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Sample records for zinc silicate glasses

  1. An evaluation of the processing conditions, structure, and properties (biaxial flexural strength and antibacterial efficacy) of sintered strontium-zinc-silicate glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Looney, Mark; Shea, Helen O'; Gunn, Lynda; Crowley, Dolores; Boyd, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    The use of artificial bone grafts has increased in order to satisfy a growing demand for bone replacement materials. Initial mechanical stability of synthetic bone grafts is very advantageous for certain clinical applications. Coupled with the advantage of mechanical strength, a material with inherent antibacterial properties would be very beneficial. A series of strontium-doped zinc silicate (Ca-Sr-Na-Zn-Si) glass ceramics have been characterized in terms of their crystalline structure, biaxial flexural strength and antibacterial efficacy based on the identification of optimum sintering conditions. All three glass ceramics, namely, BT110, BT111, and BT112 were found to be fully crystalline, with BT111 and BT112 comprising of biocompatible crystalline phases. The biaxial flexural strengths of the three glass ceramics ranged from 70 to 149 MPa and were shown to be superior to those of clinically established ceramics in dry conditions and following incubation in simulated physiological conditions. The bacteriostatic effect for each glass ceramic was also established, where BT112 showed an inhibitory effect against three of the most common bacteria found at implantation sites, namely, Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results of the evaluation suggest that the materials studied offer advantages over current clinical materials and indicate the potential suitability of the glass ceramics as therapeutic bone grafts.

  2. Nanoscale zinc silicate from phytoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadri, S. B.; Gorzkowski, E. P.; Rath, B. B.; Feng, C. R.; Amarasinghe, R.; Freitas, J. A.; Culbertson, J. C.; Wollmershauser, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    We report a faster, less expensive method of producing zinc silicate nanoparticles. Such particles are used in high volume to make phosphors and anti-corrosion coatings. The approach makes use of phytoliths (plant rocks), which are microscopic, amorphous, and largely silicate particles embedded in plants, that lend themselves to being easily broken down into nanoparticles. Nanoparticles of Zn2SiO4 were produced in a two stage process. In the refinement stage, plant residue, mixed with an appropriate amount of ZnO, was heated in an argon atmosphere to a temperature exceeding 1400 °C for four to six hours and then heated in air at 650 °C to remove excess carbon. TEM shows 50-100 nm nanoparticles. Raman scattering indicates that only the -Zn2SiO4 crystalline phase was present. X-ray analysis indicated pure rhombohedral R 3 bar phase results from using rice/wheat husks. Both samples luminesced predominantly at 523 nm when illuminated with X-rays or UV laser light.

  3. Laser cutting of sodium silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanov, V. V.; Kazarian, M. A.; Kustov, M. E.; Mashir, Yu. I.; Murav'ev, E. N.; Revenko, V. I.; Solinov, E. F.

    2018-04-01

    The problems of through laser cutting of sodium silicate glasses by laser-controlled thermal cleavage are considered. A wide variety of obtained end face shapes is demonstrated. It is shown that the strength of glass samples cut by the laser is about two times higher than that of samples cut by a glass cutter.

  4. Sol-gel synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of copper and zinc-doped silicate bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Julian; Caviedes, Pablo; Palza, Humberto

    2015-03-11

    Metal doping of bioactive glasses based on ternary 60SiO2-36CaO-4P2O5 (58S) and quaternary 60SiO2-25CaO-11Na2O-4P2O5 (NaBG) mol% compositions synthesized using a sol-gel process was analyzed. In particular, the effect of incorporating 1, 5 and 10 mol% of CuO and ZnO (replacing equivalent quantities of CaO) on the texture, in vitro bioactivity, and cytocompatibility of these materials was evaluated. Our results showed that the addition of metal ions can modulate the textural property of the matrix and its crystal structure. Regarding the bioactivity, after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) undoped 58S and NaBG glasses developed an apatite surface layer that was reduced in the doped glasses depending on the type of metal and its concentration with Zn displaying the largest inhibitions. Both the ion release from samples and the ion adsorption from the medium depended on the type of matrix with 58S glasses showing the highest values. Pure NaBG glass was more cytocompatible to osteoblast-like cells (SaOS-2) than pure 58S glass as tested by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The incorporation of metal ions decreased the cytocompatibility of the glasses depending on their concentration and on the glass matrix doped. Our results show that by changing the glass composition and by adding Cu or Zn, bioactive materials with different textures, bioactivity and cytocompatibility can be synthesized.

  5. Water diffusion in silicate glasses: the effect of glass structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, M.; Tachibana, S.

    2016-12-01

    Water diffusion in silicate melts (glasses) is one of the main controlling factors of magmatism in a volcanic system. Water diffusivity in silicate glasses depends on its own concentration. However, the mechanism causing those dependences has not been fully understood yet. In order to construct a general model for water diffusion in various silicate glasses, we performed water diffusion experiments in silica glass and proposed a new water diffusion model [Kuroda et al., 2015]. In the model, water diffusivity is controlled by the concentration of both main diffusion species (i.e. molecular water) and diffusion pathways, which are determined by the concentrations of hydroxyl groups and network modifier cations. The model well explains the water diffusivity in various silicate glasses from silica glass to basalt glass. However, pre-exponential factors of water diffusivity in various glasses show five orders of magnitude variations although the pre-exponential factor should ideally represent the jump frequency and the jump distance of molecular water and show a much smaller variation. Here, we attribute the large variation of pre-exponential factors to a glass structure dependence of activation energy for molecular water diffusion. It has been known that the activation energy depends on the water concentration [Nowak and Behrens, 1997]. The concentration of hydroxyls, which cut Si-O-Si network in the glass structure, increases with water concentration, resulting in lowering the activation energy for water diffusion probably due to more fragmented structure. Network modifier cations are likely to play the same role as water. With taking the effect of glass structure into account, we found that the variation of pre-exponential factors of water diffusivity in silicate glasses can be much smaller than the five orders of magnitude, implying that the diffusion of molecular water in silicate glasses is controlled by the same atomic process.

  6. High chloride content calcium silicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojing; Karpukhina, Natalia; Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G

    2017-03-08

    Chloride is known to volatilize from silicate glass melts and until now, only a limited number of studies on oxychloride silicate glasses have been reported. In this paper we have synthesized silicate glasses that retain large amounts of CaCl 2 . The CaCl 2 has been added to the calcium metasilicate composition (CaO·SiO 2 ). Glasses were produced via a melt quench route and an average of 70% of the chloride was retained after melting. Up to 31.6 mol% CaCl 2 has been successfully incorporated into these silicate glasses without the occurrence of crystallization. 29 Si MAS-NMR spectra showed the silicon being present mainly as a Q 2 silicate species. This suggests that chloride formed Cl-Ca(n) species, rather than Si-Cl bonds. Upon increasing the CaCl 2 content, the T g reduced markedly from 782 °C to 370 °C. Glass density and glass crystallization temperature decreased linearly with an increase in the CaCl 2 content. However, both linear regressions revealed a breakpoint at a CaCl 2 content just below 20 mol%. This might be attributed to a significant change in the structure and is also correlated with the nature of the crystallizing phases formed upon heat treatment. The glasses with less than 19.2 mol% CaCl 2 crystallized to wollastonite, whilst the compositions with CaCl 2 content equal to or greater than 19.2 mol% are thought to crystallize to CaCl 2 . In practice, the crystallization of CaCl 2 could not occur until the crystallization temperature fell below the melting point of CaCl 2 . The implications of the results along with the high chloride retention are discussed.

  7. Dynamic Fatigue of a Titanium Silicate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Nettles, Alan T.; Cagle, Holly A.; Smith, W. Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic fatigue study was performed on a Titanium Silicate Glass in order to assess its susceptibility to delayed failure. Fracture mechanics techniques were used to analyze the results for the purpose of making lifetime predictions for optical elements made from this material. The material has reasonably good resistance (N=23 to stress corrosion in ambient conditions).

  8. Silicate release from glass for pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Denise; Bortoluzzi, Fabiana; Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Ramirez, Adrian Gustavo

    2008-05-01

    Glass is made of polymeric silica and other minor components, which are necessary for turning the silica into a material more easily moldable and resistant to temperature changes. Glass containers for pharmaceutical usage are classified according to their resistance to a chemical attack, a test carried out in the presence of water and heat. The test is designed to show the released alkalinity, a variable dependent on the amount of sodium oxide, one of the minor components added to the glass mass. In this work, the release of silica from glass by action of constituents from pharmaceutical formulations was investigated. The study included products used in large volumes and usually stored in glass containers. Solutions of amino acids, electrolytes, glucose, oligoelements and others such as heparin and sodium bicarbonate were individually stored in glass containers and heated at 121 degrees C for 30min, as in the water attack test. The test was also carried out only with water, where the pH varied from 2 to 12. The released silicate was measured either by photometry or atomic absorption spectrometry, depending on the nature of the sample. The results showed that silicate is released during the heating cycle even if the contact is with pure water only. The pH exerts a considerable influence on the release, being that the higher the pH, the higher the silica dissolved. An elevated pH, however, is not the only factor responsible for silica dissolution. While in the solutions of NaCl, KCl, Mg Cl2 and ZnSO4 and in most of the amino acids, the concentration of silicate was as high as in pure water (0.1-1.0mg Si/L). In the solutions of sodium acetate, bicarbonate and gluconate, its concentration was much higher, over 30mg Si/L. These results were confirmed by the analysis of commercial products, where in solutions of amino acids the level of silicate ranged from 0.14 to 0.19mg Si/L. On the other hand, calcium gluconate, sodium bicarbonate and potassium phosphate presented

  9. Immobilization of zinc phthalocyanines in silicate matrices and investigation of their photobactericidal effect on E. coli.

    PubMed

    Artarsky, Spas; Dimitrova, Stanislava; Bonnett, Raymond; Krysteva, Milka

    2006-03-26

    The aim of the present investigation was to immobilize zinc phthalocyanines in a silicate matrix and to test the photobactericidal properties of the matrices so prepared toward Esherichia coli in model aqueous media. For the purpose, tetra tertiary butyl zinc phthalocyanine (TBZnPc) and zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (ZnPcTS) were used. The abilities of these two photosensitizers to generate singlet oxygen in solution were compared by following the rate of photobleaching of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF) at 430 nm in dimethylformamide (DMF). The results of this study show clearly that, under the conditions used here, the TBZnPc is the more effective generator of singlet oxygen; with it the DPBF was virtually completely photobleached in 4 min, while with the ZnPcTS under the same conditions, it took 12 min to reach this point. Glass conjugates with the two phthalocyanines were obtained by the sol-gel technique and were characterized by a well-defined color due to the phthalocyanine incorporated in the silicate matrix. Glasses with an intense, but inhomogeneous, green color were obtained when the tetrasulfonic derivative of the zinc phthalocyanine was used, while blue glasses of evenly distributed coloration were formed from the tetra tertiary butyl derivative. The ZnPcTS conjugate demonstrates more effective singlet oxygen evolution than is the case with the TBZnPc conjugate. These results are the opposite of those obtained for the free phthalocyanines in solution. The structural formulae of the compounds show that TBZnPc has a more pronounced hydrophobic character than the sulfonic derivative. In our view, the relative reactivities of the conjugates can be explained by the tetrasulfonic derivative being situated mainly in the surface parts of the glass matrix where the hydrophilic character is prevailing, while the tertiary butyl derivative is mainly present in the internal parts of the matrix as a result of which it is less accessible and therefore less

  10. Lattice thermal conductivity of silicate glasses at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y. Y.; Hsieh, W. P.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic and transport properties of magma holds the key to understanding the thermal evolution and chemical differentiation of Earth. The discovery of the remnant of a deep magma ocean above the core mantle boundary (CMB) from seismic observations suggest that the CMB heat flux would strongly depend on the thermal conductivity, including lattice (klat) and radiative (krad) components, of dense silicate melts and major constituent minerals around the region. Recent measurements on the krad of dense silicate glasses and lower-mantle minerals show that krad of dense silicate glasses could be significantly smaller than krad of the surrounding solid mantle phases, and therefore the dense silicate melts would act as a thermal insulator in deep lower mantle. This conclusion, however, remains uncertain due to the lack of direct measurements on the lattice thermal conductivity of silicate melts under relevant pressure-temperature conditions. Besides the CMB, magmas exist in different circumstances beneath the surface of the Earth. Chemical compositions of silicate melts vary with geological and geodynamic settings of the melts and have strong influences on their thermal properties. In order to have a better view of heat transport within the Earth, it is important to study compositional and pressure dependences of thermal properties of silicate melts. Here we report experimental results on lattice thermal conductivities of silicate glasses with basaltic and rhyolitic compositions up to Earth's lower mantle pressures using time-domain thermoreflectance coupled with diamond-anvil cell techniques. This study not only provides new data for the thermal conductivity of silicate melts in the Earth's deep interior, but is crucial for further understanding of the evolution of Earth's complex internal structure.

  11. Mechanical properties of zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E; Elnaghy, Amr M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties of recently introduced zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic. Two types of CAD/CAM glass-ceramics (Vita Suprinity (VS); zirconia reinforced lithium silicate and IPS e.max CAD (IC); lithium disilicate) were used. Fracture toughness, flexural strength, elastic modulus, hardness, brittleness index, and microstructures were evaluated. Data were analyzed using independent t tests. Weibull analysis of flexural strength data was also performed. VS had significantly higher fracture toughness (2.31±0.17MPam(0.5)), flexural strength (443.63±38.90MPa), elastic modulus (70.44±1.97GPa), and hardness (6.53±0.49GPa) than IC (P<0.001). On the other hand, VS glass-ceramic revealed significantly a higher brittleness index (2.84±0.26μm(-1/2)) (lower machinability) than IC glass-ceramic (P<0.05). VS demonstrated a homogeneous fine crystalline structure while, IC revealed a structure with needle-shaped fine-grained crystals embedded in a glassy matrix. The VS glass-ceramic revealed a lower probability of failure and a higher strength than IC glass-ceramic according to Weibull analysis. The VS zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic revealed higher mechanical properties compared with IC lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Redox equilibria of multivalent ions in silicate glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Morris, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental studies were made on the compositional dependence of the redox equilibrium of Eu in synthetic silicate liquids, together with an empirical model describing the observed compositional dependence. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to measure the concentration ratio of Eu(2+) to Eu(3+) in various glasses formed by rapidly quenching silicate liquids. The compositional field studied comprised mixtures of SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, and Na2O. The proposed model describes the Eu(2+)/Eu(3+) ratio over the entire compositional field in terms of parameters easily related to each glass composition. The general applicability and utility of the model is further demonstrated by its application to the Fe(2+)-Fe(3+), Ce(3+)-Ce(4+), and Cr(3+)-Cr(6+) redox reactions in binary alkali oxide silicate glasses of Li, Na, and K.

  13. LOW VELOCITY SHPERE IMPACT OF SODA LIME SILICATE GLASS

    SciT

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Fox, Ethan E; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity ( 30 m/s or 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in contextmore » to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations.« less

  14. A-thermal elastic behavior of silicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Rabia, Mohammed Kamel; Degioanni, Simon; Martinet, Christine; Le Brusq, Jacques; Champagnon, Bernard; Vouagner, Dominique

    2016-02-24

    Depending on the composition of silicate glasses, their elastic moduli can increase or decrease as function of the temperature. Studying the Brillouin frequency shift of these glasses versus temperature allows the a-thermal composition corresponding to an intermediate glass to be determined. In an intermediate glass, the elastic moduli are independent of the temperature over a large temperature range. For sodium alumino-silicate glasses, the a-thermal composition is close to the albite glass (NaAlSi3O8). The structural origin of this property is studied by in situ high temperature Raman scattering. The structure of the intermediate albite glass and of silica are compared at different temperatures between room temperature and 600 °C. When the temperature increases, it is shown that the high frequency shift of the main band at 440 cm(-1) in silica is a consequence of the cristobalite-like alpha-beta transformation of 6-membered rings. This effect is stronger in silica than bond elongation (anharmonic effects). As a consequence, the elastic moduli of silica increase as the temperature increases. In the albite glass, the substitution of 25% of Si(4+) ions by Al(3+) and Na(+) ions decreases the proportion of SiO2 6-membered rings responsible for the silica anomaly. The effects of the silica anomaly balance the anharmonicity in albite glass and give rise to an intermediate a-thermal glass. Different networks, formers or modifiers, can be added to produce different a-thermal glasses with useful mechanical or chemical properties.

  15. Conduction mechanism in bismuth silicate glasses containing titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dult, Meenakshi; Kundu, R. S.; Murugavel, S.; Punia, R.; Kishore, N.

    2014-11-01

    Bismuth silicate glasses mixed with different concentrations of titanium dioxide having compositions xTiO2-(60-x)Bi2O3-40SiO2 with x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 were prepared by the normal melt quench technique. The frequency dependence of the ac electrical conductivity of different compositions of titanium bismuth silicate glasses has been studied in the frequency range 10-1 Hz to 10 MHz and in the temperature range 623-703 K. The temperature and frequency dependent conductivity is found to obey Jonscher's universal power law for all the compositions of titanium bismuth silicate glass system. The dc conductivity (σdc), so called crossover frequency (ωH), and frequency exponent (s) have been estimated from the fitting of experimental data of ac conductivity with Jonscher's universal power law. Enthalpy to dissociate the cation from its original site next to a charge compensating center (Hf) and enthalpy of migration (Hm) have also been estimated. The conductivity data have been analyzed in terms of different theoretical models to determine the possible conduction mechanism. Analysis of the conductivity data and the frequency exponent shows that the correlated barrier hopping of electrons between Ti3+ and Ti4+ ions in the glasses is the most favorable mechanism for ac conduction. The temperature dependent dc conductivity has been analyzed in the framework of theoretical variable range hopping model (VRH) proposed by Mott which describe the hopping conduction in disordered semiconducting systems. The various polaron hopping parameters have also been deduced. Mott's VRH model is found to be in good agreement with experimental data and the values of inverse localization length of s-like wave function (α) obtained by this model with modifications suggested by Punia et al. are close to the ones reported for a number of oxide glasses.

  16. Sintering and foaming of barium silicate glass powder compacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Ralf; Reinsch, Stefan; Agea-Blanco, Boris

    2016-10-01

    The manufacture of sintered glasses and glass-ceramics, glass matrix composites and glass-bounded ceramics or pastes is often affected by gas bubble formation. Against this background, we studied sintering and foaming of barium silicate glass powders used as SOFC sealants using different powder milling procedures. Sintering was measured by means of heating microscopy backed up by XPD, DTA, Vacuum Hot Extraction (VHE) and optical and electron microscopy. Foaming increased significantly as milling progressed. For moderately milled glass powders, subsequent storage in air could also promote foaming. Although the powder compacts were uniaxially pressed and sintered in air, the milling atmosphere sig¬ni¬ficantly affected foaming. The strength of this effect increased in the order Ar ? N2 < air < CO2. Conformingly, VHE studies revealed that the pores of foamed samples predominantly encapsulated CO2, even for powders milled in Ar and N2. Results of this study thus indicate that foaming is caused by carbonaceous species trapped on the glass powder surface. Foaming could be substantially reduced by milling in water and 10 wt% HCl.

  17. The nature, fabrication, and applications of photosensitive, bulk, germano-silicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaney, Alan Douglas

    2000-08-01

    The photosensitive nature of germano-silicate glass is widely used to create fiber-optic devices. This thesis examines the cause of photosensitivity in germano- silicate glass. The results of this research elucidate the role that germanium oxygen deficient defects play in the photosensitivity of hydrogen-loaded, germano-silicate glass. We find that defects are not vital to the photosensitivity of hydrogen-loaded, germano-silicate glass but they do enhance the effect. Quantitative measurements show that germanium oxygen deficient defects promote the formation of OH, GeH, and GeH2 when hydrogen-loaded, germano-silicate glass is exposed to ultraviolet light. A sol-gel process for fabricating germano-silicate glass in bulk samples has been developed. The sol-gel process produces high-quality, germano-silicate glass which can be tailored to contain defects or be relatively free of defects. Control over the glass defect concentration allows us to use sol-gel derived glass for comparative studies of the photosensitive process and for device applications. The unique properties of germano-silicate glass make it a likely choice for use in optical applications. To prove the feasibility of bulk devices, chirped-pulse amplification is demonstrated using gratings written in bulk germano-silicate glass.

  18. Predicting the dissolution kinetics of silicate glasses using machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoop Krishnan, N. M.; Mangalathu, Sujith; Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Tandia, Adama; Burton, Henry; Bauchy, Mathieu

    2018-05-01

    Predicting the dissolution rates of silicate glasses in aqueous conditions is a complex task as the underlying mechanism(s) remain poorly understood and the dissolution kinetics can depend on a large number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here, we assess the potential of data-driven models based on machine learning to predict the dissolution rates of various aluminosilicate glasses exposed to a wide range of solution pH values, from acidic to caustic conditions. Four classes of machine learning methods are investigated, namely, linear regression, support vector machine regression, random forest, and artificial neural network. We observe that, although linear methods all fail to describe the dissolution kinetics, the artificial neural network approach offers excellent predictions, thanks to its inherent ability to handle non-linear data. Overall, we suggest that a more extensive use of machine learning approaches could significantly accelerate the design of novel glasses with tailored properties.

  19. Enzyme stabilization by glass-derived silicates in glass-exposed aqueous solutions

    Ives, J.A.; Moffett, J.R.; Arun, P.; Lam, D.; Todorov, T.I.; Brothers, A.B.; Anick, D.J.; Centeno, J.; Namboodiri, M.A.A.; Jonas, W.B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the solutes leaching from glass containers into aqueous solutions, and to show that these solutes have enzyme activity stabilizing effects in very dilute solutions. Methods: Enzyme assays with acetylcholine esterase were used to analyze serially succussed and diluted (SSD) solutions prepared in glass and plastic containers. Aqueous SSD preparations starting with various solutes, or water alone, were prepared under several conditions, and tested for their solute content and their ability to affect enzyme stability in dilute solution. Results: We confirm that water acts to dissolve constituents from glass vials, and show that the solutes derived from the glass have effects on enzymes in the resultant solutions. Enzyme assays demonstrated that enzyme stability in purified and deionized water was enhanced in SSD solutions that were prepared in glass containers, but not those prepared in plastic. The increased enzyme stability could be mimicked in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of silicates to the purified, deionized water that enzymes were dissolved in. Elemental analyses of SSD water preparations made in glass vials showed that boron, silicon, and sodium were present at micromolar concentrations. Conclusions: These results show that silicates and other solutes are present at micromolar levels in all glass-exposed solutions, whether pharmaceutical or homeopathic in nature. Even though silicates are known to have biological activity at higher concentrations, the silicate concentrations we measured in homeopathic preparations were too low to account for any purported in vivo efficacy, but could potentially influence in vitro biological assays reporting homeopathic effects. ?? 2009 The Faculty of Homeopathy.

  20. High-Temperature Thermal Diffusivity Measurements of Silicate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertermann, M.; Hofmeister, A. M.; Whittington, A. G.; Spera, F. J.; Zayac, J.

    2005-12-01

    Transport of heat in geologically relevant materials is of great interest because of its key role in heat transport, magmatism and volcanic activity on Earth. To better understand the thermal properties of magmatic materials at high temperatures, we measured the thermal diffusivity of four synthetic end-member silicate glasses with the following compositions: albite (NaAlSi3O8), orthoclase (KAlSi3O8), anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8), and diopside (CaMgSi2O6). Thermal diffusivity measurements were conducted with the laser-flash technique and data were acquired from room temperature to a maximum temperature near 1100°C, depending on the glass transition temperature. The presence of sub-mm sized bubbles in one of the orthoclase samples had no discernable effect on measured diffusivities. At room temperature, the three feldspar-type glasses have thermal diffusivity (D) values of 0.58-0.61 mm2/s, whereas the diopside glass has 0.52 mm2/s. With increasing temperature, D decreases by 5-10% (relative) for all samples and becomes virtually constant at intermediate temperatures. At higher temperatures, the anorthite and diopside glasses exhibit significant drops in thermal diffusivity over a 50-100°C interval, correlating with previously published heat capacity changes near the glass transition for these compositions. For anorthite, D (in mm2/s) decreases from 0.48 at 750-860°C to 0.36 at 975-1075°C; for diopside, D changes from 0.42 at 630-750°C to 0.30 at 850-910°C, corresponding to relative drops of 24 and 29%, respectively. Albite and orthoclase glasses do not exhibit this change and also lack significant changes in heat capacity near the glass transition. Instead, D is constant at 400-800°C for albite, and for orthoclase values go through a minimum at 500-600°C before increasing slightly towards 1100°C but it never exceeds the room temperature D. Our data on thermal diffusivity correlate closely with other thermophysical properties. Thus, at least in case of simple

  1. Pockels effect of silicate glass-ceramics: Observation of optical modulation in Mach–Zehnder system

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Kazuki; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Terakado, Nobuaki; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Silicate glass has been used for long time because of its advantages from material’s viewpoint. In this paper, we report the observation of Pockels effect by Mach–Zehnder interferometer in polycrystalline ceramics made from a ternary silicate glass via crystallization due to heat-treatment, i.e., glass-ceramics. Since the silicate system is employed as the precursor, merits of glass material are fully utilized to fabricate the optical device component, in addition to that of functional crystalline material, leading us to provide an electro-optic device, which is introducible into glass-fiber network. PMID:26184722

  2. Lifetime Predictions of a Titanium Silicate Glass with Machined Flaws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Nettles, Alan T.; Cagle, Holly

    2003-01-01

    A dynamic fatigue study was performed on a Titanium Silicate glass to assess its susceptibility to delayed failure and to compare the results with those of a previous study. Fracture mechanics techniques were used to analyze the results for the purpose of making lifetime predictions. The material strength and lifetime was seen to increase due to the removal of residual stress through grinding and polishing. Influence on time-to-failure is addressed for the case with and without residual stress present. Titanium silicate glass otherwise known as ultra-low expansion (ULE)* glass is a candidate for use in applications requiring low thermal expansion characteristics such as telescope mirrors. The Hubble Space Telescope s primary mirror was manufactured from ULE glass. ULE contains 7.5% titanium dioxide which in combination with silica results in a homogenous glass with a linear expansion coefficient near zero. delayed failure . This previous study was based on a 230/270 grit surface. The grinding and polishing process reduces the surface flaw size and subsurface damage, and relieves residual stress by removing the material with successively smaller grinding media. This results in an increase in strength of the optic during the grinding and polishing sequence. Thus, a second study was undertaken using samples with a surface finish typically achieved for mirror elements, to observe the effects of surface finishing on the time-to-failure predictions. An allowable stress can be calculated for this material based upon modulus of rupture data; however, this does not take into account the problem of delayed failure, most likely due to stress corrosion, which can significantly shorten lifetime. Fortunately, a theory based on fracture mechanics has been developed enabling lifetime predictions to be made for brittle materials susceptible to delayed failure. Knowledge of the factors governing the rate of subcritical flaw growth in a given environment enables the development of

  3. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    SciT

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Fox, Ethan E; Morrissey, Timothy G

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted inmore » context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Frictional effects contribute to fracture initiation. (2) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in the Starphire than spheres with a higher elastic modulus. (3) Contact-induced fracture did not initiate in the Starphire SLS for impact kinetic energies < 150 mJ. Fracture sometimes initiated or kinetic energies between {approx} 150-1100 mJ; however, it tended to occur when lower elastic modulus spheres were impacting it. Contact-induced fracture would always occur for impact energies > 1100 mJ. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic or impact conditions than it is under quasi-static indentation conditions. (5) Among the five used sphere materials, silicon nitride was the closest match to 'rock' in terms of both density and (probably) elastic modulus.« less

  4. Glass formation, properties, and structure of soda-yttria-silicate glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, Paul W.; Hann, Raiford E.

    1991-01-01

    The glass formation region of the soda yttria silicate system was determined. The glasses within this region were measured to have a density of 2.4 to 3.1 g/cu cm, a refractive index of 1.50 to 1.60, a coefficient of thermal expansion of 7 x 10(exp -6)/C, softening temperatures between 500 and 780 C, and Vickers hardness values of 3.7 to 5.8 GPa. Aqueous chemical durability measurements were made on select glass compositions while infrared transmission spectra were used to study the glass structure and its effect on glass properties. A compositional region was identified which exhibited high thermal expansion, high softening temperatures, and good chemical durability.

  5. Effect of ZnO on the Physical Properties and Optical Band Gap of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Mohd Hafiz Mohd; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Aziz, Sidek Hj. Abdul; Zakaria, Azmi; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the physical properties and optical band gap of five samples of soda lime silicate (SLS) glass combined with zinc oxide (ZnO) that were prepared by a melting and quenching process. To understand the role of ZnO in this glass structure, the density, molar volume and optical band gaps were investigated. The density and absorption spectra in the Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-Visible) region were recorded at room temperature. The results show that the densities of the glass samples increased as the ZnO weight percentage increased. The molar volume of the glasses shows the same trend as the density: the molar volume increased as the ZnO content increased. The optical band gaps were calculated from the absorption edge, and it was found that the optical band gap decreased from 3.20 to 2.32 eV as the ZnO concentration increased. PMID:22837711

  6. Laboratory synthesis of silicate glass spherules: Application to impact ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, P. S.; Pahlevan, K.; Tumber, S.; Weber, R.; Lee, K. K.

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the process by which molten droplets of impact ejecta solidify into glassy spherule tektites, we employed laser levitation experiments to recreate the hot temperatures of falling molten rock. Following models for Earth composition based on enstatite chondrites, we levitated mixtures of oxide powders in a stream of gas and melted them with a laser, producing silicate glass beads. After quenching, we polished the ~1 mm diameter samples in cross-section and analyzed with electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Fine and coarsely-spaced EPMA transects across each bead displayed diffusion profiles at their edges, particularly in their SiO2 and MgO content. Heating altered the beads' bulk composition as well; all of the glassy spherules were compositionally different from the initial combination of powders. By comparing these changes to the environmental factors acting on the bead (e.g., temperature, type of levitation gas, duration of heating and amount of rotation), we produced a model for how molten ejecta change chemically and physically as they solidify into a glass. We find that high temperatures likely generated on impact have a strong effect on the composition of tektites; therefore, attempts to correlate tektites to their parent rocks should correct for this effect.

  7. Ultrasonic characterization of silicate glasses, polymer composites and hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wan Jae

    In many applications of material designing and engineering, high-frequency linear viscoelastic properties of materials are essential. Traditionally, the high-frequency properties are estimated through the time-temperature superposition (WLF equation) of low-frequency data, which are questionable because the existence of multi-phase in elastomer compounds. Moreover, no reliable data at high frequencies over MHz have been available thus far. Ultrasound testing is cost-effective for measuring high-frequency properties. Although both ultrasonic longitudinal and shear properties are necessary in order to fully characterize high-frequency mechanical properties of materials, longitudinal properties will be extensively explored in this thesis. Ultrasonic pulse echo method measures longitudinal properties. A precision ultrasonic measurement system has been developed in our laboratory, which allows us to monitor the in-situ bulk and/or surface properties of silicate glasses, polymer composites and even hydrogels. The system consists of a pulse-echo unit and an impedance measurement unit. A pulse echo unit is explored mainly. First, a systematic procedure was developed to obtain precise water wavespeed value. A calibration curve of water wavespeed as a function of temperature has been established, and water wavespeed at 23°C serves as a yardstick to tell whether or not a setup is properly aligned. Second, a sound protocol in calculating attenuation coefficient and beam divergence effects was explored using three kinds of silicate glass of different thicknesses. Then the system was applied to four composite slabs, two slabs for each type of fiberglass reinforced plastics, phenolic and polyester manufactured under different processing conditions: one was made by the normal procedures and the other with deliberate flaws such as voids, tapes and/or prepared at improper operation temperature and pressure. The experiment was conducted under the double blind test protocol. After

  8. Effect of silicate module of water glass on rheological parameters of poly(sodium acrylate)/sodium silicate hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastalska-Popiawska, J.; Izak, P.

    2017-01-01

    The poly(sodium acrylate)/sodium silicate hydrogels were synthesized in the presence of sodium thiosulphate and potassium persulphate as the redox initiators and N,N’-methylene-bisacrylamide as the cross-linking monomer. 20 wt% aqueous solution of sodium acrylate was polymerized together with water glass with different silicate modules (M) from 1.74 to 2.29, in three mass ratio of the monomer solution to the water glass 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2. Such obtained hybrid composites were rheologically tested using the oscillation method. It allowed to designate the crossover point during polymerization, as well as to define the viscoelastic properties of the casted hydrogel samples one week after the reaction. The obtained results of the oscillation measurements showed that cross-linking reaction proceeds very quickly and the lower the silicate module is, the process starts faster. After the completion of the reaction the silicate-polymer hydrogels are strongly elastic materials and the highest elasticity characterizes systems with the mass ratio 1:2, i.e. with the highest water glass content.

  9. Q-Speciation and Network Structure Evolution in Invert Calcium Silicate Glasses.

    PubMed

    Kaseman, Derrick C; Retsinas, A; Kalampounias, A G; Papatheodorou, G N; Sen, S

    2015-07-02

    Binary silicate glasses in the system CaO-SiO2 are synthesized over an extended composition range (42 mol % ≤ CaO ≤ 61 mol %), using container-less aerodynamic levitation techniques and CO2-laser heating. The compositional evolution of Q speciation in these glasses is quantified using (29)Si and (17)O magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results indicate progressive depolymerization of the silicate network upon addition of CaO and significant deviation of the Q speciation from the binary model. The equilibrium constants for the various Q species disproportionation reactions for these glasses are found to be similar to (much smaller than) those characteristic of Li (Mg)-silicate glasses, consistent with the corresponding trends in the field strengths of these modifier cations. Increasing CaO concentration results in an increase in the packing density and structural rigidity of these glasses and consequently in their glass transition temperature Tg. This apparent role reversal of conventional network-modifying cations in invert alkaline-earth silicate glasses are compared and contrasted with that in their alkali silicate counterparts.

  10. Influence of Thermal Annealing and a Glass Coating on the Strength of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-01

    ARL-TN-0858 ● NOV 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Influence of Thermal Annealing and a Glass Coating on the Strength of Soda...NOV 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Influence of Thermal Annealing and a Glass Coating on the Strength of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glass... Research Directorate, ARL Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB

  11. Interactions of silicate glasses with aqueous environments under conditions of prolonged contact and flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkatt, Aaron; Saad, E. E.; Adiga, R. B.; Sousanpour, W.; Barkatt, AL.; Feng, X.; O'Keefe, J. A.; Alterescu, S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses mechanisms involving saturation and reactions that lead to the formation of altered phases in silicate glasses considered for use in geologic repositories for nuclear waste. It is shown that the rate of dissolution of silicate glasses exposed to a broad range of contact times, leachant compositions, and surface-to-volume ratios is strongly affected by the presence of reactive species such as Al, Mg, and Fe. The reactive materials may originate in the leachant or, under conditions of high surface-to-volume ratio, in the glass itself. The effects of glass composition on the course of the corrosion process can be viewed in terms of the formation of a surface layer on the leached glass; the type, composition, and structure of this layer control the dissolution behavior of the glass.

  12. Interaction of water vapor with silicate glass surfaces: Mass-spectrometric investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudriavtsev, Yu.; Asomoza-Palacio, R.; Manzanilla-Naim, L.

    2017-05-01

    The secondary ion mass-spectroscopy technique was used to study the results of hydration of borosilicate, aluminosilicate, and soda-lime silicate glasses in 1H2 18O water vapor containing 97% of the isotope 18O. It is shown that hydration of the surface of the soda-lime silicate glass occurs as a result of the ion-exchange reaction with alkali metals. In the case of borosilicate and aluminosilicate glasses, water molecules decompose on the glass surface, with the observed formation of hydrogenated layer in the glass being the result of a solid-state chemical reaction—presumably, with the formation of hydroxides from aluminum and boron oxides.

  13. Effect of Fe2O3 on the physical and structural properties of bismuth silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Rajesh; Kundu, R. S.; Punia, R.; Aghamkar, P.; Kishore, N.

    2013-06-01

    Iron containing bismuth silicate glasses with compositions 70SiO2ṡ(100-x)Bi2O3ṡxFe2O3 have been prepared using conventional melt-quenching method and their amorphous nature has been investigated using XRD. Density has been measured using Archimedes' principle and molar volume (Vm) have also been estimated. With increase in Fe2O3 content, there is a decrease in density and molar volume of the glass samples. The glass transition temperature (Tg) have been determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and are observed to increase with increase in Fe2O3 content. In the present glass system bismuth and iron plays the role of network modifier and the symmetry of silicate network goes on increasing with Fe2O3 content and it modifies the physical and structural properties of these glasses.

  14. Optical waveguides in fluoride lead silicate glasses fabricated by carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiao-liang; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Qi-feng; Lü, Peng; Li, Wei-nan; Liu, Chun-xiao

    2018-03-01

    The carbon ion implantation with energy of 4.0 MeV and a dose of 4.0×1014 ions/cm2 is employed for fabricating the optical waveguide in fluoride lead silicate glasses. The optical modes as well as the effective refractive indices are measured by the prism coupling method. The refractive index distribution in the fluoride lead silicate glass waveguide is simulated by the reflectivity calculation method (RCM). The light intensity profile and the energy losses are calculated by the finite-difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) and the program of stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM), respectively. The propagation properties indicate that the C2+ ion-implanted fluoride lead silicate glass waveguide is a candidate for fabricating optical devices.

  15. Bismuth silicate glass containing heavy metal oxide as a promising radiation shielding material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elalaily, Nagia A.; Abou-Hussien, Eman M.; Saad, Ebtisam A.

    2016-12-01

    Optical and FTIR spectroscopic measurements and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) properties have been utilized to investigate and characterize the given compositions of binary bismuth silicate glasses. In this work, it is aimed to study the possibility of using the prepared bismuth silicate glasses as a good shielding material for γ-rays in which adding bismuth oxide to silicate glasses causes distinguish increase in its density by an order of magnitude ranging from one to two more than mono divalent oxides. The good thermal stability and high density of the bismuth-based silicate glass encourage many studies to be undertaken to understand its radiation shielding efficiency. For this purpose a glass containing 20% bismuth oxide and 80% SiO2 was prepared using the melting-annealing technique. In addition the effects of adding some alkali heavy metal oxides to this glass, such as PbO, BaO or SrO, were also studied. EPR measurements show that the prepared glasses have good stability when exposed to γ-irradiation. The changes in the FTIR spectra due to the presence of metal oxides were referred to the different housing positions and physical properties of the respective divalent Sr2+, Ba2+ and Pb2+ ions. Calculations of optical band gap energies were presented for some selected glasses from the UV data to support the probability of using these glasses as a gamma radiation shielding material. The results showed stability of both optical and magnetic spectra of the studied glasses toward gamma irradiation, which validates their irradiation shielding behavior and suitability as the radiation shielding candidate materials.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and modelling of zinc and silicate co-substituted hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Friederichs, Robert J; Chappell, Helen F; Shepherd, David V; Best, Serena M

    2015-07-06

    Experimental chemistry and atomic modelling studies were performed here to investigate a novel ionic co-substitution in hydroxyapatite (HA). Zinc, silicate co-substituted HA (ZnSiHA) remained phase pure after heating to 1100 °C with Zn and Si amounts of 0.6 wt% and 1.2 wt%, respectively. Unique lattice expansions in ZnSiHA, silicate Fourier transform infrared peaks and changes to the hydroxyl IR stretching region suggested Zn and silicate co-substitution in ZnSiHA. Zn and silicate insertion into HA was modelled using density functional theory (DFT). Different scenarios were considered where Zn substituted for different calcium sites or at a 2b site along the c-axis, which was suspected in singly substituted ZnHA. The most energetically favourable site in ZnSiHA was Zn positioned at a previously unreported interstitial site just off the c-axis near a silicate tetrahedron sitting on a phosphate site. A combination of experimental chemistry and DFT modelling provided insight into these complex co-substituted calcium phosphates that could find biomedical application as a synthetic bone mineral substitute. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and modelling of zinc and silicate co-substituted hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Friederichs, Robert J.; Chappell, Helen F.; Shepherd, David V.; Best, Serena M.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental chemistry and atomic modelling studies were performed here to investigate a novel ionic co-substitution in hydroxyapatite (HA). Zinc, silicate co-substituted HA (ZnSiHA) remained phase pure after heating to 1100°C with Zn and Si amounts of 0.6 wt% and 1.2 wt%, respectively. Unique lattice expansions in ZnSiHA, silicate Fourier transform infrared peaks and changes to the hydroxyl IR stretching region suggested Zn and silicate co-substitution in ZnSiHA. Zn and silicate insertion into HA was modelled using density functional theory (DFT). Different scenarios were considered where Zn substituted for different calcium sites or at a 2b site along the c-axis, which was suspected in singly substituted ZnHA. The most energetically favourable site in ZnSiHA was Zn positioned at a previously unreported interstitial site just off the c-axis near a silicate tetrahedron sitting on a phosphate site. A combination of experimental chemistry and DFT modelling provided insight into these complex co-substituted calcium phosphates that could find biomedical application as a synthetic bone mineral substitute. PMID:26040597

  18. Characterization and in vitro bioactivity of zinc-containing bioactive glass and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Du, Rui Lin; Chang, Jiang; Ni, Si Yu; Zhai, Wan Yin; Wang, Jun Ying

    2006-04-01

    Zinc-containing glass is prepared by the substitution of CaO in 58S bioactive glass with 0.5 and 4 wt% ZnO, and glass-ceramics are obtained by heat-treating the glass at 1,200 C. The bending strength and in vitro bioactivity of the glass and glass-ceramics are evaluated. The results indicate that Zn promotes the crystallization of SiO(2) and wollastonite in glass-ceramics, and proper crystallization can enhance the bending strength of the glass-ceramic. The in vitro results show that ZnO in glass retards the hydroxyapatite (HA) nucleation at the initial stage of simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking, but does not affect the growth of HA after long periods of soaking, and the ionic products of 58S4Z glass can stimulate the proliferation of osteoblast at certain concentrations. Osteoblasts attach well on both glass samples and glass-ceramic samples, but the high Si ion concentration released from glass samples restrains the proliferation of osteoblasts after 3 days of culture. In contrast, osteoblasts show good proliferation on glass-ceramic samples, and ZnO in glass-ceramics promotes the proliferation rate. The results in this study suggest that the glass and glass-ceramics with different ZnO content might be used as bioactive bone implant materials in different applications.

  19. Tin Valence and Local Environments in Silicate Glasses as Determined From X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciT

    McKeown,D.; Buechele, A.; Gan, H.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to characterize the tin (Sn) environments in four borosilicate glass nuclear waste formulations, two silicate float glasses, and three potassium aluminosilicate glasses. Sn K-edge XAS data of most glasses investigated indicate Sn4+O6 units with average Sn-O distances near 2.03 Angstroms. XAS data for a float glass fabricated under reducing conditions show a mixture of Sn4+O6 and Sn2+O4 sites. XAS data for three glasses indicate Sn-Sn distances ranging from 3.43 to 3.53 Angstroms, that suggest Sn4+O6 units linking with each other, while the 4.96 Angstroms Sn-Sn distance for one waste glass suggests clustering of unlinkedmore » Sn4+O6 units.« less

  20. Float processing of high-temperature complex silicate glasses and float baths used for same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Reid Franklin (Inventor); Cook, Glen Bennett (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A float glass process for production of high melting temperature glasses utilizes a binary metal alloy bath having the combined properties of a low melting point, low reactivity with oxygen, low vapor pressure, and minimal reactivity with the silicate glasses being formed. The metal alloy of the float medium is exothermic with a solvent metal that does not readily form an oxide. The vapor pressure of both components in the alloy is low enough to prevent deleterious vapor deposition, and there is minimal chemical and interdiffusive interaction of either component with silicate glasses under the float processing conditions. Alloys having the desired combination of properties include compositions in which gold, silver or copper is the solvent metal and silicon, germanium or tin is the solute, preferably in eutectic or near-eutectic compositions.

  1. Crystal growth in zinc borosilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullberg, Ana T. G.; Lopes, Andreia A. S.; Veiga, João P. B.; Monteiro, Regina C. C.

    2017-01-01

    Glass samples with a molar composition (64+x)ZnO-(16-x)B2O3-20SiO2, where x=0 or 1, were successfully synthesized using a melt-quenching technique. Based on differential thermal analysis data, the produced glass samples were submitted to controlled heat-treatments at selected temperatures (610, 615 and 620 °C) during various times ranging from 8 to 30 h. The crystallization of willemite (Zn2SiO4) within the glass matrix was confirmed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under specific heat-treatment conditions, transparent nanocomposite glass-ceramics were obtained, as confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The influence of temperature, holding time and glass composition on crystal growth was investigated. The mean crystallite size was determined by image analysis on SEM micrographs. The results indicated an increase on the crystallite size and density with time and temperature. The change of crystallite size with time for the heat-treatments at 615 and 620 °C depended on the glass composition. Under fixed heat-treatment conditions, the crystallite density was comparatively higher for the glass composition with higher ZnO content.

  2. Size determination of gold nanoparticles in silicate glasses by UV-Vis spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shahid; Khan, Younas; Iqbal, Yaseen; Hayat, Khizar; Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    A relatively easier and more accurate method for the determination of average size of metal nanoparticles/aggregates in silicate glasses based on ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectra fitted with the Mie and Mie-Gans models was reported. Gold ions were diffused into sodalime silicate and borosilicate glasses by field-assisted solid-state ion-exchange technique using the same experimental parameters for both glasses. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to directly investigate the morphology and distribution of the dopant nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectra of the doped glasses showed broad surface plasmon resonance peaks in their fingerprint regions, i.e., at 525 and 500 nm for sodalime silicate and borosilicate glass matrices, respectively. These spectra were fitted with the Mie model for spherical nanoparticles and the Mie-Gans model for spheroidal nanoparticles. Although both the models were developed for colloidal nanoparticles, the size of the nanoparticles/aggregates calculated was accurate to within ˜10% in both the glass matrices in comparison to the size measured directly from the transmission electron microscope images.

  3. Dissolution of lanthanide alumino-silicate oxynitride glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bois, L.; Barré, N.; Guillopé, S.; Guittet, M. J.; Gautier-Soyer, M.; Duraud, J. P.; Trocellier, P.; Verdier, P.; Laurent, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The aqueous corrosion behavior of lanthanide aluminosilicate glasses has been studied under static conditions ( T=96°C, duration=1 and 3 months, glass surface area/leachate volume, S/ V=0.3 cm -1) by means of solution and solid analyses. It was found that these glasses exhibit a high chemical durability. The influence of yttrium, magnesium and nitrogen, which are supposed to improve the mechanical properties, on the chemical durability, has been investigated. After a one-month experiment, lanthanum and yttrium releases were found to be about 10 -7 mol l -1, while silicon and aluminum releases were about 10 -5 mol l -1. Yttrium seems to improve the chemical durability. The presence of nitrogen does not seem to modify the glass constituents releases, but seems to improve the surface state of the altered glass. XPS experiments reveal that lanthanum and yttrium are more concentrated near the surface (20-30 Å) of the glass after the leaching test.

  4. Precipitation of Secondary Phases from the Dissolution of Silicate Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    2004-01-01

    Basaltic and anorthositic glasses were subjected to aqueous weathering conditions in the laboratory where the variables were pH, temperature, glass composition, solution composition, and time. Leached layers formed at the surfaces of glasses followed by the precipitation of X-ray amorphous iron and titanium oxides in acidic and neutral solutions at 25 C over time. Glass under oxidative hydrothermal treatments at 150 C yielded a three-layered surface; which included an outer smectite layer, a Fe-Ti oxide layer and an innermost thin leached layer. The introduction of Mg into solutions facilitated the formation of phyllosilicates. Aqueous hydrothermal treatment of anorthositic glasses (high Ca, low Ti) at 200 C readily formed smectite, whereas, the basaltic glasses (high Ti) were more resistant to alteration and smectite was not observed. Alkaline hydrothermal treatment at 2000e produced zeolites and smectites; only smectites formed at 200 C in neutral solutions. These mineralogical changes, although observed under controlled conditions, have direct applications in interpreting planetary (e.g., meteorite parent bodies) and terrestrial aqueous alteration processes.

  5. Calcium titanium silicate based glass-ceramic for nuclear waste immobilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, K.; Srivastav, A. P.; Goswami, M.; Krishnan, Madangopal

    2018-04-01

    Titanate based ceramics (synroc) have been studied for immobilisation of nuclear wastes due to their high radiation and thermal stability. The aim of this study is to synthesis glass-ceramic with stable phases from alumino silicate glass composition and study the loading behavior of actinides in glass-ceramics. The effects of CaO and TiO2 addition on phase evolution and structural properties of alumino silicate based glasses with nominal composition x(10CaO-9TiO2)-y(10Na2O-5 Al2O3-56SiO2-10B2O3); where z = x/y = 1.4-1.8 are reported. The glasses are prepared by melt-quench technique and characterized for thermal and structural properties using DTA and Raman Spectroscopy. Glass transition and peak crystallization temperatures decrease with increase of CaO and TiO2 content, which implies the weakening of glass network and increased tendency of glasses towards crystallization. Sphene (CaTiSiO5) and perovskite (CaTiO3) crystalline phases are confirmed from XRD which are well known stable phase for conditioning of actinides. The microsturcture and elemental analysis indicate the presence of actinide in stable crystalline phases.

  6. Dispersion and thermal properties of lithium aluminum silicate glasses doped with Cr3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Diasty, Fouad; Abdel-Baki, Manal; Abdel Wahab, Fathy A.; Darwish, Hussein

    2006-10-01

    A series of new lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glass systems doped with chromium ion is prepared. The reflectance and transmittance of the glass slabs are recorded. By means of an iteration procedure, the glass refractive index n and the extinction coefficient k and their dispersions are obtained. Across a wide spectral range of 0.2-1.6 μm, the dispersion curves are used to determine the atomic and quantum constants of the prepared glasses. These findings provide the average oscillator wavelength, the average oscillator strength, oscillator energy, dispersion energy, lattice energy, and material dispersion of the glass materials to be calculated. For optical waveguide applications, the wavelength for zero material dispersion is obtained. Dilatometric measurements are performed and the thermal expansion coefficient is calculated to throw some light on the thermo-optical properties of the present glasses correlating them with their structure and the presence of nonbridging oxygen ions.

  7. Water speciation in sodium silicate glasses (quenched melts): A comprehensive NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, X.; Kanzaki, M.; Eguchi, J.

    2012-12-01

    Dissolution mechanism of water is an important factor governing how the dissolved water affects the physical and thermodynamic properties of silicate melts and glasses. Our previous studies have demonstrated that 1H MAS NMR in combination with 29Si-1H and 27Al-1H double-resonance NMR experiments is an effective approach for unambiguously differentiating and quantifying different water species in quenched silicate melts (glasses). Several contrasting dissolution mechanisms have been revealed depending on the melt composition: for relatively polymerized melts, the formation of SiOH/AlOH species (plus molecular H2O) and depolymerization of the network structure dominate; whereas for depolymerized Ca-Mg silicate melts, free OH (e.g. MgOH) become increasingly important (cf. [1]). The proportion of free OH species has been shown to decrease with both increasing melt polymerization (silica content) and decreasing field strength of the network modifying cations (from Mg to Ca). Our previous 1H and 29Si MAS NMR results for hydrous Na silicate glasses of limited compositions (Na2Si4O9 and Na2Si2O5) were consistent with negligible free OH (NaOH) species and depolymerizing effect of water dissolution [2]. On the other hand, there were also other studies that proposed the presence of significant NaOH species in hydrous glasses near the Na2Si2O5 composition. The purpose of this study is apply the approach of combined 1H MAS NMR and double-resonance (29Si-1H and 23Na-1H) NMR to gain unambiguous evidence for the OH speciation in Na silicate glasses (melts) as a function of composition. Hydrous Na silicate glasses containing mostly ≤ 1 wt% H2O for a range of Na/Si ratios from 0.33 to 1.33 have been synthesized by rapidly quenching melts either at 0.2 GPa using an internally heated gas pressure vessel or at 1 GPa using a piston cylinder high-pressure apparatus. NMR spectra have been acquired using a 9.4 T Varian Unity-Inova spectrometer. The 29Si and 1H chemical shifts are

  8. Nonlinear dynamics and instability of aqueous dissolution of silicate glasses and minerals

    SciT

    Wang, Yifeng; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.

    2016-07-22

    Aqueous dissolution of silicate glasses and minerals plays a critical role in global biogeochemical cycles and climate evolution. The reactivity of these materials is also important to numerous engineering applications including nuclear waste disposal. The dissolution process has long been considered to be controlled by a leached surface layer in which cations in the silicate framework are gradually leached out and replaced by protons from the solution. This view has recently been challenged by observations of extremely sharp corrosion fronts and oscillatory zonings in altered rims of the materials, suggesting that corrosion of these materials may proceed directly through congruentmore » dissolution followed by secondary mineral precipitation. Here we show that complex silicate material dissolution behaviors can emerge from a simple positive feedback between dissolution-induced cation release and cation-enhanced dissolution kinetics. This self-accelerating mechanism enables a systematic prediction of the occurrence of sharp dissolution fronts (vs. leached surface layers), oscillatory dissolution behaviors and multiple stages of glass dissolution (in particular the alteration resumption at a late stage of a corrosion process). In conclusion, our work provides a new perspective for predicting long-term silicate weathering rates in actual geochemical systems and developing durable silicate materials for various engineering applications.« less

  9. Contact fatigue mechanisms as a function of crystal aspect ratio in baria-silicate glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suputtamongkol, Kallaya

    2003-10-01

    Ceramic materials are potentially useful for dental applications because of their esthetic potential and biocompatibility. However, the existence of fatigue damage in ceramics raises considerable concern regarding its effect on the life prediction of dental prostheses. During normal mastication, dental restorations are subjected to repeated loading more than a thousand times per day and relatively high clinical failure rates for ceramic prostheses have been reported. To simulate the intraoral loads, Hertzian indentation loading was used in this study to characterize the fatigue failure mechanisms of ceramic materials using clinically relevant parameters. The baria-silicate system was chosen because of the nearly identical composition between the crystal and the glass matrix. Little or no residual stress is expected from the elastic modulus and thermal expansion mismatches between the two phases. Crystallites with different aspect ratios can also be produced by controlled heat treatment schedules. The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of crystal morphology on the fatigue mechanisms of bariasilicate glass-ceramics under clinically relevant conditions. The results show that the failure of materials with a low toughness such as baria-silicate glass (0.7 MPa•m1/2) and glass-ceramic with an aspect ratio of 3/1 (1.3 MPa•m1/2) initiated from a cone crack developed during cyclic loading for 103 to 105 cycles. The mean strength values of baria-silicate glass and glass-ceramic with an aspect ratio of 3/1 decreased significantly as a result of the presence of a cone crack. Failure of baria-silicate glass-ceramics with an aspect ratio of 8/1 (Kc = 2.1 MPa•m1/2) was initiated from surface flaws caused by either polishing or cyclic loading. The gradual decrease of fracture stress was observed in specimens with an aspect ratio of 8/1 after loading in air for 103 to 10 5 cycles. A reduction of approximately 50% in fracture stress levels was found for

  10. Optical properties of zinc lead tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alazoumi, Salah Hassan; Aziz, Sidek Abdul; El-Mallawany, R.; Aliyu, Umar Sa'ad; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed; Zaid, Mohd Hafiz Mohd Mohd; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Ushah, Abdulbaset

    2018-06-01

    Tellurite glass systems in the form of [ZnO]x [(TeO2)0.7-(PbO)0.3]1-x with x = 0.15, 0.17, 0.20, 0.22 and 0.25 mol% were prepared using the melt quenching technique. XRD of the prepared samples have been measured for all samples. Both FTIR (280-4000 cm-1) and UV-Vis (200-800 nm) spectra have been measured. Optical band gap and refractive index were calculated for every glass sample. Density of glass, molar volume and oxygen packing density (OPD) were obtained. Values of the direct, indirect band gap ranged were found in the range 3.41-3.94 eV and 2.40-2.63 eV with increasing of ZnO concentration. Refractive index 2.58 and dielectric constant 6.66 were heigh at 17 ZnO mol% concentration. Molar polarizability, metallization criterion, polaron radius have been calculated for every glass composition.

  11. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the elastic moduli of silicate glasses and crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipps, Katharina; Stoffel, Ralf Peter; Dronskowski, Richard; Conradt, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    A combined quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic approach to the mechanical properties of multicomponent silicate glasses is presented. Quantum chemical calculations based on density-functional theory (DFT) on various silicate systems were performed to explore the crystalline polymorphs existing for a given chemical composition. These calculations reproduced the properties of known polymorphs even in systems with extensive polymorphism, like MgSiO3. Properties resting on the atomic and electronic structure, i.e., molar volumes (densities) and bulk moduli were predicted correctly. The theoretical data (molar equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli) were then used to complement the available experimental data. In a phenomenological evaluation, experimental data of bulk moduli, a macroscopic property resting on phononic structure, were found to linearly scale with the ratios of atomic space demand to actual molar volume in a universal way. Silicates ranging from high-pressure polymorphs to glasses were represented by a single master line. This suggests that above the Debye limit (in practice: above room temperature), the elastic waves probe the short range order coordination polyhedra and their next-neighbor linkage only, while the presence or absence of an extended translational symmetry is irrelevant. As a result, glasses can be treated - with respect to the properties investigated - as commensurable members of polymorphic series. Binary glasses fit the very same line as their one-component end-members, again both in the crystalline and glassy state. Finally, it is shown that the macroscopic properties of multicomponent glasses also are linear superpositions of the properties of their constitutional phases (as determined from phase diagrams or by thermochemical calculations) taken in their respective glassy states. This is verified experimentally for heat capacities and Young’s moduli of industrial glass compositions. It can be concluded, that the combined quantum

  12. Soda-Lime-Silicate Float Glass: A Property Comparison

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    transparent armor systems. Thus, it is necessary to measure and compare the chemical composition as well as the physical and mechanical properties of...this study show that all 3 SLS glasses have essentially the same chemical composition and the same physical and mechanical properties, indicating they

  13. Zinc incorporation improves biological activity of beta-tricalcium silicate resin-based cement.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Raquel; Yamauti, Monica; Sauro, Salvatore; Watson, Tim F; Toledano, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition may improve endodontic treatment prognosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if zinc incorporation into experimental resin cements containing bioactive fillers may modulate MMP-mediated collagen degradation of dentin. Human dentin samples untreated and demineralized using 10% phosphoric acid or 0.5 mol/L EDTA were infiltrated with the following experimental resins: (1) unfilled resin, (2) resin with Bioglass 45S5 particles (OSspray, London, UK), (3) resin with beta-tricalcium silicate particles (βTCS), (4) resin with zinc-doped Bioglass 45S5, and (5) resin with zinc-doped βTCS particles. The specimens were stored in artificial saliva (for 24 hours, 1 week, and 4 weeks) and submitted to radioimmunoassay to quantify C-terminal telopeptide. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was also undertaken on dentin samples after 4 weeks of storage. Collagen degradation was prominent both in phosphoric acid and EDTA-treated dentin. Resin infiltration strongly reduced MMP activity in demineralized dentin. Resin containing Bioglass 45S5 particles exerted higher and stable protection of collagen. The presence of zinc in βTCS particles increases MMP inhibition. Different mineral precipitation was attained in dentin infiltrated with the resin cements containing bioactive fillers. MMP degradation of dentin collagen is strongly reduced after resin infiltration of dentin. Zinc incorporation in βTCS particles exerted an additional protection against MMP-mediated collagen degradation. However, it did not occur in resin containing Bioglass 45S5 particles, probably because of the formation of phosphate-zinc compounds. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Entropy and structure of silicate glasses and melts

    Richet, P.; Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Low-temperature adiabatic Cp measurements have been made on NaAlSi2O6, MgSiO3, Ca3Al2Si3O12 and Ca1.5Mg1.5Al2Si3O12 glasses. Above about 50 K, these and previous data show that the heat capacity is an additive function of composition to within ??1% throughout the investigated glassforming part of the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. In view of the determining role of oxygen coordination polyhedra on the low-temperature entropy, this is interpreted as indicating that Si and Al are tetrahedrally coordinated in all these glasses, in agreement with structural data; whereas Ca and Mg remain octahedrally coordinated. In contrast, heat capacities and entropies are not additive functions of composition for alkali aluminosilicates, indicating increases in the coordination numbers of alkali elements from about six to nine when alumina is introduced. A thermochemical consequence of additivity of vibrational entropies of glasses is that entropies of mixing are essentially configurational for calcium and magnesium aluminosilicate melts. For alkali-bearing liquids, it is probable that vibrational entropies contribute significantly to entropies of mixing. At very low temperatures, the additive nature of the heat capacity with composition is less well followed, likely as a result of specific differences in medium-range order. ?? 1993.

  15. Photoluminescence properties of LiF bismuth silicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, M. Laya; Kumar, V. V. Ravi Kanth

    2018-04-01

    The sample (60-X) Bi2O3-30SiO2-XLiF where X=10, 15, 25 were prepared by conventional melt quenching method. X-ray diffraction pattern conformed the amorphous nature of the prepared sample and a broad peak at 2θ=30°. The Raman spectra confirmed that the Bi can exist both network former (BiO3 pyramidal) and network modifier (BiO6 octahedral)in the glass matrix. The samples showing broad absorption at 470nm is due to the presence of Bi2+ ions, because of increasing optical basicity the absorption edge of the sample is blue shifted. The photoluminescence spectra of the glass under 350nm excitation are showing two main peaks at 430nm and 630 nm due to Bi3+ and Bi2+ respectively and 25 LBS glass showing yellow, 15LBS showing near bluish white and 10LBS showing blue luminescence. The color purity and correlated color temperature are also calculated.

  16. Third order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth zinc borate glasses

    SciT

    Shanmugavelu, B.; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V., E-mail: ravi.phy@pondiuni.edu.in; Kuladeep, R.

    2013-12-28

    Third order nonlinear optical characterization of bismuth zinc borate glasses are reported here using different laser pulse durations. Bismuth zinc borate glasses with compositions xBi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30ZnO-(70-x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x = 30, 35, 40, and 45 mol. %) have been prepared by melt quenching method. These glasses were characterized by Raman, UV-Vis absorption, and Z scan measurements. Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopic results indicate that non-bridging oxygens increase with increase of bismuth content in the glass. Nonlinear absorption and refraction behavior in the nanosecond (ns), picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) time domains were studied in detail. Strong reverse saturable absorption due tomore » dominant two-photon absorption (TPA) was observed with both ps and fs excitations. In the case of ns pulse excitations, TPA and free-carrier absorption processes contribute for the nonlinear absorption. Two-photon absorption coefficient (β) and the absorption cross section due to free carriers (σ{sub e}) are estimated by theoretical fit of the open aperture Z-scan measurements and found to be dependent on the amount of bismuth oxide in the glass composition. In both ns and fs regimes the sign and magnitude of the third order nonlinearity are evaluated, and the optical limiting characteristics are also reported.« less

  17. Ag-doped Lithium alumino silicate photostructurable glass for microdevice fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Richa; Goswami, Madhumita; Krishnan, Madangopal

    2018-04-01

    Ag-doped LAS glass of composition (wt.%):74SiO2-6Al2O3-15Li2O-5X (X=other additives) were prepared by melt-quench technique and characterized for thermal and optical properties using DTA and UV-Visible spectrometer. XRD technique was used for phase identification in the heat treated glasses. Glass samples were exposed to UV-light for conversion of Ce3+ to Ce4+ state and Ag+ into Ago metallic state. DTA shows a lower crystallization temperature (Tp) at around 605°C for exposed samples as compared to unexposed base glass which is at around 625°C. UV-Visible spectra shows a broad band at around 305nm which indicates Ce3+ in base glass whereas in case of UV-exposed sample the reduced peak intensity indicates conversion of Ce3+ to Ce4+ ions, which also confirm formation of Ago in glass samples. Ag agglomeration was also confirmed from the band position at 430nm in heat treated sample, found responsible for early growth of meta-silicate phase in exposed sample. The meta-silicate phase was selectively etched for fabrication of micro-devices.

  18. Elaboration And Characterization Of Foam Glass Based On Cullet With Addition Of Soluble Silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, A.; Stiti, N.; Benhaoua, F.; Boumchedda, K.; Lerari, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The politics of the energy saving and of the acoustic comfort buildings is at the heart of the research of new compounds permitting to improve the materials performance actually commercialised. With this aim in view, we'll purpose to elaborate a porous material (foam glass) with addition of soluble silicates (up to 40%) of which the principal material is the waste glass in order to recycle it and improving the present laws about the waste products in closed circuit: (Finished products ← waste products← finished products). The investigations have shown that grinding waste glass to particle size less than 0.1 mm and adding 1% of Ca CO3 content provide production of material with the following properties: particle density 0,5 g/cm3, strength 17,50 MPa and water adsorption 95%, the temperature for foaming ranges were determined at 850° C. The microstructures are homogenous, with pore sizes up to 2 mm. The addition of soluble silicates (up to 40%) has resulted in the foam glass of very high porosity. The foam glass is counted among the new glass products meeting certain requirements sought comfort in the building industry in particular (thermal and acoustic insulation). The product obtained present of excellent properties thermal (λ = 0,031 W/m° C) and acoustic (R = 15 dB).

