V. J.; Barnard, J. W.; Saunders, C. B.; Stepanik, T. M.

    2003-08-01

    Since its incorporation in 1998, Acsion Industries Inc. has been working with clients to develop industrial uses of electron processing for improving products and manufacturing processes. Acsion has promoted this technology for sterilizing medical devices and pharmaceuticals, for treating wood pulp in the viscose/rayon process, for reducing pathogens in food and animal feed, and for curing advanced composites for the aerospace industry. As a result of significant developments in its composite curing programs, Acsion has recently made major modifications to its facility to increase its production and R&D capabilities. These modifications are described in this paper.

  18. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product....

  3. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product....

  4. Guidelines for Risk-Based Changeover of Biopharma Multi-Product Facilities.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Rob; Barabani, David; Bellorado, Kathy; Canisius, Peter; Heathcote, Doug; Johnson, Alan; Wyman, Ned; Parry, Derek Willison

    2018-01-01

    In multi-product biopharma facilities, the protection from product contamination due to the manufacture of multiple products simultaneously is paramount to assure product quality. To that end, the use of traditional changeover methods (elastomer change-out, full sampling, etc.) have been widely used within the industry and have been accepted by regulatory agencies. However, with the endorsement of Quality Risk Management (1), the use of risk-based approaches may be applied to assess and continuously improve established changeover processes. All processes, including changeover, can be improved with investment (money/resources), parallel activities, equipment design improvements, and standardization. However, processes can also be improved by eliminating waste. For product changeover, waste is any activity not needed for the new process or that does not provide added assurance of the quality of the subsequent product. The application of a risk-based approach to changeover aligns with the principles of Quality Risk Management. Through the use of risk assessments, the appropriate changeover controls can be identified and controlled to assure product quality is maintained. Likewise, the use of risk assessments and risk-based approaches may be used to improve operational efficiency, reduce waste, and permit concurrent manufacturing of products. © PDA, Inc. 2018.

  5. Production of medical radioactive isotopes using KIPT electron driven subcritical facility.

    PubMed

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2008-05-01

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a plan to construct an electron accelerator driven subcritical assembly. One of the facility objectives is the production of medical radioactive isotopes. This paper presents the ANL collaborative work performed for characterizing the facility performance for producing medical radioactive isotopes. First, a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Then, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes have been considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n, gamma), (n, 2n), (n, p), and (gamma, n). In the second part, the parent isotopes with high reaction rate were explicitly modeled in the calculations. Four irradiation locations were considered in the analyses to study the medical isotope production rate. The results show the self-shielding effect not only reduces the specific activity but it also changes the irradiation location that maximizes the specific activity. The axial and radial distributions of the parent capture rates have been examined to define the irradiation sample size of each parent isotope.

  6. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciT

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medicalmore » isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8×1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.2×1016 to 2.5×1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.1×1013 to 3.6×1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.« less

  7. Effects of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles on methane production from anaerobic co-digestion of primary and excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiong; Wu, Lijuan; Chen, Yinguang; Su, Yinglong; Wan, Rui; Liu, Kun; Huang, Haining

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of primary and excess sludge is regarded as an efficient way to reuse sludge organic matter to produce methane. In this study, short-term and long-term exposure experiments were conducted to investigate the possible effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) on methane production from anaerobic co-digestion of primary and excess sludge. The data showed that TiO2 NPs had no measurable impact on methane production, even at a high concentration (150 mg/g total suspended solids (TSS)). However, short-term (8 days) exposure to 30 or 150 mg/g-TSS of ZnO NPs significantly decreased methane production. More importantly, these negative effects of ZnO NPs on anaerobic sludge co-digestion were not alleviated by increasing the adaptation time to 105 days. Further studies indicated that the presence of ZnO NPs substantially decreased the abundance of methanogenic archaea, which reduced methane production. Meanwhile, the activities of some key enzymes involved in methane production, such as protease, acetate kinase, and coenzyme F420, were remarkably inhibited by the presence of ZnO NPs, which was also an important reason for the decreased methane production. These results provide a better understanding of the potential risks of TiO2 and ZnO NPs to methane production from anaerobic sludge co-digestion.

  8. Facile synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide composite via simple solvothermal route and their photocatalytic activity on methylene blue degradation.

    PubMed

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Perumal, Suguna; Karthikeyan, Dhanapalan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-09-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide (ZnO@GO) composite was synthesized by simple solvothermal method where zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO) were synthesized via simple thermal oxidation and Hummers method, respectively. The obtained materials were thoroughly characterized by various physico-chemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectrum shows the intensity of D to G value was close to one which confirms the obtained GO and ZnO@GO composite possesses moderate graphitization. TEM images shows the ZnO nanoparticles mean size of 15±5nm were dispersed over the wrinkled graphene layers. The photocatalytic performance of ZnO@GO composite on degradation of methylene blue (MB) is investigated and the results show that the GO plays an important role in the enhancement of photocatalytic performance. The synthesized ZnO@GO composite achieves a maximum degradation efficiency of 98.5% in a neutral solution under UV-light irradiation for 15min as compared with pure ZnO (degradation efficiency is 49% after 60min of irradiation) due to the increased light absorption, the reduced charge recombination with the introduction of GO. Moreover, the resulting ZnO@GO composite possesses excellent degradation efficiency as compared to ZnO nanoparticles alone on MB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of facility agriculture production on phthalate esters distribution in black soils of northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Pengjie; Wang, Lei; Sun, Guoqiang; Zhao, Jiaying; Zhang, Hui; Du, Na

    2015-02-15

    The current study investigates the existence of 15 phthalate esters (PAEs) in surface soils (27 samples) collected from 9 different facility agriculture sites in the black soil region of northeast China, during the process of agricultural production (comprising only three seasons spring, summer and autumn). Concentrations of the 15 PAEs detected significantly varied from spring to autumn and their values ranged from 1.37 to 4.90 mg/kg-dw, with a median value of 2.83 mg/kg-dw. The highest concentration of the 15 PAEs (4.90 mg/kg-dw) was determined in summer when mulching film was used in the greenhouses. Probably an increase in environmental temperature was a major reason for PAE transfer from the mulching film into the soil and coupled with the increased usage of chemical fertilizers in greenhouses. Results showed that of the 15 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were in abundance with the mean value of 1.12 ± 0.22, 0.46 ± 0.05, 0.36 ± 0.04, and 0.17 ± 0.01 mg/kg-dw, respectively; and their average contributions in spring, summer, and autumn ranged between 64.08 and 90.51% among the 15 PAEs. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated the concentration of these four main PAEs significantly differed among the facility agricultures investigated, during the process of agricultural production. In comparison with foreign and domestic results of previous researches, it is proved that the black soils of facility agriculture in northeast China show higher pollution situation comparing with non-facility agriculture soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Production and quality assurance automation in the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, K. B.; Cox, C. M.; Thomas, C. W.; Cuevas, O. O.; Beckman, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) generates numerous products for NASA-supported spacecraft, including the Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS's), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), and the space shuttle. These products include orbit determination data, acquisition data, event scheduling data, and attitude data. In most cases, product generation involves repetitive execution of many programs. The increasing number of missions supported by the FDF has necessitated the use of automated systems to schedule, execute, and quality assure these products. This automation allows the delivery of accurate products in a timely and cost-efficient manner. To be effective, these systems must automate as many repetitive operations as possible and must be flexible enough to meet changing support requirements. The FDF Orbit Determination Task (ODT) has implemented several systems that automate product generation and quality assurance (QA). These systems include the Orbit Production Automation System (OPAS), the New Enhanced Operations Log (NEOLOG), and the Quality Assurance Automation Software (QA Tool). Implementation of these systems has resulted in a significant reduction in required manpower, elimination of shift work and most weekend support, and improved support quality, while incurring minimal development cost. This paper will present an overview of the concepts used and experiences gained from the implementation of these automation systems.

  11. Gadolinium-148 and other spallation production cross section measurements for accelerator target facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Karen Corzine

    At the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center accelerator complex, protons are accelerated to 800 MeV and directed to two tungsten targets, Target 4 at the Weapons Neutron Research facility and the 1L target at the Lujan Center. The Department of Energy requires hazard classification analyses to be performed on these targets and places limits on certain radionuclide inventories in the targets to avoid characterizing the facilities as "nuclear facilities." Gadolinium-148 is a radionuclide created from the spallation of tungsten. Allowed isotopic inventories are particularly low for this isotope because it is an alpha-particle emitter with a 75-year half-life. The activity level of Gadolinium-148 is low, but it encompasses almost two-thirds of the total dose burden for the two tungsten targets based on present yield estimates. From a hazard classification standpoint, this severely limits the lifetime of these tungsten targets. The cross section is not well-established experimentally and this is the motivation for measuring the Gadolinium-148 production cross section from tungsten. In a series of experiments at the Weapons Neutron Research facility, Gadolinium-148 production was measured for 600- and 800-MeV protons on tungsten, tantalum, and gold. These experiments used 3 mum thin tungsten, tantalum, and gold foils and 10 mum thin aluminum activation foils. In addition, spallation yields were determined for many short-lived and long-lived spallation products with these foils using gamma and alpha spectroscopy and compared with predictions of the Los Alamos National Laboratory codes CEM2k+GEM2 and MCNPX. The cumulative Gadolinium-148 production cross section measured from tantalum, tungsten, and gold for incident 600-MeV protons were 15.2 +/- 4.0, 8.31 +/- 0.92, and 0.591 +/- 0.155, respectively. The average production cross sections measured at 800 MeV were 28.6 +/- 3.5, 19.4 +/- 1.8, and 3.69 +/- 0.50 for tantalum, tungsten, and gold, respectively. These cumulative

  12. 15 CFR 712.5 - Annual declaration requirements for facilities engaged in the production of Schedule 1 chemicals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.5 Annual declaration requirements for facilities engaged in... facilities engaged in the production of Schedule 1 chemicals for purposes not prohibited by the CWC. 712.5...

  13. 15 CFR 712.5 - Annual declaration requirements for facilities engaged in the production of Schedule 1 chemicals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...)(2) of this section if you produced at your facility in excess of 100 grams aggregate of Schedule 1... you will produce at your facility more than 100 grams aggregate of Schedule 1 chemicals in the next... result in production of more than 100 grams aggregate of Schedule 1 chemicals. (b) Declaration forms to...

  14. 15 CFR 712.5 - Annual declaration requirements for facilities engaged in the production of Schedule 1 chemicals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...)(2) of this section if you produced at your facility in excess of 100 grams aggregate of Schedule 1... you will produce at your facility more than 100 grams aggregate of Schedule 1 chemicals in the next... result in production of more than 100 grams aggregate of Schedule 1 chemicals. (b) Declaration forms to...

  15. 15 CFR 712.5 - Annual declaration requirements for facilities engaged in the production of Schedule 1 chemicals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...)(2) of this section if you produced at your facility in excess of 100 grams aggregate of Schedule 1... you will produce at your facility more than 100 grams aggregate of Schedule 1 chemicals in the next... result in production of more than 100 grams aggregate of Schedule 1 chemicals. (b) Declaration forms to...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 122 - Criteria for Determining a Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL... Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24) A hatchery, fish farm, or other facility is a... aquatic animals in either of the following categories: (a) Cold water fish species or other cold water...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 122 - Criteria for Determining a Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL... Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24) A hatchery, fish farm, or other facility is a... aquatic animals in either of the following categories: (a) Cold water fish species or other cold water...

  18. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.

    2008-01-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  19. Mitigation of laser damage on National Ignition Facility optics in volume production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folta, James; Nostrand, Mike; Honig, John; Wong, Nan; Ravizza, Frank; Geraghty, Paul; Taranowski, Mike; Johnson, Gary; Larkin, Glenn; Ravizza, Doug; Peterson, John; Welday, Brian; Wegner, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The National Ignition Facility has recently achieved the milestone of delivering over 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of 351 nm laser energy and power on target, which required average fluences up to 9 J/cm2 (3 ns equivalent) in the final optics system. Commercial fused silica laser-grade UV optics typically have a maximum operating threshold of 5 J/cm2. We have developed an optics recycling process which enables NIF to operate above the laser damage initiation and growth thresholds. We previously reported a method to mitigate laser damage with laser ablation of the damage site to leave benign cone shaped pits. We have since developed a production facility with four mitigation systems capable of performing the mitigation protocols on full-sized (430 mm) optics in volume production. We have successfully repaired over 700 NIF optics (unique serial numbers), some of which have been recycled as many as 11 times. We describe the mitigation systems, the optics recycle loop process, and optics recycle production data.

  20. The BioDyn facility on ISS: Advancing biomaterial production in microgravity for commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Niki; Wessling, Francis; Deuser, Mark; Anderson, C. D.; Lewis, Marian

    1999-01-01

    The primary goals of the BioDyn program are to foster use of the microgravity environment for commercial production of bio-materials from cells, and to develop services and processes for obtaining these materials through space processing. The scope of products includes commercial bio-molecules such as cytokines, other cell growth regulatory proteins, hormones, monoclonal antibodies and enzymes; transplantable cells or tissues which can be improved by low-G processes, or which cannot be obtained through standard processes in earth gravity; agriculture biotechnology products from plant cells; microencapsulation for diabetes treatment; and factors regulating cellular aging. To facilitate BioDyn's commercial science driven goals, hardware designed for ISS incorporates the flexibility for interchange between the different ISS facilities including the glovebox, various thermal units and centrifuges. By providing a permanent research facility, ISS is the critical space-based platform required by scientists for carrying out the long-term experiments necessary for developing bio-molecules and tissues using several cell culture modalities including suspension and anchorage-dependent cell types.

  1. Maximum reasonable radioxenon releases from medical isotope production facilities and their effect on monitoring nuclear explosions.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Theodore W; Kephart, Rosara; Eslinger, Paul W; Friese, Judah I; Miley, Harry S; Saey, Paul R J

    2013-01-01

    Fission gases such as (133)Xe are used extensively for monitoring the world for signs of nuclear testing in systems such as the International Monitoring System (IMS). These gases are also produced by nuclear reactors and by fission production of (99)Mo for medical use. Recently, medical isotope production facilities have been identified as the major contributor to the background of radioactive xenon isotopes (radioxenon) in the atmosphere (Stocki et al., 2005; Saey, 2009). These releases pose a potential future problem for monitoring nuclear explosions if not addressed. As a starting point, a maximum acceptable daily xenon emission rate was calculated, that is both scientifically defendable as not adversely affecting the IMS, but also consistent with what is possible to achieve in an operational environment. This study concludes that an emission of 5 × 10(9) Bq/day from a medical isotope production facility would be both an acceptable upper limit from the perspective of minimal impact to monitoring stations, but also appears to be an achievable limit for large isotope producers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reliability of eye lens dosimetry in workers of a positron emission tomography radiopharmaceutical production facility.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Teógenes A; Guimarães, Margarete C; Meireles, Leonardo S; Teles, Luciana L D; Lacerda, Marco Aurélio S

    2016-11-01

    A new regulatory statement was issued concerning the eye lens radiation protection of persons in planned exposures. A debate was raised on the adequacy of the dosimetric quantity and on its method of measurement. The aim of this work was to establish the individual monitoring procedure with the EYE-D™ holder and a MCP-N LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent chip detector for measuring the personal dose equivalent H p (3) in workers of a Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceutical Production Facility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrogen Production in Radioactive Solutions in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciT

    CRAWFORD, CHARLES L.

    2004-05-26

    In the radioactive slurries and solutions to be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), hydrogen will be produced continuously by radiolysis. This production results from alpha, beta, and gamma rays from decay of radionuclides in the slurries and solutions interacting with the water. More than 1000 research reports have published data concerning this radiolytic production. The results of these studies have been reviewed in a comprehensive monograph. Information about radiolytic hydrogen production from the different process tanks is necessary to determine air purge rates necessary to prevent flammable mixtures from accumulating in the vapor spaces above these tanks.more » Radiolytic hydrogen production rates are usually presented in terms of G values or molecules of hydrogen produced per 100ev of radioactive decay energy absorbed by the slurry or solution. With the G value for hydrogen production, G(H2), for a particular slurry and the concentrations of radioactive species in that slurry, the rate of H2 production for that slurry can be calculated. An earlier investigation estimated that the maximum rate that hydrogen could be produced from the sludge slurry stream to the DWPF is with a G value of 0.45 molecules per 100ev of radioactive decay energy sorbed by the slurry.« less

  4. Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Final Rule Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a January 2007 fact sheet for the final National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities. This document provides a summary of the 2007 final rule.

  5. Adjustment of automatic control systems of production facilities at coal processing plants using multivariant physico- mathematical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, V. F.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Makarov, G. V.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Burkova, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    The structure of multi-variant physical and mathematical models of control system is offered as well as its application for adjustment of automatic control system (ACS) of production facilities on the example of coal processing plant.

  6. Novel Biocontrol Methods for Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Food Production Facilities.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jessica A; Chandry, P Scott; Kaur, Mandeep; Kocharunchitt, Chawalit; Bowman, John P; Fox, Edward M

    2018-01-01

    High mortality and hospitalization rates have seen Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen of public health importance for many years and of particular concern for high-risk population groups. Food manufactures face an ongoing challenge in preventing the entry of L. monocytogenes into food production environments (FPEs) due to its ubiquitous nature. In addition to this, the capacity of L. monocytogenes strains to colonize FPEs can lead to repeated identification of L. monocytogenes in FPE surveillance. The contamination of food products requiring product recall presents large economic burden to industry and is further exacerbated by damage to the brand. Poor equipment design, facility layout, and worn or damaged equipment can result in Listeria hotspots and biofilms where traditional cleaning and disinfecting procedures may be inadequate. Novel biocontrol methods may offer FPEs effective means to help improve control of L. monocytogenes and decrease cross contamination of food. Bacteriophages have been used as a medical treatment for many years for their ability to infect and lyse specific bacteria. Endolysins, the hydrolytic enzymes of bacteriophages responsible for breaking the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, are being explored as a biocontrol method for food preservation and in nanotechnology and medical applications. Antibacterial proteins known as bacteriocins have been used as alternatives to antibiotics for biopreservation and food product shelf life extension. Essential oils are natural antimicrobials formed by plants and have been used as food additives and preservatives for many years and more recently as a method to prevent food spoilage by microorganisms. Competitive exclusion occurs naturally among bacteria in the environment. However, intentionally selecting and applying bacteria to effect competitive exclusion of food borne pathogens has potential as a biocontrol application. This review discusses these novel biocontrol methods and their

  7. Novel Biocontrol Methods for Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Food Production Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jessica A.; Chandry, P. Scott; Kaur, Mandeep; Kocharunchitt, Chawalit; Bowman, John P.; Fox, Edward M.

    2018-01-01

    High mortality and hospitalization rates have seen Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen of public health importance for many years and of particular concern for high-risk population groups. Food manufactures face an ongoing challenge in preventing the entry of L. monocytogenes into food production environments (FPEs) due to its ubiquitous nature. In addition to this, the capacity of L. monocytogenes strains to colonize FPEs can lead to repeated identification of L. monocytogenes in FPE surveillance. The contamination of food products requiring product recall presents large economic burden to industry and is further exacerbated by damage to the brand. Poor equipment design, facility layout, and worn or damaged equipment can result in Listeria hotspots and biofilms where traditional cleaning and disinfecting procedures may be inadequate. Novel biocontrol methods may offer FPEs effective means to help improve control of L. monocytogenes and decrease cross contamination of food. Bacteriophages have been used as a medical treatment for many years for their ability to infect and lyse specific bacteria. Endolysins, the hydrolytic enzymes of bacteriophages responsible for breaking the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, are being explored as a biocontrol method for food preservation and in nanotechnology and medical applications. Antibacterial proteins known as bacteriocins have been used as alternatives to antibiotics for biopreservation and food product shelf life extension. Essential oils are natural antimicrobials formed by plants and have been used as food additives and preservatives for many years and more recently as a method to prevent food spoilage by microorganisms. Competitive exclusion occurs naturally among bacteria in the environment. However, intentionally selecting and applying bacteria to effect competitive exclusion of food borne pathogens has potential as a biocontrol application. This review discusses these novel biocontrol methods and their

  8. Complementary Microorganisms in Highly Corrosive Biofilms from an Offshore Oil Production Facility.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Adrien; Alsop, Eric B; Chambers, Brian; Lomans, Bartholomeus P; Head, Ian M; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Offshore oil production facilities are frequently victims of internal piping corrosion, potentially leading to human and environmental risks and significant economic losses. Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is believed to be an important factor in this major problem for the petroleum industry. However, knowledge of the microbial communities and metabolic processes leading to corrosion is still limited. Therefore, the microbial communities from three anaerobic biofilms recovered from the inside of a steel pipe exhibiting high corrosion rates, iron oxide deposits, and substantial amounts of sulfur, which are characteristic of MIC, were analyzed in detail. Bacterial and archaeal community structures were investigated by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, multigenic (16S rRNA and functional genes) high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing, and quantitative PCR analysis. The microbial community analysis indicated that bacteria, particularly Desulfovibrio species, dominated the biofilm microbial communities. However, other bacteria, such as Pelobacter, Pseudomonas, and Geotoga, as well as various methanogenic archaea, previously detected in oil facilities were also detected. The microbial taxa and functional genes identified suggested that the biofilm communities harbored the potential for a number of different but complementary metabolic processes and that MIC in oil facilities likely involves a range of microbial metabolisms such as sulfate, iron, and elemental sulfur reduction. Furthermore, extreme corrosion leading to leakage and exposure of the biofilms to the external environment modify the microbial community structure by promoting the growth of aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Norm - contaminated iodine production facilities decommissioning in Turkmenistan: experience and results

    SciT

    Gelbutovskiy, Alexander; Cheremisin, Peter; Egorov, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the data, including the cost parameters of the former iodine production facilities decommissioning project in Turkmenistan. Before the closure, these facilities were producing the iodine from the underground mineral water by the methods of charcoal adsorption. Balkanabat iodine and Khazar chemical plants' sites remediation, transportation and disposal campaigns main results could be seen. The rehabilitated area covers 47.5 thousand square meters. The remediation equipment main characteristics, technical solutions and rehabilitation operations performed are indicated also. The report shows the types of the waste shipping containers, the quantity and nature of the logistics operations. The project waste turnovermore » is about 2 million ton-kilometers. The problems encountered during the remediation of the Khazar chemical plant site are discussed: undetected waste quantities that were discovered during the operational activities required the additional volume of the disposal facility. The additional repository wall superstructure was designed and erected to accommodate this additional waste. There are data on the volume and characteristics of the NORM waste disposed: 60.4 thousand cu.m. of NORM with total activity 1 439 x 10{sup 9} Bq (38.89 Ci) were disposed at all. This report summarizes the project implementation results, from 2009 to 15.02.2012 (the date of the repository closure and its placement under the controlled supervision), including monitoring results within a year after the repository closure. (authors)« less

  10. Light ion production for a future radiobiological facility at CERN: Preliminary studies

    SciT

    Stafford-Haworth, Joshua, E-mail: Joshua.Stafford-Haworth@cern.ch; John Adams Institute at Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX; Bellodi, Giulia

    2014-02-15

    Recent medical applications of ions such as carbon and helium have proved extremely effective for the treatment of human patients. However, before now a comprehensive study of the effects of different light ions on organic targets has not been completed. There is a strong desire for a dedicated facility which can produce ions in the range of protons to neon in order to perform this study. This paper will present the proposal and preliminary investigations into the production of light ions, and the development of a radiobiological research facility at CERN. The aims of this project will be presented alongmore » with the modifications required to the existing linear accelerator (Linac3), and the foreseen facility, including the requirements for an ion source in terms of some of the specification parameters and the flexibility of operation for different ion types. Preliminary results from beam transport simulations will be presented, in addition to some planned tests required to produce some of the required light ions (lithium, boron) to be conducted in collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Berlin.« less

  11. Corrosion of iron by iodide-oxidizing bacteria isolated from brine in an iodine production facility.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Satoshi; Ito, Kimio; Iino, Takao; Tomoe, Yasuyoshi; Mori, Koji; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2014-10-01

    Elemental iodine is produced in Japan from underground brine (fossil salt water). Carbon steel pipes in an iodine production facility at Chiba, Japan, for brine conveyance were found to corrode more rapidly than those in other facilities. The corroding activity of iodide-containing brine from the facility was examined by immersing carbon steel coupons in "native" and "filter-sterilized" brine samples. The dissolution of iron from the coupons immersed in native brine was threefold to fourfold higher than that in the filter-sterilized brine. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses revealed that iodide-oxidizing bacteria (IOBs) were predominant in the coupon-containing native brine samples. IOBs were also detected in a corrosion deposit on the inner surface of a corroded pipe. These results strongly suggested the involvement of IOBs in the corrosion of the carbon steel pipes. Of the six bacterial strains isolated from a brine sample, four were capable of oxidizing iodide ion (I(-)) into molecular iodine (I(2)), and these strains were further phylogenetically classified into two groups. The iron-corroding activity of each of the isolates from the two groups was examined. Both strains corroded iron in the presence of potassium iodide in a concentration-dependent manner. This is the first report providing direct evidence that IOBs are involved in iron corrosion. Further, possible mechanisms by which IOBs corrode iron are discussed.

  12. Light ion production for a future radiobiological facility at CERN: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Stafford-Haworth, Joshua; Bellodi, Giulia; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Röhrich, Jörg; Scrivens, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Recent medical applications of ions such as carbon and helium have proved extremely effective for the treatment of human patients. However, before now a comprehensive study of the effects of different light ions on organic targets has not been completed. There is a strong desire for a dedicated facility which can produce ions in the range of protons to neon in order to perform this study. This paper will present the proposal and preliminary investigations into the production of light ions, and the development of a radiobiological research facility at CERN. The aims of this project will be presented along with the modifications required to the existing linear accelerator (Linac3), and the foreseen facility, including the requirements for an ion source in terms of some of the specification parameters and the flexibility of operation for different ion types. Preliminary results from beam transport simulations will be presented, in addition to some planned tests required to produce some of the required light ions (lithium, boron) to be conducted in collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Berlin.

