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Sample records for zinc rich wastewater

  1. Tests of Zinc Rich Anticorrosion Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. D.; Paton, W. J.; Rowe, A.

    1986-01-01

    Condition of zinc-rich anticorrosion coatings after 10 years of exposure discussed in status report, which follows up on 18-month study of anticorrosion coatings on steel started in 1971. Test panels with various coatings mounted on racks on beach and checked periodically. Of panels with inorganic zinc-rich coatings, only one slightly rusted. Panels were in such good condition they were returned to beach for more exposure.

  2. Zinc-rich coatings: A market survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizak, R.

    1975-01-01

    Zinc-rich coatings with both organic and inorganic binders were considered for coastal bridges which require more corrosion protection than inland bridges because of exposure to salt spray and fog. Inorganics give longer protection and may be applied without a finish coat; those currently available are harder to apply than organics. The NASA potassium silicate/zinc - dust coating appears to provide longer protection, resist thermal shock, and overcome the application problem. Panels coated with the formulation withstood 5308 hours in a salt spray chamber with no rusting or blistering.

  3. Protective Coats For Zinc-Rich Primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G, III

    1993-01-01

    Report describes tests of topcoats for inorganic zinc-rich primers on carbon steel. Topcoats intended to provide additional protection against corrosion in acidic, salty seacoast-air/rocket-engine-exhaust environment of Space Shuttle launch site. Tests focused on polyurethane topcoats on epoxy tie coats on primers. Part of study involved comparison between "high-build" coating materials and thin-film coating materials.

  4. Inhibition effect of zinc in wastewater on the N2O emission from coastal loam soils.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Ou, Danyun; Chen, Shunyang; Chen, Bin; Liu, Wenhua; Bai, Renao; Chen, Guangcheng

    2017-03-15

    The effects of zinc (Zn) on nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes from coastal loam soil and the abundances of soil nitrifier and denitrifier were studied in a tidal microcosm receiving livestock wastewater with different Zn levels. Soil N 2 O emission significantly increased due to discharge of wastewater rich in ammonia (NH 4 + -N) while the continuous measurements of gas flux showed a durative reduction in N 2 O flux by high Zn input (40mgL -1 ) during the low tide period. Soil inorganic nitrogen concentrations increased at the end of the experiment and even more soil NH 4 + -N was measured in the high-Zn-level treatment, indicating an inhibition of ammonia oxidation by Zn input. Quantitative PCR of soil amoA, narG and nirK genes encoding ammonia monooxygenase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, respectively, showed that the microbial abundances involved in these metabolisms were neither affected by wastewater discharge nor Zn contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance characteristics of zinc-rich coatings applied to carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paton, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    A program was conducted to evaluate the performance of topcoated and untopcoated zinc-rich coatings. Sacrificial coatings of this type are required for protecting carbon steel structures from the aggressive KSC sea coast environment. A total of 59 commercially available zinc-rich coatings and 47 topcoated materials were exposed for an 18-month period. Test panels were placed in special racks placed approximately 30.5 m (100 feet) above the high tide line at the KSC Corrosion Test Site. Laboratory tests to determine the temperature resistance, abrasion resistance, and adhesion of the untopcoated zinc-rich coatings were also performed. It has been concluded that: (1) The inorganic types of zinc-rich coatings are far superior to the organic types in the KSC environment. (2) Organic zinc-rich coatings applied at 0.1 - 0.15 mm (4-6 mils) film thickness provide better corrosion protection than when applied at the manufacturers' recommended nominal film thickness of .08 mm (3 mils). (3) Topcoats are not necessary, or even desirable, when used in conjunction with zinc-rich coatings in the KSC environment. (4) Some types of inorganic zinc-rich coatings require an extended outdoor weathering period in order to obtain adequate mechanical properties. and (5) A properly formulated inorganic zinc-rich coating is not affected by a 24-hour thermal exposure to 400 C (752 F).

  6. A method for predicting service life of zinc rich primers on carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppesch, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    The service life of zinc rich primers on carbon steel can be estimated by immersing a primer coated glass slide into an aqueous copper sulfate solution and measuring the amount of zinc that reacts with the copper in 15 minutes. This zinc availability test was used to evaluate eleven primers currently available for which marine beach exposure data was available from previous programs. Results were evaluated and a correlation between zinc availability and ASTM rust grade was shown.

  7. The Corrosion Protection of 2219-T87 Aluminum by Organic and Inorganic Zinc-Rich Primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.; Walsh, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    The behavior of zinc-rich primer-coated 2219-T87 aluminum in a 3.5-percent Na-Cl was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The alternating current (ac) method of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in the frequency range of 0.001 to 40,000 Hz, and the direct current (dc) method of polarization resistance (PR) were used to evaluate the characteristics of an organic, epoxy zinc-rich primer and an inorganic, ethyl silicate zinc-rich primer. A dc electrochemical galvanic corrosion test was also used to determine the corrosion current of each zinc-rich primer anode coupled to a 2219-T87 aluminum cathode. Duration of the EIS/PR and galvanic testing was 21 days and 24 h, respectively. The galvanic test results demonstrated a very high galvanic current between the aluminum cathode and both zinc-rich primer anodes (37.9 pA/CM2 and 23.7 pA/CM2 for the organic and inorganic primers, respectively). The PR results demonstrated a much higher corrosion rate of the zinc in the inorganic primer than in the organic primer, due primarily to the higher porosity in the former. Based on this investigation, the inorganic zinc-rich primer appears to provide superior galvanic protection and is recommended for additional study for application in the solid rocket booster aft skirt.

  8. The corrosion protection of 2219-T87 aluminum by organic and inorganic zinc-rich primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.; Walsh, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    The behavior of zinc-rich primer-coated 2219-T87 aluminum in a 3.5-percent Na-Cl was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The alternating current (ac) method of electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in the frequency range of 0.001 to 40,000 Hz, and the direct current (dc) method of polarization resistance (PR) were used to evaluate the characteristics of an organic, epoxy zinc-rich primer and an inorganic, ethyl silicate zinc-rich primer. A dc electrochemical galvanic corrosion test was also used to determine the corrosion current of each zinc-rich primer anode coupled to a 2219-T87 aluminum cathode. Duration of the EIS/PR and galvanic testing was 21 days and 24 h, respectively. the galvanic test results demonstrated a very high galvanic current between the aluminum cathode and both zinc-rich primer anodes (37.9 micro A/cm(exp 2) and 23.7 micro A/cm(exp 2) for the organic and inorganic primers, respectively). The PR results demonstrated a much higher corrosion rate of the zinc in the inorganic primer than in the organic primer, due primarily to the higher porosity in the former. Based on this investigation, the inorganic zinc-rich primer appears to provide superior galvanic protection and is recommended for additional study for application in the solid rocket booster aft skirt.

  9. An improved technique for the use of zinc-rich coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paton, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Blistering and peeling of topcoats used over ethyl silicate, inorganic, zinc-rich protective coatings are virtually eliminated when primer is allowed to cure outdoors for extended period of time and is moistened during process.

  10. Simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic biodegradation of lipid-rich wastewater from poultry industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dors, Gisanara; Mendes, Adriano A.; Pereira, Ernandes B.; de Castro, Heizir F.; Furigo, Agenor

    2013-03-01

    Simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic biodegradation of lipid-rich wastewater from poultry industry with porcine pancreatic lipase at different concentrations (from 1.0 to 3.0 g L-1) were performed. The efficiency of the enzymatic pretreatment was measured by the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal and formation of methane. All samples pretreated with lipase showed a positive effect on the COD removal and formation of methane. After 30 days of anaerobic biodegradation the methane production varied from 569 ± 95 to 1,101 ± 10 mL for crude wastewater and pretreated at 3.0 g L-1 enzyme, respectively. COD removal of wastewater supplemented at different enzyme concentrations was found to be threefold higher than crude wastewater. The use of lipases seems to be a promising alternative for treating lipid-rich wastewaters such as those from the poultry industry.

  11. Polyphenol-rich beverages enhance zinc uptake and metallothionein expression in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasulu, Kilari; Raghu, Pullakhandam; Nair, K Madhavan

    2010-05-01

    The effect of red wine (RW), red grape juice (RGJ), green tea (GT), and representative polyphenols on Caco-2 cell (65)Zn uptake was explored. RW, RGJ, and GT enhanced the uptake of zinc from rice matrix. Fractionation of RW revealed that enhancing activity of zinc uptake was exclusively resided in the polyphenol fraction. Among the polyphenols tested, only tannic acid and quercitin stimulated the uptake of zinc while others did not influence the uptake. In tune with these results, only tannic acid and quercitin competed with zinquin (a zinc selective fluorophore) for zinc in vitro. Although all the polyphenols tested appear to enhance the expression of metallothionein (MT), the induction was higher with tannic acid, quercitin, and RW extract. Furthermore, phytic acid abrogated the tannic acid-induced MT expression. These results suggest that polyphenol-rich beverages, tannic acid, and quercitin bind and stimulate the zinc uptake and MT expression in Caco-2 cells.

  12. Review of Specifications for Zinc-Rich Paints,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    inspected in 1976, the repair inorganic zinc was in very poor condition due to extensive " chicken pox " rusting. The original red lead alkyd and basic...Nebraska H-186 New Hampshire H-188 New Jersey H-189 /y’/9 7’ 𔃼 New Mexico H(-216.0 North Carolina H-217 North Dakota l1- 246 Ohio H-247 Oklahoma H-254...8217l.% 2. Olharfing I r A1 1 1e a £I )II d To be separately packaged in multiples of 0 54 pound of pox der per M . Cnpost vehicle. One 2.70 pound

  13. The impact of tertiary wastewater treatment on copper and zinc complexation.

    PubMed

    Constantino, C; Gardner, M; Comber, S D W; Scrimshaw, M D; Ellor, B

    2015-01-01

    Tightening quality standards for European waters has seen a move towards enhanced wastewater treatment technologies such as granulated organic carbon treatment and ozonation. Although these technologies are likely to be successful in degrading certain micro-organic contaminants, these may also destroy compounds which would otherwise complex and render metals significantly less toxic. This study examined the impact of enhanced tertiary treatment on the capacity of organic compounds within sewage effluents to complex copper and zinc. The data show that granulated organic carbon treatment removes a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fraction that is unimportant to complexation such that no detrimental impact on complexation or metal bioavailability is likely to occur from this treatment type. High concentrations of ozone (>1 mg O3/mg DOC) are, however, likely to impact the complexation capacity for copper although this is unlikely to be important at the concentrations of copper typically found in effluent discharges or in rivers. Ozone treatment did not affect zinc complexation capacity. The complexation profiles of the sewage effluents show these to contain a category of non-humic ligand that appears unaffected by tertiary treatment and which displays a high affinity for zinc, suggesting these may substantially reduce the bioavailability of zinc in effluent discharges. The implication is that traditional metal bioavailability assessment approaches such as the biotic ligand model may overestimate zinc bioavailability in sewage effluents and effluent-impacted waters.

  14. Fabrication of an Organic Light-Emitting Diode from New Host π Electron Rich Zinc Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Mohammad Reza; Janghouri, Mohammad; Shahedi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    A new π electron rich zinc complex was used as a fluorescent material in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Devices with a structure of indium tin oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedi-oxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) (50 nm)/polyvinylcarbazole (60 nm)/Zn: %2 porphyrin derivatives (45 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated. Porphyrin derivatives accounting for 2 wt.% in the π electron rich zinc complex were used as a host. The electroluminescence (EL) spectra of porphyrin derivatives indicated a red shift, as π electron rich zinc complex EL spectra. The device (4) has also a luminance of 3420 cd/m2 and maximum efficiency of 1.58 cd/A at 15 V, which are the highest values among four devices. The result of Commission International del'Eclairage (CIE) (X, Y) coordinate and EL spectrum of device (3) indicated that it is more red shifted compared to other devices. Results of this work indicate that π electron rich zinc complex is a promising host material for high efficiency red OLEDs and has a simple structure compared to Alq3-based devices.

  15. Membrane-filtered olive mill wastewater: Quality assessment of the dried phenolic-rich fraction

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also extract and utilize valuable by-products. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to explore different techniques for drying a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of OMWW a...

  16. Feasibility investigation of oily wastewater treatment by combination of zinc and PAM in coagulation/flocculation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yubin; Yang, Changzhu; Zhang, Jingdong; Pu, Wenhong

    2007-08-25

    Poly-zinc silicate (PZSS) is a new type of coagulant with cationic polymer synthesized by polysilicic acid and zinc sulfate. It has been used in several sorts of wastewaters treatment, but not used in oily wastewater treatment. In this study, we investigated the coagulation/flocculation of oil and suspended solids in heavy oil wastewater (HOW) by PZSS and anion polyacrylamide (A-PAM). The properties of PZSS cooperated with A-PAM were compared with PAC and PFS in dosages, PAMs amount, settling time, pH value and flocs morphology. The results showed that PZSS was more efficient than PAC and PFS. Under the optimum experimental conditions of coagulation/flocculation (dosage: 100mg/L, A-PAM dosage: 1.0mg/L, settling time time: 40min and pH 6.5-9.5), more than 99% of oil was removed and suspended solid value less than 5mg/L by using PZSS cooperated with A-PAM, which could satisfy the demands of the pre-treatment process for HOW to be reused in the steam boiler or recycled into the injecting well.

  17. Comparative treatment of dye-rich wastewater in engineered wetland systems (EWSs) vegetated with different plants.

    PubMed

    Mbuligwe, Stephen E

    2005-01-01

    In Dar es Salaam City there are more than a thousand tie-and-dye (TAD) small-scale industries (SSIs) that discharge dye-rich wastewater indiscriminately with resultant water pollution. Due to the decentralised nature of the TAD SSIs, coupled with financial constraints facing their operators, control of their pollution needs a simple cost-effective waste treatment technology. Engineered wetland systems (EWSs) constitute such a technology. A pilot scale EWS was evaluated with respect to its effectiveness in treating dye-rich wastewater. The role of wetland plants was assessed through comparing treatment performance efficiencies between an unplanted and vegetated EWS beds. On the whole, it has been demonstrated that the EWS has the potential to effectively treat dye-rich wastewater. Colour, which is the most apparent problem issue with textile wastewater, was reduced by 72-77%. COD was reduced by 68-73%, while sulphate was reduced by 53-59%. The proportionately high COD removal suggests the reduction in colour was accompanied by almost complete degradation of dyes and daughter products. The overall treatment efficiency of the vegetated units was more than twice as high as that of the unplanted bed. On average, the bed vegetated with coco yam plants performed better (7.6%) than the one planted with cattail plants.

  18. Biogas upgrading by chemical absorption using ammonia rich absorbents derived from wastewater.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Andrew; Jefferson, Bruce; McAdam, Ewan J

    2014-12-15

    The use of ammonia (NH3) rich wastewaters as an ecological chemical absorption solvent for the selective extraction of carbon dioxide (CO2) during biogas upgrading to 'biomethane' has been studied. Aqueous ammonia absorbents of up to 10,000 gNH3 m(-3) demonstrated CO2 absorption rates higher than recorded in the literature for packed columns using 20,000-80,000 g NH3 m(-3) which can be ascribed to the process intensification provided by the hollow fibre membrane contactor used in this study to support absorption. Centrifuge return liquors (2325 g m(-3) ionised ammonium, NH4(+)) and a regenerant (477 gNH4(+) m(-3)) produced from a cationic ion exchanger used to harvest NH4(+) from crude wastewater were also tested. Carbon dioxide fluxes measured for both wastewaters compared reasonably with analogue ammonia absorption solvents of equivalent NH3 concentration. Importantly, this demonstrates that ammonia rich wastewaters can facilitate chemically enhanced CO2 separation which eliminates the need for costly exogenic chemicals or complex chemical handling which are critical barriers to implementation of chemical absorption. When testing NH3 analogues, the potential to recover the reaction product ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) in crystalline form was also illustrated. This is significant as it suggests a new pathway for ammonia separation which avoids biological nitrification and produces ammonia stabilised into a commercially viable fertiliser (NH4HCO3). However, in real ammonia rich wastewaters, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate were preferentially formed over NH4HCO3 although it is proposed that NH4HCO3 can be preferentially formed by manipulating both ion exchange and absorbent chemistry. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The corrosion protection of AISI(TM) 1010 steel by organic and inorganic zinc-rich primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    The behavior of zinc-rich primer-coated AISI 1010 steel in 3.5-percent Na-Cl was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The alternating current (ac) method of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in the frequency range of 0.001 to 40,000 Hz, and the direct current (dc) method of polarization resistance (PR), were used to evaluate the characteristics of an organic, epoxy zinc-rich primer and an inorganic, ethyl silicate zinc-rich primer. A dc electromechanical galvanic corrosion test was also used to determine the corrosion current of each zinc-rich primer anode coupled to a 1010 steel cathode. Duration of the EIS/PR and galvanic testing was 21 days and 24 h, respectively. The galvanic test results demonstrated a very high current between the steel cathode and both zinc-rich primer anodes (38.8 and 135.2 microns A/sq cm for the organic and inorganic primers, respectively). The results of corrosion rate determinations demonstrated a much higher corrosion rate of the zinc in the inorganic primer than in the organic primer, due primarily to the higher porosity in the former. EIS equivalent circuit parameters confirmed this conclusion. Based on this investigation, the inorganic zinc-rich primer appears to provide superior galvanic protection and is recommended for additional study for application on solid rocket booster steel hardware.

  20. Evaluation of inorganic zinc-rich primers using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation explores the use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in combination with beach exposure as a short term method for analyzing the performance of twenty-one zinc-rich primers. The twenty-one zinc-rich primers were: Carboline CZ-11, Ameron Devoe-Marine Catha-Coat 304, Briner V-65, Ameron D-21-9, Sherwin Williams Zinc Clad II, Carboline CZ-D7, Ameron D-4, Dupont Ganicin 347WB, Porter TQ-4374H, Inorganic Coatings IC-531, Subox Galvanox IV, Southern Coatings Chemtec 600, Glidden Glidzinc 5530, Byco SP-101, Tnemec 90E-75, Devoe Catha-Coat 302H, Glidden Glidzinc 5536, Koppers 701, Ameron D-21-5, Coronado 935-152, and Subox Galvanoz V. Data were also collected on galvanized steel for comparison purposes. A library of Bode magnitude plots was generated for each coating including curves for the initial time and after each week of atmospheric exposure as Beach Corrosion Test Site near the Space Shuttle launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center for up to three weeks. An examination of the variation of the Bode magnitude plots with atmospheric exposure revealed no clearly identifiable trend at this point that could distinguish between the good and the poor coatings. The test will be continued by including EIS measurements after six months and one year of atmospheric exposure.

  1. Removal of toxic zinc from water/wastewater using eucalyptus seeds activated carbon: non-linear regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Senthil Kumar, Ponnusamy; Saravanan, Anbalagan; Anish Kumar, Kodyingil; Yashwanth, Ramesh; Visvesh, Sridharan

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a novel activated carbon was prepared from low-cost eucalyptus seeds, which was utilised for the effectively removal of toxic zinc from the water/wastewater. The prepared adsorbent was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic characterisation studies. Adsorption process was experimentally performed for optimising the influencing factors such as adsorbent dosage, solution pH, contact time, initial zinc concentration, and temperature for the maximum removal of zinc from aqueous solution. Adsorption isotherm of zinc removal was ensued Freundlich model, and the kinetic model ensued pseudo-second order model. Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of the adsorbent for zinc removal was evaluated as 80.37 mg/g. The results of the thermodynamic studies suggested that the adsorption process was exothermic, thermodynamically feasible and impulsive process. Finally, a batch adsorber was planned to remove zinc from known volume and known concentration of wastewater using best obeyed model such as Freundlich. The experimental details showed the newly prepared material can be effectively utilised as a cheap material for the adsorption of toxic metal ions from the contaminated water.

  2. Zinc and copper distribution in swine wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luís; Justi, Karin Cristiane

    2014-08-01

    Swine wastewater contain high levels of metals, such as copper and zinc, which can cause a negative impact on the environment. Anaerobic digestion is a process commonly used to remove carbon, and can act on metal availability (e.g., solubility or oxidation state). The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of anaerobic digestion on total Zn and Cu contents, and their chemical fractioning due to the biodegradation of the effluent over different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The sequential extraction protocol proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR), plus two additional fractions, was the method chosen for this study of Cu and Zn distribution evaluation in swine wastewater. The Zn and Cu concentrations in raw swine manure were 63.58 ± 27.72 mg L(-1) and 8.98 ± 3.99 mg L(-1), respectively. The metal retention capacity of the bioreactor decreased when the HRT was reduced from 17.86 d to 5.32 d. Anaerobic digestion had a direct influence on zinc and copper distribution when raw manure (RM) and digested manure (DM) were compared. The reducible fraction showed a reduction of between 3.17% and 7.84% for Zn and between 2.52% and 11.92% for Cu when DM was compared with RM. However, the metal concentration increased in the oxidizable fraction of DM, viz. from 3.01% to 10.64% for Zn and from 4.49% to 16.71% for Cu, thus demonstrating the effect of anaerobic conditions on metal availability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-energy Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich zinc isotopes

    SciT

    Walle, J. van de; ISOLDE, CERN, Geneva; Aksouh, F.

    2009-01-15

    At the radioactive ion beam facility REX-ISOLDE, neutron-rich zinc isotopes were investigated using low-energy Coulomb excitation. These experiments have resulted in B(E2,2{sub 1}{sup +}{yields}0{sub 1}{sup +}) values in {sup 74-80}Zn, B(E2,4{sub 1}{sup +}{yields}2{sub 1}{sup +}) values in {sup 74,76}Zn and the determination of the energy of the first excited 2{sub 1}{sup +} states in {sup 78,80}Zn. The zinc isotopes were produced by high-energy proton- (A=74,76,80) and neutron- (A=78) induced fission of {sup 238}U, combined with selective laser ionization and mass separation. The isobaric beam was postaccelerated by the REX linear accelerator and Coulomb excitation was induced on a thin secondarymore » target, which was surrounded by the MINIBALL germanium detector array. In this work, it is shown how the selective laser ionization can be used to deal with the considerable isobaric beam contamination and how a reliable normalization of the experiment can be achieved. The results for zinc isotopes and the N=50 isotones are compared to collective model predictions and state-of-the-art large-scale shell-model calculations, including a recent empirical residual interaction constructed to describe the present experimental data up to 2004 in this region of the nuclear chart.« less

  4. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  5. Zinc Bioavailability from Phytate-Rich Foods and Zinc Supplements. Modeling the Effects of Food Components with Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Donor Ligands.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2017-10-04

    Aqueous solubility of zinc phytate (K sp = (2.6 ± 0.2) × 10 -47 mol 7 /L 7 ), essential for zinc bioavailability from plant foods, was found to decrease with increasing temperature corresponding to ΔH dis of -301 ± 22 kJ/mol and ΔS dis of -1901 ± 72 J/(mol K). Binding of zinc to phytate was found to be exothermic for the stronger binding site and endothermic for the weaker binding site. The solubility of the slightly soluble zinc citrate and insoluble zinc phytate was found to be considerably enhanced by the food components with oxygen donor, nitrogen donor, and sulfur donor ligands. The driving force for the enhanced solubility is mainly due to the complex formation between zinc and the investigated food components rather than ligand exchange and ternary complex formation as revealed by quantum mechanical calculations and isothermal titration calorimetry. Histidine and citrate are promising ligands for improving zinc absorption from phytate-rich foods.

  6. Fungal treatment of humic-rich industrial wastewater: application of white rot fungi in remediation of food-processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zahmatkesh, Mostafa; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the results of fungal treatment of a real industrial wastewater (WW), providing insight into the main mechanisms involved and clarifying some ambiguities and uncertainties in the previous reports. In this regard, the mycoremediation potentials of four strains of white rot fungi (WRF): Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius were tested to remove humic acids (HA) from a real humic-rich industrial treated WW of a food-processing plant. The HA removal was assessed by color measurement and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis. T. versicolor showed the best decolorization efficiency of 90% and yielded more than 45% degradation of HA, which was the highest among the tested fungal strains. The nitrogen limitation was studied and results showed that it affected the fungal extracellular laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities. The results of the SEC analysis revealed that the mechanism of HA removal by WRF involves degradation of large HA molecules to smaller molecules, conversion of HA to fulvic acid-like molecules and also biosorption of HA by fungal mycelia. The effect of HS on the growth of WRF was investigated and results showed that the inhibition or stimulation of growth differs among the fungal strains.

  7. Zinc isotope evidence for sulfate-rich fluid transfer across subduction zones.

    PubMed

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Debret, Baptiste; Bouilhol, Pierre; Delacour, Adélie; Williams, Helen

    2016-12-16

    Subduction zones modulate the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle. Water and volatile elements in the slab are released as fluids into the mantle wedge and this process is widely considered to result in the oxidation of the sub-arc mantle. However, the chemical composition and speciation of these fluids, which is critical for the mobility of economically important elements, remain poorly constrained. Sulfur has the potential to act both as oxidizing agent and transport medium. Here we use zinc stable isotopes (δ 66 Zn) in subducted Alpine serpentinites to decipher the chemical properties of slab-derived fluids. We show that the progressive decrease in δ 66 Zn with metamorphic grade is correlated with a decrease in sulfur content. As existing theoretical work predicts that Zn-SO 4 2- complexes preferentially incorporate heavy δ 66 Zn, our results provide strong evidence for the release of oxidized, sulfate-rich, slab serpentinite-derived fluids to the mantle wedge.

  8. Zinc isotope evidence for sulfate-rich fluid transfer across subduction zones

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Debret, Baptiste; Bouilhol, Pierre; Delacour, Adélie; Williams, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Subduction zones modulate the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle. Water and volatile elements in the slab are released as fluids into the mantle wedge and this process is widely considered to result in the oxidation of the sub-arc mantle. However, the chemical composition and speciation of these fluids, which is critical for the mobility of economically important elements, remain poorly constrained. Sulfur has the potential to act both as oxidizing agent and transport medium. Here we use zinc stable isotopes (δ66Zn) in subducted Alpine serpentinites to decipher the chemical properties of slab-derived fluids. We show that the progressive decrease in δ66Zn with metamorphic grade is correlated with a decrease in sulfur content. As existing theoretical work predicts that Zn-SO42− complexes preferentially incorporate heavy δ66Zn, our results provide strong evidence for the release of oxidized, sulfate-rich, slab serpentinite-derived fluids to the mantle wedge. PMID:27982033

  9. Cadmium and zinc isotopes of organic-rich marine sediments during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweere, T.; Dickson, A. J.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Porcelli, D.; Henderson, G. M.; van den Boorn, S.

    2017-12-01

    Mesozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) are characterized by widespread deposition of organic-rich sediments and the spread of low-oxygen marine environments. To drive and sustain unusually efficient carbon-burial during these events requires high export productivity rates, which has to be supported by an abundance of nutrients in the surface ocean. The presence of redox-sensitive bio-essential micronutrients may be particularly important, and potentially bio-limiting, during such events as they may be drawn down into sediment under low-oxygen conditions. Cadmium and zinc isotopes have potential as tracers for past (micro)nutrient dynamics considering their nutrient-like distribution in the modern ocean and isotope fractionation with uptake by primary producers. The modern deep ocean is generally well mixed for Cd and Zn while short-term cycling of these elements in the surface ocean imposes regional variation. Additional regional variation may be caused by sulfide formation and associated isotope fractionation in euxinic environments. The impact of such regional environmental conditions on the Cd- and Zn-isotope composition of the sediment therefore needs to be addressed in order to explore the use of these elements as a proxy for past nutrient conditions. Here we present an extensive dataset of cadmium- and zinc-isotope compositions of organic-rich marine sediments from different basins deposited during OAE 2 (Late Cretaceous). This comparison highlights regional differences in Cd- and Zn-isotope compositions. However, despite regional environmental controls, a correlation between δ114Cd and δ66Zn across the different sites is observed, which implies a largely similar control on the two isotope systems. When regional environmental controls are accounted for, the data may provide insight in the δ66Zn and δ114Cd evolution of global seawater during OAE 2 as well as information on the global cycling of redox-sensitive micronutrients during the event

  10. Application of ozonated piggery wastewater for cultivation of oil-rich Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ke; Mou, Xiaoqing; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haiying

    2014-11-01

    Ozonated and autoclaved piggery wastewaters were compared for cultivation of oil-rich Chlorella pyrenoidosa by measuring nutrient removal from the medium and growth rate and lipid production of the microalgae. The removal rates of chemical oxygen demand, NH4(+)-N, total nitrogen and total phosphorus by C. pyrenoidosa were not influenced by both sterilisation methods. The specific growth rate and biomass of C. pyrenoidosa were determined by analysing the chlorophyll concentration for eliminating the disturbance of bacteria growth in culture system. Bacteria raised from the residue in the ozonated medium achieved 30% of the total microorganisms at the end of cultivation. They reduced the growth of C. pyrenoidosa by 10.4%, but contributed to a faster decline of the nutrient content on the first day. Lipid production and fatty acid profile did not change markedly in both sterilisation methods. The results suggest that ozonation is acceptable for piggery wastewater treatment for C. pyrenoidosa cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of N2O emission from a photobioreactor treating ammonia-rich swine wastewater digestate.

    PubMed

    Mezzari, Melissa P; da Silva, Márcio L B; Nicoloso, Rodrigo S; Ibelli, Adriana M G; Bortoli, Marcelo; Viancelli, Aline; Soares, Hugo M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the interactions between naturally occurring bacteria and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris within a lab scale photobioreactor treating ammonia-rich swine wastewater digestate effluent. Nitrification and denitrification were assessed by targeting ammonia monoxygenases (amoA), nitrate (narG), nitrite (nirS), nitric oxide (norB) and nitrous oxide (nosZ) reductases genes. Oxygen produced from microalgae photosynthesis stimulated nitrification. Under limiting carbon availability (i.e., <1.44 for mg TOC/mg NO2-N and 1.72 for mg TOC/mg NO3-N), incomplete denitrification led to accumulation of NO2 and NO3. Significant N2O emission (up to 118 μg N2O-N) was linked to NO2 metabolism in Chlorella. The addition of acetate as external carbon source recovered heterotrophic denitrification activity suppressing N2O emission. Effluent methane concentrations trapped within photobioreactor was removed concomitantly with ammonia. Overall, closed photobioreactors can be built to effectively remove nitrogen and mitigate simultaneously greenhouse gases emissions that would occur otherwise in open microalgae-based wastewater treatment systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Upgrading of the STP Uithoorn: treatment of nutrient rich wastewater from horticulture.

    PubMed

    Piekema, P; Neef, R

    2005-01-01

    The STP Uithoorn will be upgraded to accommodate the treatment of wastewater from a growing population and to meet more stringent nutrient discharge limits in 2006. In 2003 a system choice and preliminary design was made for the upgrading. A special feature is the nutrient rich wastewater flow from the rapidly developing horticulture in the area. Since the future loads from horticulture are highly uncertain, flexibility of the STP after upgrading is an important issue. A three stage system was selected: improved physical-chemical primary treatment, secondary treatment by activated sludge, and tertiary treatment by denitrifying filters. In this way an important part of the existing infrastructure can be reused, and flexibility is assured by constructing the tertiary treatment in modules and by providing a wide range of operational control possibilities. In this paper the process of system choice and selection of type of tertiary treatment are described, as well as the optimisation of the existing treatment. In order to determine the feasibility of allowing a high loading rate on the existing secondary clarifiers, a two-dimensional hydraulic model of the clarification process was used.

  13. Zinc-rich oysters as well as zinc-yeast- and astaxanthin-enriched food improved sleep efficiency and sleep onset in a randomized controlled trial of healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hitomi; Cherasse, Yoan; Suzuki, Rina; Mitarai, Makoto; Ueda, Fumitaka; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2017-05-01

    Zinc is an essential mineral that plays an important role in the body. We previously reported that orally feeding zinc-enriched yeast to mice induces nonrapid-eye-movement sleep. In addition, astaxanthin, an antioxidant abundant in seafood such as salmon and krill, is able to chelate minerals and may promote zinc absorption, which in return may also improve sleep. The purpose of our study was to examine the effect of zinc-rich and astaxanthin-containing food on sleep in humans. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled parallel group trial of 120 healthy subjects and recorded their night activity by actigraphy for 12 weeks. These subjects were divided into four groups: placebo, zinc-rich food, zinc-, and astaxanthin-rich food, and placebo supplemented with zinc-enriched yeast and astaxanthin oil. Compared with the placebo group, the zinc-rich food group efficiently decreased the time necessary to fall asleep and improved sleep efficiency, whereas the group that ingested zinc-enriched yeast and astaxanthin oil significantly improved the sleep onset latency. Actigraphic sleep monitoring demonstrated that eating zinc-rich food improved sleep onset latency as well as improved the sleep efficiency in healthy individuals. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Spray drying of a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of olive mill wastewater: Optimization and dried product quality

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) from two California mills (3-phase and 2-phase) was subjected to a two-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The obtained reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich co-product stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure wat...

  15. Biotreatment of zinc-containing wastewater in a sulfidogenic CSTR: Performance and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling studies.

    PubMed

    Sahinkaya, Erkan

    2009-05-15

    Sulfidogenic treatment of sulfate (2-10g/L) and zinc (65-677mg/L) containing simulated wastewater was studied in a mesophilic (35 degrees C) CSTR. Ethanol was supplemented (COD/sulfate=0.67) as carbon and energy source for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The robustness of the system was studied by increasing Zn, COD and sulfate loadings. Sulfate removal efficiency, which was 70% at 2g/L feed sulfate concentration, steadily decreased with increasing feed sulfate concentration and reached 40% at 10g/L. Over 99% Zn removal was attained due to the formation of zinc-sulfide precipitate. COD removal efficiency at 2g/L feed sulfate concentration was over 94%, whereas, it steadily decreased due to the accumulation of acetate at higher loadings. Alkalinity produced from acetate oxidation increased wastewater pH remarkably when feed sulfate concentration was 5g/L or lower. Electron flow from carbon oxidation to sulfate reduction averaged 83+/-13%. The rest of the electrons were most likely coupled with fermentative reactions as the amount of methane production was insignificant. The developed ANN model was very successful as an excellent to reasonable match was obtained between the measured and the predicted concentrations of sulfate (R=0.998), COD (R=0.993), acetate (R=0.976) and zinc (R=0.827) in the CSTR effluent.

  16. Evaluation of inorganic zinc-rich primers using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in combination with atmospheric exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.

    1994-01-01

    This investigation explored the use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in combination with atmospheric exposure as a short term method for analyzing the performance of twenty-one commercially available zinc-rich primers. The twenty-one zinc-rich primers were: Carboline CZ-11, Ameron Devoe-Marine Catha-Coat 304, Briner V-65, Ameron D-21-9, Sherwin Williams Zinc Clad II, Carboline CZ-D7, Ameron D-4, Dupont Ganicin 347WB, Porter TQ-4374H, Inorganic Coatings IC-531, Subox Galvanox IV, Southern Coatings Chemtec 600, GLidden Glidzinc 5530, Byco SP-101, Tnemec 90E-75, Devoe Catha-Coat 302H, Glidden Glidzinc 5536, Koppers 701, Ameron D-21-5, Coronado 935-152, and Subox Galvanox V. Data were also collected on galvanized steel for comparison purposes. A library of Bode magnitude plots was generated for each coating including curves for the initial time and after each week of atmospheric exposure at the Beach Corrosion Test site near the Space Shuttle launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center for up to four weeks. Subsequent measurements were collected after 8 weeks and after one year of atmospheric exposure. Analysis of the impedance data was performed with the purpose of identifying parameters that could be used to predict the long-term performance of zinc-rich primers. It has been shown that there is a correlation between the long-term performance of zinc-rich primers and several parameters obtained from EIS measurements in combination with atmospheric exposure. The equivalent circuit R2(R2C(R3W)) provided a satisfactory fit for the EIS data. The corrosion potential and the R2 resistance are parameters indicative of the galvanic mechanism of protection. The capacitance of the coating is related to the barrier mechanism of protection.

  17. Membrane-Filtered Olive Mill Wastewater: Quality Assessment of the Dried Phenolic-Rich Fraction.

    PubMed

    Sedej, Ivana; Milczarek, Rebecca; Wang, Selina C; Sheng, Runqi; de Jesús Avena-Bustillos, Roberto; Dao, Lan; Takeoka, Gary

    2016-04-01

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also to extract and utilize valuable by-products. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to explore different techniques for drying a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of OMWW and compare the techniques in terms of the dried product quality and feasibility of the process. The OMWW from 2 (3-phase and 2-phase) California mills was subjected to a 2-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich coproduct stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure water stream that could be recycled into the milling process. Spray-, freeze-, and infrared-drying were applied to obtain solid material from the RO-R. Drying of the RO-R was made possible only with addition of 10% maltodextrin as a carrier. The total soluble phenolics in dried RO-R were in the range 0.15 to 0.58 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight for 2-phase RO-R, and 1.38 to 2.17 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight for the 3-phase RO-R. Spray-dried RO-R from 3-phase OMWW showed remarkable antioxidant activity. Protocatechuic acid, tyrosol, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid were quantified in all dried RO-R, whereas 3-hydroxytyrosol was found in 3-phase dried RO-R. This combination of separation and drying technologies helps to add value and shelf-stability to an olive oil by-product and increase environmental sustainability of its production. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Detrimental effects of commercial zinc oxide and silver nanomaterials on bacterial populations and performance of wastewater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mboyi, Anza-vhudziki; Kamika, Ilunga; Momba, MaggyN. B.

    2017-08-01

    The widespread use of commercial nanomaterials (NMs) in consumer products has raised environmental concerns as they can enter and affect the efficiency of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study the effect of various concentrations of zinc oxide NMs (nZnO) and silver NMs (nAg) on the selected wastewater bacterial species (Bacillus licheniformis, Brevibacillus laterosporus and Pseudomonas putida) was ascertained at different pH levels (pH 2, 7 and 10). Lethal concentrations (LC) of NMs and parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved oxygen (DO) were taken into consideration to assess the performance of a wastewater batch reactor. Bacterial isolates were susceptible to varying concentrations of both nZnO and nAg at pH 2, 7 and 10. It was found that a change in pH did not significantly affect the toxicity of test NMs towards target bacterial isolates. All bacterial species were significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) in the presence of 0.65 g/L of nZnO and nAg. In contrast, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in COD removal in the presence of increasing concentrations of NMs, which resulted in increasing releases of COD. Noticeably, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the decrease in DO uptake in the presence of increasing NM concentrations for all bacterial isolates. The toxic effects of the target NMs on bacterial populations in wastewater may negatively impact the performance of biological treatment processes and may thus affect the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants in producing effluent of high quality.

  19. Start-up of an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor treating synthetic carbohydrate rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yeshanew, Martha M; Frunzo, Luigi; Luongo, Vincenzo; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni

    2016-12-15

    The present work studied the start-up process of a mesophilic (37 ± 2 °C) anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days using synthetic carbohydrate rich wastewater. Anox Kaldness-K1 carriers were used as biofilm carrier material. The reactor performance and biofilm formation were evaluated during the process. The start-up process at lower liquid recirculation flow rate enhanced the biofilm formation and reactor performance. The organic substrate composition had a major impact on early colonization of methanogenic archaea onto the surface of the Kaldness carriers during the start-up process. Specific organic substrates favouring the growth of methanogenic archaea, such as acetate, are preferred in order to facilitate the subsequent biofilm formation and AFBR start-up. The supply of 'bio-available' nutrients and trace elements, in particular iron, had an important role on optimal methanogenic activity and speeding-up of the biofilm development on the Kaldness carriers. This paper provides possible strategies to optimize the various operational parameters that influence the initial biofilm formation and development in an AFBR and similar high rate anaerobic reactors, hence can be used to reduce the long time required for process start-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Removing organic matter from sulfate-rich wastewater via sulfidogenic and methanogenic pathways.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Rogerio Silveira; Damianovic, Márcia Helena Rissato Zamariolli; Foresti, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous organic matter removal and sulfate reduction in synthetic sulfate-rich wastewater was evaluated for various chemical oxygen demand (COD)/sulfate ratios applied in a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized sludge (HAIS) reactor. At higher COD/sulfate ratios (12.5 and 7.5), the removal of organic matter was stable, likely due to methanogenesis. A combination of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis was clearly established at COD/sulfate ratios of 3.0 and 1.9. At a COD/sulfate ratio of 1.0, the organic matter removal was likely influenced by methanogenesis inhibition. The quantity of sulfate removed at a COD/sulfate ratio of 1.0 was identical to that obtained at a ratio of 1.9, indicating a lack of available electron donors for sulfidogenesis. The sulfate reduction and organic matter removal were not maximized at the same COD/sulfate ratio; therefore, competitive inhibition must be the predominant mechanism in establishing an electron flow.