  19. Elaboration And Characterization Of Foam Glass Based On Cullet With Addition Of Soluble Silicates

    SciT

    Ayadi, A.; Stiti, N.; Benhaoua, F.

    2011-01-17

    The politics of the energy saving and of the acoustic comfort buildings is at the heart of the research of new compounds permitting to improve the materials performance actually commercialised. With this aim in view, we'll purpose to elaborate a porous material (foam glass) with addition of soluble silicates (up to 40%) of which the principal material is the waste glass in order to recycle it and improving the present laws about the waste products in closed circuit: (Finished products (leftarrow) waste products (leftarrow) finished products). The investigations have shown that grinding waste glass to particle size less than 0.1more » mm and adding 1% of Ca CO{sub 3} content provide production of material with the following properties: particle density 0,5 g/cm{sup 3}, strength 17,50 MPa and water adsorption 95%, the temperature for foaming ranges were determined at 850 deg. C. The microstructures are homogenous, with pore sizes up to 2 mm. The addition of soluble silicates (up to 40%) has resulted in the foam glass of very high porosity. The foam glass is counted among the new glass products meeting certain requirements sought comfort in the building industry in particular (thermal and acoustic insulation). The product obtained present of excellent properties thermal ({lambda} = 0,031 W/m deg. C) and acoustic (R = 15 dB).« less

  20. Thermoluminescence response of rare earth activated zinc lithium borate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidu, A.; Wagiran, H.; Saeed, M. A.; Obayes, H. K.; Bala, A.; Usman, F.

    2018-03-01

    New glasses of zinc lithium borate doped with terbium oxide were synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction. The amorphous nature of the glasses was confirmed using x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Thermoluminescence (TL) response of pure zinc lithium borate (ZLB) and zinc lithium borate doped with terbium (ZLB: Tb) exposed to gamma radiation was measured and compared. There is significant enhancement in the TL yields of ZLB: Tb compared to that of pure ZLB. Effect of varying concentration of dopant (Tb4O7) on the TL response of zinc lithium borate was investigated. 0.3 mol% concentration of Tb exhibited strongest TL intensity. Thermoluminescence curve of the phosphor consist of single isolated peak. The TL response of the new materials to the exposed radiation is linear within 0.5-100 Gy range of dose with sublinearity at the lower region of the curve. High sensitivity was exhibited by the new amorphous materials. Reproducibility, thermal fading and energy response of the proposed TLD were investigated and shows remarkable result that made the phosphor suitable for radiation dosimetry.

  1. Internal friction of hydrated soda-lime-silicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Reinsch, S; Müller, R; Deubener, J; Behrens, H

    2013-11-07

    The internal friction of hydrated soda-lime-silica glasses with total water content (C(W)) up to 1.9 wt. % was studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) using temperature-frequency sweeps from 723 K to 273 K and from 1 s(-1) to 50 s(-1). Total water content and concentrations of H2O molecules (C(H2O)) and OH groups (C(OH)) in the DMA specimens were determined by infrared spectroscopy. For low water contents (C(W) ≈ C(OH) < 0.25 wt. %) two discrete internal friction peaks below the glass transition (α relaxation) were assigned to the low-temperature motion of alkali ions (γ relaxation) and cooperative movements of dissimilar mobile species under participation of OH at higher temperature (β(OH) relaxation). For large water contents (C(W) > 1 wt. %), where significant amounts of molecular water are evident (C(H2O) > 0.15 wt. %), however, internal friction spectra change unexpectedly: the β(OH) peak heights saturate and a low temperature shoulder appears on the β-relaxation peak. This emerging relaxation mode (β(H2O) relaxation) was assigned to the motions of H2O molecules. β(H2O) relaxation was found to be faster than β(OH) but slower than γ relaxation. Activation energy of the different relaxation modes increased in the order γ < β(H2O) < β(OH) < α.

  2. Reductive surface synthesis of gold nanoparticles on silicate glass and their biochemical sensor applicationsa

    PubMed Central

    Li, M.; Kim, D.-P.; Jeong, G.-Y.; Seo, D.-K.; Park, C.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were directly synthesized on the surface of polyvinylsilazane (PVSZ, -[(vinyl)SiH-NH2]-) without use of extra reductive additives. The reductive Si-H functional groups on the surface of cured PVSZ acted as surface bound reducing agents to form gold metal when contacted with an aqueous Au precursor (HAuCl4) solution, leading to formation of Au NPs adhered to silicate glass surface. The Au NPs-silicate platforms were preliminarily tested to detect Rhodamine B (1 μM) by surface enhanced Raman scattering. Furthermore, gold microelectrode obtained by post-chemical plating was used as an integrated amperometric detection element in the polydimethylsilane-glass hybrid microfluidic chip. PMID:24324531

  3. UV irradiation-induced Raman spectra changes in lead silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Hongzhi; Chen, Guanghui; Wang, Wencheng

    2006-12-01

    The Raman spectra for a series of lead silicate glasses with different PbO content before and after irradiation with different energy density by the frequency-quadrupled output of a Q-switched YAG laser (266 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate) were measured. The intensity of Pb-O band near 140 cm -1 in the Raman spectra decreases after UV irradiation and no new band appears in the Raman spectra. Exposed to the UV beam with high energy density (150 mJ/cm 2), although the total dose is smaller than the dose with low energy density (50 mJ/cm 2), the intensity of the 140 cm -1 band drops heavilier than exposed to the UV beam with low energy density. This shows that the UV irradiation can cause the broken of Pb-O bond in lead silicate glasses and the broken of Pb-O bond is related to the energy density of UV beam.

  4. Quantitative analysis of major elements in silicate minerals and glasses by micro-PIXE

    Campbell, J.L.; Czamanske, G.K.; MacDonald, L.; Teesdale, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Guelph micro-PIXE facility has been modified to accommodate a second Si(Li) X-ray detector which records the spectrum due to light major elements (11 ??? Z ??? 20) with no deleterious effects from scattered 3 MeV protons. Spectra have been recorded from 30 well-characterized materials, including a broad range of silicate minerals and both natural and synthetic glasses. Sodium is mobile in some of the glasses, but not in the studied mineral lattices. The mean value of the instrumental constant H for each of the elements Mg, Al, and Si in these materials is systematically 6-8% lower than the H-value measured for the pure metals. Normalization factors are derived which permit the matrix corrections requisite for trace-element measurements in silicates to be based upon pure metal standards for Mg, Al and Si, supplemented by well-established, silicate mineral standards for the elements Na, K and Ca. Rigorous comparisons of electron microprobe and micro-PIXE analyses for the entire, 30-sample suite demonstrate the ability of micro-PIXE to produce accurate analysis for the light major elements in silicates. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Velocity of a freely rising gas bubble in a soda-lime silicate glass melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornyak, E. J.; Weinberg, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison is conducted between measured velocities for the buoyant rise of single bubbles of varying size and composition, in a soda-lime silicate glass melt, with the steady state velocities predicted by the Stokes and Hadamard-Rybczynski formulas. In all cases, the data are noted to fit the Hadamard-Rybczynski expression for steady state rise speed considerably better than the Stokes formula.

  6. Computational and experimental studies of iron-bearing carbonates and silicate glasses at lower mantle pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomatova, N. V.; Jackson, J. M.; Asimow, P. D.; Sturhahn, W.; Rossman, G. R.; Roskosz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Decomposition of carbonates may be responsible for creating silicate melts within the lower mantle by lowering the melting temperature of surrounding rock. Identifying and characterizing the stability of carbonates is therefore a necessary step towards understanding the transport of carbon in Earth's interior. Dolomite is one of the major mineral forms in which carbon is subducted into the Earth's mantle. Although iron-free dolomite is expected to break down upon compression, high-pressure polymorphs of iron-bearing dolomite may resist decomposition. Using a genetic algorithm that predicts crystal structures, we found a monoclinic phase with space group C2/c that has a lower energy than all previously reported dolomite structures at pressures above 15 GPa, where the substitution of iron for magnesium stabilizes monoclinic dolomite at certain pressures of the lower mantle. Thus, an iron-bearing dolomite polymorph may be an important carbon carrier in regions of Earth's lower mantle. The depth at which carbonates will decompose is dependent on the age, temperature and density of subducting slabs. Decarbonation reactions may lower the melting temperature of surrounding rocks to produce silicate melts. In regions of the mantle where silicate melts may exist, it is important to understand the physical properties and dynamic behavior of the melts because they affect the chemical and thermal evolution of its interior. Composition, degree of polymerization, and iron's spin state affect such properties. The behavior of iron in silicate melts is poorly understood but, in some cases, may be approximated by iron-bearing glasses. We measured the hyperfine parameters of iron-bearing rhyolitic and basaltic glasses up to 120 GPa and 100 GPa, respectively, in a neon pressure medium using time-domain synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy. The spectra for rhyolitic and basaltic glasses are well explained by three high-spin Fe2+-like sites with distinct quadrupole splittings, reflecting

  7. The influence of SrO and CaO in silicate and phosphate bioactive glasses on human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Massera, J; Kokkari, A; Närhi, T; Hupa, L

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of substituting SrO for CaO in silicate and phosphate bioactive glasses on the human gingival fibroblast activity. In both materials the presence of SrO led to the formation of a CaP layer with partial Sr substitution for Ca. The layer at the surface of the silicate glass consisted of HAP whereas at the phosphate glasses it was close to the DCPD composition. In silicate glasses, SrO gave a faster initial dissolution and a thinner reaction layer probably allowing for a continuous ion release into the solution. In phosphate glasses, SrO decreased the dissolution process and gave a more strongly bonded reaction layer. Overall, the SrO-containing silicate glass led to a slight enhancement in the activity of the gingival fibroblasts cells when compared to the SrO-free reference glass, S53P4. The cell activity decreased up to 3 days of culturing for all phosphate glasses containing SrO. Whereas culturing together with the SrO-free phosphate glass led to complete cell death at 7 days. The glasses containing SrO showed rapid cell proliferation and growth between 7 and 14 days, reaching similar activity than glass S53P4. The addition of SrO in both silicate and phosphate glasses was assumed beneficial for proliferation and growth of human gingival fibroblasts due to Sr incorporation in the reaction layer at the glass surface and released in the cell culture medium.

  8. Thermal history effects on electrical relaxation and conductivity for potassium silicate glass with low alkali concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, Paul W.; Hann, Raiford E.; Cooper, Alfred R.

    1993-01-01

    Electrical response measurements from 10 Hz to 100 kHz between 120 and 540 C were made on potassium-silicate glasses with alkali oxide contents of 2, 3, 5 and 10 mol percent. Low alkali content glasses were chosen in order to try to reduce the Coulombic interactions between alkali ions to the point that frozen structural effects from the glass could be observed. Conductivity and electrical relaxation responses for both annealed and quenched glasses of the same composition were compared. Lower DC conductivity (sigma(sub DC)) activation energies were measured for the quenched compared to the annealed glasses. The two glasses with the lowest alkali contents exhibited a non-Arrhenius concave up curvature in the log(sigma(sub DC)) against 1/T plots, which decreased upon quenching. A sharp decrease in sigma(sub DC) was observed for glasses containing K2O concentrations of 5 mol percent or less. The log modulus loss peak (M'') maximum frequency plots against 1/T all showed Arrhenius behavior for both annealed and quenched samples. The activation energies for these plots closely agreed with the sigma(sub DC) activation energies. A sharp increase in activation energy was observed for both series as the potassium oxide concentration decreased. Changes in the electrical response are attributed to structural effects due to different alkali concentrations. Differences between the annealed and quenched response are linked to a change in the distribution of activation energies (DAE).

  9. Trends in Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Ion-exchange Strengthening of Soda Lime Silicate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Stefan; Wondraczek, Lothar; Ali, Sharafat; Jonson, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Monovalent cations enable efficient ion exchange processes due to their high mobility in silicate glasses. Numerous properties can be modified in this way, e.g., mechanical, optical, electrical or chemical performance. In particular, alkali cation exchange has received significant attention, primarily with respect to introducing compressive stress into the surface region of a glass, which increases mechanical durability. However, most of the present applications rely on specifically tailored matrix compositions in which the cation mobility is enhanced. This largely excludes the major area of soda lime silicates (SLS) such as are commodity in almost all large-scale applications of glasses. Basic understanding of the relations between structural parameters and the effective diffusion coefficients may help to improve ion-exchanged SLS glass products, on the one hand in terms of obtainable strength and on the other in terms of cost. In the present paper, we discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+) by drawing relations to physico-chemical properties. Correlations of effective diffusion coefficients were found for the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that localization and rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion exchange rate.

  10. The effects of RF plasma ashing on zinc orthotitanate/potassium silicate thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of YB-71, a white thermal control coating composed of zinc orthotitanate pigment in a potassium silicate binder, were exposed in air plasma and in oxygen plasma to determine optical property and surface chemistry changes. Results show that YB-71 undergoes a significant reflectance decrease upon exposure to the simulated LEO atomic oxygen environment provided by an air plasma asher. YB-71 samples exposed to the same effective fluence in oxygen plasma, or in a UV screening Faraday cage in air or oxygen, do not undergo as severe reflectance decreases as the samples exposed in the air plasma asher environment. The UV and VUV radiation present in the plasma ashers affects the YB-71 degradation. It is noted that, when using plasma ashers to determine LEO degradation, it is necessary to take into account the sensitivity of the material to the synergistic effects of atomic oxygen and accelerated UV radiation.

  11. Cooling rate effects in sodium silicate glasses: Bridging the gap between molecular dynamics simulations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Song, Weiying; Yang, Kai; Krishnan, N. M. Anoop; Wang, Bu; Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Mauro, John C.; Sant, Gaurav; Balonis, Magdalena; Bauchy, Mathieu

    2017-08-01

    Although molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are commonly used to predict the structure and properties of glasses, they are intrinsically limited to short time scales, necessitating the use of fast cooling rates. It is therefore challenging to compare results from MD simulations to experimental results for glasses cooled on typical laboratory time scales. Based on MD simulations of a sodium silicate glass with varying cooling rate (from 0.01 to 100 K/ps), here we show that thermal history primarily affects the medium-range order structure, while the short-range order is largely unaffected over the range of cooling rates simulated. This results in a decoupling between the enthalpy and volume relaxation functions, where the enthalpy quickly plateaus as the cooling rate decreases, whereas density exhibits a slower relaxation. Finally, we show that, using the proper extrapolation method, the outcomes of MD simulations can be meaningfully compared to experimental values when extrapolated to slower cooling rates.

  12. [Influence of cations on the laser Raman spectra of silicate glasses].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yi; Zhao, Hong-xia; Gan, Fu-xi

    2012-04-01

    Na2O(K2O)-CaO(MgO)-SiO2, Na2O(K2O)-Al2O3-SiO2, Na2O(K2O)-B2O3-SiO2, Na2O(K2O)-PbO-SiO2 and PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass systems were investigated using laser Raman spectroscopic technique. The modification of short-range structure of glass caused by network modifier cations will influence Raman signature. Alkali and alkali-earth ions can weaken the bridging oxygen bond, thus lower the frequency of Si-O(b)-Si anti-symmetric stretching vibration. When coordina ted by oxygen ions, B3+ can form [BO4] tetrahedron and enter the silicon-oxygen network, but this effect had little impact on the frequency of Raman peaks located in the high-frequency region. Al3+ can also be coordinated by oxygen ions to form [AlO4] tetrahedron. [AlO4] will increase the disorder degree of network while entering network. Ba2+ can increase the density of electron cloud along the Si-O(nb) bond when it bonds with non-bridging oxygen, which will lead to a higher peak intensity of O-Si-O stretching vibration. The Raman peaks of alkli- and alkali-earth silicate glasses are mainly distributed in the region of 400 - 1 200 cm(-1), while in the spectrum of Na2O(K2O)-PbO-SiO2 glass system a 131 cm(-1) peak existed. The authors assigned it to the Pb-O symmetric stretching vibration. Some of the samples were produced in the laboratory according to the average compositions of ancient glasses, so this research is very significant to discriminating ancient silicate glasses of different systems by Laser Raman spectroscopic technique.

  13. Structural and optical study on antimony-silicate glasses doped with thulium ions.

    PubMed

    Dorosz, D; Zmojda, J; Kochanowicz, M; Miluski, P; Jelen, P; Sitarz, M

    2015-01-05

    Structural, spectroscopic and thermal properties of SiO₂-Al₂O₃-Sb₂O₃-Na₂O glass system doped with 0.2 mol% Tm₂O₃ have been presented. Synthesis of antimony-silicate glasses with relatively low phonon energy (600 cm(-1), which implicates a small non-radiative decay rate) was performed by conventional high-temperature melt-quenching methods. The effect of SiO₂/Sb₂O₃ ratio in fabricated Tm(3+) doped glass on thermal, structural and luminescence properties was investigated. On the basis of structural investigations decomposition of absorption bands in the infrared FTIR region was performed, thus determining that antimony ions are the only glass-forming ions, setting up the lattice of fabricated glasses. Luminescence band at the wavelength of 1.8 μm corresponding to (3)F₄→(3)H₆ transition in thulium ions was obtained under 795 nm laser pumping. It was observed that combination of relatively low phonon energy and greater separation of optically active centers in the fabricated glasses influenced in decreasing the luminescence intensity at 1800 nm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optical band gap studies on lithium aluminum silicate glasses doped with Cr3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Diasty, Fouad; Abdel Wahab, Fathy A.; Abdel-Baki, Manal

    2006-11-01

    Lithium aluminum silicate glass system (LAS) implanted with chromium ions is prepared. The reflectance and transmittance measurements are used to determine the dispersion of absorption coefficient. The optical data are explained in terms of the different oxidation states adopted by the chromium ions into the glass network. It is found that the oxidation state of the chromium depends on its concentration. Across a wide spectral range, 0.2-1.6μm, analysis of the fundamental absorption edge provides values for the average energy band gaps for allowed direct and indirect transitions. The optical absorption coefficient just below the absorption edge varies exponentially with photon energy indicating the presence of Urbach's tail. Such tail is decreased with the increase of the chromium dopant. From the analysis of the optical absorption data, the absorption peak at ground state exciton energy, the absorption at band gap, and the free exciton binding energy are determined. The extinction coefficient data are used to determine the Fermi energy level of the studied glasses. The metallization criterion is obtained and discussed exploring the nature of the glasses. The measured IR spectra of the different glasses are used to throw some light on the optical properties of the present glasses correlating them with their structure and composition.

  15. Laboratory strength of glass ionomer and zinc phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Piwowarczyk, A; Ottl, P; Lauer, H C

    2001-09-01

    The present in vitro study examined 3 mechanical properties, namely compressive, flexural, and diametral tensile strength, of various commercially available cements and core materials as a function of time after mixing. The examined materials were 2 cermet cements (Ketac Silver [ESPE, Seefeld, Germany] and Chelon Silver [ESPE]), 1 metal-reinforced glass ionomer cement (Miracle Mix [GC Dental Industrial Corp, Tokyo, Japan]), 2 conventional glass ionomer cements (Ketac Bond [ESPE] and Ketac Cem [ESPE]), 1 standard cure zinc phosphate cement (Harvard Cement [Richter and Hoffmann, Berlin, Germany]), and 1 zinc phosphate cement with the addition of 30% silver amalgam alloy powder (Harvard Cement 70% with Dispersalloy 30% [Richter and Hoffmann/Johnson and Johnson, East Windsor, NJ]). Properties were measured using a universal testing machine at 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 24 hours after first mixing. Compressive strengths varied widely between the 3 times of measurement from 5.8 +/- 6.6 MPa for Ketac Cem to 144.3 +/- 10.2 MPa for Ketac Silver. Twenty-four hours after mixing, the Bonferroni test showed significant (p glass ionomer cement reinforced with sintered glass-silver particles, showed the highest mechanical properties of the examined materials. Copyright 2001 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. Time Evolution of Radiation-Induced Luminescence in Terbium-Doped Silicate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Michael S.; Winfree, William P.

    1996-01-01

    A study was made on two commercially available terbium-doped silicate glasses. There is an increased interest in silicate glasses doped with rare-earth ions for use in high-energy particle detection and radiographic applications. These glasses are of interest due to the fact that they can be formed into small fiber sensors; a property that can be used to increase the spatial resolution of a detection system. Following absorption of radiation, the terbium ions become excited and then emit photons via 4f-4f electronic transitions as they relax back to the ground state. The lifetime of these transitions is on the order of milliseconds. A longer decay component lasting on the order of minutes has also been observed. While radiative transitions in the 4f shell of rare-earth ions are generally well understood by the Judd-Olfelt theory, the pr'esence of a longer luminescence decay component is not. Experimental evidence that the long decay component is due, in part, to the thermal release of trapped charge carriers will be presented. In addition, a theoretical model describing the time evolution of the radiation-induced luminescence will be presented.

  17. Ab Initio Modeling of Structure and Properties of Single and Mixed Alkali Silicate Glasses.

    PubMed

    Baral, Khagendra; Li, Aize; Ching, Wai-Yim

    2017-10-12

    A density functional theory (DFT)-based ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) has been applied to simulate models of single and mixed alkali silicate glasses with two different molar concentrations of alkali oxides. The structural environments and spatial distributions of alkali ions in the 10 simulated models with 20% and 30% of Li, Na, K and equal proportions of Li-Na and Na-K are studied in detail for subtle variations among the models. Quantum mechanical calculations of electronic structures, interatomic bonding, and mechanical and optical properties are carried out for each of the models, and the results are compared with available experimental observation and other simulations. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data. We have used the novel concept of using the total bond order density (TBOD), a quantum mechanical metric, to characterize internal cohesion in these glass models. The mixed alkali effect (MAE) is visible in the bulk mechanical properties but not obvious in other physical properties studied in this paper. We show that Li doping deviates from expected trend due to the much stronger Li-O bonding than those of Na and K doping. The approach used in this study is in contrast with current studies in alkali-doped silicate glasses based only on geometric characterizations.

  18. Deformation, Stress Relaxation, and Crystallization of Lithium Silicate Glass Fibers Below the Glass Transition Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chandra S.; Brow, Richard K.; Kim, Cheol W.; Reis, Signo T.

    2004-01-01

    The deformation and crystallization of Li(sub 2)O (center dot) 2SiO2 and Li(sub 2)O (center dot) 1.6SiO2 glass fibers subjected to a bending stress were measured as a function of time over the temperature range -50 to -150 C below the glass transition temperature (Tg). The glass fibers can be permanently deformed at temperatures about 100 C below T (sub)g, and they crystallize significantly at temperatures close to, but below T,, about 150 C lower than the onset temperature for crystallization for these glasses in the no-stress condition. The crystallization was found to occur only on the surface of the glass fibers with no detectable difference in the extent of crystallization in tensile and compressive stress regions. The relaxation mechanism for fiber deformation can be best described by a stretched exponential (Kohlrausch-Williams-Watt (KWW) approximation), rather than a single exponential model.The activation energy for stress relaxation, Es, for the glass fibers ranges between 175 and 195 kJ/mol, which is considerably smaller than the activation energy for viscous flow, E, (about 400 kJ/mol) near T, for these glasses at normal, stress-free condition. It is suspected that a viscosity relaxation mechanism could be responsible for permanent deformation and crystallization of the glass fibers below T,

  19. Gallium-containing phospho-silicate glasses: synthesis and in vitro bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Mirco; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Malavasi, Gianluca; Menabue, Ledi

    2012-08-01

    A series of Ga-containing phospho-silicate glasses based on Bioglass 45S5, having molar formula 46.2SiO2·24.3Na2O·26.9CaO·2.6P2O5·xGa2O3 (x=1.0, 1.6, 3.5), were prepared by fusion method. The reference Bioglass 45S5 without gallium was also prepared. The synthesized glasses were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 30 days in order to observe ion release and hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. All Ga-containing glasses maintain the ability of HA formation as indicated by main X-ray diffractometric peaks and/or electronic scanning microscopy results. HA layer was formed after 1 day of SBF soaking in 45S5 glass containing up to 1.6% Ga2O3 content. Moreover, gallium released by the glasses was found to be partially precipitated on the glass surface as gallium phosphate. Further increase in gallium content reduced the ion release in SBF. The maximum of Ga(3+) concentration measured in solution is ~6 ppm determined for 3.5% Ga2O3 content. This amount is about half of the toxic level (14 ppm) of gallium and the glasses release gallium till 30 days of immersion in SBF. Considering the above results, the studied materials can be proposed as bioactive glasses with additional antimicrobial effect of gallium having no toxic outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Compositional investigation of ∼2 μm luminescence of Ho{sup 3+}-doped lead silicate glass

    SciT

    Liu, Xueqiang; Huang, Feifei; Gao, Song

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Ho{sup 3+}-doped lead silicate glass with lowest maximum phonon energy possesses highest ∼2 μm luminescence intensity. - Highlights: • With increment of lead oxide, maximum phonon energy in lead silicate glass decreased. • ∼2 μm luminescent intensity of Ho{sup 3+} increased with increment of lead oxide. • Lowest lead oxide content glass possesses highest quantum efficiency due to low maximum phonon energy. - Abstract: Lead silicate glass samples with varying lead oxide content were prepared in this study, and their luminescent properties were examined and analyzed. It was found that with increasing lead oxide content, the maximum phononmore » energies of the glass samples decreased, while their spontaneous transition probabilities first increased and then decreased. The influence of the spontaneous transition rate, A{sub 10}, and the multi-phonon relaxation rate, W{sub 10}, on the sample luminescent properties was analyzed using rate equations. As a result, it was found that with increasing lead oxide content, W{sub 10}/A{sub 10} decreased, while the quantum efficiency increased. Thus, the luminescent intensity at ∼2 μm increased in the glass samples with increased lead oxide content. The high luminescent intensity and long lifetime indicate that silicate glasses containing high levels of lead oxide could potentially be used in ∼2 μm lasers.« less

  1. Development of dense glass-ceramic from recycled soda-lime-silicate glass and fly ash for tiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustaffar, Mohd Idham; Mahmud, Mohamad Haniza; Hassan, Mahadi Abu

    2017-12-01

    Dense glass-ceramics were prepared by sinter-crystallization process from a combination of soda-lime-silicate glass waste and fly ash. Bentonite clay that acted as a binder was also added in a prepared formulation. The powder mixture of soda-lime glass, fly ash and bentonite clay were compacted by using uniaxial hydraulic press machine and sintered at six (6) various temperatures namely 750, 800, 850, 900, 950 and 1000 °C. The heating rate and sintering time were set at 5 °C/min and 30 minutes respectively. The results revealed that modulus of rupture (MOR), density and linear shrinkage increase first from 750 to 800 °C but decrease later after 800 to 1000 °C. In the meantime, water absorption was showing completely an opposite trend. The glass-ceramic sintered at 800 °C was found to have the best combination of physical-mechanical properties and has the potential to be applied in the construction industry particularly as floor and wall tiles because of the simple manufacturing process at low temperature.

  2. Insights into Silicate and Oxide Melt Structure from Amorphous, Non-Glass-Forming Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Many silicate and oxide liquids of interest in the Earth sciences and in technology cannot readily be quenched to glasses, either because of low silica contents (and hence low viscosity at the melting point and accompanying liquid 'fragility') or because of liquid-liquid unmixing at high temperature. Although in-situ, high temperature structural tools have been in use for decades and are rapidly developing, many methods are still most informative for glass samples quenched to ambient pressure and temperature, e.g. high-resolution solid-state NMR. Amorphous oxides, including alumina and silicate compositions, have widespread technological applications. These are generally deposited by a variety of high-energy sputtering methods, as films of thicknesses of 10's to 100's of nm. Using Al-27, Si-29, and O-17 NMR, we have recently shown that for such films, very similar short-range structure is seen in materials made by very different kinetic pathways, such as sol-gel synthesis vs. ion-beam sputtering. This path-independent structure suggests that these materials pass through transient equilibrium states during their formation, probably that of deeply supercooled liquids just above glass transition temperatures. In the HfO2-SiO2 and ZrO2-SiO2 systems, for example, samples have well-resolved O-17 NMR spectra, allowing quantitation of O sites with only Hf(Zr) neighbors (so-called "free" oxide ions), with mixed Hf(Zr) and Si neighbors, and Si only. The observed oxygen speciation agrees well with a simple thermodynamic model of one of the most fundamental equilibria in silicate systems, namely the reaction of bridging (Si-O-Si) and "free" (e.g. OHf3 and OHf4) oxide ions to produce "non-bridging" oxygens (e.g. Si-OHf2). This new approach to sampling such structural equilibria in compositions far outside the range of normal glass-forming liquids may provide new insights into more geological compositions as well, as well as in more general models of silicate melt chemistry.

  3. Effect of γ-radiation on the optical properties of soda-lime-silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanina, E. A.; Chibisova, M. A.; Chibisov, A. N.

    2007-11-01

    We have studied the effect of γ-radiation on the optical constants of soda-lime-silicate glasses. As the irradiation dose grows in the interval from 3.7 to 3.7 × 101 Gy, the refractive index n increases, while the optical bandgap width decreases (from 3.13 to 3.05 3.09 eV); upon irradiation to a dose of 3.7 × 102 Gy, the refractive index n drops, while the optical bandgap width E g increases up to 3.23 eV.

  4. Preparations of PbSe quantum dots in silicate glasses by a melt-annealing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, D. W.; Cheng, C.; Zhang, Y. N.; Xu, Z. S.

    2014-11-01

    Silicate glass containing PbSe quantum dots (QDs) has important prospective applications in near infra-red optoelectronic devices. In this study, single-stage and double-stage heat-treatment methods were used respectively to prepare PbSe QDs in silicate glasses. Investigation results show that the double-stage heat-treatment is a favorable method to synthesize PbSe QDs with strong photoluminescence (PL) intensity and narrow full weight at half maximum (FWHM) in PL peak. Therefore, the method to prepare PbSe QDs was emphasized on the double-stage heat-treatment. Transmission electron microscopy measurements show that the standard deviations of the average QD sizes from the samples heat-treated at the development temperature of 550 °C fluctuate slightly in the range of 0.6-0.8 nm, while this deviation increases up to 1.2 nm for the sample with the development temperature of 600 °C. In addition, the linear relationship between the QD size and holding time indicates that the crystallization behavior of PbSe QDs in silicate glasses is interface-controlled growth in early stage of crystallization. The growth rates of PbSe QDs are determined to be 0.24 nm/h at 550 °C and 0.72 nm/h at 600 °C. In short, the double-stage heat-treatment at 450 °C for 20 h followed by heat-treatment at 550 °C for 5 h is a preferred process for the crystallization of PbSe QDs in silicate glass. Through this treatment, PbSe QDs with a narrow size dispersion of 5.0 ± 0.6 nm can be obtained, the PL peak from this sample is highest in intensity and narrowest in FWHM among all samples, and the peak is centered on 1575 nm, very close to the most common wavelength of 1550 nm in fiber-optic communication systems.

  5. Synthesis, characterization of CaF2 doped silicate glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Madeeha; Zia, Rehana; Mirza, Ambreen; Hussain, Tousif; Bashir, Farooq; Anjum, Safia

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of silicate glass-ceramics doped with (0-12mol%) CaF 2 . TGA-DSC analysis was carried out to determine the crystallization temperature and stability of glass measured by two glass parameters; Hruby parameter K H =(T x -T g )/(T L -T x ) and Weinberg parameter K W =(T c -T g )/T L . It was found that with CaF 2 doping improved sinterability at low temperature and provided stability to the glass. The XRD pattern exhibits a single phase of combeite and doping of CaF 2 cause increase in crystallite size. Microstructure of samples was also improved with CaF 2 addition, pores were significantly reduced. After 15days immersion in simulated body fluid all samples developed apatite layer onto its surface. Hence, the addition of CaF 2 provided bioactive glass-ceramic material having a low processing temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The dissolution mechanisms of silicate and glass-ionomer dental cements.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, A T; Wilson, A D

    1985-11-01

    The mechanism of dissolution of two dental cements of the acid-base setting types (silicate and glass-ionomer) is considered. Dissolution is incongruent, probably because most of the leached species can derive both from the matrix (polysalt gel) and the partly reacted glass particles. The release occurs by means of three discrete mechanisms, surface wash-off, diffusion through pores and cracks or diffusion through the bulk. Such behaviour is shown to be capable of being modelled with extremely high goodness-of-fit values, using equations such as y = const + at1/2 + bt. Analogies with research from the fields of geochemistry and nuclear fuel storage are made and these systems obey similar relationships. The dental cement systems differ, however, in that their dissolution is to some extent reversible. This is explained in terms of formation of insoluble complexes, either by reaction of the constituent ions, or by replacement of OH-, for example, with F-.

  7. Silicate and borate glasses as composite fillers: a bioactivity and biocompatibility study.

    PubMed

    Lopes, P P; Ferreira, B J M Leite; Gomes, P S; Correia, R N; Fernandes, M H; Fernandes, M H V

    2011-06-01

    Composites filled with a silicate glass (CSi) and a new borate glass (CB) were developed and compared in terms of their in vitro behaviour both in acellular and cellular media. Acellular tests were carried out in SBF and the composites were characterized by SEM-EDS, XRD and ICP. Biocompatibility studies were investigated by in vitro cell culture with MG-63 osteoblast-like and human bone marrow cells. The growth of spherical calcium phosphate aggregates was observed in acellular medium on all composite surfaces indicating that these materials became potentially bioactive. The biological assessment resulted in a dissimilar behavior of the composites. The CSi demonstrated an inductive effect on the proliferation of cells. The cells showed a normal morphology and high growth rate when compared to standard culture plates. Contrarily, inhibition of cell proliferation occurred in the CB probably due to its high degradation rate, leading to high B and Mg ionic concentration in the cell culture medium.

  8. Synthesis and studies on microhardness of alkali zinc borate glasses

    SciT

    Subhashini,, E-mail: subhashini.p.p@gmail.com; Bhattacharya, Soumalya, E-mail: subhashini.p.p@gmail.com; Shashikala, H. D., E-mail: subhashini.p.p@gmail.com

    2014-04-24

    The mixed alkali effect on zinc borate glasses have been reported. The glass systems of nominal composition 10Zn+xLi{sub 2}O+yNa{sub 2}O+80B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = y = 0, 5, 10, 15 mol%) were prepared using standard melt quenching method. The structural, physical and mechanical properties of the samples have been studied using X-ray diffraction(XRD), density measurement and Vickers hardness measurement, respectively. A consistent increase in the density was observed, which explains the role of the modifiers (Li{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}O) in the network modification of borate structure. The molar volume is decreasing linearly with the alkali concentration, which is attributedmore » to the conversion of tetrahedral boron (BO{sub 4/2}){sup −} into (BO{sub 3/2}){sup −}. The microhardness studies reveals the anisotropy nature of the material. It further confirms that the samples belong to hard glass category.« less

  9. Optical band gap and spectroscopic study of lithium alumino silicate glass containing Y3+ ions.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, M S; Rezvani, M

    2011-09-01

    The effect of different amounts of Y2O3 dopant on lithium alumino silicate (LAS) glass has been studied in this work. Glasses having 14.8Li2O-20Al2O3-65.2SiO2 (wt%) composition accompanied with Y2O3 dopant were prepared by normal melting process. In order to calculate the absorption coefficient of samples, transmittance and reflectance spectra of polished samples were measured in the room temperature. Optical properties i.e. Fermi energy level, direct and indirect optical band gaps and Urbach energy were calculated using functionality of extinction coefficient from Fermi-Dirac distribution function, Tauc's plot and the exponential part of absorption coefficient diagram, respectively. It has been clarified that variation in mentioned optical parameters is associated with the changes in physical properties of samples i.e. density or molar mass. On the other hand, increasing of Y3+ ions in the glassy microstructure of samples provides a semiconducting character to LAS glass by reducing the direct and indirect optical band gaps of glass samples from 1.97 to 1.67 and 3.46 to 2.1 (eV), respectively. These changes could be attributed to the role of Y3+ ions as the network former in the track of SiO4 tetrahedrals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optical band gap and spectroscopic study of lithium alumino silicate glass containing Y 3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, M. S.; Rezvani, M.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of different amounts of Y 2O 3 dopant on lithium alumino silicate (LAS) glass has been studied in this work. Glasses having 14.8Li 2O-20Al 2O 3-65.2SiO 2 (wt%) composition accompanied with Y 2O 3 dopant were prepared by normal melting process. In order to calculate the absorption coefficient of samples, transmittance and reflectance spectra of polished samples were measured in the room temperature. Optical properties i.e. Fermi energy level, direct and indirect optical band gaps and Urbach energy were calculated using functionality of extinction coefficient from Fermi-Dirac distribution function, Tauc's plot and the exponential part of absorption coefficient diagram, respectively. It has been clarified that variation in mentioned optical parameters is associated with the changes in physical properties of samples i.e. density or molar mass. On the other hand, increasing of Y 3+ ions in the glassy microstructure of samples provides a semiconducting character to LAS glass by reducing the direct and indirect optical band gaps of glass samples from 1.97 to 1.67 and 3.46 to 2.1 (eV), respectively. These changes could be attributed to the role of Y 3+ ions as the network former in the track of SiO 4 tetrahedrals.

  11. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence of Mn doped zinc silicate nanophosphors for green and yellow field emissions displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omri, K.; Alyamani, A.; Mir, L. El

    2018-02-01

    Mn2+-doped Zn2SiO4 (ZSM2+) was synthesized by a facile sol-gel technique. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) techniques. Under UV excitation, spectra showed that the α-ZSM2+ phosphor exhibited a strong green emission around 525 nm and reached the highest luminescence intensity with the Mn doping concentration of 5 at.%. However, for the β-ZSM2+ phase, an interesting yellow emission band centered at 575 nm of Mn2+ at the Zn2+ tetrahedral sites was observed. In addition, an unusual red shift with increasing Mn2+ content was also found and attributed to an exchange interaction between Mn2+. Both PL and CL spectra exhibit an intense green and yellow emission centered at 525 and 573 nm, respectively, due to the 4T1 (4G)-6A1 (6S) transition of Mn2+. Furthermore, these results indicated that the Mn2+-doped zinc silicate phosphors may have potential applications in green and yellow emissions displays like field emission displays (FEDs).

  12. Chromium speciation in oxide-type compounds: application to minerals, gems, aqueous solutions and silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, François

    2009-09-01

    Cr K-edge XANES spectra were obtained for a variety of Cr-bearing model compounds containing Cr(II), Cr(III), Cr(IV), Cr(V) and Cr(VI), in which the Cr-site symmetry is D4h, Oh and Td. The centroid position of the pre-edge feature is a better indicator of the Cr valence than the edge position. In Cr-rich oxides, higher-energy transitions must be excluded in order to refine a robust valence for Cr. The pre-edge for chromates is not unique and varies as a function of the CrO4 2- moiety distortion, which is often related to Cr-polymerization (monochromate vs. dichromate). Both the analogy with the Mn K-pre-edge information and ab initio FEFF calculations of the pre-edge feature for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) confirm the experimental trends. This methodology is applied to the Cr K-edge pre-edge feature collected in gems (emerald, spinel and ruby), the layered minerals fuchsite and kämmererite, two Cr-bearing aqueous solutions and a set of sodo-calcic silicate glasses used for bottling sparkling white wine. In emerald and fuchsite, the Cr-site is differently distorted than its ruby or spinel counterpart. In a Cr(III)-bearing aqueous solution and sodo-calcic glass, no evidence for Cr(III) with Td and C3v symmetry is detected. However, minor amounts of chromate moieties (most likely monomeric) are detected in a glass synthesized in air. Preliminary spectra for the wine bottle glass suggest that only trace amounts of chromates might possibly be present in these glasses.

  13. Light induced dielectric constant of Alumina doped lead silicate glass based on silica sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diantoro, Markus; Natalia, Desi Ayu; Mufti, Nandang; Hidayat, Arif

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies on glass ceramic compounds have been conducted intensively. Two major problems to be solved are to simplify the fabrication process by reducing melting temperature as well as improving various properties for various fields of technological application. To control the dielectric constant, the researchers generally use a specific dopant. So far there is no comprehensive study to control the dielectric constant driven by both of dopant and light intensity. In this study it is used Al2O3 dopant to increase the light induced dielectric constant of the glass. The source of silica was taken from local silica sands of Bancar Tuban. The sands were firstly leached using hydrochloric acid to improve the purity of silica which was investigated by means of XRF. Fabricating the glass samples were performed by using melting-glass method. Silica powder was mixed with various ratio of SiO2:Na2CO3:PbO:Al2O3. Subsequently, a mixture of various Al2O3 doped lead silicate glasses were melted at 970°C and directy continued by annealed at 300°C. The samples were investigated by XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDX and measuring dielectric constant was done using dc-capacitance meter with various light intensities. The investigation result of XRD patterns showed that the crystal structures of the samples are amorphous state. The introduction of Al2O3 does not alter the crystal structure, but significantly change the structure of the functional glass bonding PbO-SiO2 which was shown by the FTIR spectra. It was noted that some new peak peaks were exist in the doped samples. Measuring result of dielectricity shows that the dielectric constant of glass increases with the addition of Al2O3. Increasing the light intensity gives rise to increase their dielectric constant in general. A detail observation of the dielectric seen that there are discontinuous step-like of dielectric. Most likely a specific quantization mechanism occurs when glass exposed under light.

  14. Irradiation-induced Ag nanocluster nucleation in silicate glasses: Analogy with photography

    SciT

    Espiau de Lamaestre, R.; Fontainebleau Research Center, Corning SA, 77210 Avon; Bea, H.

    2007-11-15

    The synthesis of Ag nanoclusters in soda lime silicate glasses and silica was studied by optical absorption and electron spin resonance experiments under both low (gamma ray) and high (MeV ion) deposited energy density irradiation conditions. Both types of irradiation create electrons and holes whose density and thermal evolution--notably via their interaction with defects--are shown to determine the clustering and growth rates of Ag nanocrystals. We thus establish the influence of redox interactions of defects and silver (poly)ions. The mechanisms are similar to the latent image formation in photography: Irradiation-induced photoelectrons are trapped within the glass matrix, notably on dissolvedmore » noble metal ions and defects, which are thus neutralized (reverse oxidation reactions are also shown to exist). Annealing promotes metal atom diffusion, which, in turn, leads to cluster nuclei formation. The cluster density depends not only on the irradiation fluence but also--and primarily--on the density of deposited energy and the redox properties of the glass. Ion irradiation (i.e., large deposited energy density) is far more effective in cluster formation, despite its lower neutralization efficiency (from Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0}) as compared to gamma photon irradiation.« less

  15. Raman study of potassium silicate glasses containing Rb +, Sr 2+, Y 3+ and Zr 4+: Implications for cation solution mechanisms in multicomponent silicate liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Adam J. G.; Hess, Paul C.

    1994-04-01

    The parallel- and perpendicular-polarized Raman spectra of (1 - x)K 2O · xM 2/zz+O · 4SiO 2e glasses are presented, where M is one of the Period V cations Rb +, Sr 2+, Y 3+ or Zr 4+. These compositions represent the equal-oxygen substitution of a Period V cation for K +, which preserves the ratio of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) to Si atoms but not, in general, the ratio of all oxygen to all cations. Rb + and K + occupy very similar sites and appear to share the same NBO with virtually no energetic penalty. As the valence of the Period V cation increases, so does the tendency of the cation to form silicate species that are depolymerized relative to the species dominating the structure of the bulk glass. The tendency to form regions comparatively rich in Si-O-Si bonds increases in the same sense. The dominant silicate species are those with 0 or 1 NBO in all glasses. The spectra indicate that K+ shares NBO with Rb + or Sr 2+, that there is relatively little sharing of NBO by K + and Y 3+, and that K + and Zr 4+ share the same NBO in what appears to be a nearly fixed bulk stoichiometric K:Zr ratio of 2:1. The latter provides a mechanism for the substantial increase in ZrO 2 solubility seen in peralkaline liquids. A novel means of expressing homogeneous equilibria in silicate liquids is presented, whereby it is possible to make concrete predictions about the coordination numbers of cations in silicate liquids and to predict how they might be affected by the presence of other cations.

  16. Ionic conductivity of sodium silicate glasses grown within confined volume of mesoporous silica template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Soumi; Saha, Shyamal Kumar; Chakravorty, Dipankar

    2018-04-01

    Nanodimensional sodium silicate glasses of composition 30Na2O.70SiO2 has been prepared within the pores of 5.5 nm of mesoporous silica as a template using the surfactant P123. The nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity of the sample was studied by ac impedance spectroscopy. The activation energy for ionic conduction was found to be 0.13 eV with dc conductivity at room temperature of 10-6 S-cm-1. This is attributed to the creation of oxygen ion vacancies at the interface of mesoporous silica and nanoglass arising out of the presence of Si2+ species in the system. These nanocomposites are expected to be useful for applications in sodiumion battery for storage of renewable energy.

  17. High modulus rare earth and beryllium containing silicate glass compositions. [for glass reinforcing fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 16 million psi and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consisting essentially of approximately, by weight, 20 to 43% SiO2, 8 to 21% Al2O3, 4 to 10% BeO, 27 to 58% of at least one oxide selected from a first group consisting of Y2O3, La2O3, Nd2O3, Ce2O3, Ce2O3, and the mixed rare earth oxides, and 3 to 12% of at least one oxide selected from a second group consisting of MgO, ZrO2, ZnO and CaO are described. The molar ratio of BeO to the total content of the first group oxides is from 1.0 to 3.0.

  18. Structural environments of incompatible elements in silicate glass/melt systems: I. Zirconium at trace levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, Franã§Ois; Ponader, Carl W.; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    1991-06-01

    The structural environments of trace levels (2˜000 ppm) of Zr 4+ in several silicate glasses were examined as a function of melt composition and polymerization using Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Glass compositions investigated were albite (NaAlSi 3O 8: AB) and a peralkaline composition (Na 3.3AlSi 7O 17: PR)- Zirconium was added to the oxide-carbonate mix prior to melting in the form of ZrO 2 (baddeleyite). A second set of Zr-silicate glasses containing 2000 ppm Zr and 1.0 to 2.4 wt% halogens (F as NaF and Cl as NaCl) was also synthesized. These included the Zr-AB and Zr-PR base-glass compositions as well as Zr-sodium trisilicate composition (Na2Si 3O 7: TS). In all glasses studied, Zr is mainly 6-coordinated by oxygen atoms ( d[Zr-O] ˜2.07 ± 0.01 Å). In the most polymerized glass (AB), a small but significant amount of Zr was also found to occur in 8-coordinated sites ( d[Zr-O] ˜2.22 Å). No clear evidence for F or Cl complexes of Zr was observed in any of the halogen-containing glasses. The regularity of the Zr site increases in the series AB < TS ˜PR. We attribute this change to an increase in the number of non-bridging oxygens in the first-coordination sphere of Zr related to the depolymerizing effects of halogens and/or sodium. Minor but significant interactions of Zr with the tetrahedral network were observed ( d[Zr-{Si, Al}] ˜3.65-3.71 Å ± 0.03 Å), which are consistent with Zr-O-{Si, Al} angles close to 160-170°, as in catapleiite (Na 2ZrSi 3O 9 · 2H 2O). Intermediaterange order, as reflected by the presence and number of second-neighbor {Si, Al} around Zr, increases significantly with increasing melt polymerization. The local environment around Zr is more strongly influenced by bonding requirements than by the network topology of the melt. Stabilization of zirconium in 6-coordinated sites in relatively depolymerized melts should act to decrease the crystal-melt partition coefficients of Zr and may explain the

  19. On the origin of the low-temperature band in depolarization current spectra of poled multicomponent silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunkov, P. N.; Kaasik, V. P.; Lipovskii, A. A.; Tagantsev, D. K.

    2018-04-01

    Thermally stimulated depolarization current spectra of poled silicate multicomponent glasses in the vicinity of room temperature (220-320 K) have been recorded and two bands, typical for such glasses, have been observed. It was shown that the high-temperature band (at about 290 K) is related to the relaxation of poled glass structure in the bulk, while the low-temperature band (at about 230-270 K) should be attributed to the surface phenomenon—absorption/desorption of positive species of ambient atmosphere, supposedly, water cluster ions H+(H2O)n.

  20. A Multi-spectroscopic Investigation of Sulphur Speciation in Silicate Glasses and Slags

    SciT

    Bingham, P.; Connelly, A; Hand, R

    2010-01-01

    Sulphur K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), sulphur K{sub {alpha}} and K{sub {beta}} high resolution x-ray emission spectroscopies (XES), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption spectroscopies have been used to study the speciation of sulphur in a range of soda-lime-silica glasses and silicate slags. Several inorganic standards with known sulphur oxidation states and structural environments have also been analysed. Results confirm that the average oxidation state of sulphur in glasses decreases, as expected, in the order (colourless>light olive>dark olive>light amber>dark amber). This behaviour is consistent with decreasing S{sup 6+}/{Sigma}S ratio, which has been quantified by linear combination fitting ofmore » XES S K{alpha} spectra, and with analysed sulphur contents which exhibit a characteristic relationship with oxygen partial pressure, pO{sub 2}. A combination of S{sup 6+}, S{sup 5+}, S{sup 4+} and more reduced sulphur species has been detected in olive and amber glasses. The S{sup 4+} and S{sup 5+} species are most evident in olive-coloured glasses produced under moderately reducing conditions that coincide with minimum sulphur solubilities. The reduced form of sulphur, present in all reduced glasses, is interpreted as being present as S{sup 2-} on the basis of XANES, XES, EPR and optical measurements. An alternative interpretation of the data is that there is a continuum of less strongly reduced species, primarily S{sup +} and S{sup 2+}; this interpretation has less merit. In this paper we show that the established relationship that describes sulphur redox only in terms of S{sup 6+} and S{sup 2-}, and which states that only these two species co-exist over a narrow, moderately reducing range of pO{sub 2}, does not fully describe the behaviour of S in the industrial, non-equilibrated glasses studied. Hence this relationship requires slight modification for non-equilibrated systems to explain the existence of

  1. Coordination chemistry of titanium (IV) in silicate glasses and melts: IV. XANES studies of synthetic and natural volcanic glasses and tektites at ambient temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, François; Brown, Gordon E.

    1997-05-01

    The coordination environment of Ti(IV) in seven natural and synthetic glasses of basaltic, trachytic, rhyolitic composition as well as four tektites has been studied using high-resolution Ti K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at ambient temperature and pressure. Pre-edge features of Ti K-edge XANES spectra for these glasses suggest that [5]Ti is the dominant Ti coordination in all volcanic glasses. However, in the less polymerized glasses studied (basaltic and trachytic), [6]Ti is also important (30-50% of the total Ti) but [4]Ti was not detected. In contrast, [4]Ti is important in the most polymerized glasses (rhyolites and tektites) (from 30 to 60% of the total Ti depending on NBO/T) with [6]Ti below the detection level (≈10 at%). The local structure around Ti in the natural volcanic glasses is similar to that observed in compositionally similar synthetic silicate glasses and also in Ti-bearing silicate glass and melts with simpler compositions. The presence of F, Cl, and H 2O does not appear to affect the coordination of Ti, based on Ti K-edge XANES measurements of natural glasses bearing these volatile components. In contrast, the presence of nonbridging oxygens (produced by network modifiers) favors [5]Ti in these glass/melts. In parallel, [4]Ti is important when nonbridging oxygens are at small concentrations (NBO/T < 0.1). [6]Ti is detected (i.e., when present >10% of the total Ti) when alkaline-earths are dominant over alkalis, in agreement with bond-valence predictions for Ti-bearing silicate glass/melts below TiO 2 saturation. The abundance of [5]Ti in these silicate glasses (and presumably their melts) is in sharp contrast with the rarity of this Ti coordination state in common rock-forming minerals. Titanium cannot readily enter the structure of most rock-forming minerals, because it is present dominantly as titanyl-bearing ( [5]TiO) units in most natural magmas. In contrast, [6]Ti and [4]Ti (present, respectively, in

  2. Modifier cation effects on (29)Si nuclear shielding anisotropies in silicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Baltisberger, Jay H; Florian, Pierre; Keeler, Eric G; Phyo, Pyae A; Sanders, Kevin J; Grandinetti, Philip J

    2016-07-01

    We have examined variations in the (29)Si nuclear shielding tensor parameters of SiO4 tetrahedra in a series of seven alkali and alkaline earth silicate glass compositions, Cs2O·4.81 SiO2, Rb2O·3.96 SiO2, Rb2O·2.25 SiO2, K2O·4.48 SiO2, Na2O·4.74 SiO2, BaO·2.64 SiO2, and SrO·2.36 SiO2, using natural abundance (29)Si two-dimensional magic-angle flipping (MAF) experiments. Our analyses of these 2D spectra reveal a linear dependence of the (29)Si nuclear shielding anisotropy of Q((3)) sites on the Si-non-bridging oxygen bond length, which in turn depends on the cation potential and coordination of modifier cations to the non-bridging oxygen. We also demonstrate how a combination of Cu(2+) as a paramagnetic dopant combined with echo train acquisition can reduce the total experiment time of (29)Si 2D NMR measurements by two orders of magnitude, enabling higher throughput 2D NMR studies of glass structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modifier cation effects on 29Si nuclear shielding anisotropies in silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltisberger, Jay H.; Florian, Pierre; Keeler, Eric G.; Phyo, Pyae A.; Sanders, Kevin J.; Grandinetti, Philip J.

    2016-07-01

    We have examined variations in the 29Si nuclear shielding tensor parameters of SiO4 tetrahedra in a series of seven alkali and alkaline earth silicate glass compositions, Cs2O · 4.81 SiO2, Rb2O · 3.96 SiO2, Rb2O · 2.25 SiO2, K2O · 4.48 SiO2, Na2O · 4.74 SiO2, BaO · 2.64 SiO2, and SrO · 2.36 SiO2, using natural abundance 29Si two-dimensional magic-angle flipping (MAF) experiments. Our analyses of these 2D spectra reveal a linear dependence of the 29Si nuclear shielding anisotropy of Q(3) sites on the Si-non-bridging oxygen bond length, which in turn depends on the cation potential and coordination of modifier cations to the non-bridging oxygen. We also demonstrate how a combination of Cu2+ as a paramagnetic dopant combined with echo train acquisition can reduce the total experiment time of 29Si 2D NMR measurements by two orders of magnitude, enabling higher throughput 2D NMR studies of glass structure.

  4. Photo-acoustic spectroscopy and quantum efficiency of Yb{sup 3+} doped alumino silicate glasses

    SciT

    Kuhn, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kuhn84@googlemail.com; Tiegel, Mirko; Herrmann, Andreas

    2015-09-14

    In this contribution, we analyze the effect of several preparation methods of Yb{sup 3+} doped alumino silicate glasses on their quantum efficiency by using photo-acoustic measurements in comparison to standard measurement methods including the determination via the fluorescence lifetime and an integrating sphere setup. The preparation methods focused on decreasing the OH concentration by means of fluorine-substitution and/or applying dry melting atmospheres, which led to an increase in the measured fluorescence lifetime. However, it was found that the influence of these methods on radiative properties such as the measured fluorescence lifetime alone does not per se give exact information aboutmore » the actual quantum efficiency of the sample. The determination of the quantum efficiency by means of fluorescence lifetime shows inaccuracies when refractive index changing elements such as fluorine are incorporated into the glass. Since fluorine not only eliminates OH from the glass but also increases the “intrinsic” radiative fluorescence lifetime, which is needed to calculate the quantum efficiency, it is difficult to separate lifetime quenching from purely radiative effects. The approach used in this contribution offers a possibility to disentangle radiative from non-radiative properties which is not possible by using fluorescence lifetime measurements alone and allows an accurate determination of the quantum efficiency of a given sample. The comparative determination by an integrating sphere setup leads to the well-known problem of reabsorption which embodies itself in the measurement of too low quantum efficiencies, especially for samples with small quantum efficiencies.« less

  5. Computational modelling of large deformations in layered-silicate/PET nanocomposites near the glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figiel, Łukasz; Dunne, Fionn P. E.; Buckley, C. Paul

    2010-01-01

    Layered-silicate nanoparticles offer a cost-effective reinforcement for thermoplastics. Computational modelling has been employed to study large deformations in layered-silicate/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nanocomposites near the glass transition, as would be experienced during industrial forming processes such as thermoforming or injection stretch blow moulding. Non-linear numerical modelling was applied, to predict the macroscopic large deformation behaviour, with morphology evolution and deformation occurring at the microscopic level, using the representative volume element (RVE) approach. A physically based elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model, describing the behaviour of the PET matrix within the RVE, was numerically implemented into a finite element solver (ABAQUS) using an UMAT subroutine. The implementation was designed to be robust, for accommodating large rotations and stretches of the matrix local to, and between, the nanoparticles. The nanocomposite morphology was reconstructed at the RVE level using a Monte-Carlo-based algorithm that placed straight, high-aspect ratio particles according to the specified orientation and volume fraction, with the assumption of periodicity. Computational experiments using this methodology enabled prediction of the strain-stiffening behaviour of the nanocomposite, observed experimentally, as functions of strain, strain rate, temperature and particle volume fraction. These results revealed the probable origins of the enhanced strain stiffening observed: (a) evolution of the morphology (through particle re-orientation) and (b) early onset of stress-induced pre-crystallization (and hence lock-up of viscous flow), triggered by the presence of particles. The computational model enabled prediction of the effects of process parameters (strain rate, temperature) on evolution of the morphology, and hence on the end-use properties.

  6. Effect of iron particle size and volume fraction on the magnetic properties of Fe/silicate glass soft magnetic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wei; Jiang, Longtao; Liao, Yaqin; Song, Jiabin; Li, Bingqing; Wu, Gaohui

    2015-03-01

    Fe/silicate glass soft magnetic composites (SMC) were fabricated by powder metallurgy with 1000 MPa pressure at room temperature, and then annealed at 700 °C for 90 min. The iron particles distributed uniformly in the composites, and have been separated from each other by a continuous silicate glass insulating layer. Fe/glass interface was well bonded and a quasi-continuous layer Fe3O4 and FeO exited. Very fine crystalline phases Na12Ca3Fe2(Si6O18)2 were formed in silicate glass. Composite containing 57 vol% 75 μm iron particles demonstrated highest resistivity of 7.8×10-3 Ω m. The μm, Bs and Bt increased while Hc of Fe/silicate glass composites decreased with the increase of average size of iron particles. The composite with highest amount (82 vol%) and largest average size (140 μm) of iron particles demonstrated best μm, Bs and Bt and Hc, which were 622, 1.57 T, 1.43 T, 278 A/m, respectively. The composite containing 57 vol% 75 μm iron particles demonstrated minimum core loss of 3.5 W/kg at 50 Hz and 28.1 W/kg at 400 Hz, while the composite containing 82 vol% 140 μm iron particles exhibited maximum core loss of 5.2 W/kg at 50 Hz and 67.7 W/kg at 400 Hz.

  7. Effect of antimony-oxide on the shielding properties of some sodium-boro-silicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Zoulfakar, A M; Abdel-Ghany, A M; Abou-Elnasr, T Z; Mostafa, A G; Salem, S M; El-Bahnaswy, H H

    2017-09-01

    Some sodium-silicate-boro-antimonate glasses having the molecular composition [(20) Na 2 O - (20) SiO 2 - (60-x) B 2 O 3 - (x) Sb 2 O 3 (where x takes the values 0, 5 … or 20)] have been prepared by the melt quenching method. The melting and annealing temperatures were 1500 and 650K respectively. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the experimental and empirical density and molar volume values showed gradual increase with increasing Sb 2 O 3 content. The empirical densities showed higher values than those obtained experimentally, while the empirical molar volume values appeared lower than those obtained experimentally, which confirm the amorphous nature and randomness character of the studied samples. The experimentally obtained shielding parameters were approximately coincident with those obtained theoretically by applying WinXCom program. At low gamma-ray energies (0.356 and 0.662MeV) Sb 2 O 3 has approximately no effect on the total Mass Attenuation Coefficient, while at high energies it acts to increase the total Mass Attenuation Coefficient gradually. The obtained Half Value Layer and Mean Free Path values showed gradual decrease as Sb 2 O 3 was gradually increased. Also, the Total Mass Attenuation Coefficient values obtained between about 0.8 and 3.0MeV gamma-ray energy showed a slight decrease, as gamma-ray photon energy increased. This may be due to the differences between the Attenuation Coefficients of both antimony and boron oxides at various gamma-ray photon energies. However, it can be stated that the addition of Sb 2 O 3 into sodium-boro-silicate glasses increases the gamma-ray Attenuation Coefficient and the best sample is that contains 20 mol% of Sb 2 O 3 , which is operating well at 0.356 and 0.662MeV gamma-ray. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Barium and manganese-doped zinc silicate rods prepared by mesoporous template route and their luminescence property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Lingyan; Tian, Chen; Zhao, Shifeng; Lu, Qingshan

    2018-06-01

    Barium and manganese-doped zinc silicates was prepared under hydrothermal treatment by mesoporous template route employing mesoporous silica as an active template. The sample displays a rod-like morphology with a mean diameter of ∼40 nm and a mean length of ∼450 nm, which inherits the characteristics of mesoporous silica. The individual rods show single crystalline and assemble into bundle-like hierarchical structure along the channels of the mesoporous silica. When barium ions together with manganese ions are co-doped in zinc silicate, the green emission corresponding to manganese ions display a significant enhancement, especially for the sample with the barium doping concentration of 0.08, which indicates that an energy transfer from barium to manganese ions takes place. With further increasing barium concentration from 0.08 to 0.10, the recombination between the defects related to barium and the excitation states of the manganese dominates accompanying non-radiative transitions which can reduce the emission efficiency.

  9. Cluster formation of network-modifier cations in cesium silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardón-Álvarez, Daniel; Sanders, Kevin J.; Phyo, Pyae; Baltisberger, Jay H.; Grandinetti, Philip J.

    2018-03-01

    Natural abundance 29Si two-dimensional magic-angle flipping (2D MAF) NMR spectra were measured in a series of ten cesium silicate glass compositions xCs2O.(1 - x)SiO2, where x is 0.067, 0.113, 0.175, 0.179, 0.218, 0.234, 0.263, 0.298, 0.31, and 0.36. The Q3 shielding anisotropy decreases with increasing Cs content—interpreted as an increase in the non-bridging oxygen (NBO) bond length from increasing Cs coordination (clustering) around the NBO. The 29Si 2D MAF spectra for four glass compositions x = 0.218, 0.234, 0.263, 0.298 exhibit a second co-existing and distinctly smaller shielding anisotropy corresponding to a significantly longer Si-NBO length arising from a higher degree of Cs clustering around the NBO. This second Q3 site appears at a Cs2O mole fraction close to the critical mole fraction of x = 0.24 associated with the percolation threshold of non-bridging oxygen in random close packing of oxygen, thus suggesting that the longer Si-NBO length is associated with an infinite size spanning cluster while the sites with larger anisotropies are associated with shorter Si-NBO lengths and belong to finite size clusters. The equilibrium constant of the Q3 disproportionation reaction was determined as k3 = 0.005, indicating a Qn anionic species distribution close to a binary model as expected for a low field strength modifier such as cesium. It is also found that evolution of the isotropic Q4 and line shapes with increasing Cs content are consistent with a random connectivity model between Qn of differing number of bridging oxygen, n.

  10. Bone regeneration in rat calvarial defects implanted with fibrous scaffolds composed of a mixture of silicate and borate bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yifei; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the capacity of porous scaffolds composed of a single bioactive glass to regenerate bone. In the present study, scaffolds composed of a mixture of two different bioactive glasses (silicate 13-93 and borate 13-93B3) were created and evaluated for their response to osteogenic MLO-A5 cells in vitro and their capacity to regenerate bone in rat calvarial defects in vivo. The scaffolds, which have similar microstructures (porosity=58-67%) and contain 0, 25, 50 and 100 wt.% 13-93B3 glass, were fabricated by thermally bonding randomly oriented short fibers. The silicate 13-93 scaffolds showed a better capacity to support cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity than the scaffolds containing borate 13-93B3 fibers. The amount of new bone formed in the defects implanted with the 13-93 scaffolds at 12 weeks was 31%, compared to values of 25, 17 and 20%, respectively, for the scaffolds containing 25, 50 and 100% 13-93B3 glass. The amount of new bone formed in the 13-93 scaffolds was significantly higher than in the scaffolds containing 50 and 100% 13-93B3 glass. While the 13-93 fibers were only partially converted to hydroxyapatite at 12 weeks, the 13-93B3 fibers were fully converted and formed a tubular morphology. Scaffolds composed of an optimized mixture of silicate and borate bioactive glasses could provide the requisite architecture to guide bone regeneration combined with a controllable degradation rate that could be beneficial for bone and tissue healing. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pressure-induced nano-crystallization of silicate garnets from glass

    PubMed Central

    Irifune, T.; Kawakami, K.; Arimoto, T.; Ohfuji, H.; Kunimoto, T.; Shinmei, T.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are important for scientific and industrial applications because of the superior optical and mechanical properties. It has been suggested that optical transparency and mechanical strength are substantially enhanced if transparent ceramics with nano-crystals are available. However, synthesis of the highly transparent nano-crystalline ceramics has been difficult using conventional sintering techniques at relatively low pressures. Here we show direct conversion from bulk glass starting material in mutianvil high-pressure apparatus leads to pore-free nano-polycrystalline silicate garnet at pressures above ∼10 GPa in a limited temperature range around 1,400 °C. The synthesized nano-polycrystalline garnet is optically as transparent as the single crystal for almost the entire visible light range and harder than the single crystal by ∼30%. The ultrahigh-pressure conversion technique should provide novel functional ceramics having various crystal structures, including those of high-pressure phases, as well as ideal specimens for some mineral physics applications. PMID:27924866

  12. Alkali Silicate Glass Coatings for Mitigating the Risks of Tin Whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, Dave; Wilcoxon, Ross; Lower, Nate; Grossman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Alkali silicate glass (ASG) coatings were investigated as a possible method for inhibiting tin whisker initiation and growth. The aqueous-based ASG formulations used in this study were deposited with equipment and conditions that are typical of those used to apply conventional conformal coatings. Processes for controlling ASG coating properties were developed, and a number of ASG-based coating combinations were applied to test components with pure tin surfaces. Coatings were applied both in a laboratory environment at Rockwell Collins and in a manufacturing environment at Plasma Ruggedized Solutions. Testing in elevated humidity/temperature environments and subsequent inspection of the test articles identified coating combinations that inhibited tin whisker growth as well as other material combinations that actually accelerated tin whisker growth. None of the coatings evaluated in this study, including conventional acrylic and Parylene conformal coatings, completely prevented the formation of tin whiskers. Two of the coatings were particularly effective at reducing the risks of whisker growth, albeit through different mechanisms. Parylene conformal coating almost, but not completely, eliminated whisker formation, and only a few tin whiskers were found on these surfaces during the study. A composite of ASG and alumina nanoparticles inhibited whisker formation to a lesser degree than Parylene, but did disrupt whisker growth mechanisms so as to inhibit the formation of long, and more dangerous, tin whiskers. Additional testing also demonstrated that the conformal coatings had relatively little effect on the dielectric loss of a stripline test structure operating at frequencies over 30 GHz.