  13. Complementary Microorganisms in Highly Corrosive Biofilms from an Offshore Oil Production Facility

    PubMed Central

    Alsop, Eric B.; Chambers, Brian; Lomans, Bartholomeus P.; Head, Ian M.; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Offshore oil production facilities are frequently victims of internal piping corrosion, potentially leading to human and environmental risks and significant economic losses. Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is believed to be an important factor in this major problem for the petroleum industry. However, knowledge of the microbial communities and metabolic processes leading to corrosion is still limited. Therefore, the microbial communities from three anaerobic biofilms recovered from the inside of a steel pipe exhibiting high corrosion rates, iron oxide deposits, and substantial amounts of sulfur, which are characteristic of MIC, were analyzed in detail. Bacterial and archaeal community structures were investigated by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, multigenic (16S rRNA and functional genes) high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing, and quantitative PCR analysis. The microbial community analysis indicated that bacteria, particularly Desulfovibrio species, dominated the biofilm microbial communities. However, other bacteria, such as Pelobacter, Pseudomonas, and Geotoga, as well as various methanogenic archaea, previously detected in oil facilities were also detected. The microbial taxa and functional genes identified suggested that the biofilm communities harbored the potential for a number of different but complementary metabolic processes and that MIC in oil facilities likely involves a range of microbial metabolisms such as sulfate, iron, and elemental sulfur reduction. Furthermore, extreme corrosion leading to leakage and exposure of the biofilms to the external environment modify the microbial community structure by promoting the growth of aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms. PMID:26896143

  14. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    SciT

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  15. Production of Mutated Porcine Embryos Using Zinc Finger Nucleases and a Reporter-based Cell Enrichment System.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ok Jae; Park, Sol Ji; Lee, Choongil; Kang, Jung Taek; Kim, Sujin; Moon, Joon Ho; Choi, Ji Yei; Kim, Hyojin; Jang, Goo; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Seokjoong; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2014-03-01

    To facilitate the construction of genetically-modified pigs, we produced cloned embryos derived from porcine fibroblasts transfected with a pair of engineered zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) plasmids to create targeted mutations and enriched using a reporter plasmid system. The reporter expresses RFP and eGFP simultaneously when ZFN-mediated site-specific mutations occur. Thus, double positive cells (RFP(+)/eGFP(+)) were selected and used for somatic cell nuclear transfer. Two types of reporter based enrichment systems were used in this study; the cloned embryos derived from cells enriched using a magnetic sorting-based system showed better developmental competence than did those derived from cells enriched by flow cytometry. Mutated sequences, such as insertions, deletions, or substitutions, together with the wild-type sequence, were found in the cloned porcine blastocysts. Therefore, genetic mutations can be achieved in cloned porcine embryos reconstructed with ZFN-treated cells that were enriched by a reporter-based system.

  16. Characterization of the products attained from a thermal treatment of a mix of zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Lin, Chitsan; Wang, Jian-Wen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Wang, Chih-Ta

    2016-01-01

    This study applies a thermal separation process (TSP) to recover Fe, Mn, and Zn from hazardous spent zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries. In the TSP, the batteries were heated together with a reducing additive and the metals in batteries, according to their boiling points and densities, were found to move into three major output materials: slag, ingot (mainly Fe and Mn), and particulate (particularly Zn). The slag well encapsulated the heavy metals of interest and can be recycled for road pavement or building materials. The ingot had high levels of Fe (522,000 mg/kg) and Mn (253,000 mg/kg) and can serve as an additive for stainless steel-making processes. The particulate phase had a Zn level of 694,000 mg/kg which is high enough to be directly sold for refinement. Overall, the TSP effectively recovered valuable metals from the hazardous batteries.

  17. Optimization of dietary zinc for egg production and antioxidant capacity in Chinese egg-laying ducks fed a diet based on corn-wheat bran and soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Wang, S; Zhang, H X; Ruan, D; Xia, W G; Cui, Y Y; Zheng, C T; Lin, Y C

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on productive performance and antioxidant status in laying ducks. Five-hundred-four laying ducks were divided into 7 treatments, each containing 6 replicates of 12 ducks. The ducks were caged individually and fed a corn-soybean meal and wheat bran basal diet (37 mg Zn/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, or 90 mg Zn/kg (as zinc sulfate). During the early laying period of 10 d (daily egg production <80%), egg production, daily egg mass, and FCR increased quadratically with increasing dietary Zn levels (P < 0.05). The highest egg production and daily egg weight were obtained when 30 or 45 mg Zn/kg diet was supplemented, with lowest FCR. Similarly, the highest egg production and daily egg mass were observed in the group supplemented with 30 or 45 mg Zn/kg during the peak laying period of the subsequent 120 d (daily egg production >80%). Average egg weight and feed intake did not differ among the groups of graded Zn supplementation.The egg quality was not affected by dietary Zn, including the egg shape index, Haugh unit, yolk color score, egg composition, and shell thickness. The activities of plasma activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) increased in a quadratic manner (P < 0.001) with increasing supplemental Zn. Plasma concentration of Zn increased quadratically (P < 0.05) as dietary Zn increased. The hepatic activity of Cu/Zn-SOD and GSH-PX increased quadratically (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary Zn. Plasma Zn concentrations were positively correlated with activities of T-SOD (P < 0.05), and positively with plasma Cu. Plasma concentration of reduced glutathione was correlated with plasma Cu. In conclusion, supplementation of Zn at 30 or 45 mg/kg to a corn-wheat bran and soybean basal diet may improve the productive performance and enhance the antioxidant capacity. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. A direct and simultaneous detection of zinc protoporphyrin IX, free protoporphyrin IX, and fluorescent heme degradation product in red blood cell hemolysates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuying; Hirsch, Rhoda Elison

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescence emission of free protoporphyrin IX (PPIX, em. approximately 626 nm), zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZPP, em. approximately 594 nm) and fluorescent heme degradation product (FHDP, em. approximately 466 nm) are identified and simultaneously detected in mouse and human red cell hemolysates, when excited at 365 nm. A novel method is established for comparing relative FHDP, PPIX and ZPP levels in hemolysates without performing red cell porphyrin extractions. The ZPP fluorescence directly measured in hemolysates (F(365/594)) correlates with the ZPP fluorescence obtained from acetone/water extraction (R(2) = 0.9515, P < 0.0001). The relative total porphyrin (ZPP and PPIX) fluorescence obtained from direct hemolysate fluorescence measurements also correlates with red blood cell total porphyrins determined by ethyl acetate extraction (Piomelli extraction, R(2) = 0.88, P < 0.0001). These fluorescent species serves as biomarkers for alterations in Hb synthesis and Hb stability.

  19. RAMI modeling of plant systems for proposed tritium production and extraction facilities

    SciT

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-04-05

    The control of life-cycle cost is a primary concern during the development, construction, operation, and decommissioning of DOE systems and facilities. An effective tool that can be used to control these costs, beginning with the design stage, is called a reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability analysis or, simply, RAMI for short. In 1997, RAMI technology was introduced to the Savannah River Site with applications at the conceptual design stage beginning with the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project and later extended to the Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR) Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) Project. More recently it has been applied tomore » the as-build Water Treatment Facilities designed for ground water environmental restoration. This new technology and database was applied to the assessment of balance-of-plant systems for the APT Conceptual Design Report. Initial results from the Heat Removal System Assessment revealed that the system conceptual design would cause the APT to fall short of its annual production goal. Using RAM technology to immediately assess this situation, it was demonstrated that the product loss could be gained back by upgrading the system's chiller unit capacity at a cost of less than $1.3 million. The reclaimed production is worth approximately $100 million. The RAM technology has now been extended to assess the conceptual design for the CLWR-TEF Project. More specifically, this technology and database is being used to translate high level availability goals into lower level system design requirements that will ensure the TEF meets its production goal. Results, from the limited number of system assessments performed to date, have already been used to modify the conceptual design for a remote handling system, improving its availability to the point that a redundant system, with its associated costs of installation and operation may no longer be required. RAMI results were also used to justify the

  20. Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc, a redox inactive metal, has been long viewed as a component of the antioxidant network, and growing evidence points to its involvement in redox-regulated signaling. These actions are exerted through several mechanisms based on the unique chemical and functional properties of zinc. Overall, zinc contributes to maintain the cell redox balance through different mechanisms including: i) the regulation of oxidant production and metal-induced oxidative damage; ii) the dynamic association of zinc with sulfur in protein cysteine clusters, from which the metal can be released by nitric oxide, peroxides, oxidized glutathione and other thiol oxidant species; iii) zinc-mediated induction of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein, which releases the metal under oxidative conditions and act per se scavenging oxidants; iv) the involvement of zinc in the regulation of glutathione metabolism and of the overall protein thiol redox status; and v) a direct or indirect regulation of redox signaling. Findings of oxidative stress, altered redox signaling, and associated cell/tissue disfunction in cell and animal models of zinc deficiency, stress the relevant role of zinc in the preservation of cell redox homeostasis. However, while the participation of zinc in antioxidant protection, redox sensing, and redox-regulated signaling is accepted, the involved molecules, targets and mechanisms are still partially known and the subject of active research. PMID:22960578

  1. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  2. Sustainable data policy for a data production facility: a work in (continual) progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketcham, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The University of Texas High-Resolution X-Ray Computed Tomography Facility (UTCT) has been producing volumetric data and data products of geological and other scientific specimens and engineering materials for over 20 years. Data volumes, both in terms of the size of individual data sets and overall facility production, have progressively grown and fluctuated near the upper boundary of what can be managed by contemporary workstations and lab-scale servers and network infrastructure, making data policy a preoccupation for our entire history. Although all projects have been archived since our first day of operation, policies on which data to keep (raw, reconstructed after corrections, processed) have varied, and been periodically revisited in consideration of the cost of curation and the likelihood of revisiting and reprocessing data when better techniques become available, such as improved artifact corrections or iterative tomographic reconstruction. Advances in instrumentation regularly make old data obsolete and more advantageous to reacquire, but the simple act of getting a sample to a scanning facility is a practical barrier that cannot be overlooked. In our experience, the main times that raw data have been revisited using improved processing to improve image quality were predictable, high-impact charismatic projects (e.g., Archaeopteryx, A. Afarensis "Lucy"). These cases actually provided the impetus for development of the new techniques (ring and beam hardening artifact reduction), which were subsequently incorporated into our data processing pipeline going forward but were rarely if ever retroactively applied to earlier data sets. The only other times raw data have been reprocessed were when reconstruction parameters were inappropriate, due to unnoticed sample features or human error, which are usually recognized fairly quickly. The optimal data retention policy thus remains an open question, although erring on the side of caution remains the default

  3. A preliminary systems-engineering study of an advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.; Tison, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility concept was synthesized at a conceptual level with the objective of minimizing estimated hydrogen-production costs. The concept is a closely-integrated, fully-dedicated (only hydrogen energy is produced) system whose components and subsystems are predicted on ''1985 technology.'' The principal components are: (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating a helium-Brayton/ammonia-Rankine binary cycle with a helium reactor-core exit temperature of 980 C, (2) acyclic d-c generators, (3) high-pressure, high-current-density electrolyzers based on solid-polymer electrolyte technology. Based on an assumed 3,000 MWt HTGR the facility is capable of producing 8.7 million std cu m/day of hydrogen at pipeline conditions, 6,900 kPa. Coproduct oxygen is also available at pipeline conditions at one-half this volume. It has further been shown that the incorporation of advanced technology provides an overall efficiency of about 43 percent, as compared with 25 percent for a contemporary nuclear-electric plant powering close-coupled contemporary industrial electrolyzers.

  4. Emissions from cold heavy oil production with sands (CHOPS) facilities in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscioli, J. R.; Herndon, S. C.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Knighton, W. B.; Zavala-Araiza, D.; Johnson, M. R.; Tyner, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Cold heavy oil production with sands (CHOPS) is generally characterized as a pump driven oil extraction method producing a mixture of sand, water, and heavy oil to heated liquid storage tanks. In addition to fluids, CHOPS sites also produce solution gas, primarily composed of methane, through the well annulus. Depending on formation and well production characteristics, large volumes of this solution gas are frequently vented to the atmosphere without flaring or conservation. To better understand these emission we present measurements of methane, ethane, propane and aromatic emission rates from CHOPS sites using dual tracer flux ratio methodology. The use of two tracers allowed on-site emission sources to be accurately identified and in one instance indicated that the annular vent was responsible for >75% of emissions at the facility. Overall, a measurement survey of five CHOPS sites finds that the methane emissions are in general significantly under-reported by operators. This under-reporting may arise from uncertainties associated with measured gas-to-oil ratios upon which the reported vent volume is based. Finally, measurements of ethane, propane and aromatics from these facilities indicates surprisingly low non-methane hydrocarbon content.

  5. A combined approach of simulation and analytic hierarchy process in assessing production facility layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Razamin; Cheng, Kok-Min

    2014-07-01

    One of the important areas of concern in order to obtain a competitive level of productivity in a manufacturing system is the layout design and material transportation system (conveyor system). However, changes in customers' requirements have triggered the need to design other alternatives of the manufacturing layout for existing production floor. Hence, this paper discusses effective alternatives of the process layout specifically, the conveyor system layout. Subsequently, two alternative designs for the conveyor system were proposed with the aims to increase the production output and minimize space allocation. The first proposed layout design includes the installation of conveyor oven in the particular manufacturing room based on priority, and the second one is the one without the conveyor oven in the layout. Simulation technique was employed to design the new facility layout. Eventually, simulation experiments were conducted to understand the performance of each conveyor layout design based on operational characteristics, which include predicting the output of layouts. Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), the newly and improved layout designs were assessed before the final selection was done. As a comparison, the existing conveyor system layout was included in the assessment process. Relevant criteria involved in this layout design problem were identified as (i) usage of space of each design, (ii) operator's utilization rates, (iii) return of investment (ROI) of the layout, and (iv) output of the layout. In the final stage of AHP analysis, the overall priority of each alternative layout was obtained and thus, a selection for final use by the management was made based on the highest priority value. This efficient planning and designing of facility layout in a particular manufacturing setting is able to minimize material handling cost, minimize overall production time, minimize investment in equipment, and optimize utilization of space.

  6. Long life, rechargeable nickel-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.

    1974-01-01

    A production version of the inorganic separator was evaluated for improving the life of the nickel-zinc system. Nickel-zinc cells (7-10 Ah capacities) of different electrode separator configurations were constructed and tested. The nickel-zinc cells using the inorganic separator encasing the zinc electrode, the nickel electrode, or both electrodes had shorter lives than cells using Visking and cellophane separation. Cells with the inorganic separation all fell below 70% of their theoretical capacity within 30 cycles, but the cells constructed with organic separation required 80 cycles. Failure of the cells using the ceramic separator was irreversible capacity degradation due to zinc loss through cracks developed in the inorganic separator. Zinc loss through the separator was minimized with the use of combinations of the inorganic separator with Visking and cellophane. Cells using the combined separation operated 130 duty cycles before degrading to 70% of their theoretical capacity.

  7. Coeur d'Alene Tribal Production Facility, Volume I of III, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciT

    Anders, Paul

    2003-01-01

    In fulfillment of the NWPPC's 3-Step Process for the implementation of new hatcheries in the Columbia Basin, this Step 1 submission package to the Council includes four items: (1) Cover letter from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe, Interdisciplinary Team Chair, and the USFWS; (2) References to key information (Attachments 1-4); (3) The updated Master Plan for the Tribe's native cutthroat restoration project; and (4) Appendices. In support of the Master Plan submitted by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe the reference chart (Item 2) was developed to allow reviewers to quickly access information necessary for accurate peer review. The Northwest Power Planning Councilmore » identified pertinent issues to be addressed in the master planning process for new artificial production facilities. References to this key information are provided in three attachments: (1) NWPPC Program language regarding the Master Planning Process, (2) Questions Identified in the September 1997 Council Policy, and (3) Program language identified by the Council's Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP). To meet the need for off-site mitigation for fish losses on the mainstem Columbia River, in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a trout production facility located adjacent to Coeur d'Alene Lake on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. The updated Master Plan (Item 3) represents the needs associated with the re-evaluation of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Trout Production Facility (No.199004402). This plan addresses issues and concerns expressed by the NWPPC as part of the issue summary for the Mountain Columbia provincial review, and the 3-step hatchery review process. Finally, item 4 (Appendices) documents the 3-Step process correspondence to date between the Coeur d'Alene Tribe and additional relevant entities. Item 4 provides a chronological account of previous ISRP

  8. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product...

  12. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  13. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  14. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  15. Characterization of VOCs Emissions from Industrial Facilities and Natural Gas Production Sites: A Mobile Sensing Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Gu, J.; Trask, B.; Lyon, D. R.; Albertson, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    With the recent expansion of U.S. oil and gas (O&G) production, many studies have focused on the quantification of fugitive methane emissions. However, only a few studies have explored the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from O&G production sites that affect human health in adjacent communities, both directly through exposure to toxic chemical compounds and indirectly via formation of ground-level ozone. In this study, we seek to quantify emissions of VOCs from O&G production sites and petrochemical facilities using a mobile sensing approach, with both high-end analyzers and relatively low-cost sensors. A probabilistic source characterization approach is used to estimate emission rates of VOCs, directly taking into account quantitative measure of sensor accuracy. This work will provide data with proper spatiotemporal resolution and coverage, so as to improve the understanding of VOCs emission from O&G production sites, VOCs-exposure of local communities, and explore the feasibility of low-cost sensors for VOCs monitoring. The project will provide an important foundational step to enable large scale studies.

  16. Acid production potentials of massive sulfide minerals and lead-zinc mine tailings: a medium-term study.

    PubMed

    Çelebi, Emin Ender; Öncel, Mehmet Salim; Kobya, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    Weathering of sulfide minerals is a principal source of acid generation. To determine acid-forming potentials of sulfide-bearing materials, two basic approaches named static and kinetic tests are available. Static tests are short-term, and easily undertaken within a few days and in a laboratory. In contrast, kinetic tests are long-term procedures and mostly carried out on site. In this study, experiments were conducted over a medium-term period of 2 months, not as short as static tests and also not as long as kinetic tests. As a result, pH and electrical conductivity oscillations as a function of time, acid-forming potentials and elemental contents of synthetically prepared rainwater leachates of massive sulfides and sulfide-bearing lead-zinc tailings from abandoned and currently used deposition areas have been determined. Although the lowest final pH of 2.70 was obtained in massive pyrite leachate, massive chalcopyrite leachate showed the highest titrable acidity of 1.764 g H 2 SO 4 /L. On the other hand, a composite of currently deposited mine tailings showed no acidic characteristic with a final pH of 7.77. The composite abandoned mine tailing leachate had a final pH of 6.70, close to the final pH of massive galena and sphalerite leachates, and produced a slight titrable acidity of 0.130 g H 2 SO 4 /L.

  17. Update on zinc biology.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has become a prominent nutrient of clinical and public health interest in the new millennium. Functions and actions for zinc emerge as increasingly ubiquitous in mammalian anatomy, physiology and metabolism. There is undoubtedly an underpinning in fundamental biology for all of the aspects of zinc in human health (clinical and epidemiological) in pediatric and public health practice. Unfortunately, basic science research may not have achieved a full understanding as yet. As a complement to the applied themes in the companion articles, a selection of recent advances in the domains homeostatic regulation and transport of zinc is presented; they are integrated, in turn, with findings on genetic expression, intracellular signaling, immunity and host defense, and bone growth. The elements include ionic zinc, zinc transporters, metallothioneins, zinc metalloenzymes and zinc finger proteins. In emerging basic research, we find some plausible mechanistic explanations for delayed linear growth with zinc deficiency and increased infectious disease resistance with zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate. Zinc methionine... conditions: (a) The additive is the product of the reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and DL...

  19. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate. Zinc methionine... conditions: (a) The additive is the product of the reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and DL...

  20. Bioemulsifier production byMicrobacterium SP. strains isolated from mangrove and their application to remove cadmiun and zinc from hazardous industrial residue

    PubMed Central

    Aniszewski, Erick; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Mota, Fábio Faria; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Rosado, Alexandre Soares

    2010-01-01

    The contamination of ecosystems with heavy metals is an important issue in current world and remediation technologies should be in according to environmental sustainability concept. Bioemulsifier are promising agents to be used in metal removal and could be effective to many applications in environmental industries. The aims of this work was screening the potential production of bioemulsifier by microorganisms isolated from an oil contaminated mangrove, and evaluate cadmium and zinc removal potential of those strains from a hazardous industrial residue. From that, bioemulsifier-producing bacteria were isolated from urban mangrove sediments. Four isolates were identified as Microbacterium sp by 16S rRNA analysis and were able to reduce up to 53.3% of culture medium surface tension (TS) when using glucose as carbon and energy source and 20.2% when sucrose was used. Suspensions containing bioemulsifier produced by Microbacterium sp. strains show to be able to remove cadmium and zinc from contaminated industrial residue, and its ability varied according carbon source. Significant differences in metal removal were observed by all strains depending on the carbon source. When glucose was used, Cd and Zn removal varied from 17 to 41%, and 14 to 68%, respectively. However, when sucrose was used it was observed only 4 to a maximum of 15% of Cd removal, and 4 to 17% of Zn removal. When the same tests were performed after ethanol precipitation, the results were different: the percentages of removal of Zn (7–27%) and Cd (14–32%) were higher from sucrose cultures. This is the first report of heavy metals removal by bioemulsifier from Microbacterium sp. PMID:24031486

  1. Bioemulsifier production byMicrobacterium SP. strains isolated from mangrove and their application to remove cadmiun and zinc from hazardous industrial residue.

    PubMed

    Aniszewski, Erick; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Mota, Fábio Faria; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Rosado, Alexandre Soares

    2010-01-01

    The contamination of ecosystems with heavy metals is an important issue in current world and remediation technologies should be in according to environmental sustainability concept. Bioemulsifier are promising agents to be used in metal removal and could be effective to many applications in environmental industries. The aims of this work was screening the potential production of bioemulsifier by microorganisms isolated from an oil contaminated mangrove, and evaluate cadmium and zinc removal potential of those strains from a hazardous industrial residue. From that, bioemulsifier-producing bacteria were isolated from urban mangrove sediments. Four isolates were identified as Microbacterium sp by 16S rRNA analysis and were able to reduce up to 53.3% of culture medium surface tension (TS) when using glucose as carbon and energy source and 20.2% when sucrose was used. Suspensions containing bioemulsifier produced by Microbacterium sp. strains show to be able to remove cadmium and zinc from contaminated industrial residue, and its ability varied according carbon source. Significant differences in metal removal were observed by all strains depending on the carbon source. When glucose was used, Cd and Zn removal varied from 17 to 41%, and 14 to 68%, respectively. However, when sucrose was used it was observed only 4 to a maximum of 15% of Cd removal, and 4 to 17% of Zn removal. When the same tests were performed after ethanol precipitation, the results were different: the percentages of removal of Zn (7-27%) and Cd (14-32%) were higher from sucrose cultures. This is the first report of heavy metals removal by bioemulsifier from Microbacterium sp.

  2. Influence of meat source, pH and production time on zinc protoporphyrin IX formation as natural colouring agent in nitrite-free dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    De Maere, Hannelore; Chollet, Sylvie; De Brabanter, Jos; Michiels, Chris; Paelinck, Hubert; Fraeye, Ilse

    2018-01-01

    Nitrite is commonly used in meat products due to its plural technological advantages. However, it is controversial because of its detrimental side effects on health. Within the context of nitrite reduction, zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)PPIX) formation in meat products as natural red colouring agent has been suggested. This investigation presents the evaluation of naturally occurring pigments, namely Zn(II)PPIX, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and heme in nitrite-free dry fermented sausages in function of time, meat source (pork, horsemeat and a combination of both meat sources) and pH condition. In function of time, Zn(II)PPIX and PPIX were formed and heme content decreased. Higher pH conditions promoted Zn(II)PPIX and PPIX formation, whereas the influence of pH on heme was less clear. The use of horsemeat also promoted Zn(II)PPIX formation. Moreover, even similar amounts were formed when it was combined with pork. Product redness, however, could not be related to Zn(II)PPIX formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Zinc protoporphyrin inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-, lipoteichoic acid-, and peptidoglycan-induced nitric oxide production through stimulating iNOS protein ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jyh-Ming; Lin, Hui-Yi; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Wu, Ming-Shun; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Lin, Chien-Huang; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), but not ferric protoporphyrin (FePP), tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), or zinc chloride (ZnCl(2)), at the doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 microM, dose-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN)-induced inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production with an increase in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) protein in RAW264.7 macrophages in a serum-free condition. NO inhibition and HO-1 induction by ZnPP were blocked by the separate addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). A decrease in the iNOS/NO ratio and an increase in HO-1 protein by ZnPP were identified in three different conditions including ZnPP pretreatment, ZnPP co-treatment, and ZnPP post-treatment with LPS and LTA. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs) were detected in LPS-, LTA-, and PGN-treated RAW264.7 cells, and iNOS/NO production was blocked by adding the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, but not the ERK inhibitor, PD98059. However, ZnPP addition potentiated ERK and JNK protein phosphorylation stimulated by LPS, LTA, and PGN. Increases in total protein ubiquitination and ubiquitinated iNOS proteins were detected in ZnPP-treated macrophages elicited by LPS according to Western and immunoprecipitation/Western blotting assays, respectively. The decrease in LPS-induced iNOS protein by ZnPP was reversed by adding the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin. The reduction in HO-1 protein induced by ZnPP via transfection of HO-1 small interfering RNA did not affect the inhibitory effect of ZnPP against LPS-induced iNOS/NO production and protein ubiquitination induced by ZnPP in macrophages. Data of the present study provide the first evidence to support ZnPP effectively inhibiting inflammatory iNOS/NO production through activation of protein ubiquitination in a HO-1-independent manner in macrophages.

  4. Zinc protoporphyrin inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-, lipoteichoic acid-, and peptidoglycan-induced nitric oxide production through stimulating iNOS protein ubiquitination

    SciT

    Chow, J.-M.; Lin, H.-Y.; Shen, S.-C.