  1. Partial nitrification of non-ammonium-rich wastewater within biofilm filters under ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyu; He, Jiajie; Yang, Kai

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the partial nitrification performances of two biofilm filters over a synthetic non-ammonium-rich wastewater at a 20°C room temperature under both limited DO (∼2.0 mg/L) and unlimited DO (∼4.0 mg/L) conditions. The two filters were each of 80 cm long and used different biofilm carriers: activated carbon and ceramic granule. Results showed that partial nitrification was accomplished for both filters under the limited DO condition. However, the effluent NO(2)-N was higher in the ceramic granule filter than in the activated carbon filter, and was less susceptible to the influent COD/N changes. Further investigation into the water phase COD and NH(4)-N depth profiles and bacteria population within the two filters showed that by putting upper filter layer (upstream) to confront relatively higher influent COD/N ratios, the filtration process naturally put lower filter layers (downstream) relatively more favorable for nitrifying bacteria (ammonia oxidizing bacteria in this study) to prosper, making the filter depth left for nitrification a crucial factor for the effectiveness of nitrification with a filter. The potentially different porous flow velocities of the two filters might be the reason to cause their different partial nitrification performances, with a lower porous flow velocity (the ceramic granule filter) favoring partial nitrification more. In summation, DO, filter depth, and filtration speed should be played together to successfully operate a biofilm filter for partial nitrification.

  2. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-05-15

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l(-1) to 8 mg TPH l(-1). Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  4. Zinc

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  5. High-rate anaerobic treatment system for solid/lipid-rich wastewater using anaerobic baffled reactor with scum recovery.

    PubMed

    Fujihira, Takuya; Seo, Shogo; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Hatamoto, Masashi; Tanikawa, Daisuke

    2018-04-27

    A laboratory scale experiment was conducted to investigate the treatment of solid/lipid-rich wastewater with an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor. In this study, experimental periods were divided into three phases to explore efficient treatment of solids and lipids in wastewater. In ABR, >90% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed and >70% of the removed COD was converted to methane under steady-state conditions during each phase. During this period, >4.5 kg COD m -3  d -1 was achieved on an average in Phases 1 and 3. Biogas contributed to scum formation, and the scum was categorized into lipid-rich and sludge-containing types, which have energy potentials of 53.4 and 212 kcal/kg-wet weight, respectively. Therefore, by recovering solids and lipids, which formed persistent scum, ABR can be applied as a high-rate treatment for solid/lipid-rich wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Technological aspects of the microbial treatment of sulfide-rich wastewaters: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sublette, K L; Kolhatkar, R; Raterman, K

    1998-01-01

    Thiobacillus denitrificans has been shown to be an effective biocatalyst for the treatment of a variety of sulfide-laden waste streams including sour water, sour gases, and refinery spent-sulfidic caustics. The term 'sour' originated in the petroleum industry to describe a waste contaminated with hydrogen sulfide or salts of sulfide and bisulfide. The microbial treatment of sour waste streams resulting from the production or refining of natural gas and crude oil have been investigated in this laboratory for many years. The application of this technology to the treatment of sour wastes on a commercially useful scale has presented several technical barriers including substrate inhibition (sulfide), product inhibition (sulfate), the need for septic operation, biomass recycle and recovery, mixed waste issues, and the need for large-scale cultivation of the organism for process startup. The removal of these barriers through process improvements are discussed in terms of a case study of the full-scale treatment of sulfide-rich wastewater. The ability of T. denitrificans to deodorize and detoxify an oil-field produced water containing sulfides was evaluated under full-scale field conditions at Amoco Production Co. Salt Creek Field in Midwest, WY. More than 800 m3/d of produced water containing 100 mg/L sulfide and total dissolved solids of 4800 mg/L were successfully biotreated in an earthen pit (3000 m3) over a six-month period. Complete removal of sulfides and elimination of associated odors were observed. The system could be upset by severe hydraulic disturbances; however, the system recovered rapidly when normal influent flow rates were restored.

  7. The Cysteine-rich Domain of the DHHC3 Palmitoyltransferase Is Palmitoylated and Contains Tightly Bound Zinc*

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Colin D.; Zhang, Sheng; Linder, Maurine E.

    2015-01-01

    DHHC palmitoyltransferases catalyze the addition of the fatty acid palmitate to proteins on the cytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes. There are 23 members of the highly diverse mammalian DHHC protein family, all of which contain a conserved catalytic domain called the cysteine-rich domain (CRD). DHHC proteins transfer palmitate via a two-step catalytic mechanism in which the enzyme first modifies itself with palmitate in a process termed autoacylation. The enzyme then transfers palmitate from itself onto substrate proteins. The number and location of palmitoylated cysteines in the autoacylated intermediate is unknown. In this study, we present evidence using mass spectrometry that DHHC3 is palmitoylated at the cysteine in the DHHC motif. Mutation of highly conserved CRD cysteines outside the DHHC motif resulted in activity deficits and a structural perturbation revealed by limited proteolysis. Treatment of DHHC3 with chelating agents in vitro replicated both the specific structural perturbations and activity deficits observed in conserved cysteine mutants, suggesting metal ion-binding in the CRD. Using the fluorescent indicator mag-fura-2, the metal released from DHHC3 was identified as zinc. The stoichiometry of zinc binding was measured as 2 mol of zinc/mol of DHHC3 protein. Taken together, our data demonstrate that coordination of zinc ions by cysteine residues within the CRD is required for the structural integrity of DHHC proteins. PMID:26487721

  8. A novel zinc-finger protein with a proline-rich domain mediates ABA-regulated seed dormancy in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    He, Yuehui; Gan, Susheng

    2004-01-01

    Seed dormancy is an important developmental process that prevents pre-harvest sprouting in many grains and other seeds. Abscisic acid (ABA), a plant hormone, plays a crucial role in regulating dormancy but the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. An Arabidopsis zinc-finger gene, MEDIATOR OF ABA-REGULATED DORMANCY 1 ( MARD1 ) was identified and functionally analyzed. MARD1 expression is up-regulated by ABA. A T-DNA insertion in the promoter region downstream of two ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) renders MARD1 unable to respond to ABA. The mard1 seeds are less dormant and germinate in total darkness; their germination is resistant to external ABA at the stage of radicle protrusion. These results suggest that this novel zinc-finger protein with a proline-rich N-terminus is an important downstream component of the ABA signaling pathway that mediates ABA-regulated seed dormancy in Arabidopsis.

  9. Fed-batch cultivation of Arthrospira and Chlorella in ammonia-rich wastewater: Optimization of nutrient removal and biomass production.

    PubMed

    Markou, Giorgos

    2015-10-01

    In the present work the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis and the microalga Chlorella vulgaris were fed-batch cultivated in ammonia-rich wastewater derived from the anaerobic digestion of poultry litter. Aim of the study was to maximize the biomass production along with the nutrient removal aiming to wastewater treatment. Ammonia and phosphorus removals were very high (>95%) for all cultures investigated. Both microorganisms were able to remove volatile fatty acids to an extent of >90%, indicating that they were capable of mixotrophic growth. Chemical oxygen demand and proteins were also removed in various degrees. In contrast, in all cultures carbohydrate concentration was increased. The biochemical composition of the microorganisms varied greatly and was influenced by the indicate that the nutrient availability. A. platensis accumulated carbohydrates (≈ 40%), while C. vulgaris accumulated lipids (≈ 50%), rendering them interesting for biofuel production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaerobic co-digestion of acetate-rich with lignin-rich wastewater and the effect of hydrotalcite addition.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Chiang, Lourdes; Llorca, Jordi; Dahl, Olli

    2016-10-01

    The methane potential and biodegradability of different ratios of acetate and lignin-rich effluents from a neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulp mill were investigated. Results showed ultimate methane yields up to 333±5mLCH4/gCOD when only acetate-rich substrate was added and subsequently lower methane potentials of 192±4mLCH4/gCOD when the lignin fraction was increased. The presence of lignin showed a linear decay in methane production, resulting in a 41% decrease in methane when the lignin-rich feed had a 30% increase. A negative linear correlation between lignin content and biodegradability was also observed. Furthermore, the effect of hydrotalcite (HT) addition was evaluated and showed increase in methane potential of up to 8%, a faster production rate and higher soluble lignin removal (7-12% higher). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies between 64 and 83% were obtained for all samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An adsorption-release-biodegradation system for simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Hu; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Ren, Rui-Peng; Lv, Yong-Kang

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater was evaluated in a reusable system, which contained macroporous adsorption resin and Alcaligenes faecalis strain WY-01. In the system, up to 6000mg/L phenol could be completely degraded by WY-01; meanwhile, 99.03±3.95% of ammonium was removed from the initial concentration of 384mg/L. This is the first study to show the capability of single strain in simultaneous removal of ammonium and phenol in wastewater containing such high concentrations of phenol. Moreover, the resin was regenerated during the biodegradation process without any additional manipulations, indicating the system was reusable. Furthermore, enzyme assay, gene expression patterns, HPLC-MS and gas chromatography analysis confirmed that phenol biodegradation accompanied with aerobic nitrifier denitrification process. Results imply that the reusable system provides a novel strategy for more efficient biodegradation of phenol and ammonium contained in some particular industrial wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance of CSTR-EGSB-SBR system for treating sulfate-rich cellulosic ethanol wastewater and microbial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lili; Zhang, Zhaohan; Yu, Yanling; Ambuchi, John Justo; Feng, Yujie

    2017-06-01

    Performance and microbial community composition were evaluated in a two-phase anaerobic and aerobic system treating sulfate-rich cellulosic ethanol wastewater (CEW). The system was operated at five different chemical oxygen demand (COD)/SO 4 2- ratios (63.8, 26.3, 17.8, 13.7, and 10.7). Stable performance was obtained for total COD removal efficiency (94.5%), sulfate removal (89.3%), and methane production rate (11.5 L/day) at an organic loading rate of 32.4 kg COD/(m 3 ·day). The acidogenic reactor made a positive contribution to net VFAs production (2318.1 mg/L) and sulfate removal (60.9%). Acidogenic bacteria (Megasphaera, Parabacteroides, unclassified Ruminococcaceae spp., and Prevotella) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (Butyrivibrio, Megasphaera) were rich in the acidogenic reactor. In the methanogenic reactor, high diversity of microorganisms corresponded with a COD removal contribution of 83.2%. Moreover, methanogens (Methanosaeta) were predominant, suggesting that these organisms played an important role in the acetotrophic methanogenesis pathway. The dominant aerobic bacteria (Truepera) appeared to have been responsible for the COD removal of the SBR. These results indicate that dividing the sulfate reduction process could effectively minimize sulfide toxicity, which is important for the successful operation of system treating sulfate-rich CEW.

  13. Copper, lead and zinc removal from metal-contaminated wastewater by adsorption onto agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Janyasuthiwong, Suthee; Phiri, Sheila M; Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Rene, Eldon R; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-01-01

    The use of agricultural wastes (groundnut shell, orange and banana peel, rice husk, coconut husk and Wawa tree saw dust) as potential cost-effective adsorbent for heavy metal removal from wastewater was evaluated. The effect of pH (2.0-6.0), adsorbent dosage (0.6-2.2 g), contact time (10-130 min) and initial concentration (Pb: 5-105 mg/L, Cu and Zn: 2.5-52.7 mg/L) on the metal removal efficiency and uptake capacity were investigated using response surface methodology to optimize the process conditions. Groundnut shell showed a high potential to remove Cu, Pb and Zn from synthetic wastewater. The highest removal efficiencies with groundnut as the adsorbent were 85% at pH 5.0 for Cu and 98% at pH 3.0 for Pb and Zn. The optimum conditions obtained were 2.5 g adsorbent with 40.7 mg/L Cu at pH 4.4 and 64 min contact time, 2.5 g adsorbent with 196.1 mg/L Pb at pH 5.6 and 60 min contact time and 3.1 g adsorbent with 70.2 mg/L Zn at pH 4.3 and 50 min contact time, for Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively. The regeneration of the groundnut shell was possible for a maximum of three cycles using 0.2 M HCl as the desorbing solution without any significant change in the adsorbing efficiency.

  14. Bacteria–zinc co-localization implicates enhanced synthesis of cysteine-rich peptides in zinc detoxification when Brassica juncea is inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, Gbotemi A; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Heal, Kate V

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are enigmatic in enhancing plant growth in the face of increased metal accumulation in plants. Since most PGPB colonize the plant root epidermis, we hypothesized that PGPB confer tolerance to metals through changes in speciation at the root epidermis. We employed a novel combination of fluorophore-based confocal laser scanning microscopic imaging and synchrotron based microscopic X-ray fluorescence mapping with X-ray absorption spectroscopy to characterize bacterial localization, zinc (Zn) distribution and speciation in the roots of Brassica juncea grown in Zn contaminated media (400 mg kg−1 Zn) with the endophytic Pseudomonas brassicacearum and rhizospheric Rhizobium leguminosarum. PGPB enhanced epidermal Zn sequestration relative to PGBP-free controls while the extent of endophytic accumulation depended on the colonization mode of each PGBP. Increased root accumulation of Zn and increased tolerance to Zn was associated predominantly with R. leguminosarum and was likely due to the coordination of Zn with cysteine-rich peptides in the root endodermis, suggesting enhanced synthesis of phytochelatins or glutathione. Our mechanistic model of enhanced Zn accumulation and detoxification in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum has particular relevance to PGPB enhanced phytoremediation of soils contaminated through mining and oxidation of sulphur-bearing Zn minerals or engineered nanomaterials such as ZnS. PMID:26263508

  15. A novel class of plant-specific zinc-dependent DNA-binding protein that binds to A/T-rich DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Yukio; Furuhashi, Hirofumi; Inaba, Takehito; Sasaki, Yukiko

    2001-01-01

    Complementary DNA encoding a DNA-binding protein, designated PLATZ1 (plant AT-rich sequence- and zinc-binding protein 1), was isolated from peas. The amino acid sequence of the protein is similar to those of other uncharacterized proteins predicted from the genome sequences of higher plants. However, no paralogous sequences have been found outside the plant kingdom. Multiple alignments among these paralogous proteins show that several cysteine and histidine residues are invariant, suggesting that these proteins are a novel class of zinc-dependent DNA-binding proteins with two distantly located regions, C-x2-H-x11-C-x2-C-x(4–5)-C-x2-C-x(3–7)-H-x2-H and C-x2-C-x(10–11)-C-x3-C. In an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, the zinc chelator 1,10-o-phenanthroline inhibited DNA binding, and two distant zinc-binding regions were required for DNA binding. A protein blot with 65ZnCl2 showed that both regions are required for zinc-binding activity. The PLATZ1 protein non-specifically binds to A/T-rich sequences, including the upstream region of the pea GTPase pra2 and plastocyanin petE genes. Expression of the PLATZ1 repressed those of the reporter constructs containing the coding sequence of luciferase gene driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S90 promoter fused to the tandem repeat of the A/T-rich sequences. These results indicate that PLATZ1 is a novel class of plant-specific zinc-dependent DNA-binding protein responsible for A/T-rich sequence-mediated transcriptional repression. PMID:11600698

  16. The microbial community of a passive biochemical reactor treating arsenic, zinc, and sulfate-rich seepage.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susan Anne; Khoshnoodi, Maryam; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Taupp, Marcus; Hallam, Steven; Mattes, Al; Sanei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Sulfidogenic biochemical reactors (BCRs) for metal removal that use complex organic carbon have been shown to be effective in laboratory studies, but their performance in the field is highly variable. Successful operation depends on the types of microorganisms supported by the organic matrix, and factors affecting the community composition are unknown. A molecular survey of a field-based BCR that had been removing zinc and arsenic for over 6 years revealed that the microbial community was dominated by methanogens related to Methanocorpusculum sp. and Methanosarcina sp., which co-occurred with Bacteroidetes environmental groups, such as Vadin HA17, in places where the organic matter was more degraded. The metabolic potential for organic matter decomposition by Ruminococcaceae was prevalent in samples with more pyrolyzable carbon. Rhodobium- and Hyphomicrobium-related genera within the Rhizobiales order that have the metabolic potential for dark hydrogen fermentation and methylotrophy, and unclassified Comamonadaceae were the dominant Proteobacteria. The unclassified environmental group Sh765B-TzT-29 was an important Delta-Proteobacteria group in this BCR that co-occurred with the dominant Rhizobiales operational taxonomic units. Organic matter degradation is one driver for shifting the microbial community composition and therefore possibly the performance of these bioreactors over time.

  17. Comparison of semi-batch vs. continuously fed anaerobic bioreactors for the treatment of a high-strength, solids-rich pumpkin-processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    del Agua, Isabel; Usack, Joseph G; Angenent, Largus T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare two different high-rate anaerobic bioreactor configurations--the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and the upflow anaerobic solid removal (UASR) reactor--for the treatment of a solid-rich organic wastewater with a high strength. The two, 4.5-L reactors were operated in parallel for close to 100 days under mesophilic conditions (37°C) with non-granular biomass by feeding a pumpkin wastewater with ∼4% solids. The organic loading rate of pumpkin wastewater was increased periodically to a maximum of 8 g COD L(-1) d(-1) by shortening the hydraulic retention time to 5.3 days. Compositional analysis of pumpkin wastewater revealed deficiencies in the trace metal cobalt and alkalinity. With supplementation, the ASBR outperformed the UASR reactor with total chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 64% and 53%, respectively, achieving a methane yield of 0.27 and 0.20 L CH4 g(-1) COD fed to the ASBR and UASR, respectively. The better performance realized with the ASBR and this specific wastewater was attributed to its semi-batch, dynamic operating conditions rather than the continuous operating conditions of the UASR reactor.

  18. Decrease in zinc adsorption onto soil in the presence of EPS-rich and EPS-poor Pseudomonas aureofaciens.

    PubMed

    Drozdova, O Yu; Pokrovsky, O S; Lapitskiy, S A; Shirokova, L S; González, A G; Demin, V V

    2014-12-01

    The adsorption of Zn onto the humic and illuvial horizons of the podzol soil in the presence of soil bacteria was studied using a batch-reactor technique as a function of the pH (from 2 to 9) and the Zn concentration in solution (from 0.076mM to 0.760mM). Exopolysaccharides-forming aerobic heterotrophs Pseudomonas aureofaciens were added at 0.1 and 1.0gwetL(-1) concentrations to two different soil horizons, and Zn adsorption was monitored as a function of the pH and the dissolved-Zn concentration. The pH-dependent adsorption edge demonstrated more efficient Zn adsorption by the humic horizon than the mineral horizon at otherwise similar soil concentrations. The Zn adsorption onto the EPS-poor strain was on slightly lower than that onto EPS-rich bacteria. Similar differences in the adsorption capacities between the soil and bacteria were also detected by "langmuirian" constant-pH experiments conducted in soil-Zn and bacteria-Zn binary systems. The addition of 0.1gwetL(-1)P. aureofaciens to a soil-bacteria system (4gdryL(-1)soil) resulted in statistically significant decrease in the adsorption yield, which was detectable from both the pH-dependent adsorption edge and the constant-pH isotherm experiments. Increasing the amount of added bacteria to 1gwetL(-1) further decreased the overall adsorption in the full range of the pH. This decrease was maximal for the EPS-rich bacteria and minimal for the EPS-poor bacteria (a factor of 2.8 and 2.2 at pH=6.9, respectively). These observations in binary and ternary systems were further rationalized by linear-programming modeling of surface equilibria that revealed the systematic differences in the number of binding sites and the surface-adsorption constant of zinc onto the two soil horizons with and without bacteria. The main finding of this work is that the adsorption of Zn onto the humic soil-bacteria system is lower than that in pure, bacteria-free soil systems. This difference is statistically significant (p<0.05). As such

  19. Removal of lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper from industrial wastewater by carbon developed from walnut, hazelnut, almond, pistachio shell, and apricot stone.

    PubMed

    Kazemipour, Maryam; Ansari, Mehdi; Tajrobehkar, Shabnam; Majdzadeh, Majdeh; Kermani, Hamed Reihani

    2008-01-31

    In this work, adsorption of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) that exist in industrial wastewater onto the carbon produced from nutshells of walnut, hazelnut, pistachio, almond, and apricot stone has been investigated. All the agricultural shell or stone used were ground, sieved to a defined size range, and carbonized in an oven. Time and temperature of heating were optimized at 15 min and 800 degrees C, respectively, to reach maximum removal efficiency. Removal efficiency was optimized regarding to the initial pH, flow rate, and dose of adsorbent. The maximum removal occurred at pH 6-10, flow rate of 3 mL/min, and 0.1g of the adsorbent. Capacity of carbon sources for removing cations will be considerably decreased in the following times of passing through them. Results showed that the cations studied significantly can be removed by the carbon sources. Efficiency of carbon to remove the cations from real wastewater produced by copper industries was also studied. Finding showed that not only these cations can be removed considerably by the carbon sources noted above, but also removing efficiency are much more in the real samples. These results were in adoption to those obtained by standard mixture synthetic wastewater.

  20. Occurrence of silver minerals in a silver-rich pocket in the massive sulfide zinc-lead ores in the Edwards mine, New York

    SciT

    Serviss, C.R.; Grout, C.M.; Hagni, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Ore microscopic examination of uncommon silver-rich ores from the Edwards mine has detected three silver minerals, native silver, freibergite, and argentite, that were previously unreported in the literature from the Balmat-Edwards district. The zinc-lead ore deposits of the Balmat-Edwards District in northern New York are composed of very coarse-grained massive sulfides, principally sphalerite, galena, and pyrite. The typical ores contain small amounts of silver in solid solution galena. Galena concentrates produced from those ores have contained an average of 15 ounces of silver per ton of 60% lead concentrates. In contrast to the typical ore a silver-rich pocket, that measuredmore » three feet by three feet on the vertical mine face and was the subject of this study, contained nearly 1% silver in a zinc ore. Ore microscopic study shows that this ore is especially characterized by abundant, relatively fine-grained chalcopyrite with anhedral pyrite inclusions. Fine-grained sphalerite, native silver, argentite, freibergite and arsenopyrite occur in association with the chalcopyrite and as fracture-fillings in gangue minerals. Geochemically anomalous amounts of tin, barium, chromium, and nickel also are present in the silver-rich pocket. The silver-rich pocket may mark the locus of an early feeder vent or alternatively it may record a hydrothermal event that was superimposed upon the event responsible for the metamorphic ore textures.« less

  1. Comparative evaluation of zinc oxide eugenol versus gelatin sponge soaked in plasma rich in growth factor in the treatment of dry socket: An initial study

    PubMed Central

    Pal, U. S.; Singh, Balendra Pratap; Verma, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report a comparison between the zinc oxide eugenol dressing and plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) with gelatin sponge in the treatment of dry socket. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of 45 patients of dry socket in the span of one year. The patients were randomly divided into three groups on the basis of treatments: Group A (PRGF with gelatin sponge), group B (zinc oxide eugenol group), and group C (irrigation with sterile saline only). The clinical progress was noted at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 7th, and 15th day after the treatment. Results: Patient's healing was better in group A than in group B but symptomatic pain relief was faster in group B. Group C fared worst in both aspects. Conclusion: We conclude that PRGF with gelatin sponge might be a treatment of choice in the management of dry socket. PMID:23853450

  2. Selectivity sequences and sorption capacities of phosphatic clay and humus rich soil towards the heavy metals present in zinc mine tailing.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Pranav Kumar; Seth, Chandra Shekhar; Misra, Virendra

    2007-08-25

    Sorption efficacy of phosphatic clay and humus rich soil alone and on combination were tested towards heavy metals present in zinc mine tailing (Zawar Zinc Mine), Udaipur (India). Characterization of the zinc mine tailing sample indicated the presence of Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn in the concentration of 637, 186, 720 and 577microg(-1), respectively. For sorption efficacy, the zinc mine tailing soil were properly amended with phosphatic clay and humus rich soil separately and in combination and leachability study was performed by batch experiment at different pH range from 3 to 9. The data showed that the percent leachability of heavy metal in non-amended soil was 75-90%. After amendment with phosphatic clay percent leachability of heavy metals became 35-45%. Further, the addition of humus soil to phosphatic clay decreased the percent leachability up to 5-15% at all tested pH. Column leachability experiment was performed to evaluate the rate of leachability. The shape of cumulative curves of Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn showed an increase in its concavity in following order: PbCu>Zn>Mn. Further, Langmuir isotherms applied for the sorption studies indicated that phosphatic clay in the presence of humus soil had high affinity for Pb followed by Cu, Zn and Mn, with sorption capacities (b) 139.94, 97.02, 83.32 and 67.58microgg(-1), respectively.

  3. Assessing the feasibility of N and P recovery by struvite precipitation from nutrient-rich wastewater: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Pal, Parimal

    2015-11-01

    Literature on recovery of nitrogen and phosphorous from wastewater in the form of value-added struvite fertilizer has been critically reviewed towards the evolution of a sustainable management strategy. Presence of nitrogen and phosphorus is widespread in both domestic as well as industrial wastewater streams such as swine wastewater, landfill leachate, urine waste, dairy manure, coke wastewater, and beverage wastewater. Where these nitrogen and phosphorus compounds cause eutrophication of water bodies and considered as harmful discharges to the environment, they can be turned useful through simple chemical conversion into struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O). In extensive studies on wastewater treatment, aspects of recovery of valuable materials remain dispersed. In the present article, almost all relevant aspects of sources of raw materials, chemistry and technology of struvite production, and its detailed characterization have been captured in a systematic and classified way so as to help in planning and designing an integrated scheme of struvite production through conversion of nitrogen and phosphorus components of waste streams. The study will help in formulating a new waste management strategy in this context by shifting focus from removal to recovery of nutrients from waste streams.

  4. Realizing high-rate sulfur reduction under sulfate-rich conditions in a biological sulfide production system to treat metal-laden wastewater deficient in organic matter.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rongrong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zefeng; Chen, Guang-Hao; Jiang, Feng

    2017-12-22

    Biological sulfur reduction can theoretically produce sufficient sulfide to effectively remove and recover heavy metals in the treatment of organics-deficient sulfate-rich metal-laden wastewater such as acid mine drainage and metallurgic wastewater, using 75% less organics than biological sulfate reduction. However, it is still unknown whether sulfur reduction can indeed compete with sulfate reduction, particularly under high-strength sulfate conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term feasibility of biological sulfur reduction under high sulfate conditions in a lab-scale sulfur-reducing biological sulfide production (BSP) system with sublimed sulfur added. In the 169-day trial, an average sulfide production rate (SPR) as high as 47 ± 9 mg S/L-h was achieved in the absence of sulfate, and the average SPR under sulfate-rich conditions was similar (53 ± 10 mg S/L-h) when 1300 mg S/L sulfate were fed with the influent. Interestingly, sulfate was barely reduced even at such a high strength and contributed to only 1.5% of total sulfide production. Desulfomicrobium was identified as the predominant sulfidogenic bacterium in the bioreactor. Batch tests further revealed that this sulfidogenic bacteria used elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor instead of the highly bioavailable sulfate, during which polysulfide acted as an intermediate, leading to an even higher bioavailability of sulfur than sulfate. The pathway of sulfur to sulfide conversion via polysulfide in the presence of both sulfur and sulfate was discussed. Collectively, when conditions favor polysulfide formation, sulfur reduction can be a promising and attractive technology to realize a high-rate and low-cost BSP process for treating sulfate-rich metal-laden wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of the Degradation Mechanisms of Particulate Reinforced Epoxy Coatings and Zinc-Rich Coatings Under an Erosion and Corrosion Environment for Oil and Gas Industry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dailin

    During oil and gas production and transportation, the presence of an oil-sand slurry, together with the presence of CO2, H2S, oxygen, and seawater, create an erosive/abrasive and corrosive environment for the interior surfaces of undersea pipelines transporting oil and gas from offshore platforms. Erosion/wear and corrosion are often synergic processes leading to a much greater material loss of pipeline cross-section than that caused by each individual process alone. Both organic coatings and metallic sacrificial coatings have been widely employed to provide protection to the pipeline steels against corrosion through barrier protection and cathodic protection, and these protection mechanisms have been well studied. However, coating performance under the synergic processes of erosion/wear and corrosion have been much less researched and coating degradation mechanisms when erosion/wear and corrosion are both going on has not been well elucidated. In the work presented in this dissertation, steel panels coated with filler reinforced epoxy coatings and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced zinc-rich coatings have been evaluated under erosion/wear followed by an exposure to a corrosive environment. Electrochemical tests and material characterization methods have been applied to study the degradation mechanisms of the coatings during the tests and coating degradation mechanisms have been proposed. While organic coatings with a lower amount of filler particles provided better protection in a corrosive environment alone and in solid particle impingement erosion testing alone, organic coatings with a higher amount of filler particles showed better performance during wear testing alone. A higher amount of filler particles was also beneficial in providing protection against wear and corrosion environment, and erosion and corrosion environment. Coating thickness played a significant role in the barrier properties of the coatings under both erosion and corrosion tests. When the

  6. Levels of iron, silver, zinc, and lead in oranges and avocados from two gold-rich towns compared with levels in an adjacent gold-deficient town

    SciT

    Golow, A.A.; Laryea, J.N.

    1994-09-01

    Fruits such as oranges and avocados are important sources of drinks and food in the Ghanaian Society. If such fruits contain various types of metals they may augument the types and amounts of them in the human body. The metals in fruits may depend on what is in the soils from which they are grown. If the soils contain toxic metals like lead, mercury and cadmium then the consumers may be poisoned as happened in the [open quotes]Ouchi - ouchi[close quotes], disease in Japan and similar episodes. In the area under study, the Geological Survey indicates the presence of 2.5more » ppm of lead, 10 - 20 ppm of copper and less than 15 ppm of nickel. Silver, not reported in commercial amounts, is a byproduct of gold productions at Obuasi. Since copper and nickel are presented in the area traces of silver will certainly occur. In the same manner zinc is usually associated with lead as sulphide of zinc blend trace amounts of it are likely to occur in the area. Of the four metals measured, iron and zinc essential for citrus. The extractable iron and zinc in the area of study were 90 and 1.8 mg/kg, levels on the low side for the healthy growth of crops. The investigation reported here is the comparison of the levels of some metals in oranges and avocados from farms in Obuasi and Konongo with those from farms in Kumasi City. This is a part of a project aimed at finding out differences in the metal contents of various food crops grown in various regions of the country. Konongo and Obuasi have soils which are rich in gold but Kumasi city, which is not too distant from these towns, does not have gold in its soil. 18 refs., 1 tab.« less

  7. Dye adsorption into transition metal-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles supported on natural zeolites to solve wastewater issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indra Pratiwi, Margaretha; Afifah, Nur; Saleh, Rosari

    2017-03-01

    In this work, Fe-doped zinc oxide/natural zeolite (Fe:ZnO/NZ) nanocomposites were prepared using the co-precipitation method with various NZ amounts. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The nanocomposites were used to remove methylene blue (MB) dye from an aqueous solution. The effect of various NZ amounts and initial MB concentration were tested. The Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were used to explain the adsorption mechanism. The Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherm models were used to fit the adsorption isotherms of the nanocomposites.

  8. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater and Post-Treatment Processing of Sewage Sludge

    SciT

    Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan

    2013-01-14

    The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as amore » result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that 'native' Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other 'conventional' forms of Zn present in sewage sludge.« less

  9. The Relation between the Tensile Properties and Constitution of Aluminium-Rich Aluminium-Magnesium-Manganese-Zinc Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-08-01

    magnesium and lljs of zinc in the fully heat treated condition were .37.0 tons/in»2, 40.1 tons/in.2 aid Gji respectively and for the alloy with 4>» of...heat treated condition were 37.0 tons/in.2,» 40.1 tons/in.2 and Gji respectively, and for the 4ilill alloy. 40.4 tons/in.2 44.5 tons/in.2 and 2J5

  10. Effect of zinc ions on nutrient removal and growth of Lemna aequinoctialis from anaerobically digested swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Lin, Yan; Li, Xiang; Yang, Chunping; Han, Zhenfeng; Zeng, Guangming; Lu, Li; He, Shanying

    2018-02-01

    The effect of Zn 2+ on ammonium and phosphorous removal and duckweed growth was evaluated for treatment of anaerobically digested swine wastewater (ADSW) at various initial Zn 2+ concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 15mg/L. Lemna aequinoctialis taken from a local pond was selected for the treatment, and its fresh weight and contents of proteins, photosynthetic pigments, and vitamin E were examined. Results showed that the optimal Zn 2+ concentration was 5.0mg/L for NH 3 -N and TP removal, the duckweed growth, and the accumulation of proteins in the duckweed. A maximum content of photosynthetic pigments increased with the increase of initial Zn 2+ concentration, and it arrived earlier for a higher concentration of Zn 2+ . Vitamin E content in the duckweed reached 4.5mg/kg at 15mg/L Zn 2+ in 12-day cultivation, which showed the potential for producing and harvesting a high value-added product of vitamin E by culturing duckweed in ADSW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Proton-conducting beta"-alumina via microwave-assisted synthesis and mechanism of enhanced corrosion prevention of a zinc rich coating with electronic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Brent William

    Proton Conducting beta-alumina via Microwave Assisted Synthesis. The microwave assisted synthesis of proton conducting Mg- and Li-stabilized NH4+/H3O+ beta-alumina from a solution based gel precursor is reported. beta-alumina is a ceramic fast ion conductor containing two-dimensional sheets of mobile cations. Na +-beta-alumina is the most stable at the sintering temperatures (1740°C) reached in a modified microwave oven, and can be ion exchanged to the K+ form and then to the NH4+/H 3O+ form. beta-phase impurity is found to be 20% for Mg-stabilized material and 30-40% for Li-stabilized material. The composition of the proton conducting form produced here is deficient in NH4 + as compared to the target composition (NH4)1.00 (H3O)0.67Mg0.67Al10.33O 17. Average grain conductivity for Li-stabilized material at 150°C is 6.6x10-3 +/- 1.6x10-3 S/cm with 0.29 +/- 0.05 eV activation energy, in agreement with single crystal studies in the literature. Grain boundary conductivity is found to be higher in the Li-stabilized material. A hydrogen bond energy hypothesis is presented to explain these differences. Li-stabilized NH4+/H3O + beta-alumina is demonstrated as a fuel cell electrolyte, producing 28 muA/cm2 of electrical current at 0.5 V. Mechanism of Enhanced Corrosion Prevention of a Zinc Rich Coating with Electronic Control. A corrosion inhibition system consisting of high weight-loading zinc rich coating applied to steel panels is examined. An electronic control unit (ECU) consisting of a battery and a large capacitor in series with the panel is shown to improve corrosion protection upon immersion in 3% NaCl solution. Weekly solution changes to avoid zinc saturation in solution system were necessary to see well differentiated results. The corrosion product, hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3) 2(OH)6] is observed to deposit within the pores of the coating and on the surface as a barrier layer. Simonkolleite [Zn5(OH) 8Cl2·H2O] is found to form in place of the original zinc particles

  12. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of zinc-rich acid mine water in low residence time bioreactors incorporating waste shells and methanol dosing.

    PubMed

    Mayes, W M; Davis, J; Silva, V; Jarvis, A P

    2011-10-15

    Bioreactors utilising bacterially mediated sulphate reduction (BSR) have been widely tested for treating metal-rich waters, but sustained treatment of mobile metals (e.g. Zn) can be difficult to achieve in short residence time systems. Data are presented providing an assessment of alkalinity generating media (shells or limestone) and modes of metal removal in bioreactors receiving a synthetic acidic metal mine discharge (pH 2.7, Zn 15 mg/L, SO(4)(2-) 200mg/L, net acidity 103 mg/L as CaCO(3)) subject to methanol dosing. In addition to alkalinity generating media (50%, v.v.), the columns comprised an organic matrix of softwood chippings (30%), manure (10%) and anaerobic digested sludge (10%). The column tests showed sustained alkalinity generation, which was significantly better in shell treatments. The first column in each treatment was effective throughout the 422 days in removing >99% of the dissolved Pb and Cu, and effective for four months in removing 99% of the dissolved Zn (residence time: 12-14 h). Methanol was added to the feedstock after Zn breakthrough and prompted almost complete removal of dissolved Zn alongside improved alkalinity generation and sulphate attenuation. While there was geochemical evidence for BSR, sequential extraction of substrates suggests that the bulk (67-80%) of removed Zn was associated with Fe-Mn oxide fractions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Recovery of soil ammonia oxidation after long-term zinc exposure is not related to the richness of the bacterial nitrifying community.

    PubMed

    Ruyters, Stefan; Springael, Dirk; Smolders, Erik

    2013-08-01

    A soil sterilization-reinoculation approach was used to manipulate soil microbial diversity and to assess the effect of the diversity of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) on the recovery of the nitrifying community to metal stress (zinc). Gamma-irradiated soil was inoculated with 13 different combinations of up to 22 different soils collected worldwide to create varying degrees of AOB diversity. Two months after inoculation, AOB amoA DGGE based diversity (weighted richness) varied more than 10-fold among the 13 treatments, the largest value observed where the number of inocula had been largest. Subsequently, the 13 treatments were either or not amended with ZnCl2. Initially, Zn amendment completely inhibited nitrification. After 6 months of Zn exposure, recovery of the potential nitrification activity in the Zn amended soils ranged from <10 % to >100 % of the potential nitrification activity in the corresponding non-amended soils. This recovery was neither related to DGGE-based indices of AOB diversity nor to the AOB abundance assessed 2 months after inoculation (p > 0.05). However, recovery was significantly related (r = 0.75) to the potential nitrification rate before Zn amendment and only weakly to the number of soil inocula used in the treatments (r = 0.46). The lack of clear effects of AOB diversity on recovery may be related to an inherently sufficient diversity and functional redundancy of AOB communities in soil. Our data indicate that potential microbial activity can be a significant factor in recovery.

  15. ANAMMOX-like performances for nitrogen removal from ammonium-sulfate-rich wastewater in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Prachakittikul, Pensiri; Wantawin, Chalermraj; Noophan, Pongsak Lek; Boonapatcharoen, Nimaradee

    2016-01-01

    Ammonium removal by the ANaerobic AMonium OXidation (ANAMMOX) process was observed through the Sulfate-Reducing Ammonium Oxidation (SRAO) process. The same concentration of ammonium (100 mg N L(-1)) was applied to two anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBRs) that were inoculated with the same activated sludge from the Vermicelli wastewater treatment process, while nitrite was fed in ANAMMOX and sulfate in SRAO reactors. In SRAO-AnSBR, in substrates that were fed with a ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 1:0.4 ± 0.03, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h and without sludge draining, the Ammonium Removal Rate (ARR) was 0.02 ± 0.01 kg N m(-3).d(-1). Adding specific ANAMMOX substrates to SRAO-AnSBR sludge in batch tests results in specific ammonium and nitrite removal rates of 0.198 and 0.139 g N g(-1) VSS.d, respectively, indicating that the ANAMMOX activity contributes to the removal of ammonium in the SRAO process using the nitrite that is produced from SRAO. Nevertheless, the inability of ANAMMOX to utilize sulfate to oxidize ammonium was also investigated in batch tests by augmenting enriched ANAMMOX culture in SRAO-AnSBR sludge and without nitrite supply. The time course of sulfate in a 24-hour cycle of SRAO-AnSBR showed an increase in sulfate after 6 h. For enriched SRAO culture, the uptake molar ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 8 hours in a batch test was 1:0.82 lower than the value of 1:0.20 ± 0.09 as obtained in an SRAO-AnSBR effluent, while the stoichiometric ratio of 1:0.5 that includes the ANAMMOX reaction was in this range. After a longer operation of more than 2 years without sludge draining, the accumulation of sulfate and the reduction of ammonium removal were observed, probably due to the gradual increase in the sulfur denitrification rate and the competitive use of nitrite with ANAMMOX. The 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and PCR cloning analyses resulted in the detection of the ANAMMOX

  16. Sequential nitrification and denitrification in a novel palm shell granular activated carbon twin-chamber upflow bio-electrochemical reactor for treating ammonium-rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyyedalireza; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2012-12-01

    In this study, a twin-chamber upflow bio-electrochemical reactor packed with palm shell granular activated carbon as biocarrier and third electrode was used for sequential nitrification and denitrification of nitrogen-rich wastewater under different operating conditions. The experiments were performed at a constant pH value for the denitrification compartment. The effect of variables, namely, electric current (I) and hydraulic retention time (HRT), on the pH was considered in the nitrification chamber. The response surface methodology was used based on three levels to develop empirical models for the study on the effects of HRT and current values as independent operating variables on NH(4)(+)-N removal. The results showed that ammonium was reduced within the function of an extensive operational range of electric intensity (20-50 mA) and HRT (6-24h). The optimum condition for ammonium oxidation (90%) was determined with an I of 32 mA and HRT of 19.2h. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phosphorus removal using Ca-rich hydrated oil shale ash as filter material--the effect of different phosphorus loadings and wastewater compositions.