  13. Raman scattering boson peak and differential scanning calorimetry studies of the glass transition in tellurium-zinc oxide glasses.

    PubMed

    Stavrou, E; Tsiantos, C; Tsopouridou, R D; Kripotou, S; Kontos, A G; Raptis, C; Capoen, B; Bouazaoui, M; Turrell, S; Khatir, S

    2010-05-19

    Raman scattering and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements have been carried out on four mixed tellurium-zinc oxide (TeO(2))(1 - x)(ZnO)(x) (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) glasses under variable temperature, with particular attention being given to the respective glass transition region. From the DSC measurements, the glass transition temperature T(g) has been determined for each glass, showing a monotonous decrease of T(g) with increasing ZnO content. The Raman study is focused on the low-frequency band of the glasses, the so-called boson peak (BP), whose frequency undergoes an abrupt decrease at a temperature T(d) very close to the respective T(g) values obtained by DSC. These results show that the BP is highly sensitive to dynamical effects over the glass transition and provides a means for an equally reliable (to DSC) determination of T(g) in tellurite glasses and other network glasses. The discontinuous temperature dependence of the BP frequency at the glass transition, along with the absence of such a behaviour by the high-frequency Raman bands (due to local atomic vibrations), indicates that marked changes of the medium range order (MRO) occur at T(g) and confirms the correlation between the BP and the MRO of glasses.

  14. Tetrahedrally Coordinated Fe3+ in Silicate Glasses: A Mossbauer, Iron K-edge XANES and Raman Spectroscopies Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochain, B.; Neuville, D. R.; McCammon, C.; Henderson, G. S.; de Ligny, D.; Pinet, O.; Richet, P.

    2009-05-01

    In natural or industrial glasses, iron is the most abundant transition metal. A good knowledge of its redox equilibrium is important to better understand the chemical and structural evolution of magmas (crystallization, viscosity), and also to optimize vitrification processes and properties of iron-bearing glasses. To study the role of iron in silicate glasses and melts, we have used in a consistent manner the Mössbauer, iron K-edge XANES and Raman spectroscopies to investigate several series of silicate glasses as a function of redox state. The samples were selected to cover a wide composition range and to investigate the interactions of iron with two network forming cations, namely, Al3+ and B3+. The glasses investigated were synthesized at high temperature under various conditions of oxygen fugacity to achieve different redox ratios for each composition. Therefore, the iron redox state was varied from the most oxidized to the most reduced. Iron redox ratios were first determined by wet chemical analysis and in some cases by room temperature Mossbauer spectroscopy. This experimental method was also used to determine the local structure of iron of some of the investigated glasses. These results where compared to iron K-edge XANES/EXAFS spectroscopy results, which lead to the iron redox state and indicate that Fe2+ is in octahedral coordination whereas Fe3+ is in tetrahedral coordination. In addition, Raman spectroscopy gave us information on the network polymerization of glasses. Clearly changes in Raman spectra are visible with the evolution of iron redox ratio. For a given composition, we observed systematically, in the 800-1200 cm-1 envelope, which is sensitive to the environment of tetrahedrally coordinated cations, the growth of a band with the iron content and the oxidation state of the sample. The peak area of this band, which we attribute to vibrational modes involving tetrahedrally coordinated Fe3+, increases with the oxidation of the sample. This

  15. Manganese modified structural and optical properties of zinc soda lime silica glasses.

    PubMed

    Samsudin, Nur Farhana; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Wahab, Zaidan Abdul; Fen, Yap Wing; Liew, Josephine Ying Chi; Lim, Way Foong; Mohd Zaid, Mohd Hafiz; Omar, Nur Alia Sheh

    2016-03-20

    A series of MnO-doped zinc soda lime silica glass systems was prepared by a conventional melt and quenching technique. In this study, the x-ray diffraction analysis was applied to confirm the amorphous nature of the glasses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows the glass network consists of MnO4, SiO4, and ZnO4 units as basic structural units. The glass samples under field emission scanning electron microscopy observation demonstrated irregularity in shape and size with glassy phase-like structure. The optical absorption studies revealed that the optical bandgap (Eopt) values decrease with an increase of MnO content. Through the results of various measurements, the doping of MnO in the glass matrix had effects on the performance of the glasses and significantly improved the properties of the glass sample as a potential host for phosphor material.

  16. Tb3+ and Eu3+ doped zinc phosphate glasses for solid state lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Kaushal; Vishwakarma, Amit K.; Jayasimhadri, M.; Haranath, D.; Jang, Kiwan

    2018-04-01

    Tb3+ and Eu3+ doped zinc phosphate (ZP) glasses were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique and their photoluminescence properties were investigated in detail. For, Tb3+ doped glasses the intense emission was at 545 nm corresponding to 5D4→7F5 transition under 377 nm n-UV excitation. The optimized concentration for Tb3+ doped zinc phosphate glass was 3 mol% and above this concentration quenching takes place. The Eu3+ doped zinc phosphate glass revealed intense emission at 613 nm attributed to the 5D0→7F2 transition under intense 392 nm n-UV excitation. The concentration quenching phenomenon was not observed in the Eu3+ doped ZP glasses. The CIE chromaticity coordinates for 3 mol% Tb3+ and 5 mol% Eu3+ doped ZP glasses were found to (0.283, 0.615) and (0.652, 0.331) lying in the green and red regions, respectively. The above mentioned results indicate that the prepared glass are suitable for application in the field of lighting and display devices.

  17. Marginal Gaps between 2 Calcium Silicate and Glass Ionomer Cements and Apical Root Dentin.

    PubMed

    Biočanin, Vladimir; Antonijević, Đorđe; Poštić, Srđan; Ilić, Dragan; Vuković, Zorica; Milić, Marija; Fan, Yifang; Li, Zhiyu; Brković, Božidar; Đurić, Marija

    2018-05-01

    The outcome of periapical surgery has been directly improved with the introduction of novel material formulations. The aim of the study was to compare the retrograde obturation quality of the following materials: calcium silicate (Biodentine; Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA+; Cerkamed Company, Stalowa Wola, Poland), and glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX; GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Materials' wettability was calculated concerning the contact angles of the cements measured using a glycerol drop. Cements' porosity was determined using mercury intrusion porosimetry and micro-computed tomographic (μCT) imaging. Extracted upper human incisors were retrofilled, and μCT analysis was applied to calculate the volume of the gap between the retrograde filling material and root canal dentin. Experiments were performed before and after soaking the materials in simulated body fluid (SBF). No statistically significant differences were found among the contact angles of the studied materials after being soaked in SBF. The material with the lowest nanoporosity (Fuji IX: 2.99% and 4.17% before and after SBF, respectively) showed the highest values of microporosity (4.2% and 3.1% before and after SBF, respectively). Biodentine had the lowest value of microporosity (1.2% and 0.8% before and after SBF, respectively) and the lowest value of microgap to the root canal wall ([10 ± 30] × 10 -3  mm 3 ). Biodentine and MTA possess certain advantages over Fuji IX for hermetic obturation of retrograde root canals. Biodentine shows a tendency toward the lowest marginal gap at the cement-to-dentin interface. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pulse energy dependence of refractive index change in lithium niobium silicate glass during femtosecond laser direct writing.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing; Poumellec, Bertrand; Brisset, François; Lancry, Matthieu

    2018-03-19

    Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index changes in lithium niobium silicate glass were explored at high repetition rate (300 fs, 500 kHz) by polarized light microscopy, full-wave retardation plate, quantitative birefringence microscopy, and digital holographic microscopy. We found three regimes on energy increase. The first one corresponds to isotropic negative refractive index change (for pulse energy ranging 0.4-0.8 μJ/pulse, 0.6 NA, 5μm/s, 650μm focusing depth in the glass). The second one (0.8-1.2 μJ/pulse) corresponds to birefringence with well-defined slow axis orientation. The third one (above 1.2 μJ/pulse) is related to birefringence direction fluctuation. Interestingly, these regimes are consistent with crystallization ones. In addition, an asymmetric orientational writing effect has been detected on birefringence. These topics extend the possibility of controlling refractive index change in multi-component glasses.

  19. The peculiarity of the formation of zinc films on a glass substrate

    SciT

    Tomaev, V. V., E-mail: tvaza@mail.ru; Saint Petersburg Mining University, Russia, 199106, St. Petersburg, V.O., 21-st line, 2; Polishchuk, V. A., E-mail: vpvova2010@yandex.ru

    2016-06-17

    Thin Nanocrystalline films of the zinc have been fabricated by thermal spraying on the glass substrate. Morphologies and structure of the films had been investigated by the methods X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It is found that the surface of the films has a different types of the nanocrystals zinc. Were detected intergrowths of two or more the nanocrystals, hexagonal shape. Using the theory of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of a new phase, had been evaluated the geometrical and thermodynamic parameters nanocrystals zinc.

  20. Paleomagnetism and Mineralogy of Unusual Silicate Glasses and Baked Soils on the Surface of the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile: A Major Airburst Impact ~12ka ago?.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roperch, P. J.; Blanco, N.; Valenzuela, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Devouard, B.; Lorand, J. P.; Tomlinson, A. J.; Arriagada, C.; Rochette, P.

    2015-12-01

    Unusual silicate glasses were found in northern Chile in one of the driest place on earth, the Atacama Desert. The scoria-type melted rocks are littered on the ground at several localities distributed along a longitudinal band of about 50km. The silicate glasses have a stable natural remanent magnetization carried by fine-grained magnetite and acquired during cooling. At one locality, fine-grained overbank sediments were heated to form a 10 to 20 cm-thick layer of brick-type samples. Magnetic experiments on oriented samples demonstrate that the baked clays record a thermoremanent magnetization acquired in situ above 600°C down to more than 10cm depth and cooled under a normal polarity geomagnetic field with a paleointensity of 40μT. In some samples of the silicate glass, large grains of iron sulphides (troilite) are found in the glass matrix with numerous droplets of native iron, iron sulphides and iron phosphides indicating high temperature and strong redox conditions during melting. The paleomagnetic record of the baked clays and the unusual mineralogy of the silicate glasses indicate a formation mainly by in situ high temperature radiation. Paleomagnetic experiments and chemical analyses indicate that the silicate glasses are not fulgurite type rocks due to lightning events, nor volcanic glasses or even metallurgical slags related to mining activity. The existence of a well-developped baked clay layer indicates that the silicate glasses are not impact-related ejectas. The field, paleomagnetic and mineralogical observations support evidence for a thermal event likely related to a major airburst. The youngest calibrated 14C age on a charcoal sample closely associated with the glass indicates that the thermal event occurred around 12 to 13 ka BP. The good conservation of the surface effects of this thermal event in the Atacama Desert could provide a good opportunity to further estimate the threats posed by large asteroid airbursts.

  1. Aqueous solubility diagrams for cementitious waste stabilization systems. 3. Mechanism of zinc immobilizaton by calcium silicate hydrate.

    PubMed

    Tommaseo, C E; Kersten, M

    2002-07-01

    Zinc oxide was added during hydration of alite (C3S) as an analogue for solidification/stabilization by cement of metal-bearing hazardous waste. Curing of samples was stopped at various intervals between 8 h and 100 d, and the reaction products were analyzed by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS at Zn, Ca, and Si K-edges). Calcium zincate hydrate (CaZn2(OH)6 x 2H2O) initially formed together with calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) vanishes from X-ray diffractograms after 14 d, and no other crystalline Zn-bearing phase could be detected thereafter. EXAFS Zn K-edge data analysis reveals that Zn(O,OH)4 tetrahedra continue to determine the first shell coordination. However, a new Zn-Si bond appears in the second coordination shell as indicated by both Zn K-edge and Si K-edge EXAFS. Together with the Ca-Zn and Ca-Ca shells derived from the Ca K-edge EXAFS spectra, a structural model for the site occupation of Zn in CSH is proposed, whereby the Zn(O,OH)4 tetrahedra are bound in layer rather than interlayer positions substituting for the silicate bridging tetrahedra and/or at terminal silicate chain sites. This structural model enables ultimately the formulation of a thermodyamic Lippmann model to predict the aqueous solubility of Zn in solid solution with a CSH phase of a Ca/Si ratio fixed to unity.

  2. MAS-NMR studies of lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glasses and glass-ceramics having different Li 2O/Al 2O 3 ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthanarayanan, A.; Kothiyal, G. P.; Montagne, L.; Revel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Emergence of phases in lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glasses of composition (wt%) xLi 2O-71.7SiO 2-(17.7- x)Al 2O 3-4.9K 2O-3.2B 2O 3-2.5P 2O 5 (5.1≤ x≤12.6) upon heat treatment were studied. 29Si, 27Al, 31P and 11B MAS-NMR were employed for structural characterization of both LAS glasses and glass-ceramics. In glass samples, Al is found in tetrahedral coordination, while P exists mainly in the form of orthophosphate units. B exists as BO 3 and BO 4 units. 27Al NMR spectra show no change with crystallization, ruling out the presence of any Al containing phase. Contrary to X-ray diffraction studies carried out, 11B (high field 18.8 T) and 29Si NMR spectra clearly indicate the unexpected crystallization of a borosilicate phase (Li,K)BSi 2O 6, whose structure is similar to the aluminosilicate virgilite. Also, lithium disilicate (Li 2Si 2O 5), lithium metasilicate (Li 2SiO 3) and quartz (SiO 2) were identified in the 29Si NMR spectra of the glass-ceramics. 31P NMR spectra of the glass-ceramics revealed the presence of Li 3PO 4 and a mixed phase (Li,K) 3PO 4 at low alkali concentrations.

  3. Chemical Behavior of Sulfur in Minerals and Silicate Glasses Studied Using Inner Shell Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso Mori, R.; Paris, E.; Glatzel, P.; Giuli, G.; Scaillet, B.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the chemical behaviour of sulfur is of fundamental importance in explaining different geological mechanisms ranging from volcano-climatic interactions to the genesis of ore deposits. Understanding how sulphur behaves is also of great economic importance in industrial activities including glass-forming processes and the treatment of vitreous waste material from refuse incineration. The chemical behaviour of sulfur in minerals and glasses has been widely studied via X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, which probes the unoccupied density of states and thus provides information on the oxidation state and local structure of the species under study. However, the XANES spectral shape is influenced by various effects, namely the local symmetry, the ligand type, even up to high coordination spheres, and the valence electron occupation, making it difficult to systematically analyze the different spectral contributions. We use X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) as a complementary technique to avoid some of the inherent difficulties of XANES analysis, and to extract additional information on the electronic structure. The Kb lines, close to the K-edge, directly yield the p-density of occupied valence states, giving valuable information on the local coordination. We have compared XANES and Kb XES experimental data on sulfur- bearing minerals with ab initio quantum-chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), in order to visualize the molecular orbitals and to extract information about the chemical bonding in these compounds. The S Ka emission lines, which arise from 2p to 1s transitions, are expected to be mostly free from chemical bond effects except for small energy shifts that reflect the valence orbital electron population via screening effects. S Ka shifts can be readily used to determine the speciation of sulfur in silicate glasses. The electronic configuration of the sulfur atoms is obtained by calculating the

  4. A medium range order structural connection to the configurational heat capacity of borate-silicate mixed glasses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Smedskjaer, Morten M; Tao, Haizheng; Jensen, Lars R; Zhao, Xiujian; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2016-04-28

    It has been reported that the configurational heat capacity (C(p,conf)) first increases and then becomes saturated with increasing B2O3/SiO2 ratio in borate-silicate mixed glasses. Through Raman spectroscopy measurements, we have, in this work, found an implication for the intermediate range order (IRO) structural connection to the composition dependence of the C(p,conf) of borate-silicate mixed glasses. In the silica-rich compositions, the C(p,conf) rapidly increases with increasing B2O3 content. This is attributed to the increase of the content of the B-O-Si network units ([B2Si2O8](2-)) and 6-membered borate rings with 1 or 2 B(4). In the boron-rich compositions, the C(p,conf) is almost constant, independent of the increase in the B2O3/SiO2 ratio. This is likely attributed to the counteraction between the decrease of the fraction of two types of metaborate groups and the increase of the fraction of other borate superstructural units (particularly 6-membered borate rings). The overall results suggest that the glasses containing more types of superstructural units have a larger C(p,conf).

  5. Constituent elements and their distribution in the radioactive Cs-bearing silicate glass microparticles released from Fukushima nuclear plant.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Segawa, Hiroyo; Mukai, Hiroki; Motai, Satoko; Akiyama-Hasegawa, Kotone; Mitome, Masanori; Hara, Toru; Yaita, Tsuyoshi

    2016-10-01

    Microparticles of radioactive cesium (Cs)-bearing silicate glass emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant were investigated mainly using state-of-the-art energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopes. Precise elemental maps of the particles were obtained using double silicon drift detectors with a large collection angle of X-rays, and qualitative elemental analysis was performed using high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with a microcalorimetry detector. Beside the substantial elements (O, Si, Cl, K, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sn and Cs) as previously reported, Mn and Ba were also common, though their amounts were small. The atomic ratios of the substantial elements were not the same but varied among individual particles. Fe and Zn were relatively homogeneously distributed, whereas the concentration of alkali ions varied radially. Generally, Cs was rich and K and Rb were poor outward of the particles but the degree of such radial dependence was considerably different among the particles. A concentration of Sn on the particle surface was observed. High-resolution imaging indicated the formation of SnO 2 (cassiterite) nanocrystals on the surface. Synthesis of the bulk glass with a similar composition to the microparticles was attempted by quenching the silicate melt from ∼1600°C. However, homogeneous silicate glass like that of the microparticles could not be obtained due to the segregation of nano-spherules rich in Fe and Zn, suggesting that the microparticles were formed in a very specific condition in the nuclear reactor. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved.For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effects of rare-earth doping on femtosecond laser waveguide writing in zinc polyphosphate glass

    SciT

    Fletcher, Luke B.; Witcher, Jon J.; Troy, Neil

    We have investigated waveguide writing in Er-Yb doped zinc polyphosphate glass using a femtosecond laser with a repetition rate of 1 KHz. We find that fabrication of good waveguides requires a glass composition with an O/P ratio of 3.25. The dependence on laser writing parameters including laser fluence, focusing conditions, and scan speed is reported. Waveguide properties together with absorption and emission data indicate that these glasses can be used for the fabrication of compact, high gain amplifying devices.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of barium fluoride substituted zinc tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aishwarya, K.; Vinitha, G.; Varma, G. Sreevidya; Asokan, S.; Manikandan, N.

    2017-12-01

    Glasses in the TeO2-ZnO-BaF2 system were prepared by standard melt quenching technique and were characterized for their thermal, optical and structural properties. Samples were found to show good thermal stability with values ranging above 100 °C for all the compositions. Optical bandgap and refractive index values were calculated from linear optical measurements using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Infrared spectra showed the presence of hydroxyl groups in the glasses indicating that the effect of fluorine was negligible in removing the hydroxyl impurities for the experimental conditions and compositions used. Raman measurements showed the modification occurring in the glass network due to addition of barium fluoride in terms of increase in the formation of non-bridging oxygen atoms compared to strong Te-O-Te linkages in the glass matrix.

  8. Genesis of recent silicic magmatism in the Medicine Lake Highland, California - Evidence from cognate inclusions found at Little Glass Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertzman, S. A.; Williams, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Sparse, granular inclusions of early-formed minerals found within the Little Glass Mountain rhyolite flows in northern California are shown to provide a means of characterizing the physical conditions, at depth, beneath the Medicine Lake Highland during the latest phase of volcanic activity. Mineral compositions, in combination with thermodynamic calculations and experiments, suggest crystalization at a pressure of 5,200 bars within a 966-836 C temperature range; implying that mineral segregation and equilibration occurred at a depth of 15-18 km beneath the surface. In addition, mass balance calculations indicate that the Medicine Lake flow is a close approximation to the parental magma for the latest silicic lavas.

  9. Large-mode-area single-mode-output Neodymium-doped silicate glass all-solid photonic crystal fiber

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wentao; Chen, Danping; Qinling, Zhou; Hu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated a 45 μm core diameter Neodymium-doped all-solid silicate glass photonic crystal fiber laser with a single mode laser output. The structure parameters and modes information of the fiber are both demonstrated by theoretical calculations using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and experimental measurements. Maximum 0.8 W output power limited by launched pump power has been generated in 1064 nm with laser beam quality factor M2 1.18. PMID:26205850

  10. The impact of gallium content on degradation, bioactivity, and antibacterial potency of zinc borate bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Rahimnejad Yazdi, Alireza; Torkan, Lawrence; Stone, Wendy; Towler, Mark R

    2018-01-01

    Zinc borate glasses with increasing gallium content (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 Wt % Ga) were synthesized and their degradation, bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), and antibacterial properties were investigated. ICP measurements showed that increased gallium content in the glass resulted in increased gallium ion release and decreased release of other ions. Degradability declined with the addition of gallium, indicating the formation of more symmetric BO 3 units with three bridging oxygens and asymmetric BO 3 units with two bridging oxygens in the glass network as the gallium content in the series increased. The formation of amorphous CaP on the glass surface after 24 h of incubation in SBF was confirmed by SEM, XRD, and FTIR analyses. Finally, antibacterial evaluation of the glasses using the agar disc-diffusion method demonstrated that the addition of gallium increased the antibacterial potency of the glasses against P. aeruginosa (Gram-negative) while decreasing it against S. epidermidis (Gram-positive); considering the ion release trends, this indicates that the gallium ion is responsible for the glasses' antibacterial behavior against P. aeruginosa while the zinc ion controls the antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis. The statistical significance of the observed trends in the measurements were confirmed by applying the Kruskal-Wallis H Test. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 367-376, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Multidiffusion mechanisms for noble gases (He, Ne, Ar) in silicate glasses and melts in the transition temperature domain: Implications for glass polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalberti, Julien; Burnard, Pete; Laporte, Didier; Tissandier, Laurent; Neuville, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Noble gases are ideal probes to study the structure of silicate glasses and melts as the modifications of the silicate network induced by the incorporation of noble gases are negligible. In addition, there are systematic variations in noble gas atomic radii and several noble gas isotopes with which the influence of the network itself on diffusion may be investigated. Noble gases are therefore ideally suited to constrain the time scales of magma degassing and cooling. In order to document noble gas diffusion behavior in silicate glass, we measured the diffusivities of three noble gases (4He, 20Ne and 40Ar) and the isotopic diffusivities of two Ar isotopes (36Ar and 40Ar) in two synthetic basaltic glasses (G1 and G2; 20Ne and 36Ar were only measured in sample G1). These new diffusion results are used to re-interpret time scales of the acquisition of fractionated atmospheric noble gas signatures in pumices. The noble gas bearing glasses were synthesized by exposing the liquids to high noble gas partial pressures at high temperature and pressure (1750-1770 K and 1.2 GPa) in a piston-cylinder apparatus. Diffusivities were measured by step heating the glasses between 423 and 1198 K and measuring the fraction of gas released at each temperature step by noble gas mass spectrometry. In addition we measured the viscosity of G1 between 996 and 1072 K in order to determine the precise glass transition temperature and to estimate network relaxation time scales. The results indicate that, to a first order, that the smaller the size of the diffusing atom, the greater its diffusivity at a given temperature: D(He) > D(Ne) > D(Ar) at constant T. Significantly, the diffusivities of the noble gases in the glasses investigated do not display simple Arrhenian behavior: there are well-defined departures from Arrhenian behavior which occur at lower temperatures for He than for Ne or Ar. We propose that the non-Arrhenian behavior of noble gases can be explained by structural modifications

  12. Silicate glasses and sulfide melts in the ICDP-USGS Eyreville B core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, USA

    Belkin, H.E.; Horton, J. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Optical and electron-beam petrography of melt-rich suevite and melt-rock clasts from selected samples from the Eyreville B core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, reveal a variety of silicate glasses and coexisting sulfur-rich melts, now quenched to various sulfi de minerals (??iron). The glasses show a wide variety of textures, fl ow banding, compositions, devitrifi cation, and hydration states. Electron-microprobe analyses yield a compositional range of glasses from high SiO2 (>90 wt%) through a range of lower SiO2 (55-75 wt%) with no relationship to depth of sample. Some samples show spherical globules of different composition with sharp menisci, suggesting immiscibility at the time of quenching. Isotropic globules of higher interfacial tension glass (64 wt% SiO2) are in sharp contact with lower-surface-tension, high-silica glass (95 wt% SiO2). Immiscible glass-pair composition relationships show that the immiscibility is not stable and probably represents incomplete mixing. Devitrifi cation varies and some low-silica, high-iron glasses appear to have formed Fe-rich smectite; other glass compositions have formed rapid quench textures of corundum, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, magnetite, K-feldspar, plagioclase, chrome-spinel, and hercynite. Hydration (H2O by difference) varies from ~10 wt% to essentially anhydrous; high-SiO2 glasses tend to contain less H2O. Petrographic relationships show decomposition of pyrite and melting of pyrrhotite through the transformation series; pyrite? pyrrhotite? troilite??? iron. Spheres (~1 to ~50 ??m) of quenched immiscible sulfi de melt in silicate glass show a range of compositions and include phases such as pentlandite, chalcopyrite, Ni-As, monosulfi de solid solution, troilite, and rare Ni-Fe. Other sulfi de spheres contain small blebs of pure iron and exhibit a continuum with increasing iron content to spheres that consist of pure iron with small, remnant blebs of Fe-sulfi de. The Ni-rich sulfi de phases can be explained by

  13. Accurate predictions of iron redox state in silicate glasses: A multivariate approach using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciT

    Dyar, M. Darby; McCanta, Molly; Breves, Elly

    2016-03-01

    Pre-edge features in the K absorption edge of X-ray absorption spectra are commonly used to predict Fe3+ valence state in silicate glasses. However, this study shows that using the entire spectral region from the pre-edge into the extended X-ray absorption fine-structure region provides more accurate results when combined with multivariate analysis techniques. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) regression technique yields %Fe3+ values that are accurate to ±3.6% absolute when the full spectral region is employed. This method can be used across a broad range of glass compositions, is easily automated, and is demonstrated to yield accurate resultsmore » from different synchrotrons. It will enable future studies involving X-ray mapping of redox gradients on standard thin sections at 1 × 1 μm pixel sizes.« less

  14. Accurate predictions of iron redox state in silicate glasses: A multivariate approach using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciT

    Dyar, M. Darby; McCanta, Molly; Breves, Elly

    2016-03-01

    Pre-edge features in the K absorption edge of X-ray absorption spectra are commonly used to predict Fe 3+ valence state in silicate glasses. However, this study shows that using the entire spectral region from the pre-edge into the extended X-ray absorption fine-structure region provides more accurate results when combined with multivariate analysis techniques. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) regression technique yields %Fe 3+ values that are accurate to ±3.6% absolute when the full spectral region is employed. This method can be used across a broad range of glass compositions, is easily automated, and is demonstrated to yieldmore » accurate results from different synchrotrons. It will enable future studies involving X-ray mapping of redox gradients on standard thin sections at 1 × 1 μm pixel sizes.« less

  15. Sensitivity of novel silicate and borate-based glass structures on in vitro bioactivity and degradation behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Elena; Bretcanu, Oana; Marshall, Martyn; Dalgarno, Kenneth W

    2017-10-15

    Three novel glass compositions, identified as NCL2 (SiO 2 -based), NCL4 (B 2 O 3 -based) and NCL7 (SiO 2 -based), along with apatite-wollastonite (AW) were processed to form sintered dense pellets, and subsequently evaluated for their in vitro bioactive potential, resulting physico-chemical properties and degradation rate. Microstructural analysis showed the carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCA) precipitate morphology following SBF testing to be composition-dependent. AW and the NCL7 formulation exhibited greater HCA precursor formation than the NCL2 and NCL4-derived pellets. Moreover, the NCL4 borate-based samples showed the highest biodegradation rate; with silicate-derived structures displaying the lowest weight loss after SBF immersion. The results of this study suggested that glass composition has significant influence on apatite-forming ability and also degradation rate, indicating the possibility to customise the properties of this class of materials towards the bone repair and regeneration process.

  16. Kinetic D/H fractionation during hydration and dehydration of silicate glasses, melts and nominally anhydrous minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskosz, M.; Deloule, E.; Ingrin, J.; Depecker, C.; Laporte, D.; Merkel, S.; Remusat, L.; Leroux, H.

    2018-07-01

    The distribution of hydrogen isotopes during diffusion-driven aqueous processes in silicate glasses, melts and crystals was investigated. Hydration/dehydration experiments were performed on silica glasses at 1000 °C and 1 bar total pressure. Dehydration triggered by decompression-driven bubble nucleation and growth was performed on rhyolitic melts at 800 °C and a few hundred MPa. Hydrogen extraction from a nominally anhydrous mineral (grossular) single crystal was carried out at 800 °C and ambient pressure. After these three series of experiments, pronounced water (sensu lato) concentration profiles were observed in all recovered samples. In the grossular single-crystal, a large spatial variation in H isotopes (δD variation > 550‰) was measured across the sample. This isotopic distribution correlates with the hydrogen extraction profile. The fit to the data suggests an extreme decoupling between hydrogen and deuterium diffusion coefficients (DH and DD respectively), akin to the decoupling expected in a dilute ideal gas (DH/DD ≈ 1.41). Conversely, no measurable spatially- and time-resolved isotopic variations were measured in silicate glasses and melts. This contrasted behavior of hydrogen isotopes likely stands in the different water speciation and solution mechanisms in the three different materials. Glasses and melts contain essentially hydroxyl and molecular water groups but the mobile species is molecular water in both cases. Protonated defects make up most of the water accommodated in grossular and other nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM). These defects are also the mobile species that diffuse against polarons. These results are crucial to accurately model the degassing behavior of terrestrial and lunar magmas and to derive the initial D/H of water trapped in fluid inclusions commonly analyzed in mantle NAMs, which suffered complex geological histories.

  17. Experimental and theoretical study of the structural environment of magnesium in minerals and silicate glasses using X-ray absorption near-edge structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trcera, Nicolas; Cabaret, Delphine; Rossano, Stéphanie; Farges, François; Flank, Anne-Marie; Lagarde, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Mg K-edge is used to obtain information on magnesium environment in minerals, silicate and alumino-silicate glasses. First-principles XANES calculations are performed for minerals using a plane-wave density functional formalism with core-hole effects treated in a supercell approach. The good agreement obtained between experimental and theoretical spectra provides useful information to interpret the spectral features. With the help of calculation, the position of the first peak of XANES spectra is related to both coordination and polyhedron distortion changes. In alumino-silicate glasses, magnesium is found to be mainly 5-fold coordinated to oxygen whatever the aluminum saturation index value. In silicate glasses, magnesium coordination increases from 4 in Cs-, Rb- and K-bearing glasses to 5 in Na- and Li-bearing glasses but remains equal as the polymerization degree of the glass varies. The variation of the C feature (position and intensity) is strongly related to the alkali type providing information on the medium range order.

  18. Molar volume, excess enthalpy, and Prigogine-Defay ratio of some silicate glasses with different (P,T) histories.

    PubMed

    Wondraczek, Lothar; Behrens, Harald

    2007-10-21

    Structural relaxation in silicate glasses with different (p,T) histories was experimentally examined by differential scanning calorimetry and measurements of molar volume under ambient pressure. Temperature and pressure-dependent rates of changes in molar volume and generation of excess enthalpy were determined for sodium trisilicate, soda lime silicate, and sodium borosilicate (NBS) compositions. From the derived data, Prigogine-Defay ratios are calculated and discussed. Changes of excess enthalpy are governed mainly by changes in short-range structure, as is shown for NBS where boron coordination is highly sensitive to pressure. For all three glasses, it is shown how the relaxation functions that underlie volume, enthalpy, and structural relaxation decouple for changes in cooling rates and pressure of freezing, respectively. The magnitude of the divergence between enthalpy and volume may be related to differences in structural sensitivity to changes in the (p,V,T,t) space on different length scales. The findings suggest that the Prigogine-Defay ratio is related to the magnitude of the discussed decoupling effect.

  19. Red light emission from europium doped zinc sodium bismuth borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Vinod; Viswanath, C. S. Dwaraka; Upadhyaya, Vyasa; Mahato, K. K.; Kamath, Sudha D.

    2017-12-01

    Zinc sodium bismuth borate (ZNBB) glasses doped with different concentrations of europium were prepared by conventional melt quenching method and characterized through the measurements of density, refractive index, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra, optical absorption, luminescence and radiative lifetimes. FTIR spectra showed seven characteristic peaks of bismuth and borate functional groups in the range of 400-1600 cm-1. The optical band gap and bonding parameters have been calculated from absorption spectra. Photoluminescence spectra recorded in the visible region with 394 nm excitation are used to calculate the Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ω2 and Ω4). The JO intensity parameters have been used to calculate the radiative parameters such as branching ratio (β), stimulated emission cross-section (σse), transition probability (A) for the fluorescent level of 5D0→7F2. Decay rates through single exponential are used to calculate the lifetime (τm) of the meta-stable state 5D0 of (Eu3+ ion) these glasses. The radiative parameters measured for all these glasses show 0.7 mol% europium doped zinc sodium bismuth borate glass 5D0→7F2 transition has the potential for red laser applications. The quality of the colour emitted by the present glasses are estimated quantitatively by CIE chromaticity coordinates, which confirms the suitability of these glasses as a red emitting material for field emission technologies and LEDs.

  20. Nucleation and Crystallization as Induced by Bending Stress in Lithium Silicate Glass Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reis, Signo T.; Kim, Cheol W.; Brow, Richard K.; Ray, Chandra S.

    2003-01-01

    Glass Fibers of Li2O.2SiO2 (LS2) and Li2O.1.6SiO2 (LS1.6) compositions were heated near, but below, the glass transition temperature for different times while subjected to a constant bending stress of about 1.2 GPa. The nucleation density and the crystallization tendency estimated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) of a glass sample in the vicinity of the maximum of the bending stress increased relative to that of stress-free glass fibers. LS2 glass fibers were found more resistant to nucleation and crystallization than the Ls1.6 glass fibers. These results are discussed in regards to shear thinning effects on glass stability.

  1. VO2+ ions in zinc lead borate glasses studied by EPR and optical absorption techniques.

    PubMed

    Prakash, P Giri; Rao, J Lakshmana

    2005-09-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption spectra of vanadyl ions in zinc lead borate (ZnO-PbO-B2O3) glass system have been studied. EPR spectra of all the glass samples exhibit resonance signals characteristic of VO2+ ions. The values of spin-Hamiltonian parameters indicate that the VO2+ ions in zinc lead borate glasses were present in octahedral sites with tetragonal compression and belong to C4V symmetry. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters g and A are found to be independent of V2O5 content and temperature but changing with ZnO content. The decrease in Deltag( parallel)/Deltag( perpendicular) value with increase in ZnO content indicates that the symmetry around VO2+ ions is more octahedral. The decrease in intensity of EPR signal above 10 mol% of V2O5 is attributed to a fall in the ratio of the number of V4+ ions (N4) to the number of V5+ ions (N5). The number of spins (N) participating in resonance was calculated as a function of temperature for VO2+ doped zinc lead borate glass sample and the activation energy was calculated. From the EPR data, the paramagnetic susceptibility was calculated at various temperatures and the Curie constant was evaluated from the 1/chi-T graph. The optical absorption spectra show single absorption band due to VO2+ ions in tetragonally distorted octahedral sites.

  2. Experimental and theoretical approach on the optical properties of zinc borotellurite glass doped with dysprosium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimah, M. K.; Ami Hazlin, M. N.; Muhammad, F. D.

    2018-04-01

    A series of glass samples with chemical formula {[(TeO2)0.7(B2O3)0.3]0.7(ZnO)0.3}1 - x(Dy2O3)x where x = 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 M fraction were synthesized through conventional melt-quenching method. The most common way to fabricate a glass material is by fusion of two or more component oxides followed by their quenching. This technique is known as melt-quenching technique. Kaur et al. (2016) [1] highlighted that the melt-quenching method able to enhance the mechanical properties like hardness and flexural strength of the material. The nature of the glass systems is proven to be amorphous based on the XRD pattern. The FTIR spectra of the glass systems confirm the existence of five bands which are assigned for the BO4, BO3, TeO4 and TeO3 vibrational groups. The density of the glass systems is increased with the addition of Dy2O3 while the molar volume is found to be inversely proportional to the density of the proposed glass. The optical properties of the glasses are determined through the absorption spectra obtained from the UV-VIS spectrophotometer. From the absorption spectra, the indirect and direct optical band gaps and the Urbach energy are found to be inversely proportional to each other. As the molar fraction of the Dy2O3 increased, the optical band gaps are observed to increase as opposed to the Urbach energy. For this glass system, the values of refractive index, electronic polarizability, oxide ion polarizability and the optical basicity are found to decrease as the addition of the dysprosium oxide is increased. From the emission spectra, two intense blue and yellow emission bands are observed, which correspond to the 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 transitions of Dy3 + ions respectively. The CIE chromaticity coordinates of the zinc borotellurite glass systems are found to be located in the white light region. Generation of white light The generation of the white light can be achieved by using two emission bands which comprise of the yellow

  3. Dependence of the critical cooling rate for lithium-silicate glass on nucleating agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, W.; Ray, C. S.; Day, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The critical cooling rate, Rc, for glass formation of a glass containing 40 mol pct Li2O and 60 mol pct SiO2, doped with small amounts of Pt, Au, P2O5, and TiO2 nucleating agents, has been measured. Rc increases with increasing Pt and Au additions, but Pt has a larger effect than Au. Additions of P2O5 tend to decrease Rc, whereas TiO2 has practically no effect on Rc. The devitrified glass nucleated with Pt contains only crystalline Li2O-SiO2, but all the other devitrified glasses, including the undoped glass, contain both Li2O-SiO2 and Li2O-2SiO2. Analysis shows that Rc increases as the concentration of the Li2O-SiO2 phase in the devitrified glass increases.

  4. Optical properties of Nd3+ doped bismuth zinc borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugavelu, B.; Venkatramu, V.; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.

    2014-03-01

    Glasses with compositions of (100-x) (Bi2ZnOB2O6) - x Nd2O3 (where x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1 and 2 mol%) were prepared by melt quenching method and characterized through optical absorption, emission and decay curve measurements. Optical absorption spectra have been analyzed using Judd-Ofelt theory. The emission spectra exhibit three peaks at 919, 1063 and 1337 nm corresponding to 4F3/2 to 4I9/2, 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 transitions in the near infrared region. The emission intensity of the 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 transition increases with increase of Nd3+ concentration up to 1 mol% and then concentration quenching is observed for 2 mol% of Nd3+ concentration. The lifetimes for the 4F3/2 level are found to decrease with increase in Nd2O3 concentration in the glasses. The decay curves of the glass up to 0.3 mol% of Nd3+ exhibit single exponential nature and thereafter the curves become nonexponential nature (0.5, 1 and 2 mol%). The nonexponential curve has been fitted to the Inokuti-Hirayama model to understand the nature of energy transfer process.

  5. Thermal and structural properties of zinc modified tellurite based glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, R. S.; Dhankhar, Sunil; Punia, R.; Dult, Meenakshi; Kishore, N.

    2016-05-01

    Glass system 60 TeO2 - 10 B2O3-(30-x) Bi2O3-x ZnO with mole fraction x = 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 were synthesized by conventional melt quenching technique under controlled atmospheric conditions. The glass transition temperature (Tg) has been determined using differential scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and its value is observed to increase with increase in ZnO content. This increase may be due to the increase in the concentration of the bridging oxygen (BO) atoms. IR and Raman spectra of the present glass system indicate that ZnO acts as network modifier and exists in ZnO4 units. TeO2 exists as TeO3, TeO4, and TeO3+1 structural units. Bismuth plays the role of network modifier with BiO6 octahedral structural units whereas B2O3 exists in the form of BO3 trigonal and BO4 tetrahedral structural units.

  6. Optical properties of Nd3+ doped bismuth zinc borate glasses.

    PubMed

    Shanmugavelu, B; Venkatramu, V; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V V

    2014-03-25

    Glasses with compositions of (100-x) (Bi2ZnOB2O6) -x Nd2O3 (where x=0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1 and 2 mol%) were prepared by melt quenching method and characterized through optical absorption, emission and decay curve measurements. Optical absorption spectra have been analyzed using Judd-Ofelt theory. The emission spectra exhibit three peaks at 919, 1063 and 1337 nm corresponding to (4)F3/2 to (4)I9/2, (4)I11/2 and (4)I13/2 transitions in the near infrared region. The emission intensity of the (4)F3/2 to (4)I11/2 transition increases with increase of Nd(3+) concentration up to 1 mol% and then concentration quenching is observed for 2 mol% of Nd(3+) concentration. The lifetimes for the (4)F3/2 level are found to decrease with increase in Nd2O3 concentration in the glasses. The decay curves of the glass up to 0.3 mol% of Nd(3+) exhibit single exponential nature and thereafter the curves become nonexponential nature (0.5, 1 and 2 mol%). The nonexponential curve has been fitted to the Inokuti-Hirayama model to understand the nature of energy transfer process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Brillouin-scattering studies of a sodium silicate glass in solid and melt conditions at temperatures up to 1000 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ji-An; Manghnani, Murli H.

    1992-01-01

    By using the sapphire-glass-sapphire sandwich-glass-assemblage Brillouin-scattering technique, the velocities of shear and longitudinal modes of a sodium silicate glass have been measured as a function of temperature up to 1000 °C. A turning point was found at the strain point (494 °C) but not at the softening point (720 °C). Combined with the results of the 90°- and 180°-scattering-geometry measurements, the refractive index (n) of the glass as a function of temperature was also determined. As a result, independent criteria for both the strain and softening points are suggested.

  8. Geochemical Modeling of Zinc Silicate Ore Formation from Sedimentary Hydrothermal Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appold, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment-hosted zinc deposits dominated by willemite (Zn2SiO4) instead of sphalerite (ZnS) are known from several prominent occurrences worldwide, including Vazante, Brazil, the Aroona Trend, Australia, Kabwe, Zambia, Berg Aukas, Namibia, and Abu Samar, Sudan. Although willemite-dominant zinc deposits appear to be much less common and are on average smaller than sphalerite-dominant zinc deposits, they nonetheless represent major enrichments of zinc in the Earth's crust, reaching sizes on the order of 1's to 10's of millions of tons and grades commonly between 20 and 40%. Sediment-hosted willemite- and sphalerite-dominant deposits share many similarities including their predominantly carbonate host rocks, gangue mineralogy, presumed derivation from sedimentary basinal brines, and spatial proximity. However, the conditions and processes that led to one style of mineralization versus the other have only recently begun to be investigated. The current study presents solubility, reaction path, and reactive transport modeling results that attempt to define more clearly the conditions that favor willemite ore formation in sedimentary basins, with a focus on the Vazante deposit. Solubility calculations for willemite and sphalerite as a function of temperature, pH, salinity, and oxidation potential were carried out using a simple 3 molal NaCl solution saturated with respect to quartz. The results show that (1) willemite solubility is relatively insensitive to changes in temperature and oxidation potential whereas sphalerite solubility decreases sharply with decreasing temperature and oxidation potential, (2) willemite solubility decreases more strongly than sphalerite with increasing pH, (3) willemite and sphalerite have a similar strong decrease in solubility with decreasing salinity. The results support a previously proposed genetic model for a willemite-dominant, sphalerite-subordinate ore body like Vazante in which a hot, acidic, metal-rich ore fluid mixed with a cooler

  9. Optical, Structural, and Thermal Properties of Cerium-Doped Zinc Borophosphate Glasses.

    PubMed

    Choi, Su-Yeon; Ryu, Bong-Ki

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we verify the relationship between the optical properties and structure of cerium-doped zinc borophosphate glasses that have concurrence of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) and bridging oxygen (BO), Ce3+ and Ce4+, and BO3 structure and BO4 structure. We prepared cerium-doped zinc borophosphate glass with various compositions, given by xCeO2-(100-x)[50ZnO-10B2O3 -40P2O5] (x = 1 mol% to 6 mol%), and analyzed their optical band energy, glass transition temperature, crystallization temperature, density, and molar volume. Some of the techniques used for analysis were Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the investigated glasses, the optical band gap energy decreased from 3.28 eV to 1.73 eV. From these results, we can deduce the changes when transitions occur from BO to NBO, from Ce3+ to Ce4+, and from the BO3 structure to the BO4 structure with increasing CeO2 content using FT-IR and XPS analysis. We also verified the changes in structural and physical properties from quantitative properties such as glass transition temperature, crystallization temperature, density, and molar volume.

  10. Fatigue failure load of two resin-bonded zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramics: Effect of ceramic thickness.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Jaiane Bandoli; Riquieri, Hilton; Prochnow, Catina; Guilardi, Luís Felipe; Pereira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; de Melo, Renata Marques; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of ceramic thickness on the fatigue failure load of two zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) glass-ceramics, adhesively cemented to a dentin analogue material. Disc-shaped specimens were allocated into 8 groups (n=25) considering two study factors: ZLS ceramic type (Vita Suprinity - VS; and Celtra Duo - CD), and ceramic thickness (1.0; 1.5; 2.0; and 2.5mm). A trilayer assembly (ϕ=10mm; thickness=3.5mm) was designed to mimic a bonded monolithic restoration. The ceramic discs were etched, silanized and luted (Variolink N) into a dentin analogue material. Fatigue failure load was determined using the Staircase method (100,000 cycles at 20Hz; initial fatigue load ∼60% of the mean monotonic load-to-failure; step size ∼5% of the initial fatigue load). A stainless-steel piston (ϕ=40mm) applied the load into the center of the specimens submerged in water. Fractographic analysis and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) were also performed. The ceramic thickness influenced the fatigue failure load for both ZLS materials: Suprinity (716N up to 1119N); Celtra (404N up to 1126N). FEA showed that decreasing ceramic thickness led to higher stress concentration on the cementing interface. Different ZLS glass-ceramic thicknesses influenced the fatigue failure load of the bonded system (i.e. the thicker the glass ceramic is, the higher the fatigue failure load will be). Different microstructures of the ZLS glass-ceramics might affect the fatigue behavior. FEA showed that the thicker the glass ceramic is, the lower the stress concentration at the tensile surface will be. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of natural and synthetic iron corrosion products on silicate glass alteration processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillmann, Philippe; Gin, Stéphane; Neff, Delphine; Gentaz, Lucile; Rebiscoul, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Glass long term alteration in the context of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) storage is influenced by near-field materials and environmental context. As previous studies have shown, the extent of glass alteration is strongly related to the presence of iron in the system, mainly provided by the steel overpack around surrounding the HLW glass package. A key to understanding what will happen to the glass-borne elements in the geological disposal lies in the relationship between the iron-bearing phases and the glass alteration products formed. In this study, we focus on the influence of the formation conditions (synthetized or in-situ) and the age of different iron corrosion products on SON68 glass alteration. Corrosion products obtained from archaeological iron artifacts are considered here to be true analogues of the corrosion products in a waste disposal system due to the similarities in formation conditions and physical properties. These representative corrosion products (RCP) are used in the experiment along with synthetized iron anoxic corrosion products and pristine metallic iron. The model-cracks of SON68 glass were altered in cell reactors, with one of the different iron-sources inserted in the crack each time. The study was successful in reproducing most of the processes observed in the long term archaeological system. Between the different systems, alteration variations were noted both in nature and intensity, confirming the influence of the iron-source on glass alteration. Results seem to point to a lesser effect of long term iron corrosion products (RCP) on the glass alteration than that of the more recent products (SCP), both in terms of general glass alteration and of iron transport.

  12. Dissolution of glass wool, rock wool and alkaline earth silicate wool: morphological and chemical changes in fibers.

    PubMed

    Campopiano, Antonella; Cannizzaro, Annapaola; Angelosanto, Federica; Astolfi, Maria Luisa; Ramires, Deborah; Olori, Angelo; Canepari, Silvia; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    The behavior of alkaline earth silicate (AES) wool and of other biosoluble wools in saline solution simulating physiological fluids was compared with that of a traditional wool belonging to synthetic vitreous fibers. Morphological and size changes of fibers were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elements extracted from fibers were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. SEM analysis showed a larger reduction of length-weighted geometric mean fiber diameter at 4.5 pH than at 7.4 pH. At the 7.4 pH, AES wool showed a higher dissolution rate and a dissolution time less than a few days. Their dissolution was highly non-congruent with rapid leaching of calcium. Unlike rock wool, glass wool dissolved more rapidly at physiological pH than at acid pH. Dissolution of AES and biosoluble rock wool is accompanied by a noticeable change in morphology while by no change for glass wool. Biosoluble rock wool developed a leached surface with porous honeycomb structure. SEM analysis showed the dissolution for glass wool is mainly due to breakage transverse of fiber at pH 7.4. AES dissolution constant (Kdis) was the highest at pH 7.4, while at pH 4.5 only biosoluble rockwool 1 showed a higher Kdis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy transfer upconversion in Er3+-Tm3+ codoped sodium silicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vinod; Pandey, Anurag; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Swart, H. C.

    2018-04-01

    Er3+/Tm3+ doped and codoped Na2O-SiO2-ZnO (NSZO) glasses were prepared by the conventional melt-quenching method. The amorphous nature of the prepared glasses was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction analysis. The optical absorption spectrum displayed several peaks, which correspond to Er3+ and Tm3+ dopant ions embedded into the NSZO glass. Both dopants experienced upconversion emission under 980 nm excitation. Efficient energy transfer from Er3+ to Tm3+ was observed in the co-doped samples to enhance the near infrared emission of the Tm3+ ions.

  14. Physical, structural and optical characterizations of borate modified bismuth-silicate-tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berwal, Neelam; Kundu, R. S.; Nanda, Kirti; Punia, R.; Kishore, N.

    2015-10-01

    Quaternary bismuthate glasses with compositions xB2O3-(80 - x) Bi2O3-15SiO2-5TeO2 have been prepared by melt-quench technique. X-ray diffraction studies were performed to ascertain the amorphous nature of samples. The density, molar volume and crystalline volume decrease with increase in B2O3 content whereas the glass transition temperature shows the reverse trend. The Raman and FTIR spectra of the studied glasses indicate that B2O3 has been found to exist in the form of BO3 trigonal and BO4 tetrahedral structural units and vibrations corresponding to these structural units increase with increase in B2O3 content. SiO2 is present in the form of SiO4 tetrahedral structural units and TeO2 in the form of TeO3 structural units. Bismuth plays the role of network modifier [BiO6 octahedra] as well as network former [BiO3 pyramids] for all the glass compositions. The optical band gap energy has been calculated from the fitting of both Mott and Davis's model and Hydrogenic excitonic model with the experimentally observed absorption spectra. A good fitting of experimental data with HEM indicates the excitonic formation in the studies glass system. The values of optical band gap energy show nonlinear behavior due to the structural changes that take place in the present glass samples. The Urbach energy calculated using Urbach empirical formula for studied glass samples suggest the possibility of reduction in defect concentrations. The metallization criterion of the presently studied samples suggests that the prepared glasses may be potential candidates for nonlinear optical applications.

  15. Analysis of H2O in silicate glass using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) micro-FTIR spectroscopy

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Pitcher, Bradley W.

    2013-01-01

    We present a calibration for attenuated total reflectance (ATR) micro-FTIR for analysis of H2O in hydrous glass. A Ge ATR accessory was used to measure evanescent wave absorption by H2O within hydrous rhyolite and other standards. Absorbance at 3450 cm−1 (representing total H2O or H2Ot) and 1630 cm−1 (molecular H2O or H2Om) showed high correlation with measured H2O in the glasses as determined by transmission FTIR spectroscopy and manometry. For rhyolite, wt%H2O=245(±9)×A3450-0.22(±0.03) and wt%H2Om=235(±11)×A1630-0.20(±0.03) where A3450 and A1630 represent the ATR absorption at the relevant infrared wavelengths. The calibration permits determination of volatiles in singly polished glass samples with spot size down to ~5 μm (for H2O-rich samples) and detection limits of ~0.1 wt% H2O. Basaltic, basaltic andesite and dacitic glasses of known H2O concentrations fall along a density-adjusted calibration, indicating that ATR is relatively insensitive to glass composition, at least for calc-alkaline glasses. The following equation allows quantification of H2O in silicate glasses that range in composition from basalt to rhyolite: wt%H2O=(ω×A3450/ρ)+b where ω = 550 ± 21, b = −0.19 ± 0.03, ρ = density, in g/cm3, and A3450 is the ATR absorbance at 3450 cm−1. The ATR micro-FTIR technique is less sensitive than transmission FTIR, but requires only a singly polished sample for quantitative results, thus minimizing time for sample preparation. Compared with specular reflectance, it is more sensitive and better suited for imaging of H2O variations in heterogeneous samples such as melt inclusions. One drawback is that the technique can damage fragile samples and we therefore recommend mounting of unknowns in epoxy prior to polishing. Our calibration should hold for any Ge ATR crystals with the same incident angle (31°). Use of a different crystal type or geometry would require measurement of several H2O-bearing standards to provide a crystal

  16. Multilevel Tunnelling Systems and Fractal Clustering in the Low-Temperature Mixed Alkali-Silicate Glasses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The thermal and dielectric anomalies of window-type glasses at low temperatures (T < 1 K) are rather successfully explained by the two-level systems (2LS) standard tunneling model (STM). However, the magnetic effects discovered in the multisilicate glasses in recent times, magnetic effects in the organic glasses, and also some older data from mixed (SiO2)1−x(K2O)x and (SiO2)1−x(Na2O)x glasses indicate the need for a suitable extension of the 2LS-STM. We show that—not only for the magnetic effects, but also for the mixed glasses in the absence of a field—the right extension of the 2LS-STM is provided by the (anomalous) multilevel tunnelling systems (ATS) proposed by one of us for multicomponent amorphous solids. Though a secondary type of TS, different from the standard 2LS, was invoked long ago already, we clarify their physical origin and mathematical description and show that their contribution considerably improves the agreement with the experimental data. In spite of dealing with low-temperature properties, our work impinges on the structure and statistical physics of glasses at all temperatures. PMID:23861652

  17. High-efficiency ytterbium-free erbium-doped all-glass double cladding silicate glass fiber for resonantly-pumped fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zexuan; Geng, Jihong; Luo, Tao; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Shibin

    2014-02-01

    A highly efficient ytterbium-free erbium-doped silicate glass fiber has been developed for high-power fiber laser applications at an eye-safe wavelength near 1.55 μm. Our preliminary experiments show that high laser efficiency can be obtained from a relatively short length of the gain fiber when resonantly pumped at 1535 nm in both core- and cladding-pumping configurations. With a core-pumping configuration as high as 75%, optical-to-optical efficiency and 4 W output power were obtained at 1560 nm from a 1 m long gain fiber. When using a cladding-pumping configuration, approximately 13 W output power with 67.7% slope efficiency was demonstrated from a piece of 2 m long fiber. The lengths of silicate-based gain fiber are much shorter than their silica-based counterparts used in other experiments, which is significantly important for high-power narrow-band and/or pulsed laser applications.

  18. Role of lithium ions on the physical, structural and optical properties of zinc boro tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, S.; Ahlawat, N.; Parmar, R.; Dhankhar, S.; Kundu, R. S.

    2018-07-01

    Lithium zinc boro tellurite glasses with compositions xLi2O-(100-x) [0.25ZnO-0.15B2O3-0.60TeO2] [where x = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol%] have been prepared by melt-quench technique. The amorphous nature of the prepared system is ascertained by X-ray diffraction. The density and molar volume are found to decrease with the increase in concentration of Li2O. The differential scanning calorimetry is used to calculate the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the observed values are found to be decreased. The IR and Raman spectra indicate that Li2O acts as a network modifier in the glass matrix. In the present system, tellurium exists as TeO4 and TeO3, B2O3 in the form of BO4 and BO3 and zinc oxide exists as ZnO4 structural units. The values of the optical band gap are estimated from the fitting of Mott and Davis's and model. A better convergence is achieved between experimental observed spectra of absorption coefficient and hydrogenic excitonic model. The optical band gap energy increases, whereas refractive index and molar refractivity follow the reverse trend with Li2O. The range of metallization criterion suggests that these glasses may be a potential candidate for nonlinear optical materials.

  19. Role of lithium ions on the physical, structural and optical properties of zinc boro tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, S.; Ahlawat, N.; Parmar, R.; Dhankhar, S.; Kundu, R. S.

    2018-01-01

    Lithium zinc boro tellurite glasses with compositions xLi2O-(100-x) [0.25ZnO-0.15B2O3-0.60TeO2] [where x = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol%] have been prepared by melt-quench technique. The amorphous nature of the prepared system is ascertained by X-ray diffraction. The density and molar volume are found to decrease with the increase in concentration of Li2O. The differential scanning calorimetry is used to calculate the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the observed values are found to be decreased. The IR and Raman spectra indicate that Li2O acts as a network modifier in the glass matrix. In the present system, tellurium exists as TeO4 and TeO3, B2O3 in the form of BO4 and BO3 and zinc oxide exists as ZnO4 structural units. The values of the optical band gap are estimated from the fitting of Mott and Davis's and model. A better convergence is achieved between experimental observed spectra of absorption coefficient and hydrogenic excitonic model. The optical band gap energy increases, whereas refractive index and molar refractivity follow the reverse trend with Li2O. The range of metallization criterion suggests that these glasses may be a potential candidate for nonlinear optical materials.

  20. Effect of Bi2O3 on structural, optical, and other physical properties of semiconducting zinc vanadate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punia, R.; Kundu, R. S.; Hooda, J.; Dhankhar, S.; Dahiya, Sajjan; Kishore, N.

    2011-08-01

    Zinc bismuth vanadate glasses with compositions 50V2O5-xBi2O3-(50-x) ZnO have been prepared using a conventional melt-quenching method and the solubility limit of Bi2O3 in zinc vanadate glass system has been investigated using x-ray diffraction. Density has been measured using Archimedes' principle; molar volume (Vm) and crystalline volumes (Vc) have also been estimated. With an increase in Bi2O3 content, there is an increase in density and molar volume of the glass samples. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and Hurby coefficient (Kgl) have been determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and are observed to increase with increase in Bi2O3 content (i.e., x), up to x = 15, thereby indicating the structural modifications and increased thermal stability of zinc vanadate glasses on addition of Bi2O3. FTIR spectra have been recorded and the analysis of FTIR shows that the structure depends upon the Bi2O3 content in the glass compositions. On addition of Bi2O3 into the zinc vanadate system, the structure of V2O5 changes from VO4 tetrahedral to VO5 trigonal bi-pyramid configuration. The optical parameters have been calculated by using spectroscopic ellipsometry for bulk oxide glasses (perhaps used first time for bulk glasses) and optical bandgap energy is found to increase with increase in Bi2O3 content.

  1. Optical basicity and polarizability for copper-zinc doped sol-gel glasses

    SciT

    Kaur, G., E-mail: gkapds@gmail.com; Pandey, O. P.; Amjotkaur,, E-mail: amjotkaur93@gmail.com

    2016-05-06

    CaO-SiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses have been studied by varying ratios of Copper oxide and Zinc oxide. Glasses were prepared using Sol-Gel technique. Opitical Basicity and oxide ion Polarizability were calculated and discussed in relation with non bridging Oxygen ions (NBOs). Optical basicity is average electron donating capability of an oxide atom. All glasses had a little difference in optical basicity and polarizability values but CZ8 glass (20CaO-60SiO{sub 2}-5B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-5P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-2CuO-8ZnO) came out to show highest optical basicity and polarizability with value 0.5177 and 0.9798 respectively. This showed the highest electron donating tendency of CZ8 glassmore » and highest number of NBOs. These were minimum for CZ2 glass with 8CuO and 2ZnO. In aspect of optical basicity and polarizability glasses follow the series CZ2 < CZ4 < CZ6 < CZ8. Increasing concentration of ZnO and decreasing concentration of CuO lead to higher optical basicity and oxide ion polarizability.« less

  2. Effect of incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on mechanical properties of conventional glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Panahandeh, Narges; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Aghaee, Mohammadamin; Hasani, Elham; Safa, Saeed

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the physical properties of conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (GICs) compared to GICs supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofiller particles at 5% (w/w). In this in vitro study, ZnO nanoparticles of different morphologies (nanospherical, nanorod, and nanoflower) were incorporated to glass ionomer powder. The samples were subjected to the flexural strength ( n = 20) and surface hardness test ( n = 12) using a universal testing machine and a Vickers hardness machine, respectively. Surface analysis and crystal structure of samples were performed with scanning electron microscope and X-radiation diffraction, respectively. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Shapiro-Wilk, and Tukey's tests ( P < 0.05). Flexural strength of glass ionomer containing nanoparticles was not significantly different from the control group ( P > 0.05). The surface hardness of the glass ionomer containing nanospherical or nanoflower ZnO was significantly lower than the control group ( P < 0.05). However, the surface hardness of glass ionomer containing nanorod ZnO was not significantly different from the control group ( P = 0.868). Incorporation of nanospherical and nanoflower ZnO to glass ionomer decreased their surface hardness, without any changes on their flexural strength. Incorporation of nanorod ZnO particles caused no effect on the mechanical properties.

  3. Optical characterization of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions doped zinc lead borate glasses.

    PubMed

    Thulasiramudu, A; Buddhudu, S

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports on the spectral analysis of Eu3+ or Tb3+ ions (0.5 mol%) doped heavy metal oxide (HMO) based zinc lead borate glasses from the measurement of their absorption, emission spectra and also different physical properties. From the XRD, DSC profiles, the glass nature and glass thermal properties have been studied. The measured emission spectrum of Eu3+ glass has revealed five transitions (5D0-->7F0, 7F1, 7F2, 7F3 and 7F4) at 578, 591, 613, 654 and 702 nm, respectively, with lambdaexci=392 nm (7F0-->5L6). In the case of Tb3+:ZLB glass, four emission transitions such as (5D4-->7F6, 7F5, 7F4 and 7F3) that are located at 489, 542, 585 and 622 nm, respectively, have been measured with lambdaexci=374 nm. For all these emission bands decay curves have been plotted to evaluate their lifetimes and the emission processes that arise in the glasses have been explained in terms of energy level schemes.

  4. Giant siliceous spicules from the deep-sea glass sponge Monorhaphis chuni.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2009-01-01

    Only 13 years after realizing, during a repair of a telegraph cable pulled out from the deep sea, that the depth of the ocean is plentifully populated with a highly diverse fauna and flora, the Challenger expedition (1873-1876) treasured up a rich collection of vitreous sponges (Hexactinellida). They had been described by Schulze and represent the phylogenetically oldest class of siliceous sponges (phylum Porifera); they are eye-catching because of their distinct body plan, which relies on a filigree skeleton. It is constructed by an array of morphologically determined elements, the spicules. Soon after, during the German Deep Sea Expedition "Valdivia" (1898-1899), Schulze could describe the largest siliceous hexactinellid sponge on Earth, the up to 3-m high Monorhaphis chuni, which develops the equally largest bio-silica structure, the giant basal spicules (3 mx10 mm). Using these spicules as a model, basic knowledge on the morphology, formation, and development of the skeletal elements could be achieved. They are formed by a proteinaceous scaffold (composed of a 27-kDa protein), which mediates the formation of the siliceous lamellae, into which the proteins are encased. The high number of 800 of 5-10 microm thick lamellae is concentrically arranged around the axial canal. The silica matrix is composed of almost pure silicon oxide, providing it with unusually optophysical properties, which are superior to those of man-made waveguides. Experiments might suggest that the spicules function in vivo as a nonocular photoreception system. In addition, the spicules have exceptional mechanical properties, combining mechanical stability with strength and stiffness. Like demosponges, also the hexactinellids synthesize their silica enzymatically, via the enzyme silicatein (27-kDa protein). It is suggested that these basic insights will surely contribute to a further applied utilization and exploration of silica in bio-material/biomedical science.