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), but not ferric protoporphyrin (FePP), tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), or zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}), at the doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 {mu}M, dose-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN)-induced inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production with an increase in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) protein in RAW264.7 macrophages in a serum-free condition. NO inhibition and HO-1 induction by ZnPP were blocked by the separate addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). A decrease in the iNOS/NO ratio and an increase in HO-1 protein bymore » ZnPP were identified in three different conditions including ZnPP pretreatment, ZnPP co-treatment, and ZnPP post-treatment with LPS and LTA. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs) were detected in LPS-, LTA-, and PGN-treated RAW264.7 cells, and iNOS/NO production was blocked by adding the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, but not the ERK inhibitor, PD98059. However, ZnPP addition potentiated ERK and JNK protein phosphorylation stimulated by LPS, LTA, and PGN. Increases in total protein ubiquitination and ubiquitinated iNOS proteins were detected in ZnPP-treated macrophages elicited by LPS according to Western and immunoprecipitation/Western blotting assays, respectively. The decrease in LPS-induced iNOS protein by ZnPP was reversed by adding the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin. The reduction in HO-1 protein induced by ZnPP via transfection of HO-1 small interfering RNA did not affect the inhibitory effect of ZnPP against LPS-induced iNOS/NO production and protein ubiquitination induced by ZnPP in macrophages. Data of the present study provide the first evidence to support ZnPP effectively inhibiting inflammatory iNOS/NO production through activation of protein ubiquitination in a HO-1-independent manner in macrophages.« less

  5. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic model tests of the Enserch Garden Banks floating production facility

    SciT

    Huang, E.W.; Bauer, T.C.; Kelly, P.J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents the results of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic model tests of the Enserch Garden Banks, a semisubmersible Floating Production Facility (FPF) moored in 2,190-ft waters. During the wind tunnel tests, the steady component of wind and current forces/moments at various skew and heel axes were measured. The results were compared and calibrated against analytical calculations using techniques recommended by ABS and API. During the wave basin recommend test the mooring line tensions and vessel motions including the effects of dynamic wind and current were measured. An analytical calculation of the airgap, vessel motions, and mooring line loads were comparedmore » with wave basin model test results. This paper discusses the test objectives, test setups and agendas for wind and wave basin testing of a deepwater permanently moored floating production system. The experience from these tests and the comparison of measured tests results with analytical calculations will be of value to designers and operators contemplating the use of a semisubmersible based floating production system. The analysis procedures are aimed at estimating (1) vessel motions, (2) airgap, and (3) mooring line tensions with reasonable accuracy. Finally, this paper demonstrates how the model test results were interpolated and adapted in the design loop.« less

  6. Beam line shielding calculations for an Electron Accelerator Mo-99 production facility

    SciT

    Mocko, Michal

    2016-05-03

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the photon and neutron fields in and around the latest beam line design for the Mo-99 production facility. The radiation dose to the beam line components (quadrupoles, dipoles, beam stops and the linear accelerator) are calculated in the present report. The beam line design assumes placement of two cameras: infra red (IR) and optical transition radiation (OTR) for continuous monitoring of the beam spot on target during irradiation. The cameras will be placed off the beam axis offset in vertical direction. We explored typical shielding arrangements for the cameras and report themore » resulting neutron and photon dose fields.« less

  7. Target development for 67Cu, 82Sr radionuclide production at the RIC-80 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panteleev, V. N.; Barzakh, A. E.; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Krotov, S. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2018-01-01

    A high-current cyclotron C-80 capable of producing 40-80 MeV proton beams with a current of up to 200 μA has been constructed and commissioned at PNPI (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute). One of the main goals of cyclotron C-80 is the production of a wide spectrum of medical radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy. To date, the project development of a radioisotope facility RIC-80 (radioisotopes at cyclotron C-80) has been completed. The feature of the project is the use of a mass-separator combined with the ion-target device for obtaining ion beams of radioisotopes with a high purity of separation that is especially important for medical applications. The first results of a new high-temperature method for extracting 82Sr and 67Cu radioisotopes from irradiated targets have been presented.

  8. Investigation of the possibility of using hydrogranulation in reprocessing radioactive wastes of radiochemical production facilities

    SciT

    Revyakin, V.; Borisov, L.M.

    1996-05-01

    Radio-chemical production facilities are constantly accumulating liquid radioactive wastes (still residues as the result of evaporation of extraction and adsorption solutions etc.) which are a complex multicomponent mixtures. The wastes are frequently stored for extended periods of time while awaiting disposition and in some cases, and this is much worse, they are released into the environment. In this report, I would like to draw your attention to some results we have obtained from investigations aimed at simplifying handing of such wastes by the precipitation of hard to dissolve metal hydroxides, the flocculation of the above into granules with the helpmore » of surface-active agents (in this case a polyacrylamide - PAA), quickly precipitated and easily filtered. The precipitate may be quickly dried and calcinated, if necessary, and transformed into a dense oxide sinter. In other words it may be transformed into a material convenient for storage or burial.« less

  9. Demonstration of persistent contamination of a cooked egg product production facility with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee and characterization of the persistent strain.

    PubMed

    Jakočiūnė, D; Bisgaard, M; Pedersen, K; Olsen, J E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether continuous contamination of light pasteurized egg products with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee (S. Tennessee) at a large European producer of industrial egg products was caused by persistent contamination of the production facility and to characterize the persistent strains. Seventy-three S. Tennessee isolates collected from products over a 3-year period with intermittent contamination, and 15 control strains were compared by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using two enzymes. Forty-five case isolates distributed throughout the full period were shown to belong to one profile type. Isolates representing different PFGE profiles were all assigned to ST 319 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The case isolates did not show a higher ability to form biofilm on a plastic surface than noncase isolates. Characteristically, members of the persistent clone were weak producers of H2 S in laboratory medium. S. Tennessee isolated from the case was able to grow better in pasteurized egg product compared with other serovars investigated. It was concluded that the contamination was caused by a persistent strain in the production facility and that this strain apparently had adapted to grow in the relevant egg product. S. Tennessee has previously been associated with persistence in hatching facilities. This is the first report of persistent contamination of an egg production facility with this serovar. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Characterization of methane emissions from five cold heavy oil production with sands (CHOPS) facilities.

    PubMed

    Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C; Yacovitch, Tara I; Knighton, W Berk; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Johnson, Matthew R; Tyner, David R

    2018-03-07

    Cold heavy oil production with sands (CHOPS) is a common oil extraction method in the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan that can result in significant methane emissions due to annular venting. Little is known about the magnitude of these emissions, nor their contributions to the regional methane budget. Here the authors present the results of field measurements of methane emissions from CHOPS wells and compare them with self-reported venting rates. The tracer ratio method was used not only to analyze total site emissions but at one site it was also used to locate primary emission sources and quantify their contributions to the facility-wide emission rate, revealing the annular vent to be a dominant source. Emissions measured from five different CHOPS sites in Alberta showed large discrepancies between the measured and reported rates, with emissions being mainly underreported. These methane emission rates are placed in the context of current reporting procedures and the role that gas-oil ratio (GOR) measurements play in vented volume estimates. In addition to methane, emissions of higher hydrocarbons were also measured; a chemical "fingerprint" associated with CHOPS wells in this region reveals very low emission ratios of ethane, propane, and aromatics versus methane. The results of this study may inform future studies of CHOPS sites and aid in developing policy to mitigate regional methane emissions. Methane measurements from cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) sites identify annular venting to be a potentially major source of emissions at these facilities. The measured emission rates are generally larger than reported by operators, with uncertainty in the gas-oil ratio (GOR) possibly playing a large role in this discrepancy. These results have potential policy implications for reducing methane emissions in Alberta in order to achieve the Canadian government's goal of reducing methane emissions by 40-45% below 2012 levels within 8 yr.

  11. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in a small-scale mushroom production facility.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Prema; Murugesan, Latha; Knabel, Stephen J; Verghese, Bindhu; Chikthimmah, Naveen; Laborde, Luke F

    2013-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of significant concern to the agricultural and food processing industry because of its ability to grow and persist in cool and moist environments and its association with listeriosis, a disease with a very high mortality rate. Although there have been no listeriosis outbreaks attributed to fresh mushrooms in the United States, retail surveys and recalls are evidence that L. monocytogenes contamination of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) can occur. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes, in a small-scale mushroom production facility on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University in the United States. Of 184 samples taken from five production zones within the facility, 29 (15.8%) samples were positive for Listeria spp. Among the Listeria spp. isolates, L. innocua was most prevalent (10.3%) followed by L. welshimeri (3.3%), L. monocytogenes (1.6%), and L. grayi (0.5%). L. monocytogenes was recovered only from the phase I raw material composting area. Isolates of L. monocytogenes were confirmed and serotyped by multiplex PCR. The epidemiological relatedness of the three L. monocytogenes isolates to those serotypes or lineages frequently encountered in listeriosis infections was determined by multi-virulence-locus sequence typing using six virulence genes, namely, prfA, inlB, inlC, dal, clpP, and lisR. The phylogenetic positions of the three isolates in the dendrogram prepared with data from other isolates of L. monocytogenes showed that all isolates were grouped with serotype 4a, lineage IIIA. To date, this serotype has rarely been reported in foodborne disease outbreaks.

  12. Understanding Growth Rate Limitations in Production of Single-Crystal Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) by the Traveling Heater Method (THM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Jeffrey H.

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) are important optoelectronic materials with applications ranging from medical imaging to nuclear materials monitoring. However, CZT and CdTe have long been plagued by second-phase particles, inhomogeneity, and other defects. The traveling heater method (THM) is a promising approach for growing CZT and other compound semiconductors that has been shown to grow detector-grade crystals. In contrast to traditional directional solidification, the THM consists of a moving melt zone that simultaneously dissolves a polycrystalline feed while producing a single-crystal of material. Additionally, the melt is highly enriched in tellurium, which allows for growth at lower temperatures, limiting the presence of precipitated tellurium second-phase particles in the final crystal. Unfortunately, the THM growth of CZT is limited to millimeters per day when other growth techniques can grow an order of magnitude faster. To understand these growth limits, we employ a mathematical model of the THM system that is formulated to realistically represent the interactions of heat and species transport, fluid flow, and interfacial dissolution and growth under conditions of local thermodynamic equilibrium and steady-state growth. We examine the complicated interactions among zone geometry, continuum transport, phase change, and fluid flow driven by buoyancy. Of particular interest and importance is the formation of flow structures in the liquid zone of the THM that arise from the same physical mechanism as lee waves in atmospheric flows and demonstrate the same characteristic Brunt-Vaisala scaling. We show that flow stagnation and reversal associated with lee-wave formation are responsible for the accumulation of tellurium and supercooled liquid near the growth interface, even when the lee-wave vortex is not readily apparent in the overall flow structure. The supercooled fluid is posited to result in morphological instability at growth

  13. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Making contact: rooting out the potential for exposure of commercial production swine facilities to feral swine in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Engeman, Richard; Betsill, Carl; Ray, Tom

    2011-03-01

    Despite North Carolina's long history with feral swine, populations were low or absent in eastern counties until the 1990s. Feral swine populations have since grown in these counties which also contain a high density of commercial production swine (CPS) facilities. Sixteen of the highest swine producing U.S. counties also populated with feral swine are in North Carolina. Disconcertingly, since 2009, positive tests for exposure to swine brucellosis or pseudorabies virus have been found for feral swine. We surveyed 120 CSP facilities across four eastern counties to document the level and perception of feral swine activity around CSP facilities and to identify disease transmission potential to commercial stock. Nearly all facility operators (97%) recognized feral swine were in their counties. Far fewer said they had feral swine activity nearby (18%). Our inspections found higher presence than perceived with feral swine sign at 19% of facilities where operators said they had never observed feral swine or their sign. Nearly 90% expressed concern about feral to domestic disease transmission, yet only two facilities had grain bins or feeders fenced against wildlife access. Due to increasing feral swine populations, recent evidence of disease in feral populations, the importance of swine production to North Carolina's economy and the national pork industry, and potential for feral-domestic contact, we believe feral swine pose an increasing disease transmission threat warranting a stringent look at biosecurity and feral swine management at North Carolina CPS facilities.

  15. Tetracycline residues and tetracycline resistance genes in groundwater impacted by swine production facilities

    Mackie, R.I.; Koike, S.; Krapac, I.; Chee-Sanford, J.; Maxwell, Susan; Aminov, R.I.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotics are used at therapeutic levels to treat disease; at slightly lower levels as prophylactics; and at low, subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. Over 88% of swine producers in the United States gave antimicrobials to grower/finisher pigs in feed as a growth promoter in 2000. It is estimated that ca. 75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in urine and feces. The extensive use of antibiotics in swine production has resulted in antibiotic resistance in many intestinal bacteria, which are also excreted in swine feces, resulting in dissemination of resistance genes into the environment.To assess the impact of manure management on groundwater quality, groundwater samples have been collected near two swine confinement facilities that use lagoons for manure storage and treatment. Several key contaminant indicators-including inorganic ions, antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance genes-were analyzed in groundwater collected from the monitoring wells. Chloride, ammonium, potassium, and sodium were predominant inorganic constituents in the manure samples and served as indicators of groundwater contamination. Based on these analyses, shallow groundwater has been impacted by lagoon seepage at both sites. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) was used to measure the dissolved concentrations of tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline in groundwater and manure. Although tetracyclines were regularly used at both facilities, they were infrequently detected in manure samples and then at relatively trace concentrations. Concentrations of all tetracyclines and their breakdown products in the groundwater sampled were generally less than 0.5 ??g/L.Bacterial tetracycline resistance genes served as distinct genotypic markers to indicate the dissemination and mobility of antibiotic resistance genes that originated from the lagoons. Applying PCR to genomic DNA extracted from the lagoon and

  16. Efficiency of U.S. Dialysis Centers: An Updated Examination of Facility Characteristics That Influence Production of Dialysis Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Shreay, Sanatan; Ma, Martin; McCluskey, Jill; Mittelhammer, Ron C; Gitlin, Matthew; Stephens, J Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relative efficiency of dialysis facilities in the United States and identify factors that are associated with efficiency in the production of dialysis treatments. Data Sources/Study Setting Medicare cost report data from 4,343 free-standing dialysis facilities in the United States that offered in-center hemodialysis in 2010. Study Design A cross-sectional, facility-level retrospective database analysis, utilizing data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate facility efficiency. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Treatment data and cost and labor inputs of dialysis treatments were obtained from 2010 Medicare Renal Cost Reports. Demographic data were obtained from the 2010 U.S. Census. Principal Findings Only 26.6 percent of facilities were technically efficient. Neither the intensity of market competition nor the profit status of the facility had a significant effect on efficiency. Facilities that were members of large chains were less likely to be efficient. Cost and labor savings due to changes in drug protocols had little effect on overall dialysis center efficiency. Conclusions The majority of free-standing dialysis facilities in the United States were functioning in a technically inefficient manner. As payment systems increasingly employ capitation and bundling provisions, these institutions will need to evaluate their efficiency to remain competitive. PMID:24237043

  17. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from swine production facilities in North America: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Powers, W; Murphy, J; Maghirang, R

    2014-04-01

    Literature on NH3 and H2S emissions from swine production facilities in North America was reviewed, and a meta-analysis was conducted on measured emissions data from swine houses and manure storage facilities as well as concentration data in the vicinity of swine production facilities. Results from more than 80 studies were compiled with results from the 11 swine sites in the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS). Data across studies were analyzed statistically using the MIXED procedures of SAS. The median emission rates from swine houses across various production stages and manure handling systems were 2.78 and 0.09 kg/yr per pig for NH3 and H2S, respectively. The median emission rates from swine storage facilities were 2.08 and 0.20 kg/yr per pig for NH3 and H2S, respectively. The size of swine farm that may trigger the need to report NH3 emissions under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) is 3,410 pigs on the basis of the median NH3 emission rate (4.86 kg/yr per pig), but the threshold can be as low as 992 pigs on the basis of the 90th-percentile emission rates (16.71 kg/yr per pig). Swine hoop houses had significantly higher NH3 emission rate (14.80 kg/yr per pig) than other manure-handling systems (P < 0.01), whereas deep-pit houses had the highest H2S emission rate (16.03 kg/yr per pig, P = 0.03). Farrowing houses had the highest H2S emission rate (2.50 kg/yr per pig), followed by gestation houses, and finishing houses had the lowest H2S emission rate (P < 0.01). Regression models for NH3 and H2S emission rates were developed for finishing houses with deep pits, recharge pits, and lagoons. The NH3 emission rates increased with increasing air temperature, but effects of air temperature on H2S emission rates were not significant. The recharge interval of manure pits significantly affected H2S but not NH3 emission rates. The H2S emission rates were also influenced by the size of the operation. Although NH3 and H2S

  18. 40 CFR 60.170 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Performance for Primary Zinc Smelters § 60.170 Applicability and designation of affected facility. (a) The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the following affected facilities in primary zinc smelters...

  19. Quantification of zinc-porphyrin in dry-cured ham products by spectroscopic methods Comparison of absorption, fluorescence and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Kristoffer; Adamsen, Christina E; Laursen, Jens; Olsen, Karsten; Møller, Jens K S

    2008-03-01

    Zinc-protoporphyrin (Zn-pp), which has been identified as the major pigment in certain dry-cured meat products, was extracted with acetone/water (75%) and isolated from the following meat products: Parma ham, Iberian ham and dry-cured ham with added nitrite. The quantification of Zn-pp by electron absorption, fluorescence and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy was compared (concentration range used [Zn-pp]=0.8-9.7μM). All three hams were found to contain Zn-pp, and the results show no significant difference among the content of Zn-pp quantified by fluorescence, absorbance and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for Parma ham and Iberian ham. All three methods can be used for quantification of Zn-pp in acetone/water extracts of different ham types if the content is higher than 1.0ppm. For dry-cured ham with added nitrite, XRF was not applicable due to the low content of Zn-pp (<0.1ppm). In addition, XRF spectroscopy provides further information regarding other trace elements and can therefore be advantageous in this aspect. This study also focused on XRF determination of Fe in the extracts and as no detectable Fe was found in the three types of ham extracts investigated (limit of detection; Fe⩽1.8ppm), it allows the conclusion that iron containing pigments, e.g., heme, do not contribute to the noticeable red colour observed in some of the extracts.

  20. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    SciT

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  1. Automated System Calibration and Verification of the Position Measurements for the Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility and the Switchyard Kicker Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, D.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Martinez, D.; Shurter, R. B.

    2004-11-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory has constructed both an Isotope Production Facility (IPF) and a Switchyard Kicker (XDK) as additions to the H+ and H- accelerator. These additions contain eleven Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) that measure the beam's position throughout the transport. The analog electronics within each processing module determines the beam position using the log-ratio technique. For system reliability, calibrations compensate for various temperature drifts and other imperfections in the processing electronics components. Additionally, verifications are periodically implemented by a PC running a National Instruments LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI) to verify continued system and cable integrity. The VI communicates with the processor cards via a PCI/MXI-3 VXI-crate communication module. Previously, accelerator operators performed BPM system calibrations typically once per day while beam was explicitly turned off. One of this new measurement system's unique achievements is its automated calibration and verification capability. Taking advantage of the pulsed nature of the LANSCE-facility beams, the integrated electronics hardware and VI perform calibration and verification operations between beam pulses without interrupting production beam delivery. The design, construction, and performance results of the automated calibration and verification portion of this position measurement system will be the topic of this paper.

  2. High brightness gamma-ray production at Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility

    SciT

    Mihalcea, Daniel; Jacobson, B.; Murokh, A.

    Electron beams with energies of the order of a few 100's of MeV and low transverse emittance, in combination with powerful infrared lasers, allow for the production of high quality gamma rays through Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS). At Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, a 300 MeV beam will be used to generate gamma rays with maximum photon energies of up to ~1.5 MeV and brightness of the order of 10 21 photons/[s-(mm-mrad) 2- 0.1%BW]. Due to the low electron-beam transverse emittance, the relative bandwidth of the scattered radiation is expected to be ≤ 1%. A key challenge towardmore » the production of high radiation dose and brightness is to enhance the energy of the infrared 3 ps laser pulses to the joule level. Finally, in this contribution, we present the plans for the experimental setup, along with comprehensive numerical simulations of the ICS process.« less

  3. A Study Update of Mortality in Workers at a Phosphate Fertilizer Production Facility

    PubMed Central

    Yiin, James H.; Daniels, Robert D.; Kubale, Travis L.; Dunn, Kevin L.; Stayner, Leslie T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the mortality experience among 3,199 workers employed 1951–1976 at a phosphate fertilizer production plant in central Florida with follow-up through2011. Methods Cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the full cohort were calculated with the U.S. population as referent. Lung cancer and leukemia risks were further analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Results The mortality due to all-causes (SMR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.13, observed deaths [n] = 1,473), all-cancers (SMR = 1.16, 95%CI 1.06–1.28, n = 431), and a priori outcomes of interests including lung cancer (SMR = 1.32, 95%CI = 1.13–1.53, n = 168) and leukemia (SMR = 1.74, 95%CI = 1.11–2.62, n = 23) were statistically significantly elevated. Regression modeling on employment duration or estimated radiation scores did not show exposure–response relation with lung cancer or leukemia mortality. Conclusion SMR results showed increased lung cancer and leukemia mortality in a full cohort of the phosphate fertilizer production facility. There was, however, no exposure–response relation observed among cases and matched controls. PMID:26523937

  4. Characterization of 41Ar production in air at a PET cyclotron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicoria, Gianfranco; Cesarini, Francesco; Infantino, Angelo; Vichi, Sara; Zagni, Federico; Marengo, Mario

    2017-06-01

    In the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) nuclides at a medical cyclotron facility 41Ar (T1/2 = 109.34 m) is produced by the activation of air due to the neutron flux, according to the 40Ar(n, γ)41Ar reaction. In this work, we describe a relatively inexpensive and readily reproducible methodology of air sampling that can be used for quantification of 41Ar during the routine production of PET nuclides. We report the results of an extensive measurement campaign in the cyclotron bunker and in the ducts of the ventilation system, before and after final filtering of the extracted air. Air Samples were analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry system equipped with HPGe detector, with proper correction of the efficiency calibration to account for the samples density. The results of measurement were then used to evaluate the Total Effective Dose (TED) to the population living in the surrounding areas, due to routine emissions in the operation of the cyclotron. The average 41Ar saturation yield per one liter of air emitted in the environment resulted to be (0.044 ± 0.007) Bq/(μA ṡ dm3). The maximum value of TED for the critical group of the population, even considering an overestimated workload, was less than 0.19 μSv/year, well below the level of radiological relevance.

  5. High brightness gamma-ray production at Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility

    DOE PAGES

    Mihalcea, Daniel; Jacobson, B.; Murokh, A.; ...

    2017-03-01

    Electron beams with energies of the order of a few 100's of MeV and low transverse emittance, in combination with powerful infrared lasers, allow for the production of high quality gamma rays through Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS). At Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, a 300 MeV beam will be used to generate gamma rays with maximum photon energies of up to ~1.5 MeV and brightness of the order of 10 21 photons/[s-(mm-mrad) 2- 0.1%BW]. Due to the low electron-beam transverse emittance, the relative bandwidth of the scattered radiation is expected to be ≤ 1%. A key challenge towardmore » the production of high radiation dose and brightness is to enhance the energy of the infrared 3 ps laser pulses to the joule level. Finally, in this contribution, we present the plans for the experimental setup, along with comprehensive numerical simulations of the ICS process.« less

  6. 40 CFR 421.80 - Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary zinc subcategory. 421.80 Section 421.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Zinc Subcategory § 421.80 Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the production of primary zinc by either...

  7. 40 CFR 421.80 - Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary zinc subcategory. 421.80 Section 421.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Zinc Subcategory § 421.80 Applicability: Description of the primary zinc subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the production of primary zinc by either...

  8. Experimental measurement and Monte Carlo assessment of Argon-41 production in a PET cyclotron facility.

    PubMed

    Infantino, Angelo; Valtieri, Lorenzo; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Pancaldi, Davide; Mostacci, Domiziano; Marengo, Mario

    2015-12-01

    In a medical cyclotron facility, (41)Ar (t1/2 = 109.34 m) is produced by the activation of air due to the neutron flux during irradiation, according to the (40)Ar(n,γ)(41)Ar reaction; this is particularly relevant in widely diffused high beam current cyclotrons for the production of PET radionuclides. While theoretical estimations of the (41)Ar production have been published, no data are available on direct experimental measurements for a biomedical cyclotron. In this work, we describe a sampling methodology and report the results of an extensive measurement campaign. Furthermore, the experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations performed with the FLUKA code. To measure (41)Ar activity, air samples were taken inside the cyclotron bunker in sealed Marinelli beakers, during the routine production of (18)F with a 16.5 MeV GE-PETtrace cyclotron; this sampling thus reproduces a situation of absence of air changes. Samples analysis was performed in a gamma-ray spectrometry system equipped with HPGe detector. Monte Carlo assessment of the (41)Ar saturation yield was performed directly using the standard FLUKA score RESNUCLE, and off-line by the convolution of neutron fluence with cross section data. The average (41)Ar saturation yield per one liter of air of (41)Ar, measured in gamma-ray spectrometry, resulted to be 3.0 ± 0.6 Bq/µA*dm(3) while simulations gave a result of 6.9 ± 0.3 Bq/µA*dm(3) in the direct assessment and 6.92 ± 0.22 Bq/µA*dm(3) by the convolution neutron fluence-to-cross section. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Automated DNA extraction platforms offer solutions to challenges of assessing microbial biofouling in oil production facilities.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Athenia L; Drilling, Heather S; Stamps, Blake W; Stevenson, Bradley S; Duncan, Kathleen E

    2012-11-20

    The analysis of microbial assemblages in industrial, marine, and medical systems can inform decisions regarding quality control or mitigation. Modern molecular approaches to detect, characterize, and quantify microorganisms provide rapid and thorough measures unbiased by the need for cultivation. The requirement of timely extraction of high quality nucleic acids for molecular analysis is faced with specific challenges when used to study the influence of microorganisms on oil production. Production facilities are often ill equipped for nucleic acid extraction techniques, making the preservation and transportation of samples off-site a priority. As a potential solution, the possibility of extracting nucleic acids on-site using automated platforms was tested. The performance of two such platforms, the Fujifilm QuickGene-Mini80™ and Promega Maxwell®16 was compared to a widely used manual extraction kit, MOBIO PowerBiofilm™ DNA Isolation Kit, in terms of ease of operation, DNA quality, and microbial community composition. Three pipeline biofilm samples were chosen for these comparisons; two contained crude oil and corrosion products and the third transported seawater. Overall, the two more automated extraction platforms produced higher DNA yields than the manual approach. DNA quality was evaluated for amplification by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and end-point PCR to generate 454 pyrosequencing libraries for 16S rRNA microbial community analysis. Microbial community structure, as assessed by DGGE analysis and pyrosequencing, was comparable among the three extraction methods. Therefore, the use of automated extraction platforms should enhance the feasibility of rapidly evaluating microbial biofouling at remote locations or those with limited resources.