    PubMed

    Kõiv, Margit; Liira, Martin; Mander, Ulo; Mõtlep, Riho; Vohla, Christina; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2010-10-01

    We studied the phosphorus (P) binding capacity of Ca-rich alkaline filter material - hydrated oil shale ash (i.e. hydrated ash) in two onsite pilot-scale experiments (with subsurface flow filters) in Estonia: one using pre-treated municipal wastewater with total phosphorus (TP) concentration of 0.13-17.0 mg L(-1) over a period of 6 months, another using pre-treated landfill leachate (median TP 3.4 mg L(-1)) for a total of 12 months. The results show efficient P removal (median removal of phosphates 99%) in horizontal flow (HF) filters at both sites regardless of variable concentrations of several inhibitors. The P removal efficiency of the hydrated ash increases with increasing P loading, suggesting direct precipitation of Ca-phosphate phases rather than an adsorption mechanism. Changes in the composition of the hydrated ash suggest a significant increase in P concentration in all filters (e.g. from 489.5 mg kg(-1) in initial ash to 664.9 mg kg(-1) in the HF filter after one year in operation), whereas almost all TP was removed from the inflow leachate (R(2) = 0.99). Efficiency was high throughout the experiments (median outflow from HF hydrated ash filters 0.05-0.50 mg L(-1)), and P accumulation did not show any signs of saturation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biochar application mode influences nitrogen leaching and NH3 volatilization losses in a rice paddy soil irrigated with N-rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haijun; Min, Ju; Zhang, Hailin; Feng, Yanfang; Lu, Kouping; Shi, Weiming; Yu, Min; Li, Xuewen

    2017-07-11

    Impacts of biochar application mode on nitrogen (N) leaching, ammonia (NH 3 ) volatilization, rice grain yield and N use efficiency (NUE) are not well understood. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate those impacts in a rice paddy soil received 225 kg N ha -1 from either urea or N-rich wastewater. One treatment received 10 t ha -1 biochar with the basal fertilization, and the other received same total amount of biochar but split applied with the three split N applications with same ratio as N fertilizer split ratio (40%, 30% and 30%). Results showed that N leaching loads were 4.20-6.22 kg ha -1 . Biochar one-time application reduced N leaching by 23.1%, and biochar split application further reduced N leaching by 32.4%. Total NH 3 volatilization loss was 15.5-24.5 kg ha -1 . Biochar one-time application did not influence the NH 3 volatilization, but biochar split application stimulated the cumulative NH 3 volatilization by 57.7%. Both biochar treatments had no influence on NUE and rice grain yield. In conclusion, biochar application mode indeed influences the N leaching and NH 3 volatilization in rice paddy soils, and biochar one-time application should be recommended for reducing N leaching without increasing NH 3 volatilization.

  19. Comparative functional analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum) zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins in response to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Gu, Lili; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Ryeo Jin; Suh, Mi Chung; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-01-01

    Although the functional roles of zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (RZs) have been characterized in several plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), the physiological functions of RZs in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain largely unknown. Here, the functional roles of the three wheat RZ family members, named TaRZ1, TaRZ2, and TaRZ3, were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants under various abiotic stress conditions. Expression of TaRZs was markedly regulated by salt, dehydration, or cold stress. The TaRZ1 and TaRZ3 proteins were localized to the nucleus, whereas the TaRZ2 protein was localized to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and cytoplasm. Germination of all three TaRZ-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded compared with that of wild-type seeds under salt stress conditions, whereas germination of TaRZ2- or TaRZ3-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded under dehydration stress conditions. Seedling growth of TaRZ1-expressing transgenic plants was severely inhibited under cold or salt stress conditions, and seedling growth of TaRZ2-expressing plants was inhibited under salt stress conditions. By contrast, expression of TaRZ3 did not affect seedling growth of transgenic plants under any of the stress conditions. In addition, expression of TaRZ2 conferred freeze tolerance in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results suggest that different TaRZ family members play various roles in seed germination, seedling growth, and freeze tolerance in plants under abiotic stress.

  20. Wastewater: A Potential Bioenergy Resource.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jyotsana; Sharma, Rakesh; Ray, Subhasree; Koul, Shikha; Kalia, Vipin Chandra

    2018-06-01

    Wastewaters are a rich source of nutrients for microorganisms. However, if left unattended the biodegradation may lead to severe environmental hazards. The wastewaters can thus be utilized for the production of various value added products including bioenergy (H 2 and CH 4 ). A number of studies have reported utilization of various wastewaters for energy production. Depending on the nature of the wastewater, different reactor configurations, wastewater and inoculum pretreatments, co-substrate utilizations along with other process parameters have been studied for efficient product formation. Only a few studies have reported sequential utilization of wastewaters for H 2 and CH 4 production despite its huge potential for complete waste degradation.

  1. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  2. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  3. Synthesis, structure and reactivity of [Tm(Bu(t))]ZnH, a monomeric terminal zinc hydride compound in a sulfur-rich coordination environment: access to a heterobimetallic compound.

    PubMed

    Kreider-Mueller, Ava; Quinlivan, Patrick J; Rauch, Michael; Owen, Jonathan S; Parkin, Gerard

    2016-02-07

    The first terminal zinc hydride complex that features a sulfur-rich coordination environment, namely the tris(2-mercapto-1-tert-butylimidazolyl)hydroborato compound, [Tm(Bu(t))]ZnH, has been synthesized via the reaction of [Tm(Bu(t))]ZnOPh with PhSiH3. The Zn-H bond of [Tm(Bu(t))]ZnH is subject to insertion of CO2 and facile protolytic cleavage, of which the latter provides access to heterobimetallic [Tm(Bu(t))]ZnMo(CO)3Cp.

  4. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  5. Purifying Properly Folded Cysteine-rich, Zinc Finger Containing Recombinant Proteins for Structural Drug Targeting Studies: the CH1 Domain of p300 as a Case Example

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Joon; Kaluz, Stefan; Mehta, Anil; Weinert, Emily; Rivera, Shannon; Van Meir, Erwin G.

    2017-01-01

    The transcription factor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) complexes with the coactivator p300, activating the hypoxia response pathway and allowing tumors to grow. The CH1 and CAD domains of each respective protein form the interface between p300 and HIF. Small molecule compounds are in development that target and inhibit HIF/p300 complex formation, with the goal of reducing tumor growth. High resolution NMR spectroscopy is necessary to study ligand interaction with p300-CH1, and purifying high quantities of properly folded p300-CH1 is needed for pursuing structural and biophysical studies. p300-CH1 has 3 zinc fingers and 9 cysteine residues, posing challenges associated with reagent compatibility and protein oxidation. A protocol has been developed to overcome such issues by incorporating zinc during expression and streamlining the purification time, resulting in a high yield of optimally folded protein (120 mg per 4 L expression media) that is suitable for structural NMR studies. The structural integrity of the final recombinant p300-CH1 has been verified to be optimal using onedimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy and circular dichroism. This protocol is applicable for the purification of other zinc finger containing proteins. PMID:28966947

  6. Assessing the resistance and bioremediation ability of selected bacterial and protozoan species to heavy metals in metal-rich industrial wastewater

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heavy-metals exert considerable stress on the environment worldwide. This study assessed the resistance to and bioremediation of heavy-metals by selected protozoan and bacterial species in highly polluted industrial-wastewater. Specific variables (i.e. chemical oxygen demand, pH, dissolved oxygen) and the growth/die-off-rates of test organisms were measured using standard methods. Heavy-metal removals were determined in biomass and supernatant by the Inductively Couple Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer. A parallel experiment was performed with dead microbial cells to assess the biosorption ability of test isolates. Results The results revealed that the industrial-wastewater samples were highly polluted with heavy-metal concentrations exceeding by far the maximum limits (in mg/l) of 0.05-Co, 0.2-Ni, 0.1-Mn, 0.1-V, 0.01-Pb, 0.01-Cu, 0.1-Zn and 0.005-Cd, prescribed by the UN-FAO. Industrial-wastewater had no major effects on Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus licheniformis and Peranema sp. (growth rates up to 1.81, 1.45 and 1.43 d-1, respectively) compared to other test isolates. This was also revealed with significant COD increases (p < 0.05) in culture media inoculated with living bacterial isolates (over 100%) compared to protozoan isolates (up to 24% increase). Living Pseudomonas putida demonstrated the highest removal rates of heavy metals (Co-71%, Ni-51%, Mn-45%, V-83%, Pb-96%, Ti-100% and Cu-49%) followed by Bacillus licheniformis (Al-23% and Zn-53%) and Peranema sp. (Cd-42%). None of the dead cells were able to remove more than 25% of the heavy metals. Bacterial isolates contained the genes copC, chrB, cnrA3 and nccA encoding the resistance to Cu, Cr, Co-Ni and Cd-Ni-Co, respectively. Protozoan isolates contained only the genes encoding Cu and Cr resistance (copC and chrB genes). Peranema sp. was the only protozoan isolate which had an additional resistant gene cnrA3 encoding Co-Ni resistance. Conclusion Significant differences (p < 0

  7. Assessing the resistance and bioremediation ability of selected bacterial and protozoan species to heavy metals in metal-rich industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kamika, Ilunga; Momba, Maggy N B

    2013-02-06

    Heavy-metals exert considerable stress on the environment worldwide. This study assessed the resistance to and bioremediation of heavy-metals by selected protozoan and bacterial species in highly polluted industrial-wastewater. Specific variables (i.e. chemical oxygen demand, pH, dissolved oxygen) and the growth/die-off-rates of test organisms were measured using standard methods. Heavy-metal removals were determined in biomass and supernatant by the Inductively Couple Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer. A parallel experiment was performed with dead microbial cells to assess the biosorption ability of test isolates. The results revealed that the industrial-wastewater samples were highly polluted with heavy-metal concentrations exceeding by far the maximum limits (in mg/l) of 0.05-Co, 0.2-Ni, 0.1-Mn, 0.1-V, 0.01-Pb, 0.01-Cu, 0.1-Zn and 0.005-Cd, prescribed by the UN-FAO. Industrial-wastewater had no major effects on Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus licheniformis and Peranema sp. (growth rates up to 1.81, 1.45 and 1.43 d-1, respectively) compared to other test isolates. This was also revealed with significant COD increases (p < 0.05) in culture media inoculated with living bacterial isolates (over 100%) compared to protozoan isolates (up to 24% increase). Living Pseudomonas putida demonstrated the highest removal rates of heavy metals (Co-71%, Ni-51%, Mn-45%, V-83%, Pb-96%, Ti-100% and Cu-49%) followed by Bacillus licheniformis (Al-23% and Zn-53%) and Peranema sp. (Cd-42%). None of the dead cells were able to remove more than 25% of the heavy metals. Bacterial isolates contained the genes copC, chrB, cnrA3 and nccA encoding the resistance to Cu, Cr, Co-Ni and Cd-Ni-Co, respectively. Protozoan isolates contained only the genes encoding Cu and Cr resistance (copC and chrB genes). Peranema sp. was the only protozoan isolate which had an additional resistant gene cnrA3 encoding Co-Ni resistance. Significant differences (p < 0.05) observed between dead and living microbial

  8. Arsenic, Zinc, and Aluminium Removal from Gold Mine Wastewater Effluents and Accumulation by Submerged Aquatic Plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata)

    PubMed Central

    Yusoff, Ismail; Fatt, Ng Tham; Othman, Faridah; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-01-01

    The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata) to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2%) and zinc (93.7%) and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8%) compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5%) and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water. PMID:24102060

  9. Use of flow cytometry and stable isotope analysis to determine phytoplankton uptake of wastewater derived ammonium in a nutrient-rich river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Calla M.; Kraus, Tamara E. C.; Young, Megan B.; Kendall, Carol

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of the form and concentration of nitrogen (N) in aquatic ecosystems is widespread. Understanding availability and uptake of different N sources at the base of aquatic food webs is critical to establishment of effective nutrient management programs. Stable isotopes of N (14N, 15N) are often used to trace the sources of N fueling aquatic primary production, but effective use of this approach requires obtaining a reliable isotopic ratio for phytoplankton. In this study, we tested the use of flow cytometry to isolate phytoplankton from bulk particulate organic matter (POM) in a portion of the Sacramento River, California, during river-scale nutrient manipulation experiments that involved halting wastewater discharges high in ammonium (NH4+). Field samples were collected using a Lagrangian approach, allowing us to measure changes in phytoplankton N source in the presence and absence of wastewater-derived NH4+. Comparison of δ15N-POM and δ15N-phytoplankton (δ15N-PHY) revealed that their δ15N values followed broadly similar trends. However, after 3 days of downstream travel in the presence of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, δ15N-POM and δ15N-PHY in the Sacramento River differed by as much as 7 ‰. Using a stable isotope mixing model approach, we estimated that in the presence of effluent between 40 and 90 % of phytoplankton N was derived from NH4+ after 3 days of downstream transport. An apparent gradual increase over time in the proportion of NH4+ in the phytoplankton N pool suggests that either very low phytoplankton growth rates resulted in an N turnover time that exceeded the travel time sampled during this study, or a portion of the phytoplankton community continued to access nitrate even in the presence of elevated NH4+ concentrations.

  10. Use of flow cytometry and stable isotope analysis to determine phytoplankton uptake of wastewater derived ammonium in a nutrient-rich river

    Schmidt, Calla M.; Kraus, Tamara; Young, Megan B.; Kendall, Carol

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of the form and concentration of nitrogen (N) in aquatic ecosystems is widespread. Understanding availability and uptake of different N sources at the base of aquatic food webs is critical to establishment of effective nutrient management programs. Stable isotopes of N (14N, 15N) are often used to trace the sources of N fueling aquatic primary production, but effective use of this approach requires obtaining a reliable isotopic ratio for phytoplankton. In this study, we tested the use of flow cytometry to isolate phytoplankton from bulk particulate organic matter (POM) in a portion of the Sacramento River, California, during river-scale nutrient manipulation experiments that involved halting wastewater discharges high in ammonium (NH4+). Field samples were collected using a Lagrangian approach, allowing us to measure changes in phytoplankton N source in the presence and absence of wastewater-derived NH4+. Comparison of δ15N-POM and δ15N-phytoplankton (δ15N-PHY) revealed that their δ15N values followed broadly similar trends. However, after 3 days of downstream travel in the presence of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, δ15N-POM and δ15N-PHY in the Sacramento River differed by as much as 7 ‰. Using a stable isotope mixing model approach, we estimated that in the presence of effluent between 40 and 90 % of phytoplankton N was derived from NH4+ after 3 days of downstream transport. An apparent gradual increase over time in the proportion of NH4+ in the phytoplankton N pool suggests that either very low phytoplankton growth rates resulted in an N turnover time that exceeded the travel time sampled during this study, or a portion of the phytoplankton community continued to access nitrate even in the presence of elevated NH4+ concentrations.

  11. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  12. Research on the enhancement of biological nitrogen removal at low temperatures from ammonium-rich wastewater by the bio-electrocoagulation technology in lab-scale systems, pilot-scale systems and a full-scale industrial wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Qian, Guangsheng; Ye, Linlin; Hu, Xiaomin; Yu, Xin; Lyu, Weijian

    2018-09-01

    In cold areas, nitrogen removal performance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) declines greatly in winter. This paper systematically describes the enhancement effect of a periodic reverse electrocoagulation technology on biological nitrogen removal at low temperatures. The study showed that in the lab-scale systems, the electrocoagulation technology improved the biomass amount, enzyme activity and the amount of nitrogen removal bacteria (Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, Paracoccus, Thauera and Enterobacter). This enhanced nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge at low temperatures. In the pilot-scale systems, the electrocoagulation technology increased the relative abundance of cold-adapted microorganisms (Luteimonas and Trueperaceae) at low temperatures. In a full-scale industrial WWTP, comparison of data from winter 2015 and winter 2016 showed that effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH 4 + -N, and NO 3 - -N reduced by 10.37, 3.84, and 136.43 t, respectively, throughout the winter, after installation of electrocoagulation devices. These results suggest that the electrocoagulation technology is able to improve the performance of activated sludge under low-temperature conditions. This technology provides a new way for upgrading of the performance of WWTPs in cold areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil.

    PubMed

    Weigand, Edgar; Egenolf, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control). The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  14. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil

    PubMed Central

    Egenolf, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control). The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition. PMID:28465837

  15. Fate of Zinc and Silver Engineered Nanoparticles in Sewerage Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) used in consumer products are largely released into the environment through the wastewater stream. Limited information is available regarding the transformations they undergo during their transit through sewerage sy...

  16. Zinc complexation in chloride-rich hydrothermal fluids (25-600 °C): A thermodynamic model derived from ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yuan; Sherman, David M.; Liu, Weihua; Etschmann, Barbara; Testemale, Denis; Brugger, Joël

    2015-02-01

    The solubility of zinc minerals in hydrothermal fluids is enhanced by chloride complexation of Zn2+. Thermodynamic models of these complexation reactions are central to models of Zn transport and ore formation. However, existing thermodynamic models, derived from solubility measurements, are inconsistent with spectroscopic measurements of Zn speciation. Here, we used ab initio molecular dynamics simulations (with the PBE exchange-correlation functional) to predict the speciation of Zn-Cl complexes from 25 to 600 °C. We also obtained in situ XAS measurements of Zn-Cl solutions at 30-600 °C. Qualitatively, the simulations reproduced the main features derived from in situ XANES and EXAFS measurements: octahedral to tetrahedral transition with increasing temperature and salinity, stability of ZnCl42- at high chloride concentration up to ⩾500 °C, and increasing stability of the trigonal planar [ZnCl3]- complex at high temperature. Having confirmed the dominant species, we directly determined the stability constants for the Zn-Cl complexes using thermodynamic integration along constrained Zn-Cl distances in a series of MD simulations. We corrected our stability constants to infinite dilution using the b-dot model for the activity coefficients of the solute species. In order to compare the ab initio results with experiments, we need to re-model the existing solubility data using the species we identified in our MD simulations. The stability constants derived from refitting published experimental data are in reasonable agreement with those we obtained using ab initio MD simulations. Our new thermodynamic model accurately predicts the experimentally observed changes in ZnO(s) and ZnCO3(s) solubility as a function of chloride concentration from 200 (Psat) to 600 °C (2000 bar). This study demonstrates that metal speciation and geologically useful stability constants can be derived for species in hydrothermal fluids from ab initio MD simulations even at the generalized

  17. Modeling the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse: extension of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Ernesto L; Spanjers, Henri; Solon, Kimberly; Amerlinck, Youri; Nopens, Ingmar; Dewulf, Jo

    2015-03-15

    This research presents the modeling of the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse, hereby extending the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater. Based on a sensitivity analysis, four parameters of the original ADM1 and all sulfate reduction parameters were calibrated. Although some deviations were observed between model predictions and experimental values, it was shown that sulfates, total aqueous sulfide, free sulfides, methane, carbon dioxide and sulfide in the gas phase, gas flow, propionic and acetic acids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH were accurately predicted during model validation. The model showed high (±10%) to medium (10%-30%) accuracy predictions with a mean absolute relative error ranging from 1% to 26%, and was able to predict failure of methanogenesis and sulfidogenesis when the sulfate loading rate increased. Therefore, the kinetic parameters and the model structure proposed in this work can be considered as valid for the sulfate reduction process in the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse when sulfate and organic loading rates range from 0.36 to 1.57 kg [Formula: see text]  m(-3) d(-1) and from 7.66 to 12 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Zinc and copper behaviour at the soil-river interface: New insights by Zn and Cu isotopes in the organic-rich Rio Negro basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinoiseau, Damien; Gélabert, Alexandre; Allard, Thierry; Louvat, Pascale; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F.

    2017-09-01

    most probable places where losses of these two metals occur. In colloids, the observed Cu isotope fractionation (from 0.24 to 0.45‰) superimposed on the significant Cucoll loss is assumed to result from a new isotopic equilibrium in a low velocity and high productivity zone: Cu-rich colloids enriched in 63Cu aggregate and settle down, whereas the remaining heavy Cu is partially complexed on strong organic ligands secreted by phytoplankton, forming new Cu-colloids.

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure and investigation of mononuclear copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes of a new carboxylate rich tripodal ligand and their interaction with carbohydrates in alkaline aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Christopher D.; Pedraza, Mayra; Arman, Hadi; Fan, Hua-Jun; Schilling, Eduardo Luiz; Szpoganicz, Bruno; Musie, Ghezai T.

    2016-01-01

    A new carboxylate rich asymmetric tripodal ligand, N-[2-carboxybenzomethyl]-N-[carboxymethyl]-β-alanine (H3camb), and its di-copper(II), (NH4)2[1]2, and di-zinc(II), ((CH3)4 N)2[2]2, complexes have been synthesized as carbohydrate binding models in aqueous solutions. The ligand and complexes have been fully characterized using several techniques, including single crystal X-ray diffraction. The interactions of (NH4)2[1]2 and ((CH3)4 N)2[2]2 with D-glucose, D-mannose, D-xylose and xylitol in aqueous alkaline media were investigated using UV–Vis and 13C-NMR spectroscopic techniques, respectively. The molar conductance, NMR and ESI–MS studies indicate that the complexes dissociate in solution to produce the respective complex anions, 1− and 2−. Complexes 1− and 2− showed chelating ability towards the naturally abundant and biologically relevant sugars, D-glucose, D-mannose, D-xylose, and xylitol. The complex ions bind to one molar equivalent of the sugars, even in the presence of stoichiometric excess of the substrates, in solution. Experimentally obtained spectroscopic data and computational results suggest that the substrates bind to the metal center in a bidentate fashion. Apparent binding constant values, pKapp, between the complexes and the substrates were determined and a specific mode of substrate binding is proposed. The pKapp and relativistic density functional theory (DFT) calculated Gibbs free energy values indicate that D-mannose displayed the strongest interaction with the complexes. Syntheses, characterizations, detailed substrate binding studies using spectroscopic techniques, single crystal X-ray diffraction and geometry optimizations of the complex-substrates with DFT calculations are also reported. PMID:25969174

  20. Wastewater Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... cleaned, water can carry disease. Since we live, work and play so close to water, harmful bacteria have to be removed to make water safe. Effects of wastewater pollutants If wastewater is not properly treated, then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. These ...

  1. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  4. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  5. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  6. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  7. ALKALINE NONCYANIDE ZINC PLATING WITH REFUSE OF RECOVERED CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A metal finishing process can create environmental problems because it uses chemicals that are not only toxic but also resistant to degradation or decomposition. Study was undertaken at a zinc electroplating operation to achieve zero discharge of wastewater and total recycle of r...

  8. Update on zinc biology.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has become a prominent nutrient of clinical and public health interest in the new millennium. Functions and actions for zinc emerge as increasingly ubiquitous in mammalian anatomy, physiology and metabolism. There is undoubtedly an underpinning in fundamental biology for all of the aspects of zinc in human health (clinical and epidemiological) in pediatric and public health practice. Unfortunately, basic science research may not have achieved a full understanding as yet. As a complement to the applied themes in the companion articles, a selection of recent advances in the domains homeostatic regulation and transport of zinc is presented; they are integrated, in turn, with findings on genetic expression, intracellular signaling, immunity and host defense, and bone growth. The elements include ionic zinc, zinc transporters, metallothioneins, zinc metalloenzymes and zinc finger proteins. In emerging basic research, we find some plausible mechanistic explanations for delayed linear growth with zinc deficiency and increased infectious disease resistance with zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  10. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Trent and zinc homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Corey B; Harrison, Mark D; Huygens, Flavia

    2017-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen and the major cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. The mechanisms that P. aeruginosa strains use to regulate intracellular zinc have an effect on infection, antibiotic resistance and the propensity to form biofilms. However, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa strains of variable infectivity has not been compared. In this study, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa Trent, a highly infectious clinical strain, was compared to that of a laboratory P. aeruginosa strain, ATCC27853. Trent was able to tolerate higher concentrations of additional zinc in rich media than ATCC27853. Further, pre-adaptation to additional zinc enhanced the growth of Trent at non-inhibitory concentrations but the impact of pre-adaption on the growth of ATCC27853 under the same conditions was minimal. The results establish clear differences in zinc-induced responses in Trent and ATCC27853, and how zinc homeostasis can be a promising target for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies for P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    SciT

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  13. Use of aquatic macrophytes in treating electronics manufacturing wastewater in Guadalajara, Mexico

    SciT

    Leslie, C.I.; Jackson, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses an industrial wastewater treatment project performed by Kleinfelder Mexico for an electronics manufacturer located in Guadalajara, Mexico. The industrial wastewater had a moderately high concentration of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), and grease and oil. Metals concentration was low, with only zinc exceeding regulatory standards. The use of aquatic macrophytes (namely Eichhornia crassipes) was considered along with conventional wastewater treatment options. An aquatic macrophyte wastewater treatment system was found to have numerous advantages over a conventional extended aeration package plant. These advantages include less required capital, an appreciation of investment, and lower operations andmore » maintenance costs.« less

  14. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  15. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  16. DNA microarray analysis of the cyanotroph Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in response to nitrogen starvation, cyanide and a jewelry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Luque-Almagro, V M; Escribano, M P; Manso, I; Sáez, L P; Cabello, P; Moreno-Vivián, C; Roldán, M D

    2015-11-20

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 is an alkaliphilic bacterium that can use cyanide as nitrogen source for growth, becoming a suitable candidate to be applied in biological treatment of cyanide-containing wastewaters. The assessment of the whole genome sequence of the strain CECT5344 has allowed the generation of DNA microarrays to analyze the response to different nitrogen sources. The mRNA of P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 cells grown under nitrogen limiting conditions showed considerable changes when compared against the transcripts from cells grown with ammonium; up-regulated genes were, among others, the glnK gene encoding the nitrogen regulatory protein PII, the two-component ntrBC system involved in global nitrogen regulation, and the ammonium transporter-encoding amtB gene. The protein coding transcripts of P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 cells grown with sodium cyanide or an industrial jewelry wastewater that contains high concentration of cyanide and metals like iron, copper and zinc, were also compared against the transcripts of cells grown with ammonium as nitrogen source. This analysis revealed the induction by cyanide and the cyanide-rich wastewater of four nitrilase-encoding genes, including the nitC gene that is essential for cyanide assimilation, the cyanase cynS gene involved in cyanate assimilation, the cioAB genes required for the cyanide-insensitive respiration, and the ahpC gene coding for an alkyl-hydroperoxide reductase that could be related with iron homeostasis and oxidative stress. The nitC and cynS genes were also induced in cells grown under nitrogen starvation conditions. In cells grown with the jewelry wastewater, a malate quinone:oxidoreductase mqoB gene and several genes coding for metal extrusion systems were specifically induced. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  18. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  19. Nitrogen-rich salts based on the energetic [monoaquabis(N,N-bis(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)amine)-zinc(II)] anion: a promising design in the development of new energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Fugang; Bi, Yangang; Zhao, Wenyuan; Zhang, Tonglai; Zhou, Zunning; Yang, Li

    2015-02-16

    Nitrogen-rich energetic salts involving various cations (lithium, 1; ammonium, 2; hydrazinium, 3; hydroxylammonium, 4; guanidinium, 5; aminoguanidinium, 6; diaminoguanidinium, 7; and triaminoguanidinium, 8) based on nitrogen-rich anion [Zn(BTA)2(H2O)](2-) (N% = 65.37, BTA = N,N-bis[1H-tetrazol-5-yl]amine anion) were synthesized with a simple method. The crystal structures of all compounds except 1, 2, and 6 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and fully characterized by elemental analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The thermal stabilities were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The DSC results show that all compounds exhibit high thermal stabilities (decomposition temperature >200 °C). Additionally, the heats of formation were calculated on the basis of the experimental constant-volume energies of combustion measured by using bomb calorimetry. Lastly, the sensitivities toward impact and friction were assessed according to Bundesamt für Materialforschung (BAM) standard methods.

  20. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  1. Zinc Signals and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc. PMID:29064429

  2. Binding of iron, zinc, and lead ions from aqueous solution by shea butter (Butyrospermun Parkii) seed husks

    SciT

    Eromosele, I.C.; Otitolaye, O.O.

    1994-08-01

    Several workers have reported on the potential use of agricultural products as substrates for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. These studies demonstrated that considerable amounts of metal ions can be removed from aqueous solutions by cellulosic materials. The merit in the use of the latter is their relative abundance and cheapness compared to conventional materials for the removal of toxic metal ions from waste-waters. In some of the studies, chemical modification of cellulosic materials significantly enhanced their ion-binding properties, providing greater flexibility in their applications to a wide range of heavy metal ions. Shea butter plant (Butyrospermunmore » Parkii) normally grows in the wild within the guinea-savana zone of Nigeria. The seeds are a rich source of edible oils and the husks are usually discarded. The husk is thus available in abundance and, hence, there is reason to examine its ion-binding properties for its possible application in the removal of toxic metal ions from industrial waste-waters. This paper reports on preliminary studies of the sorption of iron, zinc and lead ions from aqueous solution by modified and unmodified shea butter seed husks. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  3. Zinc and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Juan P.; Guo, Liang; Yoo, Changwon; Stewart, Tiffanie S

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process through which cells overcome stressful conditions. Inasmuch as faulty autophagy has been associated with aging, neuronal degeneration disorders, diabetes, and fatty liver, autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning the role of zinc in the regulation of autophagy, the role of autophagy in zinc metabolism, and the potential role of autophagy as a mediator of the protective effects of zinc. Data from in vitro studies consistently support the notion that zinc is critical for early and late autophagy. Studies have shown inhibition of early and late autophagy in cells cultured in medium treated with zinc chelators. Conversely, excess zinc added to the medium has shown to potentiate the stimulation of autophagy by tamoxifen, H2O2, ethanol and dopamine. The potential role of autophagy in zinc homeostasis has just begun to be investigated.Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy dysregulation causes significant changes in cellular zinc homeostasis. Autophagy may mediate the protective effect of zinc against lipid accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation by promoting degradation of lipid droplets, inflammasomes, p62/SQSTM1 and damaged mitochondria.Studies with humans and animal models are necessary to determine whether autophagy is influenced by zinc intake. PMID:25012760

  4. Effects of Zinc Chelators on Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Josephine; Day, Devin M.; Linz, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc concentrations strongly influence aflatoxin accumulation in laboratory media and in food and feed crops. The presence of zinc stimulates aflatoxin production, and the absence of zinc impedes toxin production. Initial studies that suggested a link between zinc and aflatoxin biosynthesis were presented in the 1970s. In the present study, we utilized two zinc chelators, N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) to explore the effect of zinc limitation on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. TPEN but not DMPS decreased aflatoxin biosynthesis up to six-fold depending on whether A. parasiticus was grown on rich or minimal medium. Although we observed significant inhibition of aflatoxin production by TPEN, no detectable changes were observed in expression levels of the aflatoxin pathway gene ver-1 and the zinc binuclear cluster transcription factor, AflR. Treatment of growing A. parasiticus solid culture with a fluorescent zinc probe demonstrated an increase in intracellular zinc levels assessed by increases in fluorescent intensity of cultures treated with TPEN compared to controls. These data suggest that TPEN binds to cytoplasmic zinc therefore limiting fungal access to zinc. To investigate the efficacy of TPEN on food and feed crops, we found that TPEN effectively decreases aflatoxin accumulation on peanut medium but not in a sunflower seeds-derived medium. From an application perspective, these data provide the basis for biological differences that exist in the efficacy of different zinc chelators in various food and feed crops frequently contaminated by aflatoxin. PMID:27271668

  5. Does zinc moderate essential fatty acid and amphetamine treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed

    Arnold, L E; Pinkham, S M; Votolato, N

    2000-01-01

    Zinc is an important co-factor for metabolism relevant to neurotransmitters, fatty acids, prostaglandins, and melatonin, and indirectly affects dopamine metabolism, believed intimately involved in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To explore the relationship of zinc nutrition to essential fatty acid supplement and stimulant effects in treatment of ADHD, we re-analyzed data from an 18-subject double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover treatment comparison of d-amphetamine and Efamol (evening primrose oil, rich in gamma-linolenic acid). Subjects were categorized as zinc-adequate (n = 5), borderline zinc (n = 5), and zinc-deficient (n = 8) by hair, red cell, and urine zinc levels; for each category, placebo-active difference means were calculated on teachers' ratings. Placebo-controlled d-amphetamine response appeared linear with zinc nutrition, but the relationship of Efamol response to zinc appeared U-shaped; Efamol benefit was evident only with borderline zinc. Placebo-controlled effect size (Cohen's d) for both treatments ranged up to 1.5 for borderline zinc and dropped to 0.3-0.7 with mild zinc deficiency. If upheld by prospective research, this post-hoc exploration suggests that zinc nutrition may be important for treatment of ADHD even by pharmacotherapy, and if Efamol benefits ADHD, it likely does so by improving or compensating for borderline zinc nutrition.

  6. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  7. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  8. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciT

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remainedmore » constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.« less

  9. Small Wastewater Systems Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small communities face barriers to building and maintaining effective wastewater treatment services, challenges include financial/economic limitations, lack of managerial training and geographic isolation/remoteness.

  10. Zinc triggers microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, “amoeboid” morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 μM zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 – 30 μM zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-κB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-κB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders. PMID:18509044

  11. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  12. [Zinc and chronic enteropathies].

    PubMed

    Giorgi, P L; Catassi, C; Guerrieri, A

    1984-01-01

    In recent years the nutritional importance of zinc has been well established; its deficiency and its symptoms have also been recognized in humans. Furthermore, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica has been isolated, a rare but severe disease, of which skin lesions, chronic diarrhoea and recurring infections are the main symptoms. The disease is related to the malfunctioning of intestinal absorption of zinc and can be treated by administering pharmacological doses of zinc orally. Good dietary sources of zinc are meat, fish and, to a less extent, human milk. The amount of zinc absorbed in the small intestine is influenced by other nutrients: some compounds inhibit this process (dietary fiber, phytate) while others (picolinic acid, citric acid), referred to as Zn-binding ligands (ZnBL) facilitate it. Citric acid is thought to be the ligand which accounts for the high level of bioavailability of zinc in human milk. zinc absorption occurs throughout the small intestine, not only in the prossimal tract (duodenum and jejunum) but also in the distal tract (ileum). Diarrhoea is one of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, thus many illnesses distinguished by chronic diarrhoea entail a bad absorption of zinc. In fact, in some cases of chronic enteropathies in infants, like coeliac disease and seldom cystic fibrosis, a deficiency of zinc has been isolated. Some of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, like retarded growth and hypogonadism, have been related to hypozinchemia which is present in this illness. Finally, it is possible that some of the dietary treatments frequently used for persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea (i.e. cow's milk exclusion, abuse and misuse of dietary fiber like carrot and carub powder, use of soy formula) can constitute a scarce supply of zinc and therefore could promote the persistency of diarrhoea itself.

  13. In-plant testing of membranes to treat electroplating wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, D. B.; Talu, Orhan

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report submitted for the work performed under the NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC3-301 for the project entitled 'In-Plant Testing of Membranes To Treat Electroplating Waste water'. The main objective of the research project was to determine if the crosslinked polyacrylic acid salt films developed by NASA scientists could be used for heavy metal removal from the wastewater generated by the metals-finishing or electroplating industry. A variety of tasks identified in the original proposal were completed. These included: (1) analysis of our industrial partner Aetna Plating's zinc electroplating process and its wastewater treatment needs for zinc removal; (2) design and construction of a laboratory-scale unit to continuously supply and remove the ion exchange films from the zinc wastewater; (3) performance of a series of runs on such a unit to determine its operating characteristics; and (4) design of a prototype unit for use at the industrial site. In addition, there were a number of tasks that had not been identified in the original proposal but were later judged to be necessary for the successful completion of the project. These were: (1) batch equilibrium and kinetic experiments with analysis of the experimental results to accurately determine the equilibrium and kinetic parameters for the ion exchange films; (2 ) simulation studies for proper design of the prototype unit; and (3) preliminary runs to exchange the films from H form to Calcium form.

  14. [Effect of cultivation in zinc media on the growth of and the degree of zinc in organic form in transgenic metallothionein mushroom].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ji-Ping; Shen, Lin; Ru, Bing-Gen

    2009-03-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low molecular weight, cysteine-rich and metal-binding functional proteins. Transgenic MT mushroom can be used as functional food additives, but its zinc-enriching ability has not been studied systemically until now. The zinc contents in mycelia of transgenic MT mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and wild type mushroom mycelia cultivated in different zinc concentration media were analyzed by ICP-OES. The growth status, zinc-enriching ability and degree of zinc in organic form (DZOF) were also analyzed. Results showed that MT mushroom mycelia grew rapidly, but the growth was inhibited when the zinc content in solid media was higher than 1.6 mmol x L(-1). MT mushroom mycelia could enrich more zinc than that of wild type, and the zinc content in MT mushroom mycelia could be 2.56-27.49 mg x kg(-1) when it was cultivated in a liquid media with 0.6-1.2 mmol x L(-1) zinc. DZOF of MT mushroom mycelia in a liquid media with 0.6 mmol x L(-1) zinc at 7 d was significantly higher (88.7%) than that in the wild type (82.1%, alpha = 0.05), but there was no significant difference in DZOF when the MT mushroom mycelia was cultivated in a liquid media with different zinc content at 7 d.

  15. Release of iron, zinc, and lead from common iron construction bars and zinc metallic bars in water solutions and meals.

    PubMed

    Lechtig, Aarón; Lòpez de Romaña, Daniel; Boy, Erick; Vargas, Alejandro; Rosas del Portal, Mauricio; Huaylinos, María Luisa

    2007-12-01

    The use of iron pots has decreased the prevalence of anemia. To investigate the release of iron, zinc, and lead from metallic iron and zinc bars incubated in water and in meals. Iron, zinc, and lead concentrations were measured at different incubation conditions in water and in meals. The iron concentration in water was 1.26 mg/L after incubation with one iron bar at pH 7 and 100 degrees C for 20 minutes and in meals was 0.97 mg per 100 g of wet meals, rich in phytate, cooking at 100 degrees C during 20 minutes. The maximum contents were 7720 mg/L of iron and 1826 mg/L of zinc in vinegar at pH 3 and 20 degrees C after 90 and 32 days, respectively. Lead was released from the bars, but at concentrations well below the upper tolerable limits. In outreach populations, the use of iron and zinc metallic bars in water and meals could contribute to sustainable, very low-cost prevention of iron and zinc deficiencies, and home-fortified vinegar could be used for treatment of both deficiencies. Field trials should be performed to determine the impact that the use of iron and zinc metallic bars in water and meals might have on the iron and zinc status of population groups.

  16. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

  17. Effects of surface hydroxylation on adhesion at zinc/silica interfaces.

    PubMed

    Le, Ha-Linh Thi; Goniakowski, Jacek; Noguera, Claudine; Koltsov, Alexey; Mataigne, Jean-Michel

    2018-06-06

    The weak interaction between zinc and silica is responsible for the poor performance of anti-corrosive galvanic zinc coatings on modern advanced high-strength steels, which are fundamental in the automotive industry, and important for rail transport, shipbuilding, and aerospace. With the goal of identifying possible methods for its improvement, we report an ab initio study of the effect of surface hydroxylation on the adhesion characteristics of model zinc/β-cristobalite interfaces, representative of various surface hydroxylation/hydrogenation conditions. We show that surface silanols resulting from dissociative water adsorption at the most stable stoichiometric (001) and (111) surfaces prevent strong zinc-silica interactions. However, dehydrogenation of such interfaces produces oxygen-rich zinc/silica contacts with excellent adhesion characteristics. These are due to partial zinc oxidation and the formation of strong iono-covalent Zn-O bonds between zinc atoms and the under-coordinated excess anions, remnant of the hydroxylation layer. Interestingly, these interfaces appear as the most thermodynamically stable in a wide range of realistic oxygen-rich and hydrogen-lean environments. We also point out that the partial oxidation of zinc atoms in direct contact with the oxide substrate may somewhat weaken the cohesion in the zinc deposit itself. This fundamental analysis of the microscopic mechanisms responsible for the improved zinc wetting on pre-hydroxylated silica substrates provides useful guidelines towards practical attempts to improve adhesion.