  5. Effects of Aqueous Solutions on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth (SCG) parameters of soda-lime-silicate were measured in distilled and saltwater of various concentrations in order to determine if the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film affects stress corrosion susceptibility. Past research indicates that solvents affect the rate of crack growth; however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the SCG parameters A and n at high concentrations; however, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  6. The Effects of Salt Water on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth parameters of soda-lime silicate were measured in distilled and salt water of various concentrations in order to determine if stress corrosion susceptibility is affected by the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film. Past research indicates that solvents effect the rate of crack growth, however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the slow crack growth parameters A and n. However, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  7. Kinetics and mechanisms of the conversion of silicate (45S5), borate, and borosilicate glasses to hydroxyapatite in dilute phosphate solutions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenhai; Day, Delbert E; Kittiratanapiboon, Kanisa; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2006-07-01

    Bioactive glasses with controllable conversion rates to hydroxyapatite (HA) may provide a novel class of scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering. The objective of the present work was to comprehensively characterize the conversion of a silicate bioactive glass (45S5), a borate glass, and two intermediate borosilicate glass compositions to HA in a dilute phosphate solution at 37 degrees Celsius. The borate glass and the borosilicate glasses were derived from the 45S5 glass by fully or partially replacing the SiO(2) with B(2)O(3). Higher B(2)O(3) content produced a more rapid conversion of the glass to HA and a lower pH value of the phosphate solution. Whereas the borate glass was fully converted to HA in less than 4 days, the silicate (45S5) and borosilicate compositions were only partially converted even after 70 days, and contained residual SiO(2) in a Na-depleted core. The concentration of Na(+) in the phosphate solution increased with reaction time whereas the PO(4) (3-) concentration decreased, both reaching final limiting values at a rate that increased with the B(2)O(3) content of the glass. However, the Ca(2+) concentration in the solution remained low, below the detection limit of atomic absorption, throughout the reaction. Immersion of the glasses in a mixed solution of K(2)HPO(4) and K(2)CO(3) produced a carbonate-substituted HA but the presence of the K(2)CO(3) had little effect on the kinetics of conversion to HA. The kinetics and mechanisms of the conversion process of the four glasses to HA are compared and used to develop a model for the process.

  8. Composite Biomaterials Based on Sol-Gel Mesoporous Silicate Glasses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Baino, Francesco; Fiorilli, Sonia; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive glasses are able to bond to bone and stimulate the growth of new tissue while dissolving over time, which makes them ideal materials for regenerative medicine. The advent of mesoporous glasses, which are typically synthesized via sol-gel routes, allowed researchers to develop a broad and versatile class of novel biomaterials that combine superior bone regenerative potential (compared to traditional melt-derived glasses) with the ability of incorporating drugs and various biomolecules for targeted therapy in situ. Mesoporous glass particles can be directly embedded as a bioactive phase within a non-porous (e.g., microspheres), porous (3D scaffolds) or injectable matrix, or be processed to manufacture a surface coating on inorganic or organic (macro)porous substrates, thereby obtaining hierarchical structures with multiscale porosity. This review provides a picture of composite systems and coatings based on mesoporous glasses and highlights the challenges for the future, including the great potential of inorganic–organic hybrid sol-gel biomaterials. PMID:28952496

  9. Effect of Ti(+4) on in vitro bioactivity and antibacterial activity of silicate glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Madeeha; Zia, Rehana; Saleemi, Farhat; Hussain, Tousif; Bashir, Farooq; Ikhram, Hafeez

    2016-12-01

    A novel glass-ceramic series in (48-x) SiO2-36 CaO-4 P2O5-12 Na2O-xTiO2 (where x=0, 3.5, 7, 10.5 and 14mol %) system was synthesized by crystallization of glass powders, obtained by melt quenching technique. The differential scanning calorimetric analysis (DSC) was used to study the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the as prepared glasses. The crystallization behaviour of glasses was analyzed under non-isothermal conditions, and qualitative phase analysis of glass-ceramics was made by X-ray diffraction. The in vitro bioactivity of synthesized glass-ceramics was studied in stimulated body fluid at 37°C under static condition for 24days. The formation of hydroxyl-carbonated apatite layer; evident of bioactivity of the material, was elucidated by XRD, FTIR, AAS, SEM and EDX analysis. The result showed that partial substitution of TiO2 with SiO2 negatively influenced bioactivity; it decreased with increase in concentration of TiO2. As Ti(+4) having stronger field strength as compared to Si(+4) so its replacement became the cause for reduction in degradation that in turn improved the chemical stability. The compressive strength was also enhanced with progress addition of TiO2 in the system. The antibacterial properties were examined against Staphylococcus Epidermidis. Strong antibacterial efficacy was observed with the addition of TiO2 in the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. MAS-NMR investigations of the crystallization behaviour of lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glasses containing P 2O 5 and TiO 2 nucleants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthanarayanan, A.; Kothiyal, G. P.; Montagne, L.; Revel, B.

    2010-06-01

    Lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glass of composition (mol%) 20.4Li 2O-4.0Al 2O 3-68.6SiO 2-3.0K 2O-2.6B 2O 3-0.5P 2O 5-0.9TiO 2 was prepared by melt quenching. The glass was then nucleated and crystallized based on differential thermal analysis (DTA) data and was characterized by 29Si, 31P, 11B and 27Al MAS-NMR. XRD and 29Si NMR showed that lithium metasilicate (Li 2SiO 3) is the first phase to c form followed by cristobalite (SiO 2) and lithium disilicate (Li 2Si 2O 5). 29Si MAS-NMR revealed a change in the network structure already for the glasses nucleated at 550 °C. Since crystalline Li 3PO 4, as observed by 31P MAS-NMR, forms concurrently with the silicate phases, we conclude that crystalline Li 3PO 4 does not act as a nucleating agent for lithium silicate phases. Moreover, 31P NMR indicates the formation of M-PO 4 ( M=B, Al or Ti) complexes. The presence of BO 3 and BO 4 structural units in all the glass/glass-ceramic samples is revealed through 11B MAS-NMR. B remains in the residual glass and the crystallization of silicate phases causes a reduction in the number of alkali ions available for charge compensation. As a result, the number of trigonally coordinated B (BO 3) increases at the expense of tetrahedrally coordinated B (BO 4). The 27Al MAS-NMR spectra indicate the presence of tetrahedrally coordinated Al species, which are only slightly perturbed by the crystallization.

  11. Spectroscopic investigation of zinc tellurite glasses doped with Yb(3+) and Er(3+) ions.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Gökhan; Kaya, Ayfer; Cinkaya, Hatun; Eryürek, Gönül

    2016-08-05

    This paper presents a detailed spectroscopic investigation of zinc tellurite glasses with the compositions (0.80-x-y) TeO2+(0.20) ZnO+xEr2O3+yYb2O3 (x=0, y=0; x=0.004, y=0; x=0, y=0.05 and x=0.004, y=0.05 per moles). The samples were synthesized by the conventional melt quenching method. The optical absorption and emission measurements were conducted at room temperature to determine the spectral properties of lanthanides doped zinc tellurite glasses and, to study the energy transfer processes between dopant lanthanide ions. The band gap energies for both direct and indirect possible transitions and the Urbach energies were measured from the absorption spectra. The absorption spectra of the samples were analyzed by using the Judd-Ofelt approach. The effect of the ytterbium ions on the emission properties of erbium ions was investigated and the energy transfer processes between dopant ions were studied by measuring the up-conversion emission properties of the materials. The color quality parameters of obtained visible up-conversion emission were also determined as well as possibility of using the Er(3+) glasses as erbium doped fiber amplifiers at 1.55μm in infrared emission region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrical conductivity and modulus formulation in zinc modified bismuth boro-tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhankhar, Sunil; Kundu, R. S.; Dult, Meenakshi; Murugavel, S.; Punia, R.; Kishore, N.

    2016-09-01

    The ac conductivity of zinc modified tellurium based quaternary glasses having composition 60 TeO2-10 B2O3-(30 - x) Bi2O3-x ZnO; x = 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 has been investigated in the frequency range 10-1-105 Hz and in temperature range 483-593 K. Frequency and temperature dependent ac conductivity found to obey Jonscher power law modified by Almond-West. DC conductivity, crossover frequency and frequency exponent have been estimated from the fitting of the experimental data of conductivity with Jonscher power law modified by Almond-West. The ac conductivity and its frequency exponent have been analyzed by various theoretical models. In presently studied glasses ac conduction takes place via tunneling of overlapping large polaron tunneling. Activation energy is found to be increased with increase in zinc content and dc conduction takes place via variable range hopping proposed by Mott with some modification suggested by Punia et al. The value of the stretched exponent ( β) obtained by fitting of M^' ' }} reveals the presence of non-Debye type relaxation. Scaling spectra of ac conductivity and electric modulus collapse into a single master curve for all compositions and temperatures, reveals the presence of composition and temperature independent conduction and relaxation process in these glasses. Activation energy of conduction ( W) and electric modulus ( E R ) are nearly equal, indicating that polaron have to overcome the same energy barrier during conduction as well as relaxation processes.

  13. Spectroscopic investigation of zinc tellurite glasses doped with Yb3 + and Er3 + ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilir, Gökhan; Kaya, Ayfer; Cinkaya, Hatun; Eryürek, Gönül

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a detailed spectroscopic investigation of zinc tellurite glasses with the compositions (0.80 - x - y) TeO2 + (0.20) ZnO + xEr2O3 + yYb2O3 (x = 0, y = 0; x = 0.004, y = 0; x = 0, y = 0.05 and x = 0.004, y = 0.05 per moles). The samples were synthesized by the conventional melt quenching method. The optical absorption and emission measurements were conducted at room temperature to determine the spectral properties of lanthanides doped zinc tellurite glasses and, to study the energy transfer processes between dopant lanthanide ions. The band gap energies for both direct and indirect possible transitions and the Urbach energies were measured from the absorption spectra. The absorption spectra of the samples were analyzed by using the Judd-Ofelt approach. The effect of the ytterbium ions on the emission properties of erbium ions was investigated and the energy transfer processes between dopant ions were studied by measuring the up-conversion emission properties of the materials. The color quality parameters of obtained visible up-conversion emission were also determined as well as possibility of using the Er3 + glasses as erbium doped fiber amplifiers at 1.55 μm in infrared emission region.

  14. Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence from transparent Yb3+/Ni2+ codoped silicate glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Botao; Zhou, Shifeng; Ruan, Jian; Qiao, Yanbo; Chen, Danping; Zhu, Congshan; Qiu, Jianrong

    2008-02-04

    The near-infrared emission intensity of Ni(2+) in Yb(3+)/Ni(2+) codoped transparent MgO-Al(2)O(3)-Ga(2)O(3)-SiO(2)-TiO(2) glass ceramics could be enhanced up to 4.4 times via energy transfer from Yb(3+) to Ni(2+) in nanocrystals. The best Yb(2)O(3) concentration was about 1.00 mol%. For the Yb(3+)/Ni(2+) codoped glass ceramic with 1.00 mol% Yb(2)O(3), a broadband near-infrared emission centered at 1265 nm with full width at half maximum of about 300 nm and lifetime of about 220 mus was observed. The energy transfer mechanism was also discussed.

  15. Variation in Pockels constants of silicate glass-ceramics prepared by perfect surface crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Kazuya; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Terakado, Nobuaki; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the Pockels effect in polycrystalline materials consisting of highly oriented polar fresnoite-type Sr2TiSi2O8 fabricated using perfectly surface-crystallized glass-ceramics (PSC-GCs). The chemical composition of the precursor glass was shown to significantly affect the crystallized texture, e.g., the crystal orientation and appearance of amorphous nanoparasites in the domains, resulting in variations in the Pockels constants. Single crystals exhibiting spontaneous polarization possessed large structural anisotropy, leading to a strong dependence of the nonlinear-optical properties on the direction of polarized light. This study suggests that variations in the Pockels constants (r13 and r33) and tuning of the r13/r33 ratio can be realized in PSC-GC materials.

  16. Zinc chloride modified electronic transport and relaxation studies in barium-tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhankhar, Sunil; Kundu, R. S.; Rani, Sunita; Sharma, Preeti; Murugavel, S.; Punia, Rajesh; Kishore, N.

    2017-09-01

    The ac conductivity of halide based tellurium glasses having composition 70 TeO2-(30-x) BaO-x ZnCl2; x = 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 has been investigated in the frequency range 10-1 Hz to 105Hz and in the temperature range 453 K to 553 K. The frequency and temperature dependent ac conductivity show mixed behaviour with increase in halide content and found to obey Jonscher's universal power law. The values of dc conductivity, crossover frequency and frequency exponent have been estimated from the fitting of experimental data of ac conductivity with Jonscher's universal power law. For determining the conduction mechanism in studied glass system, frequency exponent has been analyzed by various theoretical models. In presently studied glasses, the ac conduction takes place via overlapping large polaron tunneling (OLPT). The values of activation energy for dc conduction (W) and the one associated with relaxation process ( E R) are found to increase with increase in x up to glass sample with x = 15 and thereafter it decrease with increase in zinc chloride content. DC conduction takes place via variable range hopping (VRH) as proposed by Mott with some modification suggested by Punia et al. The value of real part of modulus ( M') is observed to decrease with increase in temperature. The value of stretched exponent (β) obtained from fitting of M'' reveals the presence of non-Debye type of relaxation in presently studied glass samples. Scaling spectra of ac conductivity and values of electric modulus ( M' and M'') collapse into a single master curve for all the compositions and temperatures. The values of relaxation energy ( E R) for all the studied glass compositions are almost equal to W, suggesting that polarons have to overcome same barrier while relaxing and conducting. The conduction and relaxation processes in the studied glass samples are composition and temperature independent. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Physical and absorption properties of titanium nanoparticles incorporated into zinc magnesium phosphate glass

    SciT

    Ismail, S.F.; Sahar, M.R., E-mail: mrahim057@gmail.com; Ghoshal, S.K.

    We report the influences of Titania (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (NPs) on the physical and optical properties of melt quench synthesized zinc magnesium phosphate glasses. Five glass samples with composition (42 − x)P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–50ZnO–8MgO–xTiO{sub 2}, where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 mol% are prepared and characterized. XRD pattern verified the amorphous nature of all samples. TEM images manifested the growth of Ti NPs of average size ≈ 5.78 nm. TiO{sub 2} NP concentration dependent variation in the physical properties including glass density, molar volume, molar refractivity, electronic polarizability and ionic packing density are determined. The values of glassmore » refractive indices, density and ionic packing density are increased with the increase of TiO{sub 2} NP contents. Conversely, the Urbach energy, direct and indirect optical band gap are found to decrease with the increase of TiO{sub 2} NP concentration. These glass compositions may be potential for various solid state devices including laser. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} NP embedded self-cleaning phosphate glass are synthesized for the first time. • Well dispersed and uniform sized TiO{sub 2} NPs are grown. • Absorption spectra revealed prominent peak in the UV region. • TiO{sub 2} NPs strongly influenced the physical and absorption features of synthesized glasses. • The effects of TiO{sub 2} NPs on the physical and optical properties of these glasses are determined.« less

  18. Optical and luminescence properties of Dy3+ doped sodium silicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srisittipokakun, N.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the optical and luminescence properties of Dy2O3 doped Na2O-BaO-Bi2O3-SiO2 glasses. The Dy3+ ion is chosen as dopant because it emits three visible bands, blue (470-485 nm; 4F9/2→6H15/2), yellow (570-580 nm; 4F9/2→6H13/2) and red (640-655 nm; 4F9/2→6H11/2) luminescence and finds its applications in the fields of laser, white LEDs, telecommunication technology and display devices. NaBaBiSiDy glasses with the compositions of (30-x)SiO2: 10Bi2O3: 30Na2O: 30BaO: xDy2O3 where x=0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mol% were prepared by melt-quenching technique and characterized by using density, optical absorption photoluminescence (PL) and decay rate measurements as function of different concentrations. The density (ρ), molar volume (VM) and refractive index obtained were found to increase with increase in the concentration of Dy2O3 in the glass matrix. The chromaticity coordinates were calculated from emission spectra and analyzed with CIE color diagram and appear in the white light region under ultraviolet excitation.

  19. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  20. Study of electrical conductivity and memory switching in the zinc-vanadium-phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzayi, M.; Hekmatshoar, M. H.

    2013-07-01

    Vanadium zinc phosphate glasses were prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique and effect of V2O5 concentration on d.c. conductivity of prepared samples were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the glassy character of the samples. The d.c. conductivity increased with increase in V2O5 content. Results showed that activation energy has a single value in the investigated range of temperature, which can be explained in accordance with Mott small pollaron hopping model. I-V characteristics at high electric field showed that switching in these glasses was memory type. The threshold field of switching was found to decrease with increase in V2O5 content. Non-linear behavior and switching phenomenon was explained by Pool-Frenkel effect and thermal model.

  1. Enhanced transparency, mechanical durability, and antibacterial activity of zinc nanoparticles on glass substrate

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyung-Jin; Choi, Jin-Seok; Park, Byeong-Ju; Eom, Ji-Ho; Heo, So-Young; Jung, Min-Wook; An, Ki-Seok; Yoon, Soon-Gil

    2014-01-01

    Homogeneously distributed zinc nanoparticles (NPs) on the glass substrate were investigated for the transmittance, mechanical durability, and antibacterial effect. The buffered Ti NPs between Zn NPs and glass substrate were studied for an enhancement of the transmittance and mechanical endurance. The Ti NPs buffered Zn NPs showed a high transmittance of approximately 91.5% (at a wavelength of 550 nm) and a strong antibacterial activity for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. The buffered Ti NPs are attractive for an excellent mechanical endurance of the Zn NPs. The Zn NPs did not require the protection layer to prevent the degradation of the performance for both the antibacterial effect and the transmittance. PMID:25183360

  2. Experimental insights into spin state and hyperfine parameters of Fe3+ in bridgmanite and silicate glass up to 91 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, M.; Dorfman, S.; Liu, J.; Farmer, A. B.; Potapkin, V.; Chumakov, A. I.; McCammon, C. A.; Greenberg, E.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Popov, D.

    2017-12-01

    The spin and valence state of Fe in (Mg,Fe,Al)(Si,Fe,Al)O3 bridgmanite and silicate melts is important to understanding the composition, structure, and dynamics of the Earth's lower mantle. Previous experimental and theoretical studies conclude that Fe3+ in B-site of bridgmanite undergoes a high spin (HS) to low spin (LS) transition, but conflicting measurements of spin transition pressures (18-70 GPa) and significant disagreement on hyperfine parameters of LS Fe3+ need to be resolved. We performed energy-domain synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy (E-SMS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments up to 91 GPa (corresponding to 2000 km depth in the mid lower mantle) to explore the electronic behavior of Fe in both silicate glass and bridgmanite with measured composition (Mg0.97Fe0.20Si0.90O3). Fe3+ and Fe2+ were identified on the basis of center shift (CS) at 1 bar of 0.4 and 1 mm/s, respectively. The Mössbauer spectra of glass exhibit a continuous spin transition of Fe3+ between 11 to 40 GPa, while Fe2+ adopts the HS state up to 91 GPa. Bridgmanite Mössbauer spectra indicate two HS Fe2+ doublets corresponding to local distortion of the A-site, and that the bulk of the Fe3+ exhibits quadrupole splitting (QS) ranging from 0.8-1.3 mm/s over the entire pressure range studied. Because stoichiometry suggests most Fe3+ occupies the B-site, if the spin transition occurs it must have a small effect on Mössbauer parameters, as observed in recent studies of (Mg0.5Fe1.0Si0.5O3) and (Mg0.97Fe0.06Si0.97O3) bridgmanite. No discontinuity or softening is observed in the equation of state (EOS) of the bridgmanite between 38-103 GPa and 300 K. The bulk modulus and unit cell volume at ambient conditions obtained by fitting the unit cell volume data to the second-order Birch-Murnaghan EOS are 264(3) GPa and 163.6(3) Å3, respectively, consistent with previous studies of (Mg0.90Fe0.20Si0.90O3) bridgmanite. The spin transition in Fe3+ may have too small an effect on elastic properties

  3. ∼2 μm fluorescence radiative dynamics and energy transfer between Er{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} ions in silicate glass

    SciT

    Li, Ming; Liu, Xueqiang; Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A Er{sup 3+}/Tm{sup 3+} co-doped silicate glass with good thermal stability (k{sub gl} = 0.402 for STE glass) is prepared. • Efficient ∼2 μm emission is observed under 808 nm and 980 nm laser excitation. • The glass structure and spectroscopic properties are confirmed by optical absorption, IR transmission, Raman and fluorescence studies. • The content of OH groups deceases efficiently after fluorine ions are introduced. • The energy transfer coefficient from Er{sup 3+} to Tm{sup 3+} in STFE glass is 13.39 × 10{sup −40} cm{sup 6}/s. - Abstract: A Er{sup 3+}/Tm{sup 3+} co-doped silicatemore » glass with good thermal stability is prepared by melt-quenching method. An efficient emission of ∼2 μm is observed under different selective laser excitations. The optical absorption and transmission spectra, Raman spectra, and emission spectra are tested to characterize ∼2 μm emission properties of Er{sup 3+}/Tm{sup 3+} co-doped silicate glasses and a reasonable energy transfer mechanism of ∼2 μm emission between Er{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} ions is proposed. Based on the optical absorption spectra, the Judd–Ofelt parameters and radiative properties were calculated. Intense ∼2 μm emission is obtained from Er{sup 3+}/Tm{sup 3+} co-doped silicate glasses due to the efficient energy transfer from Er{sup 3+} to Tm{sup 3+} ions. The energy transfer coefficient from Er{sup 3+} to Tm{sup 3+} ions can reach as high as 13.39 × 10{sup −40} cm{sup 6}/s. In addition, the population of the OH groups is decreased and the ∼2 μm emission is effectively enhanced with fluoride introduction. The emission property, together with good thermal property, indicates that Er{sup 3+}/Tm{sup 3+} co-doped silicate glass is a potential kind of laser glass for efficient ∼2 μm laser.« less

  4. Optical properties of zinc borotellurite glass doped with trivalent dysprosium ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ami Hazlin, M. N.; Halimah, M. K.; Muhammad, F. D.; Faznny, M. F.

    2017-04-01

    The zinc borotellurite doped with dysprosium oxide glass samples with chemical formula {[(TeO2) 0 . 7(B2O3) 0 . 3 ] 0 . 7(ZnO) 0 . 3 } 1 - x(Dy2O3)x (where x=0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 M fraction) were prepared by using conventional melt quenching technique. The structural and optical properties of the proposed glass systems were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The amorphous nature of the glass systems is confirmed by using XRD technique. The infrared spectra of the glass systems indicate three obvious absorption bands which are assigned to BO3 and TeO4 vibrational groups. Based on the absorption spectra obtained, the direct and indirect optical band gaps, as well as the Urbach energy were calculated. It is observed that both the direct and indirect optical band gaps increase with the concentration of Dy3+ ions. On the other hand, the Urbach energy is observed to decrease as the concentration of Dy3+ ions increases.

  5. Structural study and DC conductivity of vanadyl doped zinc lithium borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seema, Khasa, S.; Dahiya, M. S.; Yadav, Arti; Agarwal, A.; Dahiya, S.

    2015-06-01

    Glasses with composition xZnOṡ(30 - x)ṡLi2Oṡ70B2O3 containing 2 mol% of V2O5 (x = 0, 2, 5, 7 and 10) were prepared by standard melt-quench technique. The amorphous nature of the glass samples was confirmed by using x-ray diffraction. The structural changes in these glasses have been investigated by employing IR spectroscopy in the mid-IR range. The infrared spectroscopic analysis confirms the presence of both triangular and tetraheldral coordinated boron units and absence of boroxol ring. It also shows that metal-oxide vibrations are present which are due to the bonding of lithium and zinc ions with oxygen. The dc conductivity was measured in the temperature range 353-523 K. The dc conductivity results show that conductivity decreases and activation energy increases when Li2O is replaced by ZnO, keeping the concentration of B2O3 constant. Decrease in conductivity and increase in activation energy shows that addition of ZnO to the glass matrix shows a "blocking effect" on the overall mobility of alkali ions, but at higher concentration the hopping effect was also observed.

  6. Optical studies of Sm³⁺ ions doped zinc alumino bismuth borate glasses.

    PubMed

    Swapna, K; Mahamuda, Sk; Srinivasa Rao, A; Shakya, S; Sasikala, T; Haranath, D; Vijaya Prakash, G

    2014-05-05

    Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate (ZnAlBiB) glasses doped with different concentrations of samarium (Sm(3+)) ions were prepared by using melt quenching technique and characterized for their lasing potentialities in visible region by using the techniques such as optical absorption, emission and emission decay measurements. Radiative properties for various fluorescent levels of Sm(3+) ions were estimated from absorption spectral information using Judd-Ofelt (JO) analysis. The emission spectra and con-focal photoluminescence images obtained by 410 nm laser excitation demonstrates very distinct and intense orange-red emission for all the doped glasses. The suitable concentration of Sm(3+) ions in these glasses to act as an efficient lasing material has been discussed by measuring the emission cross-section and branching ratios for the emission transitions. The quantum efficiencies were also been estimated from emission decay measurements recorded for the (4)G5/2 level of Sm(3+) ions. From the measured emission cross-sections, branching ratios, strong photoluminescence features and CIE chromaticity coordinates, it was found that 1 mol% of Sm(3+) ions doped ZnAlBiB glasses are most suitable for the development of visible orange-red lasers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental and theoretical approach on the optical properties of zinc borotellurite glass doped with dysprosium oxide.

    PubMed

    Halimah, M K; Ami Hazlin, M N; Muhammad, F D

    2018-04-15

    A series of glass samples with chemical formula {[(TeO 2 ) 0.7 (B 2 O 3 ) 0.3 ] 0.7 (ZnO) 0.3 } 1-x (Dy 2 O 3 ) x where x=0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05M fraction were synthesized through conventional melt-quenching method. The most common way to fabricate a glass material is by fusion of two or more component oxides followed by their quenching. This technique is known as melt-quenching technique. Kaur et al. (2016) [1] highlighted that the melt-quenching method able to enhance the mechanical properties like hardness and flexural strength of the material. The nature of the glass systems is proven to be amorphous based on the XRD pattern. The FTIR spectra of the glass systems confirm the existence of five bands which are assigned for the BO 4 , BO 3, TeO 4 and TeO 3 vibrational groups. The density of the glass systems is increased with the addition of Dy 2 O 3 while the molar volume is found to be inversely proportional to the density of the proposed glass. The optical properties of the glasses are determined through the absorption spectra obtained from the UV-VIS spectrophotometer. From the absorption spectra, the indirect and direct optical band gaps and the Urbach energy are found to be inversely proportional to each other. As the molar fraction of the Dy 2 O 3 increased, the optical band gaps are observed to increase as opposed to the Urbach energy. For this glass system, the values of refractive index, electronic polarizability, oxide ion polarizability and the optical basicity are found to decrease as the addition of the dysprosium oxide is increased. From the emission spectra, two intense blue and yellow emission bands are observed, which correspond to the 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 15/2 and 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 13/2 transitions of Dy 3+ ions respectively. The CIE chromaticity coordinates of the zinc borotellurite glass systems are found to be located in the white light region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exchange bias in zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB based metallic glass composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, Lisha; T, Hysen; P, Geetha; B, Aravind P.; Ojha, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Ramanujan, R. V.; Anantharaman, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The Exchange bias phenomenon and methods to manipulate the bias field in a controlled manner are thrust areas in magnetism due to its sophisticated theoretical concepts as well as advanced technological utility in the field of spintronics. The Exchange bias effect is observed as a result of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic (FM-AFM) exchange interaction, usually observed as a loop shift on field cooling below the Neel temperature of AFM. In the present study, we have chosen zinc ferrite which is a well known antiferromagnet, and FeNiMoB based metallic glass as the ferromagnet. The films were prepared by RF sputtering technique. The thickness and composition was obtained by RBS. The magnetic studies using SQUID VSM indicate exchange bias effect in the system. The effect of thermal annealing on exchange bias effect was studied. The observed exchange bias in the zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB system is not due to FM-AFM coupling but due to spin glass-ferromagnetic interaction.

  9. Exchange bias in zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB based metallic glass composite thin films

    SciT

    R, Lisha; P, Geetha; B, Aravind P.

    2015-06-24

    The Exchange bias phenomenon and methods to manipulate the bias field in a controlled manner are thrust areas in magnetism due to its sophisticated theoretical concepts as well as advanced technological utility in the field of spintronics. The Exchange bias effect is observed as a result of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic (FM-AFM) exchange interaction, usually observed as a loop shift on field cooling below the Neel temperature of AFM. In the present study, we have chosen zinc ferrite which is a well known antiferromagnet, and FeNiMoB based metallic glass as the ferromagnet. The films were prepared by RF sputtering technique. The thickness andmore » composition was obtained by RBS. The magnetic studies using SQUID VSM indicate exchange bias effect in the system. The effect of thermal annealing on exchange bias effect was studied. The observed exchange bias in the zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB system is not due to FM-AFM coupling but due to spin glass-ferromagnetic interaction.« less

  10. Mechanical properties of silicate glasses exposed to a low-Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedlocher, David E.; Tucker, Dennis S.; Nichols, Ron; Kinser, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a 5.8 year exposure to low earth orbit environment upon the mechanical properties of commercial optical fused silica, low iron soda-lime-silica, Pyrex 7740, Vycor 7913, BK-7, and the glass ceramic Zerodur were examined. Mechanical testing employed the ASTM-F-394 piston on 3-ball method in a liquid nitrogen environment. Samples were exposed on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in two locations. Impacts were observed on all specimens except Vycor. Weibull analysis as well as a standard statistical evaluation were conducted. The Weibull analysis revealed no differences between control samples and the two exposed samples. We thus concluded that radiation components of the Earth orbital environment did not degrade the mechanical strength of the samples examined within the limits of experimental error. The upper bound of strength degradation for meteorite impacted samples based upon statistical analysis and observation was 50 percent.

  11. Investigation of gold and bimetallic gold/silver nanoparticles in soda-lime-silicate glasses formed by means of excimer laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, M.; Dubiel, M.; Meinertz, J.; Ihlemann, J.; Hoell, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, plasmonic Au and Au/Ag nanostructures in soda-lime-silicate glasses have been generated by means of ArF-excimer laser irradiation (193 nm) below the ablation threshold of the glass. For this purpose pure and silver/sodium ion-exchanged float glasses have been coated by gold and then irradiated by the laser. The formation of Au and Au/Ag nanoparticles could be verified by the surface plasmon resonances between 420 and 620 nm, which were obtained by optical spectroscopy. Both, pure Au and Ag particles as well as bimetallic Au/Ag nanoparticles, could be observed by means of small angle X-ray scattering experiments. These results demonstrate that such procedures enable the spaceselected generation of plasmonic nanostructures in glass surfaces by excimer laser irradiation.

  12. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of the Atomic Structure of Zirconium-Doped Lithium Silicate Glasses and Glass-Ceramics, Zirconium-Doped Lithium Borate Glasses, and Vitreous Rare-Earth Phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Changhyeon

    In the first part of this work, the atomic-scale structure around rare-earth (RE = Pr, Nd, Eu, Dy, and Er) cations (RE3+) in rare-earth sodium ultraphosphate (REUP) glasses were investigated using RE LIII -edge (RE = Nd, Er, Dy, and Eu) and K-edge (RE = Pr and Dy) Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. (RE2O 3)x(Na2O)y(P2O5) 1-x-y glasses in the compositional range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.14 and 0.3 ≤ x + y ≤ 0.4 were studied. For the nearest oxygen shell, the RE-oxygen (RE-O) coordination number decreases from 10.8 to 6.5 with increasing RE content for Pr-, Nd-, Dy-, and Er-doped sodium ultraphosphate glasses. For Eu-doped samples, the Eu-O coordination number was between 7.5 and 8.8. Also, the RE-O mean distance ranges were between 2.43-2.45 A, 2.40-2.43 A, 2.36-2.38 A, 2.30-2.35 A, and 2.28-2.30 A for Pr-, Nd-, Eu-, Dy-, and Er-doped samples, respectively. In the second part, a series of Zr-doped (3-10 mol%) lithium silicate (ZRLS) glass-ceramics and their parent glasses and a series of Zr-doped (2-6 mol% ZrO2) lithium borate (ZRLB) glasses were investigated using Zr K-edge EXAFS and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Immediate coordination environments of all ZRLS glasses are remarkably similar for different compositions. For the nearest oxygen shell, the Zr-O coordination number ranges were between 6.1 and 6.3 for nucleated and crystallized samples, respectively. Also, the Zr-O mean distance remains similar around 2.10 A. For these glasses, the composition dependence of structural parameters was small. Small changes in the coordination environment were observed for ZRLS glass-ceramics after thermal treatments. In contrast, Zr coordination environment in ZRLB glasses appear to depend appreciably on the Zr concentration. For the nearest oxygen shell, the Zr-O coordination number increased from 6.1 to 6.8 and the Zr-O distance decreased from 2.18 A to 2.14 A with decreasing ZrO2 content.

  13. High Pressure Response of Siliceous Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    quartz, Starphire soda lime silicate glass, hydrated Starphire, BOROFLOAT borosilicate glass, an iron-containing soda lime silicate glass, opal (a hydrated... Opal (hydrated amorphous silica). .............................................................................. 10 2.7. ROBAX glass ceramic...spectrum as a function of stress for BOROFLOAT borosilicate glass. .......... 29 4.8. Raman spectrum as a function of stress for opal (hydrated

  14. Influence of silver and copper doping on luminescent properties of zinc-phosphate glasses after x-ray irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashov, Alexander A.; Sidorov, Alexander I.; Shakhverdov, Teimur A.; Stolyarchuk, Maxim V.

    2017-11-01

    It is shown, experimentally, that in silver- and copper-containing zinc-phosphate glasses, metal molecular clusters are formed during the glass synthesis. X-ray irradiation of these glasses led to the considerable increase of its luminescence in visible spectral range. This effect is caused by the transformation of the charged metal molecular clusters into the neutral state. Luminescence and excitation spectra of the glass, doped with silver and copper simultaneously, change significantly in comparison with the spectra of glasses doped with one metal. The reason for this can be the formation of hybrid AgnCum molecular clusters. The computer simulation of the structure and optical properties of such clusters by the time-dependent density functional theory method is presented. It is shown that the optimal luminescent material for photonics application, in comparison with other studied materials, is glass, containing hybrid molecular clusters.

  15. Low-temperature vibrational dynamics of fused silica and binary silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ling; Shi, Ying; Hrdina, Ken; Moore, Lisa; Wu, Jingshi; Daemen, Luke L.; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2018-02-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering was used to study the vibrational dynamics of fused silica and its mixed binary glasses that were doped with either TiO2 or K2O . The energy transfer was measured from zero to 180 meV where the so-called Boson peaks (BP) at low energy and molecular vibrations at high energy are included. Although most of the vibrational spectra at the high energy resemble those reported in earlier literature, a defect-mode-like peak is observed for the doped binary systems near 120 meV . At very low temperature, the BP intensity increases rapidly with temperature and then, at higher temperature, the peak intensity decreases. As a result, a maximum is observed in the temperature dependence of the BP intensity. This maximum was shown in all four samples, but the pure SiO2 sample shows the highest intensity peak and the lowest temperature for peak position. Broadband energy spectra reveal a shift of intensity from BP to the more localized modes at higher energy. Temperature evolution of BP and its relationship with heat conduction and thermal expansion are discussed.

  16. Formation, structural and optical characterization of neodymium doped-zinc soda lime silica based glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamratul, M. I. M.; Zaidan, A. W.; Khamirul, A. M.; Nurzilla, M.; Halim, S. A.

    New glass system of neodymium - doped zinc soda lime silica glass has been synthesized for the first time by melt-quenching of glass waste soda lime silica (SLS) with zinc oxide (ZnO) as precursor glass and Nd2O3 as dopant. In order to examine the effect of Nd3+ on the structural and optical properties, the prepared sample of structure [(ZnO)0.5(SLS)0.5](Nd2O3)x (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt%) was characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and the photoluminescence (PL). XRD pattern justifies the amorphous nature of synthesized glasses. FTIR spectroscopy has been used to observe the structural evolution of ZnO4 and SiO4 groups. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra reveals seven peaks centered at excitation of electron from ground state 4I9/2 to 4D3/2 + 4D5/2 (∼360 nm), 2G9/2 + 2D3/2 + 2P3/2(∼470 nm), 2K13/2 + 4G7/2 + 4G9/2 (∼523 nm), 4G5/2 + 2G7/2 (∼583 nm), 4F9/2 (∼678 nm), 4S3/2 + 4F7/2 (∼748 nm) and 4F5/2 + 2H9/2 (∼801 nm). PL spectra under the excitation of 800 nm display four emission bands centered at 531 nm, 598 nm, 637 nm and 671 nm corresponding to 4G7/2 → 4I9/2, (4G7/2 → 4I11/2, 4G5/2 → 4I9/2), (4G5/2 → 4I11/2) and (4G7/2 → 4I13/2, 4G5/2 → 4I11/2) respectively.

  17. Na/Ca Intermixing around Silicate and Phosphate Groups in Bioactive Phosphosilicate Glasses Revealed by Heteronuclear Solid-State NMR and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Renny; Stevensson, Baltzar; Edén, Mattias

    2015-04-30

    We characterize the intermixing of network-modifying Na(+)/Ca(2+) ions around the silicate (QSi(n)) and phosphate (QP(n)) tetrahedra in a series of 16 Na2O–CaO–SiO2–P2O5 glasses, whose P content and silicate network connectivity were varied independently. The set includes both bioactive and bioinactive compositions and also encompasses two soda-lime-silicate members devoid of P, as well as two CaO–SiO2 glasses and one Na2O–SiO2–P2O5 glass. The various Si/P↔Na/Ca contacts were probed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations together with heteronuclear magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimentation utilizing (23)Na{(31)P} and (23)Na{(29)Si} REDOR, as well as (31)P{ (23)Na} and (29)Si{(23)Na} REAPDOR. We introduce an approach for quantifying the extent of Na(+)/Ca(2+) ordering around a given QP(n) or QSi(n) group, encoded by the preference factor 0⩽ PM ⩽ 1 conveying the relative weights of a random cation intermixing (PM = 0) and complete preference/ordering (PM = 1) for one of the species M, which represents either Na(+) or Ca(2+). The MD-derived preference factors reveal phosphate and silicate species surrounded by Na(+)/Ca(2+) ions intermixed nearly randomly (PM ≲ 0.15), except for the QSi(4) and QSi(1) groups, which manifest more significant cation ordering with preference for Na+ and Ca2+, respectively. The overall weak preferences are essentially independent of the Si and P contents of the glass, whereas PM primarily correlates with the total amount of network modifiers: as the latter is increased, the Na/Ca distribution around the {QP(0), QSi(1), QSi(2)} groups with preference for Ca2(+ )tend to randomize (i.e., PCa decreases), while the PNa-values grow slightly for the {QP(1), QSi(3), QSi(4)} species already preferring coordination of Na. The set of experimental preference factors {PCa} for the orthophosphate (QP(0)) groups extracted from (31)P{(23)Na} REAPDOR NMR-derived M2(P–Na) dipolar second moments agrees

  18. Synthesis and different optical properties of Gd2O3 doped sodium zinc tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Buddhadev; Dutta, Dibakar; Ghosh, Subhankar

    2017-06-01

    A series of Gd2O3 doped sodium zinc tellurite [xGd2O3-(0.8-x) TeO2-0.1Na2O-0.1ZnO] glasses are prepared by the conventional melt quenching method and their optical properties have been studied. UV-vis spectrophotometric studies within the wavelength range from 230 nm-800 nm are carried out in the integrating sphere mode to study the effect of Gd2O3 doping on the optical band gap (Eg), refractive index (n), dielectric constant (εr) and susceptibility (χ). Other physical properties like molar volume, molar refraction, polarizability, metallization criterion, number density of rare-earth ions (N), polaron radius (rp), inter ionic distance (ri), molar cation polarizability (∑αi), number of oxide ions in chemical composition (NO2-), optical band gap based electronic oxide ion polarizability (αO2-) and optical basicity (Λ) of glass samples have been studied on the basis of UV-vis spectra and density profile of the different glasses.

  19. Luminescence performance of Eu{sup 3+} doped lead free zinc phosphate glasses for red emission

    SciT

    Prasad, V. Reddy; Babu, S.; Ratnakaram, Y. C., E-mail: ratnakaramsvu@gmail.com

    2016-05-06

    Luminescence performance of zinc phosphate glasses containing Eu{sup 3+} ion with the chemical compositions (60-x)NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-20ZnO-10BaF{sub 2}-10NaF-x Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x = 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mol%) has been studied. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) shows several vibrations bands. Luminescence spectra of these glasses exhibit characteristic emission of Eu{sup 3+} ion with an intense and most prominent red emission (614 nm) which is attributed to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition. Judd-Ofelt (Ω{sub 2}, Ω{sub 4}) parameters have been evaluated from the luminescence intensity ratios of {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub J} (where J = 2 and 4)more » to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1} transition as well as absorption spectra under different constraints. Using J-O parameters and excitation spectra, the radiative parameters are calculated for different Eu{sup 3+} doped glasses.« less

  20. Influence of europium (Eu3+) ions on the optical properties of lithium zinc phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwetha, M.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-02-01

    Europium doped lithium zinc phosphate glasses with composition xEu2O3-(15-x) Li2O-45ZnO-40P2O5 (where x=0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mol %) named as EP0, EP1, EP3 and EP5 respectively, are prepared by melt-quenching method and the influence of Eu3+ ions on physical and optical properties of these glasses has been studied. Optical properties were studied using optical absorption spectra which was recorded at room temperature in the UV-Visible region. Optical direct band gap and indirect band gap energies were measured and their values range from 3.167 to 4.23eV and 2.08 to 3.02eV, respectively. Refractive indices have been measured with respect to different concentration of europium ions. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements have been performed by excitation in the UV-Visible range, which resulted in the significant fluorescence peaks. The luminescence color of the glass system is characterized using Commission International de l’Eclairage de France 1931 standards.

  1. Present and future of glass-ionomers and calcium-silicate cements as bioactive materials in dentistry: Biophotonics-based interfacial analyses in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Timothy F.; Atmeh, Amre R.; Sajini, Shara; Cook, Richard J.; Festy, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Objective Since their introduction, calcium silicate cements have primarily found use as endodontic sealers, due to long setting times. While similar in chemistry, recent variations such as constituent proportions, purities and manufacturing processes mandate a critical understanding of service behavior differences of the new coronal restorative material variants. Of particular relevance to minimally invasive philosophies is the potential for ion supply, from initial hydration to mature set in dental cements. They may be capable of supporting repair and remineralization of dentin left after decay and cavity preparation, following the concepts of ion exchange from glass ionomers. Methods This paper reviews the underlying chemistry and interactions of glass ionomer and calcium silicate cements, with dental tissues, concentrating on dentin–restoration interface reactions. We additionally demonstrate a new optical technique, based around high resolution deep tissue, two-photon fluorescence and lifetime imaging, which allows monitoring of undisturbed cement–dentin interface samples behavior over time. Results The local bioactivity of the calcium-silicate based materials has been shown to produce mineralization within the subjacent dentin substrate, extending deep within the tissues. This suggests that the local ion-rich alkaline environment may be more favorable to mineral repair and re-construction, compared with the acidic environs of comparable glass ionomer based materials. Significance The advantages of this potential re-mineralization phenomenon for minimally invasive management of carious dentin are self-evident. There is a clear need to improve the bioactivity of restorative dental materials and these calcium silicate cement systems offer exciting possibilities in realizing this goal. PMID:24113131

  2. Present and future of glass-ionomers and calcium-silicate cements as bioactive materials in dentistry: biophotonics-based interfacial analyses in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Watson, Timothy F; Atmeh, Amre R; Sajini, Shara; Cook, Richard J; Festy, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Since their introduction, calcium silicate cements have primarily found use as endodontic sealers, due to long setting times. While similar in chemistry, recent variations such as constituent proportions, purities and manufacturing processes mandate a critical understanding of service behavior differences of the new coronal restorative material variants. Of particular relevance to minimally invasive philosophies is the potential for ion supply, from initial hydration to mature set in dental cements. They may be capable of supporting repair and remineralization of dentin left after decay and cavity preparation, following the concepts of ion exchange from glass ionomers. This paper reviews the underlying chemistry and interactions of glass ionomer and calcium silicate cements, with dental tissues, concentrating on dentin-restoration interface reactions. We additionally demonstrate a new optical technique, based around high resolution deep tissue, two-photon fluorescence and lifetime imaging, which allows monitoring of undisturbed cement-dentin interface samples behavior over time. The local bioactivity of the calcium-silicate based materials has been shown to produce mineralization within the subjacent dentin substrate, extending deep within the tissues. This suggests that the local ion-rich alkaline environment may be more favorable to mineral repair and re-construction, compared with the acidic environs of comparable glass ionomer based materials. The advantages of this potential re-mineralization phenomenon for minimally invasive management of carious dentin are self-evident. There is a clear need to improve the bioactivity of restorative dental materials and these calcium silicate cement systems offer exciting possibilities in realizing this goal. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling the Onset of Phase Separation in CaO-SiO2-CaCl2 Chlorine-Containing Silicate Glasses.

    PubMed

    Swansbury, Laura A; Mountjoy, Gavin; Chen, Xiaojing; Karpukhina, Natalia; Hill, Robert

    2017-06-08

    The addition of chlorine into a bioactive glass composition is expected to reduce its abrasiveness and increase its bioactivity, which is important for dental applications such as toothpastes. There is a lack of information and understanding regarding the structural role of chlorine in chlorine-containing bioactive silicate glasses. This has prompted classical core-shell model molecular dynamics simulations of (50 - x/2)CaO-(50 - x/2)SiO 2 -xCaCl 2 glasses to be performed, where x ranges from x = 0.0 to 43.1 mol % CaCl 2 . These ternary glasses are advantageous for a fundamental study because they do not have additional network formers (e.g., phosphorus pentoxide) or modifiers (e.g., sodium) typically found in bioactive glass compositions. The (50 - x/2)CaO-(50 - x/2)SiO 2 -xCaCl 2 glasses were seen to become phase-separated around the x = 16.1 mol % CaCl 2 composition, and chlorine predominantly coordinated with calcium. These findings provide a solid foundation for further computational modeling work on more complex chlorine-containing bioactive glass compositions.

  4. X-ray-induced fluorescent centers formation in zinc- phosphate glasses doped with Ag and Cu ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyukin, D. A.; Pshenova, A. S.; Sidorov, A. I.; Stolyarchuk, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    Fluorescent properties of silver and copper doped zinc-phosphate glasses were studied. By X-ray irradiation of silver and copper co-doped glasses we could create and identify new emission centers which do not exist in single-doped samples. Doping of the glass with both silver and copper ions leads to the increase of quantum yield by 2.7 times. The study was complemented by quantum chemical calculations using the time-dependent density functional theory. It was shown that fluorescence may be attributed to the formation of mixed Ag-Cu molecular clusters.

  5. Improved ionic conductivity of lithium-zinc-tellurite glass-ceramic electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widanarto, W.; Ramdhan, A. M.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Effendi, M.; Cahyanto, W. T.; Warsito

    An enhancement in the secondary battery safety demands the optimum synthesis of glass-ceramics electrolytes with modified ionic conductivity. To achieve improved ionic conductivity and safer operation of the battery, we synthesized Li2O included zinc-tellurite glass-ceramics based electrolytes of chemical composition (85-x)TeO2·xLi2O·15ZnO, where x = 0, 5, 10, 15 mol%. Samples were prepared using the melt quenching method at 800 °C followed by thermal annealing at 320 °C for 3 h and characterized. The effects of varying temperature, alternating current (AC) frequency and Li2O concentration on the structure and ionic conductivity of such glass-ceramics were determined. The SEM images of the annealed glass-ceramic electrolytes displayed rough surface with a uniform distribution of nucleated crystal flakes with sizes less than 1 μm. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the well crystalline nature of achieved electrolytes. Incorporation of Li2O in the electrolytes was found to generate some new crystalline phases including hexagonal Li6(TeO6), monoclinic Zn2Te3O8 and monoclinic Li2Te2O5. The estimated crystallite size of the electrolyte was ranged from ≈40 to 80 nm. AC impedance measurement revealed that the variation in the temperatures, Li2O contents, and high AC frequencies have a significant influence on the ionic conductivity of the electrolytes. Furthermore, electrolyte doped with 15 mol% of Li2O exhibited the optimum performance with an ionic conductivity ≈2.4 × 10-7 S cm-1 at the frequency of 54 Hz and in the temperature range of 323-473 K. This enhancement in the conductivity was attributed to the sizable alteration in the ions vibration and ruptures of covalent bonds in the electrolytes network structures.

  6. Electric double-layer capacitor based on zinc metaphosphate glass-derived hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akamatsu, Takafumi; Kasuga, Toshihiro; Nogami, Masayuki

    2006-04-01

    The present work reports the electrochemical characteristics of an electric double-layer capacitor (EDC) cell with an electrolyte consisting of a glass-derived zinc metaphosphate hydrogel (ZP gel) or H3PO4 solution. The EDC cell showed specific discharge capacities of 2.06 and 3.21F/g using the ZP gel and H3PO4 solution, respectively. The EDC cell performed higher voltage retentionability for self-discharge behavior after constant voltage using the ZP gel (0.83V after 24h) than using H3PO4 solution (0.45V after 24h). Self-discharge behaviors of the ZP gel and H3PO4 solution were controlled by a diffusion and current leakage process, respectively. These results show that the ZP gel has a great potential for practical use as an EDC electrolyte.

  7. Silicate, borosilicate, and borate bioactive glass scaffolds with controllable degradation rate for bone tissue engineering applications. I. Preparation and in vitro degradation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Fu, Hailuo; Liu, Xin

    2010-10-01

    Bioactive glass scaffolds with a microstructure similar to that of dry human trabecular bone but with three different compositions were evaluated for potential applications in bone repair. The preparation of the scaffolds and the effect of the glass composition on the degradation and conversion of the scaffolds to a hydroxyapatite (HA)-type material in a simulated body fluid (SBF) are reported here (Part I). The in vitro response of osteogenic cells to the scaffolds and the in vivo evaluation of the scaffolds in a rat subcutaneous implantation model are described in Part II. Scaffolds (porosity = 78-82%; pore size = 100-500 microm) were prepared using a polymer foam replication technique. The glasses consisted of a silicate (13-93) composition, a borosilicate composition (designated 13-93B1), and a borate composition (13-93B3), in which one-third or all of the SiO2 content of 13-93 was replaced by B2O3, respectively. The conversion rate of the scaffolds to HA in the SBF increased markedly with the B2O3 content of the glass. Concurrently, the pH of the SBF also increased with the B2O3 content of the scaffolds. The compressive strengths of the as-prepared scaffolds (5-11 MPa) were in the upper range of values reported for trabecular bone, but they decreased markedly with immersion time in the SBF and with increasing B2O3 content of the glass. The results show that scaffolds with a wide range of bioactivity and degradation rate can be achieved by replacing varying amounts of SiO(2) in silicate bioactive glass with B2O3. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2010.

  8. Spectroscopy `outside the box': Towards wider application of NMR to minerals and glasses with abundant paramagnetic cations - Fe, Ni, Co, and Cu silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Since the early applications of solid-state NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) to silicates in the early 1980's, this powerful method has been widely applied to problems of short- to medium-range structure, particularly for materials in which order/disorder is critical, such as crystalline solid solutions, glasses, and even melts. However, almost all such work has been on materials with low (< a few %) contents of ions with unpaired electron spins. Such spins interact strongly with NMR-observed nuclear spins, and can cause severe line broadening and loss of information, in some cases making spectra nearly unobservable. Many groups of minerals with abundant, paramagnetic transition metals (notably Fe2+) and rare earth cations, as well as wide, petrologically important ranges of glass composition have thus been excluded. Inspired by in-depth NMR studies of 31P, 7Li, and other nuclides in lithium-transition metal oxide and phosphate battery materials (C. Grey and others), and with some serendipitous discovery plus persistence to look far outside of "normal" parameter space, we have recently shown that high resolution, structurally informative spectra can actually be obtained for silicate, oxide, and phosphate solid solutions with moderate (0.1 up to 10%) contents of paramagnetic cations such as Fe2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and REE3+. Very recently we have extended this to observe some of the first quantitative NMR spectra of silicate minerals in which a paramagnetic transition metal is the major cation, obtaining useful data for a series of Cu2+ silicates, fayalite (Fe2SiO4) and Ni- and Co- equivalents of diopside (CaMSi2O6). New data for glasses of the latter compositions may be the first such accurate results for any transition metal-rich glass. Although we are still far from a detailed theoretical understanding of these data, the spectra for the glasses are quite different from those of the crystals, suggesting the possibility of medium-range ordering and clustering of NiO and

  9. Optical spectroscopy and luminescence properties of Ho3+ doped zinc fluorophosphate (ZFP) glasses for green luminescent device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy Prasad, V.; Damodaraiah, S.; Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2018-04-01

    Ho3+ doped zinc fluorophosphate (ZFP) glasses with molar chemical compositions, (60-x) NH4H2PO4+20ZnO+10BaF2+10NaF+xHo2O3 (where x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mol%) were prepared by melt quenching technique. These glasses were characterized through physical, structural, optical, excitation, luminescence and decay curve analysis. From the absorption spectra, spectral intensities (fexp and fcal), Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6), radiative transition probabilities (AT), radiative lifetimes (τR) and branching ratios (βR) were evaluated for all Ho3+ doped ZFP glass matrices. From the photoluminescence spectra, peak stimulated emission cross-sections (σP) were calculated for all Ho3+ doped ZFP glasses. The Ho3+ doped ZFP glasses show strong green emission at 545 nm and red emission at 656 nm under excitation, 450 nm. The measured lifetimes (τmeas) of (5S2)5F4 level of Ho3+ doped ZFP glasses were obtained from decay profiles. The CIE color coordinates of Ho3+ doped ZFP glasses were calculated from emission spectra and 1.0 mol% of Ho3+ doped ZFP glass matrix gives green emission. Hence, these results confirm that the Ho3+ doped ZFP glasses could be considered as a promising candidate for visible green laser applications.

  10. Luminescence properties of Dy3+ doped lithium zinc borosilicate glasses for photonic applications.

    PubMed

    Jaidass, N; Krishna Moorthi, C; Mohan Babu, A; Reddi Babu, M

    2018-03-01

    Different concentrations of Dy 3+ ions doped lithium zinc borosilicate glasses of chemical composition (30-x) B 2 O 3 - 25 SiO 2 -10 Al 2 O 3 -30 LiF - 5 ZnO - x Dy 2 O 3 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol%) were prepared by the melt quenching technique. The prepared glasses were investigated through X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay measurements. Intensities of absorption bands expressed in terms of oscillator strengths (f) were used to determine the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters Ω λ (λ = 2, 4 and 6). The evaluated J-O parameters were used to determine the radiative parameters such as transition probabilities (A R ), total transition probability rate (A T ), radiative lifetime (τ R ) and branching ratios (β R ) for the excited 4 F 9/2 level of Dy 3+ ions. The chromaticity coordinates determined from the emission spectra were found to be located in the white light region of CIE chromaticity diagram.

  11. Spectroscopic attributes of Sm3+ doped magnesium zinc sulfophosphate glass: Effects of silver nanoparticles inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, F.; Hussin, R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    2017-11-01

    We report the modified optical properties of Sm3+ doped magnesium zinc sulfophosphate glass system with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) inclusion. Three glass samples were prepared using melt quenching method and characterized. TEM images revealed the nucleation of Ag NPs with average diameter ≈12.50 nm. The UV-Vis-NIR spectra showed thirteen absorption bands. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Ag NPs was manifested at 446 nm. FTIR spectra disclosed the bonding vibrations for P-O bonds, P-O-P linkages, and PO2 units. Ag NPs concentration dependent bonding parameters and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters were calculated. The JO parameter Ω2 was reduced with the increase of Ag NPs contents, indicating the ionicity and symmetry enhancement between Sm3+ ions with their surrounding ligands. The emission spectra of all samples under the excitation wavelength of 402 nm exhibited four significant peaks centered at 562, 599, 644 and 702 nm which are allocated to 4G5/2 →6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 and 6H11/2 transitions, respectively. Inclusion of Ag NPs was discerned to augment the luminescence intensity by a factor of two, which was majorly ascribed to the local field effect of Ag NPs and subsequent energy transfer from the NPs to Sm3+ ions.

  12. Investigations on the effects of the Stark splitting on the fluorescence behaviors in Yb3+-doped silicate, tellurite, germanate, and phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liaolin; Xia, Yu; Shen, Xiao; Yang, Runlan; Wei, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we systematically studied the spectroscopic characteristics of Yb3+ doped germanate, phosphate, silicate, and tellurite glasses. The emission peak beyond 976 nm showed irregular shift from 1001 nm to 1023 nm when Yb3+ in different glass matrices. It was associated with the Stark splitting of 2F7/2 and the emission intensities ratio between the transition from the lowest Stark splitting energy level of 2F5/2 to the Stark splitting energy levels of 2F7/2, e to b and that of e to d. Larger Stark splitting of 2F7/2 results in the red-shift of the near infrared emission band at room temperature and larger ratio results in the blue-shift of emission band. The fluorescence lifetimes of Yb3+ doped germanate, phosphate, silicate, and tellurite glasses were measured to be 0.94, 0.82, 1.51, and 0.66 ms, respectively. The fluorescence lifetime was associated with the reabsorption of Yb3+, which larger absorption cross section at the emission band results in larger reabsorption, then leads to the shorter near infrared fluorescence lifetime.

  13. Energy transfer characteristics of silicate glass doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+ for ˜2 μm emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Xueqiang; Guo, Yanyan; Hu, Lili; Zhang, Junjie

    2013-12-01

    A Er3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ tri-doped silicate glass with good thermal stability is prepared by melt-quenching method. Efficient ˜2 μm emission is observed under 808 nm laser excitation. It is found that the 2.0 μm emission of Ho3+ can be enhanced under the excitation at 808 nm by incorporating Er3+ and Tm3+. Based on the measurement of absorption spectra, the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, radiation emission probability, and branching ratio are calculated to evaluate the spectroscopic properties simultaneously. The maximum value of emission cross section of Ho3+ is 3.54 × 10-21 cm2 at 2008 nm. Additionally, the phonon assistance and the micro-parameters in the energy transfer process are quantitatively analyzed by using Dexter model. The energy transfer coefficient from Tm3+ to Ho3+ can reach as high as 21.44 × 10-40 cm6/s, respectively. The emission property together with good thermal property indicates that Er3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ tri-doped silicate glass is a potential kind of laser glass for efficient 2 μm laser.

  14. Investigations on the spectroscopic properties of Dy3 + ions doped Zinc calcium tellurofluoroborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Arunkumar, S.; Annapoorani, K.; Marimuthu, K.

    2018-03-01

    A new series of Dy3 + doped (30-x)B2O3 + 30TeO2 + 20CaCO3 + 10ZnO + 10ZnF2 + xDy2O3 (x = 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 in wt%) Zinc calcium tellurofluoroborate glasses were prepared and their structural, luminescence and excited state dynamics have been studied and reported. The structural properties have been characterized through XRD and FTIR studies to confirm the amorphous nature and to explore the presence of fundamental stretching vibrations. The bonding parameters (δ and β), optical band gap, Urbach's energy, oscillator strengths and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters were calculated from the absorption spectra. The JO intensity parameters and the Y/B intensity ratio values have been used to explore the nature of the bonding and asymmetry around the Dy-ligand field environment. The luminescence properties of the present Dy3 + doped glasses have been analyzed through luminescence excited state dynamics and radiative properties such as transition probability (A), stimulated emission cross-section (σPE) branching ratio (β) and radiative lifetime (τR) values. The combination of dominant blue (4F9/2 → 6H15/2) and yellow (4F9/2 → 6H13/2) emissions generates white light emission in the CIE chromaticity diagram thus suggests that the present Dy3 + doped glasses are suitable for white light applications. The lifetime of the 4F9/2 excited state is found to decrease with the increase in Dy3 + ion content and the concentration quenching of the Dy3 + ions emission could be ascribed due to the resonant energy transfer and cross-relaxation processes. The non-exponential behavior of the decay curves has been analyzed with Inokuti-Hirayama model and the interaction between the Dy3 + ions is of electric dipole-dipole in nature.

  15. Silicate, borosilicate, and borate bioactive glass scaffolds with controllable degradation rate for bone tissue engineering applications. II. In vitro and in vivo biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Bal, B Sonny; Bonewald, Lynda F; Kuroki, Keiichi; Brown, Roger F

    2010-10-01

    In Part I, the in vitro degradation of bioactivAR52115e glass scaffolds with a microstructure similar to that of human trabecular bone, but with three different compositions, was investigated as a function of immersion time in a simulated body fluid. The glasses consisted of a silicate (13-93) composition, a borosilicate composition (designated 13-93B1), and a borate composition (13-93B3), in which one-third or all of the SiO2 content of 13-93 was replaced by B2O3, respectively. This work is an extension of Part I, to investigate the effect of the glass composition on the in vitro response of osteogenic MLO-A5 cells to these scaffolds, and on the ability of the scaffolds to support tissue infiltration in a rat subcutaneous implantation model. The results of assays for cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity showed that the slower degrading silicate 13-93 and borosilicate 13-93B1 scaffolds were far better than the borate 13-93B3 scaffolds in supporting cell proliferation and function. However, all three groups of scaffolds showed the ability to support tissue infiltration in vivo after implantation for 6 weeks. The results indicate that the required bioactivity and degradation rate may be achieved by substituting an appropriate amount of SiO2 in 13-93 glass with B2O3, and that these trabecular glass scaffolds could serve as substrates for the repair and regeneration of contained bone defects. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2010.

  16. High Pressure Response of Siliceous Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    iron-containing soda lime silicate glass, opal (a hydrated silicate glass), ROBAX glass ceramic, and others were single crystal (α-quartz) and...10 2.6. Opal (hydrated amorphous silica...Raman spectrum as a function of stress for opal (hydrated silica) glass. ................... 29 4.9. Raman spectrum as a function of stress for

  17. Thermophysical and structural studies on some glass-ceramics and role of nano size crystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothiyal, G. P.; Arvind, A.; Kumar, Rakesh; Dixit, Anupam; Sharma, Kuldeep; Goswami, Madhumita

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we present some studies on structure and thermophysical properties of glass and glass-ceramics with possible bio-medical and sealing applications. The glass-ceramics prepared for bio-medical applications include phosphate as well as silico-phosphate compositions. In vitro bio-compatibility/activity of these materials is discussed. The glass-ceramics used for the sealing application are lithium aluminium silicate (LAS) and lithium zinc silicate (LZS). The phase formation and some aspects of thermophysical properties and sealing are discussed.

  18. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  19. Zinc

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  20. Evidence of denser MgSiO3 glass above 133 gigapascal (GPa) and implications for remnants of ultradense silicate melt from a deep magma ocean.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Motohiko; Bass, Jay D

    2011-10-18

    Ultralow velocity zones are the largest seismic anomalies in the mantle, with 10-30% seismic velocity reduction observed in thin layers less than 20-40 km thick, just above the Earth's core-mantle boundary (CMB). The presence of silicate melts, possibly a remnant of a deep magma ocean in the early Earth, have been proposed to explain ultralow velocity zones. It is, however, still an open question as to whether such silicate melts are gravitationally stable at the pressure conditions above the CMB. Fe enrichment is usually invoked to explain why melts would remain at the CMB, but this has not been substantiated experimentally. Here we report in situ high-pressure acoustic velocity measurements that suggest a new transformation to a denser structure of MgSiO(3) glass at pressures close to those of the CMB. The result suggests that MgSiO(3) melt is likely to become denser than crystalline MgSiO(3) above the CMB. The presence of negatively buoyant and gravitationally stable silicate melts at the bottom of the mantle, would provide a mechanism for observed ultralow seismic velocities above the CMB without enrichment of Fe in the melt. An ultradense melt phase and its geochemical inventory would be isolated from overlying convective flow over geologic time.

  1. Evidence of denser MgSiO3 glass above 133 gigapascal (GPa) and implications for remnants of ultradense silicate melt from a deep magma ocean

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Motohiko; Bass, Jay D.