  10. Automated DNA extraction platforms offer solutions to challenges of assessing microbial biofouling in oil production facilities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of microbial assemblages in industrial, marine, and medical systems can inform decisions regarding quality control or mitigation. Modern molecular approaches to detect, characterize, and quantify microorganisms provide rapid and thorough measures unbiased by the need for cultivation. The requirement of timely extraction of high quality nucleic acids for molecular analysis is faced with specific challenges when used to study the influence of microorganisms on oil production. Production facilities are often ill equipped for nucleic acid extraction techniques, making the preservation and transportation of samples off-site a priority. As a potential solution, the possibility of extracting nucleic acids on-site using automated platforms was tested. The performance of two such platforms, the Fujifilm QuickGene-Mini80™ and Promega Maxwell®16 was compared to a widely used manual extraction kit, MOBIO PowerBiofilm™ DNA Isolation Kit, in terms of ease of operation, DNA quality, and microbial community composition. Three pipeline biofilm samples were chosen for these comparisons; two contained crude oil and corrosion products and the third transported seawater. Overall, the two more automated extraction platforms produced higher DNA yields than the manual approach. DNA quality was evaluated for amplification by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and end-point PCR to generate 454 pyrosequencing libraries for 16S rRNA microbial community analysis. Microbial community structure, as assessed by DGGE analysis and pyrosequencing, was comparable among the three extraction methods. Therefore, the use of automated extraction platforms should enhance the feasibility of rapidly evaluating microbial biofouling at remote locations or those with limited resources. PMID:23168231

  11. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  12. Carbon Capture and Sequestration from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciT

    Engels, Cheryl; Williams, Bryan, Valluri, Kiranmal; Watwe, Ramchandra

    2010-06-21

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. Asmore » part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE?s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design

  13. Zinc Nucleation and Growth in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, B. Patrick; Nuth, J. A., III; Lilleleht, L. U.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report our experiences with zinc nucleation in a microgravity environment aboard NASA's Reduced Gravity Research Facility. Zinc vapor is produced by a heater in a vacuum chamber containing argon gas. Nucleation is induced by cooling and its onset is easily detected visually by the appearance of a cloud of solid, at least partially crystalline zinc particles. Size distribution of these particles is monitored in situ by photon correlation spectroscopy. Samples of particles are also extracted for later analysis by SEM. The initially rapid increase in particle size is followed by a slower period of growth. We apply Scaled Nucleation Theory to our data and find that the derived critical temperature of zinc, the critical cluster size at nucleation, and the surface tension values are all in reasonably good agreement with their accepted literature values.

  14. 40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... composites production facility is a new affected source or an existing affected source? 63.5795 Section 63... for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5795 How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

  15. Sda1, a Cys2-His2 Zinc Finger Transcription Factor, Is Involved in Polyol Metabolism and Fumonisin B1 Production in Fusarium verticillioides

    PubMed Central

    Malapi-Wight, Martha; Smith, Jonathon; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Bluhm, Burton H.; Shim, Won-Bo

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitous ascomycete Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot and stalk rot of maize, both of which reduce grain quality and yield. Additionally, F. verticillioides produces the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) during infection of maize kernels, and thus potentially compromises human and animal health. The current knowledge is fragmentary regarding the regulation of FB1 biosynthesis, particularly when considering interplay with environmental factors such as nutrient availability. In this study, SDA1 of F. verticillioides, predicted to encode a Cys-2 His-2 zinc finger transcription factor, was shown to play a key role in catabolizing select carbon sources. Growth of the SDA1 knock-out mutant (Δsda1) was completely inhibited when sorbitol was the sole carbon source and was severely impaired when exclusively provided mannitol or glycerol. Deletion of SDA1 unexpectedly increased FB1 biosynthesis, but reduced arabitol and mannitol biosynthesis, as compared to the wild-type progenitor. Trichoderma reesei ACE1, a regulator of cellulase and xylanase expression, complemented the F. verticillioides Δsda1 mutant, which indicates that Ace1 and Sda1 are functional orthologs. Taken together, the data indicate that Sda1 is a transcriptional regulator of carbon metabolism and toxin production in F. verticillioides. PMID:23844049

  16. CzcR and CzcD, gene products affecting regulation of resistance to cobalt, zinc, and cadmium (czc system) in Alcaligenes eutrophus.

    PubMed Central

    Nies, D H

    1992-01-01

    The czcR gene, one of the two control genes responsible for induction of resistance to Co2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+ (czc system) in the Alcaligenes eutrophus plasmid pMOL30, was cloned and characterized. The 1,376-bp sequence upstream of the czcCBAD structural genes encodes a 41.4-kDa protein, the czcR gene product, transcribed in the opposite direction of that of the czcCBAD genes. The putative CzcR polypeptide (355 amino acid residues) contains 11 cysteine and 14 histidine residues which might form metal cation-binding sites. A czcC::lacZ reporter gene translational fusion was constructed, inserted into plasmid pMOL30 in A. eutrophus, and expressed under the control of CzcR. Zn2+, Co2+, and Cd2+, as well as Ni2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, and Mn2+ and even Al3+, served as inducers of beta-galactosidase activity. Besides the CzcR protein, the membrane-bound CzcD protein was essential for induction of czc. The CzcR and CzcD proteins display no sequence similarity to two-component regulatory systems of a sensor and a response activator type; however, CzcD has 34% identity with the ZRC-1 protein, which mediates zinc resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (A. Kamizomo, M. Nishizawa, Y. Teranishi, K. Murata, and A. Kimura, Mol. Gen. Genet. 219:161-167, 1989). Images PMID:1459958

  17. Aggregate exposure modelling of zinc pyrithione in rinse-off personal cleansing products using a person-orientated approach with market share refinement.

    PubMed

    Tozer, Sarah A; Kelly, Seamus; O'Mahony, Cian; Daly, E J; Nash, J F

    2015-09-01

    Realistic estimates of chemical aggregate exposure are needed to ensure consumer safety. As exposure estimates are a critical part of the equation used to calculate acceptable "safe levels" and conduct quantitative risk assessments, methods are needed to produce realistic exposure estimations. To this end, a probabilistic aggregate exposure model was developed to estimate consumer exposure from several rinse off personal cleansing products containing the anti-dandruff preservative zinc pyrithione. The model incorporates large habits and practices surveys, containing data on frequency of use, amount applied, co-use along with market share, and combines these data at the level of the individual based on subject demographics to better estimate exposure. The daily-applied exposure (i.e., amount applied to the skin) was 3.79 mg/kg/day for the 95th percentile consumer. The estimated internal dose for the 95th percentile exposure ranged from 0.01-1.29 μg/kg/day after accounting for retention following rinsing and dermal penetration of ZnPt. This probabilistic aggregate exposure model can be used in the human safety assessment of ingredients in multiple rinse-off technologies (e.g., shampoo, bar soap, body wash, and liquid hand soap). In addition, this model may be used in other situations where refined exposure assessment is required to support a chemical risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  19. New irradiation facilities for development of production methods of medical radionuclides at cyclotrons at Forschungszentrum Jülich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spellerberg, S.; Scholten, B.; Spahn, I.; Felden, O.; Gebel, R.; Qaim, S. M.; Bai, M.; Neumaier, B.

    2017-05-01

    An essential basis for research and development work on radiopharmaceuticals is the efficient production of radionuclides of high quality. In this process research-oriented studies aiming for elucidation of biochemical processes require novel products. The radionuclide development at INM-5 entails basic research, e.g. the determination of nuclear reaction data, as well as technical aspects of practical production, such as high-current targetry, chemical separation, formulation and quality control. In this work developments, adaptation and optimization of irradiation facilities at the BC 1710, JULIC as Injector of COSY and COSY itself are summarized, which shall allow the extension of radionuclide production possibilities, aiming at innovations in medical applications.

  20. A visual ergonomics intervention in mail sorting facilities: effects on eyes, muscles and productivity.

    PubMed

    Hemphälä, Hillevi; Eklund, Jörgen

    2012-01-01

    Visual requirements are high when sorting mail. The purpose of this visual ergonomics intervention study was to evaluate the visual environment in mail sorting facilities and to explore opportunities for improving the work situation by reducing visual strain, improving the visual work environment and reducing mail sorting time. Twenty-seven postmen/women participated in a pre-intervention study, which included questionnaires on their experiences of light, visual ergonomics, health, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Measurements of lighting conditions and productivity were also performed along with eye examinations of the postmen/women. The results from the pre-intervention study showed that the postmen/women who suffered from eyestrain had a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and sorted slower, than those without eyestrain. Illuminance and illuminance uniformity improved as a result of the intervention. The two post-intervention follow-ups showed a higher prevalence of MSD among the postmen/women with eyestrain than among those without. The previous differences in sorting time for employees with and without eyestrain disappeared. After the intervention, the postmen/women felt better in general, experienced less work induced stress, and considered that the total general lighting had improved. The most pronounced decreases in eyestrain, MSD, and mail sorting time were seen among the younger participants of the group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Achieving production-level use of HEP software at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uram, T. D.; Childers, J. T.; LeCompte, T. J.; Papka, M. E.; Benjamin, D.

    2015-12-01

    HEP's demand for computing resources has grown beyond the capacity of the Grid, and these demands will accelerate with the higher energy and luminosity planned for Run II. Mira, the ten petaFLOPs supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, is a potentially significant compute resource for HEP research. Through an award of fifty million hours on Mira, we have delivered millions of events to LHC experiments by establishing the means of marshaling jobs through serial stages on local clusters, and parallel stages on Mira. We are running several HEP applications, including Alpgen, Pythia, Sherpa, and Geant4. Event generators, such as Sherpa, typically have a split workload: a small scale integration phase, and a second, more scalable, event-generation phase. To accommodate this workload on Mira we have developed two Python-based Django applications, Balsam and ARGO. Balsam is a generalized scheduler interface which uses a plugin system for interacting with scheduler software such as HTCondor, Cobalt, and TORQUE. ARGO is a workflow manager that submits jobs to instances of Balsam. Through these mechanisms, the serial and parallel tasks within jobs are executed on the appropriate resources. This approach and its integration with the PanDA production system will be discussed.

  2. Ultra-compact photoionization analyzers. Ecological monitoring application at hazardous production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafaev, Alexander; Rastvorova, Iuliia; Arslanova, Fatima

    2017-10-01

    It is generally recognized that careful implementation of ecological monitoring should be provided at hazardous production facilities continuously to protect the surrounding environment as well as health and safety of employees. However, the existing devices may not be able to control the environmental situation uninterruptedly due to their technical characteristics or measurement methods. Developed by The Mining University Plasma Research Group ultra-compact photoionization analyzer is proposed as innovative equipment which creates the basis for a new measuring approach. The general operating principle is based on the patented method of stabilization of electric parameters - CES (Collisional Electron Spectroscopy). During the operation at the atmospheric pressure, the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization sensor measures the energy of electrons produced by means of ionization with the resonance photons whose wavelength is situated in the VUV. A special software tool was developed to obtain the second-order derivative of the I-U characteristics, taken by the VUV sensor, to construct the characteristic electrons energy spectra. The portable analyzer with a unique set of parameters such as small size (10*10*1 mm), low cost, a wide range of recognizable molecules, great measurement accuracy at the atmospheric pressure can be effectively used both for rapid testing of air pollution load and the study of noxious factors that influence oil and gas industry employees. Dr. Sci., Ph.D, Principal Scientist, Professor.

  3. The transport of antibiotic resistance genes and residues in groundwater near swine production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. F.; Yannarell, A. C.; Mackie, R. I.; Krapac, I. G.; Chee-Sanford, J. S.; Koike, S.

    2008-12-01

    The use of antibiotics at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) for disease prevention, disease treatment, and growth promotion can contribute to the spread of antibiotic compounds, their breakdown products, and antibiotic resistant bacteria and/or the genes that confer resistance. In addition, constitutive use of antibiotics at sub-therapeutic levels can select for antibiotic resistance among the bacteria that inhabit animal intestinal tracts, onsite manure treatment facilities, and any environments receiving significant inputs of manure (e.g. through waste lagoon leakage or fertilizer amendments to farm soils). If the antibiotic resistant organisms persist in these new environments, or if they participate in genetic exchanges with the native microflora, then CAFOs may constitute a significant reservoir for the spread of antibiotic resistance to the environment at large. Our results have demonstrated that leakage from waste treatment lagoons can influence the presence and persistence of tetracycline resistance genes in the shallow aquifer adjacent to swine CAFOs, and molecular phylogeny allowed us to distinguish "native" tetracycline resistance genes in control groundwater wells from manure-associated genes introduced from the lagoon. We have also been able to detect the presence of erythromycin resistance genes in CAFO surface and groundwater even though erythromycin is strictly reserved for use in humans and thus is not utilized at any of these sites. Ongoing research, including modeling of particle transport in groundwater, will help to determine the potential spatial and temporal extent of CAFO-derived antibiotic resistance.

  4. MULTI-POLLUTANT CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS AROUND A CONCENTRATED SWINE PRODUCTION FACILITY USING OPEN-PATH FTIR SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FTIR) spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of ammonia, methane, and other atmospheric gasses around an integrated industrial swine production facility in eastern North Carolina. Several single-path measurements were made ove...

  5. Identification of 'Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis' in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus during a survey of charr production facilities in North America

    Artic charr Salvelinus alpinus production facilities, nonproduction water sources and effluents in the United States and Canada were sampled to determine if chlamydiae associated with epitheliocystis were present in water and were associated with inclusions of epitheliocystis in gill tissue. Gills f...

  6. 15 CFR 712.3 - Initial declaration requirements for declared facilities which are engaged in the production of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.3 Initial declaration requirements for... declared facilities which are engaged in the production of Schedule 1 chemicals for purposes not prohibited...

  7. A Study of the Feasibility of a Centralized Instructional Television Production Facility for Higher Education Institutions in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyn, Thomas David

    The author sought to evaluate the feasibility of developing a centralized instructional television (ITV) production facility for institutions of higher learning in the state of Utah. He considered economic factors, availability of qualified personnel, space and physical plant, potential to provide the required service, and the degree of acceptance…

  8. 15 CFR 712.3 - Initial declaration requirements for declared facilities which are engaged in the production of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.3 Initial declaration requirements for... declared facilities which are engaged in the production of Schedule 1 chemicals for purposes not prohibited...

  9. 40 CFR 63.11601 - What are the standards for new and existing paints and allied products manufacturing facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... existing paints and allied products manufacturing facilities? 63.11601 Section 63.11601 Protection of..., and Compliance Requirements § 63.11601 What are the standards for new and existing paints and allied... must add the dry pigments and solids that contain compounds of cadmium, chromium, lead, or nickel and...

  10. 40 CFR 63.11601 - What are the standards for new and existing paints and allied products manufacturing facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... existing paints and allied products manufacturing facilities? 63.11601 Section 63.11601 Protection of..., and Compliance Requirements § 63.11601 What are the standards for new and existing paints and allied... must add the dry pigments and solids that contain compounds of cadmium, chromium, lead, or nickel and...

  11. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities C Appendix C to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Business and Industrial Loan Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, App. C Appendix C to Subpart E of Part 1980...

  12. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities C Appendix C to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Business and Industrial Loan Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, App. C Appendix C to Subpart E of Part 1980...

  13. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in Taiwan's surface waters: impact of waste streams from hospitals and pharmaceutical production facilities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Tsai, Yu-Ting

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the occurrence and distribution of pharmaceuticals (including antibiotics, estrogens, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), beta-blockers, and lipid regulators) in three rivers and in the waste streams of six hospitals and four pharmaceutical production facilities in Taiwan. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were acetaminophen, erythromycin-H(2)O, sulfamethoxazole, and gemfibrozil. NSAIDs were the next most-often detected compounds, with a detection frequency >60%. The other analytes were not detected or were seen in only a few samples at trace concentrations. The present study demonstrates a significant discharge of human medications from hospital and drug production facilities into surface waters in the Taipei district. The high concentrations of pharmaceuticals found in the Sindian and Dahan rivers demonstrate the alarming degree to which they have been impacted by urban drainage (waste effluents from hospitals, households, and pharmaceutical production facilities). The ubiquitous occurrence at extremely high concentrations of acetaminophen and erythromycin-H(2)O in both rivers (up to 15.7 and 75.5 microg/L) and in wastewater from hospitals and pharmaceutical production facilities (up to 417.5 and 7.84 microg/L) was unique. This finding, in combination with acetaminophen's status as the drug most often prescribed by Taiwan's dominant clinical institute, suggests the potential use of acetaminophen as a molecular indicator of contamination of Taiwan's aqueous environments with untreated urban drainage.

  14. The Influence of Older Age Groups to Sustainable Product Design Research of Urban Public Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-juan, Zhang; Hou-peng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Through summarize the status quo of public facilities design to older age groups in China and a variety of factors what influence on them, the essay, from different perspective, is designed to put forward basic principle to sustainable design of public facilities for the aged in the city, and thus further promote and popularize the necessity of sustainable design applications in the future design of public facilities for elderly people.

  15. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; ...

    2015-01-21

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower ( H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualizemore » Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO₄ alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower.« less

  16. Factors influencing zinc status of apparently healthy indians.

    PubMed

    Agte, Vaishali V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Tarwadi, Kirtan V

    2005-10-01

    To identify dietary, environmental and socio-economic factors associated with mild zinc deficiency, three zinc status indices; erythrocyte membrane zinc (RBCMZn), plasma zinc and super oxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed in free living and apparently healthy Indian population. Dietary patterns of 232 men and 223 women (20-65 yr) from rural, industrial and urban regions of Western India were evaluated by food frequency questionnaire. RBCMZn was estimated using atomic absorption spectrometry, hemoglobin and serum ceruloplasmin by spectrophotometer. On a sub sample (48 men and 51 women) plasma zinc and SOD were also assessed. Mean RBCMZn was 0.5 +/- 0.1 micromols/g protein with 46% individuals showing zinc deficiency. Mean plasma zinc was 0.98 +/- 0.12 microg/mL with 25% men and 2.5% women having values below normal range. Mean SOD was 0.97 +/- 0.1 (u/mL cells). A significant positive correlation was observed between intakes of green leafy vegetables, other vegetables and milk products with RBCMZn status (p < 0.05). But these were not correlated with plasma zinc (p > 0.2). Cereal and legume intakes were negatively correlated with RBCMZn (p < 0.05) but positively correlated with plasma zinc (p < 0.05) and not correlated with SOD (p > 0.2). Fruit and other vegetable intake were positively correlated with SOD (p < 0.05) alone. Logistic regression analyses revealed that RBCMZn was positively associated with intakes of beta-carotene, zinc and environmental conditions and negatively associated with family size (p < 0.05). Plasma zinc indicated positive association with zinc, thiamin and riboflavin intakes (p < 0.05) and SOD showed negative association with iron and family size. RBCMZn was a more sensitive indicator of long-term zinc status than plasma zinc and SOD. Prominent determinants of zinc status were intakes of beta-carotene and zinc along with environmental conditions and family size.

  17. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  18. Wheat flour confectionery products as a source of inorganic nutrients: zinc and copper contents in hard biscuits.

    PubMed

    Sebecić, Blazenka; Vedrina-Dragojević, Irena

    2004-04-01

    Cereal-based confectionery products being consumed through whole human life are considered mainly to be a source of carbohydrates, that is energy, although cereals are a rich source of minerals as well. To evaluate some hard biscuits produced in Croatia as a source of different trace elements in nutrition, in this study Zn and Cu contents were determined in classic wheat flour biscuits and in dietetic biscuits enriched with whole wheat grain flour or whole wheat grain grits, soya flour and skimmed milk. Zn was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS); Cu was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results show that the Zn content in different kinds of biscuits ranges from 5.89 up to 17.64 mg/kg and the Cu content ranges from 1.15 up to 2.79 mg/kg depending on the type of wheat milling products and mineral content of other ingredients used. Enriched dietetic biscuits produced from wheat flour type 850 and whole wheat grain flour and/or soya flour and skimmed milk were almost 200% and 150% higher in Zn and Cu, respectively, in comparison to classic white wheat flour biscuits and can be considered as good sources of Zn and Cu in nutrition.

  19. Process optimization and kinetics of biodiesel production from neem oil using copper doped zinc oxide heterogeneous nanocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Baskar; Ravi, Aiswarya

    2015-08-01

    Heterogeneous nanocatalyst has become the choice of researchers for better transesterification of vegetable oils to biodiesel. In the present study, transesterification reaction was optimized and kinetics was studied for biodiesel production from neem oil using CZO nanocatalyst. The highly porous and non-uniform surface of the CZO nanocatalyst was confirmed by AFM analysis, which leads to the aggregation of CZO nanoparticles in the form of multi layered nanostructures. The 97.18% biodiesel yield was obtained in 60min reaction time at 55°C using 10% (w/w) CZO nanocatalyst and 1:10 (v:v) oil:methanol ratio. Biodiesel yield of 73.95% was obtained using recycled nanocatalyst in sixth cycle. The obtained biodiesel was confirmed using GC-MS and (1)H NMR analysis. Reaction kinetic models were tested on biodiesel production, first order kinetic model was found fit with experimental data (R(2)=0.9452). The activation energy of 233.88kJ/mol was required for transesterification of neem oil into biodiesel using CZO nanocatalyst. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plasma zinc's alter ego is a low-molecular-weight humoral factor.

    PubMed

    Ou, Ou; Allen-Redpath, Keith; Urgast, Dagmar; Gordon, Margaret-Jane; Campbell, Gill; Feldmann, Jörg; Nixon, Graeme F; Mayer, Claus-Dieter; Kwun, In-Sook; Beattie, John H

    2013-09-01

    Mild dietary zinc deprivation in humans and rodents has little effect on blood plasma zinc levels, and yet cellular consequences of zinc depletion can be detected in vascular and other tissues. We proposed that a zinc-regulated humoral factor might mediate the effects of zinc deprivation. Using a novel approach, primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were treated with plasma from zinc-deficient (<1 mg Zn/kg) or zinc-adequate (35 mg Zn/kg, pair-fed) adult male rats, and zinc levels were manipulated to distinguish direct and indirect effects of plasma zinc. Gene expression changes were analyzed by microarray and qPCR, and incubation of VSMCs with blood plasma from zinc-deficient rats strongly changed the expression of >2500 genes, compared to incubation of cells with zinc-adequate rat plasma. We demonstrated that this effect was caused by a low-molecular-weight (∼2-kDa) zinc-regulated humoral factor but that changes in gene expression were mostly reversed by adding zinc back to zinc-deficient plasma. Strongly regulated genes were overrepresented in pathways associated with immune function and development. We conclude that zinc deficiency induces the production of a low-molecular-weight humoral factor whose influence on VSMC gene expression is blocked by plasma zinc. This factor is therefore under dual control by zinc.

  1. The GreenLab Research Facility: A Micro-Grid Integrating Production, Consumption and Storage of Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell Bomani, Bilal Mark; Elbuluk, Malik; Fain, Henry; Kankam, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a large gap between the production and demand for energy from alternative fuel and alternative renewable energy sources. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has initiated a laboratory-pilot study that concentrates on using biofuels as viable alternative fuel resources for the field of aviation, as well as, utilizing wind and solar technologies as alternative renewable energy resources, and in addition, the use of pumped water for storage of energy that can be retrieved through hydroelectric generation. This paper describes the GreenLab Research Facility and its power and energy sources with .recommendations for worldwide expansion and adoption of the concept of such a facility

  2. Zinc Signals and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc. PMID:29064429

  3. Thin and thick targets for radioactive ion beam production at SPIRAL1 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardin, P.; Bajeat, O.; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Kuchi, V.; Maunoury, L.

    2018-05-01

    The upgrade of the Système de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Accélérés en Ligne (SPIRAL1) facility will deliver its new Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) by summer 2017. The goal of the upgrade is an improvement of the performances of the installation in terms of isotopes species and ion charge states [1]. Ion beams are produced using the Isotope Separator On Line Method, consisting in an association of a primary beam of stable ions, a hot target and an ion source. The primary beam impinges on the material of the target. Radioactive isotopes are produced by nuclear reactions and propagate up to the source, where they are ionized and accelerated to create a RIB. One advantage of SPIRAL1 driver is the variety of its available primary beams, from carbon to uranium with energies up to 95 MeV/A. Within the SPIRAL1 upgrade, they will be combined with targets made of a large choice of materials, extending in this way the number of possible nuclear reactions (fusion-evaporation, transfer, fragmentation) for producing a wider range of isotopes, up to regions of the nuclide chart still scarcely explored. Depending on the reaction process, on the collision energy and on the primary beam power, thin and thick targets are used. As their functions can be different, their design must cope with specific constraints which will be described. After a presentation of the goals of present and future SPIRAL1 Target Ion Source System, the main target features, studies and designs under progress are presented.

  4. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed ( P < 0.05). The EP, EM, and EW increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc ( P < 0.05), so that serum content of glucose and triglyceride decreased and the plasma content of zinc increased in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  5. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

    PubMed

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed (P < 0.05). The EP, EM, and EW increased, whereas FCR decreased (P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc (P < 0.05), so that serum content of glucose and triglyceride decreased and the plasma content of zinc increased in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  6. Use of zinc chloride as alternative stimulant for in vitro study of nitric oxide production pathway in avian splenocyte culture.