  18. Thermochemical Wastewater Valorization via Enhanced Microbial Toxicity Tolerance

    SciT

    Beckham, Gregg T; Thelhawadigedara, Lahiru Niroshan Jayakody; Johnson, Christopher W

    Thermochemical (TC) biomass conversion processes such as pyrolysis and liquefaction generate considerable amounts of wastewater, which often contains highly toxic compounds that are incredibly challenging to convert via standard wastewater treatment approaches such as anaerobic digestion. These streams represent a cost for TC biorefineries, and a potential valorization opportunity, if effective conversion methods are developed. The primary challenge hindering microbial conversion of TC wastewater is toxicity. In this study, we employ a robust bacterium, Pseudomonas putida, with TC wastewater streams to demonstrate that aldehydes are the most inhibitory compounds in these streams. Proteomics, transcriptomics, and fluorescence-based immunoassays of P. putidamore » grown in a representative wastewater stream indicate that stress results from protein damage, which we hypothesize is a primary toxicity mechanism. Constitutive overexpression of the chaperone genes, groEL, groES, and clpB, in a genome-reduced P. putida strain improves the tolerance towards multiple TC wastewater samples up to 200-fold. Moreover, the concentration ranges of TC wastewater are industrially relevant for further bioprocess development for all wastewater streams examined here, representing different TC process configurations. Furthermore, we demonstrate proof-of-concept polyhydroxyalkanoate production from the usable carbon in an exemplary TC wastewater stream. Overall, this study demonstrates that protein quality control machinery and repair mechanisms can enable substantial gains in microbial tolerance to highly toxic substrates, including heterogeneous waste streams. When coupled to other metabolic engineering advances such as expanded substrate utilization and enhanced product accumulation, this study generally enables new strategies for biological conversion of highly-toxic, organic-rich wastewater via engineered aerobic monocultures or designer consortia.« less

  19. Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

  20. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  1. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  2. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  3. Comparing Nutrient Removal from Membrane Filtered and Unfiltered Domestic Wastewater Using Chlorella vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Mayhead, Elyssia; Llewellyn, Carole A.; Fuentes-Grünewald, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    The nutrient removal efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in domestic wastewater was investigated, along with the potential to use membrane filtration as a pre-treatment tool during the wastewater treatment process. Chlorella vulgaris was batch cultivated for 12 days in a bubble column system with two different wastewater treatments. Maximum uptake of 94.18% ammonium (NH4-N) and 97.69% ortho-phosphate (PO4-P) occurred in 0.2 μm membrane filtered primary wastewater. Membrane filtration enhanced the nutrient uptake performance of C. vulgaris by removing bacteria, protozoa, colloidal particles and suspended solids, thereby improving light availability for photosynthesis. The results of this study suggest that growing C. vulgaris in nutrient rich membrane filtered wastewater provides an option for domestic wastewater treatment to improve the quality of the final effluent. PMID:29351200

  4. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  5. Elementary sulfur in effluent from denitrifying sulfide removal process as adsorbent for zinc(II).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Aijie; Wu, Dong-hai; Liu, Li-hong; Ren, Nanqi; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2012-10-01

    The denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process can simultaneously convert sulfide, nitrate and organic compounds into elementary sulfur (S(0)), di-nitrogen gas and carbon dioxide, respectively. However, the S(0) formed in the DSR process are micro-sized colloids with negatively charged surface, making isolation of S(0) colloids from other biological cells and metabolites difficult. This study proposed the use of S(0) in DSR effluent as a novel adsorbent for zinc removal from wastewaters. Batch and continuous tests were conducted for efficient zinc removal with S(0)-containing DSR effluent. At pH<7.5, removal rates of zinc(II) were increased with increasing pH. The formed S(0) colloids carried negative charge onto which zinc(II) ions could be adsorbed via electrostatic interactions. The zinc(II) adsorbed S(0) colloids further enhanced coagulation-sedimentation efficiency of suspended solids in DSR effluents. The DSR effluent presents a promising coagulant for zinc(II) containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. MIUS wastewater technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A modular integrated utility system wastewater-treatment process is described. Research in the field of wastewater treatment is reviewed, treatment processes are specified and evaluated, and recommendations for system use are made. The treatment processes evaluated are in the broad categories of preparatory, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment, physical-chemical processing, dissolved-solids removal, disinfection, sludge processing, and separate systems. Capital, operating, and maintenance costs are estimated, and extensive references are given.

  7. Hair Zinc: an Index for Zinc Status in Under-Five Children from Low-Income Communities in Kanam Area of North-Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jaryum, Kiri H; Okoye, Zebulon Sunday C; Stoecker, Barbara

    2018-06-01

    Nutritional deficiencies of trace elements are among the top ten causes of death in Sub Saharan Africa. In Kanam Local Government Area of Nigeria, the problem is compounded by high levels of poverty and illiteracy. Abnormally low hair zinc levels are important, sensitive diagnostic biochemical indices of Zinc deficiency. The purpose of this study is to assess the zinc status of children less than 5 years in Kanam local government area, north-central Nigeria, by measuring the zinc level in hair samples collected from 44 under-5 children across the area. A household survey was made to assess the pattern and frequency of consumption of zinc-rich foods which was done by means of questionnaire. Hair samples were analysed for zinc content by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrophotometry (ICP-MS). The data were analysed statistically using the Student's t test, z test, and Pearson correlation, while questionnaire-captured data were analysed by simple arithmetic. The results of the analyses showed that the average hair zinc level was 74.35 ± 48.05 μg/g. This was below the normal range of 130-140 μg/g, for children less than 5 years. Based on the results, 86.36% have hair zinc level below the lower limit of the normal range of 130 μg/g. Between the gender, boys have higher hair zinc content than girls. Data from the questionnaire showed that 53.45% of the population studied have poor/inadequate intake of zinc-rich foods of animal origin, a dietary behaviour reported to predispose to micronutrient deficiency, including zinc.

  8. Endogenous Zinc in Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

  9. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

  10. 99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  11. Suppression of zinc dendrites in zinc electrode power cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of zinc dendrites during charging of zinc electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.

  12. Transcriptomic-based effects monitoring for endocrine active chemicals: Assessing relative contribution of treated wastewater to downstream pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study investigated whether combining of targeted analytical chemistry methods with unsupervised, data-rich methodologies (i.e. transcriptomics) can be utilized to evaluate relative contributions of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents to biological effects. The...

  13. Alterations in protein kinase C activity and processing during zinc-deficiency-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Chou, Susan S; Clegg, Michael S; Momma, Tony Y; Niles, Brad J; Duffy, Jodie Y; Daston, George P; Keen, Carl L

    2004-10-01

    Protein kinases C (PKCs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that are critical for signal transduction pathways involved in growth, differentiation and cell death. All PKC isoforms have four conserved domains, C1-C4. The C1 domain contains cysteine-rich finger-like motifs, which bind two zinc atoms. The zinc-finger motifs modulate diacylglycerol binding; thus, intracellular zinc concentrations could influence the activity and localization of PKC family members. 3T3 cells were cultured in zinc-deficient or zinc-supplemented medium for up to 32 h. Cells cultured in zinc-deficient medium had decreased zinc content, lowered cytosolic classical PKC activity, increased caspase-3 processing and activity, and reduced cell number. Zinc-deficient cytosols had decreased activity and expression levels of PKC-alpha, whereas PKC-alpha phosphorylation was not altered. Inhibition of PKC-alpha with Gö6976 had no effect on cell number in the zinc-deficient group. Proteolysis of the novel PKC family member, PKC-delta, to its 40-kDa catalytic fragment occurred in cells cultured in the zinc-deficient medium. Occurrence of the PKC-delta fragment in mitochondria was co-incident with caspase-3 activation. Addition of the PKC-delta inhibitor, rottlerin, or zinc to deficient medium reduced or eliminated proteolysis of PKC-delta, activated caspase-3 and restored cell number. Inhibition of caspase-3 processing by Z-DQMD-FMK (Z-Asp-Gln-Met-Asp-fluoromethylketone) did not restore cell number in the zinc-deficient group, but resulted in processing of full-length PKC-delta to a 56-kDa fragment. These results support the concept that intracellular zinc concentrations influence PKC activity and processing, and that zinc-deficiency-induced apoptosis occurs in part through PKC-dependent pathways.

  14. Immobilization Effect of Morphological, Thermal and Optical Properties in Biotemplate on Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite from Chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpuraranjith, M.; Thambidurai, S.

    Biotemplate-based zinc oxide nanocomposite was effectively prepared via simple chemical precipitation route. The functional groups of amino (-NH2), hydroxyl (-OH) and O-Zn-O were confirmed and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The structural and morphological properties were confirmed by XRD, UV-Vis DRS, HR-SEM and TEM analyses. The elemental composition of carbon, nitrogen, zinc and oxygen was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller high surface area of materials was estimated to be 52.49m2/g, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that biotemplate on zinc oxide nanocomposite has higher thermal stability than chitosan matrix. The results demonstrate that biotemplate on zinc oxide matrix causes immobilization effect among the two components. Therefore, chitosan-ZnO nanocomposite has a microcrystalline morphological structure and also good thermal stability, so it can be a promising material for sensors, medical, tissue engineering and wastewater treatment applications.

  15. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  16. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Gangwal, Santosh K.; Jain, Suresh C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  17. Learn about Small Wastewater Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many small and rural communities, including those in Indian Country and along the U.S.-Mexico border, struggle with aging or inadequate wastewater treatment systems, or do not have access to basic wastewater services.

  18. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D.

    1981-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

  19. History of zinc in agriculture

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, over 20 years would past before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure a parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it wa...

  20. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  1. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  2. Fate of Zinc and Silver Engineered Nanoparticles in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Engineered zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) used in consumer products are largely released into the environment through the wastewater stream. Limited information is available regarding the transformations they undergo during their transit through sewerage systems before reaching wastewater treatment plants. To address this knowledge gap, laboratory-scale systems fed with raw wastewater were used to evaluate the transformation of ZnO- and Ag-NPs within sewerage transfer networks. Two experimental systems were established and spiked with either Ag- and ZnO-NPs or with their dissolved salts, and the wastewater influent and effluent samples from both systems were thoroughly characterised. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to assess the extent of the chemical transformation of both forms of Zn and Ag during transport through the model systems. The results indicated that both ZnO- and Ag-NPs underwent significant transformation during their transport through the sewerage network. Reduced sulphur species represented the most important endpoint for these NPs in the sewer with slight differences in terms of speciation; ZnO converted largely to Zn sulfide, while Ag was also sorbed to cysteine and histidine. Importantly, both ionic Ag and Ag-NPs formed secondary Ag sulfide nanoparticles in the sewerage network as revealed by TEM analysis. Ag-cysteine was also shown to be a major species in biofilms. These results were verified in the

  3. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  4. Zinc and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 66 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  5. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  6. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  7. Mercury removal from aqueous solutions by zinc cementation.

    PubMed

    Ku, Young; Wu, Ming-Huan; Shen, Yung-Shen

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to study the addition effect of the surfactant and other operating factors on the treatment of wastewater containing mercury ions in aqueous solution by cementation with sacrificing metal, zinc. The removal of mercury ions from aqueous solutions by cementation of zinc powder was found to be a function of solution pH and temperature, amount of zinc, concentration of mercury ion, contact time and the addition of several organic surfactants. Cementation of mercury was shown to be a feasible process to achieve a very high degree of mercury removal over a broad operational range within a fairly reasonable contact time. The reaction rate is approximately first order with respect to the concentration of mercury ion in aqueous solution. Among the surfactants used in this study, only the presence of SDS, an anionic surfactant, slightly enhanced the cementation rate of mercury. The presence of CTAB and Triton-X100 retarded the cementation of mercury by zinc.

  8. Biopower generation from kitchen wastewater using a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul M; Naz, Shamsa

    2014-01-01

    This research provides a comparative study of the power output from mediator-less and mediator microbial fuel cells (MFCs) under aerobic and partially anaerobic conditions using kitchen wastewater (KWW) as a renewable energy source. The wastewater sample was subjected to different physical, chemical, biochemical, and microbial analysis. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and power output values were greater for the fermented samples than the non-fermented samples. The power output of samples was compared through the development of MFCs by using sand-salt bridge and agar-salt bridge. The H2 that was produced was converted to atomic hydrogen by using the nickel-coated zinc electrode. In addition, the power output was further enhanced by introducing air into the cathodic chamber, where oxygen reacts with the protons to form pure H2O. The study showed that the power output was increased with the increase in COD and BOD values.

  9. Wastewater treatment by nanofiltration membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyanti, R.; Susanto, H.

    2018-03-01

    Lower energy consumption compared to reverse osmosis (RO) and higher rejection compared to ultrafiltration make nanofiltration (NF) membrane get more and more attention for wastewater treatment. NF has become a promising technology not only for treating wastewater but also for reusing water from wastewater. This paper presents various application of NF for wastewater treatments. The factors affecting the performance of NF membranes including operating conditions, feed characteristics and membrane characteristics were discussed. In addition, fouling as a severe problem during NF application is also presented. Further, future prospects and challenges of NF for wastewater treatments are explained.

  10. Irrigating okra with secondary treated municipal wastewater: Observations regarding plant growth and soil characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K; Srivastava, Sachin; Singh, Jogendra; Thakur, Roushan Kumar

    2017-05-04

    The present study was carried out to probe the agronomic response of hybrid cultivar of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L. var. JK 7315) grown in secondary treated municipal wastewater irrigated soil with field investigations. The concentrations of the municipal wastewater viz., 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% along with the control (groundwater) were used for the irrigation of the H. esculentus. The study revealed that the concentrations of the municipal wastewater showed significant (p < 0.05/p < 0.01) effect on the soil parameters after wastewater fertigation in comparison to groundwater in both the seasons. The maximum agronomic performance of the H. esculentus was recorded with 60% concentration of the municipal wastewater in both the seasons. The contamination factor of heavy metals varied in the H. esculentus plants and soils. In the H. esculentus plants, following fertigation with municipal wastewater, the contamination factor of manganese was the highest, while that of chromium was the lowest. Intermediate contamination factor were observed for zinc, copper, and cadmium. Therefore, secondary treated municipal wastewater can be used as an agro-fertigant after appropriate dilution (up to 60%) to achieve the maximum yield of the H. esculentus.

  11. Influence of voltage input to heavy metal removal from electroplating wastewater using electrocoagulation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulan, D. R.; Cahyaningsih, S.; Djaenudin

    2017-03-01

    In medium capacity, electroplating industry usually treats wastewater until 5 m3 per day. Heavy metal content becomes concern that should be reduced. Previous studies performed electrocoagulation method on laboratory scale, either batch or continuous. This study was aimed to compare the influence of voltage input variation into heavy metal removal in electroplating wastewater treatment using electrocoagulation process on laboratory-scale in order to determine the optimum condition for scaling up the reactor into pilot-scale. The laboratory study was performed in 1.5 L glass reactor in batch system using wastewater from electroplating industry, the voltage input varied at 20, 30 and 40 volt. The electrode consisted of aluminium 32 cm2 as sacrifice anode and copper 32 cm2 as cathode. During 120 min electrocoagulation process, the pH value was measured using pH meter, whereas the heavy metal of chromium, copper, iron, and zinc concentration were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Result showed that removal of heavy metals from wastewater increased due to the increasing of voltage input. Different initial concentration of heavy metals on wastewater, resulted the different detention time. At pilot-scale reactor with 30 V voltage input, chromium, iron, and zinc reached removal efficiency until 89-98%, when copper reached 79% efficiency. At 40V, removal efficiencies increased on same detention time, i.e. chromium, iron, and zinc reached 89-99%, whereas copper reached 85%. These removal efficiencies have complied the government standard except for copper that had higher initial concentration in wastewater. Kinetic rate also calculated in this study as the basic factor for scaling up the process.

  12. Equilibrium and thermodynamic analysis of zinc ions adsorption by olive oil mill solid residues.

    PubMed

    Hawari, A; Rawajfih, Z; Nsour, N

    2009-09-15

    This work investigated the equilibrium batch dynamics of using olive oil mill solid residues as an adsorbent for zinc removal from aqueous solutions. It was found that a sorbent concentration of 4 g L(-1) achieved the best removal percentage and the best sorbent capacity. Adsorption equilibrium was reached in 60 min for an initial zinc concentration of 0.25 mmol/L and 180 min for an initial zinc concentration of 1-3 mmol/L. A particle size of olive mill residue ranging from 0.85 to 1.18 mm was used in the study. It was found that the maximum adsorption capacity of zinc was at a pH value of 5.0. It was found that q(max) for zinc ions, was 5.63, 6.46, and 7.11 mg g(-1) at temperature values of 298, 308, and 328 K, respectively. The data pertaining to the sorption dependence upon metal ion concentration could be fitted to a Langmuir isotherm model. The second-order kinetic model provided the best correlation of the data. The change in entropy (DeltaS degrees ) and heat of adsorption (DeltaH degrees ) for zinc ions adsorption on olive mill solid residues were estimated as -1419 kJ kg(-1)K(-1) and 4.7 kJ kg(-1), respectively. The examined low-cost adsorbent could offer an effective way to decrease zinc ions concentration in wastewater.

  13. Zinc supplementation in public health.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is necessary for physiological processes including defense against infections. Zinc deficiency is responsible for 4% of global child morbidity and mortality. Zinc supplements given for 10-14 days together with low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (Lo-ORS) are recommended for the treatment of childhood diarrhea. In children aged ≥ 6 months, daily zinc supplements reduce the duration of acute diarrhea episodes by 12 h and persistent diarrhea by 17 h. Zinc supplements could reduce diarrhea mortality in children aged 12-59 months by an estimated 23%; they are very safe but are associated with an increase in vomiting especially with the first dose. Heterogeneity between the results of trials is not understood but may be related to dose and the etiology of the diarrhea infection. Integration of zinc and Lo-ORS into national programs is underway but slowly, procurement problems are being overcome and the greatest challenge is changing health provider and caregiver attitudes to diarrhea management. Fewer trials have been conducted of zinc adjunct therapy in severe respiratory tract infections and there is as yet insufficient evidence to recommend addition of zinc to antibiotic therapy. Daily zinc supplements for all children >12 months of age in zinc deficient populations are estimated to reduce diarrhea incidence by 11-23%. The greatest impact is in reducing multiple episodes of diarrhea. The effect on duration of diarrheal episodes is less clear, but there may be up to 9% reduction. Zinc is also efficacious in reducing dysentery and persistent diarrhea. Zinc supplements may also prevent pneumonia by about 19%, but heterogeneity across studies has not yet been explained. When analyses are restricted to better quality studies using CHERG (Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group) methodology, zinc supplements are estimated to reduce diarrheal deaths by 13% and pneumonia deaths by 20%. National-level programs to combat childhood zinc deficiency should be

  14. WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the wastewater collection systems in the United States were developed in the early part of the last century. Maintenance, retrofits, and rehabilitations since then have resulted in patchwork systems consisting of technologies from different eras. More advanced and cos...

  15. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  16. Acute changes in cellular zinc alters zinc uptake rates prior to zinc transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C

    2015-12-01

    A coordinated network of zinc transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular zinc levels. Canonical responses to zinc availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key zinc transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual zinc uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound zinc transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular zinc levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous zinc sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess zinc resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the zinc exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of zinc importers did not change during this time period. Zinc chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of zinc importers did not change. Overall, zinc transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular zinc uptake with exogenous zinc or TPEN treatments. This suggests zinc transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in zinc within Jurkat cells.

  17. Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ananda S

    2008-01-01

    Although the essentiality of zinc for plants and animals has been known for many decades, the essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized only 40 years ago in the Middle East. The zinc-deficient patients had severe immune dysfunctions, inasmuch as they died of intercurrent infections by the time they were 25 years of age. In our studies in an experimental human model of zinc deficiency, we documented decreased serum testosterone level, oligospermia, severe immune dysfunctions mainly affecting T helper cells, hyperammonemia, neurosensory disorders, and decreased lean body mass. It appears that zinc deficiency is prevalent in the developing world and as many as two billion subjects may be growth retarded due to zinc deficiency. Besides growth retardation and immune dysfunctions, cognitive impairment due to zinc deficiency also has been reported recently. Our studies in the cell culture models showed that the activation of many zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors were adversely affected due to zinc deficiency. In HUT-78 (T helper 0 [Th(0)] cell line), we showed that a decrease in gene expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor alpha(IL-2Ralpha) were due to decreased activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in zinc deficient cells. Decreased NF-kappaB activation in HUT-78 due to zinc deficiency was due to decreased binding of NF-kappaB to DNA, decreased level of NF-kappaB p105 (the precursor of NF-kappaB p50) mRNA, decreased kappaB inhibitory protein (IkappaB) phosphorylation, and decreased Ikappa kappa. These effects of zinc were cell specific. Zinc also is an antioxidant and has anti-inflammatory actions. The therapeutic roles of zinc in acute infantile diarrhea, acrodermatitis enteropathica, prevention of blindness in patients with age-related macular degeneration, and treatment of common cold with zinc have been reported. In HL-60 cells (promyelocytic leukemia cell line), zinc enhances the up-regulation of A20 mRNA, which, via TRAF

  18. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  19. Zinc and Zinc Transporters: Novel Regulators of Ventricular Myocardial Development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen; Li, Deqiang

    2018-06-01

    Ventricular myocardial development is a well-orchestrated process involving different cardiac structures, multiple signal pathways, and myriad proteins. Dysregulation of this important developmental event can result in cardiomyopathies, such as left ventricle non-compaction, which affect the pediatric population and the adults. Human and mouse studies have shed light upon the etiology of some cardiomyopathy cases and highlighted the contribution of both genetic and environmental factors. However, the regulation of ventricular myocardial development remains incompletely understood. Zinc is an essential trace metal with structural, enzymatic, and signaling function. Perturbation of zinc homeostasis has resulted in developmental and physiological defects including cardiomyopathy. In this review, we summarize several mechanisms by which zinc and zinc transporters can impact the regulation of ventricular myocardial development. Based on our review, we propose that zinc deficiency and mutations of zinc transporters may underlie some cardiomyopathy cases especially those involving ventricular myocardial development defects.

  20. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Jura, M.

    1982-01-01

    IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

  1. Fate of zinc and silver engineered nanoparticles in sewerage networks.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Gianluca; Donner, Erica; Laera, Giuseppe; Sekine, Ryo; Scheckel, Kirk G; Khaksar, Maryam; Vasilev, Krasimir; De Mastro, Giuseppe; Lombi, Enzo

    2015-06-15

    Engineered zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) used in consumer products are largely released into the environment through the wastewater stream. Limited information is available regarding the transformations they undergo during their transit through sewerage systems before reaching wastewater treatment plants. To address this knowledge gap, laboratory-scale systems fed with raw wastewater were used to evaluate the transformation of ZnO- and Ag-NPs within sewerage transfer networks. Two experimental systems were established and spiked with either Ag- and ZnO-NPs or with their dissolved salts, and the wastewater influent and effluent samples from both systems were thoroughly characterised. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to assess the extent of the chemical transformation of both forms of Zn and Ag during transport through the model systems. The results indicated that both ZnO- and Ag-NPs underwent significant transformation during their transport through the sewerage network. Reduced sulphur species represented the most important endpoint for these NPs in the sewer with slight differences in terms of speciation; ZnO converted largely to Zn sulfide, while Ag was also sorbed to cysteine and histidine. Importantly, both ionic Ag and Ag-NPs formed secondary Ag sulfide nanoparticles in the sewerage network as revealed by TEM analysis. Ag-cysteine was also shown to be a major species in biofilms. These results were verified in the field using recently developed nanoparticle in situ deployment devices (nIDDs) which were exposed directly to sewerage network conditions by immersing them into a municipal wastewater network trunk sewer and then retrieving them for XAS analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Zinc Signal in Brain Diseases.

    PubMed

    Portbury, Stuart D; Adlard, Paul A

    2017-11-23

    The divalent cation zinc is an integral requirement for optimal cellular processes, whereby it contributes to the function of over 300 enzymes, regulates intracellular signal transduction, and contributes to efficient synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Given the critical role of zinc in a breadth of cellular processes, its cellular distribution and local tissue level concentrations remain tightly regulated via a series of proteins, primarily including zinc transporter and zinc import proteins. A loss of function of these regulatory pathways, or dietary alterations that result in a change in zinc homeostasis in the brain, can all lead to a myriad of pathological conditions with both acute and chronic effects on function. This review aims to highlight the role of zinc signaling in the central nervous system, where it may precipitate or potentiate diverse issues such as age-related cognitive decline, depression, Alzheimer's disease or negative outcomes following brain injury.

  3. Hydrogen rich gas generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A process and apparatus is described for producing a hydrogen rich gas by introducing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel in the form of a spray into a partial oxidation region and mixing with a mixture of steam and air that is preheated by indirect heat exchange with the formed hydrogen rich gas, igniting the hydrocarbon fuel spray mixed with the preheated mixture of steam and air within the partial oxidation region to form a hydrogen rich gas.

  4. Rich catalytic injection

    DOEpatents

    Veninger, Albert [Coventry, CT

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  5. Research: Rags to Rags? Riches to Riches?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    Everyone has read about what might be called the "gold gap"--how the rich in this country are getting richer and controlling an ever-larger share of the nation's wealth. The Century Foundation has started publishing "Reality Check", a series of guides to campaign issues that sometimes finds gaps in these types of cherished delusions. The guides…

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF A WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wastewater aerosol monitoring program was conducted at an advanced wastewater treatment facility using the activated sludge process. This plant was recently constructed next to an elementary school in Tigard, Oregon. Wastewater aerosols containing pathogenic organisms are gener...

  7. Hydrothermal liquefaction of municipal wastewater cultivated algae: Increasing overall sustainability and value streams of algal biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Griffin William

    The forefront of the 21st century presents ongoing challenges in economics, energy, and environmental remediation, directly correlating with priorities for U.S. national security. Displacing petroleum-derived fuels with clean, affordable renewable fuels represents a solution to increase energy independence while stimulating economic growth and reducing carbon-based emissions. The U.S. government embodied this goal by passing the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in 2007, mandating 36 billion gallons of annual biofuel production by 2022. Algae possess potential to support EISA goals and have been studied for the past 30-50 years as an energy source due to its fast growth rates, noncompetitive nature to food markets, and ability to grow using nutrient waste streams. Algae biofuels have been identified by the National Research Council to have significant sustainability concerns involving water, nutrient, and land use. Utilizing municipal wastewater to cultivate algae provides both water and nutrients needed for growth, partially alleviating these concerns. This dissertation demonstrates a pathway for algae biofuels which increases both sustainability and production of high-value products. Algae are cultivated in pilot-scale open ponds located at the Lawrence Wastewater Treatment Plant (Lawrence, KS) using solely effluent from the secondary clarifier, prior to disinfection and discharge, as both water and nutrient sources. Open ponds were self-inoculated by wastewater effluent and produced a mixed-species culture of various microalgae and macroalgae. Algae cultivation provided further wastewater treatment, removing both nitrogen and phosphorus, which have devastating pollution effects when discharged to natural watersheds, especially in large draining watersheds like the Gulf Coast. Algae demonstrated significant removal of other trace metals such as iron, manganese, barium, aluminum, and zinc. Calcium did not achieve high removal rate but did present a

  8. An Evaluation of Reed Bed Technology to Dewater Army Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    speculated that the plants produced "root exudations" that were active against pathogens, and that the plants specifically showed an affinity for cadmium , zinc...Schwenksville, PA Topton Sewage Treatment Topton. PA Wabash WWTP Wabash . IN Wallingford Fire District #lWastewater Treatment Plant Wallingford. VT...Navy Group 06/88 Tom Severance Security 207-963-5534 Winter Harbour. ME Wabash WWTP. IN 09/91 Vincent J. Bauco 219-563-2941 20 Table 4 (Cont’d

  9. Zinc supplementation for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Person, Osmar C; Puga, Maria Es; da Silva, Edina Mk; Torloni, Maria R

    2016-11-23

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound without external acoustic stimuli. Patients with severe tinnitus may have physical and psychological complaints and their tinnitus can cause deterioration in their quality of life. At present no specific therapy for tinnitus has been found to be satisfactory in all patients. In recent decades, a number of reports have suggested that oral zinc supplementation may be effective in the management of tinnitus. Since zinc has a role in cochlear physiology and in the synapses of the auditory system, there is a plausible mechanism of action for this treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral zinc supplementation in the management of patients with tinnitus. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 6); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 14 July 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing zinc supplementation versus placebo in adults (18 years and over) with tinnitus. We used the standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Our primary outcome measures were improvement in tinnitus severity and disability, measured by a validated tinnitus-specific questionnaire, and adverse effects. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, change in socioeconomic impact associated with work, change in anxiety and depression disorders, change in psychoacoustic parameters, change in tinnitus loudness, change in overall severity of tinnitus and change in thresholds on pure tone audiometry. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included three trials involving a total of 209 participants. The studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. All included studies had differences in participant selection criteria, length of follow-up and outcome measurement

  10. Training Centers for Onsite Wastewater Treatment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Onsite wastewater training centers offer classes, demonstration projects and research facilities for onsite industry professionals. Classes include wastewater management, new technologies and pre-licensing.

  11. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  12. Modulation of neuronal signal transduction and memory formation by synaptic zinc.

    PubMed

    Sindreu, Carlos; Storm, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    The physiological role of synaptic zinc has remained largely enigmatic since its initial detection in hippocampal mossy fibers over 50 years ago. The past few years have witnessed a number of studies highlighting the ability of zinc ions to regulate ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways implicated in neuroplasticity, and others that shed some light on the elusive role of synaptic zinc in learning and memory. Recent behavioral studies using knock-out mice for the synapse-specific zinc transporter ZnT-3 indicate that vesicular zinc is required for the formation of memories dependent on the hippocampus and the amygdala, two brain centers that are prominently innervated by zinc-rich fibers. A common theme emerging from this research is the activity-dependent regulation of the Erk1/2 mitogen-activated-protein kinase pathway by synaptic zinc through diverse mechanisms in neurons. Here we discuss current knowledge on how synaptic zinc may play a role in cognition through its impact on neuronal signaling.

  13. Modulation of Neuronal Signal Transduction and Memory Formation by Synaptic Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Sindreu, Carlos; Storm, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological role of synaptic zinc has remained largely enigmatic since its initial detection in hippocampal mossy fibers over 50 years ago. The past few years have witnessed a number of studies highlighting the ability of zinc ions to regulate ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways implicated in neuroplasticity, and others that shed some light on the elusive role of synaptic zinc in learning and memory. Recent behavioral studies using knock-out mice for the synapse-specific zinc transporter ZnT-3 indicate that vesicular zinc is required for the formation of memories dependent on the hippocampus and the amygdala, two brain centers that are prominently innervated by zinc-rich fibers. A common theme emerging from this research is the activity-dependent regulation of the Erk1/2 mitogen-activated-protein kinase pathway by synaptic zinc through diverse mechanisms in neurons. Here we discuss current knowledge on how synaptic zinc may play a role in cognition through its impact on neuronal signaling. PMID:22084630

  14. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    PubMed

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  15. Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under zinc starvation. Zinc depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for zinc-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by zinc starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed zinc starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant zinc proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to zinc-binding proteins. When cellular zinc is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing zinc from the degraded proteins and recycling zinc for other essential purposes. PMID:28264932

  16. Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-05-19

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under zinc starvation. Zinc depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for zinc-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by zinc starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed zinc starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant zinc proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to zinc-binding proteins. When cellular zinc is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing zinc from the degraded proteins and recycling zinc for other essential purposes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  18. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli. PMID:28629136

  19. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-06-17

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  20. Copper and Zinc Metallation Status of Copper Zinc Superoxide Dismutase form Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Transgenic Mice

    SciT

    Lelie, H.L.; Miller, L.; Liba, A.

    2010-09-24

    Mutations in the metalloenzyme copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause one form of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and metals are suspected to play a pivotal role in ALS pathology. To learn more about metals in ALS, we determined the metallation states of human wild-type or mutant (G37R, G93A, and H46R/H48Q) SOD1 proteins from SOD1-ALS transgenic mice spinal cords. SOD1 was gently extracted from spinal cord and separated into insoluble (aggregated) and soluble (supernatant) fractions, and then metallation states were determined by HPLC inductively coupled plasma MS. Insoluble SOD1-rich fractions were not enriched in copper and zinc. However, the soluble mutantmore » and WT SOD1s were highly metallated except for the metal-binding-region mutant H46R/H48Q, which did not bind any copper. Due to the stability conferred by high metallation of G37R and G93A, it is unlikely that these soluble SOD1s are prone to aggregation in vivo, supporting the hypothesis that immature nascent SOD1 is the substrate for aggregation. We also investigated the effect of SOD1 overexpression and disease on metal homeostasis in spinal cord cross-sections of SOD1-ALS mice using synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy. In each mouse genotype, except for the H46R/H48Q mouse, we found a redistribution of copper between gray and white matters correlated to areas of high SOD1. Interestingly, a disease-specific increase of zinc was observed in the white matter for all mutant SOD1 mice. Together these data provide a picture of copper and zinc in the cell as well as highlight the importance of these metals in understanding SOD1-ALS pathology.« less

  1. Wastewater Treatment I. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This instructor's manual provides an outline and guide for teaching Wastewater Treatment I. It consists of nine sections. An introductory note and a course outline comprise sections 1 and 2. Section 3 (the bulk of the guide) presents lesson outlines for teaching the ten chapters of the manual entitled "Operation of Wastewater Treatment…

  2. Silvicultural Use of Wastewater Sludge

    J.B. Hart; P.V. Nguyen; D.H. Urie; Dale G. Brockway

    1988-01-01

    Generation of wastewater sludge in the United States has become a problem of increasing proportion, with annual production at 4 million tons in 1970 (Walsh 1976) and 7 million tons currently(Maness 1987). While population and industrial growth have contributed to this problem, legislation requiring higher standards of treatment for wastewater processed in the 15,378...

  3. Electrophoretic Process For Purifying Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Twitty, Garland E.; Sharnez, Rizwan; Egen, Ned B.

    1992-01-01

    Microbes, poisonous substances, and colloidal particles removed by combination of electric fields. Electrophoretic process removes pathogenicorganisms, toxins, toxic metals, and cooloidal soil particles from wastewater. Used to render domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastewater streams potable. Process also useful in bioregenerative and other closed systems like in space stations and submarines, where water must be recycled.

  4. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  5. Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Inga; Maywald, Martina; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14), zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10), and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function. PMID:29186856

  6. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  7. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  8. Dietary and non-dietary factors associated with serum zinc in Indian women.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Catherine A; Menon, Kavitha C; Ferguson, Elaine L; Thomson, Christine D; Bailey, Karl; Gray, Andrew R; Zodpey, Sanjay; Saraf, Abhay; Das, Prabir Kumar; Skeaff, Sheila A

    2014-10-01

    Women in low-income settings, common in India, are at risk of inadequate zinc intake due to poor diet quality and low consumption of flesh foods rich in zinc. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of zinc status of non-pregnant rural and tribal women living in central India and to identify dietary and non-dietary factors associated with the biochemical zinc status of these women. Rural and tribal non-pregnant women 18-30 years of age were selected using proportion to population sampling near Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. Sociodemographic, biochemical (serum zinc), clinical, and dietary data (1-day interactive 24-h recall) were collected. The mean age of women (n = 109; rural = 52; tribal = 56) was 23.2 years and mean BMI was 17.9 kg/m(2). The majority of the participants identified as being non-vegetarian (72 %). The mean ± SD serum zinc concentration was 10.8 ± 1.6 μmol/L, and 52 % of participants had a low serum zinc concentration according to the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG). The median (first and third quartile) energy, zinc intake, and phytate/zinc molar ratio was 5.4 (4.2, 6.7) MJ/day, 5.3 (3.8, 7.0) mg/day, and 26 (22, 28), respectively. Zinc intakes were well below IZiNCG recommendations for dietary zinc of 9 mg/day for non-pregnant women aged 14-18 years and 7 mg/day for non-pregnant women aged ≥ 19 years. Using linear regression analysis to identify non-dietary and dietary factors associated with serum zinc, a significant association was only found for current lactation (p = 0.012) and energy intake (p < 0.001). Diets low in energy with poor bioavailability of dietary zinc are likely to be the primary cause of the high proportion of Indian women with zinc deficiency.

  9. Retention in Treated Wastewater Affects Survival and Deposition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Sand Columns

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiuyi; Zhao, Xiaokang; Tian, Xiujun; Li, Jin; Sjollema, Jelmer

    2015-01-01

    The fate and transport of pathogenic bacteria from wastewater treatment facilities in the Earth's subsurface have attracted extensive concern over recent decades, while the impact of treated-wastewater chemistry on bacterial viability and transport behavior remains unclear. The influence of retention time in effluent from a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant on the survival and deposition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains in sand columns was investigated in this paper. In comparison to the bacteria cultivated in nutrient-rich growth media, retention in treated wastewater significantly reduced the viability of all strains. Bacterial surface properties, e.g., zeta potential, hydrophobicity, and surface charges, varied dramatically in treated wastewater, though no universal trend was found for different strains. Retention in treated wastewater effluent resulted in changes in bacterial deposition in sand columns. Longer retention periods in treated wastewater decreased bacterial deposition rates for the strains evaluated and elevated the transport potential in sand columns. We suggest that the wastewater quality should be taken into account in estimating the fate of pathogenic bacteria discharged from wastewater treatment facilities and the risks they pose in the aquatic environment. PMID:25595758

  10. Phytoremediation: using green plants to clean up contaminate soil, groundwater, and wastewater

    SciT

    Negri, M.C.; Hinchman, R.R.; Gatliff, E.G.

    1996-07-01

    Phytoremediation, an emerging cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost, is defined as the engineered use of green plants (including grasses, forbs, and woody species) to remove, contain, or render harmless such environmental contaminants as heavy metals, trace elements, organic compounds and radioactive compounds in soil or water. Our research includes a successful field demonstration of a plant bioreactor for processing the salty wastewater from petroleum wells; the demonstration is currently under way at a natural gas well site in Oklahoma, in cooperation with Devon Energy Corporation. A greenhouse experiment on zinc uptakemore » in hybrid poplar (Populus sp.) was initiated in 1995. These experiments are being conducted to confirm and extend field data indicating high levels of zinc (4,200 ppm) in leaves of hybrid poplar growing as a cleanup system at a site with zinc contamination in the root zone of some of the trees. Analyses of soil water from experimental pots that had received several doses of zinc indicated that the zinc was totally sequestered by the plants in about 4 hours during a single pass through the root system. The data also showed concentrations of sequestered metal of >38,000 ppm Zn in the dry root tissue. These levels of sequestered zinc exceed the levels found in either roots or tops of many of the known ``hyperaccumulator`` species. Because the roots sequester most of the contaminant taken up in most plants, a major objective of this program is to determine the feasibility of root harvesting as a method to maximize the removal of contaminants from soils. Available techniques and equipment for harvesting plant roots, including young tree roots, are being evaluated and modified as necessary for use with phytoremediation plants.« less

  11. Phytoremediation: Using green plants to clean up contaminated soil, groundwater, and wastewater

    SciT

    Negri, M.C.; Hinchman, R.R.

    1996-05-01

    Phytoremediation, an emerging cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost, is defined as the engineered use of green plants (including grasses, forbs, and woody species) to remove, contain, or render harmless such environmental contaminants as heavy metals, trace elements, organic compounds ({open_quotes}organics{close_quotes}), and radioactive compounds in soil or water. Current research at Argonne National Laboratory includes a successful field demonstration of a plant bioreactor for processing the salty wastewater from petroleum wells; the demonstration is currently under way at a natural gas well site in Oklahoma, in cooperation with Devon Energy Corporation. Amore » greenhouse experiment on zinc uptake in hybrid poplar (Populus sp.) was initiated in 1995. These experiments are being conducted to confirm and extend field data from Applied Natural Sciences, Inc. (our CRADA partner), indicating high levels of zinc (4,200 ppm) in leaves of hybrid poplar growing as a cleanup system at a site with zinc contamination in the root zone of some of the trees. Analyses of soil water from experimental pots that had received several doses of zinc indicated that the zinc was totally sequestered by the plants in about 4 hours during a single pass through the root system. The data also showed concentrations of sequestered metal of >38,000 ppm Zn in the dry root tissue. These levels of sequestered zinc exceed the levels found in either roots or tops of many of the known {open_quotes}hyperaccumulator{close_quotes} species. Because the roots sequester most of the contaminant taken up in most plants, a major objective of this program is to determine the feasibility of root harvesting as a method to maximize the removal of contaminants from soils. Available techniques and equipment for harvesting plant roots, including young tree roots, are being evaluated and modified as necessary for use with phytoremediation plants.« less

  12. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mg/yr. (B) The wastewater stream contains partially soluble and/or soluble HAP compounds at an annual... wastewater from the PMPU exceeds 0.25 Mg/yr. (C) The wastewater stream contains partially soluble and/or... soluble and/or soluble HAP load in all wastewater from the affected source is greater than 1 Mg/yr. (D...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mg/yr. (B) The wastewater stream contains partially soluble and/or soluble HAP compounds at an annual... wastewater from the PMPU exceeds 0.25 Mg/yr. (C) The wastewater stream contains partially soluble and/or... soluble and/or soluble HAP load in all wastewater from the affected source is greater than 1 Mg/yr. (D...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator of each affected source shall comply with the HON wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132...