    2011-01-01

    Ultralow velocity zones are the largest seismic anomalies in the mantle, with 10–30% seismic velocity reduction observed in thin layers less than 20–40 km thick, just above the Earth’s core-mantle boundary (CMB). The presence of silicate melts, possibly a remnant of a deep magma ocean in the early Earth, have been proposed to explain ultralow velocity zones. It is, however, still an open question as to whether such silicate melts are gravitationally stable at the pressure conditions above the CMB. Fe enrichment is usually invoked to explain why melts would remain at the CMB, but this has not been substantiated experimentally. Here we report in situ high-pressure acoustic velocity measurements that suggest a new transformation to a denser structure of MgSiO3 glass at pressures close to those of the CMB. The result suggests that MgSiO3 melt is likely to become denser than crystalline MgSiO3 above the CMB. The presence of negatively buoyant and gravitationally stable silicate melts at the bottom of the mantle, would provide a mechanism for observed ultralow seismic velocities above the CMB without enrichment of Fe in the melt. An ultradense melt phase and its geochemical inventory would be isolated from overlying convective flow over geologic time. PMID:21969547

  2. Characterization by combined optical and FT infrared spectra of 3d-transition metal ions doped-bismuth silicate glasses and effects of gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    ElBatal, F H; Abdelghany, A M; ElBatal, H A

    2014-03-25

    Optical and infrared absorption spectral measurements were carried out for binary bismuth silicate glass and other derived prepared samples with the same composition and containing additional 0.2% of one of 3d transition metal oxides. The same combined spectroscopic properties were also measured after subjecting the prepared glasses to a gamma dose of 8 Mrad. The experimental optical spectra reveal strong UV-near visible absorption bands from the base and extended to all TMs-doped samples and these specific extended and strong UV-near visible absorption bands are related to the contributions of absorption from both trace iron (Fe(3+)) ions present as contaminated impurities within the raw materials and from absorption of main constituent trivalent bismuth (Bi(3+)) ions. The strong UV-near visible absorption bands are observed to suppress any further UV bands from TM ions. The studied glasses show obvious resistant to gamma irradiation and only small changes are observed upon gamma irradiation. This observed shielding behavior is related to the presence of high Bi(3+) ions with heavy mass causing the observed stability of the optical absorption. Infrared absorption spectra of the studied glasses reveal characteristic vibrational bands due to both modes from silicate network and the sharing of Bi-O linkages and the presence of TMs in the doping level (0.2%) causes no distinct changes within the number or position of the vibrational modes. The presence of high Bi2O3 content (70 mol%) appears to cause stability of the structural building units towards gamma irradiation as revealed by FTIR measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Retentive [correction of Preventive] efficacy of glass ionomer, zinc phosphate and zinc polycarboxylate luting cements in preformed stainless steel crowns: a comparative clinical study.

    PubMed

    Khinda, V I S; Grewal, N

    2002-06-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of three luting cements, namely, glass ionomer, zinc phosphate and zinc polycarboxylate in retainng the preformed stainless steel crowns in-vivo. Twenty subjects, with an indication for restoration of three primary molars with stainless steel crowns, were selected. Sixty teeth were taken up for the study, and twenty crowns were cemented with each of the three luting cements. After an eight month follow up the crowns were assessed for their presence/ absence or "rocking". Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. The results have shown no significant difference in retentivity of stainless steel crowns with the use of either of the three luting agents.

  4. Tm3+-doped lead silicate glass sensitized by Er3+ for efficient 2 μm mid-infrared laser material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junjie; Wang, Ning; Guo, Yanyan; Cai, Muzhi; Tian, Ying; Huang, Feifei; Xu, Shiqing

    2018-06-01

    Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped lead silicate glasses with low phonon (953 cm-1) and good thermal stability were synthesized. The 2 μm mid-infrared emission resulting from the 3F4 → 3H6 transition of Tm3+ sensitized by Er3+ has been observed by 808 nm LD pumping. The optimal luminescence intensity was obtained in the sample with 1Tm2O3/2.5Er2O3 co-doped. Moreover, the energy transfer mechanism from Er3+ to Tm3+ ion was analyzed. Absorption and emission cross section have been calculated. The calculated maximum emission cross section of Tm3+ is 2.689 × 10-21 cm2 at 1863 nm. Microparameters of energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions have also been analyzed. These results ensure that the prepared Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped lead silicate glasses have excellent spectroscopic properties in mid-infrared region and provide a beneficial guide for mid-infrared laser material.

  5. Electronic polarizability, optical basicity and interaction parameter for Nd2O3 doped lithium-zinc-phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algradee, M. A.; Sultan, M.; Samir, O. M.; Alwany, A. Elwhab B.

    2017-08-01

    The Nd3+-doped lithium-zinc-phosphate glasses were prepared by means of conventional melt quenching method. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the glassy nature of the studied glasses. The physical parameters such as the density, molar volume, ion concentration, polaron radius, inter-ionic distance, field strength and oxygen packing density were calculated using different formulae. The transmittance and reflectance spectra of glasses were recorded in the wavelength range 190-1200 nm. The values of optical band gap and Urbach energy were determined based on Mott-Davis model. The refractive indices for the studied glasses were evaluated from optical band gap values using different methods. The average electronic polarizability of the oxide ions, optical basicity and an interaction parameter were investigated from the calculated values of the refractive index and the optical band gap for the studied glasses. The variations in the different physical and optical properties of glasses with Nd2O3 content were discussed in terms of different parameters such as non-bridging oxygen and different concentrations of Nd cation in glass system.

  6. Role of magnesium oxide and strontium oxide as modifiers in silicate-based bioactive glasses: Effects on thermal behaviour, mechanical properties and in-vitro bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Salvatori, Roberta; Anesi, Alexandre; Chiarini, Luigi; Cannillo, Valeria

    2017-03-01

    The composition of a CaO-rich silicate bioglass (BG_Ca-Mix, in mol%: 2.3 Na 2 O; 2.3 K 2 O; 45.6 CaO; 2.6 P 2 O 5 ; 47.2 SiO 2 ) was modified by replacing a fixed 10mol% of CaO with MgO or SrO or fifty-fifty MgO-SrO. The thermal behaviour of the modified glasses was accurately evaluated via differential thermal analysis (DTA), heating microscopy and direct sintering tests. The presence of MgO and/or SrO didn't interfere with the thermal stability of the parent glass, since all the new glasses remained completely amorphous after sintering (treatment performed at 753°C for the glass with MgO; at 750°C with SrO; at 759°C with MgO and SrO). The sintered samples achieved good mechanical properties, with a Young's modulus ranging between 57.9±6.7 for the MgO-SrO modified composition and 112.6±8.0GPa for the MgO-modified one. If immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF), the modified glasses after sintering retained the strong apatite forming ability of the parent glass, in spite of the presence of MgO and/or SrO. Moreover, the sintered glasses, tested with MLO-Y4 osteocytes by means of a multi-parametrical approach, showed a good bioactivity in vitro, since neither the glasses nor their extracts caused any negative effect on cell viability or any inhibition on cell growth. The best results were achieved by the MgO-modified glasses, both BGMIX_Mg and BGMIX_MgSr, which were able to exert a strong stimulating effect on the cell growth, thus confirming the beneficial effect of MgO on the glass bioactivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Remineralization Property of an Orthodontic Primer Containing a Bioactive Glass with Silver and Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, In-Ryoung; Park, Bong-Soo; Ko, Ching-Chang; Son, Woo-Sung; Kim, Yong-Il

    2017-01-01

    White spot lesions (WSLs) are irreversible damages in orthodontic treatment due to excessive etching or demineralization by microorganisms. In this study, we conducted a mechanical and cell viability test to examine the antibacterial properties of 0.2% and 1% bioactive glass (BAG) and silver-doped and zinc-doped BAGs in a primer and evaluated their clinical applicability to prevent WSLs. The microhardness statistically significantly increased in the adhesive-containing BAG, while the other samples showed no statistically significant difference compared with the control group. The shear bond strength of all samples increased compared with that of the control group. The cell viability of the control and sample groups was similar within 24 h, but decreased slightly over 48 h. All samples showed antibacterial properties. Regarding remineralization property, the group containing 0.2% of the samples showed remineralization properties compared with the control group, but was not statistically significant; further, the group containing 1% of the samples showed a significant difference compared with the control group. Among them, the orthodontic bonding primer containing 1% silver-doped BAG showed the highest remineralization property. The new orthodontic bonding primer used in this study showed an antimicrobial effect, chemical remineralization effect, and WSL prevention as well as clinically applicable properties, both physically and biologically. PMID:29088092

  8. Thin transparent W-doped indium-zinc oxide (WIZO) layer on glass.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jun; Lim, Byung-Wook; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Kim, Tae-Won; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Heo, Gi-Seok; Kim, Kwang-Young

    2012-07-01

    Annealing effect on structural and electrical properties of W-doped IZO (WIZO) films for thin film transistors (TFT) was studied under different process conditions. Thin WIZO films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron co-sputtering technique using indium zinc oxide (10 wt.% ZnO-doped In2O3) and WO3 targets in room temperature. The post annealing temperature was executed from 200 degrees C to 500 degrees C under various O2/Ar ratios. We could not find any big difference from the surface observation of as grown films while it was found that the carrier density and sheet resistance of WIZO films were controlled by O2/Ar ratio and post annealing temperature. Furthermore, the crystallinity of WIZO film was changed as annealing temperature increased, resulting in amorphous structure at the annealing temperature of 200 degrees C, while clear In2O3 peak was observed for the annealed over 300 degrees C. The transmittance of as-grown films over 89% in visible range was obtained. As an active channel layer for TFT, it was found that the variation of resistivity, carrier density and mobility concentration of WIZO film decreased by annealing process.

  9. Ac-conductivity and dielectric response of new zinc-phosphate glass/metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaroufi, A.; Oabi, O.; Lucas, B.

    2016-07-01

    The ac-conductivity and dielectric response of new composites based on zinc-phosphate glass with composition 45 mol%ZnO-55 mol%P2O5, filled with metallic powder of nickel (ZP/Ni) were investigated by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz at room temperature. A high percolating jump of seven times has been observed in the conductivity behavior from low volume fraction of filler to the higher fractions, indicating an insulator - semiconductor phase transition. The measured conductivity at higher filler volume fraction is about 10-1 S/cm and is frequency independent, while, the obtained conductivity for low filler volume fraction is around 10-8 S/cm and is frequency dependent. Moreover, the elaborated composites are characterized by high dielectric constants in the range of 105 for conductive composites at low frequencies (100 Hz). In addition, the distribution of the relaxation processes was also evaluated. The Debye, Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole and Havriliak-Negami models in electric modulus formalism were used to model the observed relaxation phenomena in ZP/Ni composites. The observed relaxation phenomena are fairly simulated by Davidson-Cole model, and an account of the interpretation of results is given.

  10. High-silica /greater than 60%/ lunar glasses in an Apollo 14 soil sample - Evidence for silicic lunar volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1976-01-01

    The major-element compositions of 93 low-specific-gravity (less than 2.60) high-silica (greater than 60%) glass particles from a sample of lunar fines (14259,20) were determined by electron microprobe analyses. The size, shape, abundance, mineralogy, and major-element composition of more than 60% of the high-silica glasses is consistent with their being fragments of interstitial glass from mare basalts. However, one group of 30 glasses with between 72% and 78% SiO2 and an average of approximately 2.6% FeO can be distinguished from other high-silica glasses both chemically and petrographically. Glass particles with this composition do not contain crystalline inclusions and are fairly homogeneous not only within a single particle but also from particle to particle. The chemistry and petrology of these glasses suggest that they are not fragments of interstitial glass or shock-melted particles from a 'granitic' source rock. Rather, the homogeneity and lack of crystalline inclusions suggest that this group of high-silica glasses was the product of lunar acidic volcanism.

  11. Effect of AlF3 on the Density and Elastic Properties of Zinc Tellurite Glass Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sidek, Haji Abdul Aziz; Rosmawati, Shaharuddin; Halimah, Mohamed Kamari; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Talib, Zainal Abidin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the physical and elastic properties of the ternary zinc oxyfluoro tellurite glass system. Systematic series of glasses (AlF3)x(ZnO)y(TeO2)z with x = 0–19, y = 0–20 and z = 80, 85, 90 mol% were synthesized by the conventional rapid melt quenching technique. The composition dependence of the physical, mainly density and molar volume, and elastic properties is discussed in term of the AlF3 modifiers addition that are expected to produce quite substantial changes in their physical properties. The absence of any crystalline peaks in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the present glass samples indicates the amorphous nature. The addition of AlF3 lowered the values of the densities in ternary oxyfluorotellurite glass systems. The longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves propagated in each glass sample were measured using a MBS8020 ultrasonic data acquisition system. All the velocity data were taken at 5 MHz frequency and room temperature. The longitudinal modulus (L), shear modulus (G), Young’s modulus (E), bulk modulus (K) and Poisson’s ratio (σ) are obtained from both velocities data and their respective density. Experimental data shows the density and elastic moduli of each AlF3-ZnO-TeO2 series are found strongly depend upon the glass composition. The addition of AlF3 modifiers into the zinc tellurite causes substantial changes in their density, molar volume as well as their elastic properties.

  12. Boson peak of alkali and alkaline earth silicate glasses: influence of the nature and size of the network-modifying cation.

    PubMed

    Richet, Nicolas F

    2012-01-21

    The influence of the size of the alkaline earth cation on the boson peak of binary metasilicate glasses, MSiO(3) (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), has been investigated from vibrational densities of states determined by inversion of low-temperature heat capacities. As given both by C(p)/T(3) and g(ω)/ω(2), the intensity of the boson peak undergoes a 7-fold increase from Mg to Ba, whereas its temperature and frequency correlatively decrease from 18 to 10 K and from 100 to 20 cm(-1), respectively. The boson peak results from a combination of librations of SiO(4) tetrahedra and localized vibrations of network-modifying cations with non-bridging oxygens whose contribution increases markedly with the ionic radius of the alkaline earth. As a function of ionic radii, the intensity for Sr and Ba varies in the same way as previously found for alkali metasilicate glasses. The localized vibrations involving alkali and heavy alkaline earth cations appear to be insensitive to the overall glass structure. Although the new data are coherent with an almost linear relationship between the temperature of the boson peak and transverse sound velocity, pure SiO(2) and SiO(2)-rich glasses make marked exceptions to this trend because of the weak transverse character of SiO(4) librations. Finally, the universality of the calorimetric boson peak is again borne out because all data for silicate glasses collapse on the same master curve when plotted in a reduced form (C(P)∕/T(3))/(C(P)/T(3))(b) vs. T/T(b). © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  13. Conversion of melt-derived microfibrous borate (13-93B3) and silicate (45S5) bioactive glass in a simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E

    2013-03-01

    Microfibrous bioactive glasses are showing a considerable capacity to heal soft tissue wounds, but little information is available on the mechanism of healing. In the present study, the conversion of microfibrous borate bioactive glass (diameter = 0.2-5 μm) with the composition designated 13-93B3 (5.5 Na2O, 11.1 K2O, 4.6 MgO, 18.5 CaO, 3.7 P2O5, 56.6 B2O3 wt%) was evaluated in vitro as a function of immersion time in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C using structural and chemical techniques. Silicate 45S5glass microfibers (45 SiO2, 24.5 Na2O, 24.5 CaO, 6 P2O5 wt%) were also studied for comparison. Microfibrous 13-93B3 glass degraded almost completely and converted to a calcium phosphate material within 7-14 days in SBF, whereas >85 % of the silica remained in the 45S5 microfibers, forming a silica gel phase. An amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) product that formed on the 13-93B3 microfibers crystallized at a slower rate to hydroxyapatite (HA) when compared to the ACP that formed on the 45S5 fibers. For immersion times >3 days, the 13-93B3 fibers released a higher concentration of Ca into the SBF than the 45S5 fibers. The fast and more complete degradation, slow crystallization of the ACP product, and higher concentration of dissolved Ca in SBF could contribute to the capacity of the microfibrous borate 13-93B3 glass to heal soft tissue wounds.

  14. Cationic polyelectrolyte induced separation of some inorganic contaminants and their mixture (zirconium silicate, kaolin, K-feldspar, zinc oxide) as well as of the paraffin oil from water.

    PubMed

    Ghimici, Luminita

    2016-03-15

    The flocculation efficiency of a cationic polyelectrolyte with quaternary ammonium salt groups in the backbone, namely PCA5 was evaluated on zirconium silicate (kreutzonit), kaolin, K- feldspar and zinc oxide (ZnO) suspensions prepared either with each pollutant or with their mixture. The effect of several parameters such as settling time, polymer dose and the pollutant type on the separation efficacy was evaluated and followed by optical density and zeta potential measurements. Except for ZnO, the interactions between PCA5 and suspended particles led to low residual turbidity values (around 4% for kreutzonit, 5% for kaolin and 8% for K-feldspar) as well as to the reduction of flocs settling time (from 1200 min to 30 min and 120 min in case of kaolinit and K-feldspar, respectively), that meant a high efficiency in their separation. The negative value of the zeta potential and flocs size measurements, at the optimum polymer dose, point to contribution from charge patch mechanism for the particles flocculation. A good efficiency of PCA5 in separation of paraffin oil (a minimum residual turbidity of 9.8%) has been also found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enamel and Dentin Surface Finishing Influence on the Roughness and Microshear Bond Strength of a Lithium Silicate Glass-Ceramic for Laminate Veneers.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Bravo, Ruth Peggy; Pavelski, Thiago Vinícius; Garcia, Paula Pontes; Correr, Gisele Maria; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the influence of cavity surface finishing with diamond burs of different grit mounted on high-speed turbine and ultrasound on the roughness and microshear bond strength (MBS) of a lithium silicate glass-ceramic to enamel and dentin. Methods. Enamel and dentin specimens were divided into seven groups, according to the type of surface finishing: 1200-grit sandpaper (control), two different brands of medium-grit and fine-grit diamond burs in a high-speed turbine; medium-grit and fine-grit CVD (chemical vapor deposition) tips in an ultrasonic device. Roughness parameters (n = 5) and MSBS to a glass-ceramic (n = 10) were determined. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 5%). Results. Control group showed lower mean roughness readings and groups that used medium-grit diamond burs showed the highest mean roughness values. Regarding MSBS, there was no statistical difference when comparing the groups gritted with the same brand of medium- and fine-grit burs and tips. Conclusions. Cavity surface finishing influenced the roughness parameters and MSBS of a glass-ceramic to enamel and dentin. Medium-grit diamond burs in high-speed turbine showed the highest mean roughness values. Fine-grit CVD tips in ultrasound presented the highest MSBS values for both enamel and dentin.

  16. Enamel and Dentin Surface Finishing Influence on the Roughness and Microshear Bond Strength of a Lithium Silicate Glass-Ceramic for Laminate Veneers

    PubMed Central

    Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Bravo, Ruth Peggy; Pavelski, Thiago Vinícius; Garcia, Paula Pontes; Correr, Gisele Maria; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the influence of cavity surface finishing with diamond burs of different grit mounted on high-speed turbine and ultrasound on the roughness and microshear bond strength (MBS) of a lithium silicate glass-ceramic to enamel and dentin. Methods. Enamel and dentin specimens were divided into seven groups, according to the type of surface finishing: 1200-grit sandpaper (control), two different brands of medium-grit and fine-grit diamond burs in a high-speed turbine; medium-grit and fine-grit CVD (chemical vapor deposition) tips in an ultrasonic device. Roughness parameters (n = 5) and MSBS to a glass-ceramic (n = 10) were determined. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 5%). Results. Control group showed lower mean roughness readings and groups that used medium-grit diamond burs showed the highest mean roughness values. Regarding MSBS, there was no statistical difference when comparing the groups gritted with the same brand of medium- and fine-grit burs and tips. Conclusions. Cavity surface finishing influenced the roughness parameters and MSBS of a glass-ceramic to enamel and dentin. Medium-grit diamond burs in high-speed turbine showed the highest mean roughness values. Fine-grit CVD tips in ultrasound presented the highest MSBS values for both enamel and dentin. PMID:27347507

  17. THE METABOLISM OF SILICON IN THE RAT AND ITS RELATION TO THE FORMATION OF ARTIFICIAL SILICEOUS CALCULI

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, Richard F.; Lovelace, Stuart A.

    1959-01-01

    The urinary excretion of silicon in the rat was found to be enhanced beyond normal levels by the administration of various chemical forms of silicon. The excretion was enhanced to a much greater degree by the administration of ethyl silicate than by magnesium trisilicate, sodium metasilicate, or water glass. The tolerance level of rats to sustained daily doses of ethyl silicate fed via stomach tube was approximately 15 to 30 mg. of silicon per rat per day. Urinary silicon excretion was found to be a straight line function of the concentration of ethyl silicate administered, via stomach tube, with approximately 18 per cent of the administered silicon appearing in the urine at all levels tested. Using sustained dietary additions of ethyl silicate as a means of enhancing urine silicon levels, artificial siliceous urinary calculi were consistently produced on zinc pellets implanted in the bladders of rats. PMID:13654631

  18. L-Edge Xanes Measurements of the Oxidation State of Tungsten in Iron Bearing and Iron Free Silicate Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten is important in constraining core formation of the Earth because this element is a moderately siderophile element (depleted 10 relative to chondrites) and, as a member of the Hf-W isotopic system, it is useful in constraining the timing of core formation. A number of previous experimental studies have been carried out to determine the silicate solubility and metal-silicate partitioning behavior of W, including its concomitant oxidation state. However, results of previous studies are inconsistent on whether W occurs as W(4+) or W(6+). It is assumed that W(4+) is the cation valence relevant to core formation. Given the sensitivity to silicate composition of high valence cations, knowledge of the oxidation state of W over a wide range of fO2 is critical to understanding the oxidation state of the mantle and core formation processes. This study seeks to measure the W valence and change in valence state over the range of fO2 most relevant to core formation, around IW-2.

  19. The Extent of Disorder among Charge-balancing Cations in Silicate Glasses and Melts: Spectroscopic Analysis and ab initio Molecular Orbital Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Doyle, C. S.; Stebbins, J. F.

    2001-12-01

    Aluminosilicate melts are one of the dominant components in upper mantle and crust. Essential to the thermodynamic and transport properties of these systems is the full understanding on the atomic arrangements and the extent of disorder. Recent quantification of the extent of disorder among 'framework cations' in silicate melts using NMR provided improved prospects on the atomic structure of the glasses and melt and their corresponding properties and allowed the degree of randomness to be evaluated in terms of the degree of Al-avoidance (Q) and degree of phase separations (P) (Lee and Stebbins, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 4091; Lee and Stebbins, GCA in press). Quantitative estimation of the extent of disorder among 'charge-balancing cations' including Na in aluminosilicate glasses, however, has remained an unsolved problem and these cations have often been assumed to be randomly distributed. Here, we explore the intermediate range order around Na in charge-balanced aluminosilicate glasses using Na-23 NMR and Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) with full multiple scattering (FMS) simulations combined with ab initio molecular orbital calculations. We also quantify the extent of disorder in charge balancing cations as a function of Na-O bond length (d(Na-O)) distribution with composition and present a structural model favoring ordered Na distributions. Peak position in Na-23 magic angle spinning (MAS) spectra of aluminosilicate glasses with varying R (Si/Al) at 14.1 T varies from -10.28 ppm (R = 0.7) to -19.98 ppm (R = 6). These results suggest that average d(Na-O) increases with increasing R, which is confirmed by Na-23 multiple quantum MAS spectra where the chemical shift moves toward lower frequency with increasing Si and shows the individual Gaussian components of Na-O distributions such as Na-(Al-O-Al), Na-(Si-O-Al) and Na-(Si-O-Si). Calculated d(Na-(Al-O-Al)) of 2.57 Å is shorter than d(Na-(Si-O-Si)) of 2.88 Å. Strong compositional dependence is

  20. High-temperature ultrasonic characterization of the mechanical and microstructural behavior of a fibrous composite with a magnesium lithium aluminum silicate glass-ceramic matrix

    SciT

    Cutard, T.; Huger, M.; Fargeot, D.

    The mechanical behavior and the microstructural modifications of a SiC-fiber-reinforced magnesium lithium aluminum silicate glass-ceramic (SiC/MASL) have been characterized by ultrasonic measurement of uniaxial Young`s modulus at high temperature. Under vacuum, long isothermal agings in the 750--1,000 C temperature range have shown matrix modifications in terms of crystallization of residual glassy phases, and of phase transformations in the Li{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} system. In air, long isothermal agings performed under the same conditions have led to the same matrix transformations but in competition with oxidation mechanisms of the carbon fiber-matrix interphase. All of these matrix and/or interface transformations havemore » been confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, scanning acoustic microscopy, and microindentation tests.« less

  1. Effect of nano-scale morphology on micro-channel wall surface and electrical characterization in lead silicate glass micro-channel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hua; Li, Fangjun; Xu, Yanglei; Bo, Tiezhu; Zhou, Dongzhan; Lian, Jiao; Li, Qing; Cao, Zhenbo; Xu, Tao; Wang, Caili; Liu, Hui; Li, Guoen; Jia, Jinsheng

    2017-10-01

    Micro-channel plate (MCP) is a two dimensional arrays of microscopic channel charge particle multiplier. Silicate composition and hydrogen reduction are keys to determine surface morphology of micro-channel wall in MCP. In this paper, lead silicate glass micro-channel plates in two different cesium contents (0at%, 0.5at%) and two different hydrogen reduction temperatures (400°C,450°C) were present. The nano-scale morphology, elements content and chemical states of microporous wall surface treated under different alkaline compositions and reduction conditions was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Meanwhile, the electrical characterizations of MCP, including the bulk resistance, electron gain and the density of dark current, were measured in a Vacuum Photoelectron Imaging Test Facility (VPIT).The results indicated that the granular phase occurred on the surface of microporous wall and diffuses in bulk glass is an aggregate of Pb atom derived from the reduction of Pb2+. In micro-channel plate, the electron gain and bulk resistance were mainly correlated to particle size and distribution, the density of dark current (DDC) went up with the increasing root-mean-square roughness (RMS) on the microporous wall surface. Adding cesiums improved the size of Pb atomic aggregation, lowered the relative concentration of [Pb] reduced from Pb2+ and decreased the total roughness of micro-channel wall surface, leading a higher bulk resistance, a lower electron gain and a less dark current. Increasing hydrogen reduction temperature also improved the size of Pb atomic aggregation, but enhanced the relative concentration of [Pb] and enlarged the total roughness of micro-channel wall surface, leading a higher bulk resistance, a lower electron gain and a larger dark current. The reasons for the difference of electrical characteristics were discussed.

  2. Enhancement stability and catalytic activity of immobilized α-amylase using bioactive phospho-silicate glass as a novel inorganic support.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Samia A; Mostafa, Faten A; Ouis, Mona A

    2018-06-01

    α-Amylase enzyme was immobilized on bioactive phospho-silicate glass (PS-glass) as a novel inorganic support by physical adsorption and covalent binding methods using glutaraldehyde and poly glutaraldehyde as a spacer. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies confirmed the glass-enzyme linkage. Dissolution of PS-glass in acidic and neutral pH is higher than that of alkaline pH. Some immobilization variables were optimized using statistical factorial design (Central Composite Design). Optimized immobilization variables enhanced the immobilization yield (IY) from 27.9 to 79.9% (2.9-fold). It was found that the immobilized enzyme had higher optimum temperature, higher half-life time (t 1/2 ), lower activation energy (E a ), lower deactivation constant rate (k d ) and higher decimal reduction time (D-values) within the temperature range of 40-60°C. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC) confirmed the thermalstability of the immobilized enzyme. The immobilized enzyme was stable at a wide pH range (5.0-8.0). Kinetic studies of starch hydrolysis demonstrated that immobilized enzyme had lower Michaelis constant (K m ), maximum velocity (V max ) and catalytic efficiency (V max /K m ) values. The storage stability and reusability of the immobilized enzyme were found to be about 74.7 and 62.5% of its initial activity after 28days and 11cycles, respectively. Enhanced α-amylase stabilities upon immobilization make it suitable for industrial application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface nitridation improves bone cell response to melt-derived bioactive silicate/borosilicate glass composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Orgaz, Felipe; Dzika, Alexandra; Szycht, Olga; Amat, Daniel; Barba, Flora; Becerra, José; Santos-Ruiz, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    Novel bioactive amorphous glass-glass composite scaffolds (ICIE16/BSG) with interconnected porosity have been developed. Hierarchically interconnected porous glass scaffolds were prepared from a mixture of two melt-derived glasses: a ICIE16 bioactive glass that was previously developed by Wu et al. (2011) to prevent crystallization, and a borosilicate glass of composition 73.48 SiO2-11.35 B2O3-15.15 Na2O (wt%). The resulting melt derived glass-glass composite scaffolds (ICIE16/BSG) were subject to surface functionalization to further improve its interaction with biological systems. Surface functionalization was performed by a nitridation process with hot gas N2/ammonia at 550°C for 2h, obtaining the ICIE16/BSG-NITRI. Evaluation of the degradation rate and the conversion to hydroxyapatite after immersion in simulated body fluid predicted a good biological activity of all the scaffolds, but particularly of the nitrided ones. In vitro evaluation of osteoblastic cells cultured onto the nitrided and non-nitrided scaffolds showed cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation on all scaffolds, but both proliferation and differentiation were improved in the nitrided ICIE16/BSG-NITRI. Biomaterials are often required in the clinic to stimulate bone repair. We have developed a novel bioglass (ICIE16/SBG-NITRI) that can be sintered into highly porous 3D scaffolds, and we have further improved its bioactivity by nitridation. ICIE16/SBG-NITRI was synthesized from a mixture of two melt-derived glasses through combined gel casting and foam replication techniques, followed by nitridation. To mimic bone, it presents high-interconnected porosity while being mechanically stable. Nitridation improved its reactivity and bioactivity facilitating its resorption and the deposition of apatite (bone-like mineral) on its surface and increasing its degradation rate. The nitrided surface also improved the bioglass' interaction with bone cells, which were found to attach better to ICIE16

  4. Voids in mixed-cation silicate glasses: Studies by positron annihilation lifetime and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reben, M.; Golis, E.; Filipecki, J.; Sitarz, M.; Kotynia, K.; Jeleń, P.; Grelowska, I.

    2014-08-01

    PALS in comparison with FTIR studies have been applied to investigate the structure of different oxide glasses. Three components of the positron lifetime τ (τ1 para- and τ3 ortho-positronium and τ2 intermediate lifetime component) and their intensities were obtained. The results of the calculation of mean values of positron lifetimes for the investigated glasses showed the existence of a long-living component on the positron annihilation lifetime spectra. From the Tao-Eldrup formula we can estimate the size of free volume. On the basis of the measurements we can conclude that the size and fraction of free volume reaches the biggest value for the fused silica glass. The degree of network polymerisation increases void size.

  5. Mechanics of graded glass composites and zinc oxide thin films grown at 90 degrees Celsius in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillery, Scott Pierson

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the mechanical stability of two different material systems. The glass laminate system, exhibiting a threshold strength when placed under an applied load and ZnO thin films grown on GaN buffered Al2O3 substrates, exhibiting variations in film stability with changes to the Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth architecture. The glass laminates were fabricated to contain periodic thin layers containing biaxial compressive stresses using ion exchange treatments to create residual compressive stresses at the surface of soda lime silicate glass sheets. Wafer direct bonding of the ion exchanged glass sheets resulted in the fabrication of glass laminates with thin layers of compressive stress adjacent to the glass interfaces. The threshold flexural strength of the ion exchanged glass laminates was determined to be 112 MPa after the introduction of indentation cracks with indent loads ranging from 1kg to 5kg and the laminates were found to exhibit a threshold strength, i.e., a stress below which failure will not occur. Contrary to similar ceramic laminates where cracks either propagate across the compressive layer or bifurcate within the compressive layer, the cracks in the glass laminates were deflected along the interface between the bonded sheets. ZnO films were grown on (0001) GaN buffered Al2O3 substrates by aqueous solution routes at 90°C. The films were found to buckle under compressive residual stresses at film thicknesses greater than 4mum. Lateral epitaxial overgrowth techniques using hexagonal hole arrays showed an increasing film stability with larger array spacing, resulting in film thicknesses up to 92mum. Stress determinations using Raman spectroscopy indicated that stress relaxation at the free surface during film growth played a major role in film stability. Investigations using Finite Element Analysis and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the strain energy within the film/substrate system decreased with increasing array

  6. Determination of lead, uranium, thorium, and thallium in silicate glass standard materials by isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    Barnes, I.L.; Garner, E.L.; Gramlich, J.W.; Moore, L.J.; Murphy, T.J.; Machlan, L.A.; Shields, W.R.; Tatsumoto, M.; Knight, R.J.

    1973-01-01

    A set of four standard glasses has been prepared which have been doped with 61 different elements at the 500-, 50-, 1-, and 0.02-ppm level. The concentrations of lead, uranium, thorium, and thallium have been determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry at a number of points in each of the glasses. The results obtained from independent determinations in two laboratories demonstrate the homogeneity of the samples and that precision of the order of 0.5% (95% L.E.) may be obtained by the method even at the 20-ppb level for these elements. The chemical and mass spectrometric procedures necessary are presented.

  7. Effect of lithium on thermal and structural properties of zinc vanadate tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Sunita; Kundu, R. S.; Ahlawat, Neetu; Rani, Suman; Sangwan, Kanta Maan; Ahlawat, Navneet

    2018-04-01

    Glasses having composition 60TeO2-15V2O5-(25-x) ZnO-xLi2O where x= 0, 5, 10 mol% were prepared by standard melt quench technique. The glass transition temperature is measured by DSC technique using TA instrument and found to decrease with increase in Li2O signifies that glass formation tendency, thermal stability and compactness of glass structure decreases. The deconvolution of FTIR spectra evidenced the existence of TeO4, TeO3 and TeO6 structural units in glass network and vanadium exists as VO4 and VO5 structural units.

  8. The structural influence of aluminium ions on emission characteristics of Sm{sup 3+} ions in lead aluminium silicate glass system

    SciT

    Bhargavi, K.; Srinivasa Reddy, M.; Raghava Rao, P.

    Graphical abstract: The optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra of Sm ions in PbO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glasses mixed with different concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been investigated. From these spectra, the emission probabilities and also fluorescence lifetime principal transition viz., {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} {yields} {sup 6}H{sub 7/2} of Sm{sup 3+} ions of has been evaluated. The analysis of results of these studies has indicated that there is a less radiative trapping and enhanced fluorescence lifetime and high quantum efficiency in the glasses mixed with 8.0 mol% of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glasses of the composition (40 - x)PbO-(5more » + x)Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-54SiO{sub 2}:1.0Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} with x = 5-10 mol% were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopic properties (OA, PL and IR) were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emission probability, lifetime, branching ratio of {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} {yields} {sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transition of Sm{sup 3+} have been evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of the results indicated that glass mixed with 8.0 mol% exhibits high luminescence efficiency. -- Abstract: Optical absorption and photoluminescence characteristics of Sm{sup 3+} ions in lead silicate glasses mixed with different concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5-10 mol%) have been investigated. From these studies, the radiative properties viz., spontaneous emission probability A, the total emission probability, the radiative lifetime {tau}{sub R}, the fluorescent branching ratio {beta} of emission transition of {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} {yields} {sup 6}H{sub 7/2} along with other transitions for Sm{sup 3+} have been evaluated and found to be the highest for the glass mixed with 8.0 mol% of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.The IR spectral studies have indicated that Al{sup 3+} ions do participate in the glass network with AlO{sub 4} and AlO{sub 6} structural units and further revealed that the concentration

  9. Fluorescence properties of Eu3+ ions doped borate and fluoroborate glasses containing lithium, zinc and lead.

    PubMed

    Venkatramu, V; Babu, P; Jayasankar, C K

    2006-02-01

    The influence of glass composition on the fluorescence properties of Eu3+ ions doped borate and fluoroborate glasses modified with Li+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ cations have been investigated. The magnitude of splittings of 7F1 levels are analyzed using crystal-field (CF) analysis. The relative intensities of 5D0 --> 7F2 to 5D0 --> 7F1 transitions, crystal-field strength parameters and decay times of the 5D0 level have been determined and are found to be lower for Pb based glasses than those of Zn/Li based glasses. The lifetimes of 5D0 level are found to increase when borate glasses are modified with pure fluorides than with oxides and oxyfluorides. The fluorescence decay of 5D0 level fits perfect single exponential in the Eu3+:glass systems studied which indicates the absence of energy transfer between Eu3+ ions in these glasses.

  10. Structural and luminescence studies of Ho{sup 3+}-doped zinc-aluminium-sodium-phosphate (ZANP) glasses

    SciT

    Brahmachary, K.; Rajesh, D.; Ratnakaram, Y. C., E-mail: ratnakaramsvu@gmail.com

    Trivalent holmium doped zinc-aluminium-sodium-phosphate (ZANP) glasses were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique and characterized for their structural and luminescence properties. The amorphous nature, elemental analysis and thermal stability of the glasses were studied by using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, respectively. The absorption and fluorescence spectra have been recorded at room temperature. Based on the absorption spectra, the Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative parameters such as spontaneous transition probabilities (A{sub R}), branching ratios (β{sub R}), radiative lifetimes (τ{sub R}) were calculated and discussed. From the emission spectra emission peak positions (λ{sub P}), effective bandwidths (Δλ{sub eff})more » and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ{sub P}) were calculated for the observed emission transitions,{sup 5}S{sub 2} ({sup 5}F{sub 4}→{sup 5}I{sub 8}) and {sup 5}F{sub 5}→{sup 5}I{sub 8} in all the glass samples. The stimulated emission cross-section is higher for ZANPHo10 glass matrix and so it may be useful for laser excitation.« less

  11. Structural and optical properties of CuO in zinc phosphate glasses and effects of gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouis, M. A.; ElBatal, H. A.; Abdelghany, A. M.; Hammad, Ahmed H.

    2016-01-01

    Collective optical and infrared measurements have been employed to investigate the state of increasing copper ions in host 0.5ZnO-0.5P2O5 glass composition. The same spectral measurements were repeated after gamma irradiation with a dose of 20 and 80 KGy. Optical absorption spectra reveal strong UV absorption due to trace ferric ions present as unavoidable impurities within the chemicals used in the preparation of the glasses. Copper containing glasses show an additional broad visible-near infrared band due to distorted octahedrally coordinated Cu2+ ions which at high CuO contents exhibit splitting to several component absorption peaks. Gamma irradiation causes several variations between the response of the base host zinc phosphate glass and effect of increasing CuO. These changes are correlated with both the formation of induced defects through suggested photochemical reactions in the UV region and some shielding effects with increasing CuO in the visible-near infrared spectrum. Infrared absorption spectra reveal repetitive vibrational bands due to phosphate groups mainly from metaphosphate units and the spectra show some variations with the increase of CuO content visualize by the increase of the intensity of the mid broad band extending in the range 800-1500 cm-1.

  12. Spectroscopic study of Pr3+ ions doped Zinc Lead Tungsten Tellurite glasses for visible photonic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ritu; Rao, A. S.; Deopa, Nisha; Venkateswarlu, M.; Jayasimhadri, M.; Haranath, D.; Prakash, G. Vijaya

    2018-04-01

    Zinc Lead Tungsten Tellurite (ZnPbWTe) glasses doped with different Pr3+ ion concentrations having the composition 5ZnO + 15PbO + 20WO3 + (60-x)TeO2 + xPr6O11 (where x = 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%) were prepared by using sudden quenching technique and characterized to understand their visible emission characteristic features using spectroscopic techniques such as absorption, excitation and emission. The Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory has been applied to the absorption spectral features with an aim to evaluate various radiative properties for the prominent fluorescent levels of Pr3+ions in the as-prepared glasses. The emission spectra recorded for the as-prepared glasses under 468 nm excitation show three prominent emission transitions 3P0→3H6, 3P0→3F2 and 3P1→3F4, of which 3P0→3F2 observed in visible red region (648 nm), is relatively more intense. The intensity of 3P0→3F2 emission transition in the titled glasses increases up to 1mol% of Pr3+ ions and beyond concentration quenching is observed. Branching ratios (βR) and emission cross-sections (σse) were estimated for 3P0→3F2 transition to understand the luminescence efficiency in visible red region (648 nm). The CIE chromaticity coordinates were also evaluated in order to understand the suitability of these glasses for visible red luminescence devices. From the emission cross-sections, quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates, it was concluded that 1mol% of Pr3+ ions in ZnPbWTe glasses are quite suitable for preparing visible reddish orange luminescent devices.

  13. Probing silicon and aluminium chemical environments in silicate and aluminosilicate glasses by solid state NMR spectroscopy and accurate first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzzi, Elisa; Pedone, Alfonso; Menziani, Maria Cristina; Angeli, Frédéric; Caurant, Daniel; Charpentier, Thibault

    2014-01-01

    Silicon and aluminium chemical environments in silicate and aluminosilicate glasses with compositions 60SiO2·20Na2O·20CaO (CSN), 60SiO2·20Al2O3·20CaO (CAS), 78SiO2·11Al2O3·11Na2O (NAS) and 60SiO2·10Al2O3·10Na2O·20CaO (CASN) have been investigated by 27Al and 29Si solid state magic angle spinning (MAS) and multiple quantum MAS (MQMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. To interpret the NMR data, first-principles calculations using density functional theory were performed on structural models of these glasses. These models were generated by Shell-model molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The theoretical NMR parameters and spectra were computed using the gauge including projected augmented wave (GIPAW) method and spin-effective Hamiltonians, respectively. This synergetic computational-experimental approach offers a clear structural characterization of these glasses, particularly in terms of network polymerization, chemical disorder (i.e. Si and Al distribution in second coordination sphere) and modifier cation distributions. The relationships between the local structural environments and the 29Si and 27Al NMR parameters are highlighted, and show that: (i) the isotropic chemical shift of both 29Si and 27Al increases of about +5 ppm for each Al added in the second sphere and (ii) both the 27Al and 29Si isotropic chemical shifts linearly decrease with the reduction of the average Si/Al-O-T bond angle. Conversely, 27Al and 29Si NMR parameters are much less sensitive to the connectivity with triple bridging oxygen atoms, precluding their indirect detection from 27Al and 29Si NMR.

  14. Role of valence state of vanadium ions on structural and spectroscopic properties of sodium lead bismuth silicate glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. V. Sambasiva; Tirupataiah, Ch.; Kumar, A. Suneel; Narendrudu, T.; Suresh, S.; Ram, G. Chinna; Rao, D. Krishna

    2018-04-01

    Glass ceramics with composition 10Na2O- 30PbO-10Bi2O3-(50-x)SiO2: xV2O5 (0 ≤ x ≤ 5) were synthesized by melt quenching and heat treatment method. XRD and SEM studies have indicated that the samples contain well defined and randomly distributed grains of different crystalline phases. Optical absorption spectra of these samples exhibited two absorption bands at 629 and 835 nm which are the characteristics of V4+ ions. The EPR spectra of these samples have exhibited well resolved hyperfine structure consisting of sixteen-eight parallel and eight perpendicular lines with a raise in their intensity with an increase in the content of V2O5 up to 3 mol% indicates the increase of redox ratio V4+/V5+ in the glass ceramic matrix.

  15. Effect of F ions on physical and optical properties of fluorine substituted zinc arsenic tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareem Ahmmad, Shaik; kondaul, Edu; Rahman, Syed

    2015-02-01

    The effect of substitution of fluoride ions for oxide ions on the physical and optical properties of glass system (20-x) ZnO-xZnF2-40As2O3-40TeO2 where x = 0, 4, 8,12,16,20 mole % were investigated. The samples prepared by melt quenching method under controlled condition. The amorphous nature of these glasses was checked by X-ray diffraction technique. The density was measured according to Archimedes principle. The room temperature absorption spectra of all glass samples were determined using UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer. The thermal behaviour, glass transition temperature and stability of glass samples were studied by a differential scanning calorimetric (DSC). The density reduction of present glasses with ZnF2 concentrations may be due to the low density of ZnF2 compared with that of ZnO. Breaking the oxide network, the cross linking degree of the glass former could be reduced which results in decrease of both Tg and Tx. In the present glass system when F ions replaced by oxygen ions UV-Vis absorption cut-off wavelength decreases. This resulted form the conversion of structural unit in the glass from TeO4 to Te(O,F)4 and then to Te(O, F)3.

  16. Development and effect of different bioactive silicate glass scaffolds: in vitro evaluation for use as a bone drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Soundrapandian, Chidambaram; Mahato, Arnab; Kundu, Biswanath; Datta, Someswar; Sa, Biswanath; Basu, Debebrata

    2014-12-01

    Local drug delivery systems to bone have attracted appreciable attention due to their efficacy to improve drug delivery, healing and regeneration. In this paper, development and characterization of new formulations of bioactive glass into a porous scaffold has been reported for its suitability to act as a drug delivery system in the management of bone infections, in vitro. Two new glass compositions based on SiO2-Na2O-ZnO-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system (BGZ and MBG) have been developed which after thorough chemical and phase evaluation, studied for acellular static in vitro bioactivity in SBF. Porous scaffolds made of these glasses have been fabricated and characterized thoroughly for bioactivity study, SEM, XRD, in vitro cytotoxicity, MTT assay and wound healing assay using human osteocarcoma cells. Finally, gatifloxacin was loaded into the porous scaffold by vacuum infiltration method and in vitro drug release kinetics have been studied with varying parameters including dissolution medium (PBS and SBF) and with/without impregnation chitosan. Suitable model has also been proposed for the kinetics. 63-66% porous and 5-50μm almost unimodal porous MBG and BGZ bioactive glass scaffolds were capable of releasing drugs successfully for 43 days at concentrations to treat orthopedic infections. In addition, it was also observed that the release of drug followed Peppas-Korsmeyer release pattern based on Fickian diffusion, while 0.5-1% chitosan coating on the scaffolds decreased the burst release and overall release of drug. The results also indicated that MBG based scaffolds were bioactive, biocompatible, noncytotoxic and exhibited excellent wound healing potential while BGZ was mildly cytotoxic with moderate wound healing potential. These results strongly suggest that MBG scaffolds appear to be a suitable bone drug delivery system in orthopedic infections treatment and as bone void fillers, but BGZ should be handled with caution or studied elaborately in detail further to ascertain

  17. Multiple metasomatic events recorded in Kilbourne Hole peridotite xenoliths: the relative contribution of host basalt interaction vs. silicate metasomatic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, S. J.; Yoshikawa, M.; Harvey, J.; Burton, K. W.

    2010-12-01

    Stark differences between bulk-rock lithophile trace element budgets and the sum of the contributions from their constituent minerals are common, if not ubiquitous in peridotite xenoliths [1]. In the absence of modal metasomatism this discrepancy is often attributed to the “catch-all”, yet often vague process of cryptic metasomatism. This study presents comprehensive Sr-Nd isotope ratios for variably metasomatized bulk-rock peridotites, host basalts, constituent peridotite mineral phases and interstitial glass from 13 spinel lherzolite and harzburgite xenoliths from the Kilbourne Hole volcanic maar, New Mexico, USA. Similar measurements were also made on hand-picked interstitial glass from one of the most highly metasomatized samples (KH03-16) in an attempt to unravel the effects of multiple metasomatic events. In all Kilbourne Hole peridotites analysed, hand-picked, optically clean clinopyroxenes preserve a more primitive Sr isotope signature than the corresponding bulk-rock; a pattern preserved in all but one sample for Nd isotope measurements. Reaction textures, avoided during hand-picking, around clinopyroxene grains are evident in the most metasomatized samples and accompanied by films of high-SiO2 interstitial glass. The margins of primary minerals appear partially resorbed and trails of glassy melt inclusions similar in appearance to those previously reported from the same locality [2], terminate in these films. Hand-picked glass from KH03-16 reveals the most enriched 87Sr/86Sr of any component recovered from these xenoliths (87Sr/86Sr = 0.708043 ± 0.00009; [Sr] = 81 ppm). Similarly, the 143Nd/144Nd of the glass is amongst the most enriched of the peridotite components (143Nd/144Nd = 0.512893 ± 0.000012; [Nd] = 10 ppm). However, the host basalt (87Sr/86Sr = 0.703953 ± 0.00012; 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512873 ± 0.000013), similar in composition to nearby contemporaneous Potrillo Volcanic Field basalts [3], contains nearly an order of magnitude more Sr and more

  18. Polysilicate binding for silicate paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovna, Loganina Valentina; Nikolaevna, Kislitsyna Svetlana; Bisengalievich, Mazhitov Yerkebulan

    2018-06-01

    It was suggested, that the polysilicate solutions obtained by mixing liquid glass and silicic acid sol as a binder in the manufacture of silicate paints. Information is provided on the structure and a property of the sodium polysilicate binder is presented. It has been found that the addition of silica powder to a liquid glass causes gelling in the course of time. It has been established that the introduction of the sol (increasing the silicate module) contributes to an increase in the fraction of high-polymer fractions of silicic anion, with the increase in the sol content of the polymer form of silica increasing. The research results the structure of sols and polysilicate solutions by the method of violation of total internal reflection. By the method of IR spectroscopy, the molybdate method established the presence of silica in the polysilicate binder polymeric varieties, which provides an increase in the stability of silicate coatings.

  19. Geochemistry of the furnace magnetite bed, Franklin, New Jersey, and the relationship between stratiform iron oxide ores and stratiform zinc oxide-silicate ores in the New Jersey highlands

    Johnson, C.A.; Skinner, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    The New Jersey Highlands terrace, which is an exposure of the Middle Proterozoic Grenville orogenic belt located in northeastern United States, contains stratiform zinc oxide-silicate deposits at Franklin and Sterling Hill and numerous massive magnetite deposits. The origins of the zinc and magnetite deposits have rarely been considered together, but a genetic link is suggested by the occurrence of the Furnace magnetite bed and small magnetite lenses immediately beneath the Franklin zinc deposit. The Furnace bed was metamorphosed and deformed along with its enclosing rocks during the Grenvillian orogeny, obscuring the original mineralogy and obliterating the original rock fabrics. The present mineralogy is manganiferous magnetite plus calcite. Trace hydrous silicates, some coexisting with fluorite, have fluorine contents that are among the highest ever observed in natural assemblages. Furnace bed calcite has ??13C values of -5 ?? 1 per mil relative to Peedee belemnite (PDB) and ??18O values of 11 to 20 per mil relative to Vienna-standard mean ocean water (VSMOW). The isotopic compositions do not vary as expected for an original siderite layer that decarbonated during metamorphism, but they are consistent with nearly isochemical metamorphism of an iron oxide + calcite protolith that is chemically and minerlogically similar to iron-rich sediments found near the Red Sea brine pools and isotopically similar to Superior-type banded iron formations. Other magniferous magnite + calcite bodies occur at approximately the same stratigraphic position as far 50 km from the zinc deposits. A model is presented in which the iron and zinc deposits formed along the western edge of a Middle Proterozoic marine basin. Zinc was transported by sulfate-stable brines and was precipitated under sulfate-stable conditions as zincian carbonates and Fe-Mn-Zn oxides and silicates. Whether the zincian assemblages settled from the water column or formed by replacement reactions in shallowly

  20. Some properties of lithium aluminium silicate (LAS) glass-ceramics used in glass-ceramic to metal compressive seal for vacuum applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthanarayanan, A.; Kumar, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Shrikhande, V. K.; Kothiyal, G. P.

    2008-05-01

    We report here the preparation of LAS glass-ceramics and some studies on their thermo-physical properties and microstructure, for compressive seals in vacuum applications. Glass of composition 12.6Li2O-71.7SiO2-5.1Al2O3-4.9K2O-3.2B2O3-2.5P2O5 was prepared by the conventional melt quench technique. Based on differential thermal analysis (DTA) data, glass samples were nucleated at 600°C for 2hr and were then crystallized at 800°C for 2-5hr. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed lithium disilicate to be the major phase. A dwell time of 3hr yielded a sample of good crystallinity. Dilatometric measurements of this sample on a thermo-mechanical analyzer (TMA) measured a thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of 94.61×10-7°C-1. Glass transition temperature (Tg), and dilatometric softening temperature (Tds) of the sample was recorded as 585°C and 830°C respectively. Considering TEC and Tds compression type seals were prepared with SS304 (TEC = 172×10-7°C-1) housing of length 15mm, outer diameter 30mm and inner diameter 15mm. After pre-heat treatment of the metal components, sealing was carried out under a protective atmosphere of flowing Argon gas. The finished seal was tested for leak tightness on a He leak detector. The seal was capable of withstanding a vacuum of 10-6 Torr; at a leak rate of 10-9 Torr lit s-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out on LAS before and after fabrication of compressive seal to elucidate the effect of compressive stress and the presence of metal near the interface. We observe a significant difference in microstructure due to compressive stresses of sealing and due to the presence of metal. Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) revealed no interdiffusion of species from glass-ceramic to metal or vice-versa.

  1. Iron K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy of aerodynamically levitated silicate melts and glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Alderman, O. L. G.; Wilding, M. C.; Tamalonis, A.; ...

    2017-01-26

    Here, the local structure about Fe(II) and Fe(III) in silicate melts was investigated in-situ using iron K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. An aerodynamic levitation and laser heating system was used to allow access to high temperatures without contamination, and was combined with a chamber and gas mixing system to allow the iron oxidation state, Fe 3+/ΣFe, to be varied by systematic control of the atmospheric oxygen fugacity. Eleven alkali-free, mostly iron-rich and depolymerized base compositions were chosen for the experiments, including pure oxide FeO, olivines (Fe,Mg) 2SiO 4, pyroxenes (Fe,Mg)SiO 3, calcic FeO-CaSiO 3, and a calcium aluminosilicatemore » composition, where total iron content is denoted by FeO for convenience. Melt temperatures varied between 1410 and 2160 K and oxygen fugacities between FMQ – 2.3(3) to FMQ + 9.1(3) log units (uncertainties in parentheses) relative to the fayalite-magnetite-β-quartz (FMQ) buffer.« less

  2. Three-dimensional zinc incorporated borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds for rodent critical-sized calvarial defects repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Shichang; Xiao, Wei; Cui, Xu; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Deping

    2015-06-01

    The biomaterials with high osteogenic ability are being intensively investigated. In this study, we evaluated the bioactivity and osteogenesis of BG-Zn scaffolds in vitro and in vivo with a rodent calvarial defects model. Zinc containing borosilicate bioactive glass was prepared by doping glass with 1.5, 5 and 10 wt.% ZnO (denoted as BG-1.5Zn, BG-5Zn and BG-10Zn, respectively). When immersed in simulated body fluid, dopant ZnO retarded the degradation process, but did not affect the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) after long-period soaking. BG-Zn scaffolds showed controlled release of Zn ions into the medium for over 8 weeks. Human bone marrow derived stem cells (hBMSCs) attached well on the BG-1.5Zn and BG-5Zn scaffolds, which exhibited no cytotoxicity to hBMSCs. In addition, the alkaline phosphatase activity of the hBMSCs increased with increasing dopant amount in the glass, while the BG-10Zn group showed over-dose of Zn. Furthermore, when implanted in rat calvarial defects for 8 weeks, the BG-5Zn scaffolds showed a significantly better capacity to regenerate bone tissue compared to the non-doping scaffolds. Generally, these results showed the BG-Zn scaffolds with high osteogenic capacity will be promising candidates using in bone tissue repair and regeneration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Judd-Ofelt analysis and spectral properties of Dy3+ ions doped niobium containing tellurium calcium zinc borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, O.; Reddy, C. Madhukar; Reddy, B. Sudhakar; Deva Prasad Raju, B.

    2014-02-01

    Niobium containing tellurium calcium zinc borate (TCZNB) glasses doped with different concentrations of Dy3+ ions were prepared by the melt quenching method and their optical properties have been studied. The Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters Ωt (t=2, 4 and 6) were calculated using the least square fit method. Based on the magnitude of Ω2 parameter the hypersensitivity of 6H15/2→6F11/2 has also been discussed. From the evaluated J-O intensity parameters as well as from the emission and lifetime measurements, radiative transition properties such as radiative transition probability rates and branching ratios were calculated for 4F9/2 excited level. It is found that for Dy3+ ion, the transition 4F9/2→6H13/2 shows highest emission cross-section at 1.0 mol% TCZNB glass matrix. From the visible luminescence spectra, yellow to blue (Y/B) intensity ratios and chromaticity color coordinates were also estimated. The TCZNB glasses exhibit good luminescence properties and are suitable for generation of white light.

  4. Temperature and Vibration Dependence of the Faraday Effect of Gd₂O₃ NPs-Doped Alumino-Silicate Glass Optical Fiber.

    PubMed

    Ju, Seongmin; Kim, Jihun; Linganna, Kadathala; Watekar, Pramod R; Kang, Seong Gu; Kim, Bok Hyeon; Boo, Seongjae; Lee, Youjin; An, Yong Ho; Kim, Cheol Jin; Han, Won-Taek

    2018-03-27

    All-optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on the Gd₂O₃ nano-particles (NPs)-doped alumino-silicate glass optical fiber was developed, and its temperature and vibration dependence on the Faraday Effect were investigated. Uniformly embedded Gd₂O₃ NPs were identified to form in the core of the fiber, and the measured absorption peaks of the fiber appearing at 377 nm, 443 nm, and 551 nm were attributed to the Gd₂O₃ NPs incorporated in the fiber core. The Faraday rotation angle (FRA) of the linearly polarized light was measured at 650 nm with the induced magnetic field by the solenoid. The Faraday rotation angle was found to increase linearly with the magnetic field, and it was about 18.16° ± 0.048° at 0.142 Tesla (T) at temperatures of 25 °C-120 °C, by which the estimated Verdet constant was 3.19 rad/(T∙m) ± 0.01 rad/(T∙m). The variation of the FRA with time at 0.142 T and 120 °C was negligibly small (-9.78 × 10 -4 °/min). The variation of the FRA under the mechanical vibration with the acceleration below 10 g and the frequency above 50 Hz was within 0.5°.

  5. The network formers role of gadolinium(III) ions in some zinc-borate glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosca, Maria; Pop, Lidia; Pascuta, Petru

    2017-12-01

    EPR and magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed on glass ceramics from the (Gd2O3)x.(B2O3)(60-x).(ZnO)40 system, with 0 ≤ x ≤ 15 mol%, in order to determine the role of gadolinium ions on structural and magnetic properties. At low Gd2O3 contents (x ≤ 1 mol%) the EPR spectra show four resonance lines with effective g-values of ˜ 6, 4.8, 2.8 and 2, typical for Gd3+ ions uniformly distributed in the glass and glass ceramic samples. For higher contents of gadolinium ions (x ≥ 3 mol%) the EPR spectra are dominated by a single broad line centered at g ˜ 2, which can be due to the magnetic clusters containing Gd3+ ions. The magnetic susceptibility data show that the gadolinium ions are involved in superexchange interactions in all the investigated glass ceramics, being antiferromagnetically coupled.

  6. Effect of zinc-borate glass addition on the thermal properties of the cordierite/Al2O3 composites containing nano-sized spinel crystal.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sinae; Kang, Seunggu

    2013-11-01

    Low-melting zinc-borate glass was added to the cordierite/Al2O3 composite in order to improve the sintering facility of Al2O3 and formation of nano-sized spinel crystal of high thermal conductivity. Increasing the ZnO/B2O3 ratio in the zinc-borate glass increased the ZnAl2O4 spinel and decreased the Al4B2O9 crystal peak intensities in X-ray diffraction pattern. The XRD peak intensities of the ZnAl2O4 spinel and Al4B2O9 crystals in the specimen containing 10 wt% zinc-borate glass (10G series) are higher than that of the specimen containing 5 wt% zinc-borate glass (5G series). The microstructures of most 10G series specimens had the flower-shaped crystal which was composed of 50 nm wide and 250 nm long needle-like crystals and identified as ZnAl2O4 spinel phase. The thermal conductivity of the 10G series specimen was higher than that of the 5G series in any ZnO/B2O3 ratio due to the formation of plenty of nano-sized ZnAl2O4 spinel of high thermal conductivity. Particularly, the thermal conductivity of the cordierite/Al2O3 composite containing 10 wt% zinc-borate glass of ZnO/B2O3 weight ratio = 1.5 was 3.8 W/Km which is much higher than that of the published value (3.0 W/Km).

  7. Microstructure and spectroscopic investigations of calcium zinc bismuth phosphate glass ceramics doped with manganese ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suneel Kumar, A.; Sambasiva Rao, M. V.; Chinna Ram, G.; Krishna Rao, D.

    2018-01-01

    Multi-component 10CaF2-20ZnO-(15 - x)Bi2O3-55P2O5:xMnO (0 ≤ x ≤ 2.5) glass ceramics were synthesised by melt quenching technique and heat treatment. The prepared glass ceramics were characterised by XRD, DTA, EDS and SEM. Spectroscopic studies such as optical absorption, EPR, FTIR and Raman were also carried out on these glass ceramics. The XRD and SEM studies have indicated that ceramic samples contain well defined and randomly distributed grains of different crystalline phases. The observed increase of enthalpy from DTA patterns up to 1 mol% of MnO indicates that the crystallisation starts initially from the surface of the material then gradually it is extended to the volume of the material and this influence is meagre at higher concentrations of MnO. The absorption spectra of manganese doped glass ceramics have exhibited two types of conventional bands; one due to Mn2+ ions and other due to Mn3+ ions. The EPR spectra of MnO doped glass ceramics showed a resonance signal around g2 = 2.023 with a six line hyperfine structure and another signal at about g1 = 4.314. The relative intensity and half-width of these two signals are observed to increase with the increase in the concentration of manganese ions up to 1 mol% beyond this concentration it is found to decrease. Such observation indicates the conversion of part of Mn2+ ions into Mn3+ ions in the glass ceramic matrix. The observed increase in the intensity of symmetrical structural units at the expense of asymmetrical structural units from the FTIR and Raman spectra at higher concentration of MnO indicating that Mn2+ ions occupy the network forming positions in the glass ceramic structure.

  8. Calcium and Zinc Containing Bactericidal Glass Coatings for Biomedical Metallic Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Díaz, Luis A.; Prado, Catuxa; Cabal, Belén; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José S.

    2014-01-01

    The present work presents new bactericidal coatings, based on two families of non-toxic, antimicrobial glasses belonging to B2O3–SiO2–Na2O–ZnO and SiO2–Na2O–Al2O3–CaO–B2O3 systems. Free of cracking, single layer direct coatings on different biomedical metallic substrates (titanium alloy, Nb, Ta, and stainless steel) have been developed. Thermal expansion mismatch was adjusted by changing glass composition of the glass type, as well as the firing atmosphere (air or Ar) according to the biomedical metallic substrates. Formation of bubbles in some of the glassy coatings has been rationalized considering the reactions that take place at the different metal/coating interfaces. All the obtained coatings were proven to be strongly antibacterial versus Escherichia coli (>4 log). PMID:25056542

  9. Optical absorption spectra and energy band gap in manganese containing sodium zinc phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardarpasha, K. R.; Hanumantharaju, N.; Gowda, V. C. Veeranna

    2018-05-01

    Optical band gap energy in the system 25Na2O-(75-x)[0.6P2O5-0.4ZnO]-xMnO2 (where x = 0.5,1,5,10 and 20 mol.%) have been studied. The intensity of the absorption band found to increase with increase of MnO2 content. The decrease in the optical band gap energy with increase in MnO2 content in the investigated glasses is attributed to shifting of absorption edge to a longer wavelength region. The obtained results were discussed in view of the structure of phosphate glass network.

  10. Prominent spectral features of Sm3+ ion in disordered zinc tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanko, Y. A.; Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    Trivalent rare earth doped glasses with modified spectroscopic features are essential for solid state lasers and diverse photonic applications. Glass composition optimisation may fulfil such demand. Stimulating the spectral properties of samarium (Sm3+) ions in tellurite glass host with desired enhancement is the key issue. Glasses with composition (80 - x)TeO2-20ZnO-(x)Sm2O3, where 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1.5 mol% are prepared using melt quenching method. The role of varying Sm3+ contents to improving the absorption and emission properties of the prepared glasses are determined. XRD pattern verifies amorphous nature of synthesised glasses. FTIR spectroscopy has been used to observe the structural modification of (TeO4) trigonal bipyramid structural units. DTA traces display prominent transition peaks for glass transition, crystallisation and melting temperature. Samples are discerned to be stable with desired Hruby parameter and superior glass forming ability. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra reveals nine peaks centred at 470, 548, 947, 1085, 1238, 1385, 1492, 1550 and 1589 nm. These bands arise due to 6H5/2 → 4I11/2, 4G5/2, 6F11/2, 6F9/2, 6F7/2, 6F5/2, 6F3/2, 6H15/2 and 6F1/2 transitions, respectively. The direct, indirect band gap and Urbach energy calculated from the absorption edge of UV-Vis-NIR spectra are found to appear within (2.75-3.18) eV, (3.22-3.40) eV, and (0.20-0.31) eV, respectively. The observed increase in refractive index from 2.45 to 2.47 is ascribed to the generation of non-bridging oxygen atoms via the conversion of TeO4 into TeO3 units. Conversely the decrease in refractive index to 2.39 is attributed to the lower ionic radii (1.079 Å) of Sm3+. PL spectra under the excitation of 452 nm display four emission bands centred at 563, 600, 644 and 705 nm corresponding to 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 and 6H11/2 transitions of samarium ions. Excellent features of the results nominate these compositions towards prospective applications.