    PubMed

    Pan, D; Bera, A K; Das, S; Bandyopadhyay, S; Rana, T; Bandyopadhyay, S; Das, S K; Bhattacharya, D

    2010-06-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) plays an important role for regulation of cellular and vascular response of inflammation and initiates killing mechanism in the host-defense reactions. NO production is regulated through inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway in response to infections and injurious agents besides pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by the host. Evaluation of NO pathway is one of the major targets which can evaluate various immunomodulators for their therapeutic interaction on innate immune system. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concavalin A (ConA) are used as standard mitogen for peripheral blood mononuclear cells and splenocyte of mammalian and avian cell culture. During the present investigation ZnCl(2) has been explored as standard mitogen and result was comparable with standard mitogen. The result has been evaluated on the basis of relative mRNA expression of iNOS and interferon gamma and nitrite assay. Observation indicated significantly higher expression of both biomolecules in comparison to control, LPS, ConA treated group. This study indicated that, ZnCl(2) can also be used as standard stimulant for molecular mining of innate immunity.

  7. Ultrasonic measurements of thin zinc layers on concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Henri; Brooks, Bill; Nguyen, Vinh; Koretsky, Milo

    2008-05-01

    In order to protect bridges at the coast from corrosion, a thin layer (approximately 0.5 mm) of zinc is sprayed on the concrete of the bridge. When this zinc layer is electrically connected to the reinforcing steel (rebar) and placed at a positive potential with respect to the rebar, oxidation is favored at the zinc layer and reduced at the rebar. The resulting protection of the rebar fails when the zinc layer delaminates from the concrete or when the zinc oxidation product layer becomes too thick. We have used ultrasonic detection to investigate the properties of the zinc layer. This method has been applied very successfully in the semiconductor industry. We present the details of the method and the expected response. Unfortunately, we are not able to measure changes in the zinc layer, because either the frequency we use (10-20 MHz) is too low, or scattering in the concrete is a dominant effect.

  8. Effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on physiology and steviol glycosides production in micropropagated shoots of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Javed, Rabia; Usman, Muhammad; Yücesan, Buhara; Zia, Muhammad; Gürel, Ekrem

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to address the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 or 1000 mg L -1 ) of engineered zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (34 nm in size) on growth parameters, steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A and stevioside) production and antioxidant activities in the tissue culture grown shoots of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The highest percentage of shoot formation (89.6%) at 1 mg L -1 of ZnO nanoparticles concentration suggests a positive influence of ZnO nanoparticles on S. rebaudiana growth as compared to other treatments with or without ZnO nanoparticles. Additionally, HPLC results illustrate a significant enhancement of steviol glycosides (almost doubled as compared to the control) in micropropagated shoots grown under an oxidative stress of 1 mg L -1 of ZnO nanoparticles. This finding is further affirmed by an increased 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, total anti-oxidant capacity, total reducing power, total flavonoid content and total phenolic content, with an ascending oxidative pressure and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the antioxidant activities, formation of secondary metabolites and the physiological parameters showed a sudden decline after crossing a threshold of 1 mg L -1 concentration of ZnO nanoparticles and falls to a minimum at 1000 mg L -1 , elucidating maximum phytotoxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles at this concentration. This is the first study evaluating both the favorable and adverse effects of ZnO nanoparticles employed to a highly valuable medicinal plant, S. rebaudiana. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Zinc Deficiency Augments Leptin Production and Exacerbates Macrophage Infiltration into Adipose Tissue in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Jie; Bao, Shengying; Bolin, Eric R.; Burris, Dara L.; Xu, Xiaohua; Sun, Qinghua; Killilea, David W.; Shen, Qiwen; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana; Belury, Martha A.; Failla, Mark L.; Knoell, Daren L.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency and obesity are global public health problems. Zn deficiency is associated with obesity and comorbid conditions that include insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, the function of Zn in obesity remains unclear. Using a mouse model of combined high-fat and low-Zn intake (0.5–1.5 mg/kg), we investigated whether Zn deficiency exacerbates the extent of adiposity as well as perturbations in metabolic and immune function. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive either a high-fat diet (HFD) or a control (C) diet for 6 wk, followed by further subdivision into 2 additional groups fed Zn-deficient diets (C-Zn, HFD-Zn), along with a C diet and an HFD, for 3 wk (n = 8–9 mice/group). The extent of visceral fat, insulin resistance, or systemic inflammation was unaffected by Zn deficiency. Strikingly, Zn deficiency significantly augmented circulating leptin concentrations (HFD-Zn vs. HFD: 3.15 ± 0.16 vs. 2.59 ± 0.12 μg/L, respectively) and leptin signaling in the liver of obese mice. Furthermore, gene expression of macrophage-specific markers ADAM8 (A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 8) and CD68 (cluster of differentiation 68) was significantly greater in adipose tissue in the HFD-Zn group than in the HFD group, as confirmed by CD68 protein analysis, indicative of increased macrophage infiltration. Inspection of Zn content and mRNA profiles of all Zn transporters in the adipose tissue revealed alterations of Zn metabolism to obesity and Zn deficiency. Our results demonstrate that Zn deficiency increases leptin production and exacerbates macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue in obese mice, indicating the importance of Zn in metabolic and immune dysregulation in obesity. PMID:23700340

  10. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a)...

  12. A CLOSED-LOOP BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AND RESEARCH FACILITY IN KEENE, NH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main objectives during Phase I were to continue a Biodiesel Working Group, formalize the organizational structure of the Monadnock Biodiesel Collaborative, identify a possible facility location, secure funding, provide novel curriculum for Keene State College students, and...

  13. Production facilities for second generation biofuels in the USA and the EU – current status and future perspectives

    SciT

    Janssen, Ranier; Turhollow, Jr, Anthony F.; Rutz, Dominik

    2013-10-23

    Second generation biofuel production facilities have been slower to reach large-scale production than was anticipated a few years ago even though in Europe, the Renewable Energy Directive has incentives for, and in the United States there are also financial incentives and, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 has targets for second generation biofuels. There have been a number of facilities that have been cancelled, but starting in 2013 it appears that significant quantities of second generation biofuels will be produced. A variety of conversion processes, thermal and biological, as well as hybrids of the two is being utilized.more » There will be a variety of fuels ethanol, drop-in fuels (e.g. gasoline, diesel), biodiesel, steam, electricity, bio-oil, sugars, and chemicals; and a variety of feedstocks crop residues, wood, wood wastes, energy crops, waste oils and municipal solid waste (MSW). One approach to reducing the risk of moving from first to second generation biofuel production has been to take incremental steps such as converting the cellulosic part of grains into ethanol in addition to the starch portion. Many of the second generation biofuel facilities are co-located with first generation biofuel production facilities to share infrastructure as well as trade by-products (e.g. excess steam). One of the challenges has been financing, but both private and government sources are being utilized. Private sources include internal corporate funds and debt offerings, and venture capital. Furthermore, government sources include the U.S. federal government, the European Union, European national governments, and state and local governments.« less

  14. Zinc and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Juan P.; Guo, Liang; Yoo, Changwon; Stewart, Tiffanie S

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process through which cells overcome stressful conditions. Inasmuch as faulty autophagy has been associated with aging, neuronal degeneration disorders, diabetes, and fatty liver, autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning the role of zinc in the regulation of autophagy, the role of autophagy in zinc metabolism, and the potential role of autophagy as a mediator of the protective effects of zinc. Data from in vitro studies consistently support the notion that zinc is critical for early and late autophagy. Studies have shown inhibition of early and late autophagy in cells cultured in medium treated with zinc chelators. Conversely, excess zinc added to the medium has shown to potentiate the stimulation of autophagy by tamoxifen, H2O2, ethanol and dopamine. The potential role of autophagy in zinc homeostasis has just begun to be investigated.Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy dysregulation causes significant changes in cellular zinc homeostasis. Autophagy may mediate the protective effect of zinc against lipid accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation by promoting degradation of lipid droplets, inflammasomes, p62/SQSTM1 and damaged mitochondria.Studies with humans and animal models are necessary to determine whether autophagy is influenced by zinc intake. PMID:25012760

  15. Comparative studies on acid leaching of zinc waste materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnik, Ewa; Włoch, Grzegorz; Szatan, Leszek

    2017-11-01

    Three industrial waste materials were characterized in terms of their elemental and phase compositions, leaching behaviour in 10% sulfuric acid solution as well as leaching thermal effects. Slag from melting of mixed metallic scrap contained about 50% Zn and 10% Pb. It consisted mainly of various oxides and oxy-chlorides of metals. Zinc spray metallizing dust contained about 77% Zn in form of zinc and/or zinc-iron oxides, zinc metal and Zn-Fe intermetallic. Zinc ash from hot dip galvanizing was a mixture of zinc oxide, metallic zinc and zinc hydroxide chloride and contained about 80% Zn. Dissolution efficiency of zinc from the first material was 80% (independently on the solid to liquid ratio, 50-150 kg/m3), while decrease of the efficacy from 80% to 60% with increased solid to liquid ratio for the two remaining materials was observed. Both increase in the temperature (20 °C to 35 °C) and agitation rate (300 rpm to 900 rpm) did not improve seriously the leaching results. In all cases, transfer of zinc ions to the leachate was accompanied by different levels of solution contamination, depending on the type of the waste. Leaching of the materials was exothermic with the similar reaction heats for two high oxide-type products (slag, zinc ash) and higher values for the spray metallizing dust.

  16. Production of fiberglass/metal composite material suitable for building habitat and manufacturing facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The production of a fiberglass/metal composite material suitable for building habitats and manufacturing facilities was the project for Clemson. The concept and development of the knowledge necessary to produce glass fibers originated in the spring semester. During the summer, while at Johnson Space Center, fiberglass from a rock composition similar to ones found at the Apollo 16 site on the moon was successfully produced. The project this year was a continuation of last year's studies. We addressed the following problems which emerged as the work progressed: (1) Methods for coating the fibers with a metal were explored. We manufactured composites in two stages: Glass fibers without any coating on them; and fibers coated with metals as they were made. This proved to be a difficult process. Future activities include using a chemical vapor deposition process on fibers which have been made. (2) A glass furnace was developed which relies primarily on solar energy for melting the glass. The temperature of the melted glass is maintained by electrical means. The design is for 250 kg of glass per day. An electrical engineering student developed a scheme for controlling the melting and manufacturing process from the earth. This was done to minimize the human risk. Graphite refractories are relied on to contain the melt. (3) The glass composition chosen for the project is a relatively pure anorthite which is available in the highland regions of the lunar surface. A major problems with this material is that it melts at a comparatively high temperature. This problem will be solved by using graphite refractory materials for the furnace. The advantage of this glass composition is that it is very stable and does not tend to crystallize. (4) We have also refined the experimental furnace and fiber making machinery which we will be using at Johnson Space Center this summer. We believe that we will be able to draw and coat glass fibers in a vacuum for use in composites. We intend to

  17. Effect of an injectable trace mineral supplement containing selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese on the health and production of lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Bicalho, M L S; Pereira, R V; Caixeta, L S; Knauer, W A; Oikonomou, G; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a subcutaneous injection of a multimineral preparation containing 300 mg of zinc, 50mg of manganese, 25mg of selenium, and 75 mg of copper at 230 and 260 days of gestation and 35 days postpartum, on the health, milk production and reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows. A randomized field trial was conducted on three large commercial dairy farms located near Ithaca, New York, USA, with 1416 cows enrolled. All cows were housed and offered a total mixed ration consisting of approximately 55% forage and 45% concentrate on a dry matter basis of the diet, which supplied 2-6 times the NRC requirements for the supplemented elements. Dry cows and pregnant heifers were blocked by parity and randomly allocated to one of two treatments: Trace mineral supplemented (TMS) or control. For multiparous cows, subcutaneous TMS significantly decreased linear somatic cell count scores (normalized data) as compared to control cows. The incidence of subclinical mastitis for TMS and control cows was 10.4% and 8.0%, respectively (P=0.005). The main effect of treatment on clinical mastitis was not significant but the interaction of treatment and parity was significant. For primiparous cows, the incidence of clinical mastitis was 11.8% and 15.6% for control and TMS cows, respectively (P=0.33); for multiparous cows, the incidence of clinical mastitis for control and TMS cows was 25.4% and 19.7%, respectively (P=0.03). Additionally, control cows had increased odds of stillbirth and endometritis (odds ratios 1.69 and 1.30, respectively). The incidence of endometritis was 34.2% and 28.6% for control and TMS cows, respectively (P=0.039) but treatment had no effect on reproductive performance, milk production or other health traits. Further research is required to confirm these findings and to establish whether the response seen in this study was related to the supplementation of a particular mineral. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  18. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  19. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  20. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciT

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remainedmore » constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.« less

  1. Instructional Facilities for the Information Age. An ERIC Information Analysis Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knirk, Frederick G.

    Intended to assist educators and trainers who must make recommendations about facilities to architects and school authorities, this ERIC information analysis project summarizes research on the design of both classrooms and individualized learning spaces that will optimize learning. Six teaching/learning space topics are considered: (1) light and…

  2. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 50 - Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Production and Utilization Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... organization shall be described. The communication steps to be taken to alert or activate emergency personnel... operations facility must include the following: (1) Space for members of an NRC site team and Federal, State, and local responders; (2) Additional space for conducting briefings with emergency response personnel...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 50 - Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Production and Utilization Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... organization shall be described. The communication steps to be taken to alert or activate emergency personnel... operations facility must include the following: (1) Space for members of an NRC site team and Federal, State, and local responders; (2) Additional space for conducting briefings with emergency response personnel...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 50 - Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Production and Utilization Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... organization shall be described. The communication steps to be taken to alert or activate emergency personnel... operations facility must include the following: (1) Space for members of an NRC site team and Federal, State, and local responders; (2) Additional space for conducting briefings with emergency response personnel...

  5. Evaluating the relative impacts of operational and financial factors on the competitiveness of an algal biofuel production facility.

    PubMed

    Hise, Adam M; Characklis, Gregory W; Kern, Jordan; Gerlach, Robin; Viamajala, Sridhar; Gardner, Robert D; Vadlamani, Agasteswar

    2016-11-01

    Algal biofuels are becoming more economically competitive due to technological advances and government subsidies offering tax benefits and lower cost financing. These factors are linked, however, as the value of technical advances is affected by modeling assumptions regarding the growth conditions, process design, and financing of the production facility into which novel techniques are incorporated. Two such techniques, related to algal growth and dewatering, are evaluated in representative operating and financing scenarios using an integrated techno-economic model. Results suggest that these techniques can be valuable under specified conditions, but also that investment subsidies influence cost competitive facility design by incentivizing development of more capital intensive facilities (e.g., favoring hydrothermal liquefaction over transesterification-based facilities). Evaluating novel techniques under a variety of operational and financial scenarios highlights the set of site-specific conditions in which technical advances are most valuable, while also demonstrating the influence of subsidies linked to capital intensity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design, Development and Operational Experience of Demonstration Facility for Cs-137 Source Pencil Production at Trombay - 13283

    SciT

    Patil, S.B.; Srivastava, P.; Mishra, S.K.

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive waste management is a vital aspect of any nuclear program. The commercial feasibility of the nuclear program largely depends on the efficiency of the waste management techniques. One of such techniques is the separation of high yield radio-nuclides from the waste and making it suitable for medical and industrial applications. This will give societal benefit in addition to revenue generation. Co-60, the isotope presently being used for medical applications, needs frequent replacement because of its short half life. Cs-137, the major constituent of the nuclear waste, is a suitable substitute for Co-60 as a radioactive source because of itsmore » longer half life (28 years). Indian nuclear waste management program has given special emphasis on utilization of Cs-137 for such applications. In view of this a demonstration facility has been designed for vitrification of Cs-137 in borosilicate glass, cast in stainless steel pencils, to be used as source pencils of 300 Ci strength for blood irradiation. An induction heated metallic melter of suitable capacity has been custom designed for the application and employed for the Cs-137 pencil fabrication facility. This article describes various systems, design features, experiments and resulting modifications, observations and remote handling features necessary for the actual operation of such facility. The layout of the facility has been planned in such a way that the same can be adopted in a hot cell for commercial production of source pencils. (authors)« less

  7. [Zinc and chronic enteropathies].

    PubMed

    Giorgi, P L; Catassi, C; Guerrieri, A

    1984-01-01

    In recent years the nutritional importance of zinc has been well established; its deficiency and its symptoms have also been recognized in humans. Furthermore, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica has been isolated, a rare but severe disease, of which skin lesions, chronic diarrhoea and recurring infections are the main symptoms. The disease is related to the malfunctioning of intestinal absorption of zinc and can be treated by administering pharmacological doses of zinc orally. Good dietary sources of zinc are meat, fish and, to a less extent, human milk. The amount of zinc absorbed in the small intestine is influenced by other nutrients: some compounds inhibit this process (dietary fiber, phytate) while others (picolinic acid, citric acid), referred to as Zn-binding ligands (ZnBL) facilitate it. Citric acid is thought to be the ligand which accounts for the high level of bioavailability of zinc in human milk. zinc absorption occurs throughout the small intestine, not only in the prossimal tract (duodenum and jejunum) but also in the distal tract (ileum). Diarrhoea is one of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, thus many illnesses distinguished by chronic diarrhoea entail a bad absorption of zinc. In fact, in some cases of chronic enteropathies in infants, like coeliac disease and seldom cystic fibrosis, a deficiency of zinc has been isolated. Some of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, like retarded growth and hypogonadism, have been related to hypozinchemia which is present in this illness. Finally, it is possible that some of the dietary treatments frequently used for persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea (i.e. cow's milk exclusion, abuse and misuse of dietary fiber like carrot and carub powder, use of soy formula) can constitute a scarce supply of zinc and therefore could promote the persistency of diarrhoea itself.

  8. A 6He production facility and an electrostatic trap for measurement of the beta-neutrino correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukul, I.; Hass, M.; Heber, O.; Hirsh, T. Y.; Mishnayot, Y.; Rappaport, M. L.; Ron, G.; Shachar, Y.; Vaintraub, S.

    2018-08-01

    A novel experiment has been commissioned at the Weizmann Institute of Science for the study of weak interactions via a high-precision measurement of the beta-neutrinoangular correlation in the radioactive decay of short-lived 6He. The facility consists of a 14 MeV d + t neutron generator to produce atomic 6He, followed by ionization and bunching in an electron beam ion source, and injection into an electrostatic ion beam trap. This ion trap has been designed for efficient detection of the decay products from trapped light ions. The storage time in the trap for different stable ions was found to be in the range of 0.6 to 1.2 s at the chamber pressure of ∼7 × 10-10 mbar. We present the initial test results of the facility, and also demonstrate an important upgrade of an existing method (Stora et al., 2012) for production of light radioactive atoms, viz. 6He, for the precision measurement. The production rate of 6He atoms in the present setup has been estimated to be ∼ 1 . 45 × 10-4 atoms per neutron, and the system efficiency was found to be 4.0 ± 0.6%. An improvement to this setup is also presented for the enhanced production and diffusion of radioactive atoms for future use.

  9. Antimicrobial Products Registered for Disinfection Use against Avian Influenza on Poultry Farms and Other Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA registers disinfectants against Avian Influenza A. Although there are no antimicrobial products registered for the H5N2 subtype of Avian Influenza A virus, based on available scientific information these products will work against other HPAI strains.

  10. Source term estimates of radioxenon released from the BaTek medical isotope production facility using external measured air concentrations.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, Paul W; Cameron, Ian M; Dumais, Johannes Robert; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I; Miley, Harry S; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T

    2015-10-01

    BATAN Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies (99m)Tc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of (133)Xe in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the radionuclide network of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The major xenon isotopes released from BaTek are also produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide if a specific measurement result could have originated from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84 × 10(13) Bq of (133)Xe. Concentrations of (133)Xe in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88 × 10(13) Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70 × 10(13) Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10% of each other. Unpublished production data and the release estimate from June 2013 yield a rough annual release estimate of 8 × 10(14) Bq of (133)Xe in 2014. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates based on atmospheric samplers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatiotemporal association between birth outcomes and coke production and steel making facilities in Alabama, USA: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Porter, Travis R; Kent, Shia T; Su, Wei; Beck, Heidi M; Gohlke, Julia M

    2014-10-23

    Previous research has shown exposure to air pollution increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes, although the effects of residential proximity to significant industrial point sources are less defined. The objective of the current study was to determine whether yearly reported releases from major industrial point sources are associated with adverse birth outcomes. Maternal residence from geocoded Alabama birth records between 1991 and 2010 were used to calculate distances from coke and steel production industries reporting emissions to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Logistic regression models were built to determine associations between distance or yearly fugitive emissions (volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic compounds, and metals) from reporting facilities and preterm birth or low birth weight, adjusting for covariates including maternal age, race, payment method, education level, year and parity. A small but significant association between preterm birth and residential proximity (≤5.0 km) to coke and steel production facilities remained after adjustment for covariates (OR 1.05 95% CI: 1.01,1.09). Above average emissions from these facilities of volatile organic compounds during the year of birth were associated with low birth weight (OR 1.17 95% CI: 1.06, 1.29), whereas metals emissions were associated with preterm birth (OR 1.07 95% CI: 1.01, 1.14). The present investigation suggests fugitive emissions from industrial point sources may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes in surrounding neighborhoods. Further research teasing apart the relationship between exposure to emissions and area-level deprivation in neighborhoods surrounding industrial facilities and their combined effects on birth outcomes is needed.

  12. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    SciT

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analystsmore » trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.« less

  13. Algal Lipids and Omega-3 Production via Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Pathways at Cellana?s Kona Demonstration Facility, Hawaii

    SciT

    Bai, Xuemei; Knurek, Emily; Goes, Nikki

    2012-05-05

    Cellana?s Kona Demonstration Facility (KDF) is a 2.5 hectare facility, with 17,000 sq. ft. under roof and 1 hectare of cultivation systems. KDF is designed to execute and support all stages of the production process at pilot scale, from cultivation through extraction. Since Feb. 2009, KDF has been producing up to 0.7MT dry weight of algal biomass per month, while at the same time optimizing processes of cultivation, harvesting, dewatering and extraction. The cultivation system at KDF uses ALDUO? technology, a hybrid system of photobioreactors (PBRs) and open ponds. All fluid transfers related to KDF cultivation and harvesting processes aremore » operated and monitored by a remote Process-Control System. Fluid transfer data, together with biochemical data, enable the mass balance calculations necessary to measure productivity. This poster summarizes methods to improve both biomass and lipids yield by 1) alleviating light limitation in open ponds, 2) de-oxygenation and 3) heterotrophic lipid production for post-harvesting cultures.« less

  14. 43 CFR 3212.24 - How will the production incentive apply to a new facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act...

  15. Improved synthesis of fine zinc borate particles using seed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürhan, Deniz; Çakal, Gaye Ö.; Eroğlu, İnci; Özkar, Saim

    2009-03-01

    Zinc borate is a flame retardant additive used in polymers, wood applications and textile products. There are different types of zinc borate having different chemical compositions and structures. In this study, the production of zinc borate having the molecular formula of 2ZnO·3B 2O 3·3.5H 2O was reexamined by studying the effects of reaction parameters on the properties of product as well as the reaction kinetics. Production of zinc borate from the reaction of boric acid and zinc oxide in the presence of seed crystals was performed in a continuously stirred, temperature-controlled batch reactor having a volume of 1.5 L. Samples taken in regular time intervals during the experiments were analyzed for the concentration of zinc oxide and boron oxide in the solid as well as for the conversion of zinc oxide to zinc borate versus time. The zinc borate production reaction was fit to the logistic model. The reaction rate, reaction completion time, composition and particle size distribution of zinc borate product were determined by varying the following parameters: the boric acid to zinc oxide ratio (H 3BO 3:ZnO=3:1, 3.5:1, 5:1 and 7:1), the particle size of zinc oxide (10 and 25 μm), stirring rate (275, 400, 800 and 1600 rpm), temperature (75, 85 and 95 °C) and the size of seed crystals (10 and 2 μm). The products were also analyzed for particle size distribution. The experimental results showed that the reaction rate increases with the increase in H 3BO 3:ZnO ratio, particle size of zinc oxide, stirring rate and temperature. Concomitantly, the reaction completion time is decreased by increasing the H 3BO 3:ZnO ratio, stirring rate and temperature. The average particle sizes of the zinc borate products are in the range 4.3-16.6 μm (wet dispersion analysis).

  16. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate. Zinc methionine sulfate, CAS Reg. No. 56329-42-1, may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is the product of the...

  17. Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

  18. Industrial hygiene report, preliminary survey of wood preservative treatment facility at Koppers Company, Inc. , Forest Products Group, Florence, South Carolina

    SciT

    Todd, A.S.; Timbie, C.Y.

    1979-11-16

    A walk through survey was conducted at Koppers Company, Incorporated, Florence, South Carolina in July, 1984. The facility treated poles, posts, and railroad ties with creosote, pentachlorophenol, or chromated copper arsenate. Pentachlorophenol monitoring was performed and showed pentachlorophenol exposures of 0.04 to 0.12 mg/cm/sup 3/. Sampling was attempted for creosote, but the data were invalid due to faulty analytical techniques. The facility employed 141 people, of whom 125 were production workers and 16 were administrative staff. All employees were required to wear hard hats and safety shoes. Treatment operators and helpers were supplied with eye protection, gloves, boots, disposable coveralls,more » and slickers when needed. Respirators were provided when entering treatment cylinders. Preemployment medical examinations were conducted on all new employees. Periodical physicals were not offered. No physician or licensed nurse was located on site. Two employees trained in first aid were responsible for providing emergency treatment. About half of the employees used work uniforms while the remainder brought work clothing from home. Showers and change room facilities were provided.« less

  19. Production Facility Prototype Blower Installation Report with 1000 Hr Test Results

    SciT

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Olivas, Eric Richard; Dale, Gregory E.

    2016-09-23

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was needed for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GMmore » 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. This report describes this blower/motor/pressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations. The blower has been operated for 1000 hours as a preliminary investigation of long-term performance, operation and possible maintenance issues. The blower performed well, with no significant change in blower head or mass flow rate developed under the operating conditions. Upon inspection, some oil had leaked out of the shaft seal of the blower. The shaft seal and bearing race have been replaced.« less

  20. Production Facility Prototype Blower Installation Report with 1000 Hour Test Results

    SciT

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Romero, Frank Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was needed for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GMmore » 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. This report describes this blower/motor/pressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations. The blower has been operated for 1000 hours as a preliminary investigation of long term performance, operation and possible maintenance issues. The blower performed well, with no significant change in blower head or mass flow rate developed under the operating conditions. Upon inspection, some oil had leaked out of the shaft seal of the blower. The shaft seal and bearing race have been replaced. Test results and conclusions are reported.« less

  1. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  2. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  3. The Gateway Garden — A Prototype Food Production Facility for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsche, R. F.; Romeyn, M. W.; Massa, G.