  15. The zinc paradigm for metalloneurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Barr, Chelsea A; Burdette, Shawn C

    2017-05-09

    Neurotransmission and sensory perception are shaped through metal ion-protein interactions in various brain regions. The term "metalloneurochemistry" defines the unique field of bioinorganic chemistry focusing on these processes, and zinc has been the leading target of metalloneurochemists in the almost 15 years since the definition was introduced. Zinc in the hippocampus interacts with receptors that dictate ion flow and neurotransmitter release. Understanding the intricacies of these interactions is crucial to uncovering the role that zinc plays in learning and memory. Based on receptor similarities and zinc-enriched neurons (ZENs) in areas of the brain responsible for sensory perception, such as the olfactory bulb (OB), and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), zinc participates in odor and sound perception. Development and improvement of methods which allow for precise detection and immediate manipulation of zinc ions in neuronal cells and in brain slices will be critical in uncovering the synaptic action of zinc and, more broadly, the bioinorganic chemistry of cognition. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  17. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate...

  18. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate...

  19. Mechanisms of inhibition of zinc-finger transcription factors by selenium compounds ebselen and selenite.

    PubMed

    Larabee, Jason L; Hocker, James R; Hanas, Jay S

    2009-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory selenium compounds, ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3[2H]-one) and selenite, were found to alter the DNA binding mechanisms and structures of cysteine-rich zinc-finger transcription factors. As assayed by DNase I protection, DNA binding by TFIIIA (transcription factor IIIA, prototypical Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger protein), was inhibited by micromolar amounts of ebselen. In a gel shift assay, ebselen inhibited the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger-containing DNA binding domain (DBD) of the NF-kappaB mediated transcription factor Sp1. Ebselen also inhibited DNA binding by the p50 subunit of the pro-inflammatory Cys-containing NF-kappaB transcription factor. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was utilized to elucidate mechanisms of chemical interaction between ebselen and a zinc-bound Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger polypeptide modeled after the third finger of Sp1 (Sp1-3). Exposing Sp1-3 to micromolar amounts of ebselen resulted in Zn(2+) release from this peptide and the formation of a disulfide bond by oxidation of zinc finger SH groups, the likely mechanism for DNA binding inhibition. Selenite was shown by ESI-MS to also eject zinc from Sp1-3 as well as induce disulfide bond formation through SH oxidation. The selenite-dependent inhibition/oxidation mechanism differed from that of ebselen by inducing the formation of a stable selenotrisulfide bond. Selenite-induced selenotrisulfide formation was dependent upon the structure of the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger as alteration in the finger structure enhanced this reaction as well as selenite-dependent zinc release. Ebselen and selenite-dependent inhibition/oxidation of Cys-rich zinc finger proteins, with concomitant release of zinc and finger structural changes, points to mechanisms at the atomic and protein level for selenium-induced alterations in Cys-rich proteins, and possible amelioration of certain inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and oncogenic responses.

  20. Structural and Functional Studies of the Protamine 2-Zinc Complex from Syrian Gold Hamster (Mesocricetus Auratus) Spermatids and Sperm

    SciT

    Dolan, Cheryl E.

    The research described in this dissertation consists of four major areas: (1) sequence analysis of protamine 2 from Muroid rodents to identify potential zinc-binding domain(s) of protamine 2; (2) structural studies of the protamine 2-zinc complex from Syrian Gold hamster sperm and spermatids to elucidate the role of zinc during spermiogenesis; (3) structural studies of an unique protamine 2-zinc complex from chinchilla sperm; and (4) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of soluble complexes of hairpin oligonucleotides with synthetic arginine-rich peptides or protamine 1 isolated from bull sperm. First, zinc was quantitated in spermatids and sperm by Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE)more » to determine whether zinc is present in the early stages of spermiogenesis. The PIXE results revealed the zinc content varies proportionately with the amount of protamine 2 in both spermatid and sperm nuclei. An exception was chinchilla sperm containing twice the amount of protamine 2 than zinc. Further analyses by PIXE and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) of zinc bound to protamines isolated from hamster sperm confirmed the majority of the zinc is bound to protamine and identified the zinc ligands of protamine 2 in hamster spermatids and sperm in vivo. These studies established that zinc is bound to the protamine 2 precursor in hamster spermatids and the coordination of zinc by protamine 2 changes during spermiogenesis. Finally, the sequence analysis combined with the XAS results suggest that the zinc-binding domain in protamine 2 resides in the amino-terminus. Similar analyses of chinchilla sperm by XAS were performed to clarify the unusual PIXE results and revealed that chinchilla has an atypical protamine 2-zinc structure. Two protamine 2 molecules coordinate one zinc atom, forming homodimers that facilitate the binding of protamine 2 to DNA and provide an organizational scheme that would accommodate the observed species-specific protamine stoichiometry in

  1. Marine carbohydrates of wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Prasad N; Gomathi, Thandapani; Vinodhini, P Angelin; Nasreen, K

    2014-01-01

    Our natural heritage (rivers, seas, and oceans) has been exploited, mistreated, and contaminated because of industrialization, globalization, population growth, urbanization with increased wealth, and more extravagant lifestyles. The scenario gets worse when the effluents or contaminants are discharged directly. So wastewater treatment is a very important and necessary in nowadays to purify wastewater before it enters a body of natural water, or it is applied to the land, or it is reused. Various methods are available for treating wastewater but with many disadvantages. Recently, numerous approaches have been studied for the development of cheaper and more effective technologies, both to decrease the amount of wastewater produced and to improve the quality of the treated effluent. Biosorption is an emerging technology, which uses natural materials as adsorbents for wastewater treatment. Low-cost adsorbents of polysaccharide-based materials obtained from marine, such as chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan, are acting as rescue for wastewater treatment. This chapter reviews the treatment of wastewater up to the present time using marine polysaccharides and its derivatives. Special attention is paid to the advantages of the natural adsorbents, which are a wonderful gift for human survival. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mineral resource of the month: zinc

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2009-01-01

    The article provides information on zinc, the fourth most-widely consumed metal. It traces the first use of zinc with the Romans' production of brass. It describes the presence of zinc in Earth's crust and the importance of sphalerite as a source of zinc and other some minor metal production. The production and consumption of zinc as well as the commercial and industrial uses of this metal are also discussed.

  3. Zinc: an essential but elusive nutrient123

    PubMed Central

    King, Janet C

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is essential for multiple aspects of metabolism. Physiologic signs of zinc depletion are linked with diverse biochemical functions rather than with a specific function, which makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of zinc nutrition. Nutrients, such as zinc, that are required for general metabolism are called type 2 nutrients. Protein and magnesium are examples of other type 2 nutrients. Type 1 nutrients are required for one or more specific functions: examples include iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate, and copper. When dietary zinc is insufficient, a marked reduction in endogenous zinc loss occurs immediately to conserve the nutrient. If zinc balance is not reestablished, other metabolic adjustments occur to mobilize zinc from small body pools. The location of those pools is not known, but all cells probably have a small zinc reserve that includes zinc bound to metallothionein or zinc stored in the Golgi or in other organelles. Plasma zinc is also part of this small zinc pool that is vulnerable to insufficient intakes. Plasma zinc concentrations decline rapidly with severe deficiencies and more moderately with marginal depletion. Unfortunately, plasma zinc concentrations also decrease with a number of conditions (eg, infection, trauma, stress, steroid use, after a meal) due to a metabolic redistribution of zinc from the plasma to the tissues. This redistribution confounds the interpretation of low plasma zinc concentrations. Biomarkers of metabolic zinc redistribution are needed to determine whether this redistribution is the cause of a low plasma zinc rather than poor nutrition. Measures of metallothionein or cellular zinc transporters may fulfill that role. PMID:21715515

  4. A dynamic model for predicting growth in zinc-deficient stunted infants given supplemental zinc.

    PubMed

    Wastney, Meryl E; McDonald, Christine M; King, Janet C

    2018-05-01

    Zinc deficiency limits infant growth and increases susceptibility to infections, which further compromises growth. Zinc supplementation improves the growth of zinc-deficient stunted infants, but the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc supplementation required to restore growth in an individual child is unknown. A dynamic model of zinc metabolism that predicts changes in weight and length of zinc-deficient, stunted infants with dietary zinc would be useful to define effective zinc supplementation regimens. The aims of this study were to develop a dynamic model for zinc metabolism in stunted, zinc-deficient infants and to use that model to predict the growth response when those infants are given zinc supplements. A model of zinc metabolism was developed using data on zinc kinetics, tissue zinc, and growth requirements for healthy 9-mo-old infants. The kinetic model was converted to a dynamic model by replacing the rate constants for zinc absorption and excretion with functions for these processes that change with zinc intake. Predictions of the dynamic model, parameterized for zinc-deficient, stunted infants, were compared with the results of 5 published zinc intervention trials. The model was then used to predict the results for zinc supplementation regimes that varied in the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc dosing. Model predictions agreed with published changes in plasma zinc after zinc supplementation. Predictions of weight and length agreed with 2 studies, but overpredicted values from a third study in which other nutrient deficiencies may have been growth limiting; the model predicted that zinc absorption was impaired in that study. The model suggests that frequent, smaller doses (5-10 mg Zn/d) are more effective for increasing growth in stunted, zinc-deficient 9-mo-old infants than are larger, less-frequent doses. The dose amount affects the duration of dosing necessary to restore and maintain plasma zinc concentration and growth.

  5. Serum thymulin in human zinc deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A S; Meftah, S; Abdallah, J; Kaplan, J; Brewer, G J; Bach, J F; Dardenne, M

    1988-01-01

    The activity of thymulin (a thymic hormone) is dependent on the presence of zinc in the molecule. We assayed serum thymulin activity in three models of mildly zinc-deficient (ZD) human subjects before and after zinc supplementation: (a) two human volunteers in whom a specific and mild zinc deficiency was induced by dietary means; (b) six mildly ZD adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) subjects; and (c) six mildly ZD adult non-SCA subjects. Their plasma zinc levels were normal and they showed no overt clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency. The diagnosis of mild zinc deficiency was based on the assay of zinc in lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets. Serum thymulin activity was decreased as a result of mild zinc deficiency and was corrected by in vivo and in vitro zinc supplementation, suggesting that this parameter was a sensitive indicator of zinc deficiency in humans. An increase in T101-, sIg-cells, decrease in T4+/T8+ ratio, and decreased IL 2 activity were observed in the experimental human model during the zinc depletion phase, all of which were corrected after repletion with zinc. Similar changes in lymphocyte subpopulation, correctable with zinc supplementation, were also observed in mildly ZD SCA subjects. Inasmuch as thymulin is known to induce intra- and extrathymic T cell differentiation, our studies provide a possible mechanism for the role of zinc on T cell functions. Images PMID:3262625

  6. Stabilized nickel-zinc battery

    SciT

    Himy, A.; Wagner, O.C.

    An alkaline nickel-zinc cell which has (1) a nickel-nickel hydroxide cathode; (2) a zinc-zinc oxide anode containing (A) a corrosion inhibitor such as PBO, SNO2, Tl2O3, in(OH)3 or mixtures thereof; (B) a slight corrosion accelerator such as cdo, bi2o3, ga2o3, or mixtures thereof; and (C) a zinc active material; (3) a mass-transport separator; (4) an alkaline electrolyte; and (5) means for charging the cell with an interrupted current having a frequency of from more than zero to 16 hertz with a rest period of not less than 60 milliseconds. Another desirable feature is the use of a pressure-cutoff switch tomore » terminate charging when the internal pressure of the cell reaches a selected value in the range of from 5 to 8 psig.« less

  7. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.

    2008-01-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  8. Engineering application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Mao, Nianjia; Ren, Hongqiang; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke

    2017-08-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), a promising biological nitrogen removal process, has been verified as an efficient, sustainable and cost-effective alternative to conventional nitrification and denitrification processes. To date, more than 110 full-scale anammox plants have been installed and are in operation, treating industrial NH 4 + -rich wastewater worldwide, and anammox-based technologies are flourishing. This review the current state of the art for engineering applications of the anammox process, including various anammox-based technologies, reactor selection and attempts to apply it at different wastewater plants. Process control and implementation for stable performance are discussed as well as some remaining issues concerning engineering application are exposed, including the start-up period, process disturbances, greenhouse gas emissions and especially mainstream anammox applications. Finally, further development of the anammox engineering application is proposed in this review.

  9. The CBM RICH detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J.; Akishin, P.; Becker, K.-H.; Belogurov, S.; Bendarouach, J.; Boldyreva, N.; Chernogorov, A.; Deveaux, C.; Dobyrn, V.; Dürr, M.; Eschke, J.; Förtsch, J.; Heep, J.; Höohne, C.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kochenda, L.; Kopfer, J.; Kravtsov, P.; Kres, I.; Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E.; Leonova, E.; Linev, S.; Mahmoud, T.; Michel, J.; Miftakhov, N.; Niebur, W.; Ovcharenko, E.; Pauly, C.; Pfeifer, D.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Reinecke, S.; Riabov, Y.; Roshchin, E.; Samsonov, V.; Tarasenkova, O.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Vznuzdaev, M.

    2016-05-01

    The CBM RICH detector will use CO2 as radiator gas, focussing glass mirrors with Al+MgF2 reflective and protective coating and Hamamatsu H12700 MAPMTs as photon detectors. The detector will serve for electron to pion separation up to momenta of 8 GeV/c and thus enable in CBM the measurement of electromagnetic radiation from the early and dense fireball in A+A collisions at SIS 100. In this article, the current status of the CBM RICH development will be presented including new measurements of the radiation hardness of the H12700 MAPMT and WLS coatings with p-terphenyl, the new concept for the readout electronics, and optimizations ongoing with respect to the mirror mount structure and overall geometry. Prior to the usage in CBM, part of the already ordered MAPMTs will be used to upgrade the HADES RICH detector for a new measurement campaign at SIS 18 from 2018-2020.

  10. Hydrogen rich gas generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Rupe, J. H.; Kushida, R. O. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A process and apparatus is described for producing a hydrogen rich gas by injecting air and hydrocarbon fuel at one end of a cylindrically shaped chamber to form a mixture and igniting the mixture to provide hot combustion gases by partial oxidation of the hydrocarbon fuel. The combustion gases move away from the ignition region to another region where water is injected to be turned into steam by the hot combustion gases. The steam which is formed mixes with the hot gases to yield a uniform hot gas whereby a steam reforming reaction with the hydrocarbon fuel takes place to produce a hydrogen rich gas.

  11. Fischer-Tropsch Wastewater Utilization

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Lalit S.

    2003-03-18

    The present invention is generally directed to handling the wastewater, or condensate, from a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor. More particularly, the present invention provides a process wherein the wastewater of a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor, such as a Fischer-Tropsch reactor, is sent to a gasifier and subsequently reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas. The wastewater may also be recycled back to a slurry preparation stage, where solid combustible organic materials are pulverized and mixed with process water and the wastewater to form a slurry, after which the slurry fed to a gasifier where it is reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas.

  12. Small and Rural Wastewater Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many tools, training, technical assistance, and funding resources are available to develop and maintain reliable and affordable wastewater treatment systems in small and rural communities including in tribal and U.S.-Mexico Border area.

  13. The Sources and Solutions: Wastewater

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Wastewater treatment plants process water from homes and businesses, which contains nitrogen and phosphorus from human waste, food and certain soaps and detergents, and they can be a major source of nutrient pollution.

  14. Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

  15. Prioritizing pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral presentation at SETAC North America 32nd annual meeting, describing our prioritization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), based on estimates of risks posed by API residues originating from municipal wastewater. Goals of this project include prioritization of APIs f...

  16. Algae-based biofilm productivity utilizing dairy wastewater: effects of temperature and organic carbon concentration.

    PubMed

    Fica, Zachary T; Sims, Ronald C

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm-based microalgal growth was determined as functions of organic chemical loading and water temperature utilizing dairy wastewater from a full-scale dairy farm. The dairy industry is a significant source of wastewater worldwide that could provide an inexpensive and nutrient rich feedstock for the cultivation of algae biomass for use in downstream processing of animal feed and aquaculture applications. Algal biomass was cultivated using a Rotating Algal Biofilm Reactor (RABR) system. The RABR is a biofilm-based technology that has been designed and used to remediate municipal wastewater and was applied to treat dairy wastewater through nutrient uptake, and simultaneously provide biomass for the production of renewable bioproducts. Aerial algal biofilm growth rates in dairy wastewater at 7 and 27 °C temperatures were shown to be 4.55 ± 0.17 g/m 2 -day and 7.57 ± 1.12 g/m 2 -day ash free dry weight (AFDW), respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) calculations indicated that both an increase in temperature of the wastewater and an increase in the level of organic carbon, from 300 to 1200 mg L -1 , contributed significantly to an increase in the rate of biomass growth in the system. However, ANOVA results indicated that the interaction of temperature and organic carbon content was not significantly related to the biofilm-based growth rate. A microalgae-based biofilm reactor was successfully used to treat turbid dairy wastewater. Temperature and organic carbon concentration had a statistically significant effect on algae-based biofilm productivity and treatment of dairy wastewater. The relationships between temperature, TOC, and productivity developed in this study may be used in the design and assessment of wastewater remediation systems and biomass production systems utilizing algae-based biofilm reactors for treating dairy wastes.

  17. Nutrient balancing for phytoremediation enhancement of urea manufacturing raw wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Sara; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Sapari, Nasiman B; Yavari, Saba; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-11-01

    Application of urea manufacturing wastewater to teak (Tectona grandis) trees, a fast growing tropical timber plants, is an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective alternative for treatment of nitrogen-rich wastewater. However, the plant growth is strongly limited by lack of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) elements when the plants are irrigated with wastewater containing high concentration of nitrogen (N). A greenhouse experiment was conducted to optimize the efficiency of teak-based remediation systems in terms of nutrient balance. Twelve test solutions consisted of 4 levels of P (95, 190, 570, 1140 mgL -1 ) and 3 levels of K (95, 190, 570 mgL -1 ) with a constant level of N (190 mgL -1 ) were applied to teak seedlings every four days during the study period. Evapotranspiration rate, nutrient removal percentage, leaf surface area, dry weight and nutrient contents of experimental plants were determined and compared with those grown in control solution containing only N (N:P:K = 1:0:0). Teak seedlings grown in units with 1:0.5:1 N:P:K ratio were highly effective at nutrient removal upto 47%, 48% and 49% for N, P and K, respectively. Removal efficiency of teak plants grown in other experimental units decreased with increasing P and K concentrations in test solutions. The lowest nutrient removal and plant growth were recorded in units with 1:6:0.5 N:P:K ratio which received the highest ratio of P to K. The findings indicated that teak seedlings functioned effectively as phytoremediation plants for N-rich wastewater treatment when they were being supplied with proper concentrations of P and K. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Zinc in innate and adaptive tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is important. It is the second most abundant trace metal with 2-4 grams in humans. It is an essential trace element, critical for cell growth, development and differentiation, DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation. Zinc deficiency has adverse consequences during embryogenesis and early childhood development, particularly on immune functioning. It is essential in members of all enzyme classes, including over 300 signaling molecules and transcription factors. Free zinc in immune and tumor cells is regulated by 14 distinct zinc importers (ZIP) and transporters (ZNT1-8). Zinc depletion induces cell death via apoptosis (or necrosis if apoptotic pathways are blocked) while sufficient zinc levels allows maintenance of autophagy. Cancer cells have upregulated zinc importers, and frequently increased zinc levels, which allow them to survive. Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate zinc levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor apoptosis are in order. PMID:21087493

  19. Zinc for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi R

    2011-02-16

    The common cold is one of the most widespread illnesses and is a leading cause of visits to the doctor and absenteeism from school and work. Trials conducted since 1984 investigating the role of zinc for the common cold symptoms have had mixed results. Inadequate treatment masking and reduced bioavailability of zinc from some formulations have been cited as influencing results. To assess the effect of zinc on common cold symptoms. We searched CENTRAL (2010, Issue 2) which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to May week 3, 2010) and EMBASE (1974 to June 2010). Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using zinc for at least five consecutive days to treat, or for at least five months to prevent the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We included 13 therapeutic trials (966 participants) and two preventive trials (394 participants). Intake of zinc is associated with a significant reduction in the duration (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.56 to -0.38) (P = 0.001), and severity of common cold symptoms (SMD -0.39; 95% CI -0.77 to -0.02) (P = 0.04). There was a significant difference between the zinc and control group for the proportion of participants symptomatic after seven days of treatment (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.00) (P = 0.05). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of developing a cold (IRR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.88) (P = 0.006), school absence (P = 0.0003) and prescription of antibiotics (P < 0.00001) was lower in the zinc group. Overall adverse events (OR 1.59; 95% CI 0.97 to 2.58) (P = 0.06), bad taste (OR 2.64; 95% CI 1.91 to 3.64) (P < 0.00001) and nausea (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 to 3.23) (P = 0.002) were higher in the zinc group. Zinc administered within 24 hours of onset of symptoms reduces the duration and severity of the common cold in healthy people. When supplemented for at least five months, it reduces cold

  20. Electrochemical and/or microbiological treatment of pyrolysis wastewater.

    PubMed

    Silva, José R O; Santos, Dara S; Santos, Ubiratan R; Eguiluz, Katlin I B; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R; Schneider, Jaderson K; Krause, Laiza C; López, Jorge A; Hernández-Macedo, Maria L

    2017-10-01

    Electrochemical oxidation may be used as treatment to decompose partially or completely organic pollutants (wastewater) from industrial processes such as pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical process used to obtain bio-oil from biomasses, generating a liquid waste rich in organic compounds including aldehydes and phenols, which can be submitted to biological and electrochemical treatments in order to minimize its environmental impact. Thus, electrochemical systems employing dimensionally stable anodes (DSAs) have been proposed to enable biodegradation processes in subsurface environments. In order to investigate the organic compound degradation from residual coconut pyrolysis wastewater, ternary DSAs containing ruthenium, iridium and cerium synthetized by the 'ionic liquid method' at different calcination temperatures (500, 550, 600 and 700 °C) for the pretreatment of these compounds, were developed in order to allow posterior degradation by Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. or Acinetobacter sp. bacteria. The electrode synthesized applying 500 °C displayed the highest voltammetric charge and was used in the pretreatment of pyrolysis effluent prior to microbial treatment. Regarding biological treatment, the Pseudomonas sp. exhibited high furfural degradation in wastewater samples electrochemically pretreated at 2.0 V. On the other hand, the use of Acinetobacter efficiently degraded phenolic compounds such as phenol, 4-methylphenol, 2,5-methylphenol, 4-ethylphenol and 3,5-methylphenol in both wastewater samples, with and without electrochemical pretreatment. Overall, the results indicate that the combination of both processes used in this study is relevant for the treatment of pyrolysis wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. From Rags to Riches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the "Rags to Riches" design project she introduced to her students. She assigned each of her students one item from an array to thrift store goods which included old scarves, sweaters, jackets, and even evening gowns. The design problem was to imagine what a clothing tag might look like if the assigned item…

  2. Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide123

    PubMed Central

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnić, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6–71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6–71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9–57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  3. Phytoremediation potential of water caltrop (Trapa natans L.) using municipal wastewater of the activated sludge process-based municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2018-01-01

    Phytoremediation experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of water caltrop (Trapa natans L.) using municipal wastewater collected from the activated sludge process- (ASP) based municipal wastewater treatment plant. The results revealed that T. natans significantly (P ≤ .05/P ≤ .01/P ≤ .001) reduced the contents of total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), chemical oxygen demand, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphate ([Formula: see text]), sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), calcium (Ca 2+ ), magnesium (Mg 2+ ), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), standard plate count, and most probable number of the municipal wastewater after phytoremediation experiments. The maximum removal of these parameters was obtained at 60 days of the phytoremediation experiments, but the removal rate of these parameters was gradually increased from 15 to 45 days and it was slightly decreased at 60 days. Most contents of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were translocated in the leaves of T. natans, whereas most contents of Cr and Pb were accumulated in the root of T. natans after phytoremediation experiments. The contents of different biochemical components were recorded in the order of total sugar > crude protein > total ash > crude fiber > total fat in T. natans after phytoremediation of municipal wastewater. Therefore, T. natans was found to be effective for the removal of different parameters of municipal wastewater and can be used effectively to reduce the pollution load of municipal wastewater drained from the ASP-based treatment plants.

  4. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 with swine wastewater for simultaneous nutrient/COD removal and carbohydrate production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Guo, Wanqian; Yen, Hong-Wei; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Ren, Nanqi; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-12-01

    Swine wastewater, containing a high concentration of COD and ammonia nitrogen, is suitable for the growth of microalgae, leading to simultaneous COD/nutrients removal from the wastewater. In this study, an isolated carbohydrate-rich microalga Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 was adopted to perform swine wastewater treatment. Nearly 60-70% COD removal and 40-90% NH3-N removal was achieved in the mixotrophic and heterotrophic culture, depending on the dilution ratio of the wastewater, while the highest removal percentage was obtained with 20-fold diluted wastewater. Mixotrophic cultivation by using fivefold diluted wastewater resulted in the highest biomass concentration of 3.96 g/L. The carbohydrate content of the microalga grown on the wastewater can reach up to 58% (per dry weight). The results indicated that the microalgae-based wastewater treatment can efficiently reduce the nutrients and COD level, and the resulting microalgal biomass had high carbohydrate content, thereby having potential applications for the fermentative production of biofuels or chemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Is iron and zinc nutrition a concern for vegetarian infants and young children in industrialized countries?

    PubMed

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2014-07-01

    Well-planned vegetarian diets are considered adequate for all stages of the life cycle, despite limited data on the zinc status of vegetarians during early childhood. The bioavailability of iron and zinc in vegetarian diets is poor because of their higher content of absorption inhibitors such as phytate and polyphenols and the absence of flesh foods. Consequently, children as well as adult vegetarians often have lower serum ferritin concentrations than omnivores, which is indicative of reduced iron stores, despite comparable intakes of total iron; hemoglobin differences are small and rarely associated with anemia. However, data on serum zinc concentrations, the recommended biomarker for identifying population groups at elevated risk of zinc deficiency, are sparse and difficult to interpret because recommended collection and analytic procedures have not always been followed. Existing data indicate no differences in serum zinc or growth between young vegetarian and omnivorous children, although there is some evidence of low serum zinc concentrations in vegetarian adolescents. Some vegetarian immigrants from underprivileged households may be predisposed to iron and zinc deficiency because of nondietary factors such as chronic inflammation, parasitic infections, overweight, and genetic hemoglobin disorders. To reduce the risk of deficiency, the content and bioavailability of iron and zinc should be enhanced in vegetarian diets by consumption of fortified cereals and milk, by consumption of leavened whole grains, by soaking dried legumes before cooking and discarding the soaking water, and by replacing tea and coffee at meals with vitamin C-rich drinks, fruit, or vegetables. Additional recommended practices include using fermented soy foods and sprouting at least some of the legumes consumed. Fortified foods can reduce iron deficiency, but whether they can also reduce zinc deficiency is less certain. Supplements may be necessary for vegetarian children following very

  6. Zinc for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi R

    2013-06-18

    The common cold is one of the most widespread illnesses and is a leading cause of visits to the doctor and absenteeism from school and work. Trials conducted in high-income countries since 1984 investigating the role of zinc for the common cold symptoms have had mixed results. Inadequate treatment masking and reduced bioavailability of zinc from some formulations have been cited as influencing results. To assess whether zinc (irrespective of the zinc salt or formulation used) is efficacious in reducing the incidence, severity and duration of common cold symptoms. In addition, we aimed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity in results obtained and to assess their clinical significance. In this updated review, we searched CENTRAL (2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 2, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to January 2013), CINAHL (1981 to January 2013), Web of Science (1985 to January 2013), LILACS (1982 to January 2013), WHO ICTRP and clinicaltrials.gov. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using zinc for at least five consecutive days to treat, or for at least five months to prevent the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Five trials were identified in the updated searches in January 2013 and two of them did not meet our inclusion criteria. We included 16 therapeutic trials (1387 participants) and two preventive trials (394 participants). Intake of zinc was associated with a significant reduction in the duration (days) (mean difference (MD) -1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.72 to -0.34) (P = 0.003) (I(2) statistic = 89%) but not the severity of common cold symptoms (MD -1.06, 95% CI -2.36 to 0.23) (P = 0.11) (I(2) statistic = 84%). The proportion of participants who were symptomatic after seven days of treatment was significantly smaller (odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.00) (P = 0.05) than those in the control, (I(2 )statistic = 75%). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of developing a

  7. Electrochemical Impedance Of Inorganic-Zinc-Coated Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes preliminary experiments to evaluate both direct-current and alternating-current electrochemical impedance measurements as candidate techniques for use in accelerated corrosion testing of mild-steel panels coated with inorganic zinc-rich primers and exposed to seaside air. Basic idea behind experiments to compare electrochemical impedance measurements with anticorrosion performances of coating materials to determine whether measurements can be used to predict performances. Part of continuing program to identify anticorrosion coating materials protecting steel panels adequately for as long as 5 years and beyond.

  8. History of Zinc in Agriculture12

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Forrest H.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

  9. Influence of DNA-methylation on zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of intracellular zinc, predominantly regulated through zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular zinc levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed zinc homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) zinc transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the zinc importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular zinc levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas zinc exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated zinc levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of zinc binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore zinc homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting zinc binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Stabilization of heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment plant sludge: Leaching analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Hassan, M. I. H.; Salim, N. S. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Ahmad, S.; Rahmat, N. A. I.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater treatment sludge or known as sewage sludge is regarded as the residue and produced by the sedimentation of the suspended solid during treatment at the wastewater treatment plant. As such, this sludge was gained from the separation process of the liquids and solids. This sludge wastes has becomes national issues in recent years due to the increasing amount caused by population and industrialization growth in Malaysia. This research was conducted to fully utilize the sludge that rich in dangerous heavy metals and at the same time act as low cost alternative materials in brick manufacturing. The investigation includes determination of heavy metal concentration and chemical composition of the sludge, physical and mechanical properties. Wastewater treatment sludge samples were collected from wastewater treatment plant located in Johor, Malaysia. X-Ray Fluorescence was conducted to determine the heavy metals concentration of wastewater treatment sludge. Different percentage of sludges which are 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, has been incorporated into fired clay brick. The leachability of heavy metals in fired clay brick that incorporated with sludge were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Synthetic Precipitation Leachability Procedure (SPLP) that has been analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show a possibility to stabilize the heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment sludge. 20% of the sludge incorporated into the brick is the most suitable for building materials as it leached less heavy metals concentration and complying with USEPA standard.

  11. Effects of urban wastewater on hyporheic habitat and invertebrates in Mediterranean streams.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Morales, Marc; Sabater, Francesc; Muñoz, Isabel

    2018-06-18

    Wastewater discharges into fluvial ecosystems represent a significant and continuous source of fine particles and nutrients that can severely modify stream community composition and functionality. Depending on both wastewater and stream features (e.g., nutrient removal treatments and stream dilution capacity), the ecological effects can be more or less severe. To determine how hyporheic habitat and hyporheos are affected, we analysed eight Mediterranean streams both upstream and downstream of a wastewater effluent. The results demonstrated that environmental factors associated with clogging, such as the quantity of fine particulate and organic matter in sediment, were magnified downstream of the wastewater inputs. Likewise, dissolved nutrients also increased but depended to a greater extent on the presence of a wastewater treatment plant and on the nitrogen and phosphorus removal treatments. The hyporheic invertebrates were more affected by clogging than by eutrophication. Both richness and diversity parameters were negatively correlated with clogging features but were not correlated with eutrophication. The most affected taxa were Macrocrustaceans, Hydrachnidia and several insect species, which decreased or were not detected downstream of the effluents. On the contrary, other taxa such as Naididae (Oligochaeta), Orthocladiinae (Chironomidae) and Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda) benefited from the wastewater inputs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The CBM RICH project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J.; Akishin, P.; Becker, K.-H.; Belogurov, S.; Bendarouach, J.; Boldyreva, N.; Chernogorov, A.; Deveaux, C.; Dobyrn, V.; Dürr, M.; Eschke, J.; Förtsch, J.; Heep, J.; Höhne, C.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kochenda, L.; Kopfer, J.; Kravtsov, P.; Kres, I.; Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E.; Leonova, E.; Linev, S.; Mahmoud, T.; Michel, J.; Miftakhov, N.; Niebur, W.; Ovcharenko, E.; Patel, V.; Pauly, C.; Pfeifer, D.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Reinecke, S.; Riabov, Y.; Roshchin, E.; Samsonov, V.; Tarasenkova, O.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Vznuzdaev, M.

    2017-02-01

    The CBM RICH detector is an integral component of the future CBM experiment at FAIR, providing efficient electron identification and pion suppression necessary for the measurement of rare dileptonic probes in heavy ion collisions. The RICH design is based on CO2 gas as radiator, a segmented spherical glass focussing mirror with Al+MgF2 reflective coating, and Multianode Photomultipliers for efficient Cherenkov photon detection. Hamamatsu H12700 MAPMTs have recently been selected as photon sensors, following an extensive sensor evaluation, including irradiation tests to ensure sufficient radiation hardness of the MAPMTs. A brief overview of the detector design and concept is given, results on the radiation hardness of the photon sensors are shown, and the development of a FPGA-TDC based readout chain is discussed.

  13. Zinc finger proteins in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Jen, Jayu; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2016-07-13

    Zinc finger proteins are the largest transcription factor family in human genome. The diverse combinations and functions of zinc finger motifs make zinc finger proteins versatile in biological processes, including development, differentiation, metabolism and autophagy. Over the last few decades, increasing evidence reveals the potential roles of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. However, the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression vary in different cancer types and even in the same cancer type under different types of stress. Here, we discuss general mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in transcription regulation and summarize recent studies on zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. In this review, we also emphasize the importance of further investigations in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression.

  14. Evaluation of zinc coating procedures : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-01-01

    This research project was conducted in order to compare the existing procedure of zinc coating by hot-dip galvanizing with the other zinc coating systems of painting and electroplating. : Hardware coated by these processes was exposed to varied labor...

  15. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ∼3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

  16. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  17. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will assist wastewater utilities with the condition assessment of their deteriorating wastewater collections systems, and will support the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Program Offices with addressing proposed capacity, management, operation and mainte...

  18. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Better Brite Plating Chrome and Zinc, De Pere, WI. (First remedial action), June 1991

    SciT

    Not Available

    The 2-acre Better Brite Plating Chrome and Zinc site is composed of two plating facilities in De Pere, Brown County, Wisconsin. The site includes the 1.5-acre Chrome Shop and the 0.5-acre Zinc Shop. Land use in the area is predominantly residential and commercial, with a wetlands located approximately one-quarter mile from the site. The estimated 15,000 area residents use the municipal wells drawing from the deep aquifer as a drinking water supply. The Zinc Shop has a long history of improper operational procedures and spills into the surrounding soil. The selected remedial action for this interim remedy includes continuing andmore » expanding the current operation of the ground water extraction system and pretreatment facility, which will include pretreatment of the additional water collected by the surface water and ground water collection systems, and the Chrome and Zinc shops, with discharge to the De Pere wastewater system.« less

  19. Heavy metal removal from synthetic wastewaters in an anaerobic bioreactor using stillage from ethanol distilleries as a carbon source.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M M M; da Costa, A C A; Leite, S G F; Sant'Anna, G L

    2007-11-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of using stillage from ethanol distilleries as substrate for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) growth and to evaluate the removal efficiency of heavy metals present in wastewaters containing sulfates. The experiments were carried out in a continuous bench-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (13 l) operated with a hydraulic retention time of 18 h. The bioreactor was inoculated with 7 l of anaerobic sludge. Afterwards, an enrichment procedure to increase SRB numbers was started. After this, cadmium and zinc were added to the synthetic wastewater, and their removal as metal sulfide was evaluated. The synthetic wastewater used represented the drainage from a dam of a metallurgical industry to which a carbon source (stillage) was added. The results showed that high percentages of removal (>99%) of Cd and Zn were attained in the bioreactor, and that the removal as sulfide precipitates was not the only form of metal removal occurring in the bioreactor environment.

  20. Low-Resistivity Zinc Selenide for Heterojunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetron reactive sputtering enables doping of this semiconductor. Proposed method of reactive sputtering combined with doping shows potential for yielding low-resistivity zinc selenide films. Zinc selenide attractive material for forming heterojunctions with other semiconductor compounds as zinc phosphide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor junctions promising for future optoelectronic devices, including solar cells and electroluminescent displays. Resistivities of zinc selenide layers deposited by evaporation or chemical vapor deposition too high to form practical heterojunctions.

  1. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-07-27

    Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  2. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  3. Use of zinc dust paints in shipbuilding as a prefabrication primer

    SciT

    Sakami, S.

    1969-12-01

    The widespread use of zinc dust paints and their economic advantages compared with the traditional methods of protecting steel from corrosion were described by speakers from the U.S., Japan, the Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, and the UK at a symposium organized by The Zinc Development Association. This, the newest method of applying metallic zinc coatings to steel, has grown enormously in popularity during the last 10 yr and has found many spectacular applications, such as for coating oil tankers of over 300,000 tons dwt, oil and sulfur rigs in the Gulf of Mexico, offshore oil-drilling wells in Alaska, as well asmore » for the more routine protection of bridges, railway rolling stock, and the steelwork of chemical and other industrial plants. A great amount of interest was shown in descriptions of satisfactory methods of welding steel coated with zinc-rich paints, and the simple ways in which health hazards from zinc fumes arising from welding can be avoided. It was stressed that zinc dust paints require good surface preparation, carefully controlled application, and properly engineered overcoating, but the comparatively high initial cost of achieving this is amply repaid in reduced maintenance in subsequent years.« less

  4. [Improvement in zinc nutrition due to zinc transporter-targeting strategy].

    PubMed

    Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-01

    Adequate intake of zinc from the daily diet is indispensable to maintain health. However, the dietary zinc content often fails to fulfill the recommended daily intake, leading to zinc deficiency and also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, particularly in elderly individuals. Therefore, increased attention is required to overcome zinc deficiency and it is important to improve zinc nutrition in daily life. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for zinc absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding zinc deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient zinc absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing zinc deficiency and improving human health.

  5. Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

  6. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc...). It is principally composed of Zn. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with zinc oxide may...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b...

  13. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use...

  14. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chickedema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chickedema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  4. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50 grams per pound bacitracin. (b) Approvals. See No. 046573 in...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.1991...

  12. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50 grams per pound bacitracin. (b) Approvals. See No. 046573 in...

  13. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  14. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  1. Ferritin: a zinc detoxicant and a zinc ion donor.

    PubMed Central

    Price, D; Joshi, J G

    1982-01-01

    Rats were injected with 1 mg of Zn2+ as zinc sulfate or 2 mg of Cd2+ as cadmium sulfate per kg of body weight on a daily basis. After seven injections, ferritin and metallothionein were isolated from the livers of the rats. Significant amounts of zinc were associated with ferritin. Incubation of such ferritin with apoenzymes of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase, yeast phosphoglucomutase, and yeast aldolase restored their enzymic activity. The amount of zinc injected was insufficient to stimulate significant synthesis of metallothionein, but similar experiments with injection of cadmium did stimulate the synthesis of metallothionein. The amount of Zn2+ in ferritin of Cd-injected rats was greater than that in ferritin in Zn-injected rats, which was greater than that in ferritin of normal rats. Thus at comparable protein concentration ferritin from Cd-injected rats was a better Zn2+ donor than was ferritin from Zn-injected or normal animals. Ferritin is a normal constituent of several tissues, whereas metallothionein is synthesized under metabolic stress. Thus ferritin may function as a "metal storage and transferring agent" for iron and for zinc. It is suggested that ferritin probably serves as the initial chelator for Zn2+ and perhaps other metal ions as well and that under very high toxic levels of metal ions the synthesis of metallothionein is initiated as the second line of defense. PMID:6212927

  2. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section 63.1106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in...

  3. Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

  4. Mobile Wastewater Treatment Technology for Contingency Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-24

    Def nse Cent rgy and Environment Contingency Base Wastewater Treatment Options Option Advantages Disadvantages Tanking and Trucking Offsite Low...National Defense Center for Energy and Environment Mobile Wastewater Treatment f or Contingency Bases, May 2012 1 National Def nse Cent rgy and...Environment DoD Executive Agent Mobile Wastewater Treatment Technology for Contingency Bases Shan Abeywickrama, NDCEE/CTC Elizabeth Keysar

  5. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart...

  7. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group 2...

  9. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group 2...

  12. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

  13. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator...

  15. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart...

  16. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

  17. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream originating...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator...

  19. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group 2...