  11. Theoretical Studies of the Spin Hamiltonian Parameters and Local Distortions for Cu2+ in Alkaline Earth Lead Zinc Phosphate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo-Kun; Wu, Shao-Yi; Yuan, Zi-Yi; Liu, Zi-Xuan; Jiang, Shi-Xin; Liu, Zheng; Yao, Zi-Jian; Teng, Bao-Hua; Wu, Ming-He

    2016-08-01

    The spin Hamiltonian parameters and local structures are theoretically studied for Cu2+-doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate (RPPZ, R=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) glasses based on the high-order perturbation calculations for a tetragonally elongated octahedral 3d9 cluster. The relative elongation ratios are found to be ρ≈3.2%, 4.4%, 4.6%, and 3.3% for R=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively, because of the Jahn-Teller effect. The whole decreasing crystal-field strength Dq and orbital reduction factor k from Mg to Sr are ascribed to the weakening electrostatic coulombic interactions and the increasing probability of productivity of nonbridge oxygen (and hence increasing Cu2+-O2- electron cloud admixtures) under PbO addition, respectively, with increasing alkali earth ionic radius. The anomalies (the largest Dq and the next highest k among the systems) for R=Ba are attributed to the cross linkage of this large cation in the network. The overall increasing order (Mg≤Baglasses containing copper dopants.

  12. Disordered Zinc in Zn4Sb3 with Phonon-Glass and Electron-Crystal Thermoelectric Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Christensen, Mogens; Nishibori, Eiji; Caillat, Thierry; Brummerstedt Iversen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    By converting waste heat into electricity, thermoelectric generators could be an important part of the solution to today's energy challenges. The compound Zn4Sb3 is one of the most efficient thermoelectric materials known. Its high efficiency results from an extraordinarily low thermal conductivity in conjunction with the electronic structure of a heavily doped semiconductor. Previous structural studies have been unable to explain this unusual combination of properties. Here, we show through a comprehensive structural analysis using single-crystal X-ray and powder-synchrotron-radiation diffraction methods, that both the electronic and thermal properties of Zn4Sb3 can be understood in terms of unique structural features that have been previously overlooked. The identification of Sb3- ions and Sb-2(4-) dimers reveals that Zn4Sb3 is a valence semiconductor with the ideal stoichiometry Zn13Sb10. In addition, the structure contains significant disorder, with zinc atoms distributed over multiple positions. The discovery of glass-like interstitial sites uncovers a highly effective mechanism for reducing thermal conductivity. Thus Zn4Sb3 is in many ways an ideal 'phonon glass, electron crystal' thermoelectric material.

  13. Bright up-conversion white light emission from Er3+ doped lithium fluoro zinc borate glasses for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayalakshmi, L.; Naveen Kumar, K.; Rao, K. Srinivasa; Hwang, Pyung

    2018-03-01

    Various concentrations of Er3+ (0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mol %) doped lithium fluoro zinc borate glasses were synthesized by a traditional melt quenching method. XRD, FTIR and FESEM have been employed to analyze the structural, compositional and morphological analysis respectively. Judd-Ofelt theory has been employed to analyze the intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4 and 6) which can be used to estimate the radiative properties of fluorescent levels of Er3+. We have been observed a strong NIR emission peak at 1.53 μm (4I13/2 → 4I15/2) under the excitation of 980 nm from Er3+: LBZ glasses. Nevertheless, the NIR emission is remarkably enhanced by increasing the Er3+ ions concentration until the optimized concentration of 0.5 mol%. The lifetime of the excited level of 4I13/2 in the NIR emission transition is evaluated and it is found to be1.22 ms from the decay analysis of 0.5 mol% Er3+: LBZ glass. Apart from the NIR emission, a bright up-conversion green emission is observed at 544 nm (4S3/2 → 4I15/2) along with an intense red emission at 659 nm (4F9/2 → 4I15/2) and a weak blue emission (2H9/2 → 4I15/2) under the excitation of 980 nm. Up-conversion emission features were significantly enhanced with increasing the Er3+ concentration up to 1.0 mol%. The combination of the obtained up-conversion emission colors of green, red and blue could generate white light emission. The cool white-light emission from the optimized glass sample has been confirmed from the Commission International de I'Echairage (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram analysis and their correlated color temperature (CCT) values. Based on the NIR and up-conversion emission features, Er3+: LBZ glasses could be suggested as promising candidates for optical amplifiers, optical telecommunication windows and white light photonic applications.

  14. Ultraviolet and infrared absorption spectra of Cr2O3 doped-sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate glasses and effects of gamma irradiation: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, M A; ElBatal, F H; Abdelghany, A M

    2013-10-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on spectral properties of Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses of three varieties, namely sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate have been investigated. Optical spectra of the undoped samples reveal strong UV absorption bands which are attributed to the presence of trace iron impurities in both the sodium and zinc phosphate glasses while the lead phosphate glass exhibits broad UV near visible bands due to combined absorption of both trace iron impurities and divalent lead ions. The effect of chromium oxide content has been investigated. The three different Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses reveal spectral visible bands varying in their position and intensity and splitting due to the different field strengths of the Na(+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+) cations, together with the way they are housed in the network and their effects on the polarisability of neighboring oxygens ligands. The effects of gamma irradiation on the optical spectral properties of the various glasses have been compared. The different effects for lead and zinc phosphate are related to the ability of Pb(2+), and Zn(2+) to form additional structural units causing stability of the network towards gamma irradiation. Also, the introduction of the transition metal chromium ions reveals some shielding behavior towards irradiation. Infrared absorption spectra of the three different base phosphate glasses show characteristic vibrations due to various phosphate groups depending on the type of glass and Cr2O3 is observed to slightly affect the IR spectra. Gamma irradiation causes minor variations in some of the intensities of the IR spectra but the main characteristic bands due to phosphate groups remain in their number and position. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comprehensive study on compositional modification of Tb3+ doped zinc phosphate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaacob, S. N. S.; Sahar, M. R.; Sazali, E. S.; Mahraz, Zahra Ashur; Sulhadi, K.

    2018-07-01

    Series of glass composition (60-x) P2O5 -40 ZnO -(x) Tb2O3 where x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mol % are prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR and the photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy are used to characterize the physical, structural and optical behavior of the glass sample. The XRD pattern confirms the amorphous nature and DTA verified the thermal stability of all the glass samples. Glass with 1.5 mol % of Tb2O3 possesses the highest thermal stability. Glass density is found to increase proportionally with increasing amount of Tb3+ while the molar volume behaves reversely. Six main IR absorption bands centered at about 540, 748, 891, 1085 and 1294 cm- 1 are evidenced. The UV-Vis NIR absorption spectra reveals the absorption center band at about 540, 376, 488 and 1920 nm corresponding to the absorption from 7F6 ground state to various excited state of Tb3+ ion. The optical band gaps for direct and indirect transition are in the range 4.53-5.07 eV and 4.30 eV-4.56 eV respectively. The Urbach energy decreases with the increasing concentration of Tb2O3. The PL emission spectra reveals several prominent peaks at 413, 435, 457, 488, 540, 585 and 620 nm due to electronic transition from 5D3→7F5, 5D3→7F4, 5D3→7F3, 5D4→7F6, 5D4→7F5, 5D4→7F3 and 5D4→7F5 respectively.

  16. Optoelectronic properties and interfacial durability of CNT and ITO on boro-silicate glass and PET substrates with nano- and heterostructural aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joung-Man; Wang, Zuo-Jia; Kwon, Dong-Jun; DeVries, Lawrence

    2011-02-01

    Nano- and hetero-structures of carbon nanotube (CNT) and indium tin oxide (ITO) can control significantly piezoelectric and optoelectronic properties in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) as sensing and actuator under cyclic loading. Optimized preparing conditions were obtained for multi-functional purpose of the specimen by obtaining the best dispersion and turbidity in the solution. Optical transmittance and electrical properties were investigated for CNT and ITO dipping and spraying coating on boro-silicate glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by electrical resistance measurement under cyclic loading and wettability test. Uniform dip-coating was performed using Wilhelmy plate method due to its simple and convenience. Spraying coating was applied to the specimen additionally. The change in the electrical resistance and optical properties of coated layer were mainly dependent upon the number of dip-coating, the concentration of CNT and ITO solutions, and the surface treatment condition. Electric properties of coating layers were measured using four-point probe method, and surface resistance was calculated using a dual configuration method. Optical transmittance of CNT and ITO coated PET film was also evaluated using UV spectrum. Surface energy and their hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of CNT and ITO coated substrates were investigated by wettability test via static and dynamic contact angle measurements. As the elapsing time of cyclic loading passed, the stability of surface resistance and thus comparative interfacial adhesion between coated layer and substrates was evaluated to compare the thermodynamic work of adhesion, Wa. As dip-coating number increased, surface resistance of coated CNT decreased, whereas the transmittance decreased step-by-step due to the thicker CNT and ITO networked layer. Nano- and heterostructural effects of CNT and ITO solution on the optical and electrical effects have been studied continuously.

  17. Structure of zinc and niobium tellurite glasses by neutron and x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, U.; Yousef, E.; Rüssel, C.; Neuefeind, J.; Hannon, A. C.

    2004-03-01

    Neutron and x-ray diffraction experiments of high resolving power with neutrons from a spallation source and high-energy photons from a synchrotron have been performed on compositional series of binary Zn, Nb and on mixed Zn/Nb tellurite glasses. The Te-O, Zn-O and Nb-O coordination numbers are determined by Gaussian fitting of the first-neighbour peaks in the neutron and x-ray data simultaneously. The transition of TeO4 to TeO3 units with increasing fraction of a second component is indicated by decreasing total Te-O coordination numbers. This transition appears different for glasses with ZnO or Nb2O5 additions. Details of the Te-O peaks suggest there are two species of Te-O bonds with lengths of {\\sim }0.19 and {\\sim }0.21 nm. The change of their fractions shows excellent agreement with the existence of TeO4 trigonal bipyramids and TeO3 trigonal pyramids. All oxygen atoms from ZnO and Nb2O5 are used for rupture of Te-O-Te bridges, which is accompanied with a change of nearly all participating TeO4 to TeO3 groups. The tendency for a {\\mathrm {TeO}}_{4} \\to {\\mathrm {TeO}}_{3} change decreases for glasses of higher second component content which is accompanied by the occurrence of TeO4 groups with non-bridging oxygens. The Nb tellurite glasses show transition to network-forming behaviour with the formation of Nb-O-Nb bridges. The fractions of TeO3 units of ternary Zn/Nb tellurite glasses agree with an additivity behaviour of the modifying effects of ZnO and Nb2O5 additions. Some of these results have already been presented in thesis work: Yousef E 2003 A study of some physical properties of tellurite glass (Al-Azhar University, Assiut Egypt).

  18. XRD and FTIR structural investigation of gadolinium-zinc-borate glass ceramics

    SciT

    Borodi, G.; Pascuta, P.; Dan, V.

    2013-11-13

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements have been employed to investigate the (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub x}⋅(B{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub (60−x)}⋅(ZnO){sub 40} glass ceramics system, with 0 ≤ x ≤ 15 mol%. After heat treatment applied at 860 °C for 2 h, some structural changes were observed and new crystalline phases appeared in the structure of the samples. In these glass ceramics four crystalline phases were identified using powder diffraction files (PDF 2), namely ZnB{sub 4}O{sub 7}, Zn{sub 4}O(B{sub 6}O{sub 12}), Zn{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and GdBO{sub 3}. From the XRD data, the average unit-cell parameter and themore » quantitative ratio of the crystallographic phases in the studied samples were evaluated. FTIR data revealed that the BO{sub 3}, BO{sub 4} and ZnO{sub 4} are the main structural units of these glass ceramics network. The compositional dependence of the different structural units which appear in the studied samples was followed.« less

  19. Influence of samarium ions (Sm3+) on the optical properties of lithium zinc phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwetha, M.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-05-01

    New glass samples with composition xSm2O3-(15-x) Li2O-45ZnO-40P2O5, where x= 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mol % are prepared by conventional melt-quenching method. X-ray Diffraction measurements were performed to confirm their amorphous nature. Densities of these glasses were measured by Archimedes method. Optical properties were studied using optical absorption spectra which was recorded at room temperature in the UV-Vis region. Electronic transitions specific to the rare earth ion were observed from the UV-Visible spectroscopy. Optical direct band gap and indirect band gap energies were measured and their values were found to be between 4.23-4.74 eV and 3.02-3.67 eV, respectively. Refractive index has been measured with respect to different concentrations of Sm2O3. Polaron radius, inter-nuclear distance, field strength, dielectric constant and polarizability of oxide ions have been calculated. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements have been performed by excitation in the UV-Visible range, which resulted in the significant fluorescence peaks. The luminescence color of the glass system has been characterized using Commission International de l'Eclairage de France 1931 chromaticity diagram.

  20. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanostructures on graphene/glass substrate by electrochemical deposition: effects of current density and temperature.

    PubMed

    Hambali, Nur Ashikyn; Yahaya, Hafizal; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Terasako, Tomoaki; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on graphene on glass using zinc nitrate hexahydrate was studied. The effects of current densities and temperatures on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of the ZnO structures were studied. Vertically aligned nanorods were obtained at a low temperature of 75°C, and the diameters increased with current density. Growth temperature seems to have a strong effect in generating well-defined hexagonal-shape nanorods with a smooth top edge surface. A film-like structure was observed for high current densities above -1.0 mA/cm(2) and temperatures above 80°C due to the coalescence between the neighboring nanorods with large diameter. The nanorods grown at a temperature of 75°C with a low current density of -0.1 mA/cm(2) exhibited the highest density of 1.45 × 10(9) cm(-2). X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the grown ZnO crystallites were highly oriented along the c-axis. The intensity ratio of the ultraviolet (UV) region emission to the visible region emission, I UV/I VIS, showed a decrement with the current densities for all grown samples. The samples grown at the current density below -0.5 mA/cm(2) showed high I UV/I VIS values closer to or higher than 1.0, suggesting their fewer structural defects. For all the ZnO/graphene structures, the high transmittance up to 65% was obtained at the light wavelength of 550 nm. Structural and optical properties of the grown ZnO structures seem to be effectively controlled by the current density rather than the growth temperature. ZnO nanorod/graphene hybrid structure on glass is expected to be a promising structure for solar cell which is a conceivable candidate to address the global need for an inexpensive alternative energy source.

  1. Spectroscopic and dielectric response of zinc bismuth phosphate glasses as a function of chromium content

    SciT

    Rao, P. Srinivasa; Babu, P. Ramesh; Vijay, R.

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: 20ZnF{sub 2}–(20 − x)Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–60P{sub 2}O{sub 5}:xCr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤2 mol%) glasses are prepared by melt quenching technique. The optical absorption spectra of present glasses are analyzed as a function of chromium content. The absorption bands are assigned to {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 4}T{sub 1g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 4}T{sub 2g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 2}T{sub 1g}(G) and {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 2}E{sub g}(G) transitions of Cr{sup 3+} ions. - Highlights: • ZnF{sub 2}–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses were prepared by melt quenching and annealing. • Spectroscopicmore » and dielectric properties of chromium ions were investigated. • ESR and optical absorption spectra indicate the co-existence of Cr{sup 6+} ions with Cr{sup 5+} ions and Cr{sup 3+} ions. • Cr{sup 3+} ions act as modifiers and influence the semiconducting nature of the glass system. - Abstract: 20ZnF{sub 2}–(20 − x)Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–60P{sub 2}O{sub 5}:xCr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤2 mol%) glasses are prepared by melt quenching technique. Amorphous nature of these samples is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. FTIR study reveals bands due to CrO{sub 6}(o{sub d}) and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}(T{sub d}) units along with conventional phosphate groups. The optical absorption and ESR studies of present glasses are analyzed as a function of chromium content. The absorption bands are assigned to {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 4}T{sub 1g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 4}T{sub 2g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 2}T{sub 1g}(G) and {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 2}E{sub g}(G) transitions of Cr{sup 3+} ions. The highest concentration of Cr{sup 3+} ions (in octahedral sites, with network modifying positions) is found in the sample with 2.0 mol% of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The analysis of dielectric properties indicates a gradual increase in semiconducting character with increase in the

  2. Evaluation of laser ablation double-focusing SC-ICPMS for “common” lead isotopic measurements in silicate glasses and mineral

    Pietruszka, Aaron J.; Neymark, Leonid

    2017-01-01

    An analytical method for the in situ measurement of “common” Pb isotope ratios in silicate glasses and minerals using a 193-nm excimer laser ablation (LA) system with a double-focusing single-collector (SC)-ICPMS is presented and evaluated as a possible alternative to multiple-collector (MC)-ICPMS. This LA-SC-ICPMS technique employs fast-scanning ion deflectors to sequentially place a series of flat-topped isotope peaks into a single ion-counting detector at a fixed accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength. Reference materials (including NIST, MPI-DING, and USGS glasses) are used to identify two analytical artifacts on the Pb isotope ratios (expressed here as heavier/lighter isotopes) when corrected for mass bias relative to NIST SRM610. The first artifact is characterized by anomalously low Pb isotope ratios (~0.1%/AMU) when SRM610 is analyzed in raster mode as an unknown at small spot sizes (<25 µm), which may indicate that (1) SRM610 is isotopically heterogeneous on a small length scale and/or (2) there is a non-spectral matrix effect on the Pb isotope ratios related to differences in spot size. The second artifact is characterized by anomalously high Pb isotope ratios (<0.1%/AMU) for NIST SRM612 (in raster mode) and some Fe-rich glass reference materials (BCR-2G, GOR132-G, and T1-G). These offsets are thought to be caused by one or more non-spectral matrix effects related to differences in the ablation behavior, composition, or physical properties of these reference materials compared to the bracketing SRM610 standard. The precision (±2SD) of our LA-SC-ICPMS Pb isotopic measurements is similar to (207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb, or 20XPb/206Pb) or better than (206Pb/204Pb,207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb, or 20XPb/204Pb) a series of published studies that used a different type of SC-ICPMS and obtained a factor of ~3-4 higher sensitivity for Pb. An increase in the sensitivity of our LA-SC-ICPMS would likely improve the precision of the 20XPb/206Pb and 20

  3. A comparative study of retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements with stainless steel crowns - an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Raghunath Reddy, M H; Subba Reddy, V V; Basappa, N

    2010-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to compare the retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements using Instron universal testing machine. Thirty preformed and pretrimmed stainless steel crowns were used for cementation on 30 extracted human primary molars which were divided into three groups of 10 teeth in each group. Then the teeth were stored in artificial saliva and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. A load was applied on to the crown and was gradually increased till the crown showed dislodgement, and then the readings were recorded using Instron recorder and analyzed for statistical significance. The surface area of crown was measured by graphical method. The retentive strength was expressed in terms of kg/cm 2 , which was calculated by the equation load divided by area. Retentive strengths of zinc phosphate (ranged from a minimum of 16.93 to amaximum of 28.13 kg/cm 2 with mean of 21.28 kg/cm 2 ) and glass ionomer cement (minimum of 13.69 - 28.15 kg/cm 2 with mean of 20.69 kg/cm 2 ) were greater than that of polycarboxylate cement (minimum of 13.26 - 22.69 kg/cm 2 with mean of 16.79 kg/cm 2 ). Negligible difference (0.59 kg/cm 2 ) of retentive strength was observed between zinc phosphate (21.28 kg/cm 2 ) and glass ionomer cements (20.69 kg/cm 2 ). Glass ionomer cements can be recommended for cementation of stainless steel crowns because of its advantages and the retentive strength was almost similar to that of zinc phosphate cement.

  4. Triple modifier effect on physical, optical and structural properties of boro tellurite zinc lithium glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naresh, P.; Srinivasu, D.; Narsimlu, N.; Ch. Srinivas, Kavitha, B.; Deshpandhe, Uday; Kumar, K. Siva

    2018-05-01

    To investigate physical, optical and structural properties of glass samples of the Quaternary system (60-x)B2O3-xTeO2-10ZnO-30Li2O with x=0,5,10,15, and 20 mol% were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. XRD confirmed the amorphous nature of all samples. Physical parameters like density, molar volume, Oxygen packing density and etc. calculated. Density of glass samples increased with the increase of TeO2 concentration due to the replacement of lighter B2O3 with heavier TeO2. Optical properties has studied with the help of UV-Visible spectra. Cut off wavelength is increases whereas Eopt and Urbache energies is decreased except intermediate mole fraction of TeO2 at which the triple modifier effect can be observed. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy reveals that the network consists of TeO3 and TeO6 structural units along with BO3 and BO4 units.

  5. A comparative study of retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements with stainless steel crowns--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, R; Basappa, N; Reddy, V V

    1998-03-01

    This study was conducted on 30 extracted human primary molars to assess the retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements. The teeth were embedded in resin blocks and were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. The occlusal surfaces of all teeth were reduced uniformly by 1.0 to 1.5 mm. All mesial, distal undercuts were removed and sharp angles rounded. This was followed by cementing pretrimmed and precontoured stainless steel crowns on each tooth with hand pressure and storing in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Retentive strength was tested using Instron Universal Testing Machine. The load was applied starting from a zero reading and gradually increased until the cemented stainless steel crowns showed signs of movement and then the readings were recorded. It was found that retentive strengths of zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements were statistically better (P < 0.05) when compared to the polycarboxylate cement. Negligible difference (0. 59 kg/cm2) was however observed between zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements.

  6. Water in silicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Paul; Stolper, Edward

    Water is one of the more important volatile species in magmas, both in terms of its abundance and its influence on the properties of a given magma. Many workers in the geological sciences have measured, modeled, and speculated on the interaction of water with silicate melts as a function of pressure. At the same time, glass and materials scientists have collected a considerable body of data on the effect of water on the properties of liquid and glassy silicates at 1 atmosphere (1.01325×105 N m-2) and below. A special session on “Solubility and Transport Properties of Water in Silicate Melts” was held during the 1983 AGU Spring Meeting, May 30-June 3, in Baltimore. The session had three main objectives: (1) review the present data base and discuss the status of current models in order to identify areas where further work is needed; (2) introduce interested geologists to the large body of work being carried out in the glass and materials sciences; and (3) consider static properties, such as thermodynamic relations, structure of hydrous melts, and dynamic properties including diffusion and viscosity. This report summarizes the major topics discussed. More detailed information may be found in the published abstracts (Eos, May 3, 1983, pp. 338-343).

  7. The Oxidation State of Tungsten in Iron Bearing and Iron Free Silicate Glasses: Results from W L-Edge Xanes Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, Lisa R.; Righter, K.; Sutton S.; Newville, M.; Le, L.

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten is important in constraining core formation of the Earth because this element is a moderately siderophile element (depleted approx. 10 relative to chondrites) and, as a member of the Hf-W isotopic system, it is useful in constraining the timing of core formation. A number of previous experimental studies have been carried out to determine the silicate solubility and metal-silicate partitioning behavior of W, including its concomitant oxidation state. However, results of previous studies (figure 1) are inconsistent on whether W occurs as W(4+) or W(6+).

  8. White light generation via up-conversion and blue tone in Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+-doped zinc-tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, V. A. G.; Ferri, F. A.; Nunes, L. A. O.; Marega, E.

    2017-05-01

    Yb3+, Er3+ and Tm3+ triply doped zinc-tellurite glass have been prepared containing up to 3.23 wt% of rare-earth ion oxides, were characterized by absorption spectroscopy, excitation, emission and up-conversion spectra. Transparent and homogeneous glasses have been produced, managing the red, green and blue emission bands, in order to generate white light considering the human eye perception. The energy transfer (resonant or non-resonant) between those rare-earth ions provides a color balancing mechanism that maintains the operating point in the white region, generating warm white light, cool white light and artificial daylight through the increase of the 976/980 nm diode laser excitation power from 4 to 470 mW. A light source at 4000 K is obtained under the excitation at 980 nm with 15 mW, providing a white light environment that is comfortable to the human eye vision. The spectroscopic study presented in this work describes the white light generation by the triply-doped zinc-tellurite glass, ranging from blue, green and red, by controlling the laser excitation power and wavelength at 976/980 nm. Such white tuning provokes healthy effects on human health throughout the day, especially the circadian system.

  9. Plasmonic Three-Dimensional Transparent Conductor Based on Al-Doped Zinc Oxide-Coated Nanostructured Glass Using Atomic Layer Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Malek, Gary A.; Aytug, Tolga; Liu, Qingfeng; ...

    2015-04-02

    Transparent nanostructured glass coatings, fabricated on glass substrates, with a unique three-dimensional (3D) architecture were utilized as the foundation for the design of plasmonic 3D transparent conductors. Transformation of the non-conducting 3D structure to a conducting 3D network was accomplished through atomic layer deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO). After AZO growth, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were deposited by electronbeam evaporation to enhance light trapping and decrease the overall sheet resistance. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microcopy images revealed the highly porous, nanostructured morphology of the AZO coated glass surface along with the in-plane dimensions of the depositedmore » AuNPs. Sheet resistance measurements conducted on the coated samples verified that the electrical properties of the 3D network are comparable to that of the untextured two-dimensional AZO coated glass substrates. In addition, transmittance measurements of the glass samples coated with various AZO thicknesses showed preservation of the highly transparent nature of each sample, while the AuNPs demonstrated enhanced light scattering as well as light-trapping capability.« less

  10. Lithium-aluminum-zinc phosphate glasses activated with Tb3+ and Tb3+/Eu3+ for green laser medium, reddish-orange and white phosphor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco-Rodriguez, H. I.; Lira, A.; Soriano-Romero, O.; Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Bordignon, S.; Speghini, A.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Caldiño, U.

    2018-05-01

    A spectroscopic analysis of Tb3+ and Tb3+/Eu3+ doped lithium-aluminum-zinc phosphate glasses is performed through their absorbance and photoluminescence spectra, and decay time profiles. Laser parameter values (stimulated emission cross section, effective bandwidth, gain bandwidth and optical gain) were obtained for the terbium 5D4 → 7F5 green emission from the Tb3+ singly-doped glass (LAZT) excited at 350 nm to judge the suitability of the glass phosphor for fiber lasers. A quantum yield of (47.68 ± 0.49)% was measured for the 5D4 level luminescence. Upon 350 nm excitation the LAZT glass phosphor emits green light with a color purity of 65.6% and chromaticity coordinates (0.285, 0.585) very close to those (0.29, 0.60) of European Broadcasting Union illuminant green. The Tb3+/Eu3+codoped glass emission color can be tuned from reddish-orange of 1865 K upon 318 nm excitation to warm white of 3599 K and neutral white of 4049 K upon 359 and 340 nm excitations, respectively. Upon Tb3+ excitation at 340 nm Eu3+ is sensitized by Tb3+ through a non-radiative energy transfer with an efficiency of 0.23-0.26. An electric dipole-dipole interaction might be the dominant mechanism in the Tb3+ to Eu3+ energy transfer taking place into Tb3+ - Eu3+ clusters.

  11. Plasmonic Three-Dimensional Transparent Conductor Based on Al-Doped Zinc Oxide-Coated Nanostructured Glass Using Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciT

    Malek, Gary A.; Aytug, Tolga; Liu, Qingfeng

    Transparent nanostructured glass coatings, fabricated on glass substrates, with a unique three-dimensional (3D) architecture were utilized as the foundation for the design of plasmonic 3D transparent conductors. Transformation of the non-conducting 3D structure to a conducting 3D network was accomplished through atomic layer deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO). After AZO growth, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were deposited by electronbeam evaporation to enhance light trapping and decrease the overall sheet resistance. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microcopy images revealed the highly porous, nanostructured morphology of the AZO coated glass surface along with the in-plane dimensions of the depositedmore » AuNPs. Sheet resistance measurements conducted on the coated samples verified that the electrical properties of the 3D network are comparable to that of the untextured two-dimensional AZO coated glass substrates. In addition, transmittance measurements of the glass samples coated with various AZO thicknesses showed preservation of the highly transparent nature of each sample, while the AuNPs demonstrated enhanced light scattering as well as light-trapping capability.« less

  12. The role of modifier cation field strength, oxygen speciation and network cation interaction in pressure-induced structural changes of silicate melts and glasses: 27Al, and 11B MAS NMR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bista, S.; Stebbins, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    In aluminosilicate melts and glasses, both non-bridging oxygen content (NBO) and modifier cation field strength (Mg>Ca>Na>K) are known to facilitate network cation (e.g. Al, B) coordination increase with pressure. However, the role of these two compositional parameters in pressure-induced structural changes is derived from data for a limited set of compositions, where effects of the interaction between these parameters is less understood. For example, the effects of NBO are largely based on studies of Na and K aluminosilicate glasses, but effects of geologically important, higher field strength modifier cations such as Mg2+ and Fe2+ could well be significantly different. In this study, we look at a wide compositional range of Na, Ca and Mg aluminosilicate glasses (quenched from high pressure melts near to the glass transition temperature) to understand the roles of NBO and modifier cation field strength that can extend our view of processes important for silicate melts common in nature. Our results show that the role of NBO in pressure-induced structural changes varies systematically with increasing field strength of the modifier cation. In Na aluminosilicate glasses recovered from 1.5 to 3 GPa, large increases in average aluminum coordination are observed in glasses with high NBO content, while no detectable increases are seen for low nominal NBO (jadeite). In contrast, Mg aluminosilicate glasses with both high and low NBO show similar, large increases in average aluminum coordination with increasing pressure. The behaviors of Ca aluminosilicates fall between those of Na and Mg-rich glasses. We have also looked at interactions between different network forming cations in pressure-induced structural changes in low NBO Ca-aluminoborosilicate glasses with varying B/Si. Both aluminum and boron increase dramatically in coordination in these compositions 1.5 to 3 GPa. Increases in both average aluminum coordination and densification are larger in compositions containing

  13. The role of different network modifying cations on the speciation of the Co2+ complex in silicates and implication in the investigation of historical glasses.

    PubMed

    Fornacelli, Cristina; Ceglia, Andrea; Bracci, Susanna; Vilarigues, Marcia

    2018-01-05

    In the last decades the speciation of the cobalt complex in a glass matrix has been extensively studied. Bivalent cobalt ions in glasses of different composition commonly adopt a tetrahedral coordination, though hexa- or penta-coordinated species are also possible. Changes in the absorbance spectrum of Co-doped glasses were attested in previous studies according to the introduction of different modifying cations. A shifting of the first sub-band characterizing the typical triplets of tetrahedral Co 2+ ions in both the visible and near infrared regions was observed, but discrepancies in literature suggested a relevant role of glass composition on the definition of the optical signature of cobalt. Co-doped glasses with different composition (soda-lime, potash-lime, mixed alkali and ZnO-Na 2 O-CaO-SiO 2 ) were studied via Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS). Pseudo-Voigt functions were used for the deconvolution of the absorbance spectra and the features of the bands characteristic of each cobalt complex were investigated. The structural role played by each modifying cation and the fundamental implications of glass basicity on the speciation of different Co-complexes were stressed. Changes in glass structure resulted in different equilibria between the three absorbing species whose specific optical signatures in the 480-530nm region interact to determine the resulting absorbance spectrum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of different network modifying cations on the speciation of the Co2 + complex in silicates and implication in the investigation of historical glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornacelli, Cristina; Ceglia, Andrea; Bracci, Susanna; Vilarigues, Marcia

    2018-01-01

    In the last decades the speciation of the cobalt complex in a glass matrix has been extensively studied. Bivalent cobalt ions in glasses of different composition commonly adopt a tetrahedral coordination, though hexa- or penta-coordinated species are also possible. Changes in the absorbance spectrum of Co-doped glasses were attested in previous studies according to the introduction of different modifying cations. A shifting of the first sub-band characterizing the typical triplets of tetrahedral Co2 + ions in both the visible and near infrared regions was observed, but discrepancies in literature suggested a relevant role of glass composition on the definition of the optical signature of cobalt. Co-doped glasses with different composition (soda-lime, potash-lime, mixed alkali and ZnO-Na2O-CaO-SiO2) were studied via Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS). Pseudo-Voigt functions were used for the deconvolution of the absorbance spectra and the features of the bands characteristic of each cobalt complex were investigated. The structural role played by each modifying cation and the fundamental implications of glass basicity on the speciation of different Co-complexes were stressed. Changes in glass structure resulted in different equilibria between the three absorbing species whose specific optical signatures in the 480-530 nm region interact to determine the resulting absorbance spectrum.

  15. Simulation of MeV electron energy deposition in CdS quantum dots absorbed in silicate glass for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baharin, R.; Hobson, P. R.; Smith, D. R.

    2010-09-01

    We are currently developing 2D dosimeters with optical readout based on CdS or CdS/CdSe core-shell quantum-dots using commercially available materials. In order to understand the limitations on the measurement of a 2D radiation profile the 3D deposited energy profile of MeV energy electrons in CdS quantum-dot-doped silica glass have been studied by Monte Carlo simulation using the CASINO and PENELOPE codes. Profiles for silica glass and CdS quantum-dot-doped silica glass were then compared.

  16. Effect of erbium(III) oxide addition on thermal properties and crystallization behavior of some zinc-borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodi, G.; Bolundut, L. C.; Pascuta, P.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of replacing B2O3 with Er2O3 on the thermal properties and crystallization behaviour of B2O3-ZnO glasses were investigated by Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and X-ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD) measurements. DTA measurements reveal that the temperature of vitreous transition and the glass stability increase with the increasing in concentration the erbium ions added in the samples. The fragility index of the glasses increases also, when the dopant concentration from the studied samples increases. The glass was obtained from kinetically strong-glass-forming liquid (KS type glass). The most stable sample from the thermal point of view seems to be the sample that contains 10 mol% of Er2O3. The XRD patterns of the heat-treated samples at 860°C show new crystalline phases that contain erbium when the concentration of Er2O3 in the samples is higher than 3 mol%.

  17. Effect of Zirconium Oxide and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Physicochemical Properties and Antibiofilm Activity of a Calcium Silicate-Based Material

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Trindade-Junior, Adinael; Cesar Costa, Bernardo; da Silva, Guilherme Ferreira; Drullis Cifali, Leonardo; Basso Bernardi, Maria Inês

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibiofilm activity against Enterococcus faecalis, compressive strength. and radiopacity of Portland cement (PC) added to zirconium oxide (ZrO2), as radiopacifier, with or without nanoparticulated zinc oxide (ZnO). The following experimental materials were evaluated: PC, PC + ZrO2, PC + ZrO2 + ZnO (5%), and PC + ZrO2 + ZnO (10%). Antibiofilm activity was analyzed by using direct contact test (DCT) on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm, for 5 h or 15 h. The analysis was conducted by using the number of colony-forming units (CFU/mL). The compressive strength was performed in a mechanical testing machine. For the radiopacity tests, the specimens were radiographed together with an aluminium stepwedge. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests, with level of significance at 5%. The results showed that all materials presented similar antibiofilm activity (P > 0.05). The addition of nanoparticulated ZnO decreased the compressive strength of PC. All materials presented higher radiopacity than pure PC. It can be concluded that the addition of ZrO2 and ZnO does not interfere with the antibiofilm activity and provides radiopacity to Portland cement. However, the presence of ZnO (5% or 10%) significantly decreased the compressive strength of the materials. PMID:25431798

  18. SILICATES FOR CORROSION CONTROL IN BUILDING POTABLE WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silicates have been used to control the corrosion of drinking water distribution system materials. Previous work has shown that they are particularly useful in reducing the release of zinc from galvanized materials in hot water systems. Negatively charged silicate species were re...

  19. Characterization and spectroscopic studies of multi-component calcium zinc bismuth phosphate glass ceramics doped with iron ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. Suneel; Narendrudu, T.; Suresh, S.; Ram, G. Chinna; Rao, M. V. Sambasiva; Tirupataiah, Ch.; Rao, D. Krishna

    2018-04-01

    Glass ceramics with the composition 10CaF2-20ZnO-(15-x)Bi2O3-55P2O5:x Fe2O3(0≤x≤2.5) were synthesized by melt-quenching technique and heat treatment. These glass ceramics were characterized by XRD and SEM. Spectroscopic studies such as optical absorption, EPR were also carried out on these glass ceramics. From the absorption spectra the observed bands around 438 and 660nm are the octahedral transitions of Fe3+ (d5) ions and another band at about 536 nm is the tetrahedral transition of Fe3+ (d5) ions. The absorption spectrum also consist of a band around 991 nm and is attributed to the octahedral transition of Fe2+ ions. The EPR spectra of the prepared glass ceramics have exhibited two resonance signals one at g1=4.32 and another signal at g2=2.008. The observed decrease in band gap energy up to 2 mol% Fe2O3 doped glass ceramics is an evidence for the change of environment around iron ions and ligands from more covalent to less covalent (ionic) and induces higher concentration of NBOs which causes the depolymerization of the glass ceramic network.

  20. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  1. Influence of Ga{sup 3+} ions on spectroscopic and dielectric features of multi component lithium lead boro bismuth silicate glasses doped with manganese ions

    SciT

    Ramesh Babu, P.; Vijay, R.; Nageswara Rao, P.

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The plots between ε″(ω)ω vs. ε′(ω) and ε″(ω)/ω vs. ε′(ω) yield straight lines with slope 1/τ and τ, respectively. Considerable deviation from the straight line is observed in the high frequency region. Such deviation suggests spreading of relaxation times and this is attributed to the presence of multiple type of dipoles in the glass matrix. Variation of the parameters ωε″(ω) and ε″(ω)/ω with ε′(ω) of glass Li{sub 2}O–PbO–B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2}–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–MnO multi-component glasses mixed with 2.0 mol% of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} measured at 373 K. - Highlights: • A series of Li{sub 2}O–PbO–B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2}–Bi{submore » 2}O{sub 3}–MnO:Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses have been synthesized. • A variety of spectroscopic and dielectric properties have been investigated. • Analysis of the results indicated that glasses with below 3.0 mol% Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} are good conducting materials. - Abstract: Multi-component glasses of the chemical composition 19.5Li{sub 2}O–20PbO–20B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–30SiO–(10 − x)Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–0.5MnO:xGa{sub 2}O{sub 3} with 0 ≤ x ≤ 5.0 have been synthesized. Spectroscopic (optical absorption, IR, Raman and ESR) and dielectric properties were investigated. Optical absorption and ESR spectral studies have indicated that managanese ions do exist in Mn{sup 3+} state in addition to Mn{sup 2+} state in the samples containing low concentration of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The IR and Raman studies indicated increasing degree of disorder in the glass network with the concentration of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to 3.0 mol%. The dielectric constant, loss and ac conductivity are observed to increase with the concentration of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to 3.0 mol%. The quantitative analysis of the results of dielectric properties has indicated an increase in the insulating strength of the glasses as the concentration of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} is raised beyond 3.0 mol%. This

  2. In Vitro Comparison of Zinc Phosphate and Glass Ionomers Ability to Inhibit Decalcification under and Adjacent to Orthodontic Bands.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    confer the ability to leach fluoride ions into the surrounding tooth enamel . Kidd 3 7 using an artifical caries tec- hnique with a diffusion controlled...5 - Enamel Changes Scoring System- 1. NONE: No color change evident 2. MILD: Slight change in enamel color 3.MODERATE: Definate whitening of enamel ...to adhere to stainless steel and to tooth enamel with a chemical bond 51 . Zinc phosphate, on the other hand, does not chemically adhere to enamel or

  3. Yellow to orange-reddish glass phosphors: Sm3+, Tb3+ and Sm3+/Tb3+ in zinc tellurite-germanate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramos, M. E.; Alvarado-Rivera, J.; Zayas, Ma. E.; Caldiño, U.; Hernández-Paredes, J.

    2018-01-01

    An optical spectroscopy analysis of TeO-GeO2-ZnO glass co-activating Sm3+/Tb3+ ions was carried out through Raman, photoluminescence spectra and decay time profiles as a function of Sm3+ concentration. According to the estimated CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, the color of the emission can be adjusted from the yellow light region (0.4883, 0.4774), towards the reddish light region (0.5194,0.4144) by increasing the Sm3+ content from 1, 3, 5% mol, co-doped with 1% mol Tb3+ under co-excitation of Sm3+ and Tb3+ at 378 nm. The color temperatures are in the range of 1379-2804 K. Such photoluminescence is generated by the 4G 5/2 → 4H 5/2, 4H 7/2, 4H9/2 emissions of Sm3+ in addition to the 5D4→7F6,5,4,3 emissions of Tb3+; the single doped Sm3+ glass displayed an intense orange light. Meanwhile, co-doped Sm3+/Tb3+ glasses excited at 378 nm showed a significant reduction in Tb3+ emission, with a simultaneous increment in the reddish-orange emission of Sm3+, due to a non-radiative resonant energy transfer from Tb3+ to Sm3+. Decay time profile analysis of the Tb3+ emission as function of Sm3+ ion content suggests that an electric dipole-dipole interaction into Tb3+-Sm3+ clusters might dominate in the energy transfer process, with an efficiency and probability of 0.22, 0.27, 0.38 and 122.8, 327.6, 522.7 s-1, respectively.

  4. Phase-equilibrium geobarometers for silicic rocks based on rhyolite-MELTS. Part 4: Plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, glass geobarometer, and application to Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Lydia J.; Cowlyn, James; Gualda, Guilherme A. R.; Ghiorso, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    A new phase equilibria geobarometer determines magmatic storage and crystallization conditions, including pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity ({f_{{{o}_2}}}), and the presence of a fluid phase for glass-bearing rocks containing the assemblage plagioclase + pyroxene(s). This newly developed geobarometer can better constrain crystallization conditions of shallow (< 500 MPa; < 20 km), glass-bearing andesites to dacites. The geobarometer utilizes rhyolite-MELTS to determine crystallization conditions in natural pumice and scoria samples. The validity of the geobarometer is tested by comparing it to results from experiments. Uncertainties are assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. We apply the geobarometer to the plag + opx + cpx-bearing system of Mt. Ruapehu, in the southern Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. The samples from Mt. Ruapehu are tested from 5 to 400 MPa and from super-liquidus to 90% crystalline ( 1200 to 700 °C). Mt. Ruapehu serves as a methodological testing ground for the geobarometer, and results from our geobarometer agree with recent Mt. Ruapehu studies. Results show a distribution of crystallization pressures ranging from 50 to 150 MPa ( 2.0 to 5.9 km) for different eruptions, with modes of 110 MPa ( 4.3 km) and 130 MPa ( 5.1 km). These are consistent with field interpretations of different eruptive styles based on juvenile clast textures and previous knowledge of the magma plumbing system. Mt. Ruapehu magmas are fluid saturated, with {f_{{{o}_2}}} of ΔQFM + 1 (NNO).

  5. Concentration-dependent studies of Nd3+ -doped zinc phosphate glasses for NIR photoluminescence at 1.05 μm.

    PubMed

    Reddy Prasad, V; Seshadri, M; Babu, S; Ratnakaram, Y C

    2017-05-01

    Nd 3 + -doped lead-free zinc phosphate glasses with the chemical compositions (60-x) NH 4 H 2 PO 4  + 20ZnO + 10BaF 2  + 10NaF + xNd 2 O 3 (where x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%) were prepared using a melt quenching technique. Vibrational bands were assigned and clearly elucidated by Raman spectral profiles for all the glass samples. Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters (Ω λ : λ = 2, 4, 6) were obtained from the spectral intensities of different absorption bands of Nd 3 + ions. Radiative properties such as radiative transition probabilities (A R ), radiative lifetimes (τ R ) and branching ratios (β R ) for different excited states were calculated using J-O parameters. The near infrared (NIR) photoluminescence spectra exhibited three emission bands ( 4 F 3 /2 level to 4 I 13 /2 , 4 I 11 /2 and 4 I 9 /2 states) for all the concentrations of Nd 3 + ions. Various luminescence properties were studied by varying the Nd 3 + concentration for the three spectral profiles. Fluorescence decay curves of the 4 F 3 /2 level were recorded. The energy transfer mechanism that leads to quenching of the 4 F 3 /2 state lifetimes was discussed at higher concentration of Nd 3 + ions. These glasses are suggested as suitable hosts to produce efficient lasing action in NIR region at 1.05 μm. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Calcium environment in silicate and aluminosilicate glasses probed by ⁴³Ca MQMAS NMR experiments and MD-GIPAW calculations.

    PubMed

    Gambuzzi, Elisa; Pedone, Alfonso; Menziani, Maria Cristina; Angeli, Frédéric; Florian, Pierre; Charpentier, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    ⁴³Ca MQMAS NMR spectra of three silica-based glasses in which Ca²⁺ ions play different structural roles have been collected and processed in order to extract the underlying NMR parameter distributions. The NMR parameters have been interpreted with the help of molecular dynamics simulations and DFT-GIPAW calculations. This synergetic experimental-computational approach has allowed us to investigate the Ca environment, to estimate Ca coordination numbers from MD-derived models, and to push further the discussion about ⁴³Ca NMR sensitivity to the first and second coordination spheres: ⁴³Ca δiso and Ca-O distance can be successfully correlated as a function of Ca coordination number. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Finishing and Polishing on Roughness and Gloss of Lithium Disilicate and Lithium Silicate Zirconia Reinforced Glass Ceramic for CAD/CAM Systems.

    PubMed

    Vichi, A; Fonzar, R Fabian; Goracci, C; Carrabba, M; Ferrari, M

    To assess the efficacy of dedicated finishing/polishing systems on roughness and gloss of VITA Suprinity and IPS e.max CAD. A total of 24 blocks of Suprinity and 24 of e.max were cut into a wedge shape using an InLab MC-XL milling unit. After crystallization, the 24 Suprinity wedges were divided into four subgroups: group A.1: Suprinity Polishing Set Clinical used for 30 seconds and group A.2: for 60 seconds; group A.3: VITA Akzent Plus Paste; and group A.4: spray. The 24 e.max wedges (group B) were divided into four subgroups according to the finishing procedure: group B.1: Optrafine Ceramic Polishing System for 30 seconds and group B.2: for 60 seconds; group B.3: IPS e.max CAD Crystall/Glaze paste; and group B.4: spray. After finishing/polishing, gloss was assessed with a glossmeter and roughness evaluated with a profilometer. Results were analyzed by applying a two-way analysis of variance for gloss and another for roughness (α=0.05). One specimen per each subgroup was observed with a scanning electron microscope. For roughness, materials and surface were significant factors ( p<0.001). Suprinity exhibited significantly lower roughness than e.max. Also the Material-Surface Treatment interaction was statistically significant ( p=0.026). For gloss, both material and surface treatment were significant factors ( p<0.001). VITA Suprinity showed significantly higher gloss than e.max. Also the Material-Surface Treatment interaction was statistically significant ( p<0.001). Manual finishing/polishing for 60 seconds and glazing paste are the most effective procedures in lowering the roughness of CAD/CAM silica-based glass ceramics. Manual finishing/polishing for 60 seconds allows milled silica-based glass ceramics to yield a higher gloss. VITA Suprinity displayed higher polishability than IPS e.max CAD.

  8. Effects of titanium nanoparticles on self-cleaning and structural features of zinc-magnesium-phosphate glass

    SciT

    Ismail, S.F.; Sahar, M.R., E-mail: mrahim057@gmail.com; Ghoshal, S.K.

    Graphical abstract: Water contact angle for sample S2, S3, S4 and S5. The water contact angle increased with increased the titanium NPs content (mol%). - Highlights: • ZnO–MgO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} embedded TiO{sub 2} NPs prepared by conventional melt-quenching method. • The amorphous nature is confirmed by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. • The structural characteristics of glasses is investigated using FTIR and Raman. • Wettability of the glasses surface by water contact angle. - Abstract: The loss of glass transparency on surface pollutants contamination unless inhibited not only causes vision obscurity but also responsible for major aesthetic damages of cultural heritage. Itmore » is due to the sticking of fine dirt particles on wetting layers, a complex process with several possible ramifications still to be clarified. We report the influence of titanium dioxide or titania (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (NPs) on the structural and self-cleaning properties of zinc–magnesium–phosphate glasses. Following melt-quenching method glass samples of optimized composition (42 − x)P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–8MgO–50ZnO–xTiO{sub 2} with x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mol% are prepared. XRD patterns verified their amorphous nature and TEM images revealed the nucleation of TiO{sub 2} NPs of average diameter ≈4.05 ± 0.01 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra displayed four absorption band centred at 1618–3438 cm{sup −1}, 902– 931 cm{sup −1}, 757–762 cm{sup −1} and 531–560 cm{sup −1}. Raman spectra exhibited four peaks each accompanied by a blue-shift. Water contact angle is found to increase with the increase of titanium NPs concentration into the amorphous matrix. This knowledge can be used to set up strategies and selective treatments to preventing glass transparency loss via the modification of self-cleaning attributes.« less

  9. The role of Sr2+ on the structure and reactivity of SrO-CaO-ZnO-SiO2 ionomer glasses.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Daniel; Towler, Mark R; Watts, Sally; Hill, Robert G; Wren, Anthony W; Clarkin, Owen M

    2008-02-01

    The suitability of Glass Polyalkenoate Cements (GPCs) for use in orthopaedics is retarded by the presence in the glass phase of aluminium, a neurotoxin. Unfortunately, the aluminium ion plays an integral role in the setting process of GPCs and its absence is likely to hinder cement formation. However, the authors have previously shown that aluminium free GPCs may be formulated based on calcium zinc silicate glasses and these novel materials exhibit significant potential as hard tissue biomaterials. To further improve their potential, and given that Strontium (Sr) based drugs have had success in the treatment of osteoporosis, the authors have substituted Calcium (Ca) with Sr in the glass phase of a series of aluminium free GPCs. However to date little data exists on the effect SrO has on the structure and reactivity of SrO-CaO-ZnO-SiO(2) glasses. The objective of this work was to characterise the effect of the Ca/Sr substitution on the structure of such glasses, and evaluate the subsequent reactivity of these glasses with an aqueous solution of Polyacrylic acid (PAA). To this end (29)Si MAS-NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, and network connectivity calculations, were used to characterize the structure of four strontium calcium zinc silicate glasses. Following glass characterization, GPCs were produced from each glass using a 40 wt% solution of PAA (powder:liquid = 2:1.5). The working times and setting times of the GPCs were recorded as per International standard ISO9917. The results acquired as part of this research indicate that the substitution of Ca for Sr in the glasses examined did not appear to significantly affect the structure of the glasses investigated. However it was noted that increasing the amount of Ca substituted for Sr did result in a concomitant increase in setting times, a feature that may be attributable to the higher basicity of SrO over CaO.

  10. Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te ultrasmall quantum dots growth in a silicate glass matrix by the fusion method

    SciT

    Dantas, Noelio Oliveira; Lima Fernandes, Guilherme de; Almeida Silva, Anielle Christine

    2014-09-29

    In this study, we synthesized Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te ultrasmall quantum dots (USQDs) in SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass system using the fusion method. Growth of these Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te USQDs was confirmed by optical absorption, atomic force microscopy (AFM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. The blueshift of absorption transition with increasing manganese concentration gives evidence of incorporation of manganese ions (Mn{sup 2+}) in CdTe USQDs. AFM, TEM, and MFM confirmed, respectively, the formation of high quality Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te USQDs with uniformly distributed size and magneticmore » phases. Furthermore, EPR spectra showed six lines associated to the S = 5/2 spin half-filled d-state, characteristic of Mn{sup 2+}, and confirmed that Mn{sup 2+} are located in the sites core and surface of the CdTe USQD. Therefore, synthesis of high quality Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te USQDs may allow the control of optical and magnetic properties.« less

  11. Glass-silicon column

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  12. Influence of CuO and ZnO addition on the multicomponent phosphate glasses: Spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumera, Magdalena; Wacławska, Irena; Sułowska, Justyna

    2016-06-01

    The spectra of phosphate-silicate glasses from the P2O5-SiO2-K2O-MgO-CaO system modified with the addition of CuO or ZnO have been studied by means of FTIR, Raman and 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy. All glasses were synthesized by the conventional melt-quenching technique and their homogeneous chemical composition was controlled and confirmed. By using the aforementioned research techniques, the presence of structural units with various degrees of polymerization was shown in the structure of analyzed phosphate-silicate glasses: Q3, Q2, Q1 and Q0. It was found that an increase in the content of CuO or ZnO in the composition of analyzed glasses, which are introduced at the expense of decreasing amounts of CaO and MgO, has a different influence on the phospho-oxygen network. It was shown that copper ions cause its gradual polymerization, while zinc ions cause its depolymerization. At the same time, polymerization of the silico-oxygen subnetwork was found. Additionally, in the case of glasses containing increasing amounts of ZnO, a change of the role of zinc ions in the vitreous matrix was confirmed (from the modifier to a structure-forming component).

  13. Structural and optical studies of Er3+-doped alkali/alkaline oxide containing zinc boro-aluminosilicate glasses for 1.5 μm optical amplifier applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaky, Kawa M.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Baki, S. O.; Lira, A.; Caldiño, U.; Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Falcony, C.; Kityk, I. V.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Halimah, M. K.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, we report on the optical spectral properties of Er3+-doped zinc boro-aluminosilicate glasses with an addition of 10 mol % alkali/alkaline modifier regarding the fabrication of new optical materials for optical amplifiers. A total of 10 glasses were prepared using melt-quenching technique with the compositions (40-x)B2O3 - 10SiO2 - 10Al2O3 - 30ZnO - 10Li2O - xEr2O3 and (40-x)B2O3 - 10SiO2 - 10Al2O3 - 30ZnO - 10MgO - xEr2O3 (x = 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mol %). We confirm the amorphous-like structure for all the prepared glasses using X-ray diffraction (XRD). To study the functional groups of the glass composition after the melt-quenching process, Raman spectroscopy was used, and various structural units such as triangular and tetrahedral-borates (BO3 and BO4) have been identified. All the samples were characterized using optical absorption for UV, visible and NIR regions. Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4 and 6) were calculated from the optical absorption spectra of two glasses LiEr 2.0 and MgEr 2.0 (doped with 2 mol % of Er3+). JO parameters for LiEr 2.0 and MgEr 2.0 glasses follow the trend as Ω6>Ω2>Ω4. Using Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, we obtained radiative probability A (S-1), branching ratios (β), radiative decay lifetimes τrad (μs) of emissions from excited Er+3 ions in LiEr 2.0 and MgEr 2.0 to all lower levels. Quantum efficiency (η) of 4I13/2 and 4S3/2 levels for LiEr 2.0 and MgEr 2.0 with and without 4D7/2 level was calculated using the radiative decay lifetimes τrad. (μs) and measured lifetimes τexp. (μs). We measured the visible photoluminescence under 377 nm excitation for both LiEr and MgEr glass series within the region 390-580 nm. Three bands were observed in the visible region at 407 nm, 530 nm, and 554 nm, as a result of 2H9/2 → 4I15/2, 2H11/2 → 4I15/2 and 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 transitions, respectively. Decay lifetimes for emissions at 407 nm, 530 nm, and 554 nm were measured and they show

  14. Concentration dependence of luminescence efficiency of Dy3+ ions in strontium zinc phosphate glasses mixed with Pb3 O4.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Valluri Ravi; Giridhar, G; Veeraiah, N

    2017-02-01

    In this work we synthesized SrO-ZnO-P 2 O 5 glasses mixed with Pb 3 O 4 (heavy metal oxide) and doped with different amounts of Dy 2 O 3 (0.1 to 1.0 mol%). Subsequently their emission and decay characteristics were investigated as a function of Dy 2 O 3 concentration. The emission spectra exhibited three principal emission bands in the visible region corresponding to 4 F 9 /2  →  6 H 15 /2 (482 nm), 6 H 13 /2 (574 nm) and 6 H 11 /2 (663 nm) transitions. With increase in the concentration of Dy 2 O 3 (upto 0.8 mol%) a considerable increase in the intensity of these bands was observed and, for further increase, quenching of photoluminescence (PL) output was observed. Using emission spectra, various radiative parameters were evaluated and all these parameters were found to increase with increase in Dy 2 O 3 concentration. The Y/B integral emission intensity ratio of Dy 3 + ions evaluated from these spectra exhibited a decreasing trend with increase in the Dy 2 O 3 concentration up to 0.8 mol%. Quenching of luminescence observed in the case of the glasses doped with 1.0 mol% is attributed to clustering of Dy 3 + ions. The quantitative analysis of these results together with infra-red (IR) spectral studies indicated that 0.8 mol% is the optimum concentration of Dy 3 + ions needed to achieve maximum luminescence efficiency. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Titanium addition influences antibacterial activity of bioactive glass coatings on metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Omar; Stone, Wendy; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zalzal, Paul; Waldman, Stephen; Papini, Marcello; Towler, Mark R

    2017-10-01

    In an attempt to combat the possibility of bacterial infection and insufficient bone growth around metallic, surgical implants, bioactive glasses may be employed as coatings. In this work, silica-based and borate-based glass series were synthesized for this purpose and subsequently characterized in terms of antibacterial behavior, solubility and cytotoxicity. Borate-based glasses were found to exhibit significantly superior antibacterial properties and increased solubility compared to their silica-based counterparts, with BRT0 and BRT3 (borate-based glasses with 0 and 15 mol% of titanium dioxide incorporated, respectively) outperforming the remainder of the glasses, both borate and silicate based, in these respects. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy confirmed the release of zinc ions (Zn 2+ ), which has been linked to the antibacterial abilities of glasses SRT0, BRT0 and BRT3, with inhibition effectively achieved at concentrations lower than 0.7 ppm. In vitro cytotoxicity studies using MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts confirmed that cell proliferation was affected by all glasses in this study, with decreased proliferation attributed to a faster release of sodium ions over calcium ions in both glass series, factor known to slow cell proliferation in vitro .

  16. Co-precipitation synthesis of nano-composites consists of zinc and tin oxides coatings on glass with enhanced photocatalytic activity on degradation of Reactive Blue 160 KE2B.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Mardani, Maryam

    2015-02-25

    Nano-composite containing zinc oxide-tin oxide was obtained by a facile co-precipitation route using tin chloride tetrahydrate and zinc chloride as precursors and coated on glass by Doctor Blade deposition. The crystalline structure and morphology of composites were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The XRD results showed peaks relative to zinc oxide with hexagonal wurtzite structure and tin oxide with tetragonal structure. FESEM observations showed that the nano-composite consisted of aggregates of particles with an average particle size of 18 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the pure SnO2, pure ZnO, ZnSnO3-Zn2SnO4 and ZnO-SnO2 nano-structure thin films was examined using the degradation of a textile dye Reactive Blue 160 (KE2B). ZnO-SnO2 nano-composite showed enhanced photo-catalytic activity than the pure zinc oxide and tin oxide. The enhanced photo-catalytic activity of the nano-composite was ascribed to an improved charge separation of the photo-generated electron-hole pairs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Loss of halogens from crystallized and glassy silicic volcanic rocks

    Noble, D.C.; Smith, V.C.; Peck, L.C.

    1967-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-four F and Cl analyses of silicic welded tuffs and lavas and glass separates are presented. Comparison of the F and Cl contents of crystallized rocks with those of nonhydrated glass and hydrated glassy rocks from the same rock units shows that most of the halogens originally present were lost on crystallization. An average of about half of the F and four-fifths of the Cl originally present was lost. Analyses of hydrated natural glasses and of glassy rocks indicate that in some cases significant amounts of halogens may be removed from or added to hydrated glass through prolonged contact with ground water. The data show that the original halogen contents of the groundmass of a silicic volcanic rock can be reliably determined only from nonhydrated glass. ?? 1967.

  18. Glass Polyalkenoate Cements Designed for Cranioplasty Applications: An Evaluation of Their Physical and Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Khader, Basel A.; Curran, Declan J.; Peel, Sean; Towler, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) have potential for skeletal cementation. Unfortunately, commercial GPCs all contain, and subsequently release, aluminum ions, which have been implicated in degenerative brain disease. The purpose of this research was to create a series of aluminum-free GPCs constructed from silicate (SiO2), calcium (CaO), zinc (ZnO) and sodium (Na2O)-containing glasses mixed with poly-acrylic acid (PAA) and to evaluate the potential of these cements for cranioplasty applications. Three glasses were formulated based on the SiO2-CaO-ZnO-Na2O parent glass (KBT01) with 0.03 mol % (KBT02) and 0.06 mol % (KBT03) germanium (GeO2) substituted for ZnO. Each glass was then mixed with 50 wt % of a patented SiO2-CaO-ZnO-strontium (SrO) glass composition and the resultant mixtures were subsequently reacted with aqueous PAA (50 wt % addition) to produce three GPCs. The incorporation of Ge in the glass phase was found to result in decreased working (142 s to 112 s) and setting (807 s to 448 s) times for the cements manufactured from them, likely due to the increase in crosslink formation between the Ge-containing glasses and the PAA. Compressive (σc) and biaxial flexural (σf) strengths of the cements were examined at 1, 7 and 30 days post mixing and were found to increase with both maturation and Ge content. The bonding strength of a titanium cylinder (Ti) attached to bone by the cements increased from 0.2 MPa, when placed, to 0.6 MPa, after 14 days maturation. The results of this research indicate that Germano-Silicate based GPCs have suitable handling and mechanical properties for cranioplasty fixation. PMID:27023623

  19. Effect of pressure on the short-range structure and speciation of carbon in alkali silicate and aluminosilicate glasses and melts at high pressure up to 8 GPa: 13C, 27Al, 17O and 29Si solid-state NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Fei, Yingwei; Lee, Sung Keun

    2018-03-01

    Despite the pioneering efforts to explore the nature of carbon in carbon-bearing silicate melts under compression, experimental data for the speciation and the solubility of carbon in silicate melts above 4 GPa have not been reported. Here, we explore the speciation of carbon and pressure-induced changes in network structures of carbon-bearing silicate (Na2O-3SiO2, NS3) and sodium aluminosilicate (NaAlSi3O8, albite) glasses quenched from melts at high pressure up to 8 GPa using multi-nuclear solid-state NMR. The 27Al triple quantum (3Q) MAS NMR spectra for carbon-bearing albite melts revealed the pressure-induced increase in the topological disorder around 4 coordinated Al ([4]Al) without forming [5,6]Al. These structural changes are similar to those in volatile-free albite melts at high pressure, indicating that the addition of CO2 in silicate melts may not induce any additional increase in the topological disorder around Al at high pressure. 13C MAS NMR spectra for carbon-bearing albite melts show multiple carbonate species, including [4]Si(CO3)[4]Si, [4]Si(CO3)[4]Al, [4]Al(CO3)[4]Al, and free CO32-. The fraction of [4]Si(CO3)[4]Al increases with increasing pressure, while those of other bridging carbonate species decrease, indicating that the addition of CO2 may enhance mixing of Si and Al at high pressure. A noticeable change is not observed for 29Si NMR spectra for the carbon-bearing albite glasses with varying pressure at 1.5-6 GPa. These NMR results confirm that the densification mechanisms established for fluid-free, polymerized aluminosilicate melts can be applied to the carbon-bearing albite melts at high pressure. In contrast, the 29Si MAS NMR spectra for partially depolymerized, carbon-bearing NS3 glasses show that the fraction of [5,6]Si increases with increasing pressure at the expense of Q3 species ([4]Si species with one non-bridging oxygen as the nearest neighbor). The pressure-induced increase in topological disorder around Si is evident from an

  20. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  1. Spectroscopic study of biologically active glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumera, M.; Wacławska, I.; Mozgawa, W.; Sitarz, M.

    2005-06-01

    It is known that the chemical activity phenomenon is characteristic for some inorganic glasses and they are able to participate in biological processes of living organisms (plants, animals and human bodies). An example here is the selective removal of silicate-phosphate glass components under the influence of biological solutions, which has been applied in designing glasses acting as ecological fertilizers of controlled release rate of the nutrients for plants. The structure of model silicate-phosphate glasses containing the different amounts of the glass network formers, i.e. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+, as a binding components were studied. These elements besides other are indispensable of the normal growth of plants. In order to establish the function and position occupied by the particular components in the glass structure, the glasses were examined by FTIR spectroscopy (with spectra decomposition) and XRD methods. It has been found that the increasing amount of MgO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes systematically from a structure of the cristobalite type to a structure corresponding to forsterite type. Whilst the increasing content of CaO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes from a structure typical for cristobalite through one similar to the structure of calcium orthophosphate, to a structure corresponding to calcium silicates. The changing character of domains structure is the reason of different chemical activity of glasses.

  2. Constraints on cosmic silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossenkopf, V.; Henning, Th.; Mathis, J. S.

    1992-08-01

    Observational determinations of opacities of circumstellar silicates, relative to the peak value near 10 microns, are used to estimate the optical constants n and k, the real and imaginary parts of the index of refraction. Circumstellar dust is modified by processing within the interstellar medium. This leads to higher band strengths and a somewhat larger ratio of the opacities at the 18 and 10-micron peaks, compared with circumstellar silicates. By using an effective-medium theory, we calculate the effects of small spherical inclusions of various materials (various oxides, sulfides, carbides, amorphous carbon, and metallic iron) upon silicate opacities. Some of these can increase the absorption coefficient k in the 2-8 micron region appreciably, as is needed to reconcile laboratory silicate opacities with observations of both the interstellar medium and envelopes around late-type stars. We give tables of two sets of optical constants for warm oxygen-deficient and cool oxygen-rich silicates, representative for circumstellar and interstellar silicates. The required opacity in the 2-8 micron region is provided by iron and magnetite.

  3. Determination of chlorine in silicate rocks

    Peck, L.C.

    1959-01-01

    In a rapid accurate method for the determination of chlorine in silicate rocks, the rock powder is sintered with a sodium carbonate flux containing zinc oxide and magnesium carbonate. The sinter cake is leached with water, the resulting solution is filtered, and the filtrate is acidified with nitric acid. Chlorine is determined by titrating this solution with mercuric nitrate solution using sodium nitroprusside as the indicator. The titration is made in the dark with a beam of light shining through the solution. The end point of the titration is found by visually comparing the intensity of this beam of light with that of a similar beam of light in a reference solution.

  4. Nickel-iron spherules from aouelloul glass

    Chao, E.C.T.; Dwornik, E.J.; Merrill, C.W.

    1966-01-01

    Nickel-iron spherules, ranging from less than 0.2 to 50 microns in diameter and containing 1.7 to 9.0 percent Ni by weight, occur in glass associated with the Aouelloul crater. They occur in discrete bands of siliceous glass enriched in dissolved iron. Their discovery is significant tangible evidence that both crater and glass originated from terrestrial impact.

  5. Characterizing Amorphous Silicates in Extraterrestrial Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X.; Wang, A.; Krawczynski, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous silicates are common in extraterrestrial materials. They are seen in the matrix of carbonaceous chondrites as well as in planetary materials. Tagish Lake is one of the most primitive carbonaceous meteorites in which TEM and XRD analyses found evidence for poorly crystalline phyllosilicate-like species; Raman spectra revealed amorphous silicates with variable degree of polymerization and low crystallinity. On Mars, CheMin discovered amorphous phases in all analyzed samples, and poorly crystalline smectite in mudstone samples. These discoveries pose questions on the crystallinity of phyllosilicates found by remote sensing on Mars, which is directly relevant to aqueous alteration during geologic history of Mars. Our goal is to use spectroscopy to better characterize amorphous silicates. We use three approaches: (1) using silicate glasses synthesized with controlled chemistry to study the effects of silicate polymerization and (2) using phyllosilicates synthesized with controlled hydrothermal treatment to study the effect of crystallinity on vibrational spectroscopy, finally (3) to use the developed correlations in above two steps to study amorphous phases in meteorites, and those found in future missions to Mars. In the 1st step, silicate glasses were synthesized from pure oxides in a range of NBO/T ratios (from 0 to 4). Depending on the targeted NBO/T and composition of mixed oxides, temperatures for each experiment fell in a range from 1260 to 1520 °C, run for ~ 4 hrs. The melt was quenched in liquid N2 or water. Homogeneity of glass was checked under optical microscopy. Raman spectra were taken over 100 spots on small chips free of bubbles and crystals. We have observed that accompanying an increase of NBO/T, there is a strengthening and a position shift of the Raman peak near 1000 cm-1 (Si-Onon-bridging stretching mode), and the weakening of broad Raman peaks near 500 cm-1 (ring breathing mode) and 700cm-1 (Si-Obridging-Si mode). We are building the

  6. Mineral stimulation of subsurface microorganisms: release of limiting nutrients from silicates

    Roger, Jennifer Roberts; Bennett, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in the weathering of silicate minerals in many subsurface environments, but an unanswered question is whether the mineral plays an important role in the microbial ecology. Silicate minerals often contain nutrients necessary for microbial growth, but whether the microbial community benefits from their release during weathering is unclear. In this study, we used field and laboratory approaches to investigate microbial interactions with minerals and glasses containing beneficial nutrients and metals. Field experiments from a petroleum-contaminated aquifer, where silicate weathering is substantially accelerated in the contaminated zone, revealed that phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe)-bearing silicate glasses were preferentially colonized and weathered, while glasses without these elements were typically barren of colonizing microorganisms, corroborating previous studies using feldspars. In laboratory studies, we investigated microbial weathering of silicates and the release of nutrients using a model ligand-promoted pathway. A metal-chelating organic ligand 3,4 dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4 DHBA) was used as a source of chelated ferric iron, and a carbon source, to investigate mineral weathering rate and microbial metabolism.In the investigated aquifer, we hypothesize that microbes produce organic ligands to chelate metals, particularly Fe, for metabolic processes and also form stable complexes with Al and occasionally with Si. Further, the concentration of these ligands is apparently sufficient near an attached microorganism to destroy the silicate framework while releasing the nutrient of interest. In microcosms containing silicates and glasses with trace phosphate mineral inclusions, microbial biomass increased, indicating that the microbial community can use silicate-bound phosphate inclusions. The addition of a native microbial consortium to microcosms containing silicates or glasses with iron oxide inclusions correlated to

  7. Cesium titanium silicate and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, M.L.

    1997-01-07

    The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Si{sub 4}O{sub 13} pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass. 10 figs.

  8. Cesium titanium silicate and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, Mari L.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 Si.sub.4 O.sub.13 pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs.sub.2 O and TiO.sub.2 loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO.sub.2 and Cs.sub.2 that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass.

  9. Biological Impact of Bioactive Glasses and Their Dissolution Products.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Alexander; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-01-01

    For many years, bioactive glasses (BGs) have been widely considered for bone tissue engineering applications due to their ability to bond to hard as well as soft tissue (a property termed bioactivity) and for their stimulating effects on bone formation. Ionic dissolution products released during the degradation of the BG matrix induce osteogenic gene expression leading to enhanced bone regeneration. Recently, adding bioactive metallic ions (e.g. boron, copper, cobalt, silver, zinc and strontium) to silicate (or phosphate and borate) glasses has emerged as a promising route for developing novel BG formulations with specific therapeutic functionalities, including antibacterial, angiogenic and osteogenic properties. The degradation behaviour of BGs can be tailored by adjusting the glass chemistry making these glass matrices potential carrier systems for controlled therapeutic ion release. This book chapter summarises the fundamental aspects of the effect of ionic dissolution products from BGs on osteogenesis and angiogenesis, whilst discussing novel BG compositions with controlled therapeutic ion release. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Polymeric, Metallic, and Other Glasses in Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-ceramic glasses are not adequately discussed in introductory chemistry. Such glasses include polycarbonate, which many corrective lenses are made of, amber, enamel, gelatin, hard candy, coal, refrigerated glycerol, and metallic glasses that have been marketed in recent decades. What is usually discussed in elementary texts is siliceous glass,…

  11. Improving the properties of zinc oxide thin-film surface acoustic wave device on glass substrate by introducing double alumina layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Wen-Ching; Huang, Yi-Fan; Wu, Mu-Shiang

    2017-10-01

    ZnO films with c-axis (0002) orientation have been successfully grown by RF magnetron sputtering on Al2O3/glass substrates. The alumina films were firstly deposited on glass substrates, and then secondly deposited on interdigital transducer/ZnO film/alumina film/glass substrates by electron beam evaporation. The crystalline structure and surface roughness of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The phase velocity and coupling coefficient of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) device were both increased when we deposited the double alumina layers. On the other hand, the temperature coefficient of frequency becomes better if we increase the thickness of the lower alumina film. The experimental result is beneficial for improving the performance of the ZnO thin-film SAW devices on inexpensive glass substrates.

  12. In vitro stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by borate-based glass fibers under dynamic flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sisi; Yang, Qingbo; Brow, Richard K; Liu, Kun; Brow, Katherine A; Ma, Yinfa; Shi, Honglan

    2017-04-01

    Bioactive borate glass has been recognized to have both hard and soft tissue repair and regeneration capabilities through stimulating both osteogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the underlying biochemical and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, dynamic flow culturing modules were designed to simulate the micro-environment near the vascular depletion and hyperplasia area in wound-healing regions, thus to better investigate the mechanisms underlying the biocompatibility and functionality of borate-based glass materials. Glass fibers were dosed either upstream or in contact with the pre-seeded cells in the dynamic flow module. Two types of borate glasses, doped with (1605) or without (13-93B3) CuO and ZnO, were studied along with the silicate-based glass, 45S5. Substantial fiber dissolution in cell culture medium was observed, leading to the release of ions (boron, sodium and potassium) and the deposition of a calcium phosphate phase. Different levels of vascular endothelial growth factor secretion were observed from cells exposed to these three glass fibers, and the copper/zinc containing borate 1605 fibers exhibited the most positive influence. These results indicate that dynamic studies of in vitro bioactivity provide useful information to understand the in vivo response to bioactive borate glasses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  14. FE-SEM, FIB and TEM Study of Surface Deposits of Apollo 15 Green Glass Volcanic Spherules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Daniel K.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Rahman, Z.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Surface deposits on lunar pyroclastic green (Apollo 15) and orange (Apollo 17) glass spherules have been attributed to condensation from the gas clouds that accompanied fire-fountain eruptions. The fire fountains cast molten lava high above the lunar surface and the silicate melt droplets quenched before landing producing the glass beads. Early investigations showed that these deposits are rich in sulfur and zinc. The deposits are extremely fine-grained and thin, so that it was never possible to determine their chemical compositions cleanly by SEM/EDX or electron probe x-ray analysis because most of the excited volume was in the under-lying silicate glass. We are investigating the surface deposits by TEM, using focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy to extract and thin the surface deposits. Here we report on chemical mapping of a FIB section of surface deposits of an Apollo green glass bead 15401using the ultra-high resolution JEOL 2500 STEM located at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  15. Micro-PIXE analysis of silicate reference standards

    Czamanske, G.K.; Sisson, T.W.; Campbell, J.L.; Teesdale, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of the University of Guelph proton microprobe have been evaluated through trace-element analysis of well-characterized silicate glasses and minerals, including BHVO-1 glass, Kakanui augite and hornblende, and ten other natural samples of volcanic glass, amphibole, pyroxene, and garnet. Using the 2.39 wt% Mo in a NIST steel as the standard, excellent precision and agreement between reported and analyzed abundances were obtained for Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Nb. -from Authors

  16. Low-temperature heat capacity of diopside glass (CaMgSi2O6): A calorimetric test of the configurational-entropy theory applied to the viscosity of liquid silicates

    Richet, P.; Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    Heat-capacity measurements have been made between 8 and 370 K on an annealed and a rapidly quenched diopside glass. Between 15 and 200 K, Cp does not depend significantly on the thermal history of the glass. Below 15 K Cp is larger for the quenched than for the annealed specimen. The opposite is true above 200 K as a result of what is interpreted as a secondary relaxation around room temperature. The magnitude of these effects, however, is small enough that the relative entropies S(298)-S(0) of the glasses differ by only 0.5 J/mol K, i.e., a figure within the combined experimental uncertainties. The insensitivity of relative entropies to thermal history supports the assumption that the configurational heat capacity of the liquid may be taken as the heat capacity difference between the liquid and the glass (??Cp). Furthermore, this insensitivity allows calculation of the residual entropies at 0 K of diopside glasses as a function of the fictive temperature from the entropy of fusion of diopside and the heat capacities of the crystalline, glassy and liquid phases. For a glass with a fictive temperature of 1005 K, for example, this calorimetric residual entropy is 24.3 ?? 3 J/mol K, in agreement with the prediction made by RICHET (1984) from an analysis of the viscosity data with the configurational-entropy theory of relaxation processes of Adam and Gibbs (1965). In turn, all the viscosity measurements for liquid diopside, which span the range 0.5-4?? 1013 poise, can be quantitatively reproduced through this theory with the calorimetrically determined entropies and ??Cp data. Finally, the unclear significance of "activation energies" for structural interpretations of viscosity data is emphasized, and the importance of ??Cp and glass-transition temperature systematics for determining the composition and temperature dependences of the viscosity is pointed out. ?? 1986.

  17. Pressure induced coordination change of Al in silicate melts from Al K edge XANES of high pressure NaAlSi2O6-NaAlSi3O8 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dien; Secco, R. A.; Bancroft, G. M.; Fleet, M. E.

    Aluminum K-edge XANES spectra of high pressure and high temperature (4.4 GPa and 1575°C) glasses along the NaAlSi2O6 (Jd)-NaAlSi3O8 (Ab) join are reported using synchrotron radiation, and shown to provide direct experimental evidence for the pressure-induced coordination change of Al. Five- and six-fold coordinated Al (5Al and 6Al), characterized by Al K-edge positions at 1567.8 and 1568.7 eV, respectively, first appear in glass of composition Jd60Ab40 and increase in proportion progressively with increasing Jd content. The end-member jadeite glass contains about 6% of each of 5Al and 6Al. The present direct measurements confirm literature suggestions for the important role of Al in controlling viscosity and diffusion in mantle melts.

  18. In vitro study of improved wound-healing effect of bioactive borate-based glass nano-/micro-fibers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingbo; Chen, Sisi; Shi, Honglan; Xiao, Hai; Ma, Yinfa

    2015-10-01

    Because of the promising wound-healing capability, bioactive glasses have been considered as one of the next generation hard- and soft-tissue regeneration materials. The lack of understanding of the substantial mechanisms, however, indicates the need for further study on cell-glass interactions to better interpret the rehabilitation capability. In the present work, three bioactive glass nano-/micro-fibers, silicate-based 45S5, borate-based 13-93B3 and 1605 (additionally doped with copper oxide and zinc oxide), were firstly compared for their in vitro soaking/conversion rate. The results of elemental monitoring and electron microscopic characterization demonstrated that quicker ion releasing and glass conversion occurred in borate-based fibers than that of silicate-based one. This result was also reflected by the formation speed of hydroxyapatite (HA). This process was further correlated with original boron content and surrounding rheological condition. We showed that an optimal fiber pre-soaking time (or an ideal dynamic flow rate) should exist to stimulate the best cell proliferation and migration ability. Moreover, 13-93B3 and 1605 fibers showed different glass conversion and biocompatibility properties as well, indicating that trace amount variation in composition can also influence fiber's bioactivity. In sum, our in vitro rheological module closely simulated in vivo niche environment and proved a potentially improved wound-healing effect by borate-based glass fibers, and the results shall cast light on future improvement in bioactive glass fabrication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Some developments on ceramic-to-metal and glass-ceramics-to-metal seals and related studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothiyal, G. P.; Goswami, M.; Shrikhande, V. K.

    2008-05-01

    Seals and coatings based on ceramics and glass-ceramics find numerous applications in different disciplines of science and technology including space, accelerators, nuclear energy, chemical industry. Ceramic-to-metal (CM) seals based on conventional design (using brazing alloys) and glass-ceramics have been prepared. While Ag-Cu brazing alloy has been used in conventional CM seal, we have employed lithium zinc silicate (LZS) and lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glass-ceramics for glass-ceramics-to-metal (GCM) seals. LZS glass-ceramics based on two different compositions; (a) LZSL composition (wt.%)- Li2O: 12.65, ZnO: 1.85, SiO2: 74.4, Al2O3: 3.8, K2O: 2.95, P2O5: 3.15, and B2O3: 1.2 (low ZnO) and (b) LZSH composition (wt.%)- Li2O: 8.9, ZnO: 24.03, SiO2: 53.7, Na2O: 5.42, P2O5: 2.95, and B2O3: 5.0 (high ZnO) were prepared with desired sealing characteristics for matched type seals. In addition, (wt.%) 12.6Li2O-71.7SiO2-5.1Al2O3-4.9K2O-3.2B2O3-2.5P2O5 (LAS-GC) was investigated for compressive type of seal. LZS glass-ceramics-to-Cu as well as SS-321 seals were found to withstand a vacuum of 10-6 Torr with leak rate 10-9 Torr. 1/s and LAS GC-to-SS304 seal showed high pressure endurance of 12000psi. In order to understand the mechanism of sealing, glass-ceramics-to-metal interface study has also been carried out.

  20. Silicates in Alien Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescopes shows that asteroid dust around a dead 'white dwarf' star contains silicates a common mineral on Earth. The data were taken primarily by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that breaks light apart into its basic constituents. The yellow dots show averaged data from the spectrograph, while the orange triangles show older data from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The white dwarf is called GD 40.

  1. Glass corrosion in natural environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Arthur N.

    1989-01-01

    A series of studies of the effects of solutes which appear in natural aqueous environments, specifically Mg and Al, under controlled conditions, permit characterization of the retardation of silicate glass leaching in water containing such solutes. In the case of Mg the interaction with the glass appears to consist of exchange with alkali ions present in the glass to a depth of several microns. The effect of Al can be observed at much lower levels, indicating that the mechanism in the case of Al involves irreversible formation of aluminosilicate species at the glass surface.

  2. Thermochemistry of Silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, Gustavo; Jacobson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of vapor and condensed phases of silicates are crucial in many fields of science. These quantities address fundamental questions on the formation, stability, transformation, and physical properties of silicate minerals and silicate coating compositions. Here the thermodynamic activities of silica and other species in solid solution have been measured by the analysis of the corresponding high temperature vapors using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS). In first set of experiments KEMS has been used to examine the volatility sequence of species (Fe, SiO, Mg, O2 and O) present in the vapor phase during heating of fosterite-rich olivine (Fo93Fa7) up to 2400 C and to measure the Fe, SiO and Mg activities in its solid solution. The data of fosterite-rich olivine are essential for thermochemical equilibrium models to predict the atmospheric and surface composition of hot, rocky exoplanets (Lava Planets). In the second set of experiments the measured thermodynamic activities of the silica in Y2O3-SiO2 and Yb2O3-SiO2 systems are used to assess their reactivity and degradation recession as environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments (e.g. non-moveable parts of gas turbine engine).

  3. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  4. Glasses, ceramics, and composites from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, George H.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of useful silicate materials can be synthesized from lunar rocks and soils. The simplest to manufacture are glasses and glass-ceramics. Glass fibers can be drawn from a variety of basaltic glasses. Glass articles formed from titania-rich basalts are capable of fine-grained internal crystallization, with resulting strength and abrasion resistance allowing their wide application in construction. Specialty glass-ceramics and fiber-reinforced composites would rely on chemical separation of magnesium silicates and aluminosilicates as well as oxides titania and alumina. Polycrystalline enstatite with induced lamellar twinning has high fracture toughness, while cordierite glass-ceramics combine excellent thermal shock resistance with high flexural strengths. If sapphire or rutile whiskers can be made, composites of even better mechanical properties are envisioned.

  5. Optical constants, single-oscillator modal and refractive index dispersion analysis of lithium zinc bismuth borate glasses doped with Eu{sup 3+} ions

    SciT

    Boda, Ramesh; Srinivas, G.; Komaraiah, D.

    2016-05-06

    The glasses of composition xLi{sub 2}O-15ZnO- 20Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}- (64 - x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3}- 1EuO (ZLB) (where x=0, 5, 10, 15, 20 mole %) prepared by melt-quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the prepared glasses was confirmed by XRD spectra. The UV-Vis optical absorption spectrum was recorded in the wave length range of 200-1000 nm. It is observed that the optical band gap is inversely changing with Urbach energy. The optical constants such as G (a constant proportional to the second-order deformation potential) and E{sub f} (a constant that depends on local coordination and is called as free energy ofmore » the glass system). The most significant result of the present work is the refractive index dispersion curves of the ZLB glasses obey the single-oscillator model and oscillator parameters (E{sub o}, E{sub d}) changed with the Li{sub 2}O content. the absorption edge, band gap and Urbach energy is changing nonlinearly with increasing content of Li{sub 2}O, which can be used to calculate the optical, physical, and other constants.« less

  6. Blue and white light emission in Tm3+ and Tm3+/Dy3+ doped zinc phosphate glasses upon UV light excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Speghini, A.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Caldiño, U.

    2016-08-01

    A spectroscopic study based on photoluminescence spectra and decay time profiles in Tm3+ and Tm3+/Dy3+ doped Zn(PO3)2 glasses is reported. The Tm3+ doped Zn(PO3)2 glass, upon 357 nm excitation, exhibits blue emission with CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, x = 0.157 and y = 0.030, and color purity of about 96%. Under excitations at 348, 352 and 363 nm, which match with the emissions of AlGaN and GaN based LEDs, the Tm3+/Dy3+ co-doped Zn(PO3)2 glass displays natural white, bluish white and cool white overall emissions, with correlated color temperature values of 4523, 10700 and 7788 K, respectively, depending strongly on the excitation wavelength. The shortening of the Dy3+ emission decay time in presence of Tm3+ suggests that Dy3+→Tm3+ non-radiative energy transfer occurs. By using the Inokuti-Hirayama model, it is inferred that an electric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction might be the dominant mechanism involved in the energy transfer. The efficiency and probability of this energy transfer are 0.12 and 126.70 s-1, respectively.

  7. Metal-silicate interaction in quenched shock-induced melt of the Tenham L6-chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Hugues; Doukhan, Jean-Claude; Guyot, François

    2000-07-01

    The metal-silicate microstructures in the shock-induced melt pockets of the Tenham (L6) chondrite have been investigated by analytical transmission electron microscopy. The melt areas, formed under high-pressure, high-temperature dynamic shock conditions, consist of spherical Fe-Ni metal/iron sulfide globules embedded in a silicate glass matrix, showing that the melt was quenched at high cooling rate. The Fe-Ni fraction in the globules is two-phase, composed of a bcc phase (˜5 wt% Ni) and an fcc phase (˜49 wt% Ni), indicating that fractional crystallisation of the metal occurred during the fast cooling. The metal fraction also contains appreciable amounts of non-siderophile elements (mostly Si, Mg and O) suggesting that these elements were trapped in the metal, either as alloying components or as tiny silicate or oxide inclusions. In the iron sulfide fraction, the Na content is high (>3 wt%), suggesting chalcophile behaviour for Na during the shock event. The composition of the silicate glass reflects non-equilibrium melting of several silicate phases (olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase). Moreover, the FeO content is high compared to the FeO contents of the unmelted silicates. Some Fe redistribution took place between metal and silicate liquids during the shock event. The silicate glass also contains tiny iron sulfide precipitates which most probably originated by exsolution during quench, suggesting that the molten silicate retained significant amounts of S, dissolved at high temperature and high pressure. Based on these observations, we suggest that non-equilibrium phenomena may be important in determining the compositions of metal and silicate reservoirs during their differentiation.

  8. Studies and testing of antireflective (AR) coatings for soda-lime glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastirik, E. M.; Sparks, T. G.; Coleman, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Processes for producing antireflection films on glass are concentrated in three areas: acid etching of glass, plasma etching of glass, and acid development of sodium silicate films on glass. The best transmission was achieved through the acid etching technique, while the most durable films were produced from development of sodium silicate films. Control of the acid etching technique is presently inadequate for production implementation. While films having excellent antireflective properties were fabricated by plasma etching techniques, all were water soluble.

  9. Lasing transition at 1.06 μm emission in Nd3+ -doped borate-based tellurium calcium zinc niobium oxide glasses for high-power solid-state lasers.

    PubMed

    Ravi, O; Prasad, K; Jain, Rajiv; Venkataswamy, M; Chaurasia, Shivanand; Deva Prasad Raju, B

    2017-08-01

    The spectroscopic properties of Tellurium Calcium Zinc Niobium oxide Borate (TCZNB) glasses of composition (in mol%) 10TeO 2  + 15CaO + 5ZnO + 10 Nb 2 O 5  + (60 - x)B 2 O 3  + Nd 2 O 3 (x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mol%) have been investigated experimentally. The three phenomenological intensity parameters Ω 2 , Ω 4, Ω 6 have been calculated using the Judd-Ofelt theory and in turn radiative properties such as radiative transition probabilities, emission cross-sections, branching ratios and radiative lifetimes have been estimated. The trend found in the JO intensity parameter is Ω 2  > Ω 6  > Ω 4 If Ω 6  > Ω 4 , the glass system is favourable for the laser emission 4 F 3 /2  →  4 I 11 /2 in the infrared (IR) wavelength. The experimental values of branching ratio of 4 F 3 /2  →  4 I 11 /2 transition indicate favourable lasing action with low threshold power. The evaluated total radiative transition probabilities (A T ), stimulated emission cross-section (σ e ) and gain bandwidth parameters (σ e  × Δλ p ) were compared with earlier reports. An energy level analysis has been carried out considering the experimental energy positions of the absorption and emission bands. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. An improved technique for the use of zinc-rich coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paton, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Blistering and peeling of topcoats used over ethyl silicate, inorganic, zinc-rich protective coatings are virtually eliminated when primer is allowed to cure outdoors for extended period of time and is moistened during process.

  11. Galactic Hearts of Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger graph

    This artist's concept shows delicate greenish crystals sprinkled throughout the violent core of a pair of colliding galaxies. The white spots represent a thriving population of stars of all sizes and ages. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope detected more than 20 bright and dusty galactic mergers like the one depicted here, all teeming with the tiny gem-like crystals.

    When galaxies collide, they trigger the birth of large numbers of massive stars. Astronomers believe these blazing hot stars act like furnaces to produce silicate crystals in the same way that glass is made from sand. The stars probably shed the crystals as they age, and as they blow apart in supernovae explosions.

    At the same time the crystals are being churned out, they are also being destroyed. Fast-moving particles from supernova blasts easily convert silicates crystals back to their amorphous, or shapeless, form.

    How is Spitzer seeing the crystals if they are rapidly disappearing? Astronomers say that, for a short period of time at the beginning of galactic mergers, massive stars might be producing silicate crystals faster than they are eliminating them. When our own galaxy merges with the Andromeda galaxy in a few billion years, a similar burst of massive stars and silicate crystals might occur.

    Crystal Storm in Distant Galaxy The graph (see inset above) of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope tells astronomers that a distant galaxy called IRAS 08752+3915 is experiencing a storm of tiny crystals made up of silicates. The crystals are similar to the glass-like grains of sand found on Earth's many beaches.

    The data were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, which splits light open to reveal its rainbow-like components. The resulting spectrum shown here reveals the signatures of both crystalline (green) and non-crystalline (brown) silicates.

    Spitzer detected the same

  12. Wastewater reuse in liquid sodium silicate manufacturing in alexandria, egypt.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Gaber A; Abd El-Salam, Magda M; Arafa, Anwar K

    2009-01-01

    Soluble sodium silicates (waterglass) are liquids containing dissolved glass which have some water like properties. They are widely used in industry as sealants, binders, deflocculants, emulsifiers and buffers. Their most common applications in Egypt are in the pulp and paper industry (where they improve the brightness and efficiency of peroxide bleaching) and the detergent industry, in which they improve the action of the detergent and lower the viscosity of liquid soaps. The survey results showed that the production was carried out batch-wise, in an autoclave (dissolver). Sodium silicate in the state of crushed glass was charged in an autoclave (dissolver) with sodium hydroxide and water. The product is filtered through a press. The left over sludge (mud and silicates impurities) is emptied into the local sewer system. Also, sludge (silica gel) was discharged from the neutralization process of the generated alkaline wastewater and consequently clogging the sewerage system. So this study was carried out to modify the current wastewater management system which eliminates sludge formation, the discharge of higher pH wastewater to the sewer system, and to assess its environmental and economic benefits. To assess the characteristics of wastewater to be reused, physico-chemical parameters of 12 samples were tested using standard methods. The survey results showed that a total capacity of the selected enterprise was 540 tons of liquid sodium silicates monthly. The total amount of wastewater being discharged was 335 m3/month. Reusing of wastewater as feed autoclave water reduced water consumption of 32.1% and reduced wastewater discharge/month that constitutes 89.6% as well as saving in final product of 6 ton/month. It was concluded that reusing of wastewater generated from liquid sodium silicate manufacturing process resulted in cheaper and environmental-friendly product.

  13. Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, V. R.; Simova, E.; Corkum, P. B.; Rayner, D. M.; Hnatovsky, C.; Taylor, R. S.; Schreder, B.; Kluge, M.; Zimmer, J.

    2005-04-01

    We present a comprehensive study on femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in a wide variety of multicomponent glasses grouped as borosilicate, aluminum-silicate, and heavy-metal oxide glasses along with lanthanum-borate and sodium-phosphate glasses. By using high-spatial resolution refractive index profiling techniques, we demonstrate that under a wide range of writing conditions the refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses can be positive, negative, or nonuniform, and exhibits a strong dependence on the glass composition. With the exception of some aluminum-silicate glasses all other glasses exhibited a negative/nonuniform index change. We also demonstrate direct writing of waveguides in photosensitive Foturan® glass with a femtosecond laser without initiating crystallization by thermal treatment. Upon ceramization of lithium-aluminum-silicate glasses such as Foturan®, Zerodur®, and Robax® we observe switching of laser-induced refractive index change from being positive to negative. The measured transmission losses in the waveguides at 1550nm agree with the index profile measurements in alkali-free aluminum-silicate glasses.

  14. Analysis of a Sheet Silicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, J. M.; Evans, S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student project in analytical chemistry using sheet silicates. Provides specific information regarding the use of phlogopite in an experiment to analyze samples for silicon, aluminum, magnesium, iron, potassium, and fluoride. (CS)

  15. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely...

  16. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely...

  17. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely...

  18. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely...

  19. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  20. Sulfidation behavior and mechanism of zinc silicate roasted with pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yong; Peng, Ning; Xue, Ke; Min, Xiaobo; Chai, Liyuan; Pan, Qinglin; Liang, Yanjie; Xiao, Ruiyang; Wang, Yunyan; Tang, Chongjian; Liu, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Sulfidation roasting followed by flotation is widely known as a possible generic technology for enriching valuable metals in low-grade Zn-Pb oxide ores. Zn2SiO4 is the primary Zn phase in willemite. Zn4Si2O7(OH)2(H2O), the main Zn phase in hemimorphite, transforms into Zn2SiO4 at temperatures above 600 °C. To enrich the Zn in willemite and hemimorphite, the Zn species should first be converted to ZnS. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the sulfidation reaction of Zn2SiO4 during roasting with pyrite is of vital important. In this study, the sulfidation behavior and reaction mechanisms of a Zn2SiO4-pyrite roasting system were determined using HSC 5.0 software, TG-FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, XPS and SEM-EDS. The results indicate that the sulfidation process can be divided into three steps: the decomposition of pyrite and formation of a sulfur-rich environment, the sulfur-induced migration of O2- and transformation of sulfur vapor, and the sulfidation reaction via oxygen-sulfur exchange. During the sulfidation roasting process, pyrite was converted to loose and porous Fe3O4, whereas Zn2SiO4 was transformed into ZnS and SiO2 in situ. These findings provide theoretical support for controlling the sulfidation roasting process of willemite and hemimorphite.

  1. Impact Experiments into Borosilicate Glass at Three Scale Sizes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    DEDF and soda - lime glass during rod impact. Shock Compression in Condensed Matter–2005 (Furnish MD, Elert M, Russell TP, and White CT, Eds.) AIP Conf...in a float soda - lime silicate glass . Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci., to be submitted (2009). 18. Chocron S, Dannemann KA, Nicholls AE, and Anderson CE Jr...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Impact Experiments into Borosilicate Glass at Three Scale Sizes Charles E. Anderson, Jr. Carl E. Weiss Sidney Chocron

  2. Zinc-rich coatings: A market survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizak, R.

    1975-01-01

    Zinc-rich coatings with both organic and inorganic binders were considered for coastal bridges which require more corrosion protection than inland bridges because of exposure to salt spray and fog. Inorganics give longer protection and may be applied without a finish coat; those currently available are harder to apply than organics. The NASA potassium silicate/zinc - dust coating appears to provide longer protection, resist thermal shock, and overcome the application problem. Panels coated with the formulation withstood 5308 hours in a salt spray chamber with no rusting or blistering.

  3. Glass corrosion in natural environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Arthur N.; Barkatt, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    Experiments carried out during the progress period are summarized. Experiments carried out involving glass samples exposed to solutions of Tris have shown the appearance of 'spikes' upon monitoring glass dissolution as a function of time. The periodic 'spikes' observed in Tris-based media were interpreted in terms of cracking due to excessive stress in the surface region of the glass. Studies of the interactions of silicate glasses with metal ions in buffered media were extended to systems containing Al. Caps buffer was used to establish the pH. The procedures used are described and the results are given. Preliminary studies were initiated as to the feasibility of adding a slowly dissolving solid compound of the additive to the glass-water system to maintain a supply of dissolved additive. It appears that several magnesium compounds have a suitable combination of solubility and affinity towards silicate glass surfaces to have a pronounced retarding effect on the extraction of uranium from the glass. These preliminary findings raise the possibility that introducing a magnesium source into geologic repositories for nuclear waste glass in the form of a sparingly soluble Mg-based backfill material may cause a substantial reduction in the extent of long-term glass corrosion. The studies described also provide mechanistic understanding of the roles of various metal solutes in the leachant. Such understanding forms the basis for developing long-term predictions of nuclear waste glass durability under repository conditions. From what is known about natural highly reduced glasses such as tektites, it is clear that iron is dissolved as ferrous iron with little or no ferric iron. The reducing conditions were high enough to cause metallic iron to exsolve out of the glass in the form of submicroscopic spherules. As the nuclear waste glass is much less reduced, a study was initiated on other natural glasses in addition to the nuclear waste glass. Extensive measurements were

  4. Serum zinc concentrations: contamination from laboratory equipment.

    PubMed

    Ralstin, J O; Schneider, P J; Blackstone, L; Ruberg, R L

    1979-01-01

    The following experiment was designed because of high serum zinc reported in patients who were reciving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) concentrations. Blood samples were collected, divided into 3 containers: a clean glass control test tube, a vacuum collecting tube with a rubber stopper, and paraffin clot activator. It was found that compared to glass control tubes, vacuum collection with rubber stoppers contributed an average of 76 +/- 14 microgram/dl of zinc as contaminants. Moreover, tubes with a rubber stopper and clot activator contributed 198 +/- 42 microgram/dl of zinc as contaminants. It is concluded that care must be used to avoid trace element contaminants when plasma zinc concentrations are analyzed. Without proper methodology, including selection of the container in which the sample is taken, erroneous results will be reported.

  5. (Energetics of silicate melts from thermal diffusion studies)

    SciT

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Research during the past year has been concentrated in four major areas. We are continuing work initiated during the first two years on modelling thermal diffusion on multicomponent silicate liquids. We have derived appropriate relations for ternary and quaternary systems and reanalyzed experimental thermal diffusion data for the ternary system fayalite-leucite-silica. In our manuscript entitled Thermal Diffusion in Petrology'', to be published in Adv. in Phy. Geochem., we show that these model results independently recover the compositional extent and temperature of liquid immiscibility in this system. Such retrieval provides a rigorous test of our theoretical predictions and simplified treatment ofmore » complex silicate liquids reported in Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta in 1986. The usefulness of our Soret research in providing mixing energies of silicate liquids has been recently confirmed by Ghiorso (1987, Cont. Min. Pet.). This demonstration provides a strategy for incorporating Soret data into the calibration of phase equilibrium-based solution models such as the one developed by Ghiorso. During the past year we also have resumed our studies of thermal diffusion in borosilicate glasses which also exhibit liquid immiscibility. Our objectives in studying these systems are (1) to further test of our multicomponent thermal diffusion model and (2) to provide quantitative constraints on the mixing properties of these glass-forming systems which are important for evaluating their suitability for storage of high-level nuclear waste. 16 refs.« less

  6. Al Speciation in Silicate Melts: AlV a new Network Former?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuville, D. R.; Florian, P.; de Ligny, D.; Montouillout, V.; Massiot, D.

    2009-05-01

    The first human glasses were made 3500 BC. It was essentially sodo-lime silicate glass. To improve the chemical resistance, the thermal properties and increase the viscosity it is interesting to add aluminum in these silicates. But what is the speciation of the aluminum and how it varies according to the chemical composition and to the temperature? The aluminum appears essentially in four or five fold coordination in glasses and melts melted. The proportion of [5]Al varies according to the alkaline or to the earth-alkaline content and to the temperature. We shall present in a first part the influence of the network-modifier on the proportion of [5]Al and then we shall present some new results of absorption of high-temperature using NMR and XANES spectroscopy at the Al K-edge. Finally, from glass transition temperature measurements we propose to explain that [5]Al can be a new network former.

  7. Sol-Gel Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Multicomponent homogeneous, ultrapure noncrystalline gels/gel derived glasses are promising batch materials for the containerless glass melting experiments in microgravity. Hence, ultrapure, homogeneous gel precursors could be used to: (1) investigate the effect of the container induced nucleation on the glass forming ability of marginally glass forming compositions; and (2) investigate the influence of gravity on the phase separation and coarsening behavior of gel derived glasses in the liquid-liquid immiscibility zone of the nonsilicate systems having a high density phase. The structure and crystallization behavior of gels in the SiO2-GeO2 as a function of gel chemistry and thermal treatment were investigated. As are the chemical principles involved in the distribution of a second network former in silica gel matrix being investigated. The procedures for synthesizing noncrystalline gels/gel-monoliths in the SiO2-GeO2, GeO2-PbO systems were developed. Preliminary investigations on the levitation and thermal treatment of germania silicate gel-monoliths in the Pressure Facility Acoustic Levitator were done.

  8. Comment on "The shape and composition of interstellar silicate grains"

    SciT

    Bradley, J P; Ishii, H

    2007-09-27

    In the paper entitled 'The shape and composition of interstellar silicate grains' (A & A, 462, 667-676 (2007)), Min et al. explore non-spherical grain shape and composition in modeling the interstellar 10 and 20 {micro}m extinction features. This progression towards more realistic models is vitally important to enabling valid comparisons between dust observations and laboratory measurements. Min et al. proceed to compare their model results with GEMS (glass with embedded metals and sulfides) from IDPs (interplanetary dust particles) and to discuss the nature and origin of GEMS. Specifically, they evaluate the hypothesis of Bradley (1994) that GEMS are interstellar (IS)more » amorphous silicates. From a comparison of the mineralogy, chemical compositions, and infrared (IR) spectral properties of GEMS with their modeling results, Min et al. conclude: 'GEMS are, in general, not unprocessed leftovers from the diffuse ISM'. This conclusion is based, however, on erroneous and incomplete GEMS data. It is important to clarify first that Bradley (1994) never proposed that GEMS are unprocessed leftovers from the diffuse ISM, nor did he suggest that individual subnanogram mass GEMS are a representative sampling of the enormous mass of silicates in the diffuse ISM. Bradley (1994) simply showed that GEMS properties are consistent with those of IS amorphous silicates. It is widely accepted that circumstellar outflows are important sources of IS silicates, and whether GEMS are processed or not, the circumstellar heritage of some has been rigorously confirmed through measurements of non-solar oxygen (O) isotope abundances (Messenger et al., 2003; Floss et al., 2006). Keller et al. (2000) assert that even GEMS without detectable O isotope anomalies are probably also extrasolar IS silicates because they are embedded in carbonaceous material with non-solar D/H isotopic composition. (Much of the silicate dust in the ISM may be isotopically homogenized (Zhukovska et al., 2007

  9. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  10. Photon Interaction Parameters for Some Borate Glasses

    SciT

    Mann, Nisha; Kaur, Updesh; Singh, Tejbir

    2010-11-06

    Some photon interaction parameters of dosimetric interest such as mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic number, electron density and KERMA relative to air have been computed in the wide energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV for some borate glasses viz. barium-lead borate, bismuth-borate, calcium-strontium borate, lead borate and zinc-borate glass. It has been observed that lead borate glass and barium-lead borate glass have maximum values of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and KERMA relative to air. Hence, these borate glasses are suitable as gamma ray shielding material, packing of radioactive sources etc.

  11. Glass viscosity calculation based on a global statistical modelling approach

    SciT

    Fluegel, Alex

    2007-02-01

    A global statistical glass viscosity model was developed for predicting the complete viscosity curve, based on more than 2200 composition-property data of silicate glasses from the scientific literature, including soda-lime-silica container and float glasses, TV panel glasses, borosilicate fiber wool and E type glasses, low expansion borosilicate glasses, glasses for nuclear waste vitrification, lead crystal glasses, binary alkali silicates, and various further compositions from over half a century. It is shown that within a measurement series from a specific laboratory the reported viscosity values are often over-estimated at higher temperatures due to alkali and boron oxide evaporation during the measurementmore » and glass preparation, including data by Lakatos et al. (1972) and the recently published High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling by Seward et al. (2005). Similarly, in the glass transition range many experimental data of borosilicate glasses are reported too high due to phase separation effects. The developed global model corrects those errors. The model standard error was 9-17°C, with R^2 = 0.985-0.989. The prediction 95% confidence interval for glass in mass production largely depends on the glass composition of interest, the composition uncertainty, and the viscosity level. New insights in the mixed-alkali effect are provided.« less

  12. Ion transport mechanism in glasses: non-Arrhenius conductivity and nonuniversal features.

    PubMed

    Murugavel, S; Vaid, C; Bhadram, V S; Narayana, C

    2010-10-28

    In this article, we report non-Arrhenius behavior in the temperature-dependent dc conductivity of alkali ion conducting silicate glasses well below their glass transition temperature. In contrast to the several fast ion-conducting and binary potassium silicate glasses, these glasses show a positive deviation in the Arrhenius plot. The observed non-Arrhenius behavior is completely reproducible in nature even after prolonged annealing close to the glass transition temperature of the respective glass sample. These results are the manifestation of local structural changes of the silicate network with temperature and give rise to different local environments into which the alkali ions hop, revealed by in situ high-temperature Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, the present study provides new insights into the strong link between the dynamics of the alkali ions and different sites associated with it in the glasses.

  13. Battery components employing a silicate binder

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M [Albuquerque, NM; Reinhardt, Frederick W [Albuquerque, NM; Odinek, Judy G [Rio Rancho, NM

    2011-05-24

    A battery component structure employing inorganic-silicate binders. In some embodiments, casting or coating of components may be performed using aqueous slurries of silicates and electrode materials or separator materials.

  14. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  15. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  16. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  17. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  18. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  19. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  20. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  1. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  2. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  3. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  4. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  5. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  6. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  7. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  8. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  9. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  10. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  11. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  12. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2227 Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate...

  13. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  14. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  15. PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

    2011-12-01

    Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary

  16. Glass sealing

    SciT

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S.

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  17. Additivity of the coefficient of thermal expansion in silicate optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Cavillon, M; Dragic, P D; Ballato, J

    2017-09-15

    A model that predicts the material additivity of the thermal expansion coefficient in the binary silicate glasses most commonly used for present (GeO 2 -SiO 2 , P 2 O 5 -SiO 2 , B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , and Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ) and emerging (BaO-SiO 2 ) optical fibers is proposed. This model is based on a derivation of the expression for the coefficient of thermal expansion in isotropic solids, and gives direct insight on the parameters that govern its additivity in silicate glasses. Furthermore, a consideration of the local structural environment of the glass system is necessary to fully describe its additivity behavior in the investigated systems. This Letter is important for better characterizing and understanding of the impact of temperature and internal stresses on the behavior of optical fibers.

  18. Electrochromic Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-31

    this glass and that dipole-dipole correlations contribute to the "ferroelectric-like" character of this amorphous system. The TeO2 -W03 glasses can only...shows the dielectric constant and Fig. I(b) glass from pure TeO2 ot pure WO. In addition, glass the tan 8 of the WO glass as a function of temperature... glasses containing WO, in various glass forming nitworks of LifO-B1O0, Na:O-BzO,, and TeO2 were prepared from reagent grade oxides at 800 C - 9SO C in

  19. Phospho-silicate and silicate layers modified by hydroxyapatite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, M.; Brożek, A.; Handke, M.

    2005-06-01

    Common used metal materials do not ensure good connection between an implant and biological neighbourhood. Covering implants by thin silicate or phosphate layers enable to improve biological properties of implants and create conditions for producing the non-concrete bonding between the implant and tissue. The project includes preparing silicate sols of different concentrations and proper (powder) fraction of synthetic as well as natural ox hydroxyapatite, depositing the sol mixed with hydroxyapatite onto the base material (metal, ceramic carbon) and heat treatment. Our work includes also preparation of phospho-silicate layers deposited onto different base materials using sol-gel method. Deposited sols were prepared regarding composition, concentration and layer heat treatment conditions. The prepared layers are examined to determine their phase composition (XRD, IR spectroscopy methods), density and continuity (scanning microscopy with EDX methods). Biological activity of layers was evaluated by means of estimation of their corrosive resistance in synthetic body fluids ('in vitro' method) and of bone cells growth on the layers surface. Introducing hydroxyapatite to the layer sol should improve connection between tissue and implant as well as limit the disadvantageous, corrosive influence of implant material (metal) on the tissue.

  20. Design and fabrication of bismith-silicate photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Tomoharu

    2012-09-01

    The process of design and fabrication of bismuth-silicate photonic crystal fiber (Bi-PCF) is reported. The Bi-PCF was fabricated by stack and draw method. This is the first trial of the fabrication of photonic crystal fiber made of bismuth-based glass with stack and draw method. The Bi-PCF structure was designed to reduce group-velocity-dispersion (GVD) in a plausible process. Thermal properties of the glass are investigated to establish the fabrication process. The applying pressure and pumping in fiber preform preparation were effectively utilized to control the air-hole diameter and arrangement. The fabricated Bi-PCF shows the well reduced GVD as the numerical calculation predicted. Fusion splicing between Bi-PCF and SMF-28 was also demonstrated.

  1. Thermal infrared reflectance and emission spectroscopy of quartzofeldspathic glasses

    Byrnes, J.M.; Ramsey, M.S.; King, P.L.; Lee, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation seeks to better understand the thermal infrared (TIR) spectral characteristics of naturally-occurring amorphous materials through laboratory synthesis and analysis of glasses. Because spectra of glass phases differ markedly from their mineral counterparts, examination of glasses is important to accurately determine the composition of amorphous surface materials using remote sensing datasets. Quantitatively characterizing TIR (5-25 ??m) spectral changes that accompany structural changes between glasses and mineral crystals provides the means to understand natural glasses on Earth and Mars. A suite of glasses with compositions analogous to common terrestrial volcanic glasses was created and analyzed using TIR reflectance and emission techniques. Documented spectral characteristics provide a basis for comparison with TIR spectra of other amorphous materials (glasses, clays, etc.). Our results provide the means to better detect and characterize glasses associated with terrestrial volcanoes, as well as contribute toward understanding the nature of amorphous silicates detected on Mars. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Modifying Silicates for Better Dispersion in Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi

    2005-01-01

    An improved chemical modification has been developed to enhance the dispersion of layered silicate particles in the formulation of a polymer/silicate nanocomposite material. The modification involves, among other things, the co-exchange of an alkyl ammonium ion and a monoprotonated diamine with interlayer cations of the silicate. The net overall effects of the improved chemical modification are to improve processability of the nanocomposite and maximize the benefits of dispersing the silicate particles into the polymer. Some background discussion is necessary to give meaning to a description of this development. Polymer/silicate nanocomposites are also denoted polymer/clay composites because the silicate particles in them are typically derived from clay particles. Particles of clay comprise layers of silicate platelets separated by gaps called "galleries." The platelet thickness is 1 nm. The length varies from 30 nm to 1 m, depending on the silicate. In order to fully realize the benefits of polymer/silicate nanocomposites, it is necessary to ensure that the platelets become dispersed in the polymer matrices. Proper dispersion can impart physical and chemical properties that make nanocomposites attractive for a variety of applications. In order to achieve nanometer-level dispersion of a layered silicate into a polymer matrix, it is typically necessary to modify the interlayer silicate surfaces by attaching organic functional groups. This modification can be achieved easily by ion exchange between the interlayer metal cations found naturally in the silicate and protonated organic cations - typically protonated amines. Long-chain alkyl ammonium ions are commonly chosen as the ion-exchange materials because they effectively lower the surface energies of the silicates and ease the incorporation of organic monomers or polymers into the silicate galleries. This completes the background discussion. In the present improved modification of the interlayer silicate surfaces

  3. A method for predicting service life of zinc rich primers on carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppesch, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    The service life of zinc rich primers on carbon steel can be estimated by immersing a primer coated glass slide into an aqueous copper sulfate solution and measuring the amount of zinc that reacts with the copper in 15 minutes. This zinc availability test was used to evaluate eleven primers currently available for which marine beach exposure data was available from previous programs. Results were evaluated and a correlation between zinc availability and ASTM rust grade was shown.

  4. An Injectable Glass Polyalkenoate Cement Engineered for Fracture Fixation and Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Peel, Sean A. F.; Towler, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) have potential as bio-adhesives due to their ease of application, appropriate mechanical properties, radiopacity and chemical adhesion to bone. Aluminium (Al)-free GPCs have been discussed in the literature, but have proven difficult to balance injectability with mechanical integrity. For example, zinc-based, Al-free GPCs reported compressive strengths of 63 MPa, but set in under 2 min. Here, the authors design injectable GPCs (IGPCs) based on zinc-containing, Al-free silicate compositions containing GeO2, substituted for ZnO at 3% increments through the series. The setting reactions, injectability and mechanical properties of these GPCs were evaluated using both a hand-mix (h) technique, using a spatula for sample preparation and application and an injection (i) technique, using a 16-gauge needle, post mixing, for application. GPCs ability to act as a carrier for bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also evaluated. Germanium (Ge) and BSA containing IGPCs were produced and reported to have working times between 26 and 44 min and setting times between 37 and 55 min; the extended handling properties being as a result of less Ge. The incorporation of BSA into the cement had no effect on the handling and mechanical properties, but the latter were found to have increased compression strength with the addition of Ge from between 27 and 37 MPa after 30 days maturation. PMID:28678157

  5. Properties of Tricalcium Silicate Sealers.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Issam; Naaman, Alfred; Camilleri, Josette

    2016-10-01

    Sealers based on tricalcium silicate cement aim at an interaction of the sealer with the root canal wall, alkalinity with potential antimicrobial activity, and the ability to set in a wet field. The aim of this study was to characterize and investigate the properties of a new tricalcium silicate-based sealer and verify its compliance to ISO 6876 (2012). A new tricalcium silicate-based sealer (Bio MM; St Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon), BioRoot RCS (Septodont, St Maure de Fosses, France), and AH Plus (Dentsply, DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) were investigated. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis was performed. Furthermore, sealer setting time, flow, film thickness, and radiopacity were performed following ISO specifications. pH and ion leaching in solution were assessed by pH analysis and inductively coupled plasma. Bio MM and BioRoot RCS were both composed of tricalcium silicate and tantalum oxide in Bio MM and zirconium oxide in BioRoot RCS. In addition, the Bio MM contained calcium carbonate and a phosphate phase. The inorganic components of AH Plus were calcium tungstate and zirconium oxide. AH Plus complied with the ISO norms for both flow and film thickness. BioRoot RCS and Bio MM exhibited a lower flow and a higher film thickness than that specified for sealer cements in ISO 6876. All test sealers exhibited adequate radiopacity. Bio MM interacted with physiologic solution, thus showing potential for bioactivity. Sealer properties were acceptable and comparable with other sealers available clinically. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Formation of metallic cation-oxygen network for anomalous thermal expansion coefficients in binary phosphate glass.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Yohei; Kohara, Shinji; Masai, Hirokazu; Koreeda, Akitoshi; Okamura, Shun; Ohkubo, Takahiro

    2017-05-31

    Understanding glass structure is still challenging due to the result of disorder, although novel materials design on the basis of atomistic structure has been strongly demanded. Here we report on the atomic structures of the zinc phosphate glass determined by reverse Monte Carlo modelling based on diffraction and spectroscopic data. The zinc-rich glass exhibits the network formed by ZnO x (averaged x<4) polyhedra. Although the elastic modulus, refractive index and glass transition temperature of the zinc phosphate glass monotonically increase with the amount of ZnO, we find for the first time that the thermal expansion coefficient is very sensitive to the substitution of the phosphate chain network by a network consisting of Zn-O units in zinc-rich glass. Our results imply that the control of the structure of intermediate groups may enable new functionalities in the design of oxide glass materials.

  7. Formation of metallic cation-oxygen network for anomalous thermal expansion coefficients in binary phosphate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onodera, Yohei; Kohara, Shinji; Masai, Hirokazu; Koreeda, Akitoshi; Okamura, Shun; Ohkubo, Takahiro

    2017-05-01

    Understanding glass structure is still challenging due to the result of disorder, although novel materials design on the basis of atomistic structure has been strongly demanded. Here we report on the atomic structures of the zinc phosphate glass determined by reverse Monte Carlo modelling based on diffraction and spectroscopic data. The zinc-rich glass exhibits the network formed by ZnOx (averaged x<4) polyhedra. Although the elastic modulus, refractive index and glass transition temperature of the zinc phosphate glass monotonically increase with the amount of ZnO, we find for the first time that the thermal expansion coefficient is very sensitive to the substitution of the phosphate chain network by a network consisting of Zn-O units in zinc-rich glass. Our results imply that the control of the structure of intermediate groups may enable new functionalities in the design of oxide glass materials.

  8. PMR-15/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites For Improved Thermal Stability And Mechanical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi; Scheiman, Daniel; Faile, Michael; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Montmorillonite clay was organically modified by co-exchange of an aromatic diamine and a primary alkyl amine. The clay was dispersed into a PMR (Polymerization of Monomer Reactants)-15 matrix and the glass transition temperature and thermal oxidative stability of the resulting nanocomposites were evaluated. PMR-15/ silicate nanocomposites were also investigated as a matrix material for carbon fabric reinforced composites. Dispersion of the organically modified silicate into the PMR-15 matrix enhanced the thermal oxidative stability, the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and interlaminar shear strength of the polymer matrix composite.

  9. Polymer/Silicate Nanocomposites Developed for Improved Thermal Stability and Barrier Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi G.

    2001-01-01

    The nanoscale reinforcement of polymers is becoming an attractive means of improving the properties and stability of polymers. Polymer-silicate nanocomposites are a relatively new class of materials with phase dimensions typically on the order of a few nanometers. Because of their nanometer-size features, nanocomposites possess unique properties typically not shared by more conventional composites. Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites can attain a certain degree of stiffness, strength, and barrier properties with far less ceramic content than comparable glass- or mineral-reinforced polymers. Reinforcement of existing and new polyimides by this method offers an opportunity to greatly improve existing polymer properties without altering current synthetic or processing procedures.

  10. Dehydroxylated clay silicates on Mars: Riddles about the Martian regolith solved with ferrian saponites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1992-01-01

    Clay silicates, resulting from the chemical weathering of volcanic glasses and basaltic rocks of Mars, are generally believed to be major constituents of the martian regolith and atmospheric dust. Because little attention has been given to the role, if any, of Mg-bearing clay silicates on the martian surface, the crystal chemistry, stability, and reactivity of Mg-Fe smectites are examined. Partially dehydroxylated ferrian saponites are suggested to be major constituents of the surface of Mars, regulating several properties of the regolith.

  11. Inhibition and enhancement of microbial surface colonization: the role of silicate composition

    Roberts, Jennifer A.

    2004-01-01

    Classical treatment of cell attachment by models of filtration or coulombic attraction assumes that attachment of cells to mineral surfaces would be controlled by factors such as response to predation, collision efficiency, or coulombic attraction between the charged groups at the mineral and cell surfaces. In the study reported here, the passive model of attachment was investigated using a native microbial consortium and a variety of Al- and Fe-bearing silicates and oxides to determine if other controls, such as mineral composition, also influence the interaction between cells and surfaces. Results from in situ colonization studies in an anaerobic groundwater at pH 6.8 combined with most probable number analyses (MPN) of surface-adherent cells demonstrate that electrostatic effects dominate microbial colonization on positively charged oxide surfaces regardless of mineral composition. In contrast, on negatively charged silicate minerals and glasses, the solid phase composition is a factor in determining the extent of microbial colonization, as well as the diversity of the attached community. In particular, silicates containing more than 1.2% Al exhibit less biomass than Al-poor silicates and MPN suggests a shift in community diversity, possibly indicating Al toxicity on these surfaces. When Fe is present in the silicate, however, this trend is reversed and abundant colonization of the surface is observed. Here, microorganisms preferentially colonize those silicate surfaces that offer beneficial nutrients and avoid those that contain potentially toxic elements.

  12. Approximate chemical analysis of volcanic glasses using Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Morgavi, Daniele; Hess, Kai‐Uwe; Neuville, Daniel R.; Borovkov, Nikita; Perugini, Diego; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of chemical composition on the Raman spectra of a series of natural calcalkaline silicate glasses has been quantified by performing electron microprobe analyses and obtaining Raman spectra on glassy filaments (~450 µm) derived from a magma mingling experiment. The results provide a robust compositionally‐dependent database for the Raman spectra of natural silicate glasses along the calcalkaline series. An empirical model based on both the acquired Raman spectra and an ideal mixing equation between calcalkaline basaltic and rhyolitic end‐members is constructed enabling the estimation of the chemical composition and degree of polymerization of silicate glasses using Raman spectra. The model is relatively insensitive to acquisition conditions and has been validated using the MPI‐DING geochemical standard glasses1 as well as further samples. The methods and model developed here offer several advantages compared with other analytical and spectroscopic methods such as infrared spectroscopy, X‐ray fluorescence spectroscopy, electron and ion microprobe analyses, inasmuch as Raman spectroscopy can be performed with a high spatial resolution (1 µm2) without the need for any sample preparation as a nondestructive technique. This study represents an advance in efforts to provide the first database of Raman spectra for natural silicate glasses and yields a new approach for the treatment of Raman spectra, which allows us to extract approximate information about the chemical composition of natural silicate glasses using Raman spectroscopy. We anticipate its application in handheld in situ terrestrial field studies of silicate glasses under extreme conditions (e.g. extraterrestrial and submarine environments). © 2015 The Authors Journal of Raman Spectroscopy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:27656038

  13. Glass ionomer cements: chemistry of erosion.

    PubMed

    Crisp, S; Lewis, B G; Wilson, A D

    1976-01-01

    A three-month study of the chemistry of the water erosion of two forms of ASPA cement has been made. The effect of varying cement consistency and cure time was investigated. The results are discussed in terms of the known chemistry and structure of the cement. The erosion behavior is compared to that of silicate, silicophosphate, and zinc polycarboxylate dental cements. The state of absorbed water and the mechanism of erosion is discussed.

  14. Relationship between topological order and glass forming ability in densely packed enstatite and forsterite composition glasses

    PubMed Central

    Kohara, S.; Akola, J.; Morita, H.; Suzuya, K.; Weber, J. K. R.; Wilding, M. C.; Benmore, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The atomic structures of magnesium silicate melts are key to understanding processes related to the evolution of the Earth’s mantle and represent precursors to the formation of most igneous rocks. Magnesium silicate compositions also represent a major component of many glass ceramics, and depending on their composition can span the entire fragility range of glass formation. The silica rich enstatite (MgSiO3) composition is a good glass former, whereas the forsterite (Mg2SiO4) composition is at the limit of glass formation. Here, the structure of MgSiO3 and Mg2SiO4 composition glasses obtained from levitated liquids have been modeled using Reverse Monte Carlo fits to diffraction data and by density functional theory. A ring statistics analysis suggests that the lower glass forming ability of the Mg2SiO4 glass is associated with a topologically ordered and very narrow ring distribution. The MgOx polyhedra have a variety of irregular shapes in MgSiO3 and Mg2SiO4 glasses and a cavity analysis demonstrates that both glasses have almost no free volume due to a large contribution from edge sharing of MgOx-MgOx polyhedra. It is found that while the atomic volume of Mg cations in the glasses increases compared to that of the crystalline phases, the number of Mg-O contacts is reduced, although the effective chemical interaction of Mg2+ remains similar. This unusual structure-property relation of Mg2SiO4 glass demonstrates that by using containerless processing it may be possible to synthesize new families of dense glasses and glass ceramics with zero porosity. PMID:21873237

  15. Strontium-based glass polyalkenoate cements for luting applications in the skeleton.

    PubMed

    Clarkin, O; Boyd, D; Towler, M R

    2010-02-01

    Glass Polyalkenoate Cements (GPCs) based on strontium calcium zinc silicate (Sr-Ca-Zn-SiO2) glasses and high molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) have been shown to exhibit suitable mechanical properties for orthopaedic arthroplasty applications, however for vertebroplasty and other medical luting applications these cements have working and setting times which are unsuitable for such applications. In this study GPCs based on Sr-Ca-Zn-SiO2 glasses and low molecular weight PAA were evaluated for orthopaedic luting applications. GPCs based on four different glasses; BT100 (0.16CaO, 0.36ZnO, 0.48SiO2), BT101 (0.04SrO, 0.12CaO, 0.36ZnO, 0.48SiO2), BT102 (0.08SrO 0.08CaO, 0.36ZnO, 0.48SiO2) and BT103 (0.12SrO 0.04CaO, 0.36ZnO, 0.48SiO2) and two PAAs (MW; 12,700 and 25,700) were examined. These cement formulations exhibited handling properties potentially suitable for luting applications as well as mechanical strengths which were similar to those of trabecular bone. Upon immersion in simulated body fluid, the GPCs showed sustained growth of a calcium phosphate layer on the surface of the cement indicating that these cements were bioactive in nature.

  16. Glass binder development for a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form

    SciT

    Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.; Frank, Steven M.

    This paper discusses work to develop Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass binders for immobilizing LiCl-KCl eutectic salt waste in a glass-bonded sodalite waste form following electrochemical reprocessing of used metallic nuclear fuel. Here, five new glasses with high Na2O contents were designed to generate waste forms having higher sodalite contents and fewer stress fractures. The structural, mechanical, and thermal properties of the new glasses were measured using variety of analytical techniques. The glasses were then used to produce ceramic waste forms with surrogate salt waste. The materials made using the glasses developed during this study were formulated to generate more sodalite than materialsmore » made with previous baseline glasses used. The coefficients of thermal expansion for the glass phase in the glass-bonded sodalite waste forms made with the new binder glasses were closer to the sodalite phase in the critical temperature region near and below the glass transition temperature. These improvements should result in lower probability of cracking in the full-scale monolithic ceramic waste form, leading to better long-term chemical durability. Additionally, a model generated during this study for predicting softening temperature of silicate binder glasses is presented.« less

  17. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  18. Bioactive Glass and Glass-Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardt, Lutz-Christian; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, bioactive glasses have been used to fill and restore bone defects. More recently, this category of biomaterials has become an emerging research field for bone tissue engineering applications. Here, we review and discuss current knowledge on porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds on the basis of melt-derived bioactive silicate glass compositions and relevant composite structures. Starting with an excerpt on the history of bioactive glasses, as well as on fundamental requirements for bone tissue engineering scaffolds, a detailed overview on recent developments of bioactive glass and glass-ceramic scaffolds will be given, including a summary of common fabrication methods and a discussion on the microstructural-mechanical properties of scaffolds in relation to human bone (structure-property and structure-function relationship). In addition, ion release effects of bioactive glasses concerning osteogenic and angiogenic responses are addressed. Finally, areas of future research are highlighted in this review. PMID:28883315

  19. Pulsed deposition of silicate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Solanki, R.; Conley, J. F.; Ono, Y.

    2003-09-01

    A sequential pulsed process is utilized for deposition of nonstoichiometric silicate films without employing an oxidizing agent. The metal precursors were HfCl4, AlCl3, and ZrCl4, as well as Hf(NO3)4 and the silicon source was tris(tert-butoxy)silanol. Unlike atomic layer deposition, the growth per cycle was several monolayers thick, where the enhancement in growth was due to a catalytic reaction. The bulk and electrical properties of these films are similar to those of silicon dioxide. Silicon carbide devices coated with these films show good insulating characteristics.

  20. A review of bioactive silicate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang

    2013-06-01

    Silicate bioceramics, as a new family of biomaterials, have received significant attention in their application to hard tissue regeneration. Some silicate bioceramics have shown excellent apatite mineralization in simulated body fluids and their ionic products have been shown to enhance the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and gene expression of stem cells. In this paper, we review the advances in the research of silicate system bioceramics, including preparation methods, mechanical strength, apatite mineralization, dissolution and in vitro and in vivo biological properties. The biological properties and the corresponding mechanism have been highlighted. A look forward to the application of silicate bioceramics to bone regeneration is further suggested.

  1. Effect of silicate ions on electrode overvoltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gras, J. M.; Seite, C.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of the addition of a silicate to a caustic solution (KOH) is studied in order to determine the degree to which silicates inhibit the corrosion of chrysotile under conditions of electrolysis at working temperatures of 100 C and above. In an alkaline solution containing various silicate concentrations, current density was increased and electrode overvoltage was measured. Results show that silicate ion concentrations in the electrolyte increase with temperature without effecting electrochemical performance up to 115 C at 700 MA/sqcm. At this point the concentration is about 0.5 g Si/100 g KOH. Beyond this limit, electrolytic performance rapidly degenerates due to severe oxidation of the electrodes.

  2. Mineralogy and the release of trace elements from slag from the Hegeler Zinc smelter, Illinois (USA)

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    Slag from the former Hegeler Zn-smelting facility in Illinois (USA) is mainly composed of spinifex Ca-rich plagioclase, fine-grained dendritic or coarse-grained subhedral to anhedral clinopyroxenes, euhedral to subhedral spinels, spherical blebs of Fe sulfides, silicate glass, and less commonly fayalitic olivine. Mullite and quartz were also identified in one sample as representing remnants of the furnace lining. Secondary phases such as goethite, hematite and gypsum are significant in some samples and reflect surficial weathering of the dump piles or represent byproducts of roasting. A relatively rare Zn-rich material contains anhedral willemite, subhedral gahnite, massive zincite, hardystonite and a Zn sulfate (brianyoungite), among other phases, and likely represents the molten content of the smelting furnace before Zn extraction. The bulk major-element chemistry of most slag samples is dominated by SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and CaO. The bulk composition of the slag suggests a high viscosity of the melt and the mineralogy suggests a high silica content of the melt. Bulk slag trace-element chemistry shows that the dominant metal is Zn with >28.4 wt.% in the Zn-rich material and between 212 and 14,900 mg/kg in the other slags. The concentrations of other trace elements reach the following: 45 mg/kg As, 1170 mg/kg Ba, 191 mg/kg Cd, 242 mg/kg Co, 103 mg/kg Cr, 6360 mg/kg Cu, 107 mg/kg Ni, and 711 mg/kg Pb.Zinc, as the dominant metal in the slags, is likely the most environmentally significant metal in these samples; Cd, Cu, and Pb are also of concern and their concentrations exceed US Environmental Protection Agency preliminary remediation goals for residential soils. Spinel was found to be the dominant concentrator of Zn for samples containing significant Zn (>1 wt.%); the silicate glass also contained relatively high concentrations of Zn compared to other phases. Zinc partitioned into the silicates and oxides in these samples is generally more resistant to

  3. Nonlinear femtosecond near infrared laser structuring in oxide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royon, Arnaud

    nonlinear third-order susceptibility properties have been measured. Moreover, the structuring of fused silica at the subwavelength scale into "nanogratings" is observed and the form of birefringence induced by these structures is discussed. In addition to the fused silica samples, several oxide glasses presenting very distinct chemical compositions have been studied. A sodium-borophosphate glass containing niobium oxide exhibits micro-cracks and nano-crystallites following irradiation. A silicate glass with or without a silver component reveals fluorescent rings or "nanograting" structures. A zinc phosphate glass containing silver also presents fluorescent ring structures, with a size of the order of 80 nm, well below the diffraction limit. Pump-probe microscope techniques have been performed on this glass to investigate the laser-glass interaction. The absorption mechanism is determined to be four-photon absorption. The generated free electron density is ˜ 1017 cm-3, which suggests the conclusion that an electron gas rather than a plasma is formed during the laser irradiation.

  4. Glass Artworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Several NASA technologies have played part in growth and cost containment of studio glass art, among them a foam type insulation developed to meet a need for lightweight material that would reduce flame spread in aircraft fire. Foam comes in several forms and is widely used by glass artists, chiefly as an insulator for the various types of ovens used in glass working. Another Spinoff is alumina crucibles to contain molten glass. Before alumina crucibles were used, glass tanks were made of firebrick which tended to erode under high temperatures and cause impurities; this not only improved quality but made the process more cost effective. One more NASA technology that found its way into glass art working is a material known as graphite board, a special form of graphite originally developed for rocket motor applications. This graphite is used to exact compound angles and creates molds for poured glass artworks of dramatic design.

  5. Update on zinc biology.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has become a prominent nutrient of clinical and public health interest in the new millennium. Functions and actions for zinc emerge as increasingly ubiquitous in mammalian anatomy, physiology and metabolism. There is undoubtedly an underpinning in fundamental biology for all of the aspects of zinc in human health (clinical and epidemiological) in pediatric and public health practice. Unfortunately, basic science research may not have achieved a full understanding as yet. As a complement to the applied themes in the companion articles, a selection of recent advances in the domains homeostatic regulation and transport of zinc is presented; they are integrated, in turn, with findings on genetic expression, intracellular signaling, immunity and host defense, and bone growth. The elements include ionic zinc, zinc transporters, metallothioneins, zinc metalloenzymes and zinc finger proteins. In emerging basic research, we find some plausible mechanistic explanations for delayed linear growth with zinc deficiency and increased infectious disease resistance with zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  7. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  8. Glass Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Research efforts span three general areas of glass science: glass refining, gel-derived glasses, and nucleation and crystallization of glasses. Gas bubbles which are present in a glass product are defects which may render the glass totally useless for the end application. For example, optical glasses, laser host glasses, and a variety of other specialty glasses must be prepared virtually defect free to be employable. Since a major mechanism of bubble removal, buoyant rise, is virtually inoperative in microgravity, glass fining will be especially difficult in space. On the other hand, the suppression of buoyant rise and the ability to perform containerless melting experiments in space allows the opportunity to carry out several unique bubble experiments in space. Gas bubble dissolution studies may be performed at elevated temperatures for large bubbles with negligible bubble motion. Also, bubble nucleation studies may be performed without the disturbing feature of heterogeneous bubble nucleation at the platinum walls. Ground based research efforts are being performed in support of these potential flight experiments.

  9. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2437 Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium...

  10. Calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying-Jie; Guo, Xiao-Xuan; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2017-02-01

    Compared with other inorganic materials such as silica, metal oxides, noble metals and carbon, calcium silicate-based materials, especially nanostructured calcium silicate materials, have high biocompatibility, bioactivity and biodegradability, high specific surface area, nanoporous/hollow structure, high drug-loading capacity, pH-responsive drug release behavior and desirable drug release properties, and thus they are promising for the application in drug delivery. Calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems have a long drug-release time, which can significantly prolong the therapeutic effect of drugs. Another advantage of calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems is their pH-responsive drug release property, which can act as an ideal platform for targeted drug delivery. Areas covered: In recent years, studies have been carried out on calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems, and important results and insights have been documented. This article is not intended to offer a comprehensive review on the research on calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems, but presents some examples reported in the literature, and includes new insights obtained by tracking the interactions between drug molecules and calcium silicate carriers on the molecular level using the synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy. Expert opinion: Finally, our opinions on calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems are provided, and several research directions for the future studies are proposed.

  11. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Mesoporous Silicate Materials in Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Melde, Brian J.; Johnson, Brandy J.; Charles, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Mesoporous silicas, especially those exhibiting ordered pore systems and uniform pore diameters, have shown great potential for sensing applications in recent years. Morphological control grants them versatility in the method of deployment whether as bulk powders, monoliths, thin films, or embedded in coatings. High surface areas and pore sizes greater than 2 nm make them effective as adsorbent coatings for humidity sensors. The pore networks also provide the potential for immobilization of enzymes within the materials. Functionalization of materials by silane grafting or through co-condensation of silicate precursors can be used to provide mesoporous materials with a variety of fluorescent probes as well as surface properties that aid in selective detection of specific analytes. This review will illustrate how mesoporous silicas have been applied to sensing changes in relative humidity, changes in pH, metal cations, toxic industrial compounds, volatile organic compounds, small molecules and ions, nitroenergetic compounds, and biologically relevant molecules. PMID:27873810

  13. Rice husks as a sustainable silica source for hierarchical flower-like metal silicate architectures assembled into ultrathin nanosheets for adsorption and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouwei; Gao, Huihui; Li, Jiaxing; Huang, Yongshun; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Xu, Xijin; Wang, Xiangke

    2017-01-05

    Metal silicates have attracted extensive interests due to their unique structure and promising properties in adsorption and catalysis. However, their applications were hampered by the complex and expensive synthesis. In this paper, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical flower-like metal silicate, including magnesium silicate, zinc silicate, nickel silicate and cobalt silicate, were for the first time prepared by using rice husks as a sustainable silicon source. The flower-like morphology, interconnected ultrathin nanosheets structure and high specific surface area endowed them with versatile applications. Magnesium silicate was used as an adsorbent with the maximum adsorption capacities of 557.9, 381.3, and 482.8mg/g for Pb 2+ , tetracycline (TC), and UO 2 2+ , respectively. Ni nanoparticles/silica (Ni NPs/SiO 2 ) exhibited high catalytic activity and good stability for 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) reduction within only ∼160s, which can be attributed to the ultra-small particle size (∼6.8nm), good dispersion and high loading capacity of Ni NPs. Considering the abundance and renewability of rice husks, metal silicate with complex architecture can be easily produced at a large scale and become a sustainable and reliable resource for multifunctional applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Intrinsic Nano-Ductility of Glasses: The Critical Role of Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bu; Yu, Yingtian; Lee, Young; Bauchy, Mathieu

    2015-02-01

    Understanding, predicting and eventually improving the resistance to fracture for silicate materials is of primary importance to design tougher new glasses suitable for advanced applications. However, the fracture mechanism at the atomic level in amorphous silicate materials is still a topic of debate. In particular, there are some controversies about the existence of ductility at the nanoscale during crack propagation. Here, we present simulations of fracture of three archetypical silicate glasses, using molecular dynamics. The simulations clearly show that, depending on their composition, silicate glasses can exhibit different degrees of ductility at the nanoscale. Additionally, we show that the methodology used in the present work can provide realistic predictions of fracture energy and toughness.

  15. Framework influence of erbium doped oxyfluoride glasses on their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Środa, Marcin; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Różański, Marek; Nocuń, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Glasses of different matrix (phosphate, borate, silicate and lead-silicate) were studied for their optical properties. The effect of Er dopant on transmittance and luminescence properties was presented. The significant “red shift” and “blue shift” of UV edge absorption were discussed based on the changes in the framework of the borate and phosphate glasses, respectively. It was showed that the integral intensity of the two main optical absorption transitions monotonically increases with the order: phosphate < borate < silicate < lead-silicate. Ellipsometric measurement was applied to obtain the refractive index of the glasses. The correlation between the shift of edge absorption and the change of refractive index was presented. Effect of glassy matrix on luminescence of Er3+ was discussed.

  16. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    SciT

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  17. Temperature effects on luminescence properties of Cr3+ ions in alkali gallium silicate nanostructured media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipinska-Kalita, Kristina E.; Krol, Denise M.; Hemley, Russell J.; Kalita, Patricia E.; Gobin, Cedric L.; Ohki, Yoshimichi

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of Cr3+ ions in an alkali gallium silicate glass system and in two glass-based nanocomposites with nucleated β-Ga2O3 nanocrystals. The nucleation and growth of the nanocrystalline phase in the host glass matrix were monitored by Raman scattering spectroscopy and angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction. A broadband luminescence, associated with the 4T2-4A2 transition from the weak crystal field of octahedral Cr3+ sites, dominated the emission of the precursor as-quenched glass. The luminescence spectra of the synthesized glass-ceramic nanocomposites revealed a crystal-like 2E-4A2 strong emission and indicated that the major fraction of Cr3+ ions was located within the nanocrystalline environment. The variable-temperature studies of the nanocomposites demonstrated that the fluorescence of Cr3+ ions can be transformed from sharp R lines of the 2E-4A2 transition to a combination of R lines and of the broad band of the 4T2-4A2 transition. We propose a simple distribution model where the major part of Cr3+ ions is located in the nanocrystalline phase of the glass-ceramic composites in the octahedral environment, substituting the gallium atoms in the β-Ga2O3 crystal structure. The developed nanocrystalline glass-ceramics are a promising class of Cr3+-doped oxide glass-based optically active composite materials.

  18. Spectral chemistry of green glass-bearing 15426 regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. G.; Dyar, M. D.

    1983-01-01

    The detection of appreciable concentrations of ferric iron in a synthetic green glass equilibrated at an oxygen fugacity of 10 to the -11th atm prompted a Moessbauer spectral study of pristine emerald-green glass spherules carefully handpicked from regolith sample 15426. No Fe(3+) ions were detected in this lunar sample or in a synthetic green glass simulant equilibrated at fO2 = 10 to the -14th atm, suggesting that the green glass clods in rock 15426 formed under conditions of correspondingly low oxygen fugacities. The Moessbauer spectra indicated the presence of olivine crystallites in the lunar emerald green glass spherules. Measurements of homogeneous and partially devitrified synthetic silicate glasses revealed that significant changes of coordination environment about Fe(2+) ions in the glass structure occur during crystallization of olivine crystals from the melt.

  19. Sealing of cracks in cement using microencapsulated sodium silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannaros, P.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2016-08-01

    Cement-based materials possess an inherent autogenous self-healing capability allowing them to seal, and potentially heal, microcracks. This can be improved through the addition of microencapsulated healing agents for autonomic self-healing. The fundamental principle of this self-healing mechanism is that when cracks propagate in the cementitious matrix, they rupture the dispersed capsules and their content (cargo material) is released into the crack volume. Various healing agents have been explored in the literature for their efficacy to recover mechanical and durability properties in cementitious materials. In these materials, the healing agents are most commonly encapsulated in macrocontainers (e.g. glass tubes or capsules) and placed into the material. In this work, microencapsulated sodium silicate in both liquid and solid form was added to cement specimens. Sodium silicate reacts with the calcium hydroxide in hydrated cement paste to form calcium-silicate-hydrate gel that fills cracks. The effect of microcapsule addition on rheological and mechanical properties of cement is reported. It is observed that the microcapsule addition inhibits compressive strength development in cement and this is observed through a plateau in strength between 28 and 56 days. The improvement in crack-sealing for microcapsule-containing specimens is quantified through sorptivity measurements over a 28 day healing period. After just seven days, the addition of 4% microcapsules resulted in a reduction in sorptivity of up to 45% when compared to specimens without any microcapsule addition. A qualitative description of the reaction between the cargo material and the cementitious matrix is also provided using x-ray diffraction analysis.

  20. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Borosilicate Glass

    SciT

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Ferber, Mattison K; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Borofloat borosilicate glass, and is a follow-up to a similar study completed by the authors on Starphire soda-lime silicate glass last year. The response of the borosilicate glass to impact testing at different angles was also studied. The Borofloat glass was supplied by the US Army Research Laboratory and its tin-side was impacted or indented. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Borofloat. Seven sphere materials weremore » used whose densities bracket that of rock: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, carbon steel, and a chrome steel. A gas gun or a ball-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against the glass tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Borofloat were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the seven sphere-Borofloat-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) BS glass responded similarly to soda-lime silicate glass when spherically indented but quite differently under sphere impact conditions; (2) Frictional effects contributed to fracture initiation in BS glass when it spherically indented. This effect was also observed with soda-lime silicate glass; (3) The force necessary to initiate fracture in BS glass under spherical impact decreases with increasing elastic modulus of the sphere material. This trend is opposite to what was observed with soda-lime silicate glass. Friction cannot explain this trend and the authors do not have a legitimate explanation for it yet; (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic conditions than under quasi-static conditions

  1. SILICATE COMPOSITION OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciT

    Fogerty, S.; Forrest, W.; Watson, D. M.

    2016-10-20

    The composition of silicate dust in the diffuse interstellar medium and in protoplanetary disks around young stars informs our understanding of the processing and evolution of the dust grains leading up to planet formation. An analysis of the well-known 9.7 μ m feature indicates that small amorphous silicate grains represent a significant fraction of interstellar dust and are also major components of protoplanetary disks. However, this feature is typically modeled assuming amorphous silicate dust of olivine and pyroxene stoichiometries. Here, we analyze interstellar dust with models of silicate dust that include non-stoichiometric amorphous silicate grains. Modeling the optical depth alongmore » lines of sight toward the extinguished objects Cyg OB2 No. 12 and ζ Ophiuchi, we find evidence for interstellar amorphous silicate dust with stoichiometry intermediate between olivine and pyroxene, which we simply refer to as “polivene.” Finally, we compare these results to models of silicate emission from the Trapezium and protoplanetary disks in Taurus.« less

  2. The effect of excitation intensity variation and silver nanoparticle codoping on nonlinear optical properties of mixed tellurite and zinc oxide glass doped with Nd2O3 studied through ultrafast z-scan spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L.; Falci, R. F.; Darabian, H.; Anjos, V.; Bell, M. J. V.; Kassab, L. R. P.; Bordon, C. D. S.; Doualan, J. L.; Camy, P.; Moncorgé, R.

    2018-05-01

    The research on Nd3+ doped new solid-state laser hosts with specific thermo-mechanical and optical properties is very active. Nd3+ doped tellurite glasses are suitable for these applications. They have high linear and nonlinear refraction index, wide transmittance range. The TeO2-ZnO (TZO) glass considered in the present work combines all those features and the nonlinear optical properties can be used for the development of Kerr-lens mode-locked sub picosecond lasers. Recently the laser performance of Nd3+ doped TZO glass and was reported and laser slope efficiency of 21% was observed. We investigate how the intensity variation and the silver nanoparticles codoping affects the nonlinear optical properties of Nd3+ doped TZO glasses. Intensity dependent nonlinear refraction indices coefficients at 750, 800 and 850 nm were observed. The nonlinear optical features were obtained through ultrafast single beam z-scan technique with excitations at 750, 800 and 850 nm and are up to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature.

  3. Carbon substitution for oxygen in silicates in planetary interiors.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sabyasachi; Widgeon, Scarlett J; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Mera, Gabriela; Tavakoli, Amir; Ionescu, Emanuel; Riedel, Ralf

    2013-10-01

    Amorphous silicon oxycarbide polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs), synthesized from organometallic precursors, contain carbon- and silica-rich nanodomains, the latter with extensive substitution of carbon for oxygen, linking Si-centered SiO(x)C(4-x) tetrahedra. Calorimetric studies demonstrated these PDCs to be thermodynamically more stable than a mixture of SiO2, C, and silicon carbide. Here, we show by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy that substitution of C for O is also attained in PDCs with depolymerized silica-rich domains containing lithium, associated with SiO(x)C(4-x) tetrahedra with nonbridging oxygen. We suggest that significant (several percent) substitution of C for O could occur in more complex geological silicate melts/glasses in contact with graphite at moderate pressure and high temperature and may be thermodynamically far more accessible than C for Si substitution. Carbon incorporation will change the local structure and may affect physical properties, such as viscosity. Analogous carbon substitution at grain boundaries, at defect sites, or as equilibrium states in nominally acarbonaceous crystalline silicates, even if present at levels at 10-100 ppm, might form an extensive and hitherto hidden reservoir of carbon in the lower crust and mantle.

  4. Carbon substitution for oxygen in silicates in planetary interiors

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Sabyasachi; Widgeon, Scarlett J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Mera, Gabriela; Tavakoli, Amir; Ionescu, Emanuel; Riedel, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous silicon oxycarbide polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs), synthesized from organometallic precursors, contain carbon- and silica-rich nanodomains, the latter with extensive substitution of carbon for oxygen, linking Si-centered SiOxC4-x tetrahedra. Calorimetric studies demonstrated these PDCs to be thermodynamically more stable than a mixture of SiO2, C, and silicon carbide. Here, we show by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy that substitution of C for O is also attained in PDCs with depolymerized silica-rich domains containing lithium, associated with SiOxC4-x tetrahedra with nonbridging oxygen. We suggest that significant (several percent) substitution of C for O could occur in more complex geological silicate melts/glasses in contact with graphite at moderate pressure and high temperature and may be thermodynamically far more accessible than C for Si substitution. Carbon incorporation will change the local structure and may affect physical properties, such as viscosity. Analogous carbon substitution at grain boundaries, at defect sites, or as equilibrium states in nominally acarbonaceous crystalline silicates, even if present at levels at 10–100 ppm, might form an extensive and hitherto hidden reservoir of carbon in the lower crust and mantle. PMID:24043830

  5. Iron-magnesium silicate bioweathering on Earth (and Mars?).

    PubMed

    Fisk, M R; Popa, R; Mason, O U; Storrie-Lombardi, M C; Vicenzi, E P

    2006-02-01

    We examined the common, iron-magnesium silicate minerals olivine and pyroxene in basalt and in mantle rocks to determine if they exhibit textures similar to bioweathering textures found in glass. Our results show that weathering in olivine may occur as long, narrow tunnels (1-3 microm in diameter and up to 100 microm long) and as larger irregular galleries, both of which have distinctive characteristics consistent with biological activity. These weathering textures are associated with clay mineral by-products and nucleic acids. We also examined olivine and pyroxene in martian meteorites, some of which experienced preterrestrial aqueous alteration. Some olivines and pyroxenes in the martian meteorite Nakhla were found to contain tunnels that are similar in size and shape to tunnels in terrestrial iron-magnesium silicates that contain nucleic acids. Though the tunnels found in Nakhla are similar to the biosignatures found in terrestrial minerals, their presence cannot be used to prove that the martian alteration features had a biogenic origin. The abundance and wide distribution of olivine and pyroxene on Earth and in the Solar System make bioweathering features in these minerals potentially important new biosignatures that may play a significant role in evaluating whether life ever existed on Mars.

  6. Understanding Vesuvius magmatic processes: Evidence from primitive silicate-melt inclusions in medieval scoria clinopyroxenes (Terzigno formation)

    Lima, A.; Belkin, H.E.; Torok, K.

    1999-01-01

    Microthermometric investigations of silicate-melt inclusions and electron microprobe analyses were conducted on experimentally homogenized silicate-melt inclusions and on the host clinopyroxenes from 4 scoria samples of different layers from the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius medieval eruption (Formazione di Terzigno, 893 A.D.). The temperature of homogenization, considered the minimum trapping temperature, ranges from 1190 to 1260??5 ??C for all clinopyroxene-hosted silicate melt inclusions. The major and minor-element compositional trends shown by Terzigno scoria and matrix glass chemical analysis are largely compatible with fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides. Sulfur contents of the homogenized silicate-melt inclusions in clinopyroxene phenocrysts compared with that in the host scoria show that S has been significantly degassed in the erupted products; whereas, Cl has about the same abundance in the inclusions and in host scoria. Fluorine is low (infrequently up to 800 ppm) in the silicate-melt inclusions compared to 2400 ppm in the bulk scoria. Electron microprobe analyses of silicate-melt inclusions show that they have primitive magma compositions (Mg# = 75-91). The composition of the host clinopyroxene phenocrysts varies from typical plinian-related (Mg#???85) to non-plinian related (Mg#???85). The mixed source of the host clinopyroxenes and primitive nature of the silicate-melt inclusions implies that these phenocrysts, in part, may be residual and/or have a polygenetic origin. The similar variation trends of major and minor-elements between homogenized silicate-melt inclusions from the Terzigno scoria, and silicate-melt inclusions in olivine and diopside phenocrysts from plinian eruptions (Marianelli et al., 1995) suggest that the trapped inclusions represent melts similar to those that supplied the plinian and sub-plinian magma chambers. These geochemical characteristics suggest that the Vesuvius magmatic system retained a vestige of the most

  7. Carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility upon impact melting, Ries Crater, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graup, Guenther

    1999-05-01

    The 24-km-diameter Ries impact crater in southern Germany is one of the most studied impact structures on Earth. The Ries impactor struck a Triassic to Upper Jurassic sedimentary sequence overlying Hercynian crystalline basement. At the time of impact (14.87 +/- 0.36 Ma; Storzer et al., 1995), the 350 m thick Malm limestone was present only to the S and E of the impact site. To the N and W, the Malm had been eroded away, exposing the underlying Dogger and Lias. The largest proportion of shocked target material is in the impact melt-bearing breccia suevite. The suevite had been believed to be derived entirely from the crystalline basement. Calcite in the suevite has been interpreted as a post-impact hydrothermal deposit. From optical inspection of 540 thin sections of suevite from 32 sites, I find that calcite in the suevite shows textural evidence of liquid immiscibility with the silicate impact melt. Textural evidence of liquid immiscibility between silicate and carbonate melt in the Ries suevite includes: carbonate globules within silicate glass, silicate globules embedded in carbonate, deformable and coalescing carbonate spheres within silicate glass, sharp menisci or cusps and budding between silicate and carbonate melt, fluidal textures and gas vesicles in carbonate schlieren, a quench crystallization sequence of the carbonate, spinifex textured quenched carbonate, separate carbonate spherules in the suevite mineral-fragment-matrix, and inclusions of mineral fragments suspended in carbonate blebs. Given this evidence of liquid immiscibility, the carbonate in the suevite has, therefore, like the silicate melt a primary origin by impact shock melting. Evidence of carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility is abundant in the suevites to the SW to E of the Ries crater. The rarer suevites to the W to NE of the crater are nearly devoid of carbonate melts. This correspondence between the occurrence of outcropping limestones at the target surface and the formation of

  8. Three-dimensional culture of dental pulp stem cells in direct contact to tricalcium silicate cements.

    PubMed

    Widbiller, M; Lindner, S R; Buchalla, W; Eidt, A; Hiller, K-A; Schmalz, G; Galler, K M

    2016-03-01

    Calcium silicate cements are biocompatible dental materials applicable in contact with vital tissue. The novel tricalcium silicate cement Biodentine™ offers properties superior to commonly used mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Objective of this study was to evaluate its cytocompatibility and ability to induce differentiation and mineralization in three-dimensional cultures of dental pulp stem cells after direct contact with the material. Test materials included a new tricalcium silicate (Biodentine™, Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France), MTA (ProRoot® MTA, DENSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialities, Johnson City, TN, USA), glass ionomer (Ketac™ Molar Aplicap™, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany), human dentin disks and polystyrene. Magnetic activated cell sorting for to the surface antigen STRO-1 was performed to gain a fraction enriched with mesenchymal stem cells. Samples were allowed to set and dental pulp stem cells in collagen carriers were placed on top. Scanning electron microscopy of tricalcium silicate cement surfaces with and without cells was conducted. Cell viability was measured for 14 days by MTT assay. Alkaline phosphatase activity was evaluated (days 3, 7, and 14) and expression of mineralization-associated genes (COL1A1, ALP, DSPP, and RUNX2) was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Nonparametric statistical analysis for cell viability and alkaline phosphatase data was performed to compare different materials as well as time points (Mann-Whitney U test, α = 0.05). Cell viability was highest on tricalcium silicate cement, followed by MTA. Viability on glass ionomer cement and dentin disks was significantly lower. Alkaline phosphatase activity was lower in cells on new tricalcium silicate cement compared to MTA, whereas expression patterns of marker genes were alike. Increased cell viability and similar levels of mineralization-associated gene expression in three-dimensional cell cultures on the novel tricalcium silicate cement and mineral

  9. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  10. Ceramic fiber-reinforced monoclinic celsian phase glass-ceramic matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor); Dicarlo, James A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A hyridopolysilazane-derived ceramic fiber reinforced monoclinic celsian phase barium aluminum silicate glass-ceramic matrix composite material is prepared by ball-milling an aqueous slurry of BAS glass powder and fine monoclinic celsian seeds. The fibers improve the mechanical strength and fracture toughness and with the matrix provide superior dielectric properties.

  11. Alkali Silicate Vehicle Forms Durable, Fireproof Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, John B.; Seindenberg, Benjamin

    1964-01-01

    The problem: To develop a paint for use on satellites or space vehicles that exhibits high resistance to cracking, peeling, or flaking when subjected to a wide range of temperatures. Organic coatings will partially meet the required specifications but have the inherent disadvantage of combustibility. Alkali-silicate binders, used in some industrial coatings and adhesives, show evidence of forming a fireproof paint, but the problem of high surface-tension, a characteristic of alkali silicates, has not been resolved. The solution: Use of a suitable non-ionic wetting agent combined with a paint incorporating alkali silicate as the binder.

  12. Observations of impact-induced molten metal-silicate partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, Linda R.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of molten mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-molybdenum (Mo) interactions produced by shock experiments provide insight into impact and differentiation processes involving metal-silicate partitioning. Analysis of fragments recovered from experiments (achieving MORB liquid shock pressures from 0.8 to 6 GPa) revealed significant changes in the composition of the MORB and Mo due to reaction of the silicate and metal liquids on a short time scale (less than 13 s). The FeO concentration of the shocked liquid decreases systematically with increasing pressure. In fact, the most highly shocked liquid (6 GPa) contains only 0.1 wt% FeO compared to an initial concentration of 9 wt% in the MORB. We infer from the presence of micrometer-sized Fe-, Si- and Mo-rich metallic spheres in the shocked glass that the Fe and Si oxides in the MORB were reduced in an estimated oxygen fugacity of 10(exp -17) bar and subsequently alloyed with the Mo. The in-situ reduction of FeO in the shocked molten basalt implies that shock-induced reduction of impact melt should be considered a viable mechanism for the formation of metallic phases. Similar metallic phases may form during impact accretion of planets and in impacted material found on the lunar surface and near terrestrial impact craters. In particular, the minute, isolated Fe particles found in lunar soils may have formed by such a process. Furthermore, the metallic spheres within the shocked glass have a globular texture similar to the textures of metallic spheroids from lunar samples and the estimated, slow cooling rate of less than or equal to 140 C/s for our spheres is consistent with the interpretation that the lunar spheroids formed by slow cooling within a melted target.

  13. Effect of SiO2 on immobilization of metals and encapsulation of a glass network in slag.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Lin, Ta-Chang; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2003-11-01

    The final disposal of ash from an incinerator is of special concern because of the possibility of its releasing toxic substances. Melting/vitrification has been regarded as a prospective technology of ash treatment. The object of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of silica (SiO2) addition on the immobilization of hazardous metals and the encapsulation of a glass network during the vitrification process. Four specimens with SiO2/fly ash mixing ratios of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3, respectively, were tested. The mobility of metals in slag was then estimated by a sequential extraction procedure. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that SiO2 leads to the polymerization of silicates. The encapsulation of aluminum, calcium, and magnesium would not be observed unless adequate amount of SiO2 was added. It was also found that SiO2 addition enhances the formation of a compact and interconnected glass network structure and, thus, contributes to the chemical stability of metals in slag. After vitrification, the mobility of cadmium, copper, iron, chromium, nickel, lead, and zinc was significantly reduced. However, there is no significant correlation between the immobilization of these metals and the addition of SiO2.

  14. Multisample conversion of water to hydrogen by zinc for stable isotope determination

    Kendall, C.; Coplen, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques for the conversion of water to hydrogen for stable isotope ratio determination have been developed that are especially suited for automated multisample analysis. Both procedures involve reaction of zinc shot with a water sample at 450 ??C. in one method designed for water samples in bottles, the water is put in capillaries and is reduced by zinc in reaction vessels; overall savings in sample preparation labor of 75% have been realized over the standard uranium reduction technique. The second technique is for waters evolved under vacuum and is a sealed-tube method employing 9 mm o.d. quartz tubing. Problems inherent with zinc reduction include surface inhomogeneity of the zinc and exchange of hydrogen both with the zinc and with the glass walls of the vessels. For best results, water/zinc and water/glass surface area ratios of vessels should be kept as large as possible.

  15. Cooling rates of lunar volcanic glass beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, H.; Hess, K. U.; Zhang, Y.; Peslier, A. H.; Lange, R. A.; Dingwell, D. B.; Neal, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  16. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  17. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  18. Formation of a low-crystalline Zn-silicate in a stream in SW Sardinia, Italy

    Wanty, Richard B.; De Giudici, G.; Onnis, P.; Rutherford, D.; Kimball, B.A.; Podda, F.; Cidu, R.; Lattanzi, P.; Medas, D.

    2013-01-01

    n southwestern Sardinia, Italy, the Rio Naracauli drains a catchment that includes several abandoned mines. The drainage from the mines and associated waste rocks has led to extreme concentrations of dissolved Zn, but because of the near-neutral pH, concentrations of other metals remain low. In the reach from approximately 2300 to 3000 m downstream from the headwaters area, an amorphous Zn-silicate precipitates from the water. In this reach, concentrations of both Zn and silica remain nearly constant, but the loads (measured in mass/time) of both increase, suggesting that new Zn and silica are supplied to the stream, likely from emerging groundwater. Zinc isotope signatures of the solid are heavier than the dissolved Zn by about 0.5 permil in 66/64Zn, suggesting that an extracellular biologically mediated adsorption process may be involved in the formation of the Zn-silicate.

  19. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  20. Silicate-catalyzed chemical grouting compositions

    SciT

    Not Available

    1972-09-28

    Chemical grouting compositions for stabilizing earth, sand, and other porous particulate formations or agglomerates of solids are described. The composition for producing a chemically grouting structure consists of an aqueous base solution of: (1) vegetative polyphenolic material consisting of condensed type tannins, and an aqueous catalyst solution of (2) a water-soluble alkali metal silicate. The polyphenolic material is present in an amount from 5% to 40% based on the weight of the base solution, and the water- soluble alkali metal silicate is present in an amount to provide from 1% to 15% SiOD2U in the silicate compound based on themore » weight of the polyphenolic material. These grouting compositions are completely safe to operating personnel and to surrounding environment, since the potassium or sodium silicate catalysts are nontoxic. (15 claims)« less

  1. Prometheus Silicates/Sulfur dioxide/NIMS

    2000-05-18

    The Prometheus region of Jupiter moon Io was imaged by NASA Galileo spacecraft in 1999. The maps made from spectrometer data show the interplay between hot silicates on the surface and sulfur dioxide frost.

  2. Silicate Emission in the TW Hydrae Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.

    2000-11-01

    The TW Hydrae association is the nearest young stellar association. Among its members are HD 98800, HR 4796A, and TW Hydrae itself, the nearest known classical T Tauri star. We have observed these three stars spectroscopically between 3 and 13 μm. In TW Hya, the spectrum shows a silicate emission feature that is similar to many other young stars' with protostellar disks. The 11.2 μm feature indicative of significant amounts of crystalline olivine is not as strong as in some young stars and solar system comets. In HR 4796A, the thermal emission in the silicate feature is very weak, suggesting little in the way of (small silicate) grains near the star. The silicate band of HD 98800 (observed by us, but also reported by Sylvester & Skinner) is intermediate in strength between TW Hya and HR 4796A.

  3. Influence of Silicate Melt Composition on Metal/Silicate Partitioning of W, Ge, Ga and Ni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singletary, S. J.; Domanik, K.; Drake, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    The depletion of the siderophile elements in the Earth's upper mantle relative to the chondritic meteorites is a geochemical imprint of core segregation. Therefore, metal/silicate partition coefficients (Dm/s) for siderophile elements are essential to investigations of core formation when used in conjunction with the pattern of elemental abundances in the Earth's mantle. The partitioning of siderophile elements is controlled by temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and by the compositions of the metal and silicate phases. Several recent studies have shown the importance of silicate melt composition on the partitioning of siderophile elements between silicate and metallic liquids. It has been demonstrated that many elements display increased solubility in less polymerized (mafic) melts. However, the importance of silicate melt composition was believed to be minor compared to the influence of oxygen fugacity until studies showed that melt composition is an important factor at high pressures and temperatures. It was found that melt composition is also important for partitioning of high valency siderophile elements. Atmospheric experiments were conducted, varying only silicate melt composition, to assess the importance of silicate melt composition for the partitioning of W, Co and Ga and found that the valence of the dissolving species plays an important role in determining the effect of composition on solubility. In this study, we extend the data set to higher pressures and investigate the role of silicate melt composition on the partitioning of the siderophile elements W, Ge, Ga and Ni between metallic and silicate liquid.

  4. GLASS FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Fibrous glass fillers Binders used in the glass plastic industry Method of manufacturing glass plastics and glass plastic articles Properties of fiberglass Primary areas for use of glass fibre reinforced plastics

  5. Silicate calculi, a rare cause of kidney stones in children.

    PubMed

    Taşdemir, Mehmet; Fuçucuoğlu, Dilara; Özman, Oktay; Sever, Lale; Önal, Bülent; Bilge, Ilmay

    2017-02-01

    Urinary silicate calculi in humans are extremely rare. Reported cases of silicate calculi are mostly documented in adults and are commonly related to an excessive intake of magnesium trisilicate in food or drugs. Published studies on the presence of silicate calculi in children are scarce. Three cases of silicate kidney stones without prior silicate intake are reported. Two patients underwent surgical treatment, and the third patient was treated using conservative methods. Urinalysis revealed no underlying metabolic abnormalities. Analyses revealed that silicate was the major component of the stones. Siliceous deposits in urinary stones may be more common than anticipated, and the underlying pathophysiology remains to be clarified.

  6. Co-settling of Chromite and Sulfide Melt Droplets and Trace Element Partitioning between Sulfide and Silicate Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoochehri, S.; Schmidt, M. W.; Guenther, D.

    2013-12-01

    Gravitational settling of immiscible, dense sulfide melt droplets together with other cumulate phases such as chromite, combined with downward percolation of these droplets through a cumulate pile, is thought to be one of the possible processes leading to the formation of PGE rich sulfide deposits in layered mafic intrusions. Furthermore some chromitite seams in the Merensky Reef (Bushveld Complex) are considered to be acting as a filter or barrier for further downward percolation of sulfide melts into footwall layers. To investigate the feasibility of such mechanical processes and to study the partitioning behavior of 50 elements including transition metals and REEs (but not PGEs) between a silicate and a sulfide melt, two separate series of high temperature (1250-1380 °C) centrifuge-assisted experiments at 1000 g, 0.4-0.6 GPa were conducted. A synthetic silicate glass with a composition representative of the parental magma of the Bushveld Complex (~ 55 wt% SiO2) was mixed with pure FeS powder. For the first series of experiments, 15 or 25 wt% natural chromite with average grain sizes of ~ 5 or 31 μm were added to a mixture of silicate glass and FeS (10 wt%) adding 1 wt% water. For the second series, a mixture of the same glass and FeS was doped with 50 trace elements. These mixtures were first statically equilibrated and then centrifuged. In the first experimental series, sulfide melt droplets settled together with, but did not segregate from chromite grains even after centrifugation at 1000 g for 12 hours. A change in initial chromite grain size and proportions didn't have any effect on segregation. Without chromite, the starting mixture resulted in the formation of large sulfide melt pools together with finer droplets still disseminated through the silicate glass and both at the bottom of the capsule. The incomplete segregation of sulfide melt is interpreted as being due to high interfacial energies between sulfide and silicate melts/crystals which hinder

  7. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  8. Simulated Lunar Environment Spectra of Silicic Volcanic Rocks: Application to Lunar Domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotch, T. D.; Shirley, K.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2016-12-01

    Lunar volcanism was dominated by flood-style basaltic volcanism associated with the lunar mare. However, since the Apollo era it has been suggested that some regions, termed "red spots," are the result of non-basaltic volcanic activity. These early suggestions of non-mare volcanism were based on interpretations of rugged geomorphology resulting from viscous lava flows and relatively featureless, red-sloped VNIR spectra. Mid-infrared data from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter have confirmed that many of the red spot features, including Hansteen Alpha, the Gruithuisen Domes, the Mairan Domes, Lassell Massif, and Compton Belkovich are silicic volcanic domes. Additional detections of silicic material in the Aristarchus central peak and ejecta suggest excavation of a subsurface silicic pluton. Other red spots, including the Helmet and Copernicus have relatively low Diviner Christiansen feature positions, but they are not as felsic as the features listed above. To date, the SiO2 content of the silicic dome features has been difficult to quantitatively determine due to the limited spectral resolution of Diviner and lack of terrestrial analog spectra acquired in an appropriate environment. Based on spectra of pure mineral and glass separates, preliminary estimates suggest that the rocks comprising the lunar silicic domes are > 65 wt.% SiO2. In an effort to better constrain this value, we have acquired spectra of andesite, dacite, rhyolite, pumice, and obsidian rock samples under a simulated lunar environment in the Planetary and Asteroid Regolith Spectroscopy Environmental Chamber (PARSEC) at the Center for Planetary Exploration at Stony Brook University. This presentation will discuss the spectra of these materials and how they relate to the Diviner measurements of the lunar silicic dome features.

  9. Interpreting the 10 micron Astronomical Silicate Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowey, Janet E.

    1998-11-01

    10micron spectra of silicate dust in the diffuse medium towards Cyg OB2 no. 12 and towards field and embedded objects in the Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC) were obtained with CGS3 at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). Cold molecular-cloud silicates are sampled in quiescent lines of sight towards the field stars Taurus-Elias 16 and Elias 13, whilst observations of the embedded young stellar objects HL Tau, Taurus-Elias 7 (Haro6-10) and Elias 18 also include emission from heated dust. To obtain the foreground silicate absorption profiles, featureless continua are estimated using smoothed astronomical and laboratory silicate emissivities. TMC field stars and Cyg OB2 no. 12 are modelled as photospheres reddened by foreground continuum and silicate extinction. Dust emission in the non-photospheric continua of HL Tau and Elias 7 (Haro6-10) is distinguished from foreground silicate absorption using a 10micron disk model, based on the IR-submm model of T Tauri stars by Adams, Lada & Shu (1988), with terms added to represent the foreground continuum and silicate extinction. The absorption profiles of HL Tau and Elias 7 are similar to that of the field star Elias 16. Fitted temperature indices of 0.43 (HL Tau) and 0.33 (Elias 7) agree with Boss' (1996) theoretical models of the 200-300K region, but are lower than those of IR-submm disks (0.5-0.61; Mannings & Emerson 1994); the modelled 10micron emission of HL Tau is optically thin, that of Elias 7 is optically thick. A preliminary arcsecond-resolution determination of the 10micron emissivity near θ1 Ori D in the Trapezium region of Orion and a range of emission temperatures (225-310K) are derived from observations by T. L. Hayward; this Ney-Allen emissivity is 0.6micron narrower than the Trapezium emissivity obtained by Forrest et al. (1975) with a large aperture. Published interstellar grain models, elemental abundances and laboratory studies of Solar System silicates (IDPs, GEMS and meteorites), the 10micron

  10. Initial Examination of Low Velocity Sphere Impact of Glass Ceramics

    SciT

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Fox, Ethan E; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) sphere impact testing of two materials from the lithium aluminosilicate family reinforced with different amounts of ceramic particulate, i.e., glass-ceramic materials, SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-G1 and SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-L. Both materials are provided by SCHOTT Glass (Duryea, PA). This work is a follow-up to similar sphere impact studies completed by the authors on PPG's Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass and SCHOTT BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. A gas gun or a sphere-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery ofmore » silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) spheres against the glass ceramic tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the glass-ceramics were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between sphere and target material. Quasistatic spherical indentation was also performed on both glass ceramics and their contact damage responses were compared to those of soda-lime silicate and borosilicate glasses. Lastly, variability of contact damage response was assessed by performing spherical indentation testing across the area of an entire glass ceramic tile. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Resistan{trademark}-L glass ceramic required the highest velocity of sphere impact for damage to initiate. Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass was second best, then Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and then BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (2) Glass-ceramic Resistan{trademark}-L also required the largest force to initiate ring crack from quasi-static indentation. That ranking was followed, in descending order, by Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass, Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass

  11. Chondrule-like objects and brown glasses in howardites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Edward J.; Fredriksson, Kurt; Rajan, Sundar; Noonan, Albert

    1990-01-01

    Chondrulelike objects and brown glasses were analyzed in the howardites, Bununu, Malvern, Monticello, Pavlovka, and Yamato 7308. The objects are very similar to chondrules in ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites. Like the brown glasses, the chondrulelike objects could have been produced by impact melting that left some crystalline nuclei, followed by a slower cooling rate than for the glasses. Alternatively, these objects are chondrules implanted from chondrite impactors. They are, however, without rims or any adhering matrix. The brown glasses appear to represent melting of average regolithic surface material, except for Monticello and Y7308, both of which have some siliceous glasses. The siliceous glasses could not have been produced by vapor fractionation but by melting of differentiated lithologies such as fayalitic granites. Impact mechanics indicates that howardites with abundant brown glasses came from an asteroid larger than Vesta (greater than 400 km radius), upon which impacts occurred at relative velocities of up to 5 km/s. Howardites with little or no brown glasses came from a smaller parent body. It is concluded that at least two parent bodies are likely sources for the basaltic achondrites.

  12. Cell adhesion to borate glasses by colloidal probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wiederhorn, Sheldon M; Chae, Young-Hun; Simon, Carl G; Cahn, Jackson; Deng, Yan; Day, Delbert

    2011-05-01

    The adhesion of osteoblast-like cells to silicate and borate glasses was measured in cell growth medium using colloidal probe microscopy. The probes consisted of silicate and borate glass spheres, 25-50 μm in diameter, attached to atomic force microscope cantilevers. Variables of the study included glass composition and time of contact of the cell to the glasses. Increasing the time of contact from 15 to 900 s increased the force of adhesion. The data could be plotted linearly on a log-log plot of adhesive force versus time. Of the seven glasses tested, five had slopes close to 0.5, suggesting a square root dependence of the adhesive force on the contact time. Such behavior can be interpreted as a diffusion limited process occurring during the early stages of cell attachment. We suggest that the rate limiting step in the adhesion process is the diffusion of integrins resident in the cell membrane to the area of cell attachment. Data presented in this paper support the hypothesis of Hench et al. that strong adhesion depends on the formation of a calcium phosphate reaction layer on the surfaces of the glass. Glasses that did not form a calcium phosphate layer exhibited a weaker adhesive force relative to those glasses that did form a calcium phosphate layer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Characterization of low concentration uranium glass working materials

    SciT

    Eppich, G. R.; Wimpenny, J. B.; Leever, M. E.

    A series of uranium-doped silicate glasses were created at (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) LLNL, to be used as working reference material analogs for low uranium concentration research. Specifically, the aim of this effort was the generation of well-characterized glasses spanning a range of concentrations and compositions, and of sufficient homogeneity in uranium concentration and isotopic composition, for instrumentation research and development purposes. While the glasses produced here are not intended to replace or become standard materials for uranium concentration or uranium isotopic composition, it is hoped that they will help fill a current gap, providing low-level uranium glasses sufficient formore » methods development and method comparisons within the limitations of the produced glass suite. Glasses are available for research use by request.« less

  14. Zinc Signals and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc. PMID:29064429

  15. Iron metal production in silicate melts through the direct reduction of Fe/II/ by Ti/III/, Cr/II/, and Eu/II/. [in lunar basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, H. D.; Balazs, G. B.; Shaffer, A. P.; Jamison, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The production of metallic iron in silicate melts by chemical reactions of Ti(3+), Cr(2+), and Eu(2+) with Fe(2+) is demonstrated under experimental conditions in a simplified basaltic liquid. These reactions form a basis for interpreting the role of isochemical valency exchange models in explanations for the reduced nature of lunar basalts. The redox couples are individually investigated in the silicate melt to ascertain reference redox ratios that are independent of mutual interactions. These studies also provide calibrations of spectral absorptions of the Fe(2+) and Ti(2+) species in these glasses. Subsequent spectrophotometric analyses of Fe(2+) and Ti(2+) in glasses doped with both iron and titanium and of Fe(2+) in glasses doped with either iron and chromium or iron and europium ascertain the degree of mutual interactions in these dual-doped glasses.

  16. Structural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of PMR-15/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi (Technical Monitor); Dean, Derrick; Abdalla, Mohamed; Green, Keith; Small, Sharee

    2003-01-01

    In the first year of this research, we successfully synthesized and characterized Polymer/ Layered Silicate nanocomposite using the polyimide PMR-15 as the polymer and several layered silicate nanoparticles. We have scaled up the process to allow fabrication of monoliths using these nanocomposites. The morphology of these systems was found to evolve during processing to an exfoliated structure for one system and intercalated for the rest. Correlation with Transmission Electron Microscopy studies is underway. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed a significant increase in the thermomechanical properties (E' and E'') of 2.5 wt.% clay loaded nanocomposites in comparison to the neat polyimide. Increasing the clay loading to 5 wt.% decreased these properties. Higher glass transition temperatures were observed for 2.5 wt.% nanocomposites compared to the neat polyimide. A lower coefficient of thermal expansion was observed only for the PGV/PMR-15 nanocomposite. An improvement in the flexural properties (modulus, strength and elongation) was observed for the 2.5 wt.% nanocomposite but not for the 5 wt.% nanocomposites. The improved barrier properties polymer/ silicate nanocomposites suggest that moisture uptake should be decreased for PMR-15 nanocomposites. The results of some recent experiments to examine delineate the ability of the silicate nanoparticles in improving the hydrolytic degradation of PMR-15 will be discussed.

  17. Application of zinc oxide quantum dots in food safety

    Zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) are nanoparticles of purified powdered ZnO. The ZnO QDs were directly added into liquid foods or coated on the surface of glass jars using polylactic acid (PLA) as a carrier. The antimicrobial activities of ZnO QDs against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteriti...

  18. The fate of silicon during glass corrosion under alkaline conditions: A mechanistic and kinetic study with the International Simple Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gin, Stéphane; Jollivet, Patrick; Fournier, Maxime; Berthon, Claude; Wang, Zhaoying; Mitroshkov, Alexandre; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2015-02-01

    International Simple Glass - a six oxide borosilicate glass selected by the international nuclear glass community to improve the understanding of glass corrosion mechanisms and kinetics - was altered at 90 °C in a solution initially saturated with respect to amorphous 29SiO2. The pH90°C, was fixed at 9 at the start of the experiment and raised to 11.5 after 209 d by the addition of KOH. Isotope sensitive analytical techniques were used to analyze the solution and altered glass samples, helping to understand the driving forces and rate limiting processes controlling long-term glass alteration. At pH 9, the corrosion rate continuously drops and the glass slowly transforms into a uniform, homogeneous amorphous alteration layer. The mechanisms responsible for this transformation are water penetration through the growing alteration layer and ion exchange. We demonstrate that this amorphous alteration layer is not a precipitate resulting from the hydrolysis of the silicate network; it is mostly inherited from the glass structure from which the most weakly bonded cations (Na, Ca and B) have been released. At pH 11.5, the alteration process is very different: the high solubility of glass network formers (Si, Al, Zr) triggers the rapid and complete dissolution of the glass (dissolution becomes congruent) and precipitation of amorphous and crystalline phases. Unlike at pH 9 where glass corrosion rate decreased by 3 orders of magnitude likely due to the retroaction of the alteration layer on water dynamics/reactivity at the reaction front, the rate at pH 11.5 is maintained at a value close to the forward rate due to both the hydrolysis of the silicate network promoted by OH- and the precipitation of CSH and zeolites. This study provides key information for a unified model for glass dissolution.

  19. Highly evolved rhyolitic glass compositions from the Toba Caldera, Sumatra

    SciT

    Chesner, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The quartz latite to rhyolitic ash flow tuffs erupted form the Toba Caldera, perhaps the largest caldera on earth (100 by 30 kms), provide the unique opportunity to study a highly differentiated liquid in equilibrium with numerous mineral phases. Not only are the rocks very crystal rich (30-50%), but at present a minimum of 15 co-existing mineral phases have been identified. Both whole-rock and glass analyses were made by XRF techniques providing data on both major and trace elements. Whole rock chemistry of individual pumices from the youngest eruption at Toba (75,000 years ago), are suggestive of the eruption ofmore » two magma compositions across a boundary layer in the magma chamber. Glass chemistry of the pumices also show two distinct liquid compositions. The more silicic pumices, which have the most evolved glass compositions, are similar to the whole rock chemistry of the few aplitic pumices and cognate granitic xenoliths that were collected. This highly evolved composition resulted from the removal of up to 15 mineral phases and may be a fractionation buffered, univariant composition. The glasses from the less silicic pumices are similar to the whole rock chemistry of the more silicic pumice, thus falling nicely on a fractionation trend towards the univariant composition for these rocks. This set of glass compositions allows an independent test for the origin of distal ashes thought to have erupted from Toba and deposited in Malaysia, the Indian Ocean, and as far away as India.« less

  20. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Johnson, William L.

    1998-01-01

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  1. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  2. Zinc and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Juan P.; Guo, Liang; Yoo, Changwon; Stewart, Tiffanie S

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process through which cells overcome stressful conditions. Inasmuch as faulty autophagy has been associated with aging, neuronal degeneration disorders, diabetes, and fatty liver, autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning the role of zinc in the regulation of autophagy, the role of autophagy in zinc metabolism, and the potential role of autophagy as a mediator of the protective effects of zinc. Data from in vitro studies consistently support the notion that zinc is critical for early and late autophagy. Studies have shown inhibition of early and late autophagy in cells cultured in medium treated with zinc chelators. Conversely, excess zinc added to the medium has shown to potentiate the stimulation of autophagy by tamoxifen, H2O2, ethanol and dopamine. The potential role of autophagy in zinc homeostasis has just begun to be investigated.Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy dysregulation causes significant changes in cellular zinc homeostasis. Autophagy may mediate the protective effect of zinc against lipid accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation by promoting degradation of lipid droplets, inflammasomes, p62/SQSTM1 and damaged mitochondria.Studies with humans and animal models are necessary to determine whether autophagy is influenced by zinc intake. PMID:25012760

  3. Phosphorus Equilibria Among Mafic Silicate Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlin, Jana; Xirouchakis, Dimitris

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus incorporation in major rock-forming silicate minerals has the following implications: (1) Reactions between phosphorus-hosting major silicates and accessory phosphates, which are also major trace element carriers, may control the stability of the latter and thus may affect the amount of phosphorus and other trace elements released to the coexisting melt or fluid phase. (2) Less of a phosphate mineral is needed to account for the bulk phosphorus of planetaty mantles. (3) During partial melting of mantle mineral assemblages or equilibrium fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas, and in the absence or prior to saturation with a phosphate mineral, silicate melts may become enriched in phosphorus, especially in the geochemically important low melt fraction regime, Although the small differences in the ionic radii of IVp5+, IVSi4+, and IV Al3+ makes phosphoms incorporation into crystalline silicates perhaps unsurprising, isostructural silicate and phosphate crystalline solids do not readily form solutions, e.g., (Fe, Mg)2SiO4 vs. LiMgPO4, SiO)2 VS. AlPO4. Nonetheless, there are reports of, poorly characterized silico-phosphate phases in angrites , 2-4 wt% P2O5 in olivine and pyroxene grains in pallasites and reduced terestrial basalts which are little understood but potentially useful, and up to 17 wt% P2O5 in olivine from ancient slags. However, such enrichments are rare and only underscore the likelihood of phosphoms incorporation in silicate minerals. The mechanisms that allow phosphorus to enter major rock-forming silicate minerals (e.g., Oliv, Px, Gt) remain little understood and the relevant data base is limited. Nonetheless, old and new high-pressure (5-10 GPa) experimental data suggest that P2O5 wt% decreases from silica-poor to silica-rich compositions or from orthosilicate to chain silicate structures (garnet > olivine > orthopyroxene) which implies that phosphorus incorporation in silicates is perhaps more structure-than site-specific. The

  4. Cation coordination in oxychloride glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. A.; Holland, D.; Bland, J.; Johnson, C. E.; Thomas, M. F.

    2003-02-01

    Glasses containing mixtures of cations and anions of nominal compositions [Sb2O3]x - [ZnCl2]1-x where x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00, have been studied by means of neutron diffraction and Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy. There is preferential bonding within the system with the absence of Sb-Cl bonds. Antimony is found to be threefold coordinated to oxygen, and zinc fourfold coordinated. The main contributing species are of the form [Sb(OSb)2(OZn)] and [Zn(ClZn)2(OSb)2].

  5. Electrochemical Measurement of Activities for NiO, Ru2O3, and ZnO in a Lunar Volcanic Glass Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, R. O.; Hendrickson, T. R.; Malum, K. M.; Floden, A. M.

    2000-01-01

    Differential Pulse Voltammetry is a fast in situ method for measuring component activities in silicate melts. We report methods for confirming equilibrium conditions and activities for oxide components in an Apollo 15 green glass analog composition.

  6. Laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings.

    PubMed

    Comesaña, R; Quintero, F; Lusquiños, F; Pascual, M J; Boutinguiza, M; Durán, A; Pou, J

    2010-03-01

    Laser cladding by powder injection has been used to produce bioactive glass coatings on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates. Bioactive glass compositions alternative to 45S5 Bioglass were demonstrated to exhibit a gradual wetting angle-temperature evolution and therefore a more homogeneous deposition of the coating over the substrate was achieved. Among the different compositions studied, the S520 bioactive glass showed smoother wetting angle-temperature behavior and was successfully used as precursor material to produce bioactive coatings. Coatings processed using a Nd:YAG laser presented calcium silicate crystallization at the surface, with a uniform composition along the coating cross-section, and no significant dilution of the titanium alloy was observed. These coatings maintain similar bioactivity to that of the precursor material as demonstrated by immersion in simulated body fluid. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  8. Molybdenum Valence in Basaltic Silicate Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Newville, M.; Sutton, S.; Pando, K.

    2010-01-01

    The moderately siderophile element molybdenum has been used as an indicator in planetary differentiation processes, and is particularly relevant to core formation [for example, 1-6]. However, models that apply experimental data to an equilibrium differentiation scenario infer the oxidation state of molybdenum from solubility data or from multivariable coefficients from metal-silicate partitioning data [1,3,7]. Partitioning behavior of molybdenum, a multivalent element with a transition near the J02 of interest for core formation (IW-2) will be sensitive to changes in JO2 of the system and silicate melt structure. In a silicate melt, Mo can occur in either 4+ or 6+ valence state, and Mo6+ can be either octahedrally or tetrahedrally coordinated. Here we present first XANES measurements of Mo valence in basaltic run products at a range of P, T, and JO2 and further quantify the valence transition of Mo.

  9. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Dicalcium Silicate Based Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, N.; Chatterjee, A.

    2017-06-01

    It is imperative to develop low energy alternative binders considering the large amounts of energy consumed as well as carbon dioxide emissions involved in the manufacturing of ordinary Portland cement. This study is on the synthesis of a dicalcium silicate based binder using a low temperature hydrothermal route.The process consists of synthesizing an intermediate product consisting of a calcium silicate hydrate phase with a Ca:Si ratio of 2:1 and further thermal treatment to produce the β-Ca2SiO4 (C2S) phase.Effect of various synthesis parameters like water to solid ratio, dwell time and temperature on the formation of the desired calcium silicate hydrate phase is reported along with effect of heating conditions for formation of the β-C2S phase. Around 77.45% of β-C2S phase was synthesized by thermal treatment of the intermediate phase at 820°C.

  10. Experimental evidence for the absence of iron isotope fractionation between metal and silicate liquids at 1 GPa and 1250-1300 °C and its cosmochemical consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hin, Remco C.; Schmidt, Max W.; Bourdon, Bernard

    2012-09-01

    Iron isotope fractionation during metal-silicate differentiation has been proposed as a cause for differences in iron isotope compositions of chondrites, iron meteorites and the bulk silicate Earth. Stable isotope fractionation, however, rapidly decreases with increasing temperature. We have thus performed liquid metal-liquid silicate equilibration experiments at 1250-1300 °C and 1 GPa to address whether Fe isotope fractionation is resolvable at the lowest possible temperatures for magmatic metal-silicate differentiation. A centrifuging piston cylinder apparatus enabled quantitative metal-silicate segregation. Elemental tin or sulphur was used in the synthetic metal-oxide mixtures to lower the melting temperature of the metal. The analyses demonstrate that eight of the 10 experimental systems equilibrated in a closed isotopic system, as was assessed by varying run durations and starting Fe isotope compositions. Statistically significant iron isotope fractionation between quenched metals and silicates was absent in nine of the 10 experiments and all 10 experiments yield an average metal-silicate fractionation factor of 0.01 ± 0.04‰, independent of whether graphite or silica glass capsules were used. This implies that Fe isotopes do not fractionate during low pressure metal-silicate segregation under magmatic conditions. In large bodies such as the Earth, fractionation between metal and high pressure (>20 GPa) silicate phases may still be a possible process for equilibrium fractionation during metal-silicate differentiation. However, the 0.07 ± 0.02‰ heavier composition of bulk magmatic iron meteorites relative to the average of bulk ordinary/carbonaceous chondrites cannot result from equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation during core segregation. The up to 0.5‰ lighter sulphide than metal fraction in iron meteorites and in one ordinary chondrite can only be explained by fractionation during subsolidus processes.

  11. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  12. Pinhole Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Hopf, Martin; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2008-01-01

    Eye aberrations are commonly corrected by lenses that restore vision by altering rays before they pass through the cornea. Some modern promoters claim that pinhole glasses are better than conventional lenses in correcting all kinds of refractive defects such as myopia (nearsighted), hyperopia (farsighted), astigmatisms, and presbyopia. Do pinhole glasses really give better vision? Some ways to use this question for motivation in teaching optics have been discussed. For this column we include a series of experiments that students can complete using a model of the eye and demonstrate issues related to pinhole vision correction.

  13. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciT

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remainedmore » constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.« less

  14. DNA adsorption onto glass surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Krista Lynn

    Streaming potential measurements were performed on microspheres of silica, lime silicate (SLS) and calcium aluminate (CA) glasses containing silica and iron oxide (CASi and CAFe). The silicate based glasses exhibited acidic surfaces with isoelectric points (IEP) around a pH of 3 while the calcium aluminates displayed more basic surfaces with IEP ranging from 8--9.5. The surface of the calcium aluminate microspheres containing silica reacted with the background electrolyte, altering the measured zeta potential values and inhibiting electrolyte flow past the sample at ˜ pH 4 due to formation of a solid plug. DNA adsorption experiments were performed using the microspheres and a commercially available silicate based DNA isolation filter using a known quantity of DNA suspended in a chaotropic agent free 0.35 wt% Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) buffer solution. The microspheres and commercial filter were also used to isolate DNA from macrophage cells in the presence of chaotropic agents. UV absorbance at ˜260 nm and gel electrophoresis were used to quantify the amount and size of the DNA strands that adsorbed to the microsphere surfaces. In both experiments, the 43--106 microm CAFe microspheres adsorbed the largest quantity of DNA. However, the 43--106 microm SLS microspheres isolated more DNA from the cells than the <43 microm CAFe microspheres, indicating that microsphere size contributes to isolation ability. The UV absorbance of DNA at ˜260 nm was slightly altered due to the dissolution of the calcium aluminate glasses during the adsorption process. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) determined that calcium and aluminum ions leached from the CA and CAFe microsphere surfaces during these experiments. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy showed that the leached ions had no effect on the conformation of the DNA, and therefore would not be expected to interfere in downstream applications such as DNA replication. The 0.35 wt

  15. Diffusion-driven D/H fractionation in silicates during hydration, dehydration and degassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskosz, Mathieu; Laporte, Didier; Deloule, Etienne; Ingrin, Jannick; Remusat, Laurent; Depecker, Christophe; Leroux, Hugues

    2017-04-01

    Understanding how degassing occurs during accretion and differentiation is crucial to explain the water budget of planetary bodies. In this context, the hydrogen isotopic signature of water in mantle minerals and melts is particularly useful to trace reservoirs and their interactions. Nonetheless, little is known on the influence of mantle processes on the D/H signatures of silicates. In this study, we performed controlled hydration/dehydration experiments. We explore the possibility that diffusion-driven fractionation could affect the D/H signature of partially hydrated amorphous or molten silicates and nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs). High purity synthetic fused silica samples were annealed at between 200 and 1000°C at 20 mbar water partial pressure for 1 to 30 days. Dehydration of initially hydrated silica was also performed at 1000°C for a few hours. A set of rhyolitic samples previously synthesized in order to study bubble nucleation during magma decompression was also analyzed. Finally a natural grossular monocrystal (Zillertaler Alps, Austria), partially dehydrated in air at 800°C for 10 hours was studied. Water content and speciation were measured both by Fourier-Transform Infra-Red and Raman spectroscopies. Isotopic analyses were performed with the IMS 1270 and 1280 ion microprobes. The silica samples, the rhyolitic glasses and the grossular monocrystal exhibit typical water concentration profiles. In all cases, water speciation does not change significantly along concentration profiles. Concerning D/H signatures, no isotopic variation is detectable across amorphous silica and rhyolitic glasses. The situation is however very different in the grossular monocrystal. A strong isotopic gradient appears correlated to the water concentration profile. Our data are interpreted in terms of diffusion mechanisms in both amorphous (and molten) silicates and NAMs. Hydration, dehydration and magma degassing are probably not able to promote large diffusion

  16. Ferrous Silicate Spherules with Euhedral Fe,Ni-Metal Grains in CH Carbonaceous Chondrites: Evidence for Condensation Under Highly Oxidizing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krot, A. N.; Meibom, A.; Petaev, M. I.; Keil, K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Saito, A.; Mukai, M.; Ohsumi, K.

    2000-01-01

    A population of ferrous silicate spherules composed of cryptocrystalline ol-px-normative material, +/-SiO2-rich glass and rounded-to-euhedral Fe,Ni-metal grains preserved a condensation signature of the precursors formed under oxidizing conditions.

  17. Synchrotron X-ray spectroscopic investigations of an Nb-bearing silicate melt in contact with an aqueous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayanovic, R. A.; Anderson, A. J.; Bassett, W. A.; Chou, I.

    2006-05-01

    Understanding the structural properties of trace elements in hydrous silicate melts in contact with a hydrothermal fluid is fundamentally important for a better assessment of the role of such elements in silicate melts being subjected to hydrothermal processes. We describe the use of synchrotron x-ray microprobe techniques and the modified hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell for in-situ spectroscopic analysis of individual phases of a silicate-melt/fluid system. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Nb K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements were made on sectors ID20 and ID13 at the Advanced Photon Source, at the Argonne National Laboratory, on a Nb-bearing granitic glass in H2O and separately in a 1 M Na2CO3 aqueous solution at temperatures ranging from 25 to 880 °C and at up to 700 MPa of pressure. Individual phases of the Nb-glass/fluid system (at low temperatures) or the hydrous-silicate-melt/fluid system (at elevated temperatures) were probed using an X-ray beam focused to a diameter of 5 μm at the location of the sample. XRF analysis shows that the Nb partitions selectively from the hydrous silicate melt into the aqueous fluid at high temperatures in the Nb-glass/Na2CO3/H2O system but not so in the Nb-glass/H2O system. Analysis of XAFS spectra measured from the hydrous silicate melt phase of the Nb-glass/H2O sample in the 450 to 700 °C range shows that the first shell contains six oxygen atoms at a distance of ~1.98 Å. Our results suggest that reorganization of the silicate structure surrounding Nb occurs in the melt when compared to that of the starting glass. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra show a pre-edge peak feature located at ~18995 eV that exhibits sharpening and becomes more intensified in the 450 to 700 °C range. Fitting of the Nb K-edge XANES spectra measured from the melt is accomplished using FEFF8.28 and an atomic model NbSi4O6-4(Na, K). The model is based on the structure of fresnoite (Ba2TiSi2O8

  18. Mafic intrusion remobilising silicic magma under El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.; Laporte, D.; Marti, J.; Devouard, B.; Cluzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    The 2011 submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands, has produced volcanic