    2018-02-01

    CIS-lunar space provides a unique opportunity to perform deep space microgravity crop science research while also addressing and advancing food production technologies that will be deployed on the Deep Space Transport.

  4. 9 CFR 314.3 - Disposition of condemned products at official establishments having no tanking facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HANDLING AND DISPOSAL... agent is applied, except that, in the case of dead animals that have not been dressed, the denaturant...

  5. COSY-11: an Experimental Facility for Studying Meson Production in Free and Quasi-free Nucleon-Nucleon Collisions

    SciT

    Klaja, P.; Janusz, M.; Jarczyk, L.

    2005-10-26

    The COSY-11 experimental setup is an internal facility installed at the COoler SYnchrotron COSY in Juelich. It allows to investigate meson production in free and quasi-free nucleon-nucleon collisions, eg. pp {yields} pp meson and pd {yields} pspnp meson reactions. Drift chambers and scintillators permit to measure outgoing protons, separated in the magnetic field of the COSY-11 dipole. Neutrons are registered in the neutron modular detector installed downstream from the target. Recently, the experimental setup has been extended with spectator detector, deuteron drift chamber and polarization monitoring system, and since then meson production can be investigated also as a function ofmore » spin and isospin of colliding nucleons.« less

  6. Production facility layout by comparing moment displacement using BLOCPLAN and ALDEP Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambunan, M.; Ginting, E.; Sari, R. M.

    2018-02-01

    Production floor layout settings include the organizing of machinery, materials, and all the equipments used in the production process in the available area. PT. XYZ is a company that manufactures rubber and rubber compounds for retreading tire threaded with hot and cold cooking system. In the production of PT. XYZ is divided into three interrelated parts, namely Masterbatch Department, Department Compound, and Procured Thread Line Department. PT. XYZ has a production process with material flow is irregular and the arrangement of machine is complicated and need to be redesigned. The purpose of this study is comparing movement displacement using BLOCPLAN and ALDEP algorithm in order to redesign existing layout. Redesigning the layout of the production floor is done by applying algorithms of BLOCPLAN and ALDEP. The algorithm used to find the best layout design by comparing the moment displacement and the flow pattern. Moment displacement on the floor layout of the company’s production currently amounts to 2,090,578.5 meters per year and material flow pattern is irregular. Based on the calculation, the moment displacement for the BLOCPLAN is 1,551,344.82 meter per year and ALDEP is 1,600,179 meter per year. Flow Material resulted is in the form of straight the line.

  7. Comparison of facility-level methane emission rates from natural gas production well pads in the Marcellus, Denver-Julesburg, and Uintah Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omara, M.; Li, X.; Sullivan, M.; Subramanian, R.; Robinson, A. L.; Presto, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The boom in shale natural gas (NG) production, brought about by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, has yielded both economic benefits and concerns about environmental and climate impacts. In particular, leakages of methane from the NG supply chain could substantially increase the carbon footprint of NG, diminishing its potential role as a transition fuel between carbon intensive fossil fuels and renewable energy systems. Recent research has demonstrated significant variability in measured methane emission rates from NG production facilities within a given shale gas basin. This variability often reflect facility-specific differences in NG production capacity, facility age, utilization of emissions capture and control, and/or the level of facility inspection and maintenance. Across NG production basins, these differences in facility-level methane emission rates are likely amplified, especially if significant variability in NG composition and state emissions regulations are present. In this study, we measured methane emission rates from the NG production sector in the Marcellus Shale Basin (Pennsylvania and West Virginia), currently the largest NG production basin in the U.S., and contrast these results with those of the Denver-Julesburg (Colorado) and Uintah (Utah) shale basins. Facility-level methane emission rates were measured at 106 NG production facilities using the dual tracer flux (nitrous oxide and acetylene), Gaussian dispersion simulations, and the OTM 33A techniques. The distribution of facility-level average methane emission rate for each NG basin will be discussed, with emphasis on how variability in NG composition (i.e., ethane-to-methane ratios) and state emissions regulations impact measured methane leak rates. While the focus of this presentation will be on the comparison of methane leak rates among NG basins, the use of three complimentary top-down methane measurement techniques provides a unique opportunity to explore the

  8. Commissioning and initial operation of the Isotope Production Facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE).

    SciT

    Johnson, K. F.; Alvestad, H. W.; Barkley, W. C.

    The recently completed 100-MeV H{sup +} Isotope Production Facility (IPF) at the LANSCE will provide radioisotopes for medical research and diagnosis, for basic research and for commercial use. A change to the LANSCE accelerator facility allowed for the installation of the IPF. Three components make up the LANSCE accelerator: an injector that accelerates the H{sup +} beam to 750-KeV, a drift-tube linac (DTL) that increases the beam energy to 100-MeV, and a side-coupled cavity linac (SCCL) that accelerates the beam to 800-MeV. The transition region, a space between the DTL and the SCCL, was modified to permit the insertion ofmore » a kicker magnet (23{sup o} kick angle) for the purpose of extracting a portion of the 100-MeV H{sup +} beam. A new beam line was installed to transport the extracted H{sup +} beam to the radioisotope production target chamber. This paper will describe the commissioning and initial operating experiences of IPF.« less

  9. Modeling of occupational exposure to accidentally released manufactured nanomaterials in a production facility and calculation of internal doses by inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero-Moralejo, Celina; Jaén, María; Lopez De Ipiña Peña, Jesús; Neofytou, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) and its potential health impacts are of scientific and practical interest, as previous epidemiological studies associate exposure to nanoparticles with health effects, including increased morbidity of the respiratory and the circulatory system. Objectives To estimate the occupational exposure and effective internal doses in a real production facility of TiO2 MNMs during hypothetical scenarios of accidental release. Methods Commercial software for geometry and mesh generation, as well as fluid flow and particle dispersion calculation, were used to estimate occupational exposure to MNMs. The results were introduced to in-house software to calculate internal doses in the human respiratory tract by inhalation. Results Depending on the accidental scenario, different areas of the production facility were affected by the released MNMs, with a higher dose exposure among individuals closer to the particles source. Conclusions Granted that the study of the accidental release of particles can only be performed by chance, this numerical approach provides valuable information regarding occupational exposure and contributes to better protection of personnel. The methodology can be used to identify occupational settings where the exposure to MNMs would be high during accidents, providing insight to health and safety officials. PMID:27670588

  10. Bacterial communities associated with production facilities of two newly drilled thermogenic natural gas wells in the Barnett Shale (Texas, USA).

    PubMed

    Davis, James P; Struchtemeyer, Christopher G; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2012-11-01

    We monitored the bacterial communities in the gas-water separator and water storage tank of two newly drilled natural gas wells in the Barnett Shale in north central Texas, using a 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing approach over a period of 6 months. Overall, the communities were composed mainly of moderately halophilic and halotolerant members of the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria (classes Βeta-, Gamma-, and Epsilonproteobacteria) in both wells at all sampling times and locations. Many of the observed lineages were encountered in prior investigations of microbial communities from various fossil fluid formations and production facilities. In all of the samples, multiple H(2)S-producing lineages were encountered; belonging to the sulfate- and sulfur-reducing class Deltaproteobacteria, order Clostridiales, and phylum Synergistetes, as well as the thiosulfate-reducing order Halanaerobiales. The bacterial communities from the separator and tank samples bore little resemblance to the bacterial communities in the drilling mud and hydraulic-fracture waters that were used to drill these wells, suggesting the in situ development of the unique bacterial communities in such well components was in response to the prevalent geochemical conditions present. Conversely, comparison of the bacterial communities on temporal and spatial scales suggested the establishment of a core microbial community in each sampled location. The results provide the first overview of bacterial dynamics and colonization patterns in newly drilled, thermogenic natural gas wells and highlights patterns of spatial and temporal variability observed in bacterial communities in natural gas production facilities.

  11. A facile production of microporous carbon spheres and their electrochemical performance in EDLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Shi, Lei; Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Li; He, Yuede

    2012-03-01

    In the absence of activation process, we prepared a series of carbon particles from saccharine, in which hydrothermal carbonization method was used. These particles have spherical or near-spherical morphology, controllable monodisperse particle size from the analyses of SEM. Raman and XRD results show that they are nongraphitizable. The BET surface area of these carbon spherules is around 400-500 m2 g-1 and the microporosity is about 84%, suggesting that the carbon particles are rich in micropores. The electrochemical behaviors were characterized by means of galvanostatic charging/discharging, cycle voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the specific capacitance of sucrose-based carbon spherule reached 164 F g-1 in 30% KOH electrolyte and a high volumetric capacitance over 170 F cm-3 was obtained. These carbon spherules could be promising materials for EDLC according to their facile preparation way, low cost and high packing density.

  12. Operation reliability analysis of independent power plants of gas-transmission system distant production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskunov, Maksim V.; Voytkov, Ivan S.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.; Vysokomorny, Vladimir S.

    2015-01-01

    The new approach was developed to analyze the failure causes in operation of linear facilities independent power supply sources (mini-CHP-plants) of gas-transmission system in Eastern part of Russia. Triggering conditions of ceiling operation substance temperature at condenser output were determined with mathematical simulation use of unsteady heat and mass transfer processes in condenser of mini-CHP-plants. Under these conditions the failure probability in operation of independent power supply sources is increased. Influence of environmental factors (in particular, ambient temperature) as well as output electric capability values of power plant on mini-CHP-plant operation reliability was analyzed. Values of mean time to failure and power plant failure density during operation in different regions of Eastern Siberia and Far East of Russia were received with use of numerical simulation results of heat and mass transfer processes at operation substance condensation.

  13. Could Zinc Whiskers Be Impacting Your Electronic Systems? Raise Your Awareness. Revision D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael; Brusse, Jay

    2003-01-01

    During the past several decades electrical short circuits induced by "Zinc Whiskers" have been cited as the root cause of failure for various electronic systems (e.g., apnea monitors, telecom switches). These tiny filaments of zinc that may grow from some zinc-coated items (especially those coated by electroplating processes) have the potential to induce electrical shorts in exposed circuitry. Through this article, the authors describe a particular failure scenario attributed to zinc whiskers that has affected many facilities (including some NASA facilities) that utilized zinc-coated raised "access" floor tiles and support structures. Zinc whiskers that may be growing beneath your raised floor have the potential to wreak havoc on electronic systems operating above the floor.

  14. The commercial use of gamma facilities in North and South America for agriculture product processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterweck, Joseph S.

    1993-07-01

    The treatment of agriculture and food products with ionizing radiation has been proven to be safe, effective, economical, and according to consumer surveys, the end product is better. However, commercial implementation of food irradiation has been slow because the following: 1. The lack of profit incentives 2. The failure of the political system to deal with antinuclear groups 3. The failure of public health authorities to actively support this technologyFood irradiation cannot be considered successfully implemented until the commercial industry is making a profit by the use of this technology. Use of this technology will: (1) reduce food borne infections (FBI); (2) decrease the hazards of the use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry production; (3) reduce the need for agriculture quarantine procedures; and (4) increase shelf-life of perishable foods. However, only (1) and (3) are being considered as economic alternative by the present day's food industry. Previously, agriculture has focused on technology that would increase production and reduce costs. Today this is rapidly changing to implementing technology that markets a product the consumer wants and is perceived as being safer and environmental responsible.

  15. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  16. Increasing energy efficiency level of building production based on applying modern mechanization facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    Building industry in a present day going through the hard times. Machine and mechanism exploitation cost, on a field of construction and installation works, takes a substantial part in total building construction expenses. There is a necessity to elaborate high efficient method, which allows not only to increase production, but also to reduce direct costs during machine fleet exploitation, and to increase its energy efficiency. In order to achieve the goal we plan to use modern methods of work production, hi-tech and energy saving machine tools and technologies, and use of optimal mechanization sets. As the optimization criteria there are exploitation prime cost and set efficiency. During actual task-solving process we made a conclusion, which shows that mechanization works, energy audit with production juxtaposition, prime prices and costs for energy resources allow to make complex machine fleet supply, improve ecological level and increase construction and installation work quality.

  17. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children

    PubMed Central

    Lazzerini, Marzia; Wanzira, Humphrey

    2016-01-01

    from dehydration. Giving fluids by mouth (using an oral rehydration solution (ORS)) has been shown to save children's lives, but it has no effect on the length of time the children suffer with diarrhoea. Zinc supplementation could help reduce the duration and the severity of diarrhoea, and therefore have an additional benefit over ORS in reducing children mortality. What is oral zinc and how may it shorten the duration and severity of diarrhoea Zinc is usually given as zinc sulphate, zinc acetate, or zinc gluconate, which are all water-soluble compounds. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) recommend 10 mg to 20 mg of zinc per day for children with diarrhoea. There are several mechanism of action of zinc on acute diarrhoea, some of which are specific to the gastrointestinal system: zinc restores mucosal barrier integrity and enterocyte brush-border enzyme activity, it promotes the production of antibodies and circulating lymphocytes against intestinal pathogens, and has a direct effect on ion channels, acting as a potassium channel blocker of adenosine 3-5-cyclic monophosphate-mediated chlorine secretion. Cochrane researchers examined the evidence available up to 30 September 2016. What the evidence in the review suggests Thirty-three trials that included 10,841 children met the inclusion criteria of this review. Among children with acute diarrhoea, we don't know if treating children with zinc has an effect on death or number of children hospitalized (very low certainty evidence). In children older than six months, zinc supplementation may shorten the average duration of diarrhoea by around half a day (low certainty evidence), and probably reduces the number of children whose diarrhoea persists until day seven (moderate certainty evidence). In children with signs of malnutrition the effect appears greater, reducing the duration of diarrhoea by around a day (high certainty evidence). Conversely, in children younger than six

  18. Encapsulation methods for solid radionuclide production targets at a medium-energy cyclotron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, Gideon; Vermeulen, Christiaan; Isaacs, Eugene

    2018-05-01

    The techniques employed at iThemba LABS for the encapsulation of solid radionuclide production targets, based on cold indentation welding, electron beam welding and laser welding, are described. Some aspects of the target holders and cooling requirements to bombard targets in a tandem configuration with a 66 MeV proton beam, with intensities up to nominally 250 A, are also briefly discussed. These techniques are inter alia suitable for a production regimen compatible with the new generation of commercial, high-intensity 70 MeV cyclotrons.

  19. Zinc release contributes to hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sang Won; Garnier, Philippe; Aoyama, Koji; Chen, Yongmei; Swanson, Raymond A

    2004-08-01

    Neurons exposed to zinc exhibit activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), an enzyme that normally participates in DNA repair but promotes cell death when extensively activated. Endogenous, vesicular zinc in brain is released to the extracellular space under conditions causing neuronal depolarization. Here, we used a rat model of insulin-induced hypoglycemia to assess the role of zinc release in PARP-1 activation and neuronal death after severe hypoglycemia. Zinc staining with N-(6-methoxy-8-quinolyl)-para-toluenesulfonamide (TSQ) showed depletion of presynaptic vesicular zinc from hippocampal mossy fiber terminals and accumulation of weakly bound zinc in hippocampal CA1 cell bodies after severe hypoglycemia. Intracerebroventricular injection of the zinc chelator calcium ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (CaEDTA) blocked the zinc accumulation and significantly reduced hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death. CaEDTA also attenuated the accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose), the enzymatic product of PARP-1, in hippocampal neurons. These results suggest that zinc translocation is an intermediary step linking hypoglycemia to PARP-1 activation and neuronal death.

  20. Zinc Modulates Nanosilver-Induced Toxicity in Primary Neuronal Cultures.

    PubMed

    Ziemińska, Elżbieta; Strużyńska, Lidia

    2016-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NAg) have recently become one of the most commonly used nanomaterials. Since the ability of nanosilver to enter the brain has been confirmed, there has been a need to investigate mechanisms of its neurotoxicity. We previously showed that primary neuronal cultures treated with nanosilver undergo destabilization of calcium homeostasis via a mechanism involving glutamatergic NMDA receptors. Considering the fact that zinc interacts with these receptors, the aim of the present study was to examine the role of zinc in mechanisms of neuronal cell death in primary cultures. In cells treated with nanosilver, we noted an imbalance between extracellular and intracellular zinc levels. Thus, the influence of zinc deficiency and supplementation on nanosilver-evoked cytotoxicity was investigated by treatment with TPEN (a chelator of zinc ions), or ZnCl(2), respectively. Elimination of zinc leads to complete death of nanosilver-treated CGCs. In contrast, supplementation with ZnCl(2) increases viability of CGCs in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of zinc provided protection against the extra/intracellular calcium imbalance in a manner similar to MK-801, an antagonist of NMDA receptors. Zinc chelation by TPEN decreases the mitochondrial potential and dramatically increases the rate of production of reactive oxygen species. Our results indicate that zinc supplementation positively influences nanosilver-evoked changes in CGCs. This is presumed to be due to an inhibitory effect on NMDA-sensitive calcium channels.

  1. Productivity and impact of astronomical facilities: Three years of publications and citation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, V.; Ceja, J. A.

    2008-07-01

    In calendar years 2001 to 2003, 20 journals of astronomy and astrophysics published 11 831 papers that reported or analyzed observations at wavelengths from meter radio to ultrahigh energy gamma rays. These were cited 161 556 times in the three calendar years following publication, according to the Science Citation Index/Web of Science, for an average of 13.66 citations per paper or 4.55 citations per paper per year. We examine these numbers as a function of subject matter, wavelength bands, journals, and individual telescopes used and explore a small subset of possible temporal trends, anomalies, and sources of uncertainty, including blockbuster journals, papers and facilities. Many of the results resemble qualitative expectations. There are hot topics (cosmology, exoplanets) and not so hot topics (binary stars, planetary nebulae). Papers reporting data from space are cited a bit more often, and ground-based radio papers a bit less often, than optical papers, while multi-wavelength ones do noticeably better than average. The total number of telescopes involved is surprisingly large, approximately 350 optical and infrared (mostly ground-based but including HST because of its long life), 144 radio facilities on about 100 sites (including WMAP and COBE and a few balloon-borne CMB experiments), and 105 space-based detectors (including satellites, interplanetary probes, things carried on rockets, balloons, the Shuttle, and so forth). The outstanding telescopes are generally both stable with time and predictable. HST and the VLA are responsible for the largest number of optical and radio papers respectively, but the most frequently cited optical papers come from SDSS (by a wide margin), Keck, and the AAT, while the JCMT, Parkes and (especially) CMB observatories lead the radio brigade. Among things that fly, leadership changes more quickly, as missions are launched, vigorously exploited, and turned off, sometimes achieving geostationary, suboceanic orbits. If you have a

  2. [Academic cell therapy facilities are challenged by European regulation on advanced therapy medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Chabannon, Christian; Sabatier, Florence; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Calmels, Boris; Veran, Julie; Magalon, Guy; Lemarie, Claude; Mahalatchimy, Aurélie

    2014-05-01

    Regulation (EC) n° 1394/2007 from the European Parliament and the Council describes a new category of health products termed « Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products » (ATMPs). ATMPs derive from cell engineering, tissue engineering or genetic manipulations, and can in some instances be combined with medical devices. ATMPs are distributed and administered to patients, after biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies have obtained a marketing authorization that is granted by the European Commission on the basis of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) assessment. Seven years after the publication of the regulation, few of these therapies have received a marketing authorization, and even fewer have met commercial success, suggesting that a number of medical and economic issues still need to be sorted out in order to achieve sustainability in this field. The coexistence of three sets of rules for three categories of health products that are biologically and medically related - ATMPs, ATMPs produced under the hospital exemption rule, and cell therapy products (CTPs) (a specific legal category in France) that have long been used in hematopoietic cell transplantation - constitutes a complex regulatory framework. This situation raises significant issues for historical as well as emerging operators in this moving field that are discussed thereafter. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  3. Study of optimum propellant production facilities for launch of space shuttle vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laclair, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    An integrated propellant manufacturing plant and distribution system located at Kennedy Space Center is studied. The initial planned propellant and pressurant production amounted to 160 tons/day (TPD) LH2, 10 TPD GH2, 800 TPD LO2, 400 TPD LN2, and 120 TPD GN2. This was based on a shuttle launch frequency of 104 per year. During the study, developments occurred which may lower cryogen requirements. A variety of plant and processing equipment sizes and costs are considered for redundancy and supply level considerations. Steam reforming is compared to partial oxidation as a means of generating hydrogen. Electric motors, steam turbines, and gas turbines are evaluated for driving compression equipment. Various sites on and off Government property are considered to determine tradeoffs between costs and problems directly associated with the site, product delivery and storage costs, raw material costs, and energy costs. Coproduction of other products such as deuterium, methanol, and ammonia are considered. Legal questions are discussed concerning a private company's liabilities and its rights to market commercial products under Government tax and cost shelters.

  4. The Swarm Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility (SCARF) and Swarm data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Nils; Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Floberghagen, Rune; Alken, Patrick; Beggan, Ciaran D.; Chulliat, Arnaud; Doornbos, Eelco; da Encarnação, João Teixeira; Hamilton, Brian; Hulot, Gauthier; van den IJssel, Jose; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Lesur, Vincent; Lühr, Hermann; Macmillan, Susan; Maus, Stefan; Noja, Max; Olsen, Poul Erik H.; Park, Jaeheung; Plank, Gernot; Püthe, Christoph; Rauberg, Jan; Ritter, Patricia; Rother, Martin; Sabaka, Terence J.; Schachtschneider, Reyko; Sirol, Olivier; Stolle, Claudia; Thébault, Erwan; Thomson, Alan W. P.; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Velímský, Jakub; Vigneron, Pierre; Visser, Pieter N.

    2013-11-01

    Swarm, a three-satellite constellation to study the dynamics of the Earth's magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system, is expected to be launched in late 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution, in order to gain new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and environment. In order to derive advanced models of the geomagnetic field (and other higher-level data products) it is necessary to take explicit advantage of the constellation aspect of Swarm. The Swarm SCARF ( S atellite C onstellation A pplication and R esearch F acility) has been established with the goal of deriving Level-2 products by combination of data from the three satellites, and of the various instruments. The present paper describes the Swarm input data products (Level-1b and auxiliary data) used by SCARF, the various processing chains of SCARF, and the Level-2 output data products determined by SCARF.

  5. A National Study of Efficiency for Dialysis Centers: An Examination of Market Competition and Facility Characteristics for Production of Multiple Dialysis Outputs

    PubMed Central

    Ozgen, Hacer; A. Ozcan, Yasar

    2002-01-01

    Objective To examine market competition and facility characteristics that can be related to technical efficiency in the production of multiple dialysis outputs from the perspective of the industrial organization model. Study Setting Freestanding dialysis facilities that operated in 1997 submitted cost report forms to the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), and offered all three outputs—outpatient dialysis, dialysis training, and home program dialysis. Data Sources The Independent Renal Facility Cost Report Data file (IRFCRD) from HCFA was utilized to obtain information on output and input variables and market and facility features for 791 multiple-output facilities. Information regarding population characteristics was obtained from the Area Resources File. Study Design Cross-sectional data for the year 1997 were utilized to obtain facility-specific technical efficiency scores estimated through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). A binary variable of efficiency status was then regressed against its market and facility characteristics and control factors in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Principal Findings The majority of the facilities in the sample are functioning technically inefficiently. Neither the intensity of market competition nor a policy of dialyzer reuse has a significant effect on the facilities' efficiency. Technical efficiency is significantly associated, however, with type of ownership, with the interaction between the market concentration of for-profits and ownership type, and with affiliations with chains of different sizes. Nonprofit and government-owned facilities are more likely than their for-profit counterparts to become inefficient producers of renal dialysis outputs. On the other hand, that relationship between ownership form and efficiency is reversed as the market concentration of for-profits in a given market increases. Facilities that are members of large chains are more likely to be technically inefficient

  6. A national study of efficiency for dialysis centers: an examination of market competition and facility characteristics for production of multiple dialysis outputs.

    PubMed

    Ozgen, Hacer; Ozcan, Yasar A

    2002-06-01

    To examine market competition and facility characteristics that can be related to technical efficiency in the production of multiple dialysis outputs from the perspective of the industrial organization model. Freestanding dialysis facilities that operated in 1997 submitted cost report fonns to the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), and offered all three outputs--outpatient dialysis, dialysis training, and home program dialysis. The Independent Renal Facility Cost Report Data file (IRFCRD) from HCFA was utilized to obtain information on output and input variables and market and facility features for 791 multiple-output facilities. Information regarding population characteristics was obtained from the Area Resources File. Cross-sectional data for the year 1997 were utilized to obtain facility-specific technical efficiency scores estimated through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). A binary variable of efficiency status was then regressed against its market and facility characteristics and control factors in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The majority of the facilities in the sample are functioning technically inefficiently. Neither the intensity of market competition nor a policy of dialyzer reuse has a significant effect on the facilities' efficiency. Technical efficiency is significantly associated, however, with type of ownership, with the interaction between the market concentration of for-profits and ownership type, and with affiliations with chains of different sizes. Nonprofit and government-owned Facilities are more likely than their for-profit counterparts to become inefficient producers of renal dialysis outputs. On the other hand, that relationship between ownership form and efficiency is reversed as the market concentration of for-profits in a given market increases. Facilities that are members of large chains are more likely to be technically inefficient. Facilities do not appear to benefit from joint production of a variety of

  7. Zinc and glycerol enhance the production of nematicidal compounds in vitro and improve the biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica in tomato by fluorescent pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S

    2002-01-01

    To assess the effects of various carbon and mineral sources on the nematicidal potential of biocontrol inoculants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa IE-6S+ and Ps. fluorescens CHA0 under laboratory and glasshouse conditions. Culture filtrates of strains IE-6S+ and CHA0, cultured in nutrient yeast extract broth, caused substantial mortality of the juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica. The nematicidal activities of the culture filtrates were altered after amendment with various carbon and mineral sources. Soil amendment with zinc alone or in combination with glycerol improved the biocontrol efficacy against root-knot nematode, promoted tomato plant growth and enhanced bacterial rhizosphere and endophytic colonization. Appropriate quantities of glycerol and zinc alone or in combination enhance the nematicidal activity of Ps. aeruginosa and Ps. fluorescens. Glucose reduces the activity of these bacteria against nematodes. Minerals and carbon sources are appealing because they are easy and economical to provide during liquid fermentation of inoculants or as fertilizer amendments to improve the biocontrol activity of indigenous and introduced bacteria.