  1. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  2. Wastewater Treatment: The Natural Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc. is widely acclaimed for innovative work in natural water purification which involves use of aquatic plants to remove pollutants from wastewater at a relatively low-cost. Haughton, Louisiana, visited Wolverton's artificial marsh test site and decided to use this method of wastewater treatment. They built an 11 acre sewage lagoon with a 70 by 900 foot artificial marsh called a vascular aquatic plant microbial filter cell. In the cell, microorganisms and rooted aquatic plants combine to absorb and digest wastewater pollutants, thereby converting sewage to relatively clean water. Raw waste water, after a period in the sewage lagoon, flows over a rock bed populated by microbes that digest nutrients and minerals from the sewage thus partially cleaning it. Additional treatment is provided by the aquatic plants growing in the rock bed, which absorb more of the pollutants and help deodorize the sewage.

  3. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  4. Evaluation of commercial ultrafiltration systems for treating automotive oily wastewater

    SciT

    Kim, B.R.; Kalis, E.M.; Florkey, D.L.

    1998-11-01

    Currently at Ford Motor Company, oily wastewater is batch treated by chemical demulsification whose performance depends on determining optimum chemical dosages and is occasionally inconsistent because of influent fluctuations. Therefore, a pilot study was conducted at the Ford Romeo Engine Plant, Romeo, Michigan, to study treatment of raw oily wastewater and skim oil (from chemical deemulsification) using commercially available ultrafiltration (UF) systems as an alternative to chemical deemulsification. The study found that most UF membranes performed consistently and reliably, producing average permeate oil and grease (O and G) concentrations of less than 100 mg/L, a typical discharge limit for anmore » automotive plant. In addition, tubular membranes typically outperformed spiral-wound membranes in permeate flux and washing frequency. While all UF systems performed consistently well for removing O and G, the treated effluent still had a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 100 to 2,000 mg/L, which is comparable to that found in typical chemically treated wastewater. This indicates that many dissolved organics are not removed by either chemical or UF treatment. Metals (such as copper and zinc) were found to be effectively removed by UF when the pH was greater than 8. Most membranes used as a second stage produced retentate with O and G of more than 40%. All attempts at UF skim oil treatment were unsuccessful because of high oil viscosity, which made pumping it through a membrane system almost impossible. Chemical reactions during the chemical deemulsification process might have been responsible for the high viscosity.« less

  5. Zinc lozenges and the common cold: a meta-analysis comparing zinc acetate and zinc gluconate, and the role of zinc dosage.

    PubMed

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of zinc acetate lozenges with zinc gluconate lozenges in common cold treatment and to examine the dose-dependency of the effect. Meta-analysis. Placebo-controlled zinc lozenge trials, in which the zinc dose was > 75 mg/day. The pooled effect of zinc lozenges on common cold duration was calculated by using inverse-variance random-effects method. Seven randomised trials with 575 participants with naturally acquired common colds. Duration of the common cold. The mean common cold duration was 33% (95% CI 21% to 45%) shorter for the zinc groups of the seven included trials. Three trials that used lozenges composed of zinc acetate found that colds were shortened by 40% and four trials that used zinc gluconate by 28%. The difference between the two salts was not significant: 12 percentage points (95% CI: -12 to + 36). Five trials used zinc doses of 80-92 mg/day, common cold duration was reduced by 33%, and two trials used zinc doses of 192-207 mg/day and found an effect of 35%. The difference between the high-dose and low-dose zinc trials was not significant: 2 percentage points (95% CI: -29 to + 32). Properly composed zinc gluconate lozenges may be as effective as zinc acetate lozenges. There is no evidence that zinc doses over 100 mg/day might lead to greater efficacy in the treatment of the common cold. Common cold patients may be encouraged to try zinc lozenges for treating their colds. The optimal lozenge composition and dosage scheme need to be investigated further.

  6. Zinc transport and diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ewan

    2014-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have previously identified variants in SLC30A8, encoding the zinc transporter ZnT8, associated with diabetes risk. A rare variant association study has now established the direction of effect, surprisingly showing that loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 are protective against diabetes.

  7. Design and development of decentralized water and wastewater technologies: a combination of safe wastewater disposal and fertilizer production.

    PubMed

    Fach, S; Fuchs, S

    2010-01-01

    Modern wastewater treatment plants are often inappropriate for communities in developing countries. Such communities lack the funding, resources and skilled labour required to implement, operate, and maintain these plants. This research was conducted to investigate and establish an appropriate wastewater treatment system for the district of Gunung Kidul, Indonesia. Due to its lack of water during the dry season, this district is considered one of the poorest areas in the nation. First, wastewater was stored in septic tank units for a retention time of 26 days. Anaerobic conditions occurred, resulting in an 80% reduction of initial COD. The retained sludge was well stabilized with great potential, if dewatered, for reuse as fertilizer. Consequently, supernatant was separated for experiments consisting of lab scale aerobic sand filtering unit. Through filtration, further removals of COD (about 30%) and pathogens were achieved. Rich in nitrogen, the resulting effluent could be used for irrigation and soil conditioning. With faecal sludge and also a mixture of septic sludge and food waste, the hydrolysis stage of anaerobic digestion was examined. This paper discusses the laboratory findings in Karlsruhe and the design and implementation of a treatment system in Glompong, Indonesia.

  8. Improved colorimetric determination of serum zinc.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D J; Djuh, Y Y; Bruton, J; Williams, H L

    1977-07-01

    We show how zinc may easily be quantified in serum by first using an optimum concentration of guanidine hydrochloride to cause release of zinc from proteins, followed by complexation of released metals with cyanide. The cyanide complex of zinc is preferentially demasked with chloral hydrate, followed by a colorimetric reaction between zinc and 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. This is a sensitive water-soluble ligand; its complex with zinc has an absorption maximum at 497 nm. Values found by this technique compare favorably with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  9. The Zinc Transporter Zip5 (Slc39a5) Regulates Intestinal Zinc Excretion and Protects the Pancreas against Zinc Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Jim; De Lisle, Robert C.; Andrews, Glen K.

    2013-01-01

    Background ZIP5 localizes to the baso-lateral membranes of intestinal enterocytes and pancreatic acinar cells and is internalized and degraded coordinately in these cell-types during periods of dietary zinc deficiency. These cell-types are thought to control zinc excretion from the body. The baso-lateral localization and zinc-regulation of ZIP5 in these cells are unique among the 14 members of the Slc39a family and suggest that ZIP5 plays a role in zinc excretion. Methods/Principal Findings We created mice with floxed Zip5 genes and deleted this gene in the entire mouse or specifically in enterocytes or acinar cells and then examined the effects on zinc homeostasis. We found that ZIP5 is not essential for growth and viability but total knockout of ZIP5 led to increased zinc in the liver in mice fed a zinc-adequate (ZnA) diet but impaired accumulation of pancreatic zinc in mice fed a zinc-excess (ZnE) diet. Loss-of-function of enterocyte ZIP5, in contrast, led to increased pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet and increased abundance of intestinal Zip4 mRNA. Finally, loss-of-function of acinar cell ZIP5 modestly reduced pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet but did not impair zinc uptake as measured by the rapid accumulation of 67zinc. Retention of pancreatic 67zinc was impaired in these mice but the absence of pancreatic ZIP5 sensitized them to zinc-induced pancreatitis and exacerbated the formation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles containing secretory protein in acinar cells. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that ZIP5 participates in the control of zinc excretion in mice. Specifically, they reveal a paramount function of intestinal ZIP5 in zinc excretion but suggest a role for pancreatic ZIP5 in zinc accumulation/retention in acinar cells. ZIP5 functions in acinar cells to protect against zinc-induced acute pancreatitis and attenuate the process of zymophagy. This suggests that it may play a role in autophagy. PMID:24303081

  10. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-04-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A.; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R.; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C.

    2016-01-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [•OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source. PMID:26854604

  12. Interaction of zinc with dental mineral.

    PubMed

    Ingram, G S; Horay, C P; Stead, W J

    1992-01-01

    As some currently available toothpastes contain zinc compounds, the reaction of zinc with dental mineral and its effect on crystal growth rates were studied using three synthetic calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites (HAP) as being representative of dental mineral. Zinc was readily acquired by all HAP samples in the absence of added calcium, the amount adsorbed being proportional to the HAP surface area; about 9 mumol Zn/m2 was adsorbed at high zinc concentrations. As zinc was acquired, calcium was released, consistent with 1:1 Ca:Zn exchange. Soluble calcium reduced zinc uptake and similarly, calcium post-treatment released zinc. Pretreatment of HAP with 0.5 mM zinc reduced its subsequent ability to undergo seeded crystal growth, as did extracts of a toothpaste containing 0.5% zinc citrate, even in the presence of saliva. The reverse reaction, i.e. displacement of adsorbed zinc by salivary levels of calcium, however, indicates the mechanism by which zinc can reduce calculus formation in vivo by inhibiting plaque mineralisation without adversely affecting the anti-caries effects of fluoride.

  13. Biomedical Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Nayak, Tapas R.; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement over the last several decades. Zinc oxide (ZnO), which can exhibit a wide variety of nanostructures, possesses unique semiconducting, optical, and piezoelectric properties hence has been investigated for a wide variety of applications. One of the most important features of ZnO nanomaterials is low toxicity and biodegradability. Zn2+ is an indispensable trace element for adults (~10 mg of Zn2+ per day is recommended) and it is involved in various aspects of metabolism. Chemically, the surface of ZnO is rich in -OH groups, which can be readily functionalized by various surface decorating molecules. In this review article, we summarized the current status of the use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, such as biomedical imaging (which includes fluorescence, magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography, as well as dual-modality imaging), drug delivery, gene delivery, and biosensing of a wide array of molecules of interest. Research in biomedical applications of ZnO nanomaterials will continue to flourish over the next decade, and much research effort will be needed to develop biocompatible/biodegradable ZnO nanoplatforms for potential clinical translation. PMID:24206130

  14. Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

  15. Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2011-01-01

    Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

  16. Purified terephthalic acid wastewater biodegradation and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-xiang; Wan, Yu-qiu; Cheng, Shu-pei; Sun, Shi-lei; Zhu, Cheng-jun; Li, Wei-xin; Zhang, Xiao-chun; Wang, Gui-lin; Lu, Jian-hua; Luo, Xiang; Gu, Ji-dong

    2005-01-01

    The biodegradation and toxicity of the purified terephthalic acid (PTA) processing wastewater was researched at NJYZ pilot with the fusant strain Fhhh in the carrier activated sludge process (CASP). Sludge loading rate (SLR) for Fhhh to COD of the wastewater was 1.09 d(-1) and to PTA in the wastewater was 0.29 d(-1). The results of bioassay at the pilot and calculation with software Ebis3 showed that the 48h-LC50 (median lethal concentration) to Daphnia magna for the PTA concentration in the wastewater was only 1/10 of that for the chemical PTA. There were 5 kinds of benzoate pollutants and their toxicities existing in the wastewater at least. The toxicity parameter value of the pure chemical PTA cannot be used to predicate the PTA wastewater toxicity. The toxicity of the NJYZ PTA wastewater will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  17. Association between Maternal Zinc Status, Dietary Zinc Intake and Pregnancy Complications: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rebecca L.; Grieger, Jessica A.; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Roberts, Claire T.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate zinc stores in the body are extremely important during periods of accelerated growth. However, zinc deficiency is common in developing countries and low maternal circulating zinc concentrations have previously been associated with pregnancy complications. We reviewed current literature assessing circulating zinc and dietary zinc intake during pregnancy and the associations with preeclampsia (PE); spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB); low birthweight (LBW); and gestational diabetes (GDM). Searches of MEDLINE; CINAHL and Scopus databases identified 639 articles and 64 studies were reviewed. In 10 out of 16 studies a difference was reported with respect to circulating zinc between women who gave birth to a LBW infant (≤2500 g) and those who gave birth to an infant of adequate weight (>2500 g), particularly in populations where inadequate zinc intake is prevalent. In 16 of our 33 studies an association was found between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and circulating zinc; particularly in women with severe PE (blood pressure ≥160/110 mmHg). No association between maternal zinc status and sPTB or GDM was seen; however; direct comparisons between the studies was difficult. Furthermore; only a small number of studies were based on women from populations where there is a high risk of zinc deficiency. Therefore; the link between maternal zinc status and pregnancy success in these populations cannot be established. Future studies should focus on those vulnerable to zinc deficiency and include dietary zinc intake as a measure of zinc status. PMID:27754451

  18. Effects of serum zinc level on tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Berkiten, Güler; Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Salturk, Ziya; Uyar, Yavuz; Atar, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess zinc levels in tinnitus patients, and to evaluate the effects of zinc deficiency on tinnitus and hearing loss. One-hundred patients, who presented to an outpatient clinic with tinnitus between June 2009 and 2014, were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (patients between 18 and 30years of age); Group II (patients between 31 and 60years of age); and Group III (patients between 61 and 78years of age). Following a complete ear, nose and throat examination, serum zinc levels were measured and the severity of tinnitus was quantified using the Tinnitus Severity Index Questionnaire (TSIQ). Patients were subsequently asked to provide a subjective judgment regarding the loudness of their tinnitus. The hearing status of patients was evaluated by audiometry and high-frequency audiometry. An average hearing sensitivity was calculated as the mean value of hearing thresholds between 250 and 20,000Hz. Serum zinc levels between 70 and 120μg/dl were considered normal. The severity and loudness of tinnitus, and the hearing thresholds of the normal zinc level and zinc-deficient groups, were compared. Twelve of 100 (12%) patients exhibited low zinc levels. The mean age of the zinc-deficient group was 65.41±12.77years. Serum zinc levels were significantly lower in group III (p<0.01). The severity and loudness of tinnitus were greater in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.011 and p=0.015, respectively). Moreover, the mean thresholds of air conduction were significantly higher in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.000). We observed that zinc levels decrease as age increases. In addition, there was a significant correlation between zinc level and the severity and loudness of tinnitus. Zinc deficiency was also associated with impairments in hearing thresholds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  20. Handbook for Monitoring Industrial Wastewater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associated Water & Air Resources Engineers, Inc., Nashville, TN.

    This manual for industrial wastewater monitoring covers the philosophy of monitoring needs, planning, sampling, measuring, and analysis. Sufficient detail is given for those who wish to explore more deeply some of the practical and theoretical aspects of any of the phases of a monitoring program. A logical procedure is suggested and direction…

  1. Wastewater Treatment I. Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This student's guide is designed to provide students with the job skills necessary for the safe and effective operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. It consists of three sections. Section 1 consists of an introductory note outlining course objectives and the format of the guide. A course outline constitutes the second section.…

  2. Measuring Thicknesses of Wastewater Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Davenport, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Sensor determines when thickness of film of electrically conductive wastewater on rotating evaporator drum exceeds preset value. Sensor simple electrical probe that makes contact with liquid surface. Made of materials resistant to chemicals in liquid. Mounted on shaft in rotating cylinder, liquid-thickness sensor extends toward cylinder wall so tip almost touches. Sensor body accommodates probe measuring temperature of evaporated water in cylinder.

  3. The biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Krężel, Artur; Maret, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    The solution and complexation chemistry of zinc ions is the basis for zinc biology. In living organisms, zinc is redox-inert and has only one valence state: Zn(II). Its coordination environment in proteins is limited by oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur donors from the side chains of a few amino acids. In an estimated 10% of all human proteins, zinc has a catalytic or structural function and remains bound during the lifetime of the protein. However, in other proteins zinc ions bind reversibly with dissociation and association rates commensurate with the requirements in regulation, transport, transfer, sensing, signalling, and storage. In contrast to the extensive knowledge about zinc proteins, the coordination chemistry of the "mobile" zinc ions in these processes, i.e. when not bound to proteins, is virtually unexplored and the mechanisms of ligand exchange are poorly understood. Knowledge of the biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions is essential for understanding its cellular biology and for designing complexes that deliver zinc to proteins and chelating agents that remove zinc from proteins, for detecting zinc ion species by qualitative and quantitative analysis, and for proper planning and execution of experiments involving zinc ions and nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO). In most investigations, reference is made to zinc or Zn 2+ without full appreciation of how biological zinc ions are buffered and how the d-block cation Zn 2+ differs from s-block cations such as Ca 2+ with regard to significantly higher affinity for ligands, preference for the donor atoms of ligands, and coordination dynamics. Zinc needs to be tightly controlled. The interaction with low molecular weight ligands such as water and inorganic and organic anions is highly relevant to its biology but in contrast to its coordination in proteins has not been discussed in the biochemical literature. From the discussion in this article, it is becoming evident that zinc ion speciation is

  4. Sequence Discrimination by Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of a DNA Binding Zinc Finger Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogos, Joseph A.; Hsu, Tien; Bolton, Jesse; Kafatos, Fotis C.

    1992-09-01

    Two major developmentally regulated isoforms of the Drosophila chorion transcription factor CF2 differ by an extra zinc finger within the DNA binding domain. The preferred DNA binding sites were determined and are distinguished by an internal duplication of TAT in the site recognized by the isoform with the extra finger. The results are consistent with modular interactions between zinc fingers and trinucleotides and also suggest rules for recognition of AT-rich DNA sites by zinc finger proteins. The results show how modular finger interactions with trinucleotides can be used, in conjunction with alternative splicing, to alter the binding specificity and increase the spectrum of sites recognized by a DNA binding domain. Thus, CF2 may potentially regulate distinct sets of target genes during development.

  5. Trace Element and Cu Isotopic Tracers of Subsurface Flow and Transport in Wastewater Irrigated Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carte, J.; Fantle, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    An understanding of subsurface flow paths is critical for quantifying the fate of contaminants in wastewater irrigation systems. This study investigates the subsurface flow of wastewater by quantifying the distribution of trace contaminants in wastewater irrigated soils. Soil samples were collected from the upper 1m of two wetlands at Penn State University's wastewater irrigation site, at which all effluent from the University's wastewater treatment plant has been sprayed since 1983. Major and trace element and Cu isotopic composition were determined for these samples, in addition to wastewater effluent and bedrock samples. The upper 20 cm of each wetland shows an enrichment of Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations relative to deep (>1m) soils at the site by a factor of 1.7-3.5. Each wetland also has a subsurface clay rich horizon with Bi, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations enriched by a factor of 1.4 to 5 relative to deep soils. These subsurface horizons directly underlie intervals that could facilitate preferential effluent flow: a gravel layer in one wetland, and a silty loam with visible mottling, an indication of dynamic water saturation, in the other. Trace metal concentrations in other horizons from both wetlands fall in the range of the deep soils. Significant variability in Cu isotopic composition is present in soils from both wetlands, with δ65Cu values ranging from 0.74‰ to 5.09‰. Soil δ65Cu correlates well with Cu concentrations, with lighter δ65Cu associated with higher concentrations. The Cu isotopic composition of the zones of metal enrichment are comparable to the ostensible average wastewater effluent δ65Cu value (0.61‰), while other horizons have considerably heavier δ65Cu values. We hypothesize that wastewater is the source of the metal enrichments, as each of the enriched elements are present as contaminants in wastewater, and the enrichments are located in clay-rich horizons conducive to trace metal immobilization due

  6. Assessing the ecological long-term impact of wastewater irrigation on soil and water based on bioassays and chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elisabeth; Hecht, Fabian; Schnellbacher, Nadine; Ternes, Thomas A; Wick, Arne; Wode, Florian; Coors, Anja

    2015-11-01

    of classical organic pollutants and priority substances, while a significant retention was found for zinc and several organic micropollutants, particularly in the peaty soils, thus matching these soils' observed higher removal efficiency. Overall, our results demonstrate that benefits of wastewater irrigation can come with the cost of deteriorating soil habitat quality and depend on the respective soil and considered test organism. The approach employed here represents a feasible tool to assess these integrated effects at lab-scale while being predictive for scenarios at field-scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc, a redox inactive metal, has been long viewed as a component of the antioxidant network, and growing evidence points to its involvement in redox-regulated signaling. These actions are exerted through several mechanisms based on the unique chemical and functional properties of zinc. Overall, zinc contributes to maintain the cell redox balance through different mechanisms including: i) the regulation of oxidant production and metal-induced oxidative damage; ii) the dynamic association of zinc with sulfur in protein cysteine clusters, from which the metal can be released by nitric oxide, peroxides, oxidized glutathione and other thiol oxidant species; iii) zinc-mediated induction of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein, which releases the metal under oxidative conditions and act per se scavenging oxidants; iv) the involvement of zinc in the regulation of glutathione metabolism and of the overall protein thiol redox status; and v) a direct or indirect regulation of redox signaling. Findings of oxidative stress, altered redox signaling, and associated cell/tissue disfunction in cell and animal models of zinc deficiency, stress the relevant role of zinc in the preservation of cell redox homeostasis. However, while the participation of zinc in antioxidant protection, redox sensing, and redox-regulated signaling is accepted, the involved molecules, targets and mechanisms are still partially known and the subject of active research. PMID:22960578

  8. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  9. Zinc Regulation of Aminopeptidase B Involved in Neuropeptide Production

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Shin-Rong; Hook, Vivian

    2009-01-01

    Aminopeptidase B (AP-B) is a metallopeptidase that removes basic residues from the N-termini of neuropeptide substrates in secretory vesicles. This study assessed zinc regulation of AP-B activity, since secretory vesicles contain endogenous zinc. AP-B was inhibited by zinc at concentrations typically present in secretory vesicles. Zinc effects were dependent on concentration, incubation time, and the molar ratio of zinc to enzyme. AP-B activity was recovered upon removal of zinc. AP-B with zinc became susceptible to degradation by trypsin, suggesting that zinc alters enzyme conformation. Zinc regulation demonstrates the metallopeptidase property of AP-B. PMID:18571504

  10. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Rosenhoover, William A.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  11. Enzymes as Enhancers for the Biodegradation of Synthetic Polymers in Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Haernvall, Karolina; Zitzenbacher, Sabine; Biundo, Antonino; Yamamoto, Motonori; Schick, Michael Bernhard; Ribitsch, Doris; Guebitz, Georg M

    2018-02-16

    Synthetic polyesters are today the second-largest class of ingredients in household products and are entering wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) after product utilization. One approach to improve polymer biodegradation in wastewater would be to complement current processes with polyester-hydrolyzing enzymes and their microbial producers. In this study, the hydrolysis of poly(oxyethylene terephthalate) polymer by hydrolases from wastewater microorganisms was investigated in vitro and under realistic WWTP conditions. An esterase and a cutinase from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes and a lipase from Pseudomonas pelagia were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-Gold(DE3) and were purified by a C-terminal His 6 tag. The hydrolases were proven to hydrolyze the polymer effectively, which is a prerequisite for further biodegradation. The hydrolases maintained high activity up to 50 % upon lowering the temperature from 28 to 15 °C to mimic WWTP conditions. The hydrolases were also not inhibited by the wastewater matrix. Polyester-hydrolyzing enzymes active under WWTP conditions and their microbial producers thus have the potential to improve biological treatment of wastewater rich in synthetic polymers. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Phosphate Recovery from Human Waste via the Formation of Hydroxyapatite during Electrochemical Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Electrolysis of toilet wastewater with TiO2-coated semiconductor anodes and stainless steel cathodes is a potentially viable onsite sanitation solution in parts of the world without infrastructure for centralized wastewater treatment. In addition to treating toilet wastewater, pilot-scale and bench-scale experiments demonstrated that electrolysis can remove phosphate by cathodic precipitation as hydroxyapatite at no additional energy cost. Phosphate removal could be predicted based on initial phosphate and calcium concentrations, and up to 80% total phosphate removal was achieved. While calcium was critical for phosphate removal, magnesium and bicarbonate had only minor impacts on phosphate removal rates at concentrations typical of toilet wastewater. Optimal conditions for phosphate removal were 3 to 4 h treatment at about 5 mA cm–2 (∼3.4 V), with greater than 20 m2 m–3 electrode surface area to reactor volume ratios. Pilot-scale systems are currently operated under similar conditions, suggesting that phosphate removal can be viewed as an ancillary benefit of electrochemical wastewater treatment, adding utility to the process without requiring additional energy inputs. Further value may be provided by designing reactors to recover precipitated hydroxyapatite for use as a low solubility phosphorus-rich fertilizer. PMID:29607266

  13. The assessment of the coke wastewater treatment efficacy in rotating biological contractor.

    PubMed

    Cema, G; Żabczyński, S; Ziembińska-Buczyńska, A

    2016-01-01

    Coke wastewater is known to be relatively difficult for biological treatment. Nonetheless, biofilm-based systems seem to be promising tool for such treatment. That is why a rotating biological contactor (RBC) system focused on the Anammox process was used in this study. The experiment was divided into two parts with synthetic and then real wastewater. It was proven that it is possible to treat coke wastewater with RBC but such a procedure requires a very long start-up period for the nitritation (190 days), as well as for the Anammox process, where stable nitrogen removal over 70% was achieved after 400 days of experiment. Interestingly, it was possible at a relatively low (20.2 ± 2.2 °C) temperature. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) based monitoring of the bacterial community showed that its biodiversity decreased when the real wastewater was treated and it was composed mainly of GC-rich genotypes, probably because of the modeling influence of this wastewater and the genotypes specialization.

  14. Phosphate Recovery from Human Waste via the Formation of Hydroxyapatite during Electrochemical Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Cid, Clément A; Jasper, Justin T; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2018-03-05

    Electrolysis of toilet wastewater with TiO 2 -coated semiconductor anodes and stainless steel cathodes is a potentially viable onsite sanitation solution in parts of the world without infrastructure for centralized wastewater treatment. In addition to treating toilet wastewater, pilot-scale and bench-scale experiments demonstrated that electrolysis can remove phosphate by cathodic precipitation as hydroxyapatite at no additional energy cost. Phosphate removal could be predicted based on initial phosphate and calcium concentrations, and up to 80% total phosphate removal was achieved. While calcium was critical for phosphate removal, magnesium and bicarbonate had only minor impacts on phosphate removal rates at concentrations typical of toilet wastewater. Optimal conditions for phosphate removal were 3 to 4 h treatment at about 5 mA cm -2 (∼3.4 V), with greater than 20 m 2 m -3 electrode surface area to reactor volume ratios. Pilot-scale systems are currently operated under similar conditions, suggesting that phosphate removal can be viewed as an ancillary benefit of electrochemical wastewater treatment, adding utility to the process without requiring additional energy inputs. Further value may be provided by designing reactors to recover precipitated hydroxyapatite for use as a low solubility phosphorus-rich fertilizer.

  15. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, S.; Lawson, D.B.

    1994-02-15

    A process for recovering zinc-rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered by distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10 C, separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream. 1 figure.

  16. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon; Lawson, Daniel B.

    1994-01-01

    A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10.degree. C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

  17. [Zinc and treatment of diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, O

    2006-06-01

    Recently WHO and UNICEF issued a joint statement revising guidelines for clinical management of diarrhoea. These updated recommendations take into account new research findings showing the beneficial effects of oral rehydration salts (ORS) containing lower concentrations of glucose and salts and of zinc supplementation. In combination with prevention and treatment of dehydration with appropriate fluids, breastfeeding, continued feeding and selective use of antibiotics, these two advances can drastically diminish the number of child deaths by reducing the duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes and lowering their incidence. The purpose of this report is to present the research findings that demonstrated the efficacy of zinc supplementation in the management of diarrhoea and led to revision of WHO/UNCEF guidelines.

  18. Zinc and its transporters, pancreatic beta cells, and insulin metabolism

    Zinc is an essential trace metal for life. Two families of zinc transporters, SLC30A (ZnT) and SLC39A (ZIP) are required for maintaining cellular zinc homeostasis. ZnTs function to decrease cytoplasmic zinc concentrations whereas ZIPs do the opposite. Expression of zinc transporters can be tissue/ce...

  19. Zinc in Cellular Regulation: The Nature and Significance of "Zinc Signals".

    PubMed

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-10-31

    In the last decade, we witnessed discoveries that established Zn 2+ as a second major signalling metal ion in the transmission of information within cells and in communication between cells. Together with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ covers biological regulation with redox-inert metal ions over many orders of magnitude in concentrations. The regulatory functions of zinc ions, together with their functions as a cofactor in about three thousand zinc metalloproteins, impact virtually all aspects of cell biology. This article attempts to define the regulatory functions of zinc ions, and focuses on the nature of zinc signals and zinc signalling in pathways where zinc ions are either extracellular stimuli or intracellular messengers. These pathways interact with Ca 2+ , redox, and phosphorylation signalling. The regulatory functions of zinc require a complex system of precise homeostatic control for transients, subcellular distribution and traffic, organellar homeostasis, and vesicular storage and exocytosis of zinc ions.

  20. Zinc and Wound Healing: A Review of Zinc Physiology and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Samuel; Sood, Aditya; Garnick, Mark S

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of the role of zinc in normal human physiology is constantly expanding, yet there are major gaps in our knowledge with regard to the function of zinc in wound healing. This review aims to provide the clinician with sufficient understanding of zinc biology and an up-to-date perspective on the role of zinc in wound healing. Zinc is an essential ion that is crucial for maintenance of normal physiology, and zinc deficiency has many manifestations ranging from delayed wound healing to immune dysfunction and impairment of multiple sensory systems. While consensus has been reached regarding the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency on wound healing, there is considerable discord in the literature on the optimal methods and true benefits of zinc supplementation.

  1. ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (1980 EDITION) AND ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL (2002 EDITION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) first issued detailed guidance on the design, construction, and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) in 1980. Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems (USEPA.1980) was the most comprehens...

  2. Long life, rechargeable nickel-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.

    1974-01-01

    A production version of the inorganic separator was evaluated for improving the life of the nickel-zinc system. Nickel-zinc cells (7-10 Ah capacities) of different electrode separator configurations were constructed and tested. The nickel-zinc cells using the inorganic separator encasing the zinc electrode, the nickel electrode, or both electrodes had shorter lives than cells using Visking and cellophane separation. Cells with the inorganic separation all fell below 70% of their theoretical capacity within 30 cycles, but the cells constructed with organic separation required 80 cycles. Failure of the cells using the ceramic separator was irreversible capacity degradation due to zinc loss through cracks developed in the inorganic separator. Zinc loss through the separator was minimized with the use of combinations of the inorganic separator with Visking and cellophane. Cells using the combined separation operated 130 duty cycles before degrading to 70% of their theoretical capacity.

  3. High performance zinc anode for battery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, John E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved zinc anode for use in a high density rechargeable alkaline battery is disclosed. A process for making the zinc electrode comprises electrolytic loading of the zinc active material from a slightly acidic zinc nitrate solution into a substrate of nickel, copper or silver. The substrate comprises a sintered plaque having very fine pores, a high surface area, and 80-85 percent total initial porosity. The residual porosity after zinc loading is approximately 25-30%. The electrode of the present invention exhibits reduced zinc mobility, shape change and distortion, and demonstrates reduced dendrite buildup cycling of the battery. The disclosed battery is useful for applications requiring high energy density and multiple charge capability.

  4. Platelet-Rich Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Brian J.; Seroyer, Shane T.; Filardo, Giuseppe; Bajaj, Sarvottam; Fortier, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may affect soft tissue healing via growth factors released after platelet degranulation. Because of this potential benefit, clinicians have begun to inject PRP for the treatment of tendon, ligament, muscle, and cartilage injuries and early osteoarthritis. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search was performed for studies relating to PRP, growth factors, and soft tissue injuries from 1990 to 2010. Relevant references from these studies were also retrieved. Results: Soft tissue injury is a major source of disability that may often be complicated by prolonged and incomplete recovery. Numerous growth factors may potentiate the healing and regeneration of tendons and ligaments. The potential benefits of biologically enhanced healing processes have led to a recent interest in the use of PRP in orthopaedic sports medicine. There has been widespread anecdotal use of PRP for muscle strains, tendinopathy, and ligament injuries and as a surgical adjuvant to rotator cuff repair, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and meniscal or labral repairs. Although the fascination with this emerging technology has led to a dramatic increase in its use, scientific data supporting this use are still in their infancy. Conclusions: The literature is replete with studies on the basic science of growth factors and their relation to the maintenance, proliferation, and regeneration of various tissues and tissue-derived cells. Despite the promising results of several animal studies, well-controlled human studies are lacking. PMID:23015939

  5. Temporal and spatial variations of copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc in Ten Mile Creek in South Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuangen; He, Zhenli; Lin, Youjian; Phlips, Edward J; Stoffella, Peter J; Powell, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and cadmium (Cd) often seriously deteriorate water quality. Spatial and temporal fluctuations of the metal concentrations in the Ten Mile Creek (Florida) (TMC) were monitored on a weekly basis at 7 sampling sites, from June 2005 to September 2007. River sediment samples were also collected from these sites in April, June, and October 2006 and January 2007, and analyzed for water, Mehlich 1 (M1), and Mehlich 3 (M3)-extractable metals (Mehlich, 1953, 1984), to examine the role of sediments as sources or sinks of the metals. The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium in the water samples were zinc (6.45 microg/L), copper (2.53 microg/L), and cadmium (zinc, 9.0 microg/L for copper, and 0.25 microg/L for cadmium), pulse concentrations of the metals significantly exceeded these limits. Correlations of lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium concentrations in the TMC to other environmental factors, including the results of principal component analysis, suggest that there are different sources of metals. These sources include surface runoff from agricultural lands or urban wastewater, geological backgrounds, and tidal flow. Water-, M1-, and M3-extractable lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium concentrations in river sediments indicate the possibility that river sediment serves as an internal source of the metals for the TMC. This hypothesis was supported by positive correlations between concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc in the river water and their respective water-extractable concentrations in the sediments.

  6. Water and Wastewater Rate Hikes Outpace CPI

    SciT

    Stratton, Hannah; Fuchs, Heidi; Chen, Yuting

    Water and wastewater treatment and delivery is the most capital-intensive of all utility services. Historically underpriced, water and wastewater rates have exhibited unprecedented growth in the past fifteen years. Steep annual increases in water and wastewater rates that outpace the Consumer Price Index (CPI) have increasingly become the norm across the United States. In this paper, we analyze water and wastewater rates across U.S. census regions between 2000 and 2014. We also examine some of the driving factors behind these rate increases, including drought, water source, required infrastructure investment, population patterns, and conservation effects. Our results demonstrate that water andmore » wastewater prices have consistently increased and have outstripped CPI throughout the study period nationwide, as well as within each census region. Further, evaluation of the current and upcoming challenges facing water and wastewater utilities suggests that sharp rate increases are likely to continue in the foreseeable future.« less

  7. Zinc pharmacokinetic parameters in the determination of body zinc status in children.

    PubMed

    Vale, S H L; Leite, L D; Alves, C X; Dantas, M M G; Costa, J B S; Marchini, J S; França, M C; Brandão-Neto, J

    2014-02-01

    Serum or tissue zinc concentrations are often used to assess body zinc status. However, all of these methods are relatively inaccurate. Thus, we investigated three different kinetic methods for the determination of zinc clearance to establish which of these could detect small changes in the body zinc status of children. Forty apparently healthy children were studied. Renal handling of zinc was investigated during intravenous zinc administration (0.06537 mg Zn/kg of body weight), both before and after oral zinc supplementation (5 mg Zn/day for 3 months). Three kinetic methods were used to determine zinc clearance: CZn-Formula A and CZn-Formula B were both used to calculate systemic clearance; the first is a general formula and the second is used for the specific analysis of a single-compartment model; CZn-Formula C is widely used in medical practices to analyze kinetic routine. Basal serum zinc values, which were within the reference range for healthy children, increased significantly after oral zinc supplementation. The three formulas used gave different results for zinc clearance both before and after oral zinc supplementation. CZn-Formula B showed a positive correlation with basal serum zinc concentration after oral supplementation (R2=0.1172, P=0.0306). In addition, CZn-Formula B (P=0.0002) was more effective than CZn-Formula A (P=0.6028) and CZn-Formula C (P=0.0732) in detecting small variations in body zinc status. All three of the formulas used are suitable for studying zinc kinetics; however, CZn-Formula B is particularly effective at detecting small changes in body zinc status in healthy children.

  8. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  10. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  11. Zinc alloy enhances strength and creep resistance

    SciT

    Machler, M.

    1996-10-01

    A family of high-performance ternary zinc-copper-aluminum alloys has been developed that provides higher strength, hardness, and creep resistance than the traditional zinc-aluminum alloys Zamak 3, Zamak 5, and ZA-8. Designated ACuZinc, mechanical properties comparable to those of more expensive materials make it suitable for high-load applications and those at elevated temperatures. This article describes the alloy`s composition, properties, and historical development.

  12. Directed spatial organization of zinc oxide nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Julia [Albuquerque, NM; Liu, Jun [Richland, WA

    2009-02-17

    A method for controllably forming zinc oxide nanostructures on a surface via an organic template, which is formed using a stamp prepared from pre-defined relief structures, inking the stamp with a solution comprising self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecules, contacting the stamp to the surface, such as Ag sputtered on Si, and immersing the surface with the patterned SAM molecules with a zinc-containing solution with pH control to form zinc oxide nanostructures on the bare Ag surface.

  13. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Wastewater Inputs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intro to wastewater inputs associated with urbanization, overview of combined sewer overflows, overview of how wastewater inputs can contribute to enrichment or eutrophication, overview of how wastewater inputs can affect reproduction by stream fauna.

  14. Bronze Alloy Development for Zinc Vapor Capture

    DOE PAGES

    Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-04-24

    After gamma-emitting 65Zinc was detected in a vacuum pumping system contained in a tritium glovebox, a series of experiments were undertaken to develop a method and material to trap zinc vapors in an area that is more suitable for preventing dose to workers. In this study, bronze alloys with 0–30% tin were prepared using a powder metallurgical process and exposed to three levels of zinc vapors. Furthermore, all of the alloys demonstrated acceptable zinc gettering capacity; however, low tin content bronzes are considered for further testing.

  15. Status of zinc injection in PWRs

    SciT

    Bergmann, C.A.

    1995-03-01

    Based on laboratory and other studies, it was concluded that zinc addition in a PWR primary coolant should result in reduced Alloy 600 PWSCC and general corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Because of these positive results, a Westinghouse Owner`s Subgroup, EPRI, and Westinghouse provided funds to continue the development and application of zinc in an operating plant. As part of the program, Southern Operating Nuclear Company agreed to operate the Farley 2 plant with zinc addition as a demonstration test of the effectiveness of zinc. Since zinc is incorporated in the corrosion oxide film on the primary systemmore » surfaces and Farley 2 is a mature plant, it was estimated that about 10 kgs of zinc would be needed to condition the plant before an equilibrium value in the coolant would be reached. The engineered aspects of a Zinc Addition and Monitoring System (ZAMS) considered such items as the constitutents, location, sizing and water supply of the ZAMS. Baseline data such as the PWSCC history of the Alloy 600 steam generator tubing, fuel oxide thickness, fuel crud deposits, radiation levels, and RCP seal leak-off rates were obtained before zinc addition is initiated. This presentation summarizes some of the work performed under the program, and the status of zinc injection in the Farley 2 plant.« less

  16. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating effects, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes have consistently shown a limited benefit. We hypothesize, therefore, that zinc homeostatic adjustments during pregnancy and lactation improve zinc utilization sufficiently to provide the increased zinc needs in these stages and, therefore, mitigate immediate detrimental effects due to a low zinc intake. The specific questions addressed are the following: How is zinc utilization altered during pregnancy and lactation? Are those homeostatic adjustments influenced by maternal zinc status, dietary zinc, or zinc supplementation? These questions are addressed by critically reviewing results from published human studies on zinc homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation carried out in different populations worldwide. PMID:22852063

  17. Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

    2014-12-01

    Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

  18. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks. 63.133 Section 63.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater...

  19. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks. 63.133 Section 63.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater...

  20. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks. 63.133 Section 63.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater...

  1. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks. 63.133 Section 63.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater...

  2. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... GGG, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks...

  3. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... GGG, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks...

  4. Heavy metals removal from aqueous solutions and wastewaters by using various byproducts.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Eissa, Fawzy I; Ghanem, Khaled M; Gamal El-Din, Hala M; Al Anany, Fathia S

    2013-10-15

    Water contamination with heavy metals (HM) represents a potential threat to humans, animals and plants, and thus removal of these metals from contaminated waters has received increasing attention. The present study aimed to assess the efficiency of some low cost sorbents i.e., chitosan (CH), egg shell (ES), humate potassium (HK), and sugar beet factory lime (SBFL) for removal of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) from wastewaters. For this purpose batch equilibrium experiments were conducted with aqueous solutions containing various concentrations of the metals and sorbents in a mono-metal and competitive sorption system. Sorption isotherms were developed, and sorption parameters were determined. The potential applicability of the tested sorbents in the removal of Cd, Cu, and Zn from contaminated wastewaters was also investigated by equilibrating different sorbents and water ratios. Chitosan expressed the highest affinity for the metals followed by SBFL, ES, and HK. Nearly 100% of the metals were removed from aqueous solutions with the lowest initial metal concentrations by the sorbents especially CH and SBFL. However, the sorption efficiency decreased as the initial metal concentrations increased. Competition among the four metals changed significantly their distribution coefficient (Kd) values with the sorbents. The selectivity sequence of the metals was: Pb > Cu > Zn > Cd. The metal removal from the wastewaters varied from 72, 69, and 60 to nearly 100% for Cd, Cu and Zn, respectively. The efficiency of the studied byproducts in removing metals from the wastewaters differed based on the source of contamination and metal concentrations. Cadmium removal percentages by HK and CH were higher than SBFL and ES. The HK and CH exhibited the highest removal percentage of Cu from water with high concentrations. The SBFL and ES revealed the highest removal percentage of Zn from water with high concentrations. The results, demonstrate a high potential

  5. Richness, coverage and concentration of heavy metals in vascular epiphytes along an urbanization gradient.

    PubMed

    Becker, Diego Fedrizzi Petry; Linden, Rafael; Schmitt, Jairo Lizandro

    2017-04-15

    Richness, coverage and concentration of heavy metals in vascular epiphytes were analyzed in isolated trees along an urbanization gradient in Southern Brazil. A total of 20 phorophytes were sampled in the main street of each site. Concentrations of chromium, cadmium, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc were measured in the leaves of Tillandsia recurvata L. using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. A decreasing gradient of epiphyte richness and coverage was observed as urbanization increased. Vehicle fleet and demographic density were the parameters most correlated with the reduction of epiphytic diversity. In T. recurvata, significantly higher values of cadmium, lead and zinc were recorded in the most urbanized areas, and were strongly related to the vehicle fleet and to the demographic density in these sites. The results demonstrated that these parameters could be applied to the diagnosis of environmental quality in urban areas, allowing standardized analyses in other regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy Efficiency in Water and Wastewater Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn how local governments have achieved sustained energy improvements at their water and wastewater facilities through equipment upgrades, operational modifications, and modifications to facility buildings.

  7. Shotgun Metagenomic Profiles Have a High Capacity To Discriminate Samples of Activated Sludge According to Wastewater Type

    PubMed Central

    Ibarbalz, Federico M.; Orellana, Esteban; Figuerola, Eva L. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate whether functions encoded in the metagenome could improve our ability to understand the link between microbial community structures and functions in activated sludge. By analyzing data sets from six industrial and six municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), covering different configurations, operational conditions, and geographic regions, we found that wastewater influent composition was an overriding factor shaping the metagenomic composition of the activated sludge samples. Community GC content profiles were conserved within treatment plants on a time scale of years and between treatment plants with similar influent wastewater types. Interestingly, GC contents of the represented phyla covaried with the average GC contents of the corresponding WWTP metagenome. This suggests that the factors influencing nucleotide composition act similarly across taxa and thus the variation in nucleotide contents is driven by environmental differences between WWTPs. While taxonomic richness and functional richness were correlated, shotgun metagenomics complemented taxon-based analyses in the task of classifying microbial communities involved in wastewater treatment systems. The observed taxonomic dissimilarity between full-scale WWTPs receiving influent types with varied compositions, as well as the inferred taxonomic and functional assignment of recovered genomes from each metagenome, were consistent with underlying differences in the abundance of distinctive sets of functional categories. These conclusions were robust with respect to plant configuration, operational and environmental conditions, and even differences in laboratory protocols. IMPORTANCE This work contributes to the elucidation of drivers of microbial community assembly in wastewater treatment systems. Our results are significant because they provide clear evidence that bacterial communities in WWTPs assemble mainly according to influent wastewater

  8. What Makes a Rich Task?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Pete

    2009-01-01

    A common view seems to be emerging in the mathematics education world at the moment that the development and use of "rich tasks" is a good thing; a "right thing" to do. There are many examples of these "rich tasks" and teachers are encouraged to use them whenever they can. Professional learners don't just accept this uncritically, but question…

  9. Reusing effluent of flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment process as an economical calcium source for phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Dou, Weixiao; Zhou, Zhen; Ye, Jiongjiong; Huang, Rongwei; Jiang, Lu-Man; Chen, Guofeng; Fei, Xiaoyun

    2017-09-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatment by conventional neutralization, chemical precipitation and coagulation process removes most suspended solids and heavy metals, and provides an effluent rich in calcium, alkalinity and chloride, which obstructs its reclamation and reuse but is in favor of phosphorus (P) precipitation. The goals of this study were to investigate feasibility of reusing FGD effluent as a calcium source for P removal from P-rich wastewater. Results revealed that increasing the volumetric ratio between FGD effluent and P-rich wastewater achieved higher pH value and Ca/P ratio, and thus enhanced P removal efficiency to 94.3% at the ratio of 40%. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope analysis of harvested precipitates showed that increasing pH from 8 to 10 induced the conversion of hydroxyapatite to tri-calcium phosphate, and then to whitlockite. This study demonstrated that for reusing FGD effluent for P removal was highly feasible, both technically and economically. This process not only saves the cost of precipitants for P removal, but also provides an economical alternative for current zero liquid discharge technology for FGD wastewater, which requires high energy consumption and capital costs.

  10. Use of mixed wastewaters from piggery and winery for nutrient removal and lipid production by Chlorella sp. MM3.

    PubMed

    Ganeshkumar, Vimalkumar; Subashchandrabose, Suresh R; Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2018-05-01

    The larger-scale generation of piggery and winery wastewaters and consequent eutrophication are quite alarming, necessitating the use of a cost-effective treatment. This study attempted to remediate wastewaters from piggery and winery mixed in the ratios of 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, 100:0 and 0:100, in terms of nutrient removal and subsequent lipid accumulation by soil microalga, Chlorella sp. MM3. The per cent removal of total nitrogen and phosphates by the alga from mixed wastewaters within 10-days ranged between 51 and 89 and 26-49, respectively. As determined by FTIR spectroscopy, the lipid accumulation in the microalgal cells grown in wastewater mixtures ranged between 29 and 51%. Our results suggest that Chlorella sp. MM3 could be a potential candidate for bioremediation of wastewaters derived from piggery farm and winery industry, and that mixing of these wastewaters in 20:80 ratio would be an efficient approach for phycoremediation of mineral-rich effluents and subsequent yield of fairly good amounts of biofuel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Control of C/N ratio for butyric acid production from textile wastewater sludge by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bo; Zhang, Jingjing; Fan, Jinfeng; Wang, Jin; Liu, He

    2012-01-01

    Increasing textile wastewaters and their biotreatment byproduct-waste activated sludge are serious pollution problems. Butyric acid production from textile wastewater sludge by anaerobic digestion at different C/N ratios was investigated. Adding starch to textile wastewater sludge with a C/N ratio of 30 increased the butyric acid concentration and percentage accounting for total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) to 21.42 g/L and 81.5%, respectively, as compared with 21.42 g/L and 10.6% of textile wastewater sludge alone. The maximum butyric acid yield (0.45 g/g VS), conversion rate (0.74 g/g VS(digest)) and production rate (2.25 g/L d) was achieved at a C/N ratio of 30. The biological toxicity of textile wastewater sludge also significantly decreased after the anaerobic digestion. The study indicated that the anaerobic co-digestion of textile wastewater sludge and carbohydrate-rich waste with appropriate C/N ratio is possible for butyric acid production.

  12. Systematic review of zinc fortification trials.

    PubMed

    Das, Jai K; Kumar, Rohail; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements required by the human body as it is present in more than a hundred specific enzymes and serves as an important structural ion in transcription factors. Around one third of the world population lives in countries with a high prevalence of zinc deficiency. Food fortification with zinc seems to be an attractive public health strategy and a number of programs have been initiated, especially in developing countries. We conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy of zinc fortification. A total of 11 studies with 771 participants were included in our analysis. Zinc fortification was associated with significant improvements in plasma zinc concentrations [standard mean difference (SMD) 1.28, 95% CI 0.56, 2.01] which is a functional indicator of zinc status. Significant improvement was observed for height velocity (SMD 0.52, 95% CI 0.01, 1.04); however, this finding was weak and based on a restricted analysis. Further subgroup analysis showed significant improvement in height velocity among very-low-birth-weight infants (SMD 0.70, 95% CI 0.02, 1.37), while for healthy newborns, the impact was insignificant. Zinc fortification had insignificant impacts on serum alkaline levels, serum copper levels, hemoglobin and weight gain. Although the findings highlight that zinc fortification is associated with an increased serum concentration of the micronutrient, overall evidence of the effectiveness of this approach is limited. Data on pregnant and lactating women is scarce. Large-scale fortification programs with robust impact assessment should be initiated to cover larger populations in all age groups. Mass fortification of zinc may be a cost-effective strategy to overcome zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Functional studies of Drosophila zinc transporters reveal the mechanism for dietary zinc absorption and regulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zinc is key to the function of many proteins, but the process of dietary zinc absorption is not well clarified. Current knowledge about dietary zinc absorption is fragmented, and mostly derives from incomplete mammalian studies. To gain a comprehensive picture of this process, we systematically characterized all zinc transporters (that is, the Zip and ZnT family members) for their possible roles in dietary zinc absorption in a genetically amenable model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Results A set of plasma membrane-resident zinc transporters was identified to be responsible for absorbing zinc from the lumen into the enterocyte and the subsequent exit of zinc to the circulation. dZip1 and dZip2, two functionally overlapping zinc importers, are responsible for absorbing zinc from the lumen into the enterocyte. Exit of zinc to the circulation is mediated through another two functionally overlapping zinc exporters, dZnT1, and its homolog CG5130 (dZnT77C). Somewhat surprisingly, it appears that the array of intracellular ZnT proteins, including the Golgi-resident dZnT7, is not directly involved in dietary zinc absorption. By modulating zinc status in different parts of the body, we found that regulation of dietary zinc absorption, in contrast to that of iron, is unresponsive to bodily needs or zinc status outside the gut. The zinc transporters that are involved in dietary zinc absorption, including the importers dZip1 and dZip2, and the exporter dZnT1, are respectively regulated at the RNA and protein levels by zinc in the enterocyte. Conclusions Our study using the model organism Drosophila thus starts to reveal a comprehensive sketch of dietary zinc absorption and its regulatory control, a process that is still incompletely understood in mammalian organisms. The knowledge gained will act as a reference for future mammalian studies, and also enable an appreciation of this important process from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:24063361

  14. Driving Along the Zinc Road.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Robert J

    2016-07-17

    After having written hundreds of research articles, reviews, and book chapters, I find it awkward to pen an autobiography. I still do use a pen. As stated by others in the nutrition field who have written of their own experiences in a perspective article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, my course through this field of science has been serendipitous. My interest in nutrition developed during my experiences with horses and then Angus cattle and entry into an animal science degree program. As the age of molecular biology was unfolding, I pursued a PhD in nutritional biochemistry with Hamilton Eaton at the University of Connecticut followed by postdoctoral work with Hector DeLuca at the University of Wisconsin, working on vitamins A and D, respectively. At Rutgers University, one of the two institutions where I have served on the faculty, I started my research program on trace elements with a focus on cadmium toxicity but soon thereafter began my research on zinc metabolism and function. I moved to the University of Florida in 1982 for an endowed position and have been a Florida Gator ever since. At the University of Florida, research expanded to include identification of zinc-responsive genes and physiological outcomes of zinc transport influencing health and disease, particularly as related to inflammation. I had the opportunity to contribute national science policy as president of both the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology and the American Society for Nutrition. As the time of this writing, I maintain an active laboratory.

  15. The impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the bacterial microbiome of activated sludge systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meli, K.; Kamika, I.; Keshri, J.; Momba, M. N. B.

    2016-12-01

    The expected growth in nanomaterial applications could result in increased amounts of nanoparticles entering municipal sewer systems, eventually ending up in wastewater treatment plants and therefore negatively affecting microbial populations and biological nutrient removal. The aim of this study was to ascertain the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) on the bacterial microbiome of an activated sludge system. A metagenomic approach combined with the latest generation Illumina MiSeq platform and RDP pipeline tools were used to identify and classify the bacterial microbiome of the sludge. Results revealed a drastic decrease in the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from 27 737 recovered in the nZnO-free sample to 23 743, 17 733, and 13 324 OTUs in wastewater samples exposed to various concentrations of nZnO (5, 10 and 100 mg/L nZnO, respectively). These represented 12 phyla, 21 classes, 30 orders, 54 families and 51 genera, completely identified at each taxonomic level in the control samples; 7-15-25-28-20 for wastewater samples exposed to 5 mg/L nZnO; 9-15-24-31-23 for those exposed to 10 mg/L and 7-11-19-26-17 for those exposed 100 mg/L nZnO. A large number of sequences could not be assigned to specific taxa, suggesting a possibility of novel species to be discovered.

  16. Scenedesmus obliquus in poultry wastewater bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Barata, Ana; Batista, Ana P; Gouveia, Luísa

    2018-06-18

    Wastewater biological treatment with microalgae can be an effective technology, removing nutrients and other contaminants while reducing chemical oxygen demand. This can be particularly interesting for the meat producing industry which produces large volumes of wastewater from the slaughtering of animals and cleaning of their facilities. The main purpose of this research was the treatment of poultry wastewater using Scenedesmus obliquus in an economical and environmentally sustainable way. Two wastewaters were collected from a Portuguese poultry slaughterhouse (poultry raw - PR and poultry flocculated - PF) and the bioremediation was evaluated. The performance of microalga biomass growth and biochemical composition were assessed for two illumination sources (fluorescent vs LEDs). S. obliquus achieved positive results when grown in highly contaminated agro-industrial wastewater from the poultry industry, independently of the light source. The wastewater bioremediation revealed results higher than 97% for both ammonium and phosphate removal efficiency, for a cultivation time of 13 days. The saponifiable matter obtained from the biomass of the microalga cultures was, on average, 11% and 27% (m/m alga ) with PR and PF wastewater, respectively. In opposition, higher sugar content was obtained from microalgae biomass grown in PR wastewater (average 34% m/m alga ) in comparison to PF wastewater (average 23% m/m alga ), independently of the illumination source. Therefore, biomass obtained with PR wastewater will be more appropriate as a raw material for bioethanol/biohydrogen production (higher sugar content) while biomass produced in PF wastewater will have a similar potential as feedstock for both biodiesel and bioethanol/biohydrogen production (similar lipid and sugar content).

  17. Measurements of zinc absorption: application and interpretation in research designed to improve human zinc nutriture.

    PubMed

    Hambidge, K Michael; Miller, Leland V; Tran, Cuong D; Krebs, Nancy F

    2005-11-01

    The focus of this paper is on the application of measurements of zinc absorption in human research, especially studies designed to assess the efficacy of intervention strategies to prevent and manage zinc deficiency in populations. Emphasis is given to the measurement of quantities of zinc absorbed rather than restricting investigations to measurements of fractional absorption of zinc. This is especially important when determining absorption of zinc from the diet, whether it be the habitual diet or an intervention diet under evaluation. Moreover, measurements should encompass all meals for a minimum of one day with the exception of some pilot studies. Zinc absorption is primarily via an active saturable transport process into the enterocytes of the proximal small intestine. The relationship between quantity of zinc absorbed and the quantity ingested is best characterized by saturable binding models. When applied to human studies that have sufficient data to examine dose-response relationships, efficiency of absorption is high until approximately 50-60% maximal absorption is achieved, even with moderate phytate intakes. This also coincides approximately with the quantity of absorbed zinc necessary to meet physiologic requirements. Efficiency of absorption with intakes that exceed this level is low or very low. These observations have important practical implications for the design and interpretation of intervention studies to prevent zinc deficiency. They also suggest the potential utility of measurements of the quantity of zinc absorbed when evaluating the zinc status of populations.

  18. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  19. New Insights into the Role of Zinc Acquisition and Zinc Tolerance in Group A Streptococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    Ong, Cheryl-Lynn Y; Berking, Olga; Walker, Mark J; McEwan, Alastair G

    2018-06-01

    Zinc plays an important role in host innate immune function. However, the innate immune system also utilizes zinc starvation ("nutritional immunity") to combat infections. Here, we investigate the role of zinc import and export in the protection of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus ; GAS), a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of human diseases, against challenge from host innate immune defense. In order to determine the role of GAS zinc import and export during infection, we utilized zinc import (Δ adcA Δ adcAII ) and export (Δ czcD ) deletion mutants in competition with the wild type in both in vitro and in vivo virulence models. We demonstrate that nutritional immunity is deployed extracellularly, while zinc toxicity is utilized upon phagocytosis of GAS by neutrophils. We also show that lysosomes and azurophilic granules in neutrophils contain zinc stores for use against intracellular pathogens. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Assessing the feasibility of wastewater recycling and treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment units.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jie-Chung; Lin, Yung-Chang

    2008-02-01

    Wastewater reuse can significantly reduce environmental pollution and save the water sources. The study selected Cheng-Ching Lake water treatment plant in southern Taiwan to discuss the feasibility of wastewater recycling and treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment units. The treatment units of this plant include wastewater basin, sedimentation basin, sludge thickener and sludge dewatering facility. In this study, the treatment efficiency of SS and turbidity were 48.35-99.68% and 24.15-99.36%, respectively, showing the significant removal efficiency of the wastewater process. However, the removal efficiencies of NH(3)-N, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) are limited by wastewater treatment processes. Because NH(3)-N, TOC and COD of the mixing supernatant and raw water are regulated raw water quality standards, supernatant reuse is feasible and workable during wastewater processes at this plant. Overall, analytical results indicated that supernatant reuse is feasible.

  1. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications. Zinc oxide shall conform to the following...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.1991...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product...

  4. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product....

  14. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product....

  17. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product....

  18. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product....

  1. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The... (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Zinc oxide may be safely used in cosmetics, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice...

  3. Phosphorus from wastewater to crops: An alternative path involving microalgae.

    PubMed

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Verschoor, Antonie M; Jablonowski, Nicolai D; Nedbal, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable resource, a major plant nutrient that is essential for modern agriculture. Currently, global food and feed production depends on P extracted from finite phosphate rock reserves mainly confined to a small number of countries. P limitation and its potential socio-economic impact may well exceed the potential effects of fossil fuel scarcity. The efficiency of P usage today barely reaches 20%, with the remaining 80% ending up in wastewater or in surface waters as runoff from fields. When recovered from wastewater, either chemically or biologically, P is often present in a form that does not meet specifications for agricultural use. As an alternative, the potential of microalgae to accumulate large quantities of P can be a way to direct this resource back to crop plants. Algae can acquire and store P through luxury uptake, and the P enriched algal biomass can be used as bio-fertilizer. Technology of large-scale algae cultivation has made tremendous progress in the last decades, stimulated by perspectives of obtaining third generation biofuels without requiring arable land or fresh water. These new cultivation technologies can be used for solar-driven recycling of P and other nutrients from wastewater into algae-based bio-fertilizers. In this paper, we review the specifics of P uptake from nutrient-rich waste streams, paying special attention to luxury uptake by microalgal cells and the potential application of P-enriched algal biomass to fertilize crop soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial Diversity in Soil Treatment Systems for Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Cuyk, S.; Spear, J.; Siegrist, R.; Pace, N.

    2002-05-01

    There is an increasing awareness and concern over land based wastewater system performance with respect to the removal of bacteria and virus. The goal of this work is to describe and identify the organismal composition of the microbiota in the applied wastewater effluent, the rich biomat that develops at the infiltrative surface, and in the soil percolate in order to aid in the understanding of bacterial and virus purification in soil treatment systems. The traditional reliance on pure culture techniques to describe microbiota is circumvented by the employment of a molecular approach. Microbial community characterization is underway based on cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes for phylogenetic analyses, to determine the nature and quantity of microbiota that constitute these ecosystems. Knowledge of the organisms naturally present can influence the design and treatment capacity of these widely used land based systems. Laboratory, intermediate and field scale systems are currently under study. Since human pathogens are known to exist in sewage effluents, their removal in wastewater infiltration systems and within the underlying soil are in need of a more fundamental understanding. The relationship between design parameters and environmental conditions, including a microbial characterization, is essential for the prevention of contamination in groundwater sources. Preliminary results indicate the presence of uncultured organisms and phylogenetic kinds that had not been detected in these systems using other methods. Acinetobacter johnsonii and Acrobacter cryaerophilus were the two dominant species found in septic tank effluent, comprising 20% and 11% of the library respectively. In soil samples collected from the infiltrative surface of a column dosed with STE, there was no dominant bacterial species present. Percolate samples collected from the outflow of the column showed that a tuber borchii symbiont, a common soil microorganism, dominated the bacterial

  5. Dual operation characteristics of resistance random access memory in indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jyun-Bao; Chang, Ting-Chang; Huang, Jheng-Jie; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ting; Tseng, Hsueh-Chih; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Sze, Simon M.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors can be operated either as transistors or resistance random access memory devices. Before the forming process, current-voltage curve transfer characteristics are observed, and resistance switching characteristics are measured after a forming process. These resistance switching characteristics exhibit two behaviors, and are dominated by different mechanisms. The mode 1 resistance switching behavior is due to oxygen vacancies, while mode 2 is dominated by the formation of an oxygen-rich layer. Furthermore, an easy approach is proposed to reduce power consumption when using these resistance random access memory devices with the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor.

  6. Tracing of Zinc Nanocrystals in the Anterior Pituitary of Zinc-Deficient Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kuldeep, Anjana; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to trace zinc nanocrystals in the anterior pituitary of zinc-deficient Wistar rats by using autometallographic technique. Male Wistar rats (30-40 days of age, pre-pubertal period) of 40-50 g body weight were divided into the following: the ZC (zinc control) group-fed with 100 ppm zinc in diet, the ZD (zinc-deficient) group-fed with zinc-deficient (1.00 ppm) diet and the PF (pair-fed) group-received 100 ppm zinc in diet. The experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. Pituitary was removed and processed for the autometallographic technique. The control and pair-fed groups retained their normal morphological features. However, male Wistar rats fed on zinc-deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks displayed a wide range of symptoms such as significant (P < 0.05) decrease in diet consumption, body weight and pituitary weight and decrease in gradation of intensity of zinc nanocrystals in the nuclei. The present findings suggest that the dietary zinc deficiency causes decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals localization and their distribution in the pituitary thereby contributing to the dysfunction of the pituitary of the male Wistar rats. The severity of zinc deficiency symptoms progressed after the second week of the experiment. Decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals attenuates the pituitary function which would exert its affect on other endocrine organs impairing their functions indicating that the metabolic regulation of pituitary is mediated to a certain extent by zinc and/or hypothalamus-hypophysial system which also reflects its essentiality during the period of growth.

  7. Water quality-scarcity relationships in irrigated agriculture: Health risks and adaptation strategies associated with indirect wastewater reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thebo, A.

    2016-12-01

    Urban wastewater provides a reliable, nutrient rich source of irrigation water for downstream agricultural producers. However, globally, less than ten percent of collected wastewater receives any form of treatment, resulting in the widespread indirect reuse of untreated, diluted wastewater from surface water sources. This research explores these links between water scarcity, anthropogenic drivers of water quality, and adaptation strategies farmer's employ through a case study in Dharwad, a mid-sized South Indian city. This study took an interdisciplinary approach, incorporating survey based research with geospatial analysis, and molecular methods (for waterborne pathogen detection) to develop a systems level understanding of the drivers, health risks, and adaptation strategies associated with the indirect reuse of wastewater in irrigated agriculture. In Dharwad, farmers with better access to wastewater reported growing more water-intensive, but higher value vegetable crops. While farmers further downstream tended to grow more staple crops. This study evaluated levels of culturable E. coli and diarrheagenic E. coli pathotype gene targets to assess contamination in irrigation water, soil, and on produce from farms. Irrigation water source was a major factor affecting the concentrations of culturable E. coli detected in soil samples and on greens. However, even when irrigation water was not contaminated (all borewell water samples) some culturable E. coli were present at low concentrations in soil and on produce samples, suggesting additional sources of contamination on farms. Maximum temperatures within the previous week showed a significant positive association with concentrations of E. coli on wastewater irrigated produce. This presentation will focus on discussing the ways in which urban wastewater management, climate, irrigation practices and cultivation patterns all come together to define the risks and benefits posed via the indirect reuse of wastewater.

  8. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-07

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  9. MANUAL - CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Constructed wetlands are man-made wastewater treatment systems. They usually have one or more cells less than 1 meter deep and are planted with aquatic greenery. Water outlet structures control the flow of wastewater through the system to keep detention times and water levels at ...

  10. Removal of endotoxin from dairy wastewater

    The efficacy of various treatments on removing endotoxin (ET) from wastewater was tested by using the treated water to induce a systemic reaction via intratracheal inoculation (20 ml/goat, 6 goats/group). Treatments (T1-T7) of wastewater were as follows: 1) autoclaved 15 min, centrifuged and contain...

  11. Chlorine Disinfection of Blended Municipal Wastewater Effluents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blending is a practice used in the wastewater industry to manage wet weather events when the influx of storm water to municipal treatment facilities could compromise the hydraulic capacity of the facility’s biological treatment system. To prevent this, wastewater is treated thro...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combination of the approaches in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section for different affected... tank are heated, treated by means of an exothermic reaction, or sparged, during which time the owner or...) at all times that the wastewater tank contains affected wastewater or residual removed from affected...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... use a combination of the approaches in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section for different... tank are heated, treated by means of an exothermic reaction, or sparged, during which time the owner or...) at all times that the wastewater tank contains affected wastewater or residual removed from affected...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use a combination of the approaches in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section for different... tank are heated, treated by means of an exothermic reaction, or sparged, during which time the owner or...) at all times that the wastewater tank contains affected wastewater or residual removed from affected...

  15. Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Douglas D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment: (1) operators, training, and certification; (2) solutions to operating problems; (3) collection systems; (4) operations manuals; (5) wastewater treatment facility case histories; (5) land application; and (6) treatment of industrial wastes. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. The effects of wastewater discharge on the microbiological nitrogen cycle of the lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarenheimo, Jatta; Aalto, Sanni L.; Tiirola, Marja

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic wastewater inputs alter the natural dynamics of nitrogen (N) cycle by providing high concentrations of nitrate and organic matter to the sediment microbes. It can also change the microbial community composition and N removal potential but this is currently not that well studied. To study these aspects, we conducted ecosystem-scale experiment in Lake Keurusselkä, Finland. In the experiment, the wastewater discharge to the recipient lake was optimized with sediment filtration, which increased the surface and retention time of the nitrified wastewater with the sediment. In addition to N transformation rates, which showed that optimization enhanced denitrification, we studied the microbial responses at the sediment. Genetic potential of nitrogen transformation processes, such as denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and nitrification were studied by targeting the functional genes (i.e. nirS, nirK, nosZI, nosZII, nrfA, amoAarchaea and amoAbacteria) with quantitative PCR and digital droplet PCR. In addition, changes in the microbial community composition along the wastewater gradient were examined by using next generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In line with our hypothesis, the relative abundance of denitrifying genes followed the observed denitrification rates, being highest near the nitrate-rich wastewater discharge. Furthermore the microbial community composition in the discharge point differed clearly from the control and downstream sites, having also the highest numbers of rare OTUs. Abundance of nitrifying bacteria was higher than nitrifying archaea near the waste water discharge, whereas the opposite was seen at the control site. The results indicate that wastewater is not only increasing the denitrification rates, but can also alter the structure and genetic potential microbial communities.

  17. Performance evaluation of pilot scale sulfur-oxidizing denitrification for treatment of metal plating wastewater.

    PubMed

    Flores, Angel S P; Gwon, Eun-Mi; Sim, Dong-Min; Nisola, Grace; Galera, Melvin M; Chon, Seung-Se; Chung, Wook-Jin; Pak, Dae-Won; Ahn, Zou Sam

    2006-01-01

    A full-scale and two pilot-scale upflow sulfur-oxidizing denitrification (SOD) columns were evaluated using metal plating wastewater as feed. The sludge was autotrophically enriched, and inoculated in the SOD columns attached to the effluent line of three metal plating wastewater treatment facilities. The effects of activated carbon and aeration were also studied, and found effective for the removal of suspended solids and ammonia, respectively. The results showed that the constituents, such as the total nitrogen, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and heavy metals, were effectively removed. The pH was observed to be maintained at 7-8 due to the alkalinity supplied by the sulfur-calcium carbonate (SC) pellet. The denitrification efficiency and start-up period were observed to be affected by the influent quality. Chromium, iron, nickel, copper, and zinc--the major heavy metal components of the influent--were effectively reduced at certain concentrations. Other metal ions were also detected and reduced to undetectable concentrations, but no trends in the comparison with denitrification were observed. From the results it can be concluded that SOD is effective for the removal of nitrogen, particularly nitrates, without a drastic pH change, and can effectively remove minute concentrations of heavy metals and COD in metal plating wastewaters.

  18. Bioremediation of wastewater from edible oil refinery factory using oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1.

    PubMed

    Mar, Cho Cho; Fan, Yong; Li, Fu-Li; Hu, Guang-Rong

    2016-12-01

    Edible oil industry produced massive wastewater, which requires extensive treatment to remove pungent smell, high phosphate, carbon oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions prior to discharge. Traditional anaerobic and aerobic digestion could mainly reduce COD of the wastewater from oil refinery factories (WEORF). In this study, a robust oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 was adapted to grow in WEORF. The biomass and lipid content of Desmodesmus sp. S1 cultivated in the WEORF supplemented with sodium nitrate were 5.62 g·L(-1) and 14.49%, whereas those in the WEORF without adding nitrate were 2.98 g·L(-1) and 21.95%. More than 82% of the COD and 53% of total phosphorous were removed by Desmodesmus sp. S1. In addition, metal ions, including ferric, aluminum, manganese and zinc were also diminished significantly in the WEORF after microalgal growth, and pungent smell vanished as well. In comparison with the cells grown in BG-11 medium, the cilia-like bulges and wrinkles on the cell surface of Desmodesmus sp. S1 grown in WEORF became out of order, and more polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected due to stress derived from the wastewater. The study suggests that growing microalgae in WEORF can be applied for the dual roles of nutrient removal and biofuel feedstock production.

  19. Carbon and energy footprint of electrochemical vinegar wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerek, Emine Esra; Yilmaz, Seval; Savaş Koparal, A.; Nezih Gerek, Ömer

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical treatment of wastewaters that are rich in organic compounds is a popular method, due to its acidic nature that avoids biological treatment. In many cases, the pollution hazard is considered as the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from active carbon, and the success of the treatment is measured in terms of how much this specific parameter is reduced. However, if electricity is used during the treatment process, the treatment "itself" has manufacturing and operational energy costs. Many of the studies consider energy utilization as a monetary cost, and try to reduce its amount. However, the energy cost of the treatment also causes emission of carbon at the energy producing side of the closed loop. This carbon emission can be converted into oxygen demand, too. Therefore, it can be argued that one must look for the total optimal carbon efficiency (or oxygen demand), while reducing the COD. We chose a highly acidic wastewater case of vinegar production, which is a popular food product in Turkey, to demonstrate the high energy consumption and carbon emission problem of the electrochemical treatment approach. A novel strategy is presented to monitor total oxygen demand simultaneously at the treatment and energy production sides. Necessity of renewable energy utilization and conditions on process termination points are discussed.

  20. Recovery of Volatile Fatty Acids from Fermented Wastewater by Adsorption

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Separation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from fermented wastewater is challenging, due to low VFA concentrations in mineral-rich streams. As a result, separation capacity and selectivity with traditional solvents and adsorbents are both compromised. In this study, using a complex artificial model solution mimicking real fermented wastewaters, it is shown that a simple and robust adsorption-based separation technique can retain a remarkable capacity and selectivity for VFAs. Four types of polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based resins (primary, secondary, and tertiary amine-functionalized, and nonfunctionalized) were examined as the adsorbents. The presence of chloride, sulfate, and phosphate salts resulted in coadsorption of their acidic forms HCl, H2SO4, and H3PO4 on amine-functionalized adsorbents, and severely reduced the VFA capacity. With the nonfunctionalized adsorbent, almost no mineral acid coadsorption was observed. This together with a high total VFA capacity of up to 76 g/kg in equilibrium with the model solution containing a total VFA concentration of 1 wt % resulted in a very high selectivity for the VFAs. Nitrogen-stripping with various temperature profiles was applied to regenerate the adsorbent, and study the potential for fractionation of the VFAs during regeneration. Butyric acid (HBu) was obtained in mole fractions of up to 0.8 using a stepwise increase in the stripping temperature from 25 °C via 120 to 200 °C. During four successive adsorption–regeneration cycles, no reduction in the adsorption capacity was observed. PMID:28989827

  1. Keeping Pace With Water and Wastewater Rates

    SciT

    Stratton, Hannah; Fuchs, Heidi; Chen, Yuting

    We present that water and wastewater treatment and delivery are the most capital-intensive of all utility services. The literature indicates that historically underpriced water and wastewater rates have exhibited steadily high growth in the past 15 years, while the consumer price index (CPI) of water and sewage maintenance has outpaced the general CPI by an increasingly wide margin. This article employs a chained analysis method to examine water and wastewater rates for a group of utilities across US Census regions between 2000 and 2014. Results demonstrate that water and wastewater prices for this sample group have consistently increased and havemore » surpassed CPI growth since 2006. Finally, current and upcoming challenges facing water and wastewater utilities suggest that rate increases are likely to continue in the foreseeable future.« less

  2. Keeping Pace With Water and Wastewater Rates

    DOE PAGES

    Stratton, Hannah; Fuchs, Heidi; Chen, Yuting; ...

    2017-10-01

    We present that water and wastewater treatment and delivery are the most capital-intensive of all utility services. The literature indicates that historically underpriced water and wastewater rates have exhibited steadily high growth in the past 15 years, while the consumer price index (CPI) of water and sewage maintenance has outpaced the general CPI by an increasingly wide margin. This article employs a chained analysis method to examine water and wastewater rates for a group of utilities across US Census regions between 2000 and 2014. Results demonstrate that water and wastewater prices for this sample group have consistently increased and havemore » surpassed CPI growth since 2006. Finally, current and upcoming challenges facing water and wastewater utilities suggest that rate increases are likely to continue in the foreseeable future.« less

  3. Recovery of polyhydroxyalkanoates from municipal secondary wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Ghosh, Pooja; Khosla, Khushboo; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2018-05-01

    In the current study, the feasibility of utilizing municipal secondary wastewater sludge for Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) extraction was improved by optimization of various parameters (temperature, duration and concentration of sludge solids). Optimized process parameters resulted in PHA recovery of 0.605 g, significantly higher than un-optimized conditions. The characterization of PHA was carried out by GC-MS, FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) spectroscopy. The PHA profile was found to be dominated by mcl PHA (58%) along with other diverse PHA. The results of the present study show rich diversity of PHA extracted from a raw material which is readily available at minimal cost. In conclusion, exploring the potential of wastes for production of bioplastics not only reduces the cost of bioplastic production, but also provides a sustainable means for waste management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Zinc oxide tetrapods as efficient photocatalysts for organic pollutant degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangzhou; Leung, Yu Hang; Djurisić, Aleksandra B.; Liao, Changzhong; Shih, Kaimin

    2014-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and other organic pollutants from industrial wastewater have drawn increasing concern in the past decades regarding their environmental and biological risks, and hence developing strategies of effective degradation of BPA and other organic pollutants is imperative. Metal oxide nanostructures, in particular titanium oxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO), have been demonstrated to exhibit efficient photodegradation of various common organic dyes. ZnO tetrapods are of special interest due to their low density of native defects which consequently lead to lower recombination losses and higher photocatalytic efficiency. Tetrapods can be obtained by relatively simple and low-cost vapor phase deposition in large quantity; the micron-scale size would also be advantageous for catalyst recovery. In this study, the photodegradation of BPA with ZnO tetrapods and TiO2 nanostructures under UV illumination were compared. The concentration of BPA dissolved in DI water was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at specified time intervals. It was observed that the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO tetrapods eventually surpassed Degussa P25 in free-standing form, and more than 80% of BPA was degraded after 60 min. Photodegradation of other organic dye pollutants by tetrapods and P25 were also examined. The superior photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO tetrapods for degradation of BPA and other organic dye pollutants and its correlation with the material properties were discussed.

  5. Zinc Levels in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Teng, Tianming; Bian, Bo; Yao, Wei; Yu, Xuefang; Wang, Zhuoqun; Xu, Zhelong; Sun, Yuemin

    2017-03-01

    Zinc is one of the most important trace elements in the body and zinc homeostasis plays a critical role in maintaining cellular structure and function. Zinc dyshomeostasis can lead to many diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to investigate whether there is a relationship between zinc and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). A total of 519 patients was enrolled and their serum zinc levels were measured in this study. We performed analyses on the relationship between zinc levels and LVH and the four LV geometry pattern patients: normal LV geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric LVH, and concentric LVH. We performed further linear and multiple regression analyses to confirm the relationship between zinc and left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and relative wall thickness (RWT). Our data showed that zinc levels were 710.2 ± 243.0 μg/L in the control group and were 641.9 ± 215.2 μg/L in LVH patients. We observed that zinc levels were 715 ± 243.5 μg/L, 694.2 ± 242.7 μg/L, 643.7 ± 225.0 μg/L, and 638.7 ± 197.0 μg/L in normal LV geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric LVH, and concentric LVH patients, respectively. We further found that there was a significant inverse linear relationship between zinc and LVM (p = 0.001) and LVMI (p = 0.000) but did not show a significant relationship with RWT (p = 0.561). Multiple regression analyses confirmed that the linear relationship between zinc and LVM and LVMI remained inversely significant. The present study revealed that serum zinc levels were significantly decreased in the LVH patients, especially in the eccentric LVH and concentric LVH patients. Furthermore, zinc levels were significantly inversely correlated with LVM and LVMI.

  6. Influence of thickness of zinc coating on CMT welding-brazing with AlSi5 alloy wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Pengli; Wang, Zhiping; Yang, Sinan; Jia, Peng

    2018-03-01

    Effect of thickness of zinc coating on Cold Mattel Transfer (CMT) brazing of aluminum and galvanized steel is investigated. The thickness of zinc coating is 10 μm, 30 μm, and 60 μm, respectively. A high-speed camera was used to capture images of welding process of different specimens; the microstructure and composition analyses of the welding seam were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS); the mechanical properties were measured in the form of Nano-indentation experiments. The results showed that arc characteristics and metal transfer behavior were unsteady at the beginning of welding process and that became stable after two cycles of CMT. With the thickness of zinc coating thickening, arc characteristics and metal transfer behaviors were more deteriorated. Compared with 10 μm and 30 μm, clad appearance of 60 μm was straight seam edges and a smooth surface which wetting angle was 60°. Zinc-rich zone at the seam edges was formed by zinc dissolution and motel pool oscillating, and zinc content of 10 μm and 30 μm were 5.8% and 7.75%. Zinc content of 60 μm was 14.61%, and it was a belt between galvanized steel and welding seam. The thickness of intermetallic compounds layer was in the range of 1-8 μm, and it changed with the thickness of zinc coating. The average hardness of the reaction layer of 60 μm is 9.197 GPa.

  7. A role for the Drosophila zinc transporter Zip88E in protecting against dietary zinc toxicity.

    PubMed

    Richards, Christopher D; Warr, Coral G; Burke, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Zinc absorption in animals is thought to be regulated in a local, cell autonomous manner with intestinal cells responding to dietary zinc content. The Drosophila zinc transporter Zip88E shows strong sequence similarity to Zips 42C.1, 42C.2 and 89B as well as mammalian Zips 1, 2 and 3, suggesting that it may act in concert with the apically-localised Drosophila zinc uptake transporters to facilitate dietary zinc absorption by importing ions into the midgut enterocytes. However, the functional characterisation of Zip88E presented here indicates that Zip88E may instead play a role in detecting and responding to zinc toxicity. Larvae homozygous for a null Zip88E allele are viable yet display heightened sensitivity to elevated levels of dietary zinc. This decreased zinc tolerance is accompanied by an overall decrease in Metallothionein B transcription throughout the larval midgut. A Zip88E reporter gene is expressed only in the salivary glands, a handful of enteroendocrine cells at the boundary between the anterior and middle midgut regions, and in two parallel strips of sensory cell projections connecting to the larval ventral ganglion. Zip88E expression solely in this restricted subset of cells is sufficient to rescue the Zip88E mutant phenotype. Together, our data suggest that Zip88E may be functioning in a small subset of cells to detect excessive zinc levels and induce a systemic response to reduce dietary zinc absorption and hence protect against toxicity.

  8. Studies on the bioavailability of zinc in humans: intestinal interaction of tin and zinc.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Marchini, J S; Duarte-Favaro, R M; Vannuchi, H; Dutra de Oliveira, J E

    1983-04-01

    Mineral/mineral interactions at the intestinal level are important in animal nutrition and toxicology, but only limited understanding of their extent or importance in humans has been developed. An inhibitory interaction of dietary tin on zinc retention has been recently described from human metabolic studies. We have explored the tin/zinc interaction using the change-in-plasma-zinc-concentration method with a standard dosage of 12.5 mg of zinc as zinc sulfate in 100 ml of Coca-Cola. Sn/Zn ratios of 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1, constituted by addition of 25, 50, and 100 mg of tin as stannous chloride, had no significant overall effect on zinc uptake. The 100-mg dose of tin produced noxious gastrointestinal symptoms. Addition of iron as ferrous sulfate to form ratios of Sn/Fe/Zn of 1:1:1 and 2:2:1 with the standard zinc solution and the appropriate doses of tin produced a reduction of zinc absorption not dissimilar from that seen previously with zinc and iron alone, and addition of picolinic acid did not influence the uptake of zinc from the solution with the 2:2:1 Sn/Fe/Zn ratio.

  9. Effect of zinc gluconate, sage oil on inflammatory patterns and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Ali, Abdel-Moniem A; Elabidine, Nabila Zein; Mursey, Nada M

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between zinc homeostasis and pancreatic function had been established. In this study we aimed firstly to configure the inflammatory pattern and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats. Secondly to illustrate the effect of two selected agents namely Zinc gluconate and sage oil (Salvia Officinalis, family Lamiaceae). Rats were fed on Zinc deficient diet, deionized water for 28days along with Zinc level check up at intervals to achieve zinc deficient state then rats were rendered diabetic through receiving one dose of alloxan monohydrate (120mg/kg) body weight, classified later into 5 subgroups. Treatment with sage oil (0.042mg/kg IP) and Zinc gluconate orally (150mg/kg) body weight daily for 8 weeks significantly reduced serum glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α), interleukins-6 1 β, inflammatory8 (IFN ȣ), pancreatic 1L1-β along with an increase in serum Zinc and pancreatic Zinc transporter 8 (ZNT8). Histopathological results of pancreatic tissues showed a good correlation with the biochemical findings. Both sage oil and zinc gluconate induced an improvement in the glycemic and inflammatory states. This may be of value like the therapeutic agent for diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [Advances in the research of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation treatment in patients with severe burns].

    PubMed

    Wang, X X; Zhang, M J; Li, X B

    2018-01-20

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in human body, which plays an important role in regulating acute inflammatory response, glucose metabolism, anti-oxidation, immune and gastrointestinal function of patients with severe burns. Patients with severe burns may suffer from zinc deficiency because of insufficient amount of zinc intake from the diet and a large amount of zinc lose through wounds and urine. Zinc deficiency may affect their wound healing process and prognosis. This article reviews the characteristics of zinc metabolism in patients with severe burns through dynamic monitoring the plasma and urinary concentration of zinc. An adequate dosage of zinc supplemented to patients with severe burns by an appropriate method can increase the level of zinc in plasma and skin tissue and improve wound healing, as well as reduce the infection rates and mortality. At the same time, it is important to observe the symptoms and signs of nausea, dizziness, leukopenia and arrhythmia in patients with severe burns after supplementing excessive zinc.

  11. Hyperaccumulation of zinc by zinc-depleted Candida utilis grown in chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Lawford, H G; Pik, J R; Lawford, G R; Williams, T; Kligerman, A

    1980-01-01

    The steady-state levels of zinc in Candida utilis yeast grown in continuous culture under conditions of zinc limitations are <1nmol Zn2+/mg dry weight of cells. Unlike carbon-limited cells, zinc-depleted cells from a zinc-limited chemostat possess the capacity to accumulate and store zinc at levels far in excess of the steady-state level of 4 nmol/mg dry biomass observed in carbon-limited chemostat cultures. Zinc uptake is energy-dependent and apparently undirectional since accumulated 65Zn neither exists from preloaded cells nor exchanges with cold Zn2+. The transport system exhibits a high affinity for Zn2+ (Km =.36micrM) with a Vmaxof 2.2 nmol per minute per milligram dry weight of cells. Growth during the period of the uptake assay is responsible for the apparent plateau level of 35 nmol Zn2+/mg dry weight of cells achieved after 20-30 min in the presence of 65Zn at pH 4.5 and 30 degrees C. Inhibition of growth during the uptake assay by cycloheximide results in a biphasic linear pattern of zinc accumulation where the cellular zinc is about 60 nmol/mg dry weight after 1 h. The enhanced level of accumulated zinc is not inhibtory to growth. Zinc-depleted C. utilis contains elevated amounts of polyphosphate and this anionic evidence does not allow discrimination between possible regulation of zinc homestasis either by inhibitions of zinc efflux through control of the membrane carrier or by control of the synthesis of a cytoplasmic zinc-sequestering macromolecule.

  12. 40 CFR 63.147 - Process wastewater provisions-recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.147 Process wastewater provisions—recordkeeping. (a) The owner or operator transferring a Group 1 wastewater stream or...

  13. 40 CFR 63.147 - Process wastewater provisions-recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.147 Process wastewater provisions—recordkeeping. (a) The owner or operator transferring a Group 1 wastewater stream or...

  14. 40 CFR 63.147 - Process wastewater provisions-recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.147 Process wastewater provisions—recordkeeping. (a) The owner or operator transferring a Group 1 wastewater stream or...

  15. 7 CFR 3201.98 - Wastewater systems coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wastewater systems coatings. 3201.98 Section 3201.98... Designated Items § 3201.98 Wastewater systems coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings that protect wastewater... procurement preference for qualifying biobased wastewater systems coatings. By that date, Federal agencies...

  16. 40 CFR 63.147 - Process wastewater provisions-recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.147 Process wastewater provisions—recordkeeping. (a) The owner or operator transferring a Group 1 wastewater stream or...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.98 - Wastewater systems coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wastewater systems coatings. 3201.98 Section 3201.98... Designated Items § 3201.98 Wastewater systems coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings that protect wastewater... procurement preference for qualifying biobased wastewater systems coatings. By that date, Federal agencies...

  18. 40 CFR 63.135 - Process wastewater provisions-containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastewater provisions—containers. (a) For each container that receives, manages, or treats a Group 1 wastewater stream or a residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, the owner or operator shall comply... operate and maintain a cover on each container used to handle, transfer, or store a Group 1 wastewater...

  19. 40 CFR 63.146 - Process wastewater provisions-reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... wastewater provisions—reporting. (a) For each waste management unit, treatment process, or control device... for Group 2 wastewater streams. This paragraph does not apply to Group 2 wastewater streams that are used to comply with § 63.138(g). For Group 2 wastewater streams, the owner or operator shall include...

  20. 40 CFR 63.146 - Process wastewater provisions-reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... wastewater provisions—reporting. (a) For each waste management unit, treatment process, or control device... for Group 2 wastewater streams. This paragraph does not apply to Group 2 wastewater streams that are used to comply with § 63.138(g). For Group 2 wastewater streams, the owner or operator shall include...

  1. 40 CFR 63.135 - Process wastewater provisions-containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wastewater provisions—containers. (a) For each container that receives, manages, or treats a Group 1 wastewater stream or a residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, the owner or operator shall comply... operate and maintain a cover on each container used to handle, transfer, or store a Group 1 wastewater...

  2. 40 CFR 63.135 - Process wastewater provisions-containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... wastewater provisions—containers. (a) For each container that receives, manages, or treats a Group 1 wastewater stream or a residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, the owner or operator shall comply... operate and maintain a cover on each container used to handle, transfer, or store a Group 1 wastewater...

  3. 40 CFR 63.146 - Process wastewater provisions-reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wastewater provisions—reporting. (a) For each waste management unit, treatment process, or control device... for Group 2 wastewater streams. This paragraph does not apply to Group 2 wastewater streams that are used to comply with § 63.138(g). For Group 2 wastewater streams, the owner or operator shall include...

  4. 40 CFR 63.135 - Process wastewater provisions-containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... wastewater provisions—containers. (a) For each container that receives, manages, or treats a Group 1 wastewater stream or a residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, the owner or operator shall comply... operate and maintain a cover on each container used to handle, transfer, or store a Group 1 wastewater...

  5. 40 CFR 63.146 - Process wastewater provisions-reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastewater provisions—reporting. (a) For each waste management unit, treatment process, or control device... for Group 2 wastewater streams. This paragraph does not apply to Group 2 wastewater streams that are used to comply with § 63.138(g). For Group 2 wastewater streams, the owner or operator shall include...

  6. Industrial wastewater treatment using higher aquatic vegetation in the former mining company of the Far Eastern Federal district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupskaya, L. T.; Zvereva, V. P.; Gula, K. E.; Gul', L. P.; Golubev, D. A.; Filatova, M. Yu.

    2017-09-01

    The article describes the results of studying the problems of industrial wastewater treatment using higher aquatic vegetation (hydrophytes) in the former mining enterprise of the Far Eastern Federal District (FEFD). They are aimed at reducing the negative environment impact of toxic tin ore wastes. The material of research were drainage, mine and slime waters as well as Lemna minor and Common reed grass (Phragmites communis). In the work conventional modern physico-chemical, chemical, biological and mathematical-statistical methods were used, as well as in the process of research the methods of atomic absorption spectrophotometry for AAS and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma on ISP-MS ELASN DRS II PerkinElmer was applied. The data obtained in the course of the experiment (2015-2016), indicate that a degree of wastewater treatment, using Lemna minor, is high. Virtually, all compounds of toxic chemical elements contained in industrial wastewater (zinc, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, iron, manganese, lead, etc.) were fully absorbed by a hydrophyte. Pollutant extraction was almost 95%. The obtained results of the study in laboratory conditions proved the possibility of effective use of the Lemna minor for the purification of drainage and mine waters. A key contribution of this paper is the relationship between possible toxic metals contained in industrial wastewater and a higher degree of absorption by their higher aquatic vegetation. These hydrophytes absorb these possible toxic metals in an aqueous medium and are contaminated with these heavy metals.

  7. Electro-peroxone pretreatment for enhanced simulated hospital wastewater treatment and antibiotic resistance genes reduction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, He-Shan; Guo, Wan-Qian; Wu, Qu-Li; Ren, Nan-Qi; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2018-06-01

    Hospital wastewater is one of the possible sources responsible for antibiotic resistant bacteria spread into the environment. This study proposed a promising strategy, electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) pretreatment followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for simulated hospital wastewater treatment, aiming to enhance the wastewater treatment performance and to reduce antibiotic resistance genes production simultaneously. The highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency of 94.3% and 92.8% were obtained using the E-peroxone-SBR process. The microbial community analysis through high-throughput sequencing showed that E-peroxone pretreatment could guarantee microbial richness and diversity in SBR, as well as reduce the microbial inhibitions caused by antibiotic and raise the amount of nitrification and denitrification genera. Specially, quantitative real-time PCRs revealed that E-peroxone pretreatment could largely reduce the numbers and contents of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) production in the following biological treatment unit. It was indicated that E-peroxone-SBR process may provide an effective way for hospital wastewater treatment and possible ARGs reduction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of Moringa Oleifera seed extract to treat coffee fermentation wastewater.

    PubMed

    Garde, William K; Buchberger, Steven G; Wendell, David; Kupferle, Margaret J

    2017-05-05

    Wastewater generated from wet processing of coffee cherries degrades stream water quality downstream of processing mills and impacts human health. The widespread popularity of coffee as an export makes this a global problem, although the immediate impact is local. Approximately 40% of all coffee around the world is wet processed, producing wastewater rich in organic nutrients that can be hazardous to aquatic systems. Moringa Oleifera Seed Extract (MOSE) offers promise as a local and affordable "appropriate" coagulation technology for aiding in the treatment of coffee wastewater. Field research was conducted at the Kauai Coffee Company to investigate the application of MOSE to treat coffee fermentation wastewater (CFW). Coagulation tests were conducted at five pH CFW levels (3-7) and MOSE doses (0-4g/L). After settling, TSS, COD, nitrate, nitrite, total nitrogen, and pH of supernatant from each test were measured. MOSE reduced TSS, COD, nitrate, and nitrite in CFW to varying degrees dependent on pH and dose applied. TSS removal ranged from 8% to 54%. Insoluble COD removal ranged from 26% to 100% and total COD removal ranged from 1% to 25%. Nitrate and nitrite reduction ranged from 20% to 100%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Speciation And Bioavailability Of Zinc In Amended Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The speciation and bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in smelter-contaminated sediments was investigated as a function of phosphate (apatite) and organic amendment loading rate. Zinc species identified in preamendment sediment were zinc hydroxide-like phases, sphalerite, and zinc sorbe...

  10. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc methionine sulfate. 172.399 Section 172.399... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate. Zinc methionine... conditions: (a) The additive is the product of the reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and DL...

  11. Contribution of Zinc Solubilizing Bacteria in Growth Promotion and Zinc Content of Wheat.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Sana; Shahid, Izzah; Baig, Deeba N; Rizwan, Muhammad; Malik, Kauser A; Mehnaz, Samina

    2017-01-01

    Zinc is an imperative micronutrient required for optimum plant growth. Zinc solubilizing bacteria are potential alternatives for zinc supplementation and convert applied inorganic zinc to available forms. This study was conducted to screen zinc solubilizing rhizobacteria isolated from wheat and sugarcane, and to analyze their effect on wheat growth and development. Fourteen exo-polysaccharides producing bacterial isolates of wheat were identified and characterized biochemically as well as on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Along these, 10 identified sugarcane isolates were also screened for zinc solubilizing ability on five different insoluble zinc sources. Out of 24, five strains, i.e., EPS 1 ( Pseudomonas fragi) , EPS 6 ( Pantoea dispersa) , EPS 13 ( Pantoea agglomerans) , PBS 2 ( E. cloacae) and LHRW1 ( Rhizobium sp.) were selected (based on their zinc solubilizing and PGP activities) for pot scale plant experiments. ZnCO 3 was used as zinc source and wheat seedlings were inoculated with these five strains, individually, to assess their effect on plant growth and development. The effect on plants was analyzed based on growth parameters and quantifying zinc content of shoot, root and grains using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Plant experiment was performed in two sets. For first set of plant experiments (harvested after 1 month), maximum shoot and root dry weights and shoot lengths were noted for the plants inoculated with Rhizobium sp. (LHRW1) while E. cloacae (PBS 2) increased both shoot and root lengths. Highest zinc content was found in shoots of E. cloacae (PBS 2) and in roots of P. agglomerans (EPS 13) followed by zinc supplemented control. For second set of plant experiment, when plants were harvested after three months, Pantoea dispersa (EPS 6), P. agglomerans (EPS 13) and E. cloacae (PBS 2) significantly increased shoot dry weights. However, significant increase in root dry weights and maximum zinc content was recorded for Pseudomonas fragi (EPS

  12. Implication of zinc excess on soil health.

    PubMed

    Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Boros-Lajszner, Edyta; Borowik, Agata; Baćmaga, Małgorzata; Kucharski, Jan; Tomkiel, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate zinc's influence on the resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the University of Warmia and Mazury (UWM) in Olsztyn, Poland. Plastic pots were filled with 3 kg of sandy loam with pHKCl - 7.0 each. The experimental variables were: zinc applied to soil at six doses: 100, 300, 600, 1,200, 2,400 and 4,800 mg of Zn(2+) kg(-1) in the form of ZnCl2 (zinc chloride), and species of plant: oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Chwat and white mustard (Sinapis alba) cv. Rota. Soil without the addition of zinc served as the control. During the growing season, soil samples were subjected to microbiological analyses on experimental days 25 and 50 to determine the abundance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces and fungi, and the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase and urease, which provided a basis for determining the soil resistance index (RS). The physicochemical properties of soil were determined after harvest. The results of this study indicate that excessive concentrations of zinc have an adverse impact on microbial growth and the activity of soil enzymes. The resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease decreased with an increase in the degree of soil contamination with zinc. Dehydrogenases were most sensitive and urease was least sensitive to soil contamination with zinc. Zinc also exerted an adverse influence on the physicochemical properties of soil and plant development. The growth of oat and white mustard plants was almost completely inhibited in response to the highest zinc doses of 2,400 and 4,800 mg Zn(2+) kg(-1).

  13. Halogens in oil and gas production-associated wastewater.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, J.; Warner, N. R.; Dwyer, G. S.; Mitch, W.; Vengosh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated chloride and bromide in oil and gas wastewaters that are released to the environment are one of the major environmental risks in areas impacted by shale gas development [Olmstead et al.,2013]. In addition to direct contamination of streams, the potential for formation of highly toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water in utilities located downstream from disposal sites poses a serious risk to human health. Here we report on the occurrence of iodide in oil and gas wastewater. We conducted systematic measurements of chloride, bromide, and iodide in (1) produced waters from conventional oil and gas wells from the Appalachian Basin; (2) hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids from unconventional Marcellus and Fayetteville shale gas, (3) effluents from a shale gas spill site in West Virginia; (4) effluents of oil and gas wastewater disposed to surface water from three brine treatment facilities in western Pennsylvania; and (5) surface waters downstream from the brine treatment facilities. Iodide concentration was measured by isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, which allowed for a more accurate measurement of iodide in a salt-rich matrix. Iodide in both conventional and unconventional oil and gas produced and flowback waters varied from 1 mg/L to 55 mg/L, with no systematic enrichment in hydraulic fracturing fluids. The similarity in iodide content between the unconventional Marcellus flowback waters and the conventional Appalachian produced waters clearly indicate that the hydraulic fracturing process does not induce additional iodide and the iodide content is related to natural variations in the host formations. Our data show that effluents from the brine treatment facilities have elevated iodide (mean = 20.9±1 mg/L) compared to local surface waters (0.03± 0.1 mg/L). These results indicate that iodide, in addition to chloride and bromide in wastewater from oil and gas production, poses an additional risk to downstream

  14. Effects of wastewater on forested wetlands

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Cycling nutrient-enriched wastewater from holding ponds through natural, forested wetlands is a practice that municipal waste treatment managers are considering as a viable option for disposing of wastewater. In this wastewater cycling process, sewer effluent that has been circulated through aerated ponds is discharged into neighboring wetland systems. To understand how wastewater cycling affects forest and species productivity, researchers at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center conducted dendroecological investigations in a swamp system and in a bog system that have been exposed to wastewater effluent for many decades. Dendroecology involves the study of forest changes over time as interpreted from tree rings. Tree-ring chronologies describe the pattern and history of growth suppression and release that can be associated with aging and disturbances such as hurricanes, floods, and fires. But because of limited monitoring, little is known about the potential for long-term effects on forested wetlands as a result of wastewater flooding. USGS researchers used tree rings to detect the effect of wastewater cycling on tree growth. Scientists expected to find that tree-ring width would be increased as a result of added nutrients.

  15. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    SciT

    Rahman, A.

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, whilemore » the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.« less

  16. The zinc dyshomeostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Craddock, Travis J A; Tuszynski, Jack A; Chopra, Deepak; Casey, Noel; Goldstein, Lee E; Hameroff, Stuart R; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Hallmark AD neuropathology includes extracellular amyloid plaques composed largely of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ), intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyper-phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAP-tau), and microtubule destabilization. Early-onset autosomal dominant AD genes are associated with excessive Aβ accumulation, however cognitive impairment best correlates with NFTs and disrupted microtubules. The mechanisms linking Aβ and NFT pathologies in AD are unknown. Here, we propose that sequestration of zinc by Aβ-amyloid deposits (Aβ oligomers and plaques) not only drives Aβ aggregation, but also disrupts zinc homeostasis in zinc-enriched brain regions important for memory and vulnerable to AD pathology, resulting in intra-neuronal zinc levels, which are either too low, or excessively high. To evaluate this hypothesis, we 1) used molecular modeling of zinc binding to the microtubule component protein tubulin, identifying specific, high-affinity zinc binding sites that influence side-to-side tubulin interaction, the sensitive link in microtubule polymerization and stability. We also 2) performed kinetic modeling showing zinc distribution in extra-neuronal Aβ deposits can reduce intra-neuronal zinc binding to microtubules, destabilizing microtubules. Finally, we 3) used metallomic imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) to show anatomically-localized and age-dependent zinc dyshomeostasis in specific brain regions of Tg2576 transgenic, mice, a model for AD. We found excess zinc in brain regions associated with memory processing and NFT pathology. Overall, we present a theoretical framework and support for a new theory of AD linking extra-neuronal Aβ amyloid to intra-neuronal NFTs and cognitive dysfunction. The connection, we propose, is based on β-amyloid-induced alterations in zinc ion concentration inside neurons affecting stability of polymerized

  17. A mixed valence zinc dithiolene system with spectator metal and reactor ligands.

    PubMed

    Ratvasky, Stephen C; Mogesa, Benjamin; van Stipdonk, Michael J; Basu, Partha

    2016-08-16

    Neutral complexes of zinc with N,N'-diisopropylpiperazine-2,3-dithione ( i Pr 2 Dt 0 ) and N,N'-dimethylpiperazine-2,3-dithione (Me 2 Dt 0 ) with chloride or maleonitriledithiolate (mnt 2- ) as coligands have been synthesized and characterized. The molecular structures of these zinc complexes have been determined using single crystal X-ray diffractometry. Complexes recrystallize in monoclinic P type systems with zinc adopting a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Two zinc complexes with mixed-valent dithiolene ligands exhibit ligand-to-ligand charge transfer bands. Optimized geometries, molecular vibrations and electronic structures of charge-transfer complexes were calculated using density functional theory (B3LYP/6-311G+(d,p) level). Redox orbitals are shown to be almost exclusively ligand in nature, with a HOMO based heavily on the electron-rich maleonitriledithiolate ligand, and a LUMO comprised mostly of the electron-deficient dithione ligand. Charge transfer is thus believed to proceed from dithiolate HOMO to dithione LUMO, showing ligand-to-ligand redox interplay across a d 10 metal.

  18. Supplemental levels of iron and calcium interfere with repletion of zinc status in zinc-deficient animals.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, S; Platel, Kalpana

    2016-05-18

    Negative interactions between minerals interfering with each other's absorption are of concern when iron and calcium supplements are given to pregnant women and children. We have previously reported that supplemental levels of iron and calcium inhibit the bioaccessibility of zinc, and compromise zinc status in rats fed diets with high levels of these two minerals. The present study examined the effect of supplemental levels of iron and calcium on the recovery of zinc status during a zinc repletion period in rats rendered zinc-deficient. Iron and calcium, both individually and in combination, significantly interfered with the recovery of zinc status in zinc deficient rats during repletion with normal levels of zinc in the diet. Rats maintained on diets containing supplemental levels of these two minerals had significantly lower body weight, and the concentration of zinc in serum and organs was significantly lower than in zinc-deficient rats not receiving the supplements. Iron and calcium supplementation also significantly inhibited the activity of zinc-containing enzymes in the serum as well as liver. Both iron and calcium independently exerted this negative effect on zinc status, while their combination seemed to have a more prominent effect, especially on the activities of zinc containing enzymes. This investigation is probably the first systematic study on the effect of these two minerals on the zinc status of zinc deficient animals and their recovery during repletion with normal amounts of zinc.

  19. Intracellular zinc distribution in mitochondria, ER and the Golgi apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiping; Haragopal, Hariprakash; Slepchenko, Kira G; Stork, Christian; Li, Yang V

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn2+) is required for numerous cellular functions. As such, the homeostasis and distribution of intracellular zinc can influence cellular metabolism and signaling. However, the exact distribution of free zinc within live cells remains elusive. Previously we showed the release of zinc from thapsigargin/IP3-sensitive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) storage in cortical neurons. In the present study, we investigated if other cellular organelles also contain free chelatable zinc and function as organelle storage for zinc. To identify free zinc within the organelles, live cells were co-stained with Zinpyr-1, a zinc fluorescent dye, and organelle-specific fluorescent dyes (MitoFluor Red 589: mitochondria; ER Tracker Red: endoplasmic reticulum; BODIPY TR ceramide: Golgi apparatus; Syto Red 64: nucleus). We examined organelles that represent potential storing sites for intracellular zinc. We showed that zinc fluorescence staining was co-localized with MitoFluor Red 589, ER Tracker Red, and BODIPY TR ceramide respectively, suggesting the presence of free zinc in mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus. On the other hand, cytosol and nucleus had nearly no detectable zinc fluorescence. It is known that nucleus contains high amount of zinc binding proteins that have high zinc binding affinity. The absence of zinc fluorescence suggests that there is little free zinc in these two regions. It also indicates that the zinc fluorescence detected in mitochondria, ER and Golgi apparatus represents free chelatable zinc. Taken together, our results support that these organelles are potential zinc storing organelles during cellular zinc homeostasis. PMID:27186321

  20. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Charles T; Radford, Robert J; Zastrow, Melissa L; Zhang, Daniel Y; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-05-19

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling.

  1. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Charles T.; Radford, Robert J.; Zastrow, Melissa L.; Zhang, Daniel Y.; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J.; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling. PMID:25947151

  2. Genetic Variability, Genotype × Environment Interaction, Correlation, and GGE Biplot Analysis for Grain Iron and Zinc Concentration and Other Agronomic Traits in RIL Population of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    PubMed Central

    Phuke, Rahul M.; Anuradha, Kotla; Radhika, Kommineni; Jabeen, Farzana; Anuradha, Ghanta; Ramesh, Thatikunta; Hariprasanna, K.; Mehtre, Shivaji P.; Deshpande, Santosh P.; Anil, Gaddameedi; Das, Roma R.; Rathore, Abhishek; Hash, Tom; Reddy, Belum V. S.; Kumar, Are Ashok

    2017-01-01

    The low grain iron and zinc densities are well documented problems in food crops, affecting crop nutritional quality especially in cereals. Sorghum is a major source of energy and micronutrients for majority of population in Africa and central India. Understanding genetic variation, genotype × environment interaction and association between these traits is critical for development of improved cultivars with high iron and zinc. A total of 336 sorghum RILs (Recombinant Inbred Lines) were evaluated for grain iron and zinc concentration along with other agronomic traits for 2 years at three locations. The results showed that large variability exists in RIL population for both micronutrients (Iron = 10.8 to 76.4 mg kg−1 and Zinc = 10.2 to 58.7 mg kg−1, across environments) and agronomic traits. Genotype × environment interaction for both micronutrients (iron and zinc) was highly significant. GGE biplots comparison for grain iron and zinc showed greater variation across environments. The results also showed that G × E was substantial for grain iron and zinc, hence wider testing needed for taking care of G × E interaction to breed micronutrient rich sorghum lines. Iron and zinc concentration showed high significant positive correlation (across environment = 0.79; p < 0.01) indicating possibility of simultaneous effective selection for both the traits. The RIL population showed good variability and high heritabilities (>0.60, in individual environments) for Fe and Zn and other traits studied indicating its suitability to map QTL for iron and zinc. PMID:28529518

  3. Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Thomas C.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1994-01-01

    An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing KOH and a combination of KF and K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 salts which inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics.

  4. Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode

    DOEpatents

    Adler, T.C.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

    1994-04-12

    An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing KOH and a combination of KF and K[sub 2]CO[sub 3] salts which inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics. 8 figures.

  5. Leptin, NPY, Melatonin and Zinc Levels in Experimental Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism: The Relation to Zinc.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasım; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-06-01

    Since zinc mediates the effects of many hormones or is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors, zinc deficiency leads to various functional impairments in the hormone balance. And also thyroid hormones have important activity on metabolism and feeding. NPY and leptin are affective on food intake and regulation of appetite. The present study is conducted to determine how zinc supplementation and deficiency affect thyroid hormones (free and total T3 and T4), melatonin, leptin, and NPY levels in thyroid dysfunction in rats. The experiment groups in the study were formed as follows: Control (C); Hypothyroidism (PTU); Hypothyroidism+Zinc (PTU+Zn); Hypothyroidism+Zinc deficient; Hyperthyroidism (H); Hyperthyroidism+Zinc (H+Zn); and Hyperthyroidism+Zinc deficient. Thyroid hormone parameters (FT 3 , FT 4 , TT 3 , and TT 4 ) were found to be reduced in hypothyroidism groups and elevated in the hyperthyroidism groups. Melatonin values increased in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism. Leptin and NPY levels both increased in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Zinc levels, on the other hand, decreased in hypothyroidism and increased in hyperthyroidism. Zinc supplementation, particularly when thyroid function is impaired, has been demonstrated to markedly prevent these changes.

  6. Zinc and its importance for human health: An integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Roohani, Nazanin; Hurrell, Richard; Kelishadi, Roya; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Since its first discovery in an Iranian male in 1961, zinc deficiency in humans is now known to be an important malnutrition problem world-wide. It is more prevalent in areas of high cereal and low animal food consumption. The diet may not necessarily be low in zinc, but its bio-availability plays a major role in its absorption. Phytic acid is the main known inhibitor of zinc. Compared to adults, infants, children, adolescents, pregnant, and lactating women have increased requirements for zinc and thus, are at increased risk of zinc depletion. Zinc deficiency during growth periods results in growth failure. Epidermal, gastrointestinal, central nervous, immune, skeletal, and reproductive systems are the organs most affected clinically by zinc deficiency. Clinical diagnosis of marginal Zn deficiency in humans remains problematic. So far, blood plasma/serum zinc concentration, dietary intake, and stunting prevalence are the best known indicators of zinc deficiency. Four main intervention strategies for combating zinc deficiency include dietary modification/diversification, supplementation, fortification, and bio-fortification. The choice of each method depends on the availability of resources, technical feasibility, target group, and social acceptance. In this paper, we provide a review on zinc biochemical and physiological functions, metabolism including, absorption, excretion, and homeostasis, zinc bio-availability (inhibitors and enhancers), human requirement, groups at high-risk, consequences and causes of zinc deficiency, evaluation of zinc status, and prevention strategies of zinc deficiency. PMID:23914218

  7. Serum zinc concentrations: contamination from laboratory equipment.

    PubMed

    Ralstin, J O; Schneider, P J; Blackstone, L; Ruberg, R L

    1979-01-01

    The following experiment was designed because of high serum zinc reported in patients who were reciving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) concentrations. Blood samples were collected, divided into 3 containers: a clean glass control test tube, a vacuum collecting tube with a rubber stopper, and paraffin clot activator. It was found that compared to glass control tubes, vacuum collection with rubber stoppers contributed an average of 76 +/- 14 microgram/dl of zinc as contaminants. Moreover, tubes with a rubber stopper and clot activator contributed 198 +/- 42 microgram/dl of zinc as contaminants. It is concluded that care must be used to avoid trace element contaminants when plasma zinc concentrations are analyzed. Without proper methodology, including selection of the container in which the sample is taken, erroneous results will be reported.

  8. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    SciT

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  9. Anaerobic Digestion Alters Copper and Zinc Speciation.

    PubMed

    Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Guiresse, Maritxu; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-09-19

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used organic waste treatment process. However, little is known on how it could alter the speciation of contaminants in organic waste. This study was focused on determining the influence of anaerobic digestion on the speciation of copper and zinc, two metals that generally occur at high concentration in organic waste. Copper and zinc speciation was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in four different raw organic wastes (predigestion) and their digested counterparts (postdigestion, i.e., digestates). The results highlighted an increase in the digestates of the proportion of amorphous or nanostructured copper sulfides as well as amorphous or nanostructured zinc sulfides and zinc phosphate as compared to raw waste. We therefore suggest that the environmental fate of these elements would be different when spreading either digestates or raw waste on cropland.

  10. Zinc Nucleation and Growth in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, B. Patrick; Nuth, J. A., III; Lilleleht, L. U.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report our experiences with zinc nucleation in a microgravity environment aboard NASA's Reduced Gravity Research Facility. Zinc vapor is produced by a heater in a vacuum chamber containing argon gas. Nucleation is induced by cooling and its onset is easily detected visually by the appearance of a cloud of solid, at least partially crystalline zinc particles. Size distribution of these particles is monitored in situ by photon correlation spectroscopy. Samples of particles are also extracted for later analysis by SEM. The initially rapid increase in particle size is followed by a slower period of growth. We apply Scaled Nucleation Theory to our data and find that the derived critical temperature of zinc, the critical cluster size at nucleation, and the surface tension values are all in reasonably good agreement with their accepted literature values.

  11. Wastewater services for small communities.

    PubMed

    Gray, S; Booker, N

    2003-01-01

    Connection to centralised regional sewage systems has been too expensive for small-dispersed communities, and these townships have traditionally been serviced by on-site septic tank systems. The conventional on-site system in Australia has consisted of an anaerobic holding tank followed by adsorption trenches. This technique relies heavily on the uptake of nutrients by plants for effective removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the effluent, and is very seasonal in its efficiency. Hence, as these small communities have grown in size, the environmental effects of the septic tank discharges have become a problem. In locations throughout Australia, such as rural Victoria and along the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, septic tanks as being replaced with the transport of sewage to regional treatment plants. For some isolated communities, this can mean spending 20,000 dollars-40,000 dollars/household, as opposed to more common connection prices of 7,000 dollars/household. This paper explores some alternative options that might be suitable for these small communities, and attempts to identify solutions that provide acceptable environmental outcomes at lower cost. The types of alternative systems that are assessed in the paper include local treatment systems, separate blackwater and greywater collection and treatment systems both with and without non-potable water recycling, a small township scale treatment plant compared to either existing septic tank systems or pumping to a remote regional treatment facility. The work demonstrated the benefits of a scenario analysis approach for the assessment of a range of alternative systems. It demonstrated that some of the alternatives systems can achieve better than 90% reductions in the discharge of nutrients to the environment at significantly lower cost than removing the wastewater to a remote regional treatment plant. These concepts allow wastewater to be retained within a community allowing for local reuse of treated effluent.

  12. Hydrogen-rich gas generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Cerini, D. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A process and apparatus are described for producing hydrogen-rich product gases. A spray of liquid hydrocarbon is mixed with a stream of air in a startup procedure and the mixture is ignited for partial oxidation. The stream of air is then heated by the resulting combustion to reach a temperature such that a signal is produced. The signal triggers a two way valve which directs liquid hydrocarbon from a spraying mechanism to a vaporizing mechanism with which a vaporized hydrocarbon is formed. The vaporized hydrocarbon is subsequently mixed with the heated air in the combustion chamber where partial oxidation takes place and hydrogen-rich product gases are produced.

  13. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a)...

  15. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children

    PubMed Central

    Lazzerini, Marzia; Wanzira, Humphrey

    2016-01-01

    Background In developing countries, diarrhoea causes around 500,000 child deaths annually. Zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea is currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Objectives To evaluate oral zinc supplementation for treating children with acute or persistent diarrhoea. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 5), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, mRCT, and reference lists up to 30 September 2016. We also contacted researchers. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared oral zinc supplementation with placebo in children aged one month to five years with acute or persistent diarrhoea, including dysentery. Data collection and analysis Both review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, extracted and analysed data, and drafted the review. The primary outcomes were diarrhoea duration and severity. We summarized dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses (using either a fixed-effect or random-effects model) and assessed heterogeneity. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results Thirty-three trials that included 10,841 children met our inclusion criteria. Most included trials were conducted in Asian countries that were at high risk of zinc deficiency. Acute diarrhoea There is currently not enough evidence from well-conducted RCTs to be able to say whether zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea reduces death or number of children hospitalized (very low certainty evidence). In children older than six months of age, zinc supplementation may shorten the average duration of diarrhoea by around half a day (MD −11.46 hours, 95% CI −19.72 to −3.19; 2581 children, 9 trials, low

  16. Free ammonia offers algal crop protection from predators in dairy wastewater and ammonium-rich media.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Patrick K; Dunn, Gary P; Passero, Maxine; Feris, Kevin P

    2017-11-01

    Cost-effective methods for protecting crops from grazing organisms like rotifers are needed to reduce the risk of pond crashes in mass algal cultures. We present a novel strategy to optimize the exposure time to free ammonia, via control of media pH, in both defined media and dairy anaerobic digester effluent to suppress rotifers and maintain algal productivity. We tested five different free ammonia exposure times (0, 1, 2, 6, and 12h) and found a significant nonlinear effect of exposure time (p<0.0001) but not pH (p>0.9) on rotifer survival. In both media types, 6-12h of elevated free ammonia significantly reduced Brachionus plicatilis rotifer survival with no negative effects on Nannochloropsis oculata, while shorter exposure times were insufficient to inhibit rotifers, leading to severe algal culture crashes. These results suggest that algal crops can be protected from rotifers, without productivity loss, by elevating free ammonia for 6 or more hours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improvement of the degradation of sulfate rich wastewater using sweetmeat waste (SMW) as nutrient supplement.

    PubMed

    Das, Bidus Kanti; Roy, Shantonu; Dev, Subhabrata; Das, Debabrata; Bhattacharya, Jayanta

    2015-12-30

    External dosing of sweetmeat waste (SMW) dosing into exhausted upflow packed bed bioreactor (PBR) resulted in prompt reactivation of SO4(2-) removal. Different SMW concentrations in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/SO4(2-) ratios (1, 2, 4 and 8) were introduced into four identical PBR where process stability was found within 3 weeks of operation. SO4(2-) removal was proportional to COD/SO4(2-) ratios up to 4 at which maximum sulfate removal (99%) was achieved at a rate of 607 mg/d. The value of COD consumption:SO4(2-)removal was much higher at ratio 4 than 8 whereas, ratio 2 was preferred over all. Net effluent acetate concentration profile and total microbial population attached to the reactor matrices were corresponding to COD/SO4(2-) ratio as 4>8>2>1. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) population was found to be inversely proportional to COD/SO4(2-) ratio in which acetate oxidizing SRB and fermentative bacteria were the dominant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fouling of a spiral-wound reverse osmosis membrane processing swine wastewater: effect of cleaning procedure on fouling resistance.

    PubMed

    Camilleri-Rumbau, M S; Masse, L; Dubreuil, J; Mondor, M; Christensen, K V; Norddahl, B

    2016-01-01

    Swine manure is a valuable source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. After solid-liquid separation, the resulting swine wastewater can be concentrated by reverse osmosis (RO) to produce a nitrogen-potassium rich fertilizer. However, swine wastewater has a high fouling potential and an efficient cleaning strategy is required. In this study, a semi-commercial farm scale RO spiral-wound membrane unit was fouled while processing larger volumes of swine wastewater during realistic cyclic operations over a 9-week period. Membrane cleaning was performed daily. Three different cleaning solutions, containing SDS, SDS+EDTA and NaOH were compared. About 99% of the fouling resistance could be removed by rinsing the membrane with water. Flux recoveries (FRs) above 98% were achieved for all the three cleaning solutions after cleaning. No significant differences in FR were found between the cleaning solutions. The NaOH solution thus is a good economical option for cleaning RO spiral-wound membranes fouled with swine wastewater. Soaking the membrane for 3 days in permeate water at the end of each week further improved the FR. Furthermore, a fouling resistance model for predicting the fouling rate, permeate flux decay and cleaning cycle periods based on processing time and swine wastewater conductivity was developed.

  19. High Mobility Thin Film Transistors Based on Amorphous Indium Zinc Tin Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Noviyana, Imas; Lestari, Annisa Dwi; Putri, Maryane; Won, Mi-Sook; Bae, Jong-Seong; Heo, Young-Woo; Lee, Hee Young

    2017-01-01

    Top-contact bottom-gate thin film transistors (TFTs) with zinc-rich indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO) active layer were prepared at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Sintered ceramic target was prepared and used for deposition from oxide powder mixture having the molar ratio of In2O3:ZnO:SnO2 = 2:5:1. Annealing treatment was carried out for as-deposited films at various temperatures to investigate its effect on TFT performances. It was found that annealing treatment at 350 °C for 30 min in air atmosphere yielded the best result, with the high field effect mobility value of 34 cm2/Vs and the minimum subthreshold swing value of 0.12 V/dec. All IZTO thin films were amorphous, even after annealing treatment of up to 350 °C. PMID:28773058

  20. Redox and Lewis acid relay catalysis: a titanocene/zinc catalytic platform in the development of multicomponent coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Gianino, Joseph B; Campos, Catherine A; Lepore, Antonio J; Pinkerton, David M; Ashfeld, Brandon L

    2014-12-19

    A titanocene-catalyzed multicomponent coupling is described herein. Using catalytic titanocene, phosphine, and zinc dust, zinc acetylides can be generated from the corresponding iodoalkynes to affect sequential nucleophilic additions to aromatic aldehydes. The intermediate propargylic alkoxides are trapped in situ with acetic anhydride, which are susceptible to a second nucleophilic displacement upon treatment with a variety of electron-rich species, including acetylides, allyl silanes, electron-rich aromatics, silyl enol ethers, and silyl ketene acetals. Additionally, employing cyclopropane carboxaldehydes led to ring-opened products resulting from iodine incorporation. Taken together, these results form the basis for a new mode of three-component coupling reactions, which allows for rapid access to value added products in a single synthetic operation.