  8. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  13. Edge electrospinning: a facile needle-less approach to realize scaled up production of quality nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochinski, J. R.; Curtis, C.; Roman, M. P.; Clarke, L. I.; Wang, Q.; Thoppey, N. M.; Gorga, R. E.

    2014-03-01

    Utilizing unconfined polymer fluids (e.g., from solution or melt), edge electrospinning provides a straightforward approach for scaled up production of high quality nanofibers through the formation of many parallel jets. From simple geometries (using solution contained within a sharp-edged bowl or on a flat plate), jets form and spontaneously re-arrange on the fluid surface near the edge. Using appropriate control of the electric field induced feed rate, comparable per jet fabrication as traditional single-needle electrospinning can be realized, resulting in nanofibers with similar diameters, diameter distribution, and collected mat porosity. The presence of multiple jets proportionally enhances the production rate of the system, with minimal experimental complexity and without the possibility of clogging. Extending this needle-less approach to commercial polyethylene polymers, micron scale fibers can be melt electrospun using a similar apparatus. Support from National Science Foundation (CMMI-0800237).

  14. A Study of the Factors Affecting Productivity at the Naval Air Rework Facilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    employee satisfaction and job identification, 6 -* - -- - key aspects of worklife to focus on and control according to Mikalachki. He contends that...levels is considered the key to quality of worklife improvement (10,73-74). Herzberg asserted that people are motivated by re- sponsibility and...34Productivity Gains Through Worklife Improvement," Personnel, January-February 1980, pp. 71-74. 11. Hendrix, W. H. and Halverson, V. B. "Organizational

  15. Effect of dietary proteins on zinc bioavailability in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Uenishi, K; Horio, H; Manabe, S; Sakamoto, S

    1993-12-01

    In order to clarify the effects of dietary proteins on zinc bioavailability during pregnancy, two experiments were carried out. In Experiment 1, changes in zinc retention due to pregnancy (difference in retention between pregnant and nonpregnant animals) during early-mid and late pregnancy were examined in rats fed 10 and 20% egg white diets. Total amounts of retained zinc due to pregnancy were about 1000 micrograms or slightly more, equal to the zinc content in the products of conception at term. However, extra zinc retention during late pregnancy ranged between only 20 to 40% of overall retention, suggesting that almost all zinc retained during early-mid pregnancy moved from the mothers to the fetuses near term. Zinc retention in early-mid and late periods of pregnancy was higher in pregnant than nonpregnant rats, due mainly to increases in intake and bioavailability. In Experiment 2, to examine the effects of quality and quantity of dietary proteins, pregnant rats were fed either 10 or 20% egg white (EW), whole egg (WE), casein (C) and soy protein isolate with or without methionine (SM and S, respectively) diets. Total zinc retention during pregnancy was affected by both zinc and nitrogen intakes, though the former effect was greater than the latter. Because rats fed the EW diets retained dietary zinc efficiently, a relationship between zinc retention (Y, microgram/100 g BW/21 d.) and zinc intake (X, microgram/100 g BW/21 d.) was also examined in the non-EW protein groups, resulting in the following regression equation: Y = 0.471X-1790 (n: 51, r = 0.81, p < 0.001). Dietary protein quality affected the food intake resulting in different zinc intake and retention during pregnancy. Zinc from EW diets was more available than from the other four protein diets, because similar plots for rats fed the 10 and 20% EW diets fell above this line. Reasons for efficient bioavailability of zinc in EW were discussed in connection with the forms of zinc in diets and the

  16. 40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I know if my reinforced plastic... for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5795 How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

  17. 21 CFR 212.100 - What do I do if I receive a complaint about a PET drug product produced at my facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What do I do if I receive a complaint about a PET... complaint about a PET drug product produced at my facility? (a) Written complaint procedures. You must... quality or purity of, or possible adverse reactions to, a PET drug product. (b) Complaint review. The...

  18. 21 CFR 212.100 - What do I do if I receive a complaint about a PET drug product produced at my facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What do I do if I receive a complaint about a PET... complaint about a PET drug product produced at my facility? (a) Written complaint procedures. You must... quality or purity of, or possible adverse reactions to, a PET drug product. (b) Complaint review. The...

  19. 21 CFR 212.100 - What do I do if I receive a complaint about a PET drug product produced at my facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What do I do if I receive a complaint about a PET... if I receive a complaint about a PET drug product produced at my facility? (a) Written complaint... concerning the quality or purity of, or possible adverse reactions to, a PET drug product. (b) Complaint...

  20. 21 CFR 212.100 - What do I do if I receive a complaint about a PET drug product produced at my facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What do I do if I receive a complaint about a PET... complaint about a PET drug product produced at my facility? (a) Written complaint procedures. You must... quality or purity of, or possible adverse reactions to, a PET drug product. (b) Complaint review. The...

  1. 21 CFR 212.100 - What do I do if I receive a complaint about a PET drug product produced at my facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What do I do if I receive a complaint about a PET... complaint about a PET drug product produced at my facility? (a) Written complaint procedures. You must... quality or purity of, or possible adverse reactions to, a PET drug product. (b) Complaint review. The...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I know if my reinforced plastic... Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5795 How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected...

  3. 40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I know if my reinforced plastic... Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5795 How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected...

  4. 40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I know if my reinforced plastic... Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5795 How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected...

  5. COMPARISON OF AN INNOVATIVE NONLINEAR ALGORITHM TO CLASSICAL LEAST SQUARES FOR ANALYZING OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTRA COLLECTED AT A CONCENTRATED SWINE PRODUCTION FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FTIR) spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of ammonia, methane, and other atmospheric gases at an integrated swine production facility. The concentration-pathlength products of the target gases at this site often exceeded th...

  6. Endogenous Zinc in Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

  7. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (< C6). Although measured ambient VOC concentrations were well below health-based safe exposure levels, the existence of urban-level mean concentrations of benzene and other mobile source air toxics combined with soot to total carbon ratios that were high for an area with little residential or commercial development may be indicative of the impact of increased heavy-duty vehicle traffic related to gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near

  8. Historical Zinc Smelting in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C., with Estimates of Atmospheric Zinc Emissions and Other Materials

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; DiFrancesco, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The metallurgical industry can be broadly divided into metal production from feedstock consisting of primary and secondary sources. Primary production refers to the extraction of metal derived from ores and concentrates. Secondary production refers to the recovery of metal from materials such as alloys, electric arc furnace dust, ingots, and scrap. The foci of this study are the histories of selected pyrometallurgical plants that treated mostly primary zinc feedstock and the atmospheric emissions, primarily zinc, generated by those plants during the course of producing zinc and zinc oxide in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C.

  9. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  10. A modern space simulation facility to accommodate high production acceptance testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    A space simulation laboratory that supports acceptance testing of spacecraft and associated subsystems at throughput rates as high as nine per year is discussed. The laboratory includes a computer operated 27' by 30' space simulation, a 20' by 20' by 20' thermal cycle chamber and an eight station thermal cycle/thermal vacuum test system. The design philosophy and unique features of each system are discussed. The development of operating procedures, test team requirements, test team integration, and other peripheral activation details are described. A discussion of special accommodations for the efficient utilization of the systems in support of high rate production is presented.

  11. Fate of Zinc and Silver Engineered Nanoparticles in Sewerage Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) used in consumer products are largely released into the environment through the wastewater stream. Limited information is available regarding the transformations they undergo during their transit through sewerage sy...

  12. Crisis management and recovery from the damage to the laboratory animal production facility due to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Charles River Laboratories Japan produces laboratory animals, mainly mice and rats. In its history, we have experienced many crises such as mass food poisoning of staff and contamination of animals. However, we overcame these crises, accomplishing our corporate missions to secure steady supply of healthy animals. Under such circumstances, in 2008, we faced an unprecedented crisis involving a novel influenza possibly becoming pandemic. Therefore, we prepared a Crisis Management Plan (CMP) and Business Continuity Plan (BCP) to avoid the worst case scenario. Fortunately, the novel influenza did not develop into a pandemic and no major problems occurred in production of our laboratory animals. In March 2011, our Tsukuba Breeding Center was struck by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Many cages fell from racks, and consequently, 14,000 mice and rats were euthanized. Moreover, this animal production facility experienced not only blackouts and water outage but also various maintenance problems. After triage of the animals, almost half of the animals kept were eventually lost. However, we recovered and resumed shipment of animals two weeks after the disaster by utilizing the CMP and BCP we initially created as a countermeasure against novel influenza. After two months, our production volume returned to normal except for two strains. I sincerely hope this review, which highlights our experience and related issues, will be a useful resource in regard to crisis management for people who are engaged in laboratory animal care and use.

  13. Emission measurement and safety assessment for the production process of silicon nanoparticles in a pilot-scale facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Asbach, Christof; Fissan, Heinz; Hülser, Tim; Kaminski, Heinz; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.; Pui, David Y. H.

    2012-03-01

    Emission into the workplace was measured for the production process of silicon nanoparticles in a pilot-scale facility at the Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology e.V. (IUTA). The silicon nanoparticles were produced in a hot-wall reactor and consisted of primary particles around 60 nm in diameter. We employed real-time aerosol instruments to measure particle number and lung-deposited surface area concentrations and size distribution; airborne particles were also collected for off-line electron microscopic analysis. Emission of silicon nanoparticles was not detected during the processes of synthesis, collection, and bagging. This was attributed to the completely closed production system and other safety measures against particle release which will be discussed briefly. Emission of silicon nanoparticles significantly above the detection limit was only observed during the cleaning process when the production system was open and manually cleaned. The majority of the detected particles was in the size range of 100-400 nm and were silicon nanoparticle agglomerates first deposited in the tubing then re-suspended during the cleaning process. Appropriate personal protection equipment is recommended for safety protection of the workers during cleaning.

  14. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    SciT

    Barnes, B.; Rosenberg, S.; Arnolds, L.

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. Inmore » 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir

  15. 99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  16. Suppression of zinc dendrites in zinc electrode power cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of zinc dendrites during charging of zinc electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.

  17. Microbial background flora in small-scale cheese production facilities does not inhibit growth and surface attachment of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, B C T; Heir, E; Møretrø, T; Skaar, I; Langsrud, S

    2013-10-01

    The background microbiota of 5 Norwegian small-scale cheese production sites was examined and the effect of the isolated strains on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated. Samples were taken from the air, food contact surfaces (storage surfaces, cheese molds, and brine) and noncontact surfaces (floor, drains, and doors) and all isolates were identified by sequencing and morphology (mold). A total of 1,314 isolates were identified and found to belong to 55 bacterial genera, 1 species of yeast, and 6 species of mold. Lactococcus spp. (all of which were Lactococcus lactis), Staphylococcus spp., Microbacterium spp., and Psychrobacter sp. were isolated from all 5 sites and Rhodococcus spp. and Chryseobacterium spp. from 4 sites. Thirty-two genera were only found in 1 out of 5 facilities each. Great variations were observed in the microbial background flora both between the 5 producers, and also within the various production sites. The greatest diversity of bacteria was found in drains and on rubber seals of doors. The flora on cheese storage shelves and in salt brines was less varied. A total of 62 bacterial isolates and 1 yeast isolate were tested for antilisterial activity in an overlay assay and a spot-on-lawn assay, but none showed significant inhibitory effects. Listeria monocytogenes was also co-cultured on ceramic tiles with bacteria dominating in the cheese production plants: Lactococcus lactis, Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus equorum, Rhodococcus spp., or Psychrobacter spp. None of the tested isolates altered the survival of L. monocytogenes on ceramic tiles. The conclusion of the study was that no common background flora exists in cheese production environments. None of the tested isolates inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes. Hence, this study does not support the hypothesis that the natural background flora in cheese production environments inhibits the growth or survival of L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2013 American

  18. Detection and identification of Penicillium spp. in a frozen chicken nuggets production facility.

    PubMed

    Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Jahn, Raquel Carine; Scherer, Catia Daiane; Saccomori, Fernanda; Alcano-González, María de Jesús; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2018-04-01

    Frozen chicken nuggets can be stored over a long period, during which time they may be exposed to temperature abuse conditions leading to spoilage by psychrophilic filamentous fungi. The purpose of this study was to investigate the main sources of chicken nugget spoilage. Mycological analyses were performed using raw materials and products from each stage of processing, as well as from the industry's indoor air environment. The species were identified through observation of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of isolates. The powder coating of samples showed counts between 10 1 and 10 4  CFU/g, predominantly of the species Penicillium polonicum, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus (Eurotium) amstelodami and Penicillium citrinum. During chicken nugget processing, a reduction in fungal counts to 10 1  CFU/g was observed, with P. polonicum as the most dominant species present. Penicillium glabrum was the only species isolated from the final product analyzed (10%). Additionally, it was also the predominant species in the factory's air environment. According to the results, two possible sources of contamination of frozen chicken nuggets were detected, one from the lack of quality of the powder coatings used and another from the lack of clean air from the factory environment between the stages of baking and packaging. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Airway obstruction related to diacetyl exposure at microwave popcorn production facilities.

    PubMed

    Lockey, J E; Hilbert, T J; Levin, L P; Ryan, P H; White, K L; Borton, E K; Rice, C H; McKay, R T; LeMasters, G K

    2009-07-01

    Obstructive lung diseases including bronchiolitis obliterans have been reported among microwave popcorn production employees. Butter flavourings including diacetyl have been associated with these findings. The present study was initiated at four microwave popcorn production plants to determine if exposure to diacetyl was associated with decrements in pulmonary function. Comprehensive diacetyl exposure assessment was undertaken for all job tasks. Spirometry was conducted for 765 full-time employees between 2005 and 2006. Outcomes included decrement in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) % predicted, airway obstruction and persistent decline in FEV(1). Inclusion in the high-exposure group (mixers) prior to respirator use was associated with a significantly decreased FEV(1) % pred in non-Asian and Asian males at -6.1 and -11.8% pred, respectively, and an eight-fold increased risk for airway obstruction. Cumulative diacetyl exposure >or=0.8 ppm-yr caused similar results. No significant impact was seen in nonmixers or between current diacetyl exposure and persistent decline in FEV(1). Unprotected exposure as a mixer to butter flavouring including diacetyl resulted in decrements in FEV(1) (% pred) and increased airway obstruction. Control of employee exposure to butter flavouring additives is warranted in regard to both short-term peak and 8-h workday exposure.

  20. 3D-glass molds for facile production of complex droplet microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Miguel; Weber, Thomas; Hengoju, Sundar; Lovera, Andrea; Munser, Anne-Sophie; Shvydkiv, Oksana; Roth, Martin

    2018-03-01

    In order to leverage the immense potential of droplet microfluidics, it is necessary to simplify the process of chip design and fabrication. While polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replica molding has greatly revolutionized the chip-production process, its dependence on 2D-limited photolithography has restricted the design possibilities, as well as further dissemination of microfluidics to non-specialized labs. To break free from these restrictions while keeping fabrication straighforward, we introduce an approach to produce complex multi-height (3D) droplet microfluidic glass molds and subsequent chip production by PDMS replica molding. The glass molds are fabricated with sub-micrometric resolution using femtosecond laser machining technology, which allows directly realizing designs with multiple levels or even continuously changing heights. The presented technique significantly expands the experimental capabilities of the droplet microfluidic chip. It allows direct fabrication of multilevel structures such as droplet traps for prolonged observation and optical fiber integration for fluorescence detection. Furthermore, the fabrication of novel structures based on sloped channels (ramps) enables improved droplet reinjection and picoinjection or even a multi-parallelized drop generator based on gradients of confinement. The fabrication of these and other 3D-features is currently only available at such resolution by the presented strategy. Together with the simplicity of PDMS replica molding, this provides an accessible solution for both specialized and non-specialized labs to customize microfluidic experimentation and expand their possibilities.

  1. Extraterrestrial fiberglass production using solar energy. [lunar plants or space manufacturing facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, D.; Sobon, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for fiberglass production systems in both lunar and space environments. The raw material, of lunar origin, will be plagioclase concentrate, high silica content slag, and calcium oxide. Glass will be melted by solar energy. The multifurnace in the lunar plant and the spinning cylinder in the space plant are unique design features. Furnace design appears to be the most critical element in optimizing system performance. A conservative estimate of the total power generated by solar concentrators is 1880 kW; the mass of both plants is 120 tons. The systems will reproduce about 90 times their total mass in fiberglass in 1 year. A new design concept would be necessary if glass rods were produced in space.

  2. Vegetable production facility as a part of a closed life support system in a Russian Martian space flight scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovich, Yu. A.; Smolyanina, S. O.; Krivobok, N. M.; Erokhin, A. N.; Agureev, A. N.; Shanturin, N. A.

    2009-07-01

    A Manned Mars Mission scenario had been developed in frame of the Project 1172 supported International Science & Technology Center in Moscow. The Mars transit vehicle (MTV) supposed to have a crew of 4-6 with Pilot Laboratory compartment volume of 185 m 3 and with inner diameter of 4.1 m. A vegetable production facility with power consumption up to 10 kW is being considered as a component of the life support system to supply crew members by fresh vegetables during the mission. Proposed design of conveyor-type plant growth facility (PGF) comprised of 4-modules. Each module has a cylindrical planting surface and spiral cylindrical LED assembly to provide a high specific productivity relative to utilized onboard resources. Each module has a growth chamber that will be from 0.7 m to 1.5 m in length, and a crop illuminated area from 1.7 m 2 to 4.0 m 2. Leafy crops (cabbage, lettuce, spinach, chard, etc.) have been selected for module 1, primarily because of the highest specific productivity per consumed resources. Dietitians have recommended also carrot crop for module 2, pepper for module 3 and tomato for module 4. The maximal total PGF light energy estimated as 1.16 kW and total power consumption as about 7 kW. The module 1 characteristics have been calculated using own experimental data, information from the best on ground plant growth experiments with artificial light were used to predict crop productivity and biomass composition in the another modules. 4-module PGF could produce nearly 0.32 kg per crew member per day of fresh edible biomass, which would be about 50% of recommended daily vegetable supplement. An average crop harvest index is estimated as 0.75. The MTV food system could be entirely closed in terms of vitamins C and A with help of the PGF. In addition the system could provide 10-25% of essential minerals and vitamins of group B, and about 20% of food fibers. The present state of plant growth technology allows formulating of requirements specification

  3. Bioavailability of zinc oxide added to corn tortilla is similar to that of zinc sulfate and is not affected by simultaneous addition of iron

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Jorge L.; Díaz, Margarita; Muñoz, Elsa; Westcott, Jamie L.; González, Karla E.; Krebs, Nancy F.; Caamaño, María C.; Hambidge, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Corn tortilla is the staple food of Mexico and its fortification with zinc, iron, and other micronutrients is intended to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. However, no studies have been performed to determine the relative amount of zinc absorbed from the fortified product and whether zinc absorption is affected by the simultaneous addition of iron. Objective To compare zinc absorption from corn tortilla fortified with zinc oxide versus zinc sulfate and to determine the effect of simultaneous addition of two doses of iron on zinc bioavailability. Methods A randomized, double-blind, crossover design was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, 10 adult women received corn tortillas with either 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added, 20 mg/kg of zinc sulfate added, or no zinc added. In the second phase, 10 adult women received corn tortilla with 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added and either with no iron added or with iron added at one of two different levels. Zinc absorption was measured by the stable isotope method. Results The mean (± SEM) fractional zinc absorption from unfortified tortilla, tortilla fortified with zinc oxide, and tortilla fortified with zinc sulfate did not differ among treatments: 0.35 ± 0.07, 0.36 ± 0.05, and 0.37 ± 0.07, respectively. The three treatment groups with 0, 30, and 60 mg/kg of added iron had similar fractional zinc absorption (0.32 ± 0.04, 0.33 ± 0.02, and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively) and similar amounts of zinc absorbed (4.8 ± 0.7, 4.5 ± 0.3, and 4.8 ± 0.7 mg/day, respectively). Conclusions Since zinc oxide is more stable and less expensive and was absorbed equally as well as zinc sulfate, we suggest its use for corn tortilla fortification. Simultaneous addition of zinc and iron to corn tortilla does not modify zinc bioavailability at iron doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg of corn flour. PMID:23424892

  4. Reengineering cyt b562 for hydrogen production: A facile route to artificial hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Dayn Joseph; Vaughn, Michael David; Clark, Brett Colby; Tomlin, John; Roy, Anindya; Ghirlanda, Giovanna

    2016-05-01

    Bioinspired, protein-based molecular catalysts utilizing base metals at the active are emerging as a promising avenue to sustainable hydrogen production. The protein matrix modulates the intrinsic reactivity of organometallic active sites by tuning second-sphere and long-range interactions. Here, we show that swapping Co-Protoporphyrin IX for Fe-Protoporphyrin IX in cytochrome b562 results in an efficient catalyst for photoinduced proton reduction to molecular hydrogen. Further, the activity of wild type Co-cyt b562 can be modulated by a factor of 2.5 by exchanging the coordinating methionine with alanine or aspartic acid. The observed turnover numbers (TON) range between 125 and 305, and correlate well with the redox potential of the Co-cyt b562 mutants. The photosensitized system catalyzes proton reduction with high efficiency even under an aerobic atmosphere, implicating its use for biotechnological applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Speciation and Attenuation of Arsenic and Selenium at Coal Combustion By-Product Management Facilities

    SciT

    K. Ladwig

    2005-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to evaluate the impact of key constituents captured from power plant air streams (principally arsenic and selenium) on the disposal and utilization of coal combustion products (CCPs). Specific objectives of the project were: (1) to develop a comprehensive database of field leachate concentrations at a wide range of CCP management sites, including speciation of arsenic and selenium, and low-detection limit analyses for mercury; (2) to perform detailed evaluations of the release and attenuation of arsenic species at three CCP sites; and (3) to perform detailed evaluations of the release and attenuation of seleniummore » species at three CCP sites. Each of these objectives was accomplished using a combination of field sampling and laboratory analysis and experimentation. All of the methods used and results obtained are contained in this report. For ease of use, the report is subdivided into three parts. Volume 1 contains methods and results for the field leachate characterization. Volume 2 contains methods and results for arsenic adsorption. Volume 3 contains methods and results for selenium adsorption.« less

  6. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of zinc oxalate nanoparticles

    SciT

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshamsipur@yahoo.com; Roushani, Mahmoud; Department of Chemistry, Ilam University, Ilam

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of zinc oxalate nanoparticles via electrolysis of a zinc plate anode in sodium oxalate solutions. ► Design of a Taguchi orthogonal array to identify the optimal experimental conditions. ► Controlling the size and shape of particles via applied voltage and oxalate concentration. ► Characterization of zinc oxalate nanoparticles by SEM, UV–vis, FT-IR and TG–DTA. - Abstract: A rapid, clean and simple electrodeposition method was designed for the synthesis of zinc oxalate nanoparticles. Zinc oxalate nanoparticles in different size and shapes were electrodeposited by electrolysis of a zinc plate anode in sodium oxalate aqueous solutions. It was foundmore » that the size and shape of the product could be tuned by electrolysis voltage, oxalate ion concentration, and stirring rate of electrolyte solution. A Taguchi orthogonal array design was designed to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The morphological characterization of the product was carried out by scanning electron microscopy. UV–vis and FT-IR spectroscopies were also used to characterize the electrodeposited nanoparticles. The TG–DTA studies of the nanoparticles indicated that the main thermal degradation occurs in two steps over a temperature range of 350–430 °C. In contrast to the existing methods, the present study describes a process which can be easily scaled up for the production of nano-sized zinc oxalate powder.« less

  7. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  8. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Gangwal, Santosh K.; Jain, Suresh C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  9. Use of electronic noses for detection of odour from animal production facilities: a review.

    PubMed

    Nimmermark, S

    2001-01-01

    In the field of controlling livestock and poultry odours in the internal and external environment and in derived food products, one main obstacle is how to measure the odour in a suitable way. Olfactometry and a human panel have been used in most studies of farm odour until now. Alternatives like electronic noses are interesting considering disadvantages for olfactometry regarding cost and labour requirement. An electronic device can produce an almost instant response which is useful in many applications. Studies have shown detection of farm odour for some electronic noses and also response to odour concentrations. Other studies have shown very high odour threshold values compared to human noses. Electronic noses with a large number of sensors have been developed since a base was formed in the 1950s. The fast progress in data processing and sensor development in the latest years have made the electronic noses interesting for a large number of industrial applications in the food processing industry, as well as in other areas. Materials like manure produce a complex mixture of odorous compounds and the interaction between these creates a unique odour where no specific dominating and characterising compound seems to exist. Related to swine farms almost 200 different odorous compounds have been reported. The electronic noses can, depending on the sensitivity of its sensors, detect some compounds at lower levels than the human nose, while other compounds offensive to a human nose cannot be detected. Proper function of the electronic noses with sensitivity for the odorous gases in the application must be followed by satisfying properties regarding ageing, temperature stability, humidity and other environmental factors.

  10. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D.

    1981-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

  11. Metallic Zinc Exhibits Optimal Biocompatibility for Bioabsorbable Endovascular Stents

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Patrick K.; Guillory, Roger J.; Shearier, Emily R.; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Bocks, Martin; Zhao, Feng; Goldman, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Although corrosion resistant bare metal stents are considered generally effective, their permanent presence in a diseased artery is an increasingly recognized limitation due to the potential for long-term complications. We previously reported that metallic zinc exhibited an ideal biocorrosion rate within murine aortas, thus raising the possibility of zinc as a candidate base material for endovascular stenting applications. This study was undertaken to further assess the arterial biocompatibility of metallic zinc. Metallic zinc wires were punctured and advanced into the rat abdominal aorta lumen for up to 6.5 months. This study demonstrated that metallic zinc did not provoke responses that often contribute to restenosis. Low cell densities and neointimal tissue thickness, along with tissue regeneration within the corroding implant, point to optimal biocompatibility of corroding zinc. Furthermore, the lack of progression in neointimal tissue thickness over 6.5 months or the presence of smooth muscle cells near the zinc implant suggest that the products of zinc corrosion may suppress the activities of inflammatory and smooth muscle cells. PMID:26249616

  12. Facile preparation of hierarchically porous carbon using diatomite as both template and catalyst and methylene blue adsorption of carbon products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Yuan, Peng; Tan, Daoyong; Liu, Hongmei; Wang, Tong; Fan, Mingde; Zhu, Jianxi; He, Hongping

    2012-12-15

    Hierarchically porous carbons were prepared using a facile preparation method in which diatomite was utilized as both template and catalyst. The porous structures of the carbon products and their formation mechanisms were investigated. The macroporosity and microporosity of the diatomite-templated carbons were derived from replication of diatom shell and structure-reconfiguration of the carbon film, respectively. The macroporosity of carbons was strongly dependent on the original morphology of the diatomite template. The macroporous structure composed of carbon plates connected by the pillar- and tube-like macropores resulted from the replication of the central and edge pores of the diatom shells with disk-shaped morphology, respectively. And another macroporous carbon tubes were also replicated from canoe-shaped diatom shells. The acidity of diatomite dramatically affected the porosity of the carbons, more acid sites of diatomite template resulted in higher surface area and pore volume of the carbon products. The diatomite-templated carbons exhibited higher adsorption capacity for methylene blue than the commercial activated carbon (CAC), although the specific surface area was much smaller than that of CAC, due to the hierarchical porosity of diatomite-templated carbons. And the carbons were readily reclaimed and regenerated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. History of zinc in agriculture

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, over 20 years would past before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure a parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it wa...

  14. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  15. Increased Respiratory Disease Mortality at a Microwave Popcorn Production Facility with Worker Risk of Bronchiolitis Obliterans

    PubMed Central

    Halldin, Cara N.; Suarthana, Eva; Fedan, Kathleen B.; Lo, Yi-Chun; Turabelidze, George; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Background Bronchiolitis obliterans, an irreversible lung disease, was first associated with inhalation of butter flavorings (diacetyl) in workers at a microwave popcorn company. Excess rates of lung-function abnormalities were related to cumulative diacetyl exposure. Because information on potential excess mortality would support development of permissible exposure limits for diacetyl, we investigated respiratory-associated mortality during 2000–2011 among current and former workers at this company who had exposure to flavorings and participated in cross-sectional surveys conducted between 2000–2003. Methods We ascertained workers' vital status through a Social Security Administration search. Causes of death were abstracted from death certificates. Because bronchiolitis obliterans is not coded in the International Classification of Disease 10th revision (ICD-10), we identified respiratory mortality decedents with ICD-10 codes J40–J44 which encompass bronchitis (J40), simple and mucopurulent chronic bronchitis (J41), unspecified chronic bronchitis (J42), emphysema (J43), and other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (J44). We calculated expected number of deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to determine if workers exposed to diacetyl experienced greater respiratory mortality than expected. Results We identified 15 deaths among 511 workers. Based on U.S. population estimates, 17.39 deaths were expected among these workers (SMR = 0.86; CI:0.48-1.42). Causes of death were available for 14 decedents. Four deaths among production and flavor mixing workers were documented to have a multiple cause of ‘other COPD’ (J44), while 0.98 ‘other COPD’-associated deaths were expected (SMR = 4.10; CI:1.12–10.49). Three of the 4 ‘other COPD’-associated deaths occurred among former workers and workers employed before the company implemented interventions reducing diacetyl exposure in 2001. Conclusion

  16. Increased respiratory disease mortality at a microwave popcorn production facility with worker risk of bronchiolitis obliterans.

    PubMed

    Halldin, Cara N; Suarthana, Eva; Fedan, Kathleen B; Lo, Yi-Chun; Turabelidze, George; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans, an irreversible lung disease, was first associated with inhalation of butter flavorings (diacetyl) in workers at a microwave popcorn company. Excess rates of lung-function abnormalities were related to cumulative diacetyl exposure. Because information on potential excess mortality would support development of permissible exposure limits for diacetyl, we investigated respiratory-associated mortality during 2000-2011 among current and former workers at this company who had exposure to flavorings and participated in cross-sectional surveys conducted between 2000-2003. We ascertained workers' vital status through a Social Security Administration search. Causes of death were abstracted from death certificates. Because bronchiolitis obliterans is not coded in the International Classification of Disease 10(th) revision (ICD-10), we identified respiratory mortality decedents with ICD-10 codes J40-J44 which encompass bronchitis (J40), simple and mucopurulent chronic bronchitis (J41), unspecified chronic bronchitis (J42), emphysema (J43), and other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (J44). We calculated expected number of deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to determine if workers exposed to diacetyl experienced greater respiratory mortality than expected. We identified 15 deaths among 511 workers. Based on U.S. population estimates, 17.39 deaths were expected among these workers (SMR = 0.86; CI:0.48-1.42). Causes of death were available for 14 decedents. Four deaths among production and flavor mixing workers were documented to have a multiple cause of 'other COPD' (J44), while 0.98 'other COPD'-associated deaths were expected (SMR = 4.10; CI:1.12-10.49). Three of the 4 'other COPD'-associated deaths occurred among former workers and workers employed before the company implemented interventions reducing diacetyl exposure in 2001. Workers at the microwave popcorn company experienced

  17. Modeling the temporal variability of zinc concentrations in zinc roof runoff-experimental study and uncertainty analysis.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jérémie; El Oreibi, Elissar; Saad, Mohamed; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the temporal variability of zinc concentrations from zinc roof runoff. The influence of rainfall characteristics and dry period duration is evaluated by combining laboratory experiment on small zinc sheets and in situ measurements under real weather conditions from a 1.6-m(2) zinc panel. A reformulation of a commonly used conceptual runoff quality model is introduced and its ability to simulate the evolution of zinc concentrations is evaluated. A systematic and sharp decrease from initially high to relatively low and stable zinc concentrations after 0.5 to 2 mm of rainfall is observed for both experiments, suggesting that highly soluble corrosion products are removed at early stages of runoff. A moderate dependence between antecedent dry period duration and the magnitude of zinc concentrations at the beginning of a rain event is evidenced. Contrariwise, results indicate that concentrations are not significantly influenced by rainfall intensities. Simulated rainfall experiment nonetheless suggests that a slight effect of rainfall intensities may be expected after the initial decrease of concentrations. Finally, this study shows that relatively simple conceptual runoff quality models may be adopted to simulate the variability of zinc concentrations during a rain event and from a rain event to another.

  18. Meteosat SEVIRI Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products from the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) - Part 1: Algorithms, product contents and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, M. J.; Roberts, G.; Freeborn, P. H.; Xu, W.; Govaerts, Y.; Beeby, R.; He, J.; Lattanzio, A.; Mullen, R.

    2015-06-01

    Characterising changes in landscape scale fire activity at very high temporal resolution is best achieved using thermal observations of actively burning fires made from geostationary Earth observation (EO) satellites. Over the last decade or more, a series of research and/or operational "active fire" products have been developed from these types of geostationary observations, often with the aim of supporting the generation of data related to biomass burning fuel consumption and trace gas and aerosol emission fields. The Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products generated by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) from data collected by the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) are one such set of products, and are freely available in both near real-time and archived form. Every 15 min, the algorithms used to generate these products identify and map the location of new SEVIRI observations containing actively burning fires, and characterise their individual rates of radiative energy release (fire radiative power; FRP) that is believed proportional to rates of biomass consumption and smoke emission. The FRP-PIXEL product contains the highest spatial resolution FRP dataset, delivered for all of Europe, northern and southern Africa, and part of South America at a spatial resolution of 3 km (decreasing away from the west African sub-satellite point) at the full 15 min temporal resolution. The FRP-GRID product is an hourly summary of the FRP-PIXEL data, produced at a 5° grid cell size and including simple bias adjustments for meteorological cloud cover and for the regional underestimation of FRP caused, primarily, by the non-detection of low FRP fire pixels at SEVIRI's relatively coarse pixel size. Here we describe the enhanced geostationary Fire Thermal Anomaly (FTA) algorithm used to detect the SEVIRI active fire pixels, and detail methods used to deliver atmospherically corrected FRP information

  19. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  20. Zinc and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 66 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  1. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  2. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  3. Village-randomized clinical trial of home distribution of zinc for treatment of childhood diarrhea in rural Western kenya.

    PubMed

    Feikin, Daniel R; Bigogo, Godfrey; Audi, Allan; Pals, Sherri L; Aol, George; Mbakaya, Charles; Williamson, John; Breiman, Robert F; Larson, Charles P

    2014-01-01

    Zinc treatment shortens diarrhea episodes and can prevent future episodes. In rural Africa, most children with diarrhea are not brought to health facilities. In a village-randomized trial in rural Kenya, we assessed if zinc treatment might have a community-level preventive effect on diarrhea incidence if available at home versus only at health facilities. We randomized 16 Kenyan villages (1,903 eligible children) to receive a 10-day course of zinc and two oral rehydration solution (ORS) sachets every two months at home and 17 villages (2,241 eligible children) to receive ORS at home, but zinc at the health-facility only. Children's caretakers were educated in zinc/ORS use by village workers, both unblinded to intervention arm. We evaluated whether incidence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI) reported at biweekly home visits and presenting to clinic were lower in zinc villages, using poisson regression adjusting for baseline disease rates, distance to clinic, and children's age. There were no differences between village groups in diarrhea incidence either reported at the home or presenting to clinic. In zinc villages (1,440 children analyzed), 61.2% of diarrheal episodes were treated with zinc, compared to 5.4% in comparison villages (1,584 children analyzed, p<0.0001). There were no differences in ORS use between zinc (59.6%) and comparison villages (58.8%). Among children with fever or cough without diarrhea, zinc use was low (<0.5%). There was a lower incidence of reported ALRI in zinc villages (adjusted RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), but not presenting at clinic. In this study, home zinc use to treat diarrhea did not decrease disease rates in the community. However, with proper training, availability of zinc at home could lead to more episodes of pediatric diarrhea being treated with zinc in parts of rural Africa where healthcare utilization is low. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00530829.

  4. Determination of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, and zinc in fortified food products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry: single-laboratory validation and ring trial.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) and a ring trial (RT) were undertaken to determine nine nutritional elements in food products by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry in order to modernize AOAC Official Method 984.27. The improvements involved extension of the scope to all food matrixes (including infant formula), optimized microwave digestion, selected analytical lines, internal standardization, and ion buffering. Simultaneous determination of nine elements (calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, and zinc) was made in food products. Sample digestion was performed through wet digestion of food samples by microwave technology with either closed- or open-vessel systems. Validation was performed to characterize the method for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, ruggedness, and uncertainty. The robustness and efficiency of this method was proven through a successful RT using experienced independent food industry laboratories. Performance characteristics are reported for 13 certified and in-house reference materials, populating the AOAC triangle food sectors, which fulfilled AOAC criteria and recommendations for accuracy (trueness, recovery, and z-scores) and precision (repeatability and reproducibility RSD, and HorRat values) regarding SLVs and RTs. This multielemental method is cost-efficient, time-saving, accurate, and fit-for-purpose according to ISO 17025 Norm and AOAC acceptability criteria, and is proposed as an extended updated version of AOAC Official Method 984.27 for fortified food products, including infant formula.

  5. Human eosinophils are direct targets to nanoparticles: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) delay apoptosis and increase the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luis Rafael; Girard, Denis

    2016-09-30

    Zinc oxide NPs (ZnO) have been recently proposed as novel candidates for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases. Paradoxically, recent data suggested that ZnO could cause eosinophilic airway inflammation in rodents. Despite the above observations, there are currently no studies reporting direct interaction between a given NP and human eosinophils themselves. In this study, freshly isolated human eosinophils were incubated with ZnO and several cellular functions were studied. We found that ZnO delay human eosinophil apoptosis, partially by inhibiting caspases and by preventing caspase-4 and Bcl-xL degradation. ZnO do not induce production of reactive oxygen species but increase de novo protein synthesis. In addition, ZnO were found to increase the production of the proinflammatory IL-1β and IL-8 cytokines. Using a pharmacological approach, we demonstrated that inhibition of caspase-1 reversed the ability of ZnO to induce IL-1β and IL-8 production, whereas inhibition of caspase-4 only reversed that of IL-8. Our results indicate the necessity of conducting studies to determine the potential of using NP as nanotherapies, particularly in diseases in which eosinophils may be involved. We conclude that, indeed, human eosinophils represent potential new direct targets to NPs, ZnO in the present case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Zinc supplementation in public health.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is necessary for physiological processes including defense against infections. Zinc deficiency is responsible for 4% of global child morbidity and mortality. Zinc supplements given for 10-14 days together with low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (Lo-ORS) are recommended for the treatment of childhood diarrhea. In children aged ≥ 6 months, daily zinc supplements reduce the duration of acute diarrhea episodes by 12 h and persistent diarrhea by 17 h. Zinc supplements could reduce diarrhea mortality in children aged 12-59 months by an estimated 23%; they are very safe but are associated with an increase in vomiting especially with the first dose. Heterogeneity between the results of trials is not understood but may be related to dose and the etiology of the diarrhea infection. Integration of zinc and Lo-ORS into national programs is underway but slowly, procurement problems are being overcome and the greatest challenge is changing health provider and caregiver attitudes to diarrhea management. Fewer trials have been conducted of zinc adjunct therapy in severe respiratory tract infections and there is as yet insufficient evidence to recommend addition of zinc to antibiotic therapy. Daily zinc supplements for all children >12 months of age in zinc deficient populations are estimated to reduce diarrhea incidence by 11-23%. The greatest impact is in reducing multiple episodes of diarrhea. The effect on duration of diarrheal episodes is less clear, but there may be up to 9% reduction. Zinc is also efficacious in reducing dysentery and persistent diarrhea. Zinc supplements may also prevent pneumonia by about 19%, but heterogeneity across studies has not yet been explained. When analyses are restricted to better quality studies using CHERG (Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group) methodology, zinc supplements are estimated to reduce diarrheal deaths by 13% and pneumonia deaths by 20%. National-level programs to combat childhood zinc deficiency should be

  7. Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Iñigo-Figueroa, Gemma; Méndez-Estrada, Rosa O.; Quihui-Cota, Luis; Velásquez-Contreras, Carlos A.; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Canett-Romero, Rafael; Astiazarán-García, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA), low-zinc (ZnL), high-zinc (ZnH) and supplemented-zinc (ZnS) diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days). Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS) than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection. PMID:24002196

  8. The Copernicus S5P Mission Performance Centre / Validation Data Analysis Facility for TROPOMI operational atmospheric data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, Steven; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Langerock, Bavo; Granville, José; Hubert, Daan; Keppens, Arno; Rasson, Olivier; De Mazière, Martine; Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Niemeijer, Sander

    2017-04-01

    Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P), to be launched in 2017 as the first atmospheric composition satellite of the Copernicus programme, carries as payload the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) developed by The Netherlands in close cooperation with ESA. Designed to measure Earth radiance and solar irradiance in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared, TROPOMI will provide Copernicus with observational data on atmospheric composition at unprecedented geographical resolution. The S5P Mission Performance Center (MPC) provides an operational service-based solution for various QA/QC tasks, including the validation of S5P Level-2 data products and the support to algorithm evolution. Those two tasks are to be accomplished by the MPC Validation Data Analysis Facility (VDAF), one MPC component developed and operated at BIRA-IASB with support from S[&]T and NILU. The routine validation to be ensured by VDAF is complemented by a list of validation AO projects carried out by ESA's S5P Validation Team (S5PVT), with whom interaction is essential. Here we will introduce the general architecture of VDAF, its relation to the other MPC components, the generic and specific validation strategies applied for each of the official TROPOMI data products, and the expected output of the system. The S5P data products to be validated by VDAF are diverse: O3 (vertical profile, total column, tropospheric column), NO2 (total and tropospheric column), HCHO (tropospheric column), SO2 (column), CO (column), CH4 (column), aerosol layer height and clouds (fractional cover, cloud-top pressure and optical thickness). Starting from a generic validation protocol meeting community-agreed standards, a set of specific validation settings is associated with each data product, as well as the appropriate set of Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRM) to which it will be compared. VDAF collects FRMs from ESA's Validation Data Centre (EVDC) and from other sources (e.g., WMO's GAW, NDACC and TCCON). Data

  9. Facile and Green Production of Impurity-Free Aqueous Solutions of WS2 Nanosheets by Direct Exfoliation in Water.

    PubMed

    Pan, Long; Liu, Yi-Tao; Xie, Xu-Ming; Ye, Xiong-Ying

    2016-12-01

    To obtain 2D materials with large quantity, low cost, and little pollution, liquid-phase exfoliation of their bulk form in water is a particularly fascinating concept. However, the current strategies for water-borne exfoliation exclusively employ stabilizers, such as surfactants, polymers, or inorganic salts, to minimize the extremely high surface energy of these nanosheets and stabilize them by steric repulsion. It is worth noting, however, that the remaining impurities inevitably bring about adverse effects to the ultimate performances of 2D materials. Here, a facile and green route to large-scale production of impurity-free aqueous solutions of WS 2 nanosheets is reported by direct exfoliation in water. Crucial parameters such as initial concentration, sonication time, centrifugation speed, and centrifugation time are systematically evaluated to screen out an optimized condition for scaling up. Statistics based on morphological characterization prove that substantial fraction (66%) of the obtained WS 2 nanosheets are one to five layers. X-ray diffraction and Raman characterizations reveal a high quality with few, if any, structural distortions. The water-borne exfoliation route opens up new opportunities for easy, clean processing of WS 2 -based film devices that may shine in the fields of, e.g., energy storage and functional nanocomposites owing to their excellent electrochemical, mechanical, and thermal properties. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Investigation of the boundary layer during the transition from volume to surface dominated H- production at the BATMAN test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, C.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.

    2016-02-01

    BATMAN (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative ions) is a test facility equipped with a 1/8 scale H- source for the ITER heating neutral beam injection. Several diagnostics in the boundary layer close to the plasma grid (first grid of the accelerator system) followed the transition from volume to surface dominated H- production starting with a Cs-free, cleaned source and subsequent evaporation of caesium, while the source has been operated at ITER relevant pressure of 0.3 Pa: Langmuir probes are used to determine the plasma potential, optical emission spectroscopy is used to follow the caesiation process, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy allows for the measurement of the H- density. The influence on the plasma during the transition from an electron-ion plasma towards an ion-ion plasma, in which negative hydrogen ions become the dominant negatively charged particle species, is seen in a strong increase of the H- density combined with a reduction of the plasma potential. A clear correlation of the extracted current densities (jH-, je) exists with the Cs emission.

  11. Investigation of the boundary layer during the transition from volume to surface dominated H⁻ production at the BATMAN test facility.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, C; Schiesko, L; Fantz, U

    2016-02-01

    BATMAN (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative ions) is a test facility equipped with a 18 scale H(-) source for the ITER heating neutral beam injection. Several diagnostics in the boundary layer close to the plasma grid (first grid of the accelerator system) followed the transition from volume to surface dominated H(-) production starting with a Cs-free, cleaned source and subsequent evaporation of caesium, while the source has been operated at ITER relevant pressure of 0.3 Pa: Langmuir probes are used to determine the plasma potential, optical emission spectroscopy is used to follow the caesiation process, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy allows for the measurement of the H(-) density. The influence on the plasma during the transition from an electron-ion plasma towards an ion-ion plasma, in which negative hydrogen ions become the dominant negatively charged particle species, is seen in a strong increase of the H(-) density combined with a reduction of the plasma potential. A clear correlation of the extracted current densities (j(H(-)), j(e)) exists with the Cs emission.

  12. Delegation of Authority to Review Leases of Property at Department of Energy Weapon Production Facilities Under the Department of Energy Organization Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this memorandum is to request that the Human Resources Staff for OSWER and OECA start the Green Border review process for the attached draft delegation of authority, which delegates the authority of the Administrator to review leases of property at Department of Energy (DOE) weapon production facilities to the Assistant Administrator for OSWER and Regional Administrators.

  13. APPLICATION OF STANDARDIZED QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES TO OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED DATA COLLECTED AT A CONCENTRATED SWINE PRODUCTION FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of ammonia, methane, and other atmospheric eases at a concentrated swine production facility. A total of 2200 OP/FT-IR spectra were acquired along nine different monitoring paths d...

  14. Photosensitized H2 Production Using a Zinc Porphyrin-Substituted Protein, Platinum Nanoparticles, and Ascorbate with No Electron Relay: Participation of Good's Buffers.

    PubMed

    Clark, Emily R; Kurtz, Donald M

    2017-04-17

    Development of efficient light-driven splitting of water, 2H 2 O → 2H 2 + O 2 , often attempts to optimize photosensitization of the reductive and oxidative half-reactions individually. Numerous homogeneous and heterogeneous systems have been developed for photochemical stimulation of the reductive half reaction, 2H + + 2e - → H 2 . These systems generally consist of various combinations of a H + reduction catalyst, a photosensitizer (PS), and a "sacrificial" electron donor. Zinc(II)-porphyrins (ZnPs) have frequently been used as PSs for H 2 generation, but they are subject to various self-quenching processes in aqueous solutions. Colloidal platinum in nanoparticle form (Pt NP) is a classical H + reduction catalyst using ZnP photosensitizers, but efficient photosensitized H 2 generation requires an electron relay molecule between ZnP and Pt NP. The present report describes an aqueous system for visible (white) light-sensitized generation of H 2 using a protein-embedded Zn(II)-protoporphyrin IX as PS and Pt NP as H + reduction catalyst without an added electron relay. This system operated efficiently in piperazino- and morpholino-alkylsulfonic acid (Good's buffers), which served as sacrificial electron donors. The system also required ascorbate at relatively modest concentrations, which stabilized the Zn(II)-protoporphyrin IX against photodegradation. In the absence of an electron relay molecule, the photosensitized H 2 generation must involve formation of at least a transient complex between a protein-embedded Zn(II)-protoporphyrin IX species and Pt NP.

  15. Electrosynthesis and characterization of zinc tungstate nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh; Zahedi, Mir Mahdi

    2013-09-01

    Zinc tungstate nanoparticles with different sizes are produced through an electrolysis process including a zinc plate anode in sodium tungstate solution. The shape and size of the product was found to be controlled by varying reaction parameters such as electrolysis voltage, stirring rate of electrolyte solution and temperature. The morphological (SEM) characterization analysis was performed on the product and UV-Vis spectrophotometry and FT-IR spectroscopy was utilized to characterize the electrodeposited nanoparticles. Study of the particle size of the product versus the electrolysis voltage showed that, increasing the voltage from 4 to 8 V, led to the particle size of zinc tungstate to decrease, but further increasing the voltage from 8 to 12 V, the particle size of the produced particles increased. The size and shape of the product was also found to be dependent on the stirring rate and temperature of the electrolyte solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR spectroscopy, and photoluminescence, were used to study the structure as well as composition of the nano-material prepared under optimum conditions.

  16. Acute changes in cellular zinc alters zinc uptake rates prior to zinc transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C

    2015-12-01

    A coordinated network of zinc transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular zinc levels. Canonical responses to zinc availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key zinc transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual zinc uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound zinc transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular zinc levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous zinc sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess zinc resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the zinc exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of zinc importers did not change during this time period. Zinc chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of zinc importers did not change. Overall, zinc transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular zinc uptake with exogenous zinc or TPEN treatments. This suggests zinc transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in zinc within Jurkat cells.

  17. Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ananda S

    2008-01-01

    Although the essentiality of zinc for plants and animals has been known for many decades, the essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized only 40 years ago in the Middle East. The zinc-deficient patients had severe immune dysfunctions, inasmuch as they died of intercurrent infections by the time they were 25 years of age. In our studies in an experimental human model of zinc deficiency, we documented decreased serum testosterone level, oligospermia, severe immune dysfunctions mainly affecting T helper cells, hyperammonemia, neurosensory disorders, and decreased lean body mass. It appears that zinc deficiency is prevalent in the developing world and as many as two billion subjects may be growth retarded due to zinc deficiency. Besides growth retardation and immune dysfunctions, cognitive impairment due to zinc deficiency also has been reported recently. Our studies in the cell culture models showed that the activation of many zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors were adversely affected due to zinc deficiency. In HUT-78 (T helper 0 [Th(0)] cell line), we showed that a decrease in gene expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor alpha(IL-2Ralpha) were due to decreased activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in zinc deficient cells. Decreased NF-kappaB activation in HUT-78 due to zinc deficiency was due to decreased binding of NF-kappaB to DNA, decreased level of NF-kappaB p105 (the precursor of NF-kappaB p50) mRNA, decreased kappaB inhibitory protein (IkappaB) phosphorylation, and decreased Ikappa kappa. These effects of zinc were cell specific. Zinc also is an antioxidant and has anti-inflammatory actions. The therapeutic roles of zinc in acute infantile diarrhea, acrodermatitis enteropathica, prevention of blindness in patients with age-related macular degeneration, and treatment of common cold with zinc have been reported. In HL-60 cells (promyelocytic leukemia cell line), zinc enhances the up-regulation of A20 mRNA, which, via TRAF

  18. Cadmiun and Zinc Adsorption by Acric Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Colato, Alexandre; Casagrande, José Carlos; Soares, Marcio Roberto

    2017-04-01

    Acrodox soils are very weathered soils, characterized by having buildup of iron and aluminum oxides and hydroxides. These soils are present in extensive productive regions in the state of São Paulo. This work aimed at verifying the adequacy of constant capacitance model in describing the adsorption of cadmium and zinc in Anionic Rhodic Acrudox, Anionic Xanthic Acrudox and Rhodic Hapludalf. The chemical, mineralogical and physical attributes of these soils were determined in the layers 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. Adsorption data of cadmium and zinc were also previously determined for samples of both layers of each soil. Were applied 5 mg dm-3 of cadmium and zinc to 2,0 g of soil to ample pH range (3 to 10) to build the adsorption envelops to three ionic strength. The constant capacitance model was adequate to simulate the adsorption of zinc and cadmium. It was not possible to make appropriate distinctions between measurements and simulations for two soil layers studied, neither between the three concentrations of background electrolyte.

  19. 21 CFR 520.154c - Bacitracin zinc soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. 520.154c Section 520.154c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.154c Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each...

  20. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses