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Sample records for zinc single crystal

  1. Characterization of zinc selenide single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhardt, Rosario A.

    1996-01-01

    ZnSe single crystals of high quality and low impurity levels are desired for use as substrates in optoelectronic devices. This is especially true when the device requires the formation of homoepitaxial layers. While ZnSe is commercially available, it is at present extremely expensive due to the difficulty of growing single crystal boules with low impurity content and the resultant low yields. Many researchers have found it necessary to heat treat the crystals in liquid Zn in order to remove the impurities, lower the resistivity and activate the photoluminescence at room temperature. The physical vapor transport method (PVT) has been successfully used at MSFC to grow many single crystals of II-VI semiconducting materials including ZnSe. The main goal at NASA has been to try to establish the effect of gravity on the growth parameters. To this effect, crystals have been grown vertically upwards or horizontally. Both (111) and (110) oriented ZnSe crystals have been obtained via unseeded PVT growth. Preliminary characterization of the horizontally grown crystals has revealed that Cu is a major impurity and that the low temperature photoluminescence spectra is dominated by the copper peak. The ratio of the copper peak to the free exciton peak is being used to determine variations in composition throughout the crystal. It was the intent of this project to map the copper composition of various crystals via photoluminescence first, then measure their electrical resistivity and capacitance as a function of frequency before proceeding with a heat treatment designed to remove the copper impurities. However, equipment difficulties with the photoluminescence set up, having to establish a procedure for measuring the electrical properties of the as-grown crystals and time limitations made us re-evaluate the project goals. Vertically grown samples designated as ZnSe-25 were chosen to be measured electrically since they were not expected to show as much variation in their

  2. Crystal structure, spectral, thermal and dielectric studies of a new zinc benzoate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijini, B. R.; Prasanna, S.; Deepa, M.; Nair, C. M. K.; Rajendra Babu, K.

    2012-11-01

    Single crystals of zinc benzoate with a novel structure were grown in gel media. Sodium metasilicate of gel density 1.04 g/cc at pH 6 was employed to yield transparent single crystals. The crystal structure of the compound was ascertained by single crystal X-ray diffractometry. It was noted that the crystal belongs to monoclinic system with space group P21/c with unit cell parameters a = 10.669(1) Å, b = 12.995(5) Å, c = 19.119(3) Å, and β = 94.926(3)°. The crystal was seen to possess a linear polymeric structure along b-axis; with no presence of coordinated or lattice water. CHN analysis established the stoichiometric composition of the crystal. The existence of functional groups present in the single crystal system was confirmed by FT-IR studies. The thermal characteristic of the sample was analysed by TGA-DTA techniques, and the sample was found to be thermally stable up to 280 °C. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were also determined. UV-Vis spectroscopy corroborated the transparency of the crystal and revealed the optical band gap to be 4 eV. Dielectric studies showed decrease in the dielectric constant of the sample with increase in frequency.

  3. Growth and characterization of divalent transition metal ions doped zinc hydrogen phosphate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Delma; Jagannatha, N.; Nagaraja, K. P.; Rohith, P. S.; Pradeepkumar, K. V.

    2018-05-01

    Zinc hydrogen phosphate (ZnHP) single crystal co-doped with divalent transition metal ions Cobalt (Co2+) and Cadmium (Cd2+) is grown by gel technique in silica hydro gel media. The presence of Co2+ and Cd2+ dopants in the ZnHP crystal was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX).FTIR spectra of the grown crystal depict the stretching and bending vibration of PO4 units, water of crystallization and metal-oxygen bonds. Powder XRD analysis reveals that the grown crystal belongs to monoclinic system with spacegroup P 21. The thermal stability of the grown crystal is rectified from TG-DSC studies.

  4. Structural, thermal and optical properties of a semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystal: glycine zinc sulphate.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, T; Ramamurthi, K

    2007-10-01

    Glycine zinc sulphate salt was synthesized and the solubility and metastable zonewidth were estimated from the aqueous solution. Single crystals of glycine zinc sulphate were grown by solvent evaporation method from aqueous solution. Grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectral analyses. The range and percentage of optical transmission was ascertained by recording UV-vis-NIR spectrum. Thermal properties of the crystal were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Microhardness study was carried out on (01-1) face of the grown crystal. Its powder second harmonic generation efficiency was measured using Nd:YAG laser and the value was observed to be 0.7 times that of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate.

  5. Single crystal X-ray structure of the artists' pigment zinc yellow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær; Christiansen, Marie Bitsch; Vinum, Morten Gotthold; Sanyova, Jana; Bendix, Jesper

    2017-08-01

    The artists' pigment zinc yellow is in general described as a complex potassium zinc chromate with the empirical formula 4ZnCrO4·K2O·3H2O. Even though the pigment has been in use since the second half of the 19th century also in large-scale industrial applications, the exact structure had hitherto been unknown. In this work, zinc yellow was synthesised by precipitation from an aqueous solution of zinc nitrate and potassium chromate under both neutral and basic conditions, and the products were compared with the pigment used in industrial paints. Analyses by Raman microscopy (MRS), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), showed that the synthesised products and the industrial pigment were identical. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography determined the structure of zinc yellow as KZn2(CrO4)2(H2O)(OH) or as KZn2(CrO4)2(H3O2) emphasizing the μ-H3O2- moiety. Notably, the zinc yellow is isostructural to the recently structurally characterized cadmium analog and both belong to the natrochalcite structure type.

  6. The relationship between elastic constants and structure of shock waves in a zinc single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivosheina, M. N.; Kobenko, S. V.; Tuch, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    The paper provides a 3D finite element simulation of shock-loaded anisotropic single crystals on the example of a Zn plate under impact using a mathematical model, which allows for anisotropy in hydrostatic stress and wave velocities in elastic and plastic ranges. The simulation results agree with experimental data, showing the absence of shock wave splitting into an elastic precursor and a plastic wave in Zn single crystals impacted in the [0001] direction. It is assumed that the absence of an elastic precursor under impact loading of a zinc single crystal along the [0001] direction is determined by the anomalously large ratio of the c/a-axes and close values of the propagation velocities of longitudinal and bulk elastic waves. It is shown that an increase in only one elastic constant along the [0001] direction results in shock wave splitting into an elastic precursor and a shock wave of "plastic" compression.

  7. Beryllium, zinc and lead single crystals as a thermal neutron monochromators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N.; Bashter, I. I.; Morcos, H. N.; El-Mesiry, M. S.; Mansy, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    The monochromatic features of Be, Zn and Pb single crystals are discussed in terms of orientation, mosaic spread, and thickness within the wavelength band from 0.04 up to 0.5 nm. A computer program MONO written in "FORTRAN-77", has been adapted to carry out the required calculations. Calculations show that a 5 mm thick of beryllium (HCP structure) single crystal cut along its (0 0 2) plane having 0.6° FWHM are the optimum parameters when it is used as a monochromator with high reflected neutron intensity from a thermal neutron flux. Furthermore, at wavelengths shorter than 0.16 nm it is free from the accompanying higher order ones. Zinc (HCP structure) has the same parameters, with intensity much less than the latter. The same features are seen with lead (FCC structure) cut along its (3 1 1) plane with less reflectivity than the former. However, Pb (3 1 1) is more preferable than others at neutron wavelengths ⩽ 0.1 nm, since the glancing angle (θ ∼ 20°) is more suitable to carry out diffraction experiments. For a cold neutron flux, the first-order neutrons reflected from beryllium is free from the higher orders up to 0.36 nm. While for Zn single crystal is up to 0.5 nm.

  8. Friction and wear of single-crystal manganese-zinc ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single crystal manganese-zinc ferrite in contact with itself and with transition metals. Results indicate mating highest atomic density directions (110) on matched crystallographic planes exhibit the lowest coefficient of friction, indicating that direction is important in the friction behavior of ferrite. Matched parallel high atomic density planes and crystallographic directions at the interface exhibit low coefficients of friction. The coefficients of friction for ferrite in contact with various metals are related to the relative chemical activity of these metals. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. Cracking and the formation of hexagon- and rectangular-shaped platelet wear debris due to cleavages of (110) planes are observed on the ferrite surfaces as a result of sliding.

  9. The growth of zinc selenide single crystals by physical vapor transport in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Elmer E.; Rosenberger, Franz E.; Cheng, Hai-Yuin

    1990-01-01

    Growth and characterization studies will be performed on zinc selenide single crystals. The high temperature outgassing behavior of the silica ampoule material will be studied in order to develop a cleaning and bake-out procedure that will minimize the amount of impurities introduced into the vapor from the ampoule materials and in particular during the seal-off procedure. The outgassing behavior of the ZnSe starting material will be studied during high vacuum refinement at elevated temperatures in order to develop a temperature pressure program that will optimize the removal of impurities while minimizing a shift in stoichiometry due to preferred evaporation of the higher fugacity component. The mass spectrometer system was completed, and after calibration, will be used to perform the above tasks. The system and its operation is described in detail.

  10. Growth of zinc selenide single crystals by physical vapor transport in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1993-01-01

    The goals of this research were the optimization of growth parameters for large (20 mm diameter and length) zinc selenide single crystals with low structural defect density, and the development of a 3-D numerical model for the transport rates to be expected in physical vapor transport under a given set of thermal and geometrical boundary conditions, in order to provide guidance for an advantageous conduct of the growth experiments. In the crystal growth studies, it was decided to exclusively apply the Effusive Ampoule PVT technique (EAPVT) to the growth of ZnSe. In this technique, the accumulation of transport-limiting gaseous components at the growing crystal is suppressed by continuous effusion to vacuum of part of the vapor contents. This is achieved through calibrated leaks in one of the ground joints of the ampoule. Regarding the PVT transport rates, a 3-D spectral code was modified. After introduction of the proper boundary conditions and subroutines for the composition-dependent transport properties, the code reproduced the experimentally determined transport rates for the two cases with strongest convective flux contributions to within the experimental and numerical error.

  11. Positron annihilation study of defects in electron-irradiated single crystal zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.; Ling, C. C.; Gong, M.

    2011-01-01

    Pressurized melt grown zinc oxide (ZnO) single crystals purchased from Cermet Inc. were irradiated by 2MeV electrons with fluence of 6x1017cm-2. Isochronal annealing from 100°C-800°C was performed on the crystals under argon and air ambience. Variable Energy Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy (VEDBS) was carried out on both the as-grown and the irradiated samples at each annealing step. The migration, agglomeration and annealing of grown-in and irradiated-introduced defects were studied. It was observed that the grown-in vacancy-type defects concentration decreased at 300°C and 600 °C. For the irradiated sample annealed in argon, the positron trapping vacancy-type defect concentration decreased at 300°C and 600°C. Further annealing the as-grown and irradiated samples in argon increased the S parameter further. For the irradiated sample annealed in air, the vacancy-type defect concentration decreases at 300°C and 700°C.

  12. Elastic-plastic and phase transition of zinc oxide single crystal under shock compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xun; Mashimo, Tsutomu; Li, Wei; Zhou, Xianming; Sekine, Toshimori

    2015-03-01

    The Hugoniot data for zinc oxide (ZnO) single crystals were measured up to 80 GPa along both the ⟨ 11 2 ¯ 0 ⟩ (a-axis) and ⟨0001⟩ (c-axis) directions using a velocity interferometer system for any reflector and inclined-mirror method combined with a powder gun and two-stage light gas gun. The Hugoniot-elastic limits of ZnO were determined to be 10.5 and 11.5 GPa along the a- and c-axes, respectively. The wurtzite (B4) to rocksalt (B1) phase transition pressures along the a- and c-axes are 12.3 and 14.4 GPa, respectively. Shock velocity (Us) versus particle velocity (Up) relation of the final phase is given by the following relationship: Us (km/s) = 2.76 + 1.51Up (km/s). Based on the Debye-Grüneisen model and Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS), we discuss the EOS of the B1 phase ZnO. The bulk modulus (K0) and its pressure derivative (K0') are estimated to be K0 = 174 GPa and K0' = 3.9, respectively.

  13. Crystalline perfection, optical and piezoelectric properties of a novel semi-organic single crystal: Zinc guanidinium sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandhini, S.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc Guanidinium Sulfate (ZGuS), a semi-organic single crystal, was synthesized using slow evaporation solution growth technique. It is a non-centrosymmetric crystal with space group I4 ¯2d . The crystalline nature of the crystal and the strain were determined using powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was revealed using HR-XRD analysis. The UV-vis-NIR transmittance spectrum depicts 60% transparency with lower-cut off wavelength of 210 nm. The emission spectrum of the crystal was determined using photoluminescence study. Piezoelectricity was confirmed by determining the piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33). These findings shows that the title compound can be employed for photonic and transducer applications.

  14. Melt growth of zinc aluminate spinel single crystal by the micro-pulling down method under atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, K.; Shoji, Y.; Yamaji, A.; Kurosawa, S.; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Y.; Kim, Kyoung Jin; Ivanov, M.; Kochurikhin, V. V.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2018-06-01

    ZnAl2O4 crystals were grown using few starting compositions with various ZnO:AlO3/2 ratio using an Ir wire seed and Ir + Re crucible under ordinary pressure with Ar + 2%O2 atmosphere by the radiofrequency heating μ-PD furnace. The ZnAl2O4 spinel single crystal with 4 mm diameter could be successfully grown by the μ-PD method by optimization of starting melt composition considering with Zinc oxide evaporation. During 10 min of growth under normal pressure the formation of ZnAl2O4 single phase observed even at high vapor pressure of ZnO. The transmittance spectra and X-ray locking curve were measured for evaluating of grown ZnAl2O4 crystals quality.

  15. Optical and Electrical Properties of Sn-Doped Zinc Oxide Single Crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Haseman, M. S.; Saadatkia, Pooneh; Warfield, J. T.; ...

    2017-11-28

    Here, Sn dopant in ZnO may significantly improve the n-type conductivity of ZnO through a characteristic double effect. However, studies on bulk Sn-doped ZnO are rare, and the effect of Sn doping on the optoelectronic properties of bulk ZnO is not well understood. In this work, the effect of Sn doping on the optical and electrical properties of ZnO bulk single crystals was investigated through optical absorption spectroscopy, Hall-effect measurements, and thermoluminescence (TL) spectroscopy. Undoped and Sn-doped ZnO single crystals were grown by chemical vapor transport method and characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis. The Sn doping level in the crystalsmore » was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy measurements. Hall-effect measurements revealed an increase in conductivity and carrier concentration with increasing Sn doping, while TL measurements identified a few donor species in the crystals with donor ionization energy ranging from 35 meV to 118 meV. Increasing Sn doping was also associated with a color change of single crystals from colorless to dark blue.« less

  16. Self-Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic and White-Light Generation in a Biaxial Zinc Tungstate Single Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Osewski, Pawel; Belardini, Alessandro; Petronijevic, Emilija; Centini, Marco; Leahu, Grigore; Diduszko, Ryszard; Pawlak, Dorota A.; Sibilia, Concita

    2017-01-01

    Second-order nonlinear optical materials are used to generate new frequencies by exploiting second-harmonic generation (SHG), a phenomenon where a nonlinear material generates light at double the optical frequency of the input beam. Maximum SHG is achieved when the pump and the generated waves are in phase, for example through birefringence in uniaxial crystals. However, applying these materials usually requires a complicated cutting procedure to yield a crystal with a particular orientation. Here we demonstrate the first example of phase matching under the normal incidence of SHG in a biaxial monoclinic single crystal of zinc tungstate. The crystal was grown by the micro-pulling-down method with the (102) plane perpendicular to the growth direction. Additionally, at the same time white light was generated as a result of stimulated Raman scattering and multiphoton luminescence induced by higher-order effects such as three-photon luminescence enhanced by cascaded third-harmonic generation. The annealed crystal offers SHG intensities approximately four times larger than the as grown one; optimized growth and annealing conditions may lead to much higher SHG intensities. PMID:28338074

  17. Self-Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic and White-Light Generation in a Biaxial Zinc Tungstate Single Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osewski, Pawel; Belardini, Alessandro; Petronijevic, Emilija; Centini, Marco; Leahu, Grigore; Diduszko, Ryszard; Pawlak, Dorota A.; Sibilia, Concita

    2017-03-01

    Second-order nonlinear optical materials are used to generate new frequencies by exploiting second-harmonic generation (SHG), a phenomenon where a nonlinear material generates light at double the optical frequency of the input beam. Maximum SHG is achieved when the pump and the generated waves are in phase, for example through birefringence in uniaxial crystals. However, applying these materials usually requires a complicated cutting procedure to yield a crystal with a particular orientation. Here we demonstrate the first example of phase matching under the normal incidence of SHG in a biaxial monoclinic single crystal of zinc tungstate. The crystal was grown by the micro-pulling-down method with the (102) plane perpendicular to the growth direction. Additionally, at the same time white light was generated as a result of stimulated Raman scattering and multiphoton luminescence induced by higher-order effects such as three-photon luminescence enhanced by cascaded third-harmonic generation. The annealed crystal offers SHG intensities approximately four times larger than the as grown one; optimized growth and annealing conditions may lead to much higher SHG intensities.

  18. Morphological Evolution of Nanocluster Aggregates and Single Crystals in Alkaline Zinc Electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, D; Turney, DE; Anantharaman, B

    2014-04-24

    The morphology of Zn electrodeposits is studied on carbon-coated transmission electron microscopy grids. At low over-potentials (eta = -50 mV), the morphology develops by aggregation at two distinct length scales: similar to 5 nm diameter monocrystalline nanoclusters form similar to 50 nm diameter polycrystalline aggregates, and the aggregates form a branched network. Epitaxial (00 (0) over bar2) growth above an overpotential of vertical bar eta(c)vertical bar > 125 mV leads to the formation of hexagonal single crystals up to 2 mu m in diameter. Potentiostatic current transients were used to calculate the nucleation rate from Scharifker et al.'s model. Themore » exp(eta) dependence of the nucleation rates indicates that atomistic nucleation theory explains the nucleation process better than Volmer-Weber theory. A kinetic model is provided using the rate equations of vapor solidification to simulate the evolution of the different morphologies. On solving these equations, we show that aggregation is attributed to cluster impingement and cluster diffusion while single-crystal formation is attributed to direct attachment.« less

  19. Friction and wear of single-crystal and polycrystalline maganese-zinc ferrite in contact with various metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single-crystal (SCF) and hot-pressed polycrystalline (HPF) manganese-zinc ferrite in contact with various metals. Results indicate that the coefficients of friction for SCF and HPF are related to the relative chemical activity of those metals in high vacuum. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. The coefficients of friction for both SCF and HPF were the same and much higher in vacuum than in argon at atmospheric pressure. All the metals tested transferred to the surface of both SCF and HPF in sliding. Both SCF and HPF exhibited cracking and fracture with sliding. Cracking in SCF is dependent on crystallographic characteristics. In HPF, cracking depends on the orientation of the individual crystallites.

  20. Influence of electron irradiation on hydrothermally grown zinc oxide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, L. W.; So, C. K.; Zhu, C. Y.; Gu, Q. L.; Li, C. J.; Fung, S.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; Ling, C. C.

    2008-09-01

    The resistivity of hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals increased from ~103 Ω cm to ~106 Ω cm after 1.8 MeV electron irradiation with a fluence of ~1016 cm-2, and to ~109 Ω cm as the fluence increased to ~1018 cm-2. Defects in samples were studied by thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectroscopy and positron lifetime spectroscopy (PLS). After the electron irradiation with a fluence of 1018 cm-2, the normalized TSC signal increased by a factor of ~100. A Zn vacancy was also introduced by the electron irradiation, though with a concentration lower than expected. After annealing in air at 400 °C, the resistivity and the deep traps concentrations recovered to the levels of the as-grown sample, and the Zn vacancy was removed.

  1. Seebeck Coefficient Measurements on Micron-Size Single-Crystal Zinc Germanium Nitride Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyck, J. S.; Colvin, J. R.; Quayle, P. C.; Peshek, T. J.; Kash, K.

    2016-06-01

    II-IV-nitride compounds are tetrahedrally bonded, heterovalent ternary semiconductors that have recently garnered attention for their potential technological applications. These materials are derived from the parent III-nitride compounds; ZnGeN2 is the II-IV-nitride analogue to the III-nitride GaN. Very little is known about the transport properties of ZnGeN2. In this work, we present Seebeck coefficient ( S) data on 3-micron-diameter, 70-micron-long, single-crystal ZnGeN2 rods, employing a novel measurement approach. The measurements of S show that the majority free carriers are electrons, and imply that the carrier gas is degenerate. Within a single-band model for the conduction band, a carrier concentration of order 1019 cm-3 was estimated for a measured S = -90 μV/K. Together with electrical transport measurements, a lower limit for the electron mobility is estimated to be ˜20 cm2/V-s. A discussion of this material as a thermoelectric is presented. The background level of free electrons in this unintentionally doped ZnGeN2 is very near the predicted optimum value for maximum thermoelectric performance.

  2. Understanding Growth Rate Limitations in Production of Single-Crystal Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) by the Traveling Heater Method (THM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Jeffrey H.

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) are important optoelectronic materials with applications ranging from medical imaging to nuclear materials monitoring. However, CZT and CdTe have long been plagued by second-phase particles, inhomogeneity, and other defects. The traveling heater method (THM) is a promising approach for growing CZT and other compound semiconductors that has been shown to grow detector-grade crystals. In contrast to traditional directional solidification, the THM consists of a moving melt zone that simultaneously dissolves a polycrystalline feed while producing a single-crystal of material. Additionally, the melt is highly enriched in tellurium, which allows for growth at lower temperatures, limiting the presence of precipitated tellurium second-phase particles in the final crystal. Unfortunately, the THM growth of CZT is limited to millimeters per day when other growth techniques can grow an order of magnitude faster. To understand these growth limits, we employ a mathematical model of the THM system that is formulated to realistically represent the interactions of heat and species transport, fluid flow, and interfacial dissolution and growth under conditions of local thermodynamic equilibrium and steady-state growth. We examine the complicated interactions among zone geometry, continuum transport, phase change, and fluid flow driven by buoyancy. Of particular interest and importance is the formation of flow structures in the liquid zone of the THM that arise from the same physical mechanism as lee waves in atmospheric flows and demonstrate the same characteristic Brunt-Vaisala scaling. We show that flow stagnation and reversal associated with lee-wave formation are responsible for the accumulation of tellurium and supercooled liquid near the growth interface, even when the lee-wave vortex is not readily apparent in the overall flow structure. The supercooled fluid is posited to result in morphological instability at growth

  3. Effect of L-aspartic acid on the growth, structure and spectral studies of Zinc (tris) Thiourea Sulphate (ZTS) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Bincy Susan; Krishnamurthy, R.; Rajasekaran, R.

    2014-11-01

    Single crystals of pure and L-aspartic acid doped Zinc (Tris) Thiourea Sulphate (ZTS) were grown from aqueous solution by solution growth method. The cell parameters and structure of the grown crystals were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. The presence of functional group in the compound has been confirmed by FTIR and FT-Raman analysis. The optical transparency range has been studied through UV-Vis spectroscopy. TGA/DTA studies show thermal stability of the grown crystals. Microhardness study reveals that the hardness number (Hv) increases with load for pure and doped ZTS crystals. Dielectric studies have been carried out and the results are discussed. The second harmonic generation was confirmed for L-aspartic acid doped ZTS which is greater than pure ZTS.

  4. Single crystal EPR and optical studies of paramagnetic ions doped zinc potassium phosphate hexahydrate—Part I: Cu(II)—a case of orthorhombic symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambasiva Rao, P.; Rajendiran, T. M.; Venkatesan, R.; Madhu, N.; Chandrasekhar, A. V.; Reddy, B. J.; Reddy, Y. P.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.

    2001-12-01

    Single crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies on Cu(II) doped zinc potassium phosphate hexahydrate (ZPPH) were carried out at room temperature. The angular variation spectra in the three orthogonal planes indicate that the paramagnetic impurity has entered the lattice substitutionally in place of Zn(II) and the spin Hamiltonian parameters calculated from these spectra are gxx=2.188, gyy=2.032, gzz=2.373, Axx=50 G, Ayy=65.0 G and Azz=80 G. The g and A tensors were coincident and these values matched fairly well with the values obtained from powder spectrum. The bonding parameters have also been calculated.

  5. Irradiation of zinc single crystal with 500 keV singly-charged carbon ions: surface morphology, structure, hardness, and chemical modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waqas Khaliq, M.; Butt, M. Z.; Saleem, Murtaza

    2017-07-01

    Cylindrical specimens of (1 0 4) oriented zinc single crystal (diameter  =  6 mm and length  =  5 mm) were irradiated with 500 keV C+1 ions with the help of a Pelletron accelerator. Six specimens were irradiated in an ultra-high vacuum (~10‒8 Torr) with different ion doses, namely 3.94  ×  1014, 3.24  ×  1015, 5.33  ×  1015, 7.52  ×  1015, 1.06  ×  1016, and 1.30  ×  1016 ions cm-2. A field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was utilized for the morphological study of the irradiated specimens. Formation of nano- and sub-micron size rods, clusters, flower- and fork-like structures, etc, was observed. Surface roughness of the irradiated specimens showed an increasing trend with the ions dose. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) helped to determine chemical modifications in the specimens. It was found that carbon content varied in the range 22.86-31.20 wt.% and that oxygen content was almost constant, with an average value of 10.16 wt.%. The balance content was zinc. Structural parameters, i.e. crystallite size and lattice strain, were determined by Williamson-Hall analysis using x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the irradiated specimens. Both crystallite size and lattice strain showed a decreasing trend with the increasing ions dose. A good linear relationship between crystallite size and lattice strain was observed. Surface hardness depicted a decreasing trend with the ions dose and followed an inverse Hall-Petch relation. FTIR spectra of the specimens revealed that absorption bands gradually diminish as the dose of singly-charged carbon ions is increased from 3.94  ×  1014 ions cm-1 to 1.30  ×  1016 ions cm-1. This indicates progressive deterioration of chemical bonds with the increase in ion dose.

  6. Single crystal EPR and optical studies of paramagnetic ions doped zinc potassium phosphate hexahydrate--part I: Cu(II)--a case of orthorhombic symmetry.

    PubMed

    Sambasiva Rao, P; Rajendiran, T M; Venkatesan, R; Madhu, N; Chandrasekhar, A V; Reddy, B J; Reddy, Y P; Ravikumar, R V

    2001-12-01

    Single crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies on Cu(II) doped zinc potassium phosphate hexahydrate (ZPPH) were carried out at room temperature. The angular variation spectra in the three orthogonal planes indicate that the paramagnetic impurity has entered the lattice substitutionally in place of Zn(II) and the spin Hamiltonian parameters calculated from these spectra are g(xx) = 2.188, g(yy) = 2.032, g(zz) = 2.373, Axx = 50 G, Ayy = 65.0 G and Azz = 80 G. The g and A tensors were coincident and these values matched fairly well with the values obtained from powder spectrum. The bonding parameters have also been calculated.

  7. Single Crystal Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stormont, R. W.; Morrison, A.

    1974-01-01

    Single crystal a- and c-axis tubes and ribbons of sodium beta-alumina and sodium magnesium beta-alumina were grown from sodium oxide rich melts. Additional experiments grew ribbon crystals containing sodium magnesium beta, beta double prime, beta triple prime, and beta quadruple prime. A high pressure crystal growth chamber, sodium oxide rich melts, and iridium for all surfaces in contact with the melt were combined with the edge-defined, film-fed growth technique to grow the single crystal beta-alumina tubes and ribbons. The crystals were characterized using metallographic and X-ray diffraction techniques, and wet chemical analysis was used to determine the sodium, magnesium, and aluminum content of the grown crystals.

  8. Single Crystal Faceplate Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-25

    conventional powder phosphor. The utility of garnets is amplified by the high state of the art of liquid phase epitaxy ( LPE ). Liquid phase epitaxy of...7]. Much the research at Allied-Signal, Inc. in garnet layer growth has been involved with the kinetics of crystallization of garnet from LPE melts...acceptable resolution and light output characteristics. Single crystal faceplates being evaluated are composed of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) with an

  9. Reinvestigation of growth of 'L-valine zinc sulphate' crystal.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Jyai, Rita N

    2014-01-01

    A reinvestigation of the growth of l-valine zinc sulphate crystal is reported. The slow evaporation of an aqueous solution containing l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate results in the fractional crystallization of l-valine and not the organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical l-valine zinc sulphate crystal, as reported by Puhal Raj and Ramachandra Raja (2012). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Single crystals of metal solid solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. F.; Austin, A. E.; Richard, N.; Griesenauer, N. M.; Moak, D. P.; Mehrabian, M. R.; Gelles, S. H.

    1974-01-01

    The following definitions were sought in the research on single crystals of metal solid solutions: (1) the influence of convection and/or gravity present during crystallization on the substructure of a metal solid solution; (2) the influence of a magnetic field applied during crystallization on the substructure of a metal solid solution; and (3) requirements for a space flight experiment to verify the results. Growth conditions for the selected silver-zinc alloy system are described, along with pertinent technical and experimental details of the project.

  11. Bioengineering single crystal growth.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Hsuan; Park, Alexander; Joester, Derk

    2011-02-16

    Biomineralization is a "bottom-up" synthesis process that results in the formation of inorganic/organic nanocomposites with unrivaled control over structure, superior mechanical properties, adaptive response, and the capability of self-repair. While de novo design of such highly optimized materials may still be out of reach, engineering of the biosynthetic machinery may offer an alternative route to design advanced materials. Herein, we present an approach using micro-contact-printed lectins for patterning sea urchin embryo primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) in vitro. We demonstrate not only that PMCs cultured on these substrates show attachment to wheat germ agglutinin and concanavalin A patterns but, more importantly, that the deposition and elongation of calcite spicules occurs cooperatively by multiple cells and in alignment with the printed pattern. This allows us to control the placement and orientation of smooth, cylindrical calcite single crystals where the crystallographic c-direction is parallel to the cylinder axis and the underlying line pattern.

  12. Growth of zinc selenide crystals by physical vapor transport in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1995-01-01

    The growth of single crystals of zinc selenide was carried out by both closed ampoule physical vapor transport and effusive ampoule physical vapor transport (EAPVT). The latter technique was shown to be a much more efficient method for the seeded growth of zinc selenide, resulting in higher transport rates. Furthermore, EAPVT work on CdTe has shown that growth onto /n11/ seeds is advantageous for obtaining reduced twinning and defect densities in II-VI sphalerite materials.

  13. Analysis of zinc binding sites in protein crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Alberts, I L; Nadassy, K; Wodak, S J

    1998-08-01

    The geometrical properties of zinc binding sites in a dataset of high quality protein crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been examined to identify important differences between zinc sites that are directly involved in catalysis and those that play a structural role. Coordination angles in the zinc primary coordination sphere are compared with ideal values for each coordination geometry, and zinc coordination distances are compared with those in small zinc complexes from the Cambridge Structural Database as a guide of expected trends. We find that distances and angles in the primary coordination sphere are in general close to the expected (or ideal) values. Deviations occur primarily for oxygen coordinating atoms and are found to be mainly due to H-bonding of the oxygen coordinating ligand to protein residues, bidentate binding arrangements, and multi-zinc sites. We find that H-bonding of oxygen containing residues (or water) to zinc bound histidines is almost universal in our dataset and defines the elec-His-Zn motif. Analysis of the stereochemistry shows that carboxyl elec-His-Zn motifs are geometrically rigid, while water elec-His-Zn motifs show the most geometrical variation. As catalytic motifs have a higher proportion of carboxyl elec atoms than structural motifs, they provide a more rigid framework for zinc binding. This is understood biologically, as a small distortion in the zinc position in an enzyme can have serious consequences on the enzymatic reaction. We also analyze the sequence pattern of the zinc ligands and residues that provide elecs, and identify conserved hydrophobic residues in the endopeptidases that also appear to contribute to stabilizing the catalytic zinc site. A zinc binding template in protein crystal structures is derived from these observations.

  14. Zinc oxide crystal whiskers as a novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Licheng; Shangguan, Yangnan; Hou, Xiudan; Jia, Yong; Liu, Shujuan; Sun, Yingxin; Guo, Yong

    2017-08-15

    As a novel solid-phase extraction material, zinc oxide crystal whiskers were used to extract flavonoid compounds and showed good extraction abilities. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and surface area/pore volume characterized the sorbent. The zinc oxide was packed into a solid-phase extraction micro-column and its extraction ability was evaluated by four model flavonoid compounds. The sample loading and elution parameters were optimized and the zinc oxide based analytical method for flavonoids was established. It showed that the method has wide linearities from 1 to 150μg/L and low limits of detection at 0.25μg/L. The relative standard deviations of a single column repeatability and column to column reproducibility were less than 6.8% and 10.6%. Several real samples were analyzed by the established method and satisfactory results were obtained. The interactions between flavonoids and zinc oxide were calculated and proved to be from the Van der Waals' forces between the 4p and 5d orbitals from zinc atom and the neighboring π orbitals from flavonoid phenyl groups. Moreover, the zinc oxide crystal whiskers showed good stability and could be reused more than 50 times under the operation conditions. This work proves that the zinc oxide crystal whiskers are a good candidate for flavonoids enrichment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Hemimorphite as a natural sink for arsenic in zinc deposits and related mine tailings: Evidence from single-crystal EPR spectroscopy and hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Mao; Lin, Jinru; Pan, Yuanming

    2010-05-01

    Hemimorphite is a refractory mineral in surface environments and occurs commonly in supergene non-sulfide Zn deposits and Zn mine tailings. Single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of gamma-ray-irradiated hemimorphite from Mapimi (Durango, Mexico) reveal two arsenic-associated oxyradicals: [AsO 4] 4- and [AsO 4] 2-. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses confirm this sample to contain 270 ppm As and that hemimorphite from other Zn deposits has appreciable amounts of arsenic as well. Spin Hamiltonian parameters, including matrices g, A ( 75As) and P( 75As), show that the [AsO 4] 4- radical formed from electron trapping by a locally uncompensated [AsO 4] 3- ion substituting for [SiO 4] 4-. Matrices g, A( 75As) and P( 75As) of the [AsO 4] 2- radical show it to have the unpaired spin on the bridging oxygen of an [AsO 4] 3- ion at a Si site and linked to a monovalent impurity ion. This structural model for the [AsO 4] 2- radical is further supported by observed 29Si and 1H superhyperfine structures arising from interactions with a single Si atom (A/g eβe = ˜1 mT at B// c) and two equivalent H atoms (A/g eβe = ˜0.3 mT at B∧ b = 10°), respectively. Hydrothermal experiments at 200 °C and ˜9.5 MPa show that hemimorphite contains up to ˜2.5 wt% As 2O 5 and suggest that both the arsenate concentration and the pH value in the solution affect the As content in hemimorphite. These results demonstrate that hemimorphite is capable of sequestering arsenate in its crystal lattice, hence is a natural sink for attenuating As in supergene non-sulfide Zn deposits and Zn mine tailings. Moreover, results from hemimorphite potentially have more far-reaching implications for major silicates such as zeolites in the immobilization and removal of arsenic in surface environments.

  16. GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SINGLE CRYSTALS OF RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SINGLE CRYSTALS, CRYSTAL GROWTH), (*CRYSTAL GROWTH, SINGLE CRYSTALS), (*RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS, SINGLE CRYSTALS), EPITAXIAL GROWTH, SODIUM COMPOUNDS, CHLORIDES, VAPOR PLATING, ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS, ENERGY, ATOMIC PROPERTIES , BONDING

  17. A multistep single-crystal-to-single-crystal bromodiacetylene dimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoheisel, Tobias N.; Schrettl, Stephen; Marty, Roman; Todorova, Tanya K.; Corminboeuf, Clémence; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Scopelliti, Rosario; Schweizer, W. Bernd; Frauenrath, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Packing constraints and precise placement of functional groups are the reason that organic molecules in the crystalline state often display unusual physical or chemical properties not observed in solution. Here we report a single-crystal-to-single-crystal dimerization of a bromodiacetylene that involves unusually large atom displacements as well as the cleavage and formation of several bonds. Density functional theory computations support a mechanism in which the dimerization is initiated by a [2 + 1] photocycloaddition favoured by the nature of carbon-carbon short contacts in the crystal structure. The reaction proceeded up to the theoretical degree of conversion without loss of crystallinity, and it was also performed on a preparative scale with good yield. Moreover, it represents the first synthetic pathway to (E)-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diethynylethenes, which could serve as synthetic intermediates for the preparation of molecular carbon scaffolds. Our findings both extend the scope of single-crystal-to-single-crystal reactions and highlight their potential as a synthetic tool for complex transformations.

  18. Improved synthesis of fine zinc borate particles using seed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürhan, Deniz; Çakal, Gaye Ö.; Eroğlu, İnci; Özkar, Saim

    2009-03-01

    Zinc borate is a flame retardant additive used in polymers, wood applications and textile products. There are different types of zinc borate having different chemical compositions and structures. In this study, the production of zinc borate having the molecular formula of 2ZnO·3B 2O 3·3.5H 2O was reexamined by studying the effects of reaction parameters on the properties of product as well as the reaction kinetics. Production of zinc borate from the reaction of boric acid and zinc oxide in the presence of seed crystals was performed in a continuously stirred, temperature-controlled batch reactor having a volume of 1.5 L. Samples taken in regular time intervals during the experiments were analyzed for the concentration of zinc oxide and boron oxide in the solid as well as for the conversion of zinc oxide to zinc borate versus time. The zinc borate production reaction was fit to the logistic model. The reaction rate, reaction completion time, composition and particle size distribution of zinc borate product were determined by varying the following parameters: the boric acid to zinc oxide ratio (H 3BO 3:ZnO=3:1, 3.5:1, 5:1 and 7:1), the particle size of zinc oxide (10 and 25 μm), stirring rate (275, 400, 800 and 1600 rpm), temperature (75, 85 and 95 °C) and the size of seed crystals (10 and 2 μm). The products were also analyzed for particle size distribution. The experimental results showed that the reaction rate increases with the increase in H 3BO 3:ZnO ratio, particle size of zinc oxide, stirring rate and temperature. Concomitantly, the reaction completion time is decreased by increasing the H 3BO 3:ZnO ratio, stirring rate and temperature. The average particle sizes of the zinc borate products are in the range 4.3-16.6 μm (wet dispersion analysis).

  19. Development of single crystal membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stormont, R. W.; Cocks, F. H.

    1972-01-01

    The design and construction of a high pressure crystal growth chamber was accomplished which would allow the growth of crystals under inert gas pressures of 2 MN/sq m (300 psi). A novel crystal growth technique called EFG was used to grow tubes and rods of the hollandite compounds, BaMgTi7O16, K2MgTi7O16, and tubes of sodium beta-alumina, sodium magnesium-alumina, and potassium beta-alumina. Rods and tubes grown are characterized using metallographic and X-ray diffraction techniques. The hollandite compounds are found to be two or three-phase, composed of coarse grained orientated crystallites. Single crystal c-axis tubes of sodium beta-alumina were grown from melts containing excess sodium oxide. Additional experiments demonstrated that crystals of magnesia doped beta-alumina and potassium beta-alumina also can be achieved by this EFG technique.

  20. Crystal Structure Characterization of Thin Layer Zinc Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyan, Aris; Susilawati; Azizatul Fitri, Siti; Ahzan, Sukainil

    2017-05-01

    In this research the characterization of the crystal structure of a thin layer of ZnO (zinc oxide) were synthesized by sol - gel method and spin coating deposited on a glass substrate. The samples were divided into three sol concentrations of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 Molar and two deposition temperature is 350 °C, and 550 °C. UV-Vis. spectrophotometer results showed that in the spectrum of visible light (wavelength range 300-800 nm) has a transmittance value of which increases with increasing concentration and temperature deposition of zinc oxide, otherwise the value of the absorption and the band gap energy decreases with the addition of concentration and deposition temperature. The transmittances value of the highest and lowest absorption was 93.5% and 0.03 is at a concentration of 0.1 M and zinc oxide deposition temperature of 550 °C, with a value of band gap energy of 2.98 eV. The XRD results showed that the zinc oxide crystal orientation in the field of 013 with a crystal grain size 14.4472 nm. SEM results showed the surface morphology of zinc oxide such as rod-like.

  1. A heterojunction photocatalyst composed of zinc rhodium oxide, single crystal-derived bismuth vanadium oxide, and silver for overall pure-water splitting under visible light up to 740 nm.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryoya; Takashima, Toshihiro; Tanigawa, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Shugo; Ohtani, Bunsho; Irie, Hiroshi

    2016-10-12

    We recently reported the synthesis of a solid-state heterojunction photocatalyst consisting of zinc rhodium oxide (ZnRh 2 O 4 ) and bismuth vanadium oxide (Bi 4 V 2 O 11 ), which functioned as hydrogen (H 2 ) and oxygen (O 2 ) evolution photocatalysts, respectively, connected with silver (Ag). Polycrystalline Bi 4 V 2 O 11 (p-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 ) powders were utilized to form ZnRh 2 O 4 /Ag/p-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 , which was able to photocatalyze overall pure-water splitting under red-light irradiation with a wavelength of 700 nm (R. Kobayashi et al., J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, 4, 3061). In the present study, we replaced p-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 with a powder obtained by pulverizing single crystals of Bi 4 V 2 O 11 (s-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 ) to form ZnRh 2 O 4 /Ag/s-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 , and demonstrated that this heterojunction photocatalyst had enhanced water-splitting activity. In addition, ZnRh 2 O 4 /Ag/s-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 was able to utilize nearly the entire range of visible light up to a wavelength of 740 nm. These properties were attributable to the higher O 2 evolution activity of s-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 .

  2. Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of zinc oxide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, S. J.

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) exhibits a plethora of physical properties potentially advantageous in many roles and is why it one of the most studied semiconductor compounds. When doped or in its intrinsic state ZnO demonstrates a multitude of electronic, optical and magnetic properties in a large variety of manufacturable morphologies. Thus it is inherently important to understand why these properties arise and the impact potentially invasive sample preparation methods have for both the function and durability of the material and its devices. Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging (CXDI) is a recently established non-destructive technique which can probe the whole three dimensional structure of small crystalline materials and has the potential for sub angstrom strain resolution. The iterative methods employed to overcome the `phase problem' are described fully. CXDI studies of wurtzite ZnO crystals in the rod morphology with high aspect ratio are presented. ZnO rods synthesised via Chemical Vapour Transport Deposition were studied in post growth state and during in-situ modification via metal evaporation processing and annealing. Small variations in post growth state were observed, the physical origin of which remains unidentified. The doping of a ZnO crystal with Iron, Nickel and Cobalt by thermal evaporation and subsequent annealing was studied. The evolution of diffusing ions into the crystal lattice from was not observed, decomposition was found to be the dominant process. Improvements in experimental technique allowed multiple Bragg reflections from a single ZnO crystal to be measured for the first time. Large aspect ratio ZnO rods were used to probe the coherence properties of the incident beam. The longitudinal coherence function of the illuminating radiation was mapped using the visibility of the interference pattern at each bragg reflection and an accurate estimate of the longitudinal coherence length obtained, xi(L) = 0.66pm 0.02 mu m. The consequences for data analysis

  3. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    DOEpatents

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E [South Setauket, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2010-07-20

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  4. Crystal growth in zinc borosilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullberg, Ana T. G.; Lopes, Andreia A. S.; Veiga, João P. B.; Monteiro, Regina C. C.

    2017-01-01

    Glass samples with a molar composition (64+x)ZnO-(16-x)B2O3-20SiO2, where x=0 or 1, were successfully synthesized using a melt-quenching technique. Based on differential thermal analysis data, the produced glass samples were submitted to controlled heat-treatments at selected temperatures (610, 615 and 620 °C) during various times ranging from 8 to 30 h. The crystallization of willemite (Zn2SiO4) within the glass matrix was confirmed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under specific heat-treatment conditions, transparent nanocomposite glass-ceramics were obtained, as confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The influence of temperature, holding time and glass composition on crystal growth was investigated. The mean crystallite size was determined by image analysis on SEM micrographs. The results indicated an increase on the crystallite size and density with time and temperature. The change of crystallite size with time for the heat-treatments at 615 and 620 °C depended on the glass composition. Under fixed heat-treatment conditions, the crystallite density was comparatively higher for the glass composition with higher ZnO content.

  5. Habit modification of bis-thiourea zinc chloride (ZTC) semi organic crystals by impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

    2013-06-01

    Single crystals of bis-thiourea zinc chloride (ZTC) doped with metal ion (Li+) possess excellent nonlinear optical properties. These crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The effect of Li+ dopant on the growth and properties of ZTC single crystal were investigated and reported. The grown crystals were crystallized in orthorhombic structure with non-centro symmetric space group Pn21a through the parent compound. The amount of dopant incorporated in the parent crystal was revealed by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) studies. The FT-IR spectroscopy study was done for finding and confirming the functional groups present in the compound. The UV-Visible spectral study was carried out to find the optical behavior and transparency nature of the grown crystal. TG/DTA measurements and Vickers microhardness measurements were traced to find out the thermal and mechanical stability of the grown crystals respectively. Using Nd:YAG laser, the Second harmonic generation (SHG) for the grown crystals were confirmed.

  6. Habit modification of bis-thiourea zinc chloride (ZTC) semi organic crystals by impurities.

    PubMed

    Ruby Nirmala, L; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J

    2013-06-01

    Single crystals of bis-thiourea zinc chloride (ZTC) doped with metal ion (Li(+)) possess excellent nonlinear optical properties. These crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The effect of Li(+) dopant on the growth and properties of ZTC single crystal were investigated and reported. The grown crystals were crystallized in orthorhombic structure with non-centro symmetric space group Pn21a through the parent compound. The amount of dopant incorporated in the parent crystal was revealed by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) studies. The FT-IR spectroscopy study was done for finding and confirming the functional groups present in the compound. The UV-Visible spectral study was carried out to find the optical behavior and transparency nature of the grown crystal. TG/DTA measurements and Vickers microhardness measurements were traced to find out the thermal and mechanical stability of the grown crystals respectively. Using Nd:YAG laser, the Second harmonic generation (SHG) for the grown crystals were confirmed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Method of making macrocrystalline or single crystal semiconductor material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, P. J. (Inventor); Holliday, R. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A macrocrystalline or single crystal semiconductive material is formed from a primary substrate including a single crystal or several very large crystals of a relatively low melting material. This primary substrate is deposited on a base such as steel or ceramic, and it may be formed from such metals as zinc, cadmium, germanium, aluminum, tin, lead, copper, brass, magnesium silicide, or magnesium stannide. These materials generally have a melting point below about 1000 C and form on the base crystals the size of fingernails or greater. The primary substrate has an epitaxial relationship with a subsequently applied layer of material, and because of this epitaxial relationship, the material deposited on the primary substrate will have essentially the same crystal size as the crystals in the primary substrate. If required, successive layers are formed, each of a material which has an epitaxial relationship with the previously deposited layer, until a layer is formed which has an epitaxial relationship with the semiconductive material. This layer is referred to as the epitaxial substrate, and its crystals serve as sites for the growth of large crystals of semiconductive material. The primary substrate is passivated to remove or otherwise convert it into a stable or nonreactive state prior to deposition of the seconductive material.

  8. Single crystal diamond lapping procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Grayson, R.A.

    A facility capable of resharpening quality cutting edges on single crystal diamond cutting tools was needed as the demand in precision machining of special optical surfaces became a common occurrence here at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A specially constructed lapping machine using an air bearing spindle was built to achieve the required edge quality. The basic design for this lap was taken out of a technical report by W.L. Duke and R.T. Lovell of Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Union Carbide Corp. We have also purchased two commercially built lapping machines recommended to us by Mr. Cory A. Knottenbelt, formerly ofmore » R.C.A. Diamond Lapping Facility, in Indianapolis, Indiana, now doing state-of-the-art polishing and relapping at LLNL facilities.« less

  9. Spectroscopic studies of gel grown zinc doped calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryawanshi, V. B.; Chaudhari, R. T.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of zinc doping on the gel grown calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate crystals was studied using the spectroscopic techniques, which included SEM, FTIR and EDAX. It was found that, zinc ions transform the morphology of brushite crystals from rectangular plate shaped crystals to branching microcrystal patterns. However in FT-IR spectroscopy, as compared to undoped brushite crystals few vibrations were shifted to higher value. The observed changes in the vibrations were due to the impact of zinc ions. EDAX techniques is use to determine the percentage composition of elements present in the doped crystals. It revealed that the sample was of a mixed composition.

  10. Single crystals of selected titanates and tungstates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loiacono, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    The compound preparation and crystal growth of a number of mixed titanate compositions was investigated. None of the compounds studied were found to melt congruently and therefore, crystal growth was extremely difficult. Various single crystal preparation methods always resulted in mixed phases from which 1-2 mm size crystals could be separated. It is concluded from this study that before successful single crystal growth can be accomplished, a detailed study of the phase diagrams in each of the systems of interest must be completed.

  11. Single-crystal silicon optical fiber by direct laser crystallization

    DOE PAGES

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Lei, Shiming; Yu, Shih -Ying; ...

    2016-12-05

    Semiconductor core optical fibers with a silica cladding are of great interest in nonlinear photonics and optoelectronics applications. Laser crystallization has been recently demonstrated for crystallizing amorphous silicon fibers into crystalline form. Here we explore the underlying mechanism by which long single-crystal silicon fibers, which are novel platforms for silicon photonics, can be achieved by this process. Using finite element modeling, we construct a laser processing diagram that reveals a parameter space within which single crystals can be grown. Utilizing this diagram, we illustrate the creation of single-crystal silicon core fibers by laser crystallizing amorphous silicon deposited inside silica capillarymore » fibers by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition. The single-crystal fibers, up to 5.1 mm long, have a very welldefined core/cladding interface and a chemically pure silicon core that leads to very low optical losses down to ~0.47-1dB/cm at the standard telecommunication wavelength (1550 nm). Furthermore, tt also exhibits a photosensitivity that is comparable to bulk silicon. Creating such laser processing diagrams can provide a general framework for developing single-crystal fibers in other materials of technological importance.« less

  12. Ames Lab 101: Single Crystal Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Schlagel, Deborah

    2013-09-27

    Ames Laboratory scientist Deborah Schlagel talks about the Lab's research in growing single crystals of various metals and alloys. The single crystal samples are vital to researchers' understanding of the characteristics of a materials and what gives these materials their particular properties.

  13. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  14. Ames Lab 101: Single Crystal Growth

    ScienceCinema

    Schlagel, Deborah

    2018-01-16

    Ames Laboratory scientist Deborah Schlagel talks about the Lab's research in growing single crystals of various metals and alloys. The single crystal samples are vital to researchers' understanding of the characteristics of a materials and what gives these materials their particular properties.

  15. Method of making single crystal fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westfall, Leonard J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Single crystal fibers are made from miniature extruded ceramic feed rods. A decomposable binder is mixed with powders to inform a slurry which is extruded into a small rod which may be sintered, either in air or in vacuum, or it may be used in the extruded and dried condition. A pair of laser beams focuses onto the tip of the rod to melt it thereby forming a liquid portion. A single crystal seed fiber of the same material as the feed rod contacts this liquid portion to establish a zone of liquid material between the feed rod and the single crystal seed fiber. The feed rod and the single crystal feed fiber are moved at a predetermined speed to solidify the molten zone onto the seed fiber while simultaneously melting additional feed rod. In this manner a single crystal fiber is formed from the liquid portion.

  16. Single crystal diamond membranes for nanoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Bray, Kerem; Kato, Hiromitsu; Previdi, Rodolfo; Sandstrom, Russell; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Ogura, Masahiko; Makino, Toshiharu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Magyar, Andrew P; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor

    2018-02-22

    Single crystal, nanoscale diamond membranes are highly sought after for a variety of applications including nanophotonics, nanoelectronics and quantum information science. However, so far, the availability of conductive diamond membranes has remained an unreachable goal. In this work we present a complete nanofabrication methodology for engineering high aspect ratio, electrically active single crystal diamond membranes. The membranes have large lateral directions, exceeding ∼500 × 500 μm 2 and are only several hundreds of nanometers thick. We further realize vertical single crystal p-n junctions made from the diamond membranes that exhibit onset voltages of ∼10 V and a current of several mA. Moreover, we deterministically introduce optically active color centers into the membranes, and demonstrate for the first time a single crystal nanoscale diamond LED. The robust and scalable approach to engineer the electrically active single crystal diamond membranes offers new pathways for advanced nanophotonic, nanoelectronic and optomechanical devices employing diamond.

  17. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  18. Coherent diffractive imaging of solid state reactions in zinc oxide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, Steven J.; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the doping of zinc oxide (ZnO) microcrystals with iron and nickel via in situ coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) in vacuum. Evaporated thin metal films were deposited onto the ZnO microcrystals. A single crystal was selected and tracked through annealing cycles. A solid state reaction was observed in both iron and nickel experiments using CXDI. A combination of the shrink wrap and guided hybrid-input-output phasing methods were applied to retrieve the electron density. The resolution was 33 nm (half order) determined via the phase retrieval transfer function. The resulting images are nevertheless sensitive to sub-angstrom displacements. The exterior of the microcrystal was found to degrade dramatically. The annealing of ZnO microcrystals coated with metal thin films proved an unsuitable doping method. In addition the observed defect structure of one crystal was attributed to the presence of an array of defects and was found to change upon annealing.

  19. Mechanochemical Synthesis of Carbon Nanothread Single Crystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Baldini, Maria; Wang, Tao; Chen, Bo; Xu, En-Shi; Vermilyea, Brian; Crespi, Vincent H; Hoffmann, Roald; Molaison, Jamie J; Tulk, Christopher A; Guthrie, Malcolm; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Badding, John V

    2017-11-15

    Synthesis of well-ordered reduced dimensional carbon solids with extended bonding remains a challenge. For example, few single-crystal organic monomers react under topochemical control to produce single-crystal extended solids. We report a mechanochemical synthesis in which slow compression at room temperature under uniaxial stress can convert polycrystalline or single-crystal benzene monomer into single-crystalline packings of carbon nanothreads, a one-dimensional sp 3 carbon nanomaterial. The long-range order over hundreds of microns of these crystals allows them to readily exfoliate into fibers. The mechanochemical reaction produces macroscopic single crystals despite large dimensional changes caused by the formation of multiple strong, covalent C-C bonds to each monomer and a lack of reactant single-crystal order. Therefore, it appears not to follow a topochemical pathway, but rather one guided by uniaxial stress, to which the nanothreads consistently align. Slow-compression room-temperature synthesis may allow diverse molecular monomers to form single-crystalline packings of polymers, threads, and higher dimensional carbon networks.

  20. Growth of Cadmium-Zinc Telluride Crystals by Controlled Seeding Contactless Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Grasza, K.; Gillies, D.; Jerman, G.

    1996-01-01

    Bulk crystals of cadmium-zinc telluride, 23 mm in diameter and up to 45 grams in weight were grown. Controlled seed formation procedure was used to limit the number of grains in the crystal. Most uniform distribution of ZnTe in the crystals was obtained using excess (Cd + Zn) pressure in the ampoule.

  1. Spray printing of organic semiconducting single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigas, Grigorios-Panagiotis; Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John E.; Horton, Peter N.; Castro, Fernando A.; Shkunov, Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Single-crystal semiconductors have been at the forefront of scientific interest for more than 70 years, serving as the backbone of electronic devices. Inorganic single crystals are typically grown from a melt using time-consuming and energy-intensive processes. Organic semiconductor single crystals, however, can be grown using solution-based methods at room temperature in air, opening up the possibility of large-scale production of inexpensive electronics targeting applications ranging from field-effect transistors and light-emitting diodes to medical X-ray detectors. Here we demonstrate a low-cost, scalable spray-printing process to fabricate high-quality organic single crystals, based on various semiconducting small molecules on virtually any substrate by combining the advantages of antisolvent crystallization and solution shearing. The crystals' size, shape and orientation are controlled by the sheer force generated by the spray droplets' impact onto the antisolvent's surface. This method demonstrates the feasibility of a spray-on single-crystal organic electronics.

  2. Single Crystals Grown Under Unconstrained Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunagawa, Ichiro

    Based on detailed investigations on morphology (evolution and variation in external forms), surface microtopography of crystal faces (spirals and etch figures), internal morphology (growth sectors, growth banding and associated impurity partitioning) and perfection (dislocations and other lattice defects) in single crystals, we can deduce how and by what mechanism the crystal grew and experienced fluctuation in growth parameters through its growth and post-growth history under unconstrained condition. The information is useful not only in finding appropriate way to growing highly perfect and homogeneous single crystals, but also in deciphering letters sent from the depth of the Earth and the Space. It is also useful in discriminating synthetic from natural gemstones. In this chapter, available methods to obtain molecular information are briefly summarized, and actual examples to demonstrate the importance of this type of investigations are selected from both natural minerals (diamond, quartz, hematite, corundum, beryl, phlogopite) and synthetic crystals (SiC, diamond, corundum, beryl).

  3. Single crystal fibers for high power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Florea, C.; Baker, C.; Gibson, D.; Shaw, L. B.; Bowman, S.; O'Connor, S.; Villalobos, G.; Bayya, S.; Aggarwal, I. D.; Sanghera, J. S.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we present our recent results in developing cladded-single crystal fibers for high power single frequency fiber lasers significantly exceeding the capabilities of existing silica fiber based lasers. This fiber laser would not only exploit the advantages of crystals, namely their high temperature stability, high thermal conductivity, superior environmental ruggedness, high propensity for rare earth ion doping and low nonlinearity, but will also provide the benefits from an optical fiber geometry to enable better thermal management thereby enabling the potential for high laser power output in short lengths. Single crystal fiber cores with diameters as small as 35μm have been drawn using high purity rare earth doped ceramic or single crystal feed rods by Laser Heated Pedestal Growth (LHPG) process. The mechanical, optical and morphological properties of these fibers have been characterized. The fibers are very flexible and show good overall uniformity. We also measured the optical loss as well as the non-radiative loss of the doped crystal fibers and the results show that the fibers have excellent optical and morphological quality. The gain coefficient of the crystal fiber matches the low quantum defect laser model and it is a good indication of the high quality of the fibers.

  4. Single Crystal Diffuse Neutron Scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Welberry, Richard; Whitfield, Ross

    2018-01-11

    Diffuse neutron scattering has become a valuable tool for investigating local structure in materials ranging from organic molecular crystals containing only light atoms to piezo-ceramics that frequently contain heavy elements. Although neutron sources will never be able to compete with X-rays in terms of the available flux the special properties of neutrons, viz. the ability to explore inelastic scattering events, the fact that scattering lengths do not vary systematically with atomic number and their ability to scatter from magnetic moments, provides strong motivation for developing neutron diffuse scattering methods. Here, we compare three different instruments that have been used bymore » us to collect neutron diffuse scattering data. Two of these are on a spallation source and one on a reactor source.« less

  5. Single Crystal Diffuse Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Welberry, Richard; Whitfield, Ross

    Diffuse neutron scattering has become a valuable tool for investigating local structure in materials ranging from organic molecular crystals containing only light atoms to piezo-ceramics that frequently contain heavy elements. Although neutron sources will never be able to compete with X-rays in terms of the available flux the special properties of neutrons, viz. the ability to explore inelastic scattering events, the fact that scattering lengths do not vary systematically with atomic number and their ability to scatter from magnetic moments, provides strong motivation for developing neutron diffuse scattering methods. Here, we compare three different instruments that have been used bymore » us to collect neutron diffuse scattering data. Two of these are on a spallation source and one on a reactor source.« less

  6. Photophysical Behaviors of Single Fluorophores Localized on Zinc Oxide Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy has now been widely used to investigate complex dynamic processes which would normally be obscured in an ensemble-averaged measurement. In this report we studied photophysical behaviors of single fluorophores in proximity to zinc oxide nanostructures by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC). Single fluorophores on ZnO surfaces showed enhanced fluorescence brightness to various extents compared with those on glass; the single-molecule time trajectories also illustrated pronounced fluctuations of emission intensities, with time periods distributed from milliseconds to seconds. We attribute fluorescence fluctuations to the interfacial electron transfer (ET) events. The fluorescence fluctuation dynamics were found to be inhomogeneous from molecule to molecule and from time to time, showing significant static and dynamic disorders in the interfacial electron transfer reaction processes. PMID:23109903

  7. Single crystal, liquid crystal, and hybrid organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twieg, Robert J.; Getmanenko, Y.; Lu, Z.; Semyonov, A. N.; Huang, S.; He, P.; Seed, A.; Kiryanov, A.; Ellman, B.; Nene, S.

    2003-07-01

    The synthesis and characterization of organic semiconductors is being pursued in three primary structure formats: single crystal, liquid crystal and organic-inorganic hybrid. The strategy here is to share common structures, synthesis methods and fabrication techniques across these formats and to utilize common characterization tools such as the time of flight technique. The single crystal efforts concentrate on aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds including simple benzene derivatives and derivatives of the acenes. The structure-property relationships due to incorporation of small substituents and heteroatoms are being examined. Crystals are grown by solution, melt or vapor transport techniques. The liquid crystal studies exploit their self-organizing properties and relative ease of sample preparation. Though calamitic systems tha deliver the largest mobilities are higher order smectics, even some unusual twist grain boundary phases are being studied. We are attempting to synthesize discotic acene derivatives with appropriate substitution patterns to render them mesogenic. The last format being examined is the hybrid organic-inorganic class. Here, layered materials of alternating organic and inorganic composition are designed and synthesized. Typical materials are conjugated aromatic compounds, usually functinalized with an amine or a pyridine and reacted with appropriate reactive metal derivatives to incorporate them into metal oxide or sulfide layers.

  8. Inkjet printing of single-crystal films.

    PubMed

    Minemawari, Hiromi; Yamada, Toshikazu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Haas, Simon; Chiba, Ryosuke; Kumai, Reiji; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2011-07-13

    The use of single crystals has been fundamental to the development of semiconductor microelectronics and solid-state science. Whether based on inorganic or organic materials, the devices that show the highest performance rely on single-crystal interfaces, with their nearly perfect translational symmetry and exceptionally high chemical purity. Attention has recently been focused on developing simple ways of producing electronic devices by means of printing technologies. 'Printed electronics' is being explored for the manufacture of large-area and flexible electronic devices by the patterned application of functional inks containing soluble or dispersed semiconducting materials. However, because of the strong self-organizing tendency of the deposited materials, the production of semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity (indispensable for realizing high carrier mobility) may be incompatible with conventional printing processes. Here we develop a method that combines the technique of antisolvent crystallization with inkjet printing to produce organic semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity. Specifically, we show that mixing fine droplets of an antisolvent and a solution of an active semiconducting component within a confined area on an amorphous substrate can trigger the controlled formation of exceptionally uniform single-crystal or polycrystalline thin films that grow at the liquid-air interfaces. Using this approach, we have printed single crystals of the organic semiconductor 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C(8)-BTBT) (ref. 15), yielding thin-film transistors with average carrier mobilities as high as 16.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This printing technique constitutes a major step towards the use of high-performance single-crystal semiconductor devices for large-area and flexible electronics applications.

  9. Single crystal to polycrystal neutron transmission simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Dessieux, Luc Lucius; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; Bingham, Philip R.

    A collection of routines for calculation of the total cross section that determines the attenuation of neutrons by crystalline solids is presented. The total cross section is calculated semi-empirically as a function of crystal structure, neutron energy, temperature, and crystal orientation. The semi-empirical formula includes the contribution of parasitic Bragg scattering to the total cross section using both the crystal’s mosaic spread value and its orientation with respect to the neutron beam direction as parameters. These routines allow users to enter a distribution of crystal orientations for calculation of total cross sections of user defined powder or pseudo powder distributions,more » which enables simulation of non-uniformities such as texture and strain. In conclusion, the spectra for neutron transmission simulations in the neutron thermal energy range (2 meV–100 meV) are presented for single crystal and polycrystal samples and compared to measurements.« less

  10. Single crystal to polycrystal neutron transmission simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Dessieux, Luc Lucius; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; Bingham, Philip R.

    2018-02-02

    A collection of routines for calculation of the total cross section that determines the attenuation of neutrons by crystalline solids is presented. The total cross section is calculated semi-empirically as a function of crystal structure, neutron energy, temperature, and crystal orientation. The semi-empirical formula includes the contribution of parasitic Bragg scattering to the total cross section using both the crystal’s mosaic spread value and its orientation with respect to the neutron beam direction as parameters. These routines allow users to enter a distribution of crystal orientations for calculation of total cross sections of user defined powder or pseudo powder distributions,more » which enables simulation of non-uniformities such as texture and strain. In conclusion, the spectra for neutron transmission simulations in the neutron thermal energy range (2 meV–100 meV) are presented for single crystal and polycrystal samples and compared to measurements.« less

  11. Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Page, Ryan L.; Chaudhuri, Subhasis

    Synthesis and fabrication of high-quality, small-core single-crystal germanium fibers that are photosensitive at the near-infrared and have low optical losses ≈1 dB cm-1 at 2 μm are reported. These fibers have potential applications in fiber-based spectroscopic imaging, nonlinear optical devices, and photodetection at the telecommunication wavelengths.

  12. Ammonothermal Growth of Chalcogenide Single Crystal Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-05

    chalcogenide with an acidic mineraiizer 15 in presence of liquid ammonia solvent at high pressures and at temperatures in the range of about 300 to 550°C...demonstrates growth of binary CaS single crystals in a medium consisting of CaS powder and NH4I acid mineraiizer in ammonia solvent in a fused quartz

  13. Single crystal functional oxides on silicon

    PubMed Central

    Bakaul, Saidur Rahman; Serrao, Claudy Rayan; Lee, Michelle; Yeung, Chun Wing; Sarker, Asis; Hsu, Shang-Lin; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Dedon, Liv; You, Long; Khan, Asif Islam; Clarkson, James David; Hu, Chenming; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystalline thin films of complex oxides show a rich variety of functional properties such as ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, ferro and antiferromagnetism and so on that have the potential for completely new electronic applications. Direct synthesis of such oxides on silicon remains challenging because of the fundamental crystal chemistry and mechanical incompatibility of dissimilar interfaces. Here we report integration of thin (down to one unit cell) single crystalline, complex oxide films onto silicon substrates, by epitaxial transfer at room temperature. In a field-effect transistor using a transferred lead zirconate titanate layer as the gate insulator, we demonstrate direct reversible control of the semiconductor channel charge with polarization state. These results represent the realization of long pursued but yet to be demonstrated single-crystal functional oxides on-demand on silicon. PMID:26853112

  14. Experimental Investigation of Orthoenstatite Single Crystal Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fraysse, G.; Girard, J.; Holyoke, C. W.; Raterron, P.

    2013-12-01

    The plasticity of enstatite, upper mantle second most abundant mineral, is still poorly constrained, mostly because of its high-temperature (T) transformation into proto- and clino-enstatite at low pressure (P). Mackwell (1991, GRL, 18, 2027) reports a pioneer study of protoenstatite (Pbcn) single-crystal rheology, but the results do not directly apply to the orthorhombic (Pbca) mantle phase. Ohuchi et al. (2011, Contri. Mineral. Petrol , 161, 961) carried out deformation experiments at P=1.3 GPa on oriented orthoenstatite crystals, investigating the activity of [001](100) and [001](010) dislocation slip systems; they report the first rheological laws for orthoenstatite crystals. However, strain and stress were indirectly constrained in their experiments, which questioned whether steady state conditions of deformation were achieved. Also, data reported for [001](100) slip system were obtained after specimens had transformed by twinning into clinoenstatite. We report here new data from deformation experiments carried out at high T and P ranging from 3.5 to 6.2 GPa on natural Fe-bearing enstatite single crystals, using the Deformation-DIA apparatus (D-DIA) that equipped the X17B2 beamline of the NSLS (NY, USA). The applied stress and specimen strain rates were measured in situ by X-ray diffraction and imaging techniques (e.g., Raterron & Merkel, 2009, J. Sync. Rad., 16, 748; Raterron et al., 2013, Rev. Sci. Instr., 84, 043906). Three specimen orientations were tested: i) with the compression direction along [101]c crystallographic direction, which forms a 45° angle with both [100] and [001] axes, to investigate [001](100) slip-system activity; ii) along [011]c direction to investigate [001](010) system activity; iii) and along enstatite [125] axis, to activate both slip systems together. Crystals were deformed two by two, to compare slip system activities, or against enstatite aggregates or orientated olivine crystals of known rheology for comparison. Run products

  15. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ∼3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

  16. SSME single-crystal turbine blade dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, Larry A.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performrd to determine the dynamic characteristics of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) blades made of single crystal (SC) material. The first and second stage drive turbine blades of HPFTP were examined. The nonrotating natural frequencies were determined experimentally and analytically. The experimental results of the SC second stage blade were used to verify the analytical procedures. The study examined the SC first stage blade natural frequencies with respect to crystal orientation at typical operating conditions. The SC blade dynamic response was predicted to be less than the directionally solidified base. Crystal axis orientation optimization indicated that the third mode interference will exist in any SC orientation.

  17. SSME single crystal turbine blade dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, Larry A.; Smith, Todd E.

    1987-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the dynamic characteristics of the Space Shuttle main engine high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) blades made of single crystal (SC) material. The first and second stage drive turbine blades of HPFTP were examined. The nonrotating natural frequencies were determined experimentally and analytically. The experimental results of the SC second stage blade were used to verify the analytical procedures. The analytical study examined the SC first stage blade natural frequencies with respect to crystal orientation at typical operating conditions. The SC blade dynamic response was predicted to be less than the directionally solidified blade. Crystal axis orientation optimization indicated the third mode interference will exist in any SC orientation.

  18. Shock Hugoniot of single crystal copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, R.; Stölken, J.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Kumar, M.; Holmes, N. C.

    2010-01-01

    The shock Hugoniot of single crystal copper is reported for stresses below 66 GPa. Symmetric impact experiments were used to measure the Hugoniots of three different crystal orientations of copper, [100], [110], and [111]. The photonic doppler velocimetry (PDV) diagnostic was adapted into a very high precision time of arrival detector for these experiments. The measured Hugoniots along all three crystal directions were nearly identical to the experimental Hugoniot for polycrystalline Cu. The predicted orientation dependence of the Hugoniot from molecular dynamics calculations was not observed. At the lowest stresses, the sound speed in Cu was extracted from the PDV data. The measured sound speeds are in agreement with values calculated from the elastic constants for Cu.

  19. Flexible single-crystal silicon nanomembrane photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaochuan; Subbaraman, Harish; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Hosseini, Amir; Covey, John; Yu, Yalin; Kwong, David; Zhang, Yang; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Lu, Nanshu; Chen, Ray T

    2014-12-23

    Flexible inorganic electronic devices promise numerous applications, especially in fields that could not be covered satisfactorily by conventional rigid devices. Benefits on a similar scale are also foreseeable for silicon photonic components. However, the difficulty in transferring intricate silicon photonic devices has deterred widespread development. In this paper, we demonstrate a flexible single-crystal silicon nanomembrane photonic crystal microcavity through a bonding and substrate removal approach. The transferred cavity shows a quality factor of 2.2×10(4) and could be bent to a curvature of 5 mm radius without deteriorating the performance compared to its counterparts on rigid substrates. A thorough characterization of the device reveals that the resonant wavelength is a linear function of the bending-induced strain. The device also shows a curvature-independent sensitivity to the ambient index variation.

  20. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  1. Disappearing Enantiomorphs: Single Handedness in Racemate Crystals.

    PubMed

    Parschau, Manfred; Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2015-11-23

    Although crystallization is the most important method for the separation of enantiomers of chiral molecules in the chemical industry, the chiral recognition involved in this process is poorly understood at the molecular level. We report on the initial steps in the formation of layered racemate crystals from a racemic mixture, as observed by STM at submolecular resolution. Grown on a copper single-crystal surface, the chiral hydrocarbon heptahelicene formed chiral racemic lattice structures within the first layer. In the second layer, enantiomerically pure domains were observed, underneath which the first layer contained exclusively the other enantiomer. Hence, the system changed from a 2D racemate into a 3D racemate with enantiomerically pure layers after exceeding monolayer-saturation coverage. A chiral bias in form of a small enantiomeric excess suppressed the crystallization of one double-layer enantiomorph so that the pure minor enantiomer crystallized only in the second layer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Goldberger, Joshua; He, Rongrui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Lee, Sangkwon; Yan, Haoquan; Choi, Heon-Jin; Yang, Peidong

    2003-04-10

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991 (ref. 1), there have been significant research efforts to synthesize nanometre-scale tubular forms of various solids. The formation of tubular nanostructure generally requires a layered or anisotropic crystal structure. There are reports of nanotubes made from silica, alumina, silicon and metals that do not have a layered crystal structure; they are synthesized by using carbon nanotubes and porous membranes as templates, or by thin-film rolling. These nanotubes, however, are either amorphous, polycrystalline or exist only in ultrahigh vacuum. The growth of single-crystal semiconductor hollow nanotubes would be advantageous in potential nanoscale electronics, optoelectronics and biochemical-sensing applications. Here we report an 'epitaxial casting' approach for the synthesis of single-crystal GaN nanotubes with inner diameters of 30-200 nm and wall thicknesses of 5-50 nm. Hexagonal ZnO nanowires were used as templates for the epitaxial overgrowth of thin GaN layers in a chemical vapour deposition system. The ZnO nanowire templates were subsequently removed by thermal reduction and evaporation, resulting in ordered arrays of GaN nanotubes on the substrates. This templating process should be applicable to many other semiconductor systems.

  3. Single-Crystal Diamond Nanobeam Waveguide Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanaliloo, Behzad; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Hryciw, Aaron C.; Lake, David P.; Kaviani, Hamidreza; Barclay, Paul E.

    2015-10-01

    Single-crystal diamond optomechanical devices have the potential to enable fundamental studies and technologies coupling mechanical vibrations to both light and electronic quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate a single-crystal diamond optomechanical system and show that it allows excitation of diamond mechanical resonances into self-oscillations with amplitude >200 nm . The resulting internal stress field is predicted to allow driving of electron spin transitions of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers. The mechanical resonances have a quality factor >7 ×105 and can be tuned via nonlinear frequency renormalization, while the optomechanical interface has a 150 nm bandwidth and 9.5 fm /√{Hz } sensitivity. In combination, these features make this system a promising platform for interfacing light, nanomechanics, and electron spins.

  4. Chiral photonic crystal fibers with single mode and single polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, She; Li, Junqing

    2015-12-01

    Chiral photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a solid core is numerically investigated by a modified chiral plane-wave expansion method. The effects of structural parameters and chirality strength are analyzed on single-polarization single-mode range and polarization states of guided modes. The simulation demonstrates that the chiral photonic crystal fiber compared to its achiral counterpart possesses another single-circular-polarization operation range, which is located in the short-wavelength region. The original single-polarization operation range in the long-wavelength region extends to the short wavelength caused by introducing chirality. Then this range becomes a broadened one with elliptical polarization from linear polarization. With increase of chirality, the two single-polarization single-mode ranges may fuse together. By optimizing the structure, an ultra-wide single-circular-polarization operation range from 0.5 μm to 1.67 μm for chiral PCF can be realized with moderate chirality strength.

  5. Studies on the synthesis, spectral, optical and thermal properties of l-Valine Zinc Sulphate: an organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical crystal.

    PubMed

    Puhal Raj, A; Ramachandra Raja, C

    2012-11-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) organic inorganic hybrid l-Valine Zinc Sulphate (LVZS) was synthesized and single crystals were obtained from saturated aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at 36°C using a constant temperature bath (CTB) with an accuracy of ±0.01°C. This crystal is reported with its characterization by single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR, TG/DTA analysis and SHG test. Single crystal XRD study reveals that LVZS crystallizes in monoclinic system with the lattice constants a=9.969(3) Å, b=7.238(3) Å, c=24.334(9) Å and cell volume is 1736.00Å(3). Sharp peaks observed in powder X-ray diffraction studies confirm the high degree of crystallinity of grown crystal. The incorporation of sulphate ion with l-valine is confirmed by FTIR spectrum in LVZS crystal(.) A remarkable increase in optical transparency has been observed in LVZS when compared to l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate Thermal properties of LVZS have been reported by using TG/DTA analysis. Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test confirms NLO property of the crystal and SHG efficiency of LVZS was found to be 1.34 times more than pure l-valine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The application of crystal soaking technique to study the effect of zinc and cresol on insulinotropin crystals grown from a saline solution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Haren, A M

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of zinc and cresol on the structure of insulinotropin crystals. Insulinotropin crystals grown from a saline solution were treated with zinc and/or m-cresol using a crystal soaking technique. The effects of these additives on the crystal structure were investigated with powder X-ray diffraction, photomicrography, and differential scanning calorimetry. The molecular interaction between insulinotropin and m-trifluorocresol in solution was also studied by 19F NMR: The data suggest that the original crystals grown from a saline solution have relatively weak lattice forces. After the addition of m-cresol to the suspension of the insulinotropin crystals, the crystals were immediately rendered amorphous. The m-cresol molecules which diffused into the crystals through solvent channels may have disturbed the lattice interactions that maintain the integrity of the crystal. In contrast, the zinc added to the suspension stabilized the crystal lattice so that the subsequent addition of m-cresol did not alter the integrity of the crystals. A marked increase in melting point (206 degrees versus 184 degrees) and heat of fusion (24.6 J/g versus 1.4 J/g) of the crystals was observed after the treatment with zinc. The solubility of the zinc treated crystals in a pH 7.1 phosphate buffered saline was 1/20 of that of the original crystals. When the insulinotropin crystals were treated with the additives using a crystal soaking method, the crystals underwent structural changes. Zinc stabilized the crystal lattice, and reduced the solubility of the peptide.

  7. Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal

    DOEpatents

    James, R.; Burger, A.; Chen, K.T.; Chang, H.

    1999-08-03

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal is disclosed that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface. 3 figs.

  8. Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal

    DOEpatents

    James, Ralph; Burger, Arnold; Chen, Kuo-Tong; Chang, Henry

    1999-01-01

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface.

  9. Spall response of single-crystal copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turley, W. D.; Fensin, S. J.; Hixson, R. S.; Jones, D. R.; La Lone, B. M.; Stevens, G. D.; Thomas, S. A.; Veeser, L. R.

    2018-02-01

    We performed a series of systematic spall experiments on single-crystal copper in an effort to determine and isolate the effects of crystal orientation, peak stress, and unloading strain rate on the tensile spall strength. Strain rates ranging from 0.62 to 2.2 × 106 s-1 and peak shock stresses in the 5-14 GPa range, with one additional experiment near 50 GPa, were explored as part of this work. Gun-driven impactors, called flyer plates, generated flat top shocks followed by spall. This work highlights the effect of crystal anisotropy on the spall strength by showing that the spall strength decreases in the following order: [100], [110], and [111]. Over the range of stresses and strain rates explored, the spall strength of [100] copper depends strongly on both the strain rate and shock stress. Except at the very highest shock stress, the results for the [100] orientation show linear relationships between the spall strength and both the applied compressive stress and the strain rate. In addition, hydrodynamic computer code simulations of the spall experiments were performed to calculate the relationship between the strain rate near the spall plane in the target and the rate of free surface velocity release during the pullback. As expected, strain rates at the spall plane are much higher than the strain rates estimated from the free surface velocity release rate. We have begun soft recovery experiments and molecular dynamics calculations to understand the unusual recompression observed in the spall signature for [100] crystals.

  10. Effect of doping with nickel ions on the structural state of a zinc oxide crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, S. F.; Sokolov, V. I.; Parkhomenko, V. D.; Maksimov, V. I.; Gruzdev, N. B.

    2009-10-01

    The fine structure of a hexagonal zinc oxide crystal doped with nickel ions of the composition Zn1 - x Ni x O has been studied using neutron diffraction and magnetic measurements. It is established that even at very low doping levels ( x = 0.0004), the crystal undergoes local distortions in basal planes of the initial hexagonal lattice. The local distortions are assumed to be sources of the formation of ferromagnetism in compounds of this class.

  11. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on dielectric behavior of nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit; Kumar, Pankaj; Malik, Praveen

    2018-05-01

    In this work, phase transition and dielectric behavior of nematic liquid crystal (NLC), E7 and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) doped nematic liquid crystals are investigated. Effect of nano-particles dispersion is analyzed and compared with the dielectric behavior of E7 and E7-ZnO. Frequency dependent dielectric permittivity at various temperatures in nematic phase for E7 and E7-ZnO sample is also studied.

  12. Surface Treatment And Protection Method For Cadium Zinc Telluride Crystals

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Gomez W.; James, Ralph B.; Burger, Arnold; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2006-02-21

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH4F and 10 w/o H2O2 in water.

  13. Surface treatment and protection method for cadmium zinc telluride crystals

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Gomez W.; James, Ralph B.; Burger, Arnold; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2003-01-01

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water.

  14. Sponge-like nanoporous single crystals of gold

    PubMed Central

    Khristosov, Maria Koifman; Bloch, Leonid; Burghammer, Manfred; Kauffmann, Yaron; Katsman, Alex; Pokroy, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals in nature often demonstrate fascinating intricate porous morphologies rather than classical faceted surfaces. We attempt to grow such crystals, drawing inspiration from biogenic porous single crystals. Here we show that nanoporous single crystals of gold can be grown with no need for any elaborate fabrication steps. These crystals are found to grow following solidification of a eutectic composition melt that forms as a result of the dewetting of nanometric thin films. We also present a kinetic model that shows how this nano-porous single-crystalline structure can be obtained, and which allows the potential size of the porous single crystal to be predicted. Retaining their single-crystalline nature is due to the fact that the full crystallization process is faster than the average period between two subsequent nucleation events. Our findings clearly demonstrate that it is possible to form single-crystalline nano porous metal crystals in a controlled manner. PMID:26554856

  15. Crystal Growth, Characterization and Fabrication of Cadmium Zinc Telluride-based Nuclear Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Ramesh M.

    In today's world, nuclear radiation is seeing more and more use by humanity as time goes on. Nuclear power plants are being built to supply humanity's energy needs, nuclear medical imaging is becoming more popular for diagnosing cancer and other diseases, and control of weapons-grade nuclear materials is becoming more and more important for national security. All of these needs require high-performance nuclear radiation detectors which can accurately measure the type and amount of radiation being used. However, most current radiation detection materials available commercially require extensive cooling, or simply do not function adequately for high-energy gamma-ray emitting nuclear materials such as uranium and plutonium. One of the most promising semiconductor materials being considered to create a convenient, field-deployable nuclear detector is cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, or CZT). CZT is a ternary semiconductor compound which can detect high-energy gamma-rays at room temperature. It offers high resistivity (≥ 1010 O-cm), a high band gap (1.55 eV), and good electron transport properties, all of which are required for a nuclear radiation detector. However, one significant issue with CZT is that there is considerable difficulty in growing large, homogeneous, defect-free single crystals of CZT. This significantly increases the cost of producing CZT detectors, making CZT less than ideal for mass-production. Furthermore, CZT suffers from poor hole transport properties, which creates significant problems when using it as a high-energy gamma-ray detector. In this dissertation, a comprehensive investigation is undertaken using a successful growth method for CZT developed at the University of South Carolina. This method, called the solvent-growth technique, reduces the complexity required to grow detector-grade CZT single crystals. It utilizes a lower growth temperature than traditional growth methods by using Te as a solvent, while maintaining the advantages of

  16. Load relaxation of olivine single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Reid F.; Stone, Donald S.; Plookphol, Thawatchai

    2016-10-01

    Single crystals of ferromagnesian olivine (San Carlos, AZ, peridot; Fo88-90) have been deformed in both uniaxial creep and load relaxation under conditions of ambient pressure, T = 1500°C and pO2 = 10-10 atm; creep stresses were in the range 40 ≤ σ1 (MPa) ≤ 220. The crystals were oriented such that the applied stress was parallel to [011]c, which promotes single slip on the slowest slip system in olivine, (010)[001]. The creep rates at steady state match well the results of earlier investigators, as does the stress sensitivity (a power law exponent of n = 3.6). Dislocation microstructures, including spatial distribution of low-angle (subgrain) boundaries, additionally confirm previous investigations. Inverted primary creep (an accelerating strain rate with an increase in stress) was observed. Load relaxation, however, produced a singular response—a single hardness curve—regardless of the magnitude of creep stress or total accumulated strain preceding relaxation. The log stress versus log strain rate data from load-relaxation and creep experiments overlap to within experimental error. The load-relaxation behavior is distinctly different than that described for other crystalline solids, where the flow stress is affected strongly by work hardening such that a family of distinct hardness curves is generated, which are related by a scaling function. The response of olivine for the conditions studied, we argue, indicates flow that is rate limited by dislocation glide, reflecting specifically a high intrinsic lattice resistance (Peierls stress).

  17. Crystal structure of human S100A8 in complex with zinc and calcium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haili; Andersen, Gregers Rom; Yatime, Laure

    2016-06-01

    S100 proteins are a large family of calcium binding proteins present only in vertebrates. They function intra- and extracellularly both as regulators of homeostatic processes and as potent effectors during inflammation. Among these, S100A8 and S100A9 are two major constituents of neutrophils that can assemble into homodimers, heterodimers and higher oligomeric species, including fibrillary structures found in the ageing prostate. Each of these forms assumes specific functions and their formation is dependent on divalent cations, notably calcium and zinc. In particular, zinc appears as a major regulator of S100 protein function in a disease context. Despite this central role, no structural information on how zinc bind to S100A8/S100A9 and regulates their quaternary structure is yet available. Here we report two crystallographic structures of calcium and zinc-loaded human S100A8. S100A8 binds two zinc ions per homodimer, through two symmetrical, all-His tetracoordination sites, revealing a classical His-Zn binding mode for the protein. Furthermore, the presence of a (Zn)2-cacodylate complex in our second crystal form induces ligand swapping within the canonical His4 zinc binding motif, thereby creating two new Zn-sites, one of which involves residues from symmetry-related molecules. Finally, we describe the calcium-induced S100A8 tetramer and reveal how zinc stabilizes this tetramer by tightening the dimer-dimer interface. Our structures of Zn(2+)/Ca(2+)-bound hS100A8 demonstrate that S100A8 is a genuine His-Zn S100 protein. Furthermore, they show how zinc stabilizes S100A8 tetramerization and potentially mediates the formation of novel interdimer interactions. We propose that these zinc-mediated interactions may serve as a basis for the generation of larger oligomers in vivo.

  18. Fabrication of crystals from single metal atoms

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Nicolas P. E.; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Sanchez, Ana M.; Dove, Andrew P.; Procter, Richard J.; Soldevila-Barreda, Joan J.; Kirby, Nigel; Hands-Portman, Ian; Smith, Corinne J.; O’Reilly, Rachel K.; Beanland, Richard; Sadler, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanocrystals offer new concepts for the design of nanodevices with a range of potential applications. Currently the formation of metal nanocrystals cannot be controlled at the level of individual atoms. Here we describe a new general method for the fabrication of multi-heteroatom-doped graphitic matrices decorated with very small, ångström-sized, three-dimensional (3D)-metal crystals of defined size. We irradiate boron-rich precious-metal-encapsulated self-spreading polymer micelles with electrons and produce, in real time, a doped graphitic support on which individual osmium atoms hop and migrate to form 3D-nanocrystals, as small as 15 Å in diameter, within 1 h. Crystal growth can be observed, quantified and controlled in real time. We also synthesize the first examples of mixed ruthenium–osmium 3D-nanocrystals. This technology not only allows the production of ångström-sized homo- and hetero-crystals, but also provides new experimental insight into the dynamics of nanocrystals and pathways for their assembly from single atoms. PMID:24861089

  19. Spectroscopic study of gel grown L-Valine Zinc Glycine Thiourea Sulfate (VZGTS) crystal: A novel NLO crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathod, Kiran T.; Patel, I. B.

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, organometalic non linear optical (NLO) materials have attained immense appeal form researchers due to its range of technological applications in photonic field and optoelectronic technology. In present research work, novel semi organic NLO L-Valine Zinc Glycine Thiourea Sulfate crystals (VZGTS) with different morphologies were grown by gel method at ambient temperature. Presence and identification of functional groups were confirmed by FITR analysis. Spectroscopic studies were carried out for it. The UV-Vis spectroscopy is recorded for crystal. PL study stats that the crystal has insulating nature. Spectroscopic study shows that this crystal has good transparency in the case of fundamental wavelength of Nd : YAG laser. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) efficiency was confirmed by Kurtz - Perry powder method. Results are discussed in the paper.

  20. Hydrolytic weakening in olivine single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tielke, Jacob A.; Zimmerman, Mark E.; Kohlstedt, David L.

    2017-05-01

    Deformation experiments on single crystals of San Carlos olivine under hydrous conditions were performed to investigate the microphysical processes responsible for hydrolytic weakening during dislocation creep. Hydrogen was supplied to the crystals using either talc or brucite sealed in nickel capsules with the crystal. Deformation experiments were carried out using a gas medium apparatus at temperatures of 1050° to 1250°C, a confining pressure of 300 MPa, differential stresses of 45 to 294 MPa, and resultant strain rates of 1.5 × 10-6 to 4.4 × 10-4 s-1. For talc-buffered (i.e., water and orthopyroxene-buffered) samples at high temperatures, the dependence of strain rate on stress follows a power law relationship with a stress exponent (n) of ˜2.5 and an activation energy of ˜490 kJ/mol. Brucite-buffered samples deformed faster than talc-buffered samples but contained similar hydrogen concentrations, demonstrating that strain rate is influenced by orthopyroxene activity under hydrous conditions. The values of n and dependence of strain rate on orthopyroxene activity are consistent with hydrolytic weakening occurring in the climb-controlled dislocation creep regime that is associated with deformation controlled by lattice diffusion under hydrous conditions and by pipe diffusion under anhydrous conditions. Analyses of postdeformation electron-backscatter diffraction data demonstrate that dislocations with [100] Burgers vectors are dominant in the climb-controlled regime and dislocations with [001] are dominant in the glide-controlled regime. Comparison of the experimentally determined constitutive equations demonstrates that under hydrous conditions crystals deform 1 to 2 orders of magnitude faster than under anhydrous conditions.

  1. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectroscopic and optical studies of a semiorganic NLO crystal: zinc guanidinium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Suvitha, A; Murugakoothan, P

    2012-02-01

    The semi-organic nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal, zinc guanidinium phosphate (ZGuP) has been grown through synthesis between zinc sulphate, guanidine carbonate and orthophosphoric acid from its aqueous solution by slow solvent evaporation technique. Solubility of the synthesized material has been determined for various temperatures using water as solvent. The grown crystal has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction to confirm the crystal structure. Investigation has been carried out to assign the vibrational frequencies of the grown crystals by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique. (1)H and (13)C FT-NMR have been recorded to elucidate the molecular structure. The optical absorption study confirms the suitability of the crystal for device applications. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of ZGuP is found to be 1.825 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Thermal behavior of the grown crystals has been studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The mechanical properties of the grown crystals have been studied using Vickers microhardness tester. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Seeded growth of boron arsenide single crystals with high thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fei; Song, Bai; Lv, Bing; Sun, Jingying; Huyan, Shuyuan; Wu, Qi; Mao, Jun; Ni, Yizhou; Ding, Zhiwei; Huberman, Samuel; Liu, Te-Huan; Chen, Gang; Chen, Shuo; Chu, Ching-Wu; Ren, Zhifeng

    2018-01-01

    Materials with high thermal conductivities are crucial to effectively cooling high-power-density electronic and optoelectronic devices. Recently, zinc-blende boron arsenide (BAs) has been predicted to have a very high thermal conductivity of over 2000 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature by first-principles calculations, rendering it a close competitor for diamond which holds the highest thermal conductivity among bulk materials. Experimental demonstration, however, has proved extremely challenging, especially in the preparation of large high quality single crystals. Although BAs crystals have been previously grown by chemical vapor transport (CVT), the growth process relies on spontaneous nucleation and results in small crystals with multiple grains and various defects. Here, we report a controllable CVT synthesis of large single BAs crystals (400-600 μm) by using carefully selected tiny BAs single crystals as seeds. We have obtained BAs single crystals with a thermal conductivity of 351 ± 21 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature, which is almost twice as conductive as previously reported BAs crystals. Further improvement along this direction is very likely.

  3. Growth of single crystals of BaFe12O19 by solid state crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, John G.; Sun, Hengyang; Kook, Young-Geun; Kim, Joon-Seong; Le, Phan Gia

    2016-10-01

    Single crystals of BaFe12O19 are grown for the first time by solid state crystal growth. Seed crystals of BaFe12O19 are buried in BaFe12O19+1 wt% BaCO3 powder, which are then pressed into pellets containing the seed crystals. During sintering, single crystals of BaFe12O19 up to ∼130 μm thick in the c-axis direction grow on the seed crystals by consuming grains from the surrounding polycrystalline matrix. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis shows that the single crystal and the surrounding polycrystalline matrix have the same chemical composition. Micro-Raman scattering shows the single crystal to have the BaFe12O19 structure. The optimum growth temperature is found to be 1200 °C. The single crystal growth behavior is explained using the mixed control theory of grain growth.

  4. Porosity Evolution in a Creeping Single Crystal (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    1] indicated that the growth of initially present processing induced voids in a nickel based single crystal superalloy played a significant role in...processing induced voids in a nickel based single crystal superalloy played a significant role in limiting creep life. Also, creep tests on single...experimental observations of creep deformation and failure of a nickel based single crystal superalloy, [1, 2]. Metallographic observations have shown that Ni

  5. Physics-Based Crystal Plasticity Modeling of Single Crystal Niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Tias

    Crystal plasticity models based on thermally activated dislocation kinetics has been successful in predicting the deformation behavior of crystalline materials, particularly in face-centered cubic (fcc) metals. In body-centered cubic (bcc) metals success has been limited owing to ill-defined slip planes. The flow stress of a bcc metal is strongly dependent on temperature and orientation due to the non-planar splitting of a/2 screw dislocations. As a consequence of this, bcc metals show two unique deformation characteristics: (a) thermally-activated glide of screw dislocations--the motion of screw components with their non-planar core structure at the atomistic level occurs even at low stress through the nucleation (assisted by thermal activation) and lateral propagation of dislocation kink pairs; (b) break-down of the Schmid Law, where dislocation slip is driven only by the resolved shear stress. Since the split dislocation core has to constrict for a kink pair formation (and propagation), the non-planarity of bcc screw dislocation cores entails an influence of (shear) stress components acting on planes other than the primary glide plane on their mobility. Another consequence of the asymmetric core splitting on the glide plane is a direction-sensitive slip resistance, which is termed twinning/atwinning sense of shear and should be taken into account when developing constitutive models. Modeling thermally-activated flow including the above-mentioned non-Schmid effects in bcc metals has been the subject of much work, starting in the 1980s and gaining increased interest in recent times. The majority of these works focus on single crystal deformation of commonly used metals such as Iron (Fe), Molybdenum (Mo), and Tungsten (W), while very few published studies address deformation behavior in Niobium (Nb). Most of the work on Nb revolves around fitting parameters of phenomenological descriptions, which do not capture adequately the macroscopic multi-stage hardening

  6. Load Relaxation of Olivine Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. F.; Stone, D. S.; Plookphol, T.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of ferromagnesian olivine (San Carlos, AZ, peridot; Fo90-92) have been deformed in both uniaxial creep and load relaxation under conditions of ambient pressure, T = 1500ºC and pO2 = 10-10 atm; creep stresses were in the range 40 ≤ σ1 (MPa) ≤ 220. The crystals were oriented such that the applied stress was parallel to [011]c, which promotes single slip on the slowest slip system in olivine, (010)[001]. The creep rates at steady state match well the results of earlier investigators, as does the stress sensitivity (a power-law exponent of n = 3.6). Dislocation microstructures, including spatial distribution of low-angle (subgrain) boundaries, additionally confirm previous investigations. Inverted primary creep (an accelerating strain rate with an increase in stress) was observed. Load-relaxation, however, produced a singular response—a single hardness curve—regardless of the magnitude of creep stress or total accumulated strain preceding relaxation. The log-stress v. log-strain rate data from load-relaxation and creep experiments overlap to within experimental error. The load-relaxation behavior is distinctly different that that described for other crystalline solids, where the flow stress is affected strongly by work hardening such that a family of distinct hardness curves is generated, which are related by a scaling function. The response of olivine for the conditions studied, thus, indicates flow that is rate-limited by dislocation glide, reflecting specifically a high intrinsic lattice resistance (Peierls stress).

  7. Experimental dynamic metamorphism of mineral single crystals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a review of some of the rich and varied interactions between non-hydrostatic stress and phase transformations or mineral reactions, drawn mainly from results of experiments done on mineral single crystals in our laboratory or our co-authors. The state of stress and inelastic deformation can enter explicitly into the equilibrium phase relations and kinetics of mineral reactions. Alternatively, phase transformations can have prominent effects on theology and on the nature of inelastic deformation. Our examples represent five types of structural phase changes, each of which is distinguished by particular mechanical effects. In increasing structural complexity, these include: (1) displacive phase transformations involving no bond-breaking, which may produce anomalous brittle behavior. A primary example is the a-?? quartz transition which shows anomalously low fracture strength and tertiary creep behavior near the transition temperature; (2) martensitic-like transformations involving transformation strains dominated by shear deformation. Examples include the orthoenstatite ??? clinoenstatite and w u ??rtzite ??? sphalerite transformations; (3) coherent exsolution or precipitation of a mineral solute from a supersaturated solid-solution, with anisotropy of precipitation and creep rates produced under nonhydrostatic stress. Examples include exsolution of corundum from MgO ?? nAl2O3 spinels and Ca-clinopyroxene from orthopyroxene; (4) order-disorder transformations that are believed to cause anomalous plastic yield strengthening, such as MgO - nAl2O3 spinels; and (5) near-surface devolatilization of hydrous silicate single-crystals that produces a fundamental brittleness thought to be connected with dehydration at microcracks at temperatures well below nominal macroscopic dehydration temperatures. As none of these interactions between single-crystal phase transformations and non-hydrostatic stress is understood in detail, this paper serves as a challenge to

  8. Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material

    DOEpatents

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Wu, Chung P.

    1983-01-01

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

  9. Method of Making Lightweight, Single Crystal Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bly, Vincent T. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of making a mirror from a single crystal blank may include fine grinding top and bottom surfaces of the blank to be parallel. The blank may then be heat treated to near its melting temperature. An optical surface may be created on an optical side of the blank. A protector may be bonded to the optical surface. With the protector in place, the blank may be light weighted by grinding a non-optical surface of the blank using computer controlled grinding. The light weighting may include creating a structure having a substantially minimum mass necessary to maintain distortion of the mirror within a preset limit. A damaged layer of the non-optical surface caused by light weighting may be removed with an isotropic etch and/or repaired by heat treatment. If an oxide layer is present, the entire blank may then be etched using, for example, hydrofluoric acid. A reflecting coating may be deposited on the optical surface.

  10. Hydrogen Annealing Of Single-Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Schaeffer, John C.; Murphy, Wendy

    1995-01-01

    Annealing at temperature equal to or greater than 2,200 degrees F in atmosphere of hydrogen found to increase ability of single-crystal superalloys to resist oxidation when subsequently exposed to oxidizing atmospheres at temperatures almost as high. Supperalloys in question are principal constituents of hot-stage airfoils (blades) in aircraft and ground-based turbine engines; also used in other high-temperature applications like chemical-processing plants, coal-gasification plants, petrochemical refineries, and boilers. Hydrogen anneal provides resistance to oxidation without decreasing fatigue strength and without need for coating or reactive sulfur-gettering constituents. In comparison with coating, hydrogen annealing costs less. Benefits extend to stainless steels, nickel/chromium, and nickel-base alloys, subject to same scale-adhesion and oxidation-resistance considerations, except that scale is chromia instead of alumina.

  11. Submicron diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    DOE PAGES

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Daniel; Liu, Bo; ...

    2014-10-02

    In this work, a submicron-diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber was demonstrated via wet acid etching at elevated temperatures. Etch rates on the order 2.3 µm/hr were achievable with a 3:1 molar ratio sulfuric-phosphoric acid solution maintained at a temperature of 343°C. A sapphire fiber with an approximate diameter of 800 nm was successfully fabricated from a commercially available fiber with an original diameter of 50 µm. The simple and controllable etching technique provides a feasible approach to the fabrication of unique waveguide structures via traditional silica masking techniques. The ability to tailor the geometry of sapphire optical fibers ismore » the first step in achieving optical and sensing performance on par with its fused silica counterpart.« less

  12. Electrical switching in cadmium boracite single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, T.; Yamada, O.

    1981-01-01

    Cadmium boracite single crystals at high temperatures ( 300 C) were found to exhibit a reversible electric field-induced transition between a highly insulative and a conductive state. The switching threshold is smaller than a few volts for an electrode spacing of a few tenth of a millimeter corresponding to an electric field of 100 to 1000 V/cm. This is much smaller than the dielectric break-down field for an insulator such as boracite. The insulative state reappears after voltage removal. A pulse technique revealed two different types of switching. Unstable switching occurs when the pulse voltage slightly exceeds the switching threshold and is characterized by a pre-switching delay and also a residual current after voltage pulse removal. A stable type of switching occurs when the voltage becomes sufficiently high. Possible device applications of this switching phenomenon are discussed.

  13. Dynamic characteristics of single crystal SSME blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, L. A.; Smith, T. E.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) blades are currently manufactured using a directionally solidified (DS) material, MAR-M-246+Hf. However, a necessity to reduce the occurrence of fatigue cracking within the DS blades has lead to an interest in the use of a single crystal (SC) material, PWA-1480. A study was initiated to determine the dynamic characteristics of the HPFTP blades made of SC material and find possible critical engine order excitations. This study examined both the first and second stage drive turbine blades of the HPFTP. The dynamic characterization was done analytically as well as experimentally. The analytical study examined the SC first stage HPFTP blade dynamic characteristics under typical operating conditions. The blades were analyzed using MSC/NASTRAN and a finite element model. Two operating conditions, 27500 RPM and 35000 RPM, were investigated.

  14. Conversion of broadband IR radiation and structural disorder in lithium niobate single crystals with low photorefractive effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, Man Nen; Syuy, Alexander V.; Krishtop, Victor V.; Pogodina, Veronika A.; Ponomarchuk, Yulia V.; Sidorov, Nikolay V.; Gabain, Aleksei A.; Palatnikov, Mikhail N.; Litvinov, Vladimir A.

    2016-11-01

    The conversion of broadband IR radiation when the noncritical phase matching condition is fulfilled in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystals with stoichiometric (R = Li/Nb = 1) and congruent (R = 0.946) compositions, as well as in congruent single crystals doped with zinc has been investigated. It is shown that the spectrum parameters of converted radiation, such as the conversion efficiency, spectral width and position of maximum, depend on the ordering degree of structural units of the cation sublattice along the polar axis of crystal.

  15. Mechanical, Thermodynamic and Electronic Properties of Wurtzite and Zinc-Blende GaN Crystals.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongbo; Luan, Xinghe; Feng, Chuang; Yang, Daoguo; Zhang, Guoqi

    2017-12-12

    For the limitation of experimental methods in crystal characterization, in this study, the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN crystals were investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Firstly, bulk moduli, shear moduli, elastic moduli and Poisson's ratios of the two GaN polycrystals were calculated using Voigt and Hill approximations, and the results show wurtzite GaN has larger shear and elastic moduli and exhibits more obvious brittleness. Moreover, both wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN monocrystals present obvious mechanical anisotropic behavior. For wurtzite GaN monocrystal, the maximum and minimum elastic moduli are located at orientations [001] and <111>, respectively, while they are in the orientations <111> and <100> for zinc-blende GaN monocrystal, respectively. Compared to the elastic modulus, the shear moduli of the two GaN monocrystals have completely opposite direction dependences. However, different from elastic and shear moduli, the bulk moduli of the two monocrystals are nearly isotropic, especially for the zinc-blende GaN. Besides, in the wurtzite GaN, Poisson's ratios at the planes containing [001] axis are anisotropic, and the maximum value is 0.31 which is located at the directions vertical to [001] axis. For zinc-blende GaN, Poisson's ratios at planes (100) and (111) are isotropic, while the Poisson's ratio at plane (110) exhibits dramatically anisotropic phenomenon. Additionally, the calculated Debye temperatures of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 641.8 and 620.2 K, respectively. At 300 K, the calculated heat capacities of wurtzite and zinc-blende are 33.6 and 33.5 J mol -1 K -1 , respectively. Finally, the band gap is located at the G point for the two crystals, and the band gaps of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 3.62 eV and 3.06 eV, respectively. At the G point, the lowest energy of conduction band in the wurtzite GaN is larger, resulting in a wider band

  16. Mechanical, Thermodynamic and Electronic Properties of Wurtzite and Zinc-Blende GaN Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Xinghe; Feng, Chuang; Yang, Daoguo; Zhang, Guoqi

    2017-01-01

    For the limitation of experimental methods in crystal characterization, in this study, the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN crystals were investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Firstly, bulk moduli, shear moduli, elastic moduli and Poisson’s ratios of the two GaN polycrystals were calculated using Voigt and Hill approximations, and the results show wurtzite GaN has larger shear and elastic moduli and exhibits more obvious brittleness. Moreover, both wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN monocrystals present obvious mechanical anisotropic behavior. For wurtzite GaN monocrystal, the maximum and minimum elastic moduli are located at orientations [001] and <111>, respectively, while they are in the orientations <111> and <100> for zinc-blende GaN monocrystal, respectively. Compared to the elastic modulus, the shear moduli of the two GaN monocrystals have completely opposite direction dependences. However, different from elastic and shear moduli, the bulk moduli of the two monocrystals are nearly isotropic, especially for the zinc-blende GaN. Besides, in the wurtzite GaN, Poisson’s ratios at the planes containing [001] axis are anisotropic, and the maximum value is 0.31 which is located at the directions vertical to [001] axis. For zinc-blende GaN, Poisson’s ratios at planes (100) and (111) are isotropic, while the Poisson’s ratio at plane (110) exhibits dramatically anisotropic phenomenon. Additionally, the calculated Debye temperatures of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 641.8 and 620.2 K, respectively. At 300 K, the calculated heat capacities of wurtzite and zinc-blende are 33.6 and 33.5 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. Finally, the band gap is located at the G point for the two crystals, and the band gaps of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 3.62 eV and 3.06 eV, respectively. At the G point, the lowest energy of conduction band in the wurtzite GaN is larger, resulting in a

  17. Piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qifa; Lam, Kwok Ho; Zheng, Hairong; Qiu, Weibao; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric single crystals, which have excellent piezoelectric properties, have extensively been employed for various sensors and actuators applications. In this paper, the state–of–art in piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is reviewed. Firstly, the basic principles and design considerations of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers will be addressed. Then, the popular piezoelectric single crystals used for ultrasonic transducer applications, including LiNbO3 (LN), PMN–PT and PIN–PMN–PT, will be introduced. After describing the preparation and performance of the single crystals, the recent development of both the single–element and array transducers fabricated using the single crystals will be presented. Finally, various biomedical applications including eye imaging, intravascular imaging, blood flow measurement, photoacoustic imaging, and microbeam applications of the single crystal transducers will be discussed. PMID:25386032

  18. Formation of curved micrometer-sized single crystals.

    PubMed

    Koifman Khristosov, Maria; Kabalah-Amitai, Lee; Burghammer, Manfred; Katsman, Alex; Pokroy, Boaz

    2014-05-27

    Crystals in nature often demonstrate curved morphologies rather than classical faceted surfaces. Inspired by biogenic curved single crystals, we demonstrate that gold single crystals exhibiting curved surfaces can be grown with no need of any fabrication steps. These single crystals grow from the confined volume of a droplet of a eutectic composition melt that forms via the dewetting of nanometric thin films. We can control their curvature by controlling the environment in which the process is carried out, including several parameters, such as the contact angle and the curvature of the drops, by changing the surface tension of the liquid drop during crystal growth. Here we present an energetic model that explains this phenomenon and predicts why and under what conditions crystals will be forced to grow with the curvature of the microdroplet even though the energetic state of a curved single crystal is very high.

  19. Seeded Physical Vapor Transport of Cadmium-Zinc Telluride Crystals: Growth and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; George, M. A.; Collins, E. E.; Chen, K.-T.; Zhang, Y.; Burger, A.

    1997-01-01

    Crystals of Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te with x = 0.2 and 40 g in weight were grown on monocrystalline cadmium-zinc telluride seeds by closed-ampoule physical vapor transport with or without excess (Cd + Zn) in the vapor phase. Two post-growth cool-down rates were used. The crystals were characterized using low temperature photoluminescence, atomic force microscopy, chemical etching, X-ray diffraction and electrical measurements. No formation of a second, ZnTe-rich phase was observed.

  20. Single Mode Air-Clad Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Dan; Yu, Zhihao

    The observation of single mode propagation in an air-clad single crystal sapphire optical fiber at wavelengths at and above 783 nm is presented for the first time. A high-temperature wet acid etching method was used to reduce the diameter of a 10 cm length of commercially-sourced sapphire fiber from 125 micrometers to 6.5 micrometers, and far-field imaging provided modal information at intervals as the fiber diameter decreased. Modal volume was shown to decrease with decreasing diameter, and single mode behavior was observed at the minimum diameter achieved. While weakly-guiding approximations are generally inaccurate for low modal volume optical fiber withmore » high core-cladding refractive index disparity, consistency between these approximations and experimental results was observed when the effective numerical aperture was measured and substituted for the theoretical numerical aperture in weakly-guiding approximation calculations. With the demonstration of very low modal volume in sapphire at fiber diameters much larger than anticipated by legacy calculations, the resolution of sapphire fiber distributed sensors may be increased and other sensing schemes requiring very low modal volume, such as fiber Bragg gratings, may be realized in extreme environment applications.« less

  1. Single Mode Air-Clad Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber

    DOE PAGES

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Dan; Yu, Zhihao; ...

    2017-05-03

    The observation of single mode propagation in an air-clad single crystal sapphire optical fiber at wavelengths at and above 783 nm is presented for the first time. A high-temperature wet acid etching method was used to reduce the diameter of a 10 cm length of commercially-sourced sapphire fiber from 125 micrometers to 6.5 micrometers, and far-field imaging provided modal information at intervals as the fiber diameter decreased. Modal volume was shown to decrease with decreasing diameter, and single mode behavior was observed at the minimum diameter achieved. While weakly-guiding approximations are generally inaccurate for low modal volume optical fiber withmore » high core-cladding refractive index disparity, consistency between these approximations and experimental results was observed when the effective numerical aperture was measured and substituted for the theoretical numerical aperture in weakly-guiding approximation calculations. With the demonstration of very low modal volume in sapphire at fiber diameters much larger than anticipated by legacy calculations, the resolution of sapphire fiber distributed sensors may be increased and other sensing schemes requiring very low modal volume, such as fiber Bragg gratings, may be realized in extreme environment applications.« less

  2. Ultratough CVD single crystal diamond and three dimensional growth thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J [Washington, DC; Mao, Ho-kwang [Washington, DC; Yan, Chih-shiue [Washington, DC

    2009-09-29

    The invention relates to a single-crystal diamond grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition that has a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention also relates to a method of producing a single-crystal diamond with a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a process for producing a single crystal CVD diamond in three dimensions on a single crystal diamond substrate.

  3. Development of n- and p-type Doped Perovskite Single Crystals Using Solid-State Single Crystal Growth (SSCG) Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-09

    doped BaTiO3 single crystal) could be also fabricated by using a BaTiO3 ceramics with the same compositional gradient (Fig. 8). This result has...piezoelectric applications. Compositionally PZT ceramics lie near the MPB between the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases and MPB compositions ...single crystal growth) technique are suitable to grow a variety of “n- and p-type doped” perovskite single crystals of complicated compositions . The

  4. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  5. Zinc

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  6. Large single domain 123 material produced by seeding with single crystal rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Todt, Volker; Miller, Dean J.; Shi, Donglu; Sengupta, Suvankar

    1998-01-01

    A method of fabricating bulk YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x where compressed powder oxides and/or carbonates of Y and Ba and Cu present in mole ratios to form YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x are heated in the presence of a Nd.sub.1+x Ba.sub.2-x Cu.sub.3 O.sub.y seed crystal to a temperature sufficient to form a liquid phase in the YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x while maintaining the seed crystal solid. The materials are slowly cooled to provide a YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x material having a predetermined number of domains between 1 and 5. Crack-free single domain materials can be formed using either plate shaped seed crystals or cube shaped seed crystals with a pedestal of preferential orientation material.

  7. Crucibleless crystal growth and Radioluminescence study of calcium tungstate single crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. S.; Jesus, L. M.; Barbosa, L. B.; Ardila, D. R.; Andreeta, J. P.; Silva, R. S.

    2014-11-01

    In this article, single phase and high optical quality scheelite calcium tungstate single crystal fibers were grown by using the crucibleless laser heated pedestal growth technique. The as-synthesized calcium tungstate powders used for shaping seed and feed rods were investigated by X-ray diffraction technique. As-grown crystals were studied by Raman spectroscopy and Radioluminescence measurements. The results indicate that in both two cases, calcined powder and single crystal fiber, only the expected scheelite CaWO4 phase was observed. It was verified large homogeneity in the crystal composition, without the presence of secondary phases. The Radioluminescence spectra of the as-grown single crystal fibers are in agreement with that present in Literature for bulk single crystals, presented a single emission band centered at 420 nm when irradiated with β-rays.

  8. How far could energy transport within a single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yifan; Che, Yanke; Zhao, Jincai; Steve, Granick

    Efficient transport of excitation energy over long distance is a vital process in light-harvesting systems and molecular electronics. The energy transfer distance is largely restricted by the probability decay of the exciton when hopping within a single crystal. Here, we fabricated an organic single crystal within which the energy could transfer more than 100 μm, a distance only limited by its crystal size. Our system could be regarded as a ``Sprint relay game'' performing on different surface of tracks. Photoinduced ``athletes'' (excitons) triggered intermolecular ``domino'' reaction to propagate energy for a long distance. In addition, athletes with the same ability runs much farther on smooth ideal track (single crystal assembled from merely van der Waals interaction) than bumpy mud track (crystal assembled from combination of pi-stacking, hydrogen bond and van der Waals interactions). Our finding presents new physics on enhancing energy transfer length within a single crystal. Current Affiliation: Institute for Basic Science, South Korea.

  9. Advanced single crystal for SSME turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzemeier, L. G.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this program was to evaluate the influence of high thermal gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and alternate heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a single crystal nickel base superalloy. The alloy chosen for the study was PWA 1480, a well characterized, commercial alloy which had previously been chosen as a candidate for the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure turbopump turbine blades. Microstructural characterization evaluated the influence of casting thermal gradient on dendrite arm spacing, casting porosity distribution and alloy homogeneity. Hot isostatic pressing was evaluated as a means of eliminating porosity as a preferred fatigue crack initiation site. The alternate heat treatment was chosen to improve hydrogen environment embrittlement resistance and for potential fatigue life improvement. Mechanical property evaluation was aimed primarily at determining improvements in low cycle and high cycle fatigue life due to the advanced processing methods. Statistically significant numbers of tests were conducted to quantitatively demonstrate life differences. High thermal gradient casting improves as-cast homogeneity, which facilitates solution heat treatment of PWA 1480 and provides a decrease in internal pore size, leading to increases in low cycle and high cycle fatigue lives.

  10. Single crystal micromechanical resonator and fabrication methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; Friedmann, Thomas A.; Homeijer, Sara Jensen; Wiwi, Michael; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Clark, Blythe; Bauer, Todd; Van Deusen, Stuart B.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a single crystal micromechanical resonator. In particular, the resonator includes a lithium niobate or lithium tantalate suspended plate. Also provided are improved microfabrication methods of making resonators, which does not rely on complicated wafer bonding, layer fracturing, and mechanical polishing steps. Rather, the methods allow the resonator and its components to be formed from a single crystal.

  11. A Quick Method for Determining the Density of Single Crystals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Pascual; Gutierrez-Zorrilla, Juan M.

    1985-01-01

    Shows how the Archimedes method is used to determine the density of a single crystal of ammonium oxalate monohydrate. Also shows how to calculate the density of other chemicals when they are available as single crystals. Experimental procedures and materials needed are included. (JN)

  12. Distributed Feedback Laser Based on Single Crystal Perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shang; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a single crystal perovskite based, with grating-structured photoresist on top, highly polarized distributed feedback laser. A lower laser threshold than the Fabry-Perot mode lasers from the same single crystal CH3NH3PbBr3 microplate was obtained. Single crystal CH3NH3PbBr3 microplates was synthesized with one-step solution processed precipitation method. Once the photoresist on top of the microplate was patterned with electron beam, the device was realized. This one-step fabrication process utilized the advantage of single crystal to the greatest extend. The ultra-low defect density in single crystalline microplate offer an opportunity for lower threshold lasing action compare with poly-crystal perovskite films. In the experiment, the lasing action based on the distributed feedback grating design was found with lower threshold and higher intensity than the Fabry-Perot mode lasers supported by the flat facets of the same microplate.

  13. Zinc-Nucleated D 2 and H 2 Crystal Formation from Their Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Bernat, T. P.; Petta, N.; Kozioziemski, B.

    Calorimetric measurements at University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics of D 2 crystallization from the melt indicate that zinc can act as a heterogeneous nucleation seed with suppressed supercooling. We further studied in this paper this effect for a variety of zinc substrates using the optical-access cryogenic sample cell at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Small supercoolings are observed, some as low as 5 mK, but results depend on the zinc history and sample preparation. In general, thin samples prepared by physical vapor deposition were not effective in nucleating crystal formation. Larger (several-millimeter) granules showed greater supercooling suppression, depending onmore » surface modification and granule size. Surfaces of these granules are morphologically varied and not uniform. Scanning electron microscope images were not able to correlate any particular surface feature with enhanced nucleation. Finally, application of classical nucleation theory to the observed variation of supercooling level with granule size is consistent with nucleation features with sizes <100 nm and with wetting angles of a few degrees.« less

  14. Zinc-Nucleated D 2 and H 2 Crystal Formation from Their Liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Bernat, T. P.; Petta, N.; Kozioziemski, B.; ...

    2016-09-01

    Calorimetric measurements at University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics of D 2 crystallization from the melt indicate that zinc can act as a heterogeneous nucleation seed with suppressed supercooling. We further studied in this paper this effect for a variety of zinc substrates using the optical-access cryogenic sample cell at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Small supercoolings are observed, some as low as 5 mK, but results depend on the zinc history and sample preparation. In general, thin samples prepared by physical vapor deposition were not effective in nucleating crystal formation. Larger (several-millimeter) granules showed greater supercooling suppression, depending onmore » surface modification and granule size. Surfaces of these granules are morphologically varied and not uniform. Scanning electron microscope images were not able to correlate any particular surface feature with enhanced nucleation. Finally, application of classical nucleation theory to the observed variation of supercooling level with granule size is consistent with nucleation features with sizes <100 nm and with wetting angles of a few degrees.« less

  15. Study of single crystals of metal solid solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, J. P.; Reising, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The growth of single crystals of relatively high melting point metals such as silver, copper, gold, and their alloys was investigated. The purpose was to develop background information necessary to support a space flight experiment and to generate ground based data for comparison. The ground based data, when compared to the data from space grown crystals, are intended to identify any effects which zero-gravity might have on the basic process of single crystal growth of these metals. The ultimate purposes of the complete investigation are to: (1) determine specific metals and alloys to be investigated; (2) grow single metal crystals in a terrestrial laboratory; (3) determine crystal characteristics, properties, and growth parameters that will be effected by zero-gravity; (4) evaluate terrestrially grown crystals; (5) grow single metal crystals in a space laboratory such as Skylab; (6) evaluate the space grown crystals; (7) compare for zero-gravity effects of crystal characteristics, properties, and parameters; and (8) make a recommendation as to production of these crystals as a routine space manufacturing proceses.

  16. Investigation of channeling and radiation of relativistic electrons in charged planes of the crystals with zinc blende structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyuta, N. V.; Vysotskii, V. I.; Efimenko, S. V.; Slinchenko, Y. A.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper the interaction potentials of relativistic electrons with the charged (2m+1, 2n+1, 2p+1) and (2m+1, 2n, 2p) planes (m, n, p=0,1,dot s, and Miller indices are mutually prime numbers) in the crystals with a zinc blende structure are calculated using Moliere approximation. It is shown that at the change of the type of used crystal plane (from the main (100) to the high-index charged planes), the structures of potential wells are transformed from non-unimodal to unimodal ones. In this case for the crystals constructed from ions with close nucleus charges, there arise so-called positron-like potential wells for the channeled electrons, i.e. with minima in the interplanar space. The influence of temperature factor on interaction potentials structures is also investigated. For the electrons with Lorentz-factors γ = 25, 50, 75 in the main (100) and (111) planes the transverse energy levels and corresponding wave functions in single planar approximation are found numerically. By means of these data the spectra of channeling radiation (CR) in dipole approximation are calculated for the electrons beams with a Lorentz-factor γ = 50 and an angular dispersion θ 0 ≈ 0,5 mrad, arising in the main charged (100) and (111) planes in ZnS, ZnSe and ZnTe crystals. It is shown that the CR generated at electron channeling along the (111) planes is more intense. It is shown also that spectra of CR arising in (111) planes of silicon and AlP crystals at using of channeled electron beam with γ = 25 and an angular dispersion θ 0 ≈ 0,5 mrad, due to similarity of structures of potential wells are identical. The spectra of CR at γ = 25, 50, 75 are calculated for a number of crystals with a zinc blende structure, namely AlP, AlAs, AlSb, GaP, GaAs, InP, InAs, InSb.

  17. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Murali, Banavoth; Alarousu, Erkki; Burlakov, Victor M.; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Wang, Lingfei; He, Yao; Maculan, Giacomo; Goriely, Alain; Wu, Tom; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-07-01

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3+, X=Br- or I-) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization.

  18. Nanoparticles Incorporated inside Single-Crystals: Enhanced Fluorescent Properties

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yujing; Zang, Huidong; Wang, Ling; ...

    2016-09-25

    Incorporation of guest materials inside single-crystalline hosts leads to single-crystal composites that have become more and more frequently seen in both biogenic and synthetic crystals. The unique composite structure together with long-range ordering promises special properties that are, however, less often demonstrated. In this study, we examine the fluorescent properties of quantum dots (QDs) and polymer dots (Pdots) encapsulated inside the hosts of calcite single-crystals. Two CdTe QDs and two Pdots are incorporated into growing calcite crystals, as the QDs and Pdots are dispersed in the crystallization media of agarose gels. As a result, enhanced fluorescent properties are obtained frommore » the QDs and Pdots inside calcite single-crystals with greatly improved photostability and significantly prolonged fluorescence lifetime, compared to those in solutions and gels. Particularly, the fluorescence lifetime increases by 0.5-1.6 times after the QDs or Pdots are incorporated. The enhanced fluorescent properties indicate the advantages of encapsulation by single-crystal hosts that provide dense shells to isolate the fluorescent nanoparticles from atmosphere. As such, this work has implications for advancing the research of single-crystal composites toward their functional design.« less

  19. A study of crystal growth by solution technique. [triglycine sulfate single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    The advantages and mechanisms of crystal growth from solution are discussed as well as the effects of impurity adsorption on the kinetics of crystal growth. Uncertainities regarding crystal growth in a low gravity environment are examined. Single crystals of triglycine sulfate were grown using a low temperature solution technique. Small components were assembled and fabricated for future space flights. A space processing experiment proposal accepted by NASA for the Spacelab-3 mission is included.

  20. Method for harvesting rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Todt, Volker R.; Sengupta, Suvankar; Shi, Donglu

    1996-01-01

    A method of preparing high temperature superconductor single crystals. The method of preparation involves preparing precursor materials of a particular composition, heating the precursor material to achieve a peritectic mixture of peritectic liquid and crystals of the high temperature superconductor, cooling the peritectic mixture to quench directly the mixture on a porous, wettable inert substrate to wick off the peritectic liquid, leaving single crystals of the high temperature superconductor on the porous substrate. Alternatively, the peritectic mixture can be cooled to a solid mass and reheated on a porous, inert substrate to melt the matrix of peritectic fluid while leaving the crystals melted, allowing the wicking away of the peritectic liquid.

  1. Single-drop optimization of protein crystallization.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Arne; Dierks, Karsten; Hilterhaus, Dierk; Klupsch, Thomas; Mühlig, Peter; Kleesiek, Jens; Schöpflin, Robert; Einspahr, Howard; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Betzel, Christian

    2012-08-01

    A completely new crystal-growth device has been developed that permits charting a course across the phase diagram to produce crystalline samples optimized for diffraction experiments. The utility of the device is demonstrated for the production of crystals for the traditional X-ray diffraction data-collection experiment, of microcrystals optimal for data-collection experiments at a modern microbeam insertion-device synchrotron beamline and of nanocrystals required for data collection on an X-ray laser beamline.

  2. Design and fabrication of PZN-7%PT single crystal high frequency angled needle ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qifa; Wu, Dawei; Jin, Jing; Hu, Chang-hong; Xu, Xiaochen; Williams, Jay; Cannata, Jonathan M; Lim, Leongchew; Shung, K Kirk

    2008-01-01

    A high-frequency angled needle ultrasound transducer with an aperture size of 0.4 x 0.56 mm2 was fabricated using a lead zinc niobate-lead titanate (PZN- 7%PT) single crystal as the active piezoelectric material. The single crystal was bonded to a conductive silver particle matching layer and a conductive epoxy backing material through direct contact curing. A parylene outer matching layer was formed by vapor deposition. Angled needle probe configuration was achieved by dicing at 45 degrees to the single crystal poling direction to satisfy a clinical request for blood flow measurement in the posterior portion of the eye. The electrical impedance magnitude and phase of the transducer were 42 Omega and -63 degrees , respectively. The measured center frequency and the fractional bandwidth at -6 dB were 43 MHz and 45%, respectively. The two-way insertion loss was approximately 17 dB. Wire phantom imaging using fabricated PZN-7%PT single crystal transducers was obtained and spatial resolutions were assessed.

  3. Growth and characterization of diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Siva Sankari, R.; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana, E-mail: r.shankarisai@gmail.com

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate (DACS) is one of the most promising inorganic dielectric crystals with exceptional mechanical properties. Good quality crystals of DACS were grown by using solution method in a period of 30 days. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis in order to establish their crystalline nature. Thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis were performed for the crystal. Several solid state physical parameters have been determined for the grown crystals. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss and AC conductivity of the grown crystal were studied as a functionmore » of frequency and temperature has been calculated and plotted. - Highlights: • Diammonium copper disulphate is grown for the first time and CCDC number obtained. • Thermal analysis is done to see the stability range of the crystals. • Band gap and UV cut off wavelength of the crystal are determined to be 2.4 eV and 472.86 nm, respectively. • Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity are plotted as a function of applied field. - Abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate is one of the most promising inorganic crystals with exceptional dielectric properties. A good quality crystal was harvested in a 30-day period using solution growth method. The grown crystal was subjected to various characterization techniques like single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis. Unit cell dimensions of the grown crystal have been identified from XRD studies. Functional groups of the title compounds have been identified from FTIR studies. Thermal stability of the samples was checked by TG/DTA studies. Band gap of the crystal was calculated. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied as a function of frequency of the applied field. AC conductivity was plotted as a

  4. High quality factor single-crystal diamond mechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovartchaiyapong, P.; Pascal, L. M. A.; Myers, B. A.; Lauria, P.; Bleszynski Jayich, A. C.

    2012-10-01

    Single-crystal diamond is a promising material for microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) because of its low mechanical loss, compatibility with extreme environments, and built-in interface to high-quality spin centers. But its use has been limited by challenges in processing and growth. We demonstrate a wafer bonding-based technique to form diamond on insulator, from which we make single-crystal diamond micromechanical resonators with mechanical quality factors as high as 338 000 at room temperature. Variable temperature measurements down to 10 K reveal a nonmonotonic dependence of quality factor on temperature. These resonators enable integration of single-crystal diamond into MEMs technology for classical and quantum applications.

  5. Growth and characterization of organic material 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde single crystal.

    PubMed

    Jebin, R P; Suthan, T; Rajesh, N P; Vinitha, G; Madhusoodhanan, U

    2015-01-25

    The organic material 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystal was confirmed by the single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyses. The functional groups of the crystal have been identified from the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and FT-Raman studies. The optical property of the grown crystal was analyzed by UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence (PL) spectral measurements. The thermal behavior of the grown crystal was analyzed by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). Dielectric measurements were carried out with different frequencies by using parallel plate capacitor method. The third order nonlinear optical properties of 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde was measured by the Z-scan technique using 532 nm diode pumped continuous wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Crystal structure of a eukaryotic zinc-dependent histone deacetylase, human HDAC8, complexed with a hydroxamic acid inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Alessandro; Volpari, Cinzia; Filocamo, Gessica; Casavola, Elena Caroli; Brunetti, Mirko; Renzoni, Debora; Chakravarty, Prasun; Paolini, Chantal; De Francesco, Raffaele; Gallinari, Paola; Steinkühler, Christian; Di Marco, Stefania

    2004-10-19

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of enzymes involved in the regulation of gene expression, DNA repair, and stress response. These processes often are altered in tumors, and HDAC inhibitors have had pronounced antitumor activity with promising results in clinical trials. Here, we report the crystal structure of human HDAC8 in complex with a hydroxamic acid inhibitor. Such a structure of a eukaryotic zinc-dependent HDAC has not be described previously. Similar to bacterial HDAC-like protein, HDAC8 folds in a single alpha/beta domain. The inhibitor and the zinc-binding sites are similar in both proteins. However, significant differences are observed in the length and structure of the loops surrounding the active site, including the presence of two potassium ions in HDAC8 structure, one of which interacts with key catalytic residues. CD data suggest a direct role of potassium in the fold stabilization of HDAC8. Knockdown of HDAC8 by RNA interference inhibits growth of human lung, colon, and cervical cancer cell lines, highlighting the importance of this HDAC subtype for tumor cell proliferation. Our findings open the way for the design and development of selective inhibitors of HDAC8 as possible antitumor agents.

  7. Three-Dimensional Conformation of Folded Polymers in Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, You-lee; Yuan, Shichen; Li, Zhen; Ke, Yutian; Nozaki, Koji; Miyoshi, Toshikazu

    2015-10-01

    The chain-folding mechanism and structure of semicrystalline polymers have long been controversial. Solid-state NMR was applied to determine the chain trajectory of 13C CH3 -labeled isotactic poly(1-butene) (i PB 1 ) in form III chiral single crystals blended with nonlabeled i PB 1 crystallized in dilute solutions under low supercooling. An advanced 13C - 13C double-quantum NMR technique probing the spatial proximity pattern of labeled 13C nuclei revealed that the chains adopt a three-dimensional (3D) conformation in single crystals. The determined results indicate a two-step crystallization process of (i) cluster formation via self-folding in the precrystallization stage and (ii) deposition of the nanoclusters as a building block at the growth front in single crystals.

  8. Fabrication of graded index single crystal in glass

    PubMed Central

    Veenhuizen, Keith; McAnany, Sean; Nolan, Daniel; Aitken, Bruce; Dierolf, Volkmar; Jain, Himanshu

    2017-01-01

    Lithium niobate crystals were grown in 3D through localized heating by femtosecond laser irradiation deep inside 35Li2O-35Nb2O5-30SiO2 glass. Laser scanning speed and power density were systematically varied to control the crystal growth process and determine the optimal conditions for the formation of single crystal lines. EBSD measurements showed that, in principle, single crystals can be grown to unlimited lengths using optimal parameters. We successfully tuned the parameters to a growth mode where nucleation and growth occur upon heating and ahead of the scanning laser focus. This growth mode eliminates the problem reported in previous works of non-uniform polycrystallinity because of a separate growth mode where crystallization occurs during cooling behind the scanning laser focus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a growth mode using a fs laser. The crystal cross-sections possessed a symmetric, smooth lattice misorientation with respect to the c-axis orientation in the center of the crystal. Calculations indicate the observed misorientation leads to a decrease in the refractive index of the crystal line from the center moving outwards, opening the possibility to produce within glass a graded refractive index single crystal (GRISC) optically active waveguide. PMID:28287174

  9. Rotating lattice single crystal architecture on the surface of glass

    DOE PAGES

    Savytskii, D.; Jain, H.; Tamura, N.; ...

    2016-11-03

    Defying the requirements of translational periodicity in 3D, rotation of the lattice orientation within an otherwise single crystal provides a new form of solid. Such rotating lattice single (RLS) crystals are found, but only as spherulitic grains too small for systematic characterization or practical application. Here we report a novel approach to fabricate RLS crystal lines and 2D layers of unlimited dimensions via a recently discovered solid-to-solid conversion process using a laser to heat a glass to its crystallization temperature but keeping it below the melting temperature. The proof-of-concept including key characteristics of RLS crystals is demonstrated using the examplemore » of Sb 2S 3 crystals within the Sb-S-I model glass system for which the rotation rate depends on the direction of laser scanning relative to the orientation of initially formed seed. Lattice rotation in this new mode of crystal growth occurs upon crystallization through a well-organized dislocation/disclination structure introduced at the glass/ crystal interface. Implications of RLS growth on biomineralization and spherulitic crystal growth are noted.« less

  10. g-Tensor determination from single-crystal ESR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrn, Marianne P.; Strouse, Charles E.

    A general method is presented for extraction of the g tensor from single-crystal electron spin resonance data. This method does not depend on knowledge of crystal morphology or on the presence of crystallographic symmetry. The g values are obtained from rotations around three arbitrarily chosen but accurately known axes.

  11. Measurement of single crystal surface parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, L. W.; Bell, A. E.; Strayer, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The sticking coefficient and thermal desorption spectra of Cs from the (110) plane of W was investigated. A sticking coefficient of unity for the monolayer region was measured for T 250 K. Several distinct binding states were observed in the thermal desorption spectrum. Work function and electron reflection measurements were made on the (110) and (100) crystal faces of Mo. Both LEED and Auger were used to determine the orientation and cleanliness of the crystal surfaces. The work function values obtained for the (110) and (100) planes of Mo were 4.92 and 4.18 eV respectively.

  12. Melt crystallization of bisphenol A polycarbonate in PC/zinc sulfonated polystyrene ionomer blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liang

    The effects of zinc sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (ZnSPS) on the melt crystallization of bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC) were investigated. Melt crystallization of pure PC is extremely slow due to its rigid chain. In the blend of PC and ZnSPS (PC-ZnSPS), the melt crystallization rate of PC can be enhanced. DSC was used to study the crystallization kinetics of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend. The crystallization of PC at 190°C increased in both partially miscible and miscible blends with ZnSPS. For PC-ZnSPS blend with same PC composition as 80%, the crystallization rate was affected by the sulfonation level of ZnSPS. The induction time of crystallization for a partially miscible blend PC-ZnSPS9.98 (80/20) was 40 minutes, and the crystallization reaches 27% crystallinity within 14 hrs. The induction time for pure PC with the same thermal history was more than 24 hrs. The crystal structure of PC crystal formed in PC-ZnSPS blend was studied by WAXD, which showed no difference from the reported WAXD pattern for pure PC. Molecular weight change of PC was found during the thermal annealing of PC-ZnSPS blend at 190°C, but molecular weight alone cannot explain the change of crystallization rate of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend. Discussion was made to address the mechanisms that are responsible for the crystallization rate enhancement of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend. In order to understand and elucidate the reason for the molecular weight change of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend and its effect on the crystallization of PC, TG, GPC and GC-MS were used to investigate the stability of PC-ZnSPS blend and mixtures of PC with sodium tosylate (NaTS), zinc tosylate (ZnTS) and sodium benzoate (NaBZ). ZnSPS, NaTS and ZnTS undergo desulfonation of the sulfonate group at temperatures above 350°C. The desulfonation process can destabilize PC and lower the maximum mass loss rate temperature of PC for more than 70°C. NaTS, ZnTS and NaBZ have quite different effect on the thermal stability of PC at temperatures below 250

  13. Synthetic Superconductivity in Single-Layer Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitov, Leonid; Borgnia, Dan; Lee, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Electronic states in atomically thin 2D crystals are fully exposed and can couple to extrinsic degrees of freedom via long-range Coulomb interactions. Novel many-body effects in such systems can be engineered by embedding them in a polar environment. Superconducting pairing interaction induced in this way can enhance the intrinsic electron-phonon pairing mechanism. We take on this notion, which was around since the 60's (''excitonic superconductivity''), and consider synthetic superconductivity (SSC) induced in 2D crystals by a polar environment. One interesting aspect of this scenario is that Coulomb repulsion acts as superconductivity friend rather than a foe. Such repulsion-to-attraction transmutation allows to access strong-coupling superconductivity regime even when intrinsic pairing interaction is weak. We analyze pairing interaction in 2D crystals placed atop a highly polarizable dielectric with dispersive permittivity ɛ (ω) and predict that by optimizing system parameters a substantial enhancement can be achieved. We also argue that the SSC mechanism can be responsible, at least in part, for 100 K superconductivity recently observed in FeSe monolayers grown on SrTiO3 substrate, with Tc more than 10 times larger than in bulk 3D FeSe crystals, arxiv:1406.3435.

  14. Large single domain 123 material produced by seeding with single crystal rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Todt, V.; Miller, D.J.; Shi, D.; Sengupta, S.

    1998-07-07

    A method of fabricating bulk YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} where compressed powder oxides and/or carbonates of Y and Ba and Cu present in mole ratios to form YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} are heated in the presence of a Nd{sub 1+x}Ba{sub 2{minus}x}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} seed crystal to a temperature sufficient to form a liquid phase in the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} while maintaining the seed crystal solid. The materials are slowly cooled to provide a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} material having a predetermined number of domains between 1 and 5. Crack-free single domain materials can be formed using either plate shaped seed crystals or cube shaped seed crystals with a pedestal of preferential orientation material. 7 figs.

  15. Life Prediction of Turbine Blade Nickel Base Superalloy Single Crystals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    mechanical properties between single crystals and the DS version of Mar-M200. Soon it was recognized again through the mechanical property - structure ... property achievements demonstrated by screening and simulated engine tests. 1 Single crystals are the results of extensive investigation on the mechanical ...behavior, (especially fatigue and creep) of, and the structure - property correlations in the equiaxed and directionally solidified (DS) nickel-base

  16. Process for Forming a High Temperature Single Crystal Canted Spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J (Inventor); Ritzert, Frank J (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V (Inventor); Dunlap, Patrick H (Inventor); Steinetz, Bruce M (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A process for forming a high temperature single crystal canted spring is provided. In one embodiment, the process includes fabricating configurations of a rapid prototype spring to fabricate a sacrificial mold pattern to create a ceramic mold and casting a canted coiled spring to form at least one canted coil spring configuration based on the ceramic mold. The high temperature single crystal canted spring is formed from a nickel-based alloy containing rhenium using the at least one coil spring configuration.

  17. Solid solutions of gadolinium doped zinc oxide nanorods by combined microwave-ultrasonic irradiation assisted crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Armin; Dastafkan, Kamran; Obeydavi, Ali; Rahimi, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    Nanocrystalline solid solutions consisting of un-doped and gadolinium doped zinc oxide nanorods were fabricated by a modified sol-gel process utilizing combined ultrasonic-microwave irradiations. Polyvinylpyrrolidone, diethylene glycol, and triethylenetetramine respectively as capping, structure directing, and complexing agents were used under ultrasound dynamic aging and microwave heating to obtain crystalline nanorods. Crystalline phase monitoring, lattice parameters and variation, morphology and shape, elemental analysis, functional groups, reducibility, and the oxidation state of emerged species were examined by PXRD, FESEM, TEM, EDX, FTIR, micro Raman, H2-TPR, and EPR techniques. Results have verified that irradiation mechanism of gelation and crystallization reduces the reaction time, augments the crystal quality, and formation of hexagonal close pack structure of Wurtzite morphology. Besides, dissolution of gadolinium within host lattice involves lattice deformation, unit cell distortion, and angular position variation. Structure related shape and growth along with compositional purity were observed through microscopic and spectroscopic surveys. Furthermore, TPR and EPR studies elucidated more detailed behavior upon exposure to the exerted irradiations and subsequent air-annealing including the formed oxidation states and electron trapping centers, presence of gadolinium, zinc, and oxygen disarrays and defects, as well as alteration in the host unit cell via gadolinium addition.

  18. Crystal growth and scintillation properties of Pr-doped SrI2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Yuui; Ito, Tomoki; Yoshino, Masao; Yamaji, Akihiro; Ohashi, Yuji; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2018-04-01

    Pr-doped SrI2 (Pr:SrI2) single crystals with various Pr concentrations were grown by the halide-micro-pulling-down (H-μ-PD) method, and the scintillation properties were investigated. Pr1%:SrI2 single crystal with high transparency could be grown by the H-μ-PD method while Pr2, 3 and 5%:SrI2 single crystals included some cracks and opaque parts. In the photoluminescence spectrum of the Pr1%:SrI2 single crystal, an emission peak originated from the Pr3+ ion was observed around 435 nm while the radioluminescence spectra showed an emission peak around 535 nm for the undoped SrI2 and Pr:SrI2 single crystals. Light yields of Pr1, 2, 3 and 5%:SrI2 single crystals under γ-ray irradiation were 7700, 8700, 7200 and 6700 photons/MeV, respectively. Decay times of Pr1 and 2%:SrI2 single crystals under γ-ray irradiation were 55.9 and 35.0 ns of the fast decay component, and 435 and 408 ns of the slow decay component, respectively.

  19. Analytical studies on the crystal melt interface shape in the Czochralski process for oxide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ja Hoon; Kang, In Seok

    2000-09-01

    Effects of the operating conditions on the crystal-melt interface shape are analytically investigated for the Czochralski process of the oxide single crystals. The ideas, which were used for the silicon single-crystal growth by Jeong et al. (J. Crystal Growth 177 (1997) 157), are extended to the oxide single-crystal growth problem by considering the internal radiation in the crystal phase and the melt phase heat transfer with the high Prandtl number. The interface shape is approximated in the simplest form as a quadratic function of radial position and an expression for the deviation from the flat interface shape is derived as a function of operating conditions. The radiative heat transfer rate between the interface and the ambient is computed by calculating the view factors for the curved interface shape with the assumption that the crystal phase is completely transparent. For the melt phase, the well-known results from the thermal boundary layer analysis are applied for the asymptotic case of high Prandtl number based on the idea that the flow field near the crystal-melt interface can be modeled as either a uniaxial or a biaxial flow. Through this work, essential information on the interface shape deformation and the effects of operating conditions are brought out for the oxide single-crystal growth.

  20. Constitutive Modeling of Superalloy Single Crystals and Directionally Solidified Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, K. P.; Jordan, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    A unified viscoplastic constitutive relation based on crystallographic slip theory was developed for the deformation analysis of nickel base face centered cubic superalloy single crystals at elevated temperature. The single crystal theory is embedded in a self consistent method to derive a constitutive relation for a directionally solidified material comprised of a polycrystalline aggregate of columnar cylindrical grains. One of the crystallographic axes of the cylindrical crystals points in the columnar direction while the remaining crystallographic axes are oriented at random in the basal plane perpendicular to the columnar direction. These constitutive formulations are coded in FORTRAN for use in nonlinear finite element and boundary element programs.

  1. Iron single crystal growth from a lithium-rich melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fix, M.; Schumann, H.; Jantz, S. G.; Breitner, F. A.; Leineweber, A.; Jesche, A.

    2018-03-01

    α -Fe single crystals of rhombic dodecahedral habit were grown from a Li84N12Fe∼3 melt. Crystals of several millimeter along a side form at temperatures around T ≈ 800 ° C. Upon further cooling the growth competes with the formation of Fe-doped Li3N. The b.c.c. structure and good sample quality of α -Fe single crystals were confirmed by X-ray and electron diffraction as well as magnetization measurements and chemical analysis. A nitrogen concentration of 90 ppm was detected by means of carrier gas hot extraction. Scanning electron microscopy did not reveal any sign of iron nitride precipitates.

  2. Improved growth method of (SN) x single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Ichiroh

    1981-12-01

    The crystal growth of pure and sizable single crystals of polysulfur nitride (SN) x was improved by adopting a monitor system with a quadrapole mass spectrometer and a Pirani gauge. The mass spectrometer helped to find a temperature appropriate for trapping (SN) 2 selectively on a cold finger and removing other unnecessary or harmful materials produced by the thermal decomposition of (SN) 4 as well as out-gassing water vapour from the glass wall. Leakage of gasses in the vessel was monitored with the Pirani gauge. With a heat pipe the crystal tube is cooled locally so that only a small number of nuclei start to grow. (SN) x single crystals with dimensions of 1 to 6 mm in edge size have been obtained. The relation between the crystal habit and the crystallographic axes has also been determined.

  3. Modified floating-zone growth of organic single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, S.; Chen, C. P.

    1994-04-01

    For organic materials floating-zone crystal growth is superior to other melt growth processes in two significant respects: (1) the absence of crucible-induced mechanical damage and (2) minimum heating-induced chemical degradation. Due to the rather low surface tension of organic melts, however, floating-zone crystal growth under normal gravity has not been possible so far but microgravity is ideal for such a purpose. With the help of a modified floating-zone technique, organic single crystals of small cross-sections were test grown first under normal gravity. These small crystals were round and rectangular single crystals of benzil and salol, up to about 7 cm long and 6 mm in diameter or 9 mm × 3 mm in cross-section.

  4. Growth and properties of benzil doped benzimidazole (BMZ) single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, R. Ramesh, E-mail: rampap2k@yahoo.co.in; Crystal Growth and Crystallography Section, National Physical Laboratory, Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110 012; Sukumar, M.

    2010-09-15

    In the present work, we have made an attempt to study the effect of benzil doping on the properties of benzimidazole single crystals. For this purpose we have grown pure and benzil doped benzimidazole single crystals by vertical Bridgman technique. The grown crystals were characterized by various characterization techniques. The presence of dopants confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Crystalline perfection of the grown crystals has been analysed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The transmittance, electrical property and mechanical strength have been analysed using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopic, dielectric and Vicker's hardness studies. The relative second harmonic generation efficiency of pure andmore » doped benzimidazole crystals measured using Kurtz powder test.« less

  5. Crystal growth and characterization of semi organic nonlinear optical (NLO) piperazinium tetrachlorozincate monohydrate (PTCZ) single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppasamy, P.; Pandian, Muthu Senthil; Ramasamy, P.

    2018-04-01

    The semi-organic single crystal of piperazinium tetrachlorozincate monohydrate (PTCZ) was successfully grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST). The grown crystal was subjected to the single crystal XRD studies for confirming the unit cell parameters. The optical quality of the grown crystal was identified by the UV-Vis NIR spectrum analysis and the optical band gap energy was calculated. The photoconductivity study reveals that the grown crystal has positive photoconductive nature. The mechanical stability of the grown crystal was analyzed using Vickers microhardness analyzer. The third-order nonlinear optical properties such as nonlinear refractive index (n2), absorption co-efficient (β) and susceptibility (χ(3)) were studied by Z-scan technique at 640 nm using solid state laser.

  6. Attenuation of thermal neutrons by an imperfect single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naguib, K.; Adib, M.

    1996-06-01

    A semi-empirical formula is given which allows one to calculate the total thermal cross section of an imperfect single crystal as a function of crystal constants, temperature and neutron energy E, in the energy range between 3 meV and 10 eV. The formula also includes the contribution of the parasitic Bragg scattering to the total cross section that takes into account the crystal mosaic spread value and its orientation with respect to the neutron beam direction. A computer program (ISCANF) was developed to calculate the total attenuation of neutrons using the proposed formula. The ISCANF program was applied to investigate the neutron attenuation through a copper single crystal. The calculated values of the neutron transmission through the imperfect copper single crystal were fitted to the measured ones in the energy range 3 - 40 meV at different crystal orientations. The result of fitting shows that use of the computer program ISCANF allows one to predict the behaviour of the total cross section of an imperfect copper single crystal for the whole energy range.

  7. Brooker's merocyanine: Comparison of single crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Kathleen L.; Lasher, Emily M.; Choczynski, Jack M.; Crisci, Ralph R.; Wong, Calvin Y.; Dragonette, Joseph; Deschner, Joshua; Cardenas, Allan Jay P.

    2018-06-01

    Brooker's merocyanine and its derivatives are well-studied molecules due to their very interesting optical properties. Merocyanine dyes exhibit different colors in solution depending on the solvent's polarity, pH, aggregation and intermolecular interactions. The synthesis of 1-methyl-4-[(oxocyclohexadienylidene)ethylidene]-1,4-dihydropyridine (MOED) dye yielded a particularly interesting solid state structure where in one crystal lattice, MOED and its protonated form are bound by hydrogen bonding interactions.

  8. Special Features of the Structure of Single-Crystal Refractory Nickel Alloy Under Directed Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Yu. A.; Echin, A. B.; Surova, V. A.; Kolodyazhnyi, M. Yu.

    2017-05-01

    The effect of the conditions of directed crystallization (the temperature gradient and the crystallization rate) on the dendrite spacing, on the size of the particles of the hardening γ'-phase in the arms and arm spaces of the dendrites, on the volume fraction and size of the pores, on the size of the particles of the eutectic γ/γ'-phase, and on the features of dendritic segregation in a single-crystal castable refractory alloy is studied.

  9. Solution-processed, Self-organized Organic Single Crystal Arrays with Controlled Crystal Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Kumatani, Akichika; Liu, Chuan; Li, Yun; Darmawan, Peter; Takimiya, Kazuo; Minari, Takeo; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2012-01-01

    A facile solution process for the fabrication of organic single crystal semiconductor devices which meets the demand for low-cost and large-area fabrication of high performance electronic devices is demonstrated. In this paper, we develop a bottom-up method which enables direct formation of organic semiconductor single crystals at selected locations with desired orientations. Here oriented growth of one-dimensional organic crystals is achieved by using self-assembly of organic molecules as the driving force to align these crystals in patterned regions. Based upon the self-organized organic single crystals, we fabricate organic field effect transistor arrays which exhibit an average field-effect mobility of 1.1 cm2V−1s−1. This method can be carried out under ambient atmosphere at room temperature, thus particularly promising for production of future plastic electronics. PMID:22563523

  10. Selective Metal Cation Capture by Soft Anionic Metal-Organic Frameworks via Drastic Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Jian; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Schwenzer, Birgit

    2012-05-25

    Flexible anionic metal-organic frameworks transform to neutral heterobimetallic systems via single-crystal-to-single-crystal processes invoked by cation insertion. These transformations are directed by cooperative bond breakage and formation, resulting in expansion or contraction of the 3D framework by up to 33% due to the flexible nature of the organic linker. These MOFs displays highly selective uptake of divalent transition metal cations (Co2+ and Ni2+ for example) over alkali metal cations (Li+ and Na+).

  11. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Fatigue Failure of Single Crystal Nickel Base Turbine Blade Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, N. K.; Swanson, G.

    2002-01-01

    High cycle fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas turbine and rocket engine turbopump blades is a pervasive problem. Single crystal nickel turbine blades are being utilized in rocket engine turbopumps and jet engines throughout industry because of their superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance, and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys. Currently the most widely used single crystal turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493, PWA 1484, RENE' N-5 and CMSX-4. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. Single crystal materials have highly orthotropic properties making the position of the crystal lattice relative to the part geometry a significant factor in the overall analysis. The failure modes of single crystal turbine blades are complicated to predict due to the material orthotropy and variations in crystal orientations. Fatigue life estimation of single crystal turbine blades represents an important aspect of durability assessment. It is therefore of practical interest to develop effective fatigue failure criteria for single crystal nickel alloys and to investigate the effects of variation of primary and secondary crystal orientation on fatigue life. A fatigue failure criterion based on the maximum shear stress amplitude /Delta(sub tau)(sub max))] on the 24 octahedral and 6 cube slip systems, is presented for single crystal nickel superalloys (FCC crystal). This criterion reduces the scatter in uniaxial LCF test data considerably for PWA 1493 at 1200 F in air. Additionally, single crystal turbine blades used in the alternate advanced high-pressure fuel turbopump (AHPFTP/AT) are modeled using a large-scale three-dimensional finite element model. This finite element model is capable of accounting for material orthotrophy and variation in primary and secondary crystal orientation. Effects of variation in crystal orientation on blade stress response are studied based on 297

  12. Light emission from organic single crystals operated by electrolyte doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuki, Keiichiro; Sakanoue, Tomo; Yomogida, Yohei; Hotta, Shu; Takenobu, Taishi

    2018-03-01

    Light-emitting devices based on electrolytes, such as light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) and electric double-layer transistors (EDLTs), are solution-processable devices with a very simple structure. Therefore, it is necessary to apply this device structure into highly fluorescent organic materials for future printed applications. However, owing to compatibility problems between electrolytes and organic crystals, electrolyte-based single-crystal light-emitting devices have not yet been demonstrated. Here, we report on light-emitting devices based on organic single crystals and electrolytes. As the fluorescent materials, α,ω-bis(biphenylyl)terthiophene (BP3T) and 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) single crystals were selected. Using ionic liquids as electrolytes, we observed clear light emission from BP3T LECs and rubrene EDLTs.

  13. Crystal structure, molecular docking, and biological activity of the zinc complexes with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone and N-donor heterocyclic ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshaghi Malekshah, Rahime; Salehi, Mehdi; Kubicki, Maciej; Khaleghian, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Two novel mononuclear complexes, [Zn (TTA) (bipy)Cl] (1) and [Zn (TTA) (phen)Cl] (2) (TTA = 4,4,4-Trifluoro-1-(2-furyl)-1,3-butanedione, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline and bipy 2, 2ʹ-bipyridine), were synthesized and fully characterized by elemental analyses, 1H NMR, UV-Vis, FTIR spectroscopy, and conductivity measurements. The crystal structures of these two mono-nuclear zinc (II) complexes were determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The result of X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that both complexes have distorted tetragonal-pyramid structures. In MTT cytotoxicity studies, these Zn (II) complexes exhibited antitumor activity against MCF-7 and MKN-45 cell lines. It was also found that the proliferation rate of MCF-7 and MKN-45 cells decreased after treatment with the above-mentioned complexes. In addition, the apoptosis-inducing activity was assessed by AO/EB (Acridine Orange/Ethidium bromide) staining assay and found that they have the potential to act as effective metal-based anticancer drugs. Finally, the molecular docking studies showed that complex 2 strongly binds through minor groove with DNA by relative binding energy -7.33 kcal mol-1.

  14. Disordered Zinc in Zn4Sb3 with Phonon-Glass and Electron-Crystal Thermoelectric Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Christensen, Mogens; Nishibori, Eiji; Caillat, Thierry; Brummerstedt Iversen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    By converting waste heat into electricity, thermoelectric generators could be an important part of the solution to today's energy challenges. The compound Zn4Sb3 is one of the most efficient thermoelectric materials known. Its high efficiency results from an extraordinarily low thermal conductivity in conjunction with the electronic structure of a heavily doped semiconductor. Previous structural studies have been unable to explain this unusual combination of properties. Here, we show through a comprehensive structural analysis using single-crystal X-ray and powder-synchrotron-radiation diffraction methods, that both the electronic and thermal properties of Zn4Sb3 can be understood in terms of unique structural features that have been previously overlooked. The identification of Sb3- ions and Sb-2(4-) dimers reveals that Zn4Sb3 is a valence semiconductor with the ideal stoichiometry Zn13Sb10. In addition, the structure contains significant disorder, with zinc atoms distributed over multiple positions. The discovery of glass-like interstitial sites uncovers a highly effective mechanism for reducing thermal conductivity. Thus Zn4Sb3 is in many ways an ideal 'phonon glass, electron crystal' thermoelectric material.

  15. Photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic investigation on a H+ irradiated ZnO single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, A.; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Sanyal, D.; Bhowmick, D.; Dechoudhury, S.; Chakrabarti, A.; Rakshit, Tamita; Ray, S. K.

    2012-08-01

    Low temperature photoluminescence and room temperature positron annihilation spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the defects incorporated by 6 MeV H+ ions in a hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystal. Prior to irradiation, the emission from donor bound excitons is at 3.378 eV (10 K). The irradiation creates an intense and narrow emission at 3.368 eV (10 K). The intensity of this peak is nearly four times that of the dominant near band edge peak of the pristine crystal. The characteristic features of the 3.368 eV emission indicate its origin as a ‘hydrogen at oxygen vacancy’ type defect. The positron annihilation lifetime measurement reveals a single component lifetime spectrum for both the unirradiated (164 ± 1 ps) and irradiated crystal (175 ± 1 ps). It reflects the fact that the positron lifetime and intensity of the new irradiation driven defect species are a little higher compared to those in the unirradiated crystal. However, the estimated defect concentration, even considering the high dynamic defect annihilation rate in ZnO, comes out to be ˜4 × 1017 cm-3 (using SRIM software). This is a very high defect concentration compared to the defect sensitivity of positron annihilation spectroscopy. A probable reason is the partial filling of the incorporated vacancies (positron traps), which in ZnO are zinc vacancies. The positron lifetime of ˜175 ps (in irradiated ZnO) is consistent with recent theoretical calculations for partially hydrogen-filled zinc vacancies in ZnO. Passivation of oxygen vacancies by hydrogen is also reflected in the photoluminescence results. A possible reason for such vacancy filling (at both Zn and O sites) due to irradiation has also been discussed.

  16. Photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic investigation on a H(+) irradiated ZnO single crystal.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, A; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Sanyal, D; Bhowmick, D; Dechoudhury, S; Chakrabarti, A; Rakshit, Tamita; Ray, S K

    2012-08-15

    Low temperature photoluminescence and room temperature positron annihilation spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the defects incorporated by 6 MeV H(+) ions in a hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystal. Prior to irradiation, the emission from donor bound excitons is at 3.378 eV (10 K). The irradiation creates an intense and narrow emission at 3.368 eV (10 K). The intensity of this peak is nearly four times that of the dominant near band edge peak of the pristine crystal. The characteristic features of the 3.368 eV emission indicate its origin as a 'hydrogen at oxygen vacancy' type defect. The positron annihilation lifetime measurement reveals a single component lifetime spectrum for both the unirradiated (164 ± 1 ps) and irradiated crystal (175 ± 1 ps). It reflects the fact that the positron lifetime and intensity of the new irradiation driven defect species are a little higher compared to those in the unirradiated crystal. However, the estimated defect concentration, even considering the high dynamic defect annihilation rate in ZnO, comes out to be ∼4 × 10(17) cm(-3) (using SRIM software). This is a very high defect concentration compared to the defect sensitivity of positron annihilation spectroscopy. A probable reason is the partial filling of the incorporated vacancies (positron traps), which in ZnO are zinc vacancies. The positron lifetime of ∼175 ps (in irradiated ZnO) is consistent with recent theoretical calculations for partially hydrogen-filled zinc vacancies in ZnO. Passivation of oxygen vacancies by hydrogen is also reflected in the photoluminescence results. A possible reason for such vacancy filling (at both Zn and O sites) due to irradiation has also been discussed.

  17. Anisotropy of Single-Crystal Silicon in Nanometric Cutting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiguo; Chen, Jiaxuan; Wang, Guilian; Bai, Qingshun; Liang, Yingchun

    2017-12-01

    The anisotropy exhibited by single-crystal silicon in nanometric cutting is very significant. In order to profoundly understand the effect of crystal anisotropy on cutting behaviors, a large-scale molecular dynamics model was conducted to simulate the nanometric cutting of single-crystal silicon in the (100)[0-10], (100)[0-1-1], (110)[-110], (110)[00-1], (111)[-101], and (111)[-12-1] crystal directions in this study. The simulation results show the variations of different degrees in chip, subsurface damage, cutting force, and friction coefficient with changes in crystal plane and crystal direction. Shear deformation is the formation mechanism of subsurface damage, and the direction and complexity it forms are the primary causes that result in the anisotropy of subsurface damage. Structurally, chips could be classified into completely amorphous ones and incompletely amorphous ones containing a few crystallites. The formation mechanism of the former is high-pressure phase transformation, while the latter is obtained under the combined action of high-pressure phase transformation and cleavage. Based on an analysis of the material removal mode, it can be found that compared with the other crystal direction on the same crystal plane, the (100)[0-10], (110)[-110], and (111)[-101] directions are more suitable for ductile cutting.

  18. Optical, mechanical and thermal behaviors of Nitrilotriacetic acid single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepa, B.; Philominathan, P.

    2017-11-01

    An organic nonlinear single crystal of Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTAA) was grown for the first time by employing a simple slow evaporation technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the grown crystal belongs to the monoclinic system with noncentrosymmetric space group CC. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral study ascertains the presence of functional groups in NTAA. The molecular structure of the grown crystal was confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral analysis. The optical parameters such as transmittance, absorption coefficient and band gap were calculated from UV-Visible and fluorescence studies. Dielectric measurements were carried out for different frequency and temperature. The mechanical strength of the grown crystal was measured using Vickers microhardness test. The high thermal stability and the melting point of the grown crystal were also estimated using thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). The confirmation of the grown crystals belonging to nonlinear optical crystals was performed by Kurtz-Perry technique and found as suitable candidate for optoelectronics applications.

  19. Benzothiazolium Single Crystals: A New Class of Nonlinear Optical Crystals with Efficient THz Wave Generation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Heon; Lu, Jian; Lee, Seung-Jun; Han, Jae-Hyun; Jeong, Chan-Uk; Lee, Seung-Chul; Li, Xian; Jazbinšek, Mojca; Yoon, Woojin; Yun, Hoseop; Kang, Bong Joo; Rotermund, Fabian; Nelson, Keith A; Kwon, O-Pil

    2017-08-01

    Highly efficient nonlinear optical organic crystals are very attractive for various photonic applications including terahertz (THz) wave generation. Up to now, only two classes of ionic crystals based on either pyridinium or quinolinium with extremely large macroscopic optical nonlinearity have been developed. This study reports on a new class of organic nonlinear optical crystals introducing electron-accepting benzothiazolium, which exhibit higher electron-withdrawing strength than pyridinium and quinolinium in benchmark crystals. The benzothiazolium crystals consisting of new acentric core HMB (2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyryl)-3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-3-ium) exhibit extremely large macroscopic optical nonlinearity with optimal molecular ordering for maximizing the diagonal second-order nonlinearity. HMB-based single crystals prepared by simple cleaving method satisfy all required crystal characteristics for intense THz wave generation such as large crystal size with parallel surfaces, moderate thickness and high optical quality with large optical transparency range (580-1620 nm). Optical rectification of 35 fs pulses at the technologically very important wavelength of 800 nm in 0.26 mm thick HMB crystal leads to one order of magnitude higher THz wave generation efficiency with remarkably broader bandwidth compared to standard inorganic 0.5 mm thick ZnTe crystal. Therefore, newly developed HMB crystals introducing benzothiazolium with extremely large macroscopic optical nonlinearity are very promising materials for intense broadband THz wave generation and other nonlinear optical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Purification, crystal growth and characterization of CdSe single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, A.; Henderson, D. O.; Morgan, S. H.; Silberman, E.

    1991-02-01

    CdSe single crystals have been grown from the stoichiometric melt and from Se rich solutions. Here we report the first mid and far infrared spectra of CdSe crystals free of any known impurity bands. Previous studies of the lattice vibrational properties of CdSe crystals have shown the presence of two bands at 538 and 270 cm -1. Modifications in the purification and crystal growth conditions lead us to assign these two bands to a sulfur impurity. Low temperature photoluminescence spectra are also presented and discussed.

  1. Synthesis and crystal structures of coordination compounds of pyridoxine with zinc and cadmium sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Furmanova, N. G., E-mail: furm@ns.crys.ras.ru; Berdalieva, Zh. I., E-mail: kakin@inbox.ru; Chernaya, T. S.

    2009-03-15

    The pyridoxine complexes with zinc and cadmium sulfates are synthesized. The IR absorption spectra and thermal behavior of the synthesized compounds are described. Crystals of the [M(C{sub 8}H{sub 11}O{sub 3}N){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]SO{sub 4} . 3H{sub 2}O (M = Zn, Cd) compounds are investigated using X-ray diffraction. In the structures of both compounds, the M atoms are coordinated by the oxygen atoms of the deprotonated OH group and the CH{sub 2}OH group retaining its own hydrogen atom, as well as by two H{sub 2}O molecules, and have an octahedral coordination. The nitrogen atom of the heterocycle is protonated, so thatmore » the heterocycle acquires a pyridinium character. The cationic complexes form layers separated by the anions and crystallization water molecules located in between. The structural units of the crystals are joined together by a complex system of hydrogen bonds.« less

  2. Growth and nonlinear optical characterization of organic single crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ligui

    1997-12-01

    Organic single crystal films are important for various future applications in photonics and integrated optics. The conventional method for inorganic crystal growth is not suitable for organic materials, and the high temperature melting method is not good for most organic materials due to decomposition problems. We developed a new method-modified shear method-to grow large area organic single crystal thin films which have exceptional nonlinear optical properties and high quality surfaces. Several organic materials (NPP, PNP and DAST) were synthesized and purified before the thin film crystal growth. Organic single crystal thin films were grown from saturated organic solutions using modified shear method. The area of single crystal films were about 1.5 cm2 for PNP, 1 cm2 for NPP and 5 mm2 for DAST. The thickness of the thin films which could be controlled by the applied pressure ranged from 1μm to 10 μm. The single crystal thin films of organic materials were characterized by polarized microscopy, x-ray diffraction, polarized UV-Visible and polarized micro-FTIR spectroscopy. Polarized microscopy showed uniform birefringence and complete extinction with the rotation of the single crystal thin films under crossed- polarization, which indicated high quality single crystals with no scattering. The surface orientation of single crystal thin films was characterized by x-ray diffraction. The molecular orientation within the crystal was further studied by the polarized UV-Visible and Polarized micro-FTIR techniques combined with the x-ray and polarized microscopy results. A Nd:YAG laser with 35 picosecond pulses at 1064nm wavelength was employed to perform the nonlinear optical characterization of the organic single crystal thin films. Two measurement techniques were used to study the crystal films: second harmonic generation (SHG) and electro-optic (EO) effect. SHG results showed that the nonlinear optical coefficient of NPP was 18 times that of LiNbO3, a standard

  3. Crystal structure of E. coli ZinT with one zinc-binding mode and complexed with citrate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinli; Wang, Lulu; Shang, Fei; Dong, Yuesheng; Ha, Nam-Chul; Nam, Ki Hyun; Quan, Chunshan; Xu, Yongbin

    2018-06-02

    The ZnuABC ATP-binding cassette transporter found in gram-negative bacteria has been implicated in ensuring adequate zinc import into Zn(II)-poor environments. ZinT is an essential component of ZnuABC and contributes to metal transport by transferring metals to ZnuA, which delivers them to ZnuB in periplasmic zinc recruitment. Although several structures of E. coli ZinT have been reported, its zinc-binding sites and oligomeric state have not been clearly identified. Here, we report the crystal structure of E. coli ZinT at 1.76 Å resolution. This structure contains one zinc ion in its calycin-like domain, and this ion is coordinated by three highly conserved histidine residues (His167, His176 and His178). Moreover, three oxygen atoms (O 1 , O 6 and O 7 ) from the citrate molecule interact with zinc, giving the zinc ion stable octahedral coordination. Our EcZinT structure shows the fewest zinc ions bound of all reported EcZinT structures. Crystallographic packing and size exclusion chromatography suggest that EcZinT prefers to form monomers in solution. Our results provide insights into the molecular function of ZinT. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Single-Crystal Structure of a Covalent Organic Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, YB; Su, J; Furukawa, H

    2013-11-06

    The crystal structure of a new covalent organic framework, termed COF-320, is determined by single-crystal 3D electron diffraction using the rotation electron diffraction (RED) method for data collection. The COF crystals are prepared by an imine condensation of tetra-(4-anilyl)methane and 4,4'-biphenyldialdehyde in 1,4-dioxane at 120 degrees C to produce a highly porous 9-fold interwoven diamond net. COF-320 exhibits permanent porosity with a Langmuir surface area of 2400 m(2)/g and a methane total uptake of 15.0 wt % (176 cm(3)/cm(3)) at 25 degrees C and 80 bar. The successful determination of the structure of COF-320 directly from single-crystal samples is anmore » important advance in the development of COF chemistry.« less

  5. Method for harvesting rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Todt, V.R.; Sengupta, S.; Shi, D.

    1996-04-02

    A method of preparing high temperature superconductor single crystals is disclosed. The method of preparation involves preparing precursor materials of a particular composition, heating the precursor material to achieve a peritectic mixture of peritectic liquid and crystals of the high temperature superconductor, cooling the peritectic mixture to quench directly the mixture on a porous, wettable inert substrate to wick off the peritectic liquid, leaving single crystals of the high temperature superconductor on the porous substrate. Alternatively, the peritectic mixture can be cooled to a solid mass and reheated on a porous, inert substrate to melt the matrix of peritectic fluid while leaving the crystals melted, allowing the wicking away of the peritectic liquid. 2 figs.

  6. Low-cost single-crystal turbine blades, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Dennis, R. E.; Heath, B. R.

    1984-01-01

    The overall objectives of Project 3 were to develop the exothermic casting process to produce uncooled single-crystal (SC) HP turbine blades in MAR-M 247 and higher strength derivative alloys and to validate the materials process and components through extensive mechanical property testing, rig testing, and 200 hours of endurance engine testing. These Program objectives were achieved. The exothermic casting process was successfully developed into a low-cost nonproperietary method for producing single-crystal castings. Single-crystal MAR-M 247 and two derivatives DS alloys developed during this project, NASAIR 100 and SC Alloy 3, were fully characterized through mechanical property testing. SC MAR-M 247 shows no significant improvement in strength over directionally solidified (DS) MAR-M 247, but the derivative alloys, NASAIR 100 and Alloy 3, show significant tensile and fatigue improvements. Firtree testing, holography, and strain-gauge rig testing were used to determine the effects of the anisotropic characteristics of single-crystal materials. No undesirable characteristics were found. In general, the single-crystal material behaved similarly to DS MAR-M 247. Two complete engine sets of SC HP turbine blades were cast using the exothermic casting process and fully machined. These blades were successfully engine-tested.

  7. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Analysis of Single-Crystal, Nickel-Based Turbine Blade Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. R.; Arakere, N. K.

    2000-01-01

    High-cycle fatigue-induced failures in turbine and turbopump blades is a pervasive problem. Single-crystal nickel turbine blades are used because of their superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance, and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities. Single-crystal materials have highly orthotropic properties making the position of the crystal lattice relative to the part geometry a significant and complicating factor. A fatigue failure criterion based on the maximum shear stress amplitude on the 24 octahedral and 6 cube slip systems is presented for single-crystal nickel superalloys (FCC crystal). This criterion greatly reduces the scatter in uniaxial fatigue data for PWA 1493 at 1,200 F in air. Additionally, single-crystal turbine blades used in the Space Shuttle main engine high pressure fuel turbopump/alternate turbopump are modeled using a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model. This model accounts for material orthotrophy and crystal orientation. Fatigue life of the blade tip is computed using FE stress results and the failure criterion that was developed. Stress analysis results in the blade attachment region are also presented. Results demonstrate that control of crystallographic orientation has the potential to significantly increase a component's resistance to fatigue crack growth without adding additional weight or cost.

  8. Nucleation kinetics, crystal growth and optical studies on lithium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Senthilkumar; Paulraj, Rajesh; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-06-01

    Semi-organic lithium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate non-linear optical single crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique at 40 °C. The nucleation parameters such as critical radius, interfacial tension, and critical free energy change have been evaluated using the experimental data. The solubility and the nucleation curve of the crystal at different temperatures have been analyzed. The crystal has a positive temperature coefficient of solubility. The metastable zone width and induction period have been determined for the aqueous solution growth of lithium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate. The UV-vis-NIR spectrum showed this crystal has high transparency. The photoconductivity studies indicate lithium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate has positive photoconductivity behaviour. The low etch pit density observed on (0 0 1) crystal surface and the high resolution x-ray difraction analysis indicate the good quality of the grown crystals

  9. Hydrogen-related complexes in Li-diffused ZnO single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Corolewski, Caleb D.; Parmar, Narendra S.; Lynn, Kelvin G.; ...

    2016-07-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor and a potential candidate for next generation white solid state lighting applications. In this work, hydrogen-related complexes in lithium diffused ZnO single crystals were studied. In addition to the well-known Li-OH complex, several other hydrogen defects were observed. When a mixture of Li 2O and ZnO is used as the dopant source, zinc vacancies are suppressed and the bulk Li concentration is very high (>10 19 cm -3). In that case, the predominant hydrogen complex has a vibrational frequency of 3677 cm -1, attributed to surface O-H species. When Li 2COmore » 3 is used, a structured blue luminescence band and O-H mode at 3327 cm -1 are observed at 10K. These observations, along with positron annihilation measurements, suggest a zinc vacancy–hydrogen complex, with an acceptor level 0.3 eV above the valence-band maximum. In conclusion, this relatively shallow acceptor could be beneficial for p-type ZnO.« less

  10. Hydrogen-related complexes in Li-diffused ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corolewski, Caleb D.; Parmar, Narendra S.; Lynn, Kelvin G.; McCluskey, Matthew D.

    2016-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor and a potential candidate for next generation white solid state lighting applications. In this work, hydrogen-related complexes in lithium diffused ZnO single crystals were studied. In addition to the well-known Li-OH complex, several other hydrogen defects were observed. When a mixture of Li2O and ZnO is used as the dopant source, zinc vacancies are suppressed and the bulk Li concentration is very high (>1019 cm-3). In that case, the predominant hydrogen complex has a vibrational frequency of 3677 cm-1, attributed to surface O-H species. When Li2CO3 is used, a structured blue luminescence band and O-H mode at 3327 cm-1 are observed at 10 K. These observations, along with positron annihilation measurements, suggest a zinc vacancy-hydrogen complex, with an acceptor level ˜0.3 eV above the valence-band maximum. This relatively shallow acceptor could be beneficial for p-type ZnO.

  11. Observation of Spectral Diffusion in Crystals Using Single Impurity Molecules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-31

    from 12pentacene photophysical parameters including intersystem crossing . Apparently (and not surprisingly), the local pentacene environment this... pentacene molecules inp-terphenyl, both stable as well as spectrally diffusing single molecules can be observed. 20 DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 121...with ultrathin sublimed crystals have removed this obstacle. For the case of pentacene impurities in crystals of p-terphenyl, we observe two radically

  12. Lithium niobate single-crystal and photo-functional device

    DOEpatents

    Gopalan, Venkatraman; Mitchell, Terrence E.; Kitamura, Kenji; Furukawa, Yasunori

    2001-01-01

    Provided are lithium niobate single-crystal that requires a low voltage of not larger than 10 kV/nm for its ferroelectric polarization inversion and of which the polarization can be periodically inverted with accuracy even at such a low voltage, and a photo-functional device comprising the crystal. The crystal has a molar fraction of Li.sub.2 O/(Nb.sub.2 O.sub.5 +Li.sub.2 O) of falling between 0.49 and 0.52. The photo-functional device can convert a laser ray being incident thereon.

  13. Mesoscale martensitic transformation in single crystals of topological defects

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, José A.; Ramírez-Hernández, Abelardo; Zhou, Ye; Sadati, Monirosadat; Zhang, Rui; Nealey, Paul F.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2017-01-01

    Liquid-crystal blue phases (BPs) are highly ordered at two levels. Molecules exhibit orientational order at nanometer length scales, while chirality leads to ordered arrays of double-twisted cylinders over micrometer scales. Past studies of polycrystalline BPs were challenged by the existence of grain boundaries between randomly oriented crystalline nanodomains. Here, the nucleation of BPs is controlled with precision by relying on chemically nanopatterned surfaces, leading to macroscopic single-crystal BP specimens where the dynamics of mesocrystal formation can be directly observed. Theory and experiments show that transitions between two BPs having a different network structure proceed through local reorganization of the crystalline array, without diffusion of the double-twisted cylinders. In solid crystals, martensitic transformations between crystal structures involve the concerted motion of a few atoms, without diffusion. The transformation between BPs, where crystal features arise in the submicron regime, is found to be martensitic in nature when one considers the collective behavior of the double-twist cylinders. Single-crystal BPs are shown to offer fertile grounds for the study of directed crystal nucleation and the controlled growth of soft matter. PMID:28874557

  14. Bridgman growth and scintillation properties of calcium tungstate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenhai; Jiang, Linwen; Chen, Yaping; Chen, Peng; Chen, Hongbing; Mao, Rihua

    2017-12-01

    CaWO4 single crystal with large size was grown by Bridgman method. The results of transmission spectra show that the transmittance of CaWO4 crystal reaches 79-85% in 320-800 nm wavelength range. The refraction index is near 1.80 in visible and infrared region. CaWO4 crystal shows a broad emission band centered at 424 nm under X-ray excitation and centered at 416 nm under ultraviolet (λex = 280 nm) excitation. The decay kinetics of CaWO4 single crystal shows double-exponential decay with fast decay constant τ1 = 5.4 μs and slow decay constant τ2 = 177.1 μs. The energy resolution of CaWO4 crystal was found to be 31.6% in the net peak of 545.9 channel. Meanwhile, the absolute output is at the lever of 19,000 ± 1000 photons/MeV. The results indicate the scintillator of CaWO4 single crystal has great potential in the applications of high-energy physics and nuclear physics due to its high light output and great energy resolution.

  15. Single-layer ZnMN2 (M = Si, Ge, Sn) zinc nitrides as promising photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yujie; Luo, Gaixia; Meng, Lijuan; Zhang, Qinfang; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Haiyang; Wu, Xiuqiang; Kong, Fanjie; Wang, Baolin

    2018-05-30

    Searching for two-dimensional semiconductor materials that are suitable for visible-light photocatalytic water splitting provides a sustainable solution to deal with the future energy crisis and environmental problems. Herein, based on first-principles calculations, single-layer ZnMN2 (M = Si, Ge, Sn) zinc nitrides are proposed as efficient photocatalysts for water splitting. Stability analyses show that the single-layer ZnMN2 zinc nitrides exhibit energetic and dynamical stability. The electronic properties reveal that all of the single-layer ZnMN2 zinc nitrides are semiconductors. Interestingly, single-layer ZnSnN2 is a direct band gap semiconductor with a desirable band gap (1.74 eV), and the optical adsorption spectrum confirms its optical absorption in the visible light region. The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) calculations show that the catalytic activity for single-layer ZnMN2 (M = Ge, Sn) is better than that of single-layer ZnSiN2. Furthermore, the band gaps and band edge positions for the single-layer ZnMN2 zinc nitrides can be effectively tuned by biaxial strain. Especially, single-layer ZnGeN2 can be effectively tuned to match better with the redox potentials of water and enhance the light absorption in the visible light region at a tensile strain of 5%, which is confirmed by the corresponding optical absorption spectrum. Our results provide guidance for experimental synthesis efforts and future searches for single-layer materials suitable for photocatalytic water splitting.

  16. Heterogeneous Monolithic Integration of Single-Crystal Organic Materials.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Sun; Baek, Jangmi; Park, Yoonkyung; Lee, Lynn; Hyon, Jinho; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Shrestha, Nabeen K; Kang, Youngjong; Sung, Myung Mo

    2017-02-01

    Manufacturing high-performance organic electronic circuits requires the effective heterogeneous integration of different nanoscale organic materials with uniform morphology and high crystallinity in a desired arrangement. In particular, the development of high-performance organic electronic and optoelectronic devices relies on high-quality single crystals that show optimal intrinsic charge-transport properties and electrical performance. Moreover, the heterogeneous integration of organic materials on a single substrate in a monolithic way is highly demanded for the production of fundamental organic electronic components as well as complex integrated circuits. Many of the various methods that have been designed to pattern multiple heterogeneous organic materials on a substrate and the heterogeneous integration of organic single crystals with their crystal growth are described here. Critical issues that have been encountered in the development of high-performance organic integrated electronics are also addressed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Deformation induced microtwins and stacking faults in aluminum single crystal.

    PubMed

    Han, W Z; Cheng, G M; Li, S X; Wu, S D; Zhang, Z F

    2008-09-12

    Microtwins and stacking faults in plastically deformed aluminum single crystal were successfully observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The occurrence of these microtwins and stacking faults is directly related to the specially designed crystallographic orientation, because they were not observed in pure aluminum single crystal or polycrystal before. Based on the new finding above, we propose a universal dislocation-based model to judge the preference or not for the nucleation of deformation twins and stacking faults in various face-centered-cubic metals in terms of the critical stress for dislocation glide or twinning by considering the intrinsic factors, such as stacking fault energy, crystallographic orientation, and grain size. The new finding of deformation induced microtwins and stacking faults in aluminum single crystal and the proposed model should be of interest to a broad community.

  18. Single Crystal Synthesis and STM Studies of High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrientos, Alfonso

    1997-01-01

    This is a final report for the work initiated in September of 1994 under the grant NAG8-1085 - NASA/OMU, on the fabrication of bulk and single crystal synthesis, specific heat measuring and STM studies of high temperature superconductors. Efforts were made to fabricate bulk and single crystals of mercury based superconducting material. A systematic thermal analysis on the precursors for the corresponding oxides and carbonates were carried out to synthesized bulk samples. Bulk material was used as seed in an attempt to grow single crystals by a two-step self flux process. On the other hand bulk samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility, We studied the specific heat behavior in the range from 80 to 300 K. Some preliminary attempts were made to study the atomic morphology of our samples. As part of our efforts we built an ac susceptibility apparatus for measuring the transition temperature of our sintered samples.

  19. Mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanoindentation data

    PubMed Central

    Zamiri, A.; De, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we compute elasto-plastic properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanindentation data using a two-step algorithm. In the first step the yield stress is obtained using hardness and Young’s modulus data, followed by the computation of the flow parameters. The computational approach is first validated with data from existing literature. It is observed that hydroxyapatite single crystals exhibit anisotropic mechanical response with a lower yield stress along the [1010] crystallographic direction compared to the [0001] direction. Both work hardening rate and work hardening exponent are found to be higher for indentation along the [0001] crystallographic direction. The stress-strain curves extracted here could be used for developing constitutive models for hydroxyapatite single crystals. PMID:21262492

  20. The Load Capability of Piezoelectric Single Crystal Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing; Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2006-01-01

    Piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) single crystal is one of the most promising materials for electromechanical device applications due to its high electrical field induced strain and high electromechanical coupling factor. PMN-PT single crystal-based multilayer stack actuators and multilayer stack-based flextensional actuators have exhibited high stroke and high displacement-voltage ratios. The actuation capabilities of these two actuators were evaluated using a newly developed method based upon a laser vibrometer system under various loading conditions. The measured displacements as a function of mechanical loads at different driving voltages indicate that the displacement response of the actuators is approximately constant under broad ranges of mechanical load. The load capabilities of these PMN-PT single crystal-based actuators and the advantages of the capability for applications will be discussed.

  1. The Load Capability of Piezoelectric Single Crystal Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing; Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2007-01-01

    Piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) single crystal is one of the most promising materials for electromechanical device applications due to its high electrical field induced strain and high electromechanical coupling factor. PMN-PT single crystal-based multilayer stack actuators and multilayer stack-based flextensional actuators have exhibited high stroke and high displacement-voltage ratios. The actuation capabilities of these two actuators were evaluated using a newly developed method based upon a laser vibrometer system under various loading conditions. The measured displacements as a function of mechanical loads at different driving voltages indicate that the displacement response of the actuators is approximately constant under broad ranges of mechanical load. The load capabilities of these PMN-PT single crystal-based actuators and the advantages of the capability for applications will be discussed.

  2. Anisotropy of nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackay, R. A.; Dreshfield, R. L.; Maier, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of orientation on the tensile and stress rupture behavior of 52 Mar-M247 single crystals was studied. Tensile tests were performed at temperatures between 23 and 1093 C; stress rupture behavior was examined between 760 and 1038 C. The mechanical behavior of the single crystals was rationalized on the basis of the Schmid factor contours for the operative slip systems and the lattice rotations which the crystals underwent during deformation. The tensile properties correlated well with the appropriate Schmid factor contours. The stress rupture lives at lower testing temperatures were greatly influenced by the lattice rotations required to produce cross slip. A unified analysis was attained for the stress rupture life data generated for the Mar-M247 single crystals at 760 and 774 C under a stress of 724 MPa and the data reported for Mar-M200 single crystals tested at 760 C under a stress of 689 MPa. Based on this analysis, the stereographic triangle was divided into several regions which were rank ordered according to stress rupture life for this temperature regime.

  3. Growth of Solid Solution Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Szofran, F. R.; Gillies, Donald C.

    2001-01-01

    The solidification of a solid solution semiconductor, having a wide separation between liquidus and solidus has been extensively studied in ground based, high magnetic field and Spacelab experiments. Two alloys of mercury cadmium telluride have been studied; with 80.0 mole percent of HgTe and 84.8 mole percent of HgTe respectively, the remainder being cadmium telluride. Such alloys are extremely difficult to grow by directional solidification on earth due to high solutal and thermal density differences that give rise to fluid flow and consequent loss of interface shape and composition. Diffusion controlled growth is therefore impossible to achieve in conventional directional solidification. The ground based experiments consisted of growing crystals in several different configurations of heat pipe furnaces, NASA's Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), and a similar furnace incorporated in a superconducting magnet capable of operating at up to 5T. The first microgravity experiment took place during the flight of STS-62 in March 1994, with the AADSF installed on the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2). The alloy was solidified at 3/4 inch per day over a 9 day period, and for the first time a detailed evaluation was performed correlating composition variations to measured residual acceleration. The second flight experiment took place in the fourth United States Microgravity Payload Mission (USMP-4) in November 1997. Due to contamination of the furnace system, analysis shows that the conditions prevailing during the experiment were quite different from the requirements requested prior to the mission. The results indicate that the sample did accomplish the desired objectives.

  4. Ultrafast lattice dynamics of single crystal and polycrystalline gold nanofilms☆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianbo; Karam, Tony E.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2017-09-01

    Ultrafast electron diffraction is employed to spatiotemporally visualize the lattice dynamics of 11 nm-thick single-crystal and 2 nm-thick polycrystalline gold nanofilms. Surprisingly, the electron-phonon coupling rates derived from two temperature simulations of the data reveal a faster interaction between electrons and the lattice in the case of the single-crystal sample. We interpret this unexpected behavior as arising from quantum confinement of the electrons in the 2 nm-thick gold nanofilm, as supported by absorption spectra, an effect that counteracts the expected increase in the electron scattering off surfaces and grain boundaries in the polycrystalline materials.

  5. Apparatus And Method For Producing Single Crystal Metallic Objects

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Shyh-Chin; Gigliotti, Jr., Michael Francis X.; Rutkowski, Stephen Francis; Petterson, Roger John; Svec, Paul Steven

    2006-03-14

    A mold is provided for enabling casting of single crystal metallic articles including a part-defining cavity, a sorter passage positioned vertically beneath and in fluid communication with the part-defining cavity, and a seed cavity positioned vertically beneath and in fluid communication with the sorter passage. The sorter passage includes a shape suitable for encouraging a single crystal structure in solidifying molten metal. Additionally, a portion of the mold between the sorter passage and the part-defining cavity includes a notch for facilitating breakage of a cast article proximate the notch during thermal stress build-up, so as to prevent mold breakage or the inclusion of part defects.

  6. Cryogenic motion performances of a piezoelectric single crystal micromotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaotian; Wu, Yuting; Chen, Zhijiang; Wei, Xiaoyong; Luo, Haosu; Dong, Shuxiang

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the cryogenic performances of a millimeter-size piezoelectric ultrasonic linear micromotor. The piezoelectric vibrator of the micromotor is made of Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 -Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-PbTiO3 single crystal and operated in first-bending wobbling mode. Experiments show that the piezoelectric single crystal micromotor works effectively even at extremely low temperature of -175 °C, although its resonance peaks vary with temperature significantly. This work confirms the feasibility of cryogenic operation of the piezo-micromotor, which is meaningful for aerospace or superconducting microwave application.

  7. Investigation and characterization of ZnO single crystal microtubes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Naser, Qusay A.H.; Zhou, Jian, E-mail: jianzhou@whut.edu.cn; Liu, Guizhen

    2016-04-15

    Morphological, structural, and optical characterization of microwave synthesized ZnO single crystal microtubes were investigated in this work. The structure and morphology of the ZnO microtubes are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), single crystal diffraction (SCD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results reveal that the as-synthesized ZnO microtube has a highly regular hexagonal cross section and smooth surfaces with an average length of 650–700 μm, an average outer diameter of 50 μm and wall thickness of 1–3 μm, possessing a single crystal wurtzite hexagonal structure. Optical properties of ZnOmore » single crystal microtubes were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption techniques. Room-temperature PL spectrum of the microtube reveal a strong UV emission peak at around 375.89 nm and broad and a weak visible emission with a main peak identified at 577 nm, which was assigned to the nearest band-edge emission and the deep-level emission, respectively. The band gap energy of ZnO microtube was found to be 3.27 eV. - Highlights: • ZnO microtube length of 650–700 μm, diameter of 50 μm, wall thickness of 1–3 μm • ZnO microtube possesses a single crystal wurtzite hexagonal structure. • The crystal system is hexahedral oriented along a-axis with indices of (100). • A strong and sharp UV emission at 375.89 nm (3.29 eV) • One prominent absorption band around 378.88 nm (3.27 eV)« less

  8. Single-Crystal Material on Non-Single-Crystalline Substrate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    point frit or solder glass can be deposited on a surface and bonded to a second surface using pressure and temperature. A sodium silicate material...interface. A metal or silicide at the bonding interface may be advantageous fQr electrical current conduction across the interface. 10 Applications...substrate, or a silicide or metal to aid bonding and vertical electrical current conduction. In some cases, it is difficult to polish the non- single

  9. Fretting Stresses in Single Crystal Superalloy Turbine Blade Attachments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Swanson, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    Single crystal nickel base superalloy turbine blades are being utilized in rocket engine turbopumps and turbine engines because of their superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys. Currently the most widely used single crystal nickel base turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493 and PWA 1484. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas turbine and rocket engine turbopump blades is a pervasive problem. Blade attachment regions are prone to fretting fatigue failures. Single crystal nickel base superalloy turbine blades are especially prone to fretting damage because the subsurface shear stresses induced by fretting action at the attachment regions can result in crystallographic initiation and crack growth along octahedral planes. Furthermore, crystallographic crack growth on octahedral planes under fretting induced mixed mode loading can be an order of magnitude faster than under pure mode I loading. This paper presents contact stress evaluation in the attachment region for single crystal turbine blades used in the NASA alternate Advanced High Pressure Fuel Turbo Pump (HPFTP/AT) for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Single crystal materials have highly orthotropic properties making the position of the crystal lattice relative to the part geometry a significant factor in the overall analysis. Blades and the attachment region are modeled using a large-scale 3D finite element (FE) model capable of accounting for contact friction, material orthotrophy, and variation in primary and secondary crystal orientation. Contact stress analysis in the blade attachment regions is presented as a function of coefficient of friction and primary and secondary crystal orientation, Stress results are used to discuss fretting fatigue failure analysis of SSME blades. Attachment stresses are seen to reach

  10. Ordered macro-microporous metal-organic framework single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Kui; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Lingmei; Zhang, Daliang; Han, Yu; Chen, Junying; Long, Jilan; Luque, Rafael; Li, Yingwei; Chen, Banglin

    2018-01-01

    We constructed highly oriented and ordered macropores within metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystals, opening up the area of three-dimensional–ordered macro-microporous materials (that is, materials containing both macro- and micropores) in single-crystalline form. Our methodology relies on the strong shaping effects of a polystyrene nanosphere monolith template and a double-solvent–induced heterogeneous nucleation approach. This process synergistically enabled the in situ growth of MOFs within ordered voids, rendering a single crystal with oriented and ordered macro-microporous structure. The improved mass diffusion properties of such hierarchical frameworks, together with their robust single-crystalline nature, endow them with superior catalytic activity and recyclability for bulky-molecule reactions, as compared with conventional, polycrystalline hollow, and disordered macroporous ZIF-8.

  11. Atomistic simulation of shocks in single crystal and polycrystalline Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringa, E. M.; Higginbotham, A.; Park, N.; Tang, Y.; Suggit, M.; Mogni, G.; Ruestes, C. J.; Hawreliak, J.; Erhart, P.; Meyers, M. A.; Wark, J. S.

    2011-06-01

    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of shocks in Ta single crystals and polycrystals were carried out using up to 360 million atoms. Several EAM and FS type potentials were tested up to 150 GPa, with varying success reproducing the Hugoniot and the behavior of elastic constants under pressure. Phonon modes were studied to exclude possible plasticity nucleation by soft-phonon modes, as observed in MD simulations of Cu crystals. The effect of loading rise time in the resulting microstructure was studied for ramps up to 0.2 ns long. Dislocation activity was not observed in single crystals, unless there were defects acting as dislocation sources above a certain pressure. E.M.B. was funded by CONICET, Agencia Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (PICT2008-1325), and a Royal Society International Joint Project award.

  12. Single-crystal diffraction instrument TriCS at SINQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schefer, J.; Könnecke, M.; Murasik, A.; Czopnik, A.; Strässle, Th; Keller, P.; Schlumpf, N.

    2000-03-01

    The single-crystal diffractometer TriCS at the Swiss Continuous Spallation Source (SINQ) is presently in the commissioning phase. A two-dimensional wire detector produced by EMBL was delivered in March 1999. The instrument is presently tested with a single detector. First measurements on magnetic structures have been performed. The instrument is remotely controlled using JAVA-based software and a UNIX DEC-α host computer.

  13. Low-cost single-crystal turbine blades, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Heath, B.; Fujii, M.

    1983-01-01

    The exothermic casting process was successfully developed into a low cost nonproprietary method for producing single crystal (SC) castings. Casting yields were lower than expected, on the order of 20 percent, but it is felt that the casting yield could be significantly improved with minor modifications to the process. Single crystal Mar-M 247 and two derivative SC alloys were developed. NASAIR 100 and SC Alloy 3 were fully characterized through mechanical property testing. SC Mar-M 247 shows no significant improvement in strength over directionally solidified (DS) Mar-M 247, but the derivative alloys, NASAIR 100 and Alloy 3, show significant tensile and fatigue improvements. The 1000 hr/238 MPa (20 ksi) stress rupture capability compared to DS Mar-M 247 was improved over 28 C. Firtree testing, holography, and strain gauge rig testing were used to evaluate the effects of the anisotropic characteristics of single crystal materials. In general, the single crystal material behaved similarly to DS Mar-M 247. Two complete engine sets of SC HP turbine blades were cast using the exothermic casting process and fully machined.

  14. Some Debye temperatures from single-crystal elastic constant data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Edwards, J.L.

    1966-01-01

    The mean velocity of sound has been calculated for 14 crystalline solids by using the best recent values of their single-crystal elastic stiffness constants. These mean sound velocities have been used to obtain the elastic Debye temperatures ??De for these materials. Models of the three wave velocity surfaces for calcite are illustrated. ?? 1966 The American Institute of Physics.

  15. High Pressure Single Crystal Diffraction at PX 2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dongzhou; Dera, Przemyslaw K.; Eng, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    In this report, we describe detailed procedures for carrying out single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments with a diamond anvil cell at the GSECARS 13-BM-C beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. ATREX and RSV programs are used to analyze the data.

  16. Reliability analysis of single crystal NiAl turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Noebe, Ronald; Wheeler, Donald R.; Holland, Fred; Palko, Joseph; Duffy, Stephen; Wright, P. Kennard

    1995-01-01

    As part of a co-operative agreement with General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA LeRC is modifying and validating the Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures algorithm for use in design of components made of high strength NiAl based intermetallic materials. NiAl single crystal alloys are being actively investigated by GEAE as a replacement for Ni-based single crystal superalloys for use in high pressure turbine blades and vanes. The driving force for this research lies in the numerous property advantages offered by NiAl alloys over their superalloy counterparts. These include a reduction of density by as much as a third without significantly sacrificing strength, higher melting point, greater thermal conductivity, better oxidation resistance, and a better response to thermal barrier coatings. The current drawback to high strength NiAl single crystals is their limited ductility. Consequently, significant efforts including the work agreement with GEAE are underway to develop testing and design methodologies for these materials. The approach to validation and component analysis involves the following steps: determination of the statistical nature and source of fracture in a high strength, NiAl single crystal turbine blade material; measurement of the failure strength envelope of the material; coding of statistically based reliability models; verification of the code and model; and modeling of turbine blades and vanes for rig testing.

  17. High definition TV projection via single crystal faceplate technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindl, H. J.; St. John, Thomas

    1993-03-01

    Single crystal phosphor faceplates are epitaxial phosphors grown on crystalline substrates with the advantages of high light output, resolution, and extended operational life. Single crystal phosphor faceplate industrial technology in the United States is capable of providing a faceplate appropriate to the projection industry of up to four (4) inches in diameter. Projection systems incorporating cathode ray tubes utilizing single crystal phosphor faceplates will produce 1500 lumens of white light with 1000 lines of resolution, non-interlaced. This 1500 lumen projection system will meet all of the currently specified luminance and resolution requirements of Visual Display systems for flight simulators. Significant logistic advantages accrue from the introduction of single crystal phosphor faceplate CRT's. Specifically, the full performance life of a CRT is expected to increase by a factor of five (5); ie, from 2000 to 10,000 hours of operation. There will be attendant reductions in maintenance time, spare CRT requirements, system down time, etc. The increased brightness of the projection system will allow use of lower gain, lower cost simulator screen material. Further, picture performance characteristics will be more balanced across the full simulator.

  18. Organic field-effect transistors using single crystals.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tatsuo; Takeya, Jun

    2009-04-01

    Organic field-effect transistors using small-molecule organic single crystals are developed to investigate fundamental aspects of organic thin-film transistors that have been widely studied for possible future markets for 'plastic electronics'. In reviewing the physics and chemistry of single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs), the nature of intrinsic charge dynamics is elucidated for the carriers induced at the single crystal surfaces of molecular semiconductors. Materials for SC-OFETs are first reviewed with descriptions of the fabrication methods and the field-effect characteristics. In particular, a benchmark carrier mobility of 20-40 cm 2 Vs -1 , achieved with thin platelets of rubrene single crystals, demonstrates the significance of the SC-OFETs and clarifies material limitations for organic devices. In the latter part of this review, we discuss the physics of microscopic charge transport by using SC-OFETs at metal/semiconductor contacts and along semiconductor/insulator interfaces. Most importantly, Hall effect and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements reveal that interface charge transport in molecular semiconductors is properly described in terms of band transport and localization by charge traps.

  19. Organic field-effect transistors using single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Tatsuo; Takeya, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistors using small-molecule organic single crystals are developed to investigate fundamental aspects of organic thin-film transistors that have been widely studied for possible future markets for ‘plastic electronics’. In reviewing the physics and chemistry of single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs), the nature of intrinsic charge dynamics is elucidated for the carriers induced at the single crystal surfaces of molecular semiconductors. Materials for SC-OFETs are first reviewed with descriptions of the fabrication methods and the field-effect characteristics. In particular, a benchmark carrier mobility of 20–40 cm2 Vs−1, achieved with thin platelets of rubrene single crystals, demonstrates the significance of the SC-OFETs and clarifies material limitations for organic devices. In the latter part of this review, we discuss the physics of microscopic charge transport by using SC-OFETs at metal/semiconductor contacts and along semiconductor/insulator interfaces. Most importantly, Hall effect and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements reveal that interface charge transport in molecular semiconductors is properly described in terms of band transport and localization by charge traps. PMID:27877287

  20. Dynamic actuation of single-crystal diamond nanobeams

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Young-Ik; Burek, Michael J.; Lončar, Marko, E-mail: loncar@seas.harvard.edu

    2015-12-14

    We show the dielectrophoretic actuation of single-crystal diamond nanomechanical devices. Gradient radio-frequency electromagnetic forces are used to achieve actuation of both cantilever and doubly clamped beam structures, with operation frequencies ranging from a few MHz to ∼50 MHz. Frequency tuning and parametric actuation are also studied.

  1. Transverse Mode Multi-Resonant Single Crystal Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Kevin A. (Inventor); Liang, Yu (Inventor); Luo, Jun (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor); Sahul, Raffi (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A transducer is disclosed that includes a multiply resonant composite, the composite having a resonator bar of a piezoelectric single crystal configured in a d(sub 32) transverse length-extensional resonance mode having a crystallographic orientation set such that the thickness axis is in the (110) family and resonance direction is the (001) family.

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure, thermal and nonlinear optical properties of new metal-organic single crystal: Tetrabromo (piperazinium) zincate (II) (TBPZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boopathi, K.; Babu, S. Moorthy; Ramasamy, P.

    2018-04-01

    Tetrabromo (piperazinium) zincate, a new metal-organic crystal has been synthesized and its single crystal grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystal has characterized by structural, spectral, thermal, linear and nonlinear optical properties. Single crystal X-ray diffractions study reveals that grown crystal belongs to orthorhombic crystal system with space group P212121. The presence of functional groups is identified by FT-IR spectral analysis. Thermal stability of the crystal was ascertained by TG-DTA measurement. The second order harmonic generation efficiency was measured using Kurtz and Perry technique and it was found to be 1.5 times that of KDP.

  3. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of bis(L-asparaginato) zinc(II): A promising new semiorganic crystal with high laser damage threshold for shorter wavelength generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhashini, R.; Arjunan, S.

    2018-05-01

    An exceedingly apparent nonlinear semiorganic optical crystals of bis(L-asparaginato)zinc(II) [BLAZ], was synthesized by a traditional slow evaporation solution growth technique. The cell parameters were estimated from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Spectroscopic study substantiates the presence of functional groups. The UV spectrum shows the sustenance of wide transparency window and several optical constants, such as extinction coefficient (K), refractive index, optical conductivity and electric susceptibility with real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant were calculated using the transmittance data. The fluorescence emission spectrum of the crystal pronounces red emission. The laser induced surface damage threshold of the crystal was measured using Nd:YAG laser. The output intensity of second harmonic generation was estimated using the Kurtz and Perry powder method. The hardness stability was investigated by Vickers microhardness test. The decomposition and thermal stability of the compound were scrutinized by TGA-DSC studies. Dielectric studies were carried out to anatomize the electrical properties of the crystal. SEM analysis reveals the existence of minute crystallites on the growth surface.

  4. Influence of Two-Photon Absorption Anisotropy on Terahertz Emission Through Optical Rectification in Zinc-Blende Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjuan, Federico; Gaborit, Gwenaël; Coutaz, Jean-Louis

    2018-04-01

    We report for the first time on the observation of an angular anisotropy of the THz signal generated by optical rectification in a < 111 > ZnTe crystal. This cubic (zinc-blende) crystal in the < 111 > orientation exhibits both transverse isotropy for optical effects involving the linear χ (1) and nonlinear χ (2) susceptibilities. Thus, the observed anisotropy can only be related to χ (3) effect, namely two-photon absorption, which leads to the photo-generation of free carriers that absorb the generated THz signal. Two-photon absorption in zinc-blende crystals is known to be due to a spin-orbit interaction between the valence and higher-conduction bands. We perform a couple of measurements that confirm our hypothesis, as well as we fit the recorded data with a simple model. This two-photon absorption effect makes difficult an efficient generation, through optical rectification in < 111 > zinc-blende crystals, of THz beams of any given polarization state by only monitoring the laser pump polarization.

  5. A STUDY OF DISLOCATION STRUCTURE OF SUBBOUNDARIES IN MOLYBDENUM SINGLE CRYSTALS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MOLYBDENUM, *DISLOCATIONS), GRAIN STRUCTURES(METALLURGY), SINGLE CRYSTALS, ZONE MELTING, ELECTRON BEAM MELTING, GRAIN BOUNDARIES, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, ETCHED CRYSTALS, ETCHING, ELECTROEROSIVE MACHINING, CHINA

  6. Shock wave-induced phase transition in RDX single crystals.

    PubMed

    Patterson, James E; Dreger, Zbigniew A; Gupta, Yogendra M

    2007-09-20

    The real-time, molecular-level response of oriented single crystals of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX) to shock compression was examined using Raman spectroscopy. Single crystals of [111], [210], or [100] orientation were shocked under stepwise loading to peak stresses from 3.0 to 5.5 GPa. Two types of measurements were performed: (i) high-resolution Raman spectroscopy to probe the material at peak stress and (ii) time-resolved Raman spectroscopy to monitor the evolution of molecular changes as the shock wave reverberated through the material. The frequency shift of the CH stretching modes under shock loading appeared to be similar for all three crystal orientations below 3.5 GPa. Significant spectral changes were observed in crystals shocked above 4.5 GPa. These changes were similar to those observed in static pressure measurements, indicating the occurrence of the alpha-gamma phase transition in shocked RDX crystals. No apparent orientation dependence in the molecular response of RDX to shock compression up to 5.5 GPa was observed. The phase transition had an incubation time of approximately 100 ns when RDX was shocked to 5.5 GPa peak stress. The observation of the alpha-gamma phase transition under shock wave loading is briefly discussed in connection with the onset of chemical decomposition in shocked RDX.

  7. Microwave Induced Direct Bonding of Single Crystal Silicon Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budraa, N. K.; Jackson, H. W.; Barmatz, M.

    1999-01-01

    We have heated polished doped single-crystal silicon wafers in a single mode microwave cavity to temperatures where surface to surface bonding occurred. The absorption of microwaves and heating of the wafers is attributed to the inclusion of n-type or p-type impurities into these substrates. A cylindrical cavity TM (sub 010) standing wave mode was used to irradiate samples of various geometry's at positions of high magnetic field. This process was conducted in vacuum to exclude plasma effects. This initial study suggests that the inclusion of impurities in single crystal silicon significantly improved its microwave absorption (loss factor) to a point where heating silicon wafers directly can be accomplished in minimal time. Bonding of these substrates, however, occurs only at points of intimate surface to surface contact. The inclusion of a thin metallic layer on the surfaces enhances the bonding process.

  8. Optical properties of Sulfur doped InP single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Youssef, S. B.; Ali, H. A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Optical properties of InP:S single crystals were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements in the spectral range of 200-2500 nm. The absorption coefficient and refractive index were calculated. It was found that InP:S crystals exhibit allowed and forbidden direct transitions with energy gaps of 1.578 and 1.528 eV, respectively. Analysis of the refractive index in the normal dispersion region was discussed in terms of the single oscillator model. Some optical dispersion parameters namely: the dispersion energy (Ed), single oscillator energy (Eo), high frequency dielectric constant (ɛ∞), and lattice dielectric constant (ɛL) were determined. The volume and the surface energy loss functions (VELF & SELF) were estimated. Also, the real and imaginary parts of the complex conductivity were calculated.

  9. Mechanical and optical nanodevices in single-crystal quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Young-Ik; Miller, Rachel; Venkataraman, Vivek; Lončar, Marko

    2017-12-01

    Single-crystal α-quartz, one of the most widely used piezoelectric materials, has enabled a wide range of timing applications. Owing to the fact that an integrated thin-film based quartz platform is not available, most of these applications rely on macroscopic, bulk crystal-based devices. Here, we show that the Faraday cage angled-etching technique can be used to realize nanoscale electromechanical and photonic devices in quartz. Using this approach, we demonstrate quartz nanomechanical cantilevers and ring resonators featuring Qs of 4900 and 8900, respectively.

  10. Transformations of the dislocation structure of nickel single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfyorova, E. A.; Lychagin, D. V.; Lychagina, L. L.; Tsvetkov, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    A relationship between different-scale deformations of crystals has not been established yet. In order to solve this task, we investigate the development of a deformation relief and dislocation structure in nickel single crystals after deformation. The stress tensor, crystallography, and geometry of specimens affect the organization of some shear along corresponding systems of sliding. The organization of shear shows some features of self-organization. It is associated with the self-organization in the dislocation subsystem analyzed previously. The effectiveness of reducing external and internal stresses determines patterns of deformation processes at different scale levels.

  11. Trapezoidal diffraction grating beam splitters in single crystal diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Marcell; Graziosi, Teodoro; Quack, Niels

    2018-02-01

    Single Crystal Diamond has been recognized as a prime material for optical components in high power applications due to low absorption and high thermal conductivity. However, diamond microstructuring remains challenging. Here, we report on the fabrication and characterization of optical diffraction gratings exhibiting a symmetric trapezoidal profile etched into a single crystal diamond substrate. The optimized grating geometry diffracts the transmitted optical power into precisely defined proportions, performing as an effective beam splitter. We fabricate our gratings in commercially available single crystal CVD diamond plates (2.6mm x 2.6mm x 0.3mm). Using a sputter deposited hard mask and patterning by contact lithography, the diamond is etched in an inductively coupled oxygen plasma with zero platen power. The etch process effectively reveals the characteristic {111} diamond crystal planes, creating a precisely defined angled (54.7°) profile. SEM and AFM measurements of the fabricated gratings evidence the trapezoidal shape with a pitch of 3.82μm, depth of 170 nm and duty cycle of 35.5%. Optical characterization is performed in transmission using a 650nm laser source perpendicular to the sample. The recorded transmitted optical power as function of detector rotation angle shows a distribution of 21.1% in the 0th order and 23.6% in each +/-1st order (16.1% reflected, 16.6% in higher orders). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of diffraction gratings with trapezoidal profile in single crystal diamond. The fabrication process will enable beam splitter gratings of custom defined optical power distribution profiles, while antireflection coatings can increase the efficiency.

  12. Subsurface Stress Fields in FCC Single Crystal Anisotropic Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Knudsen, Erik; Swanson, Gregory R.; Duke, Gregory; Ham-Battista, Gilda

    2004-01-01

    Single crystal superalloy turbine blades used in high pressure turbomachinery are subject to conditions of high temperature, triaxial steady and alternating stresses, fretting stresses in the blade attachment and damper contact locations, and exposure to high-pressure hydrogen. The blades are also subjected to extreme variations in temperature during start-up and shutdown transients. The most prevalent high cycle fatigue (HCF) failure modes observed in these blades during operation include crystallographic crack initiation/propagation on octahedral planes, and non-crystallographic initiation with crystallographic growth. Numerous cases of crack initiation and crack propagation at the blade leading edge tip, blade attachment regions, and damper contact locations have been documented. Understanding crack initiation/propagation under mixed-mode loading conditions is critical for establishing a systematic procedure for evaluating HCF life of single crystal turbine blades. This paper presents analytical and numerical techniques for evaluating two and three dimensional subsurface stress fields in anisotropic contacts. The subsurface stress results are required for evaluating contact fatigue life at damper contacts and dovetail attachment regions in single crystal nickel-base superalloy turbine blades. An analytical procedure is presented for evaluating the subsurface stresses in the elastic half-space, based on the adaptation of a stress function method outlined by Lekhnitskii. Numerical results are presented for cylindrical and spherical anisotropic contacts, using finite element analysis (FEA). Effects of crystal orientation on stress response and fatigue life are examined. Obtaining accurate subsurface stress results for anisotropic single crystal contact problems require extremely refined three-dimensional (3-D) finite element grids, especially in the edge of contact region. Obtaining resolved shear stresses (RSS) on the principal slip planes also involves

  13. Crystal structure of the UBR-box from UBR6/FBXO11 reveals domain swapping mediated by zinc binding.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Escobar, Juliana; Kozlov, Guennadi; Gehring, Kalle

    2017-10-01

    The UBR-box is a 70-residue zinc finger domain present in the UBR family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that directly binds N-terminal degradation signals in substrate proteins. UBR6, also called FBXO11, is an UBR-box containing E3 ubiquitin ligase that does not bind N-terminal signals. Here, we present the crystal structure of the UBR-box domain from human UBR6. The dimeric crystal structure reveals a unique form of domain swapping mediated by zinc coordination, where three independent protein chains come together to regenerate the topology of the monomeric UBR-box fold. Analysis of the structure suggests that the absence of N-terminal residue binding arises from the lack of an amino acid binding pocket. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  14. Thermoelectric Behavior of PbSe Single Crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Kogo, Gilbert; Pradhan, Aswini K.; Roy, Utpal N.

    2016-12-05

    The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of PbSe single crystals grown by the Bridgman technique display metallic behavior. The Seebeck coefficient increases linearly with increasing temperature and showed positive Seebeck values, typically valid for a p-type PbSe crystal. The electronic thermal conductivity decreases with increase in temperature. The power factor increases gradually with temperature until the maximum value of 6.51 × 10 -3 W/mK2 at 260 K, other values are 5.95 × 10 -3 W/mK 2 at 300 K, and 5.40 × 10 -3 W/mK 2 at 320 K. Our results demonstrate that as-grown PbSe crystal is generically p-type duemore » to excess in Pb and can be a potential candidate for thermoelectric power generation.« less

  15. Apparatus for single ice crystal growth from the melt.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Salvador; Nakatsubo, Shunichi; Furukawa, Yoshinori

    2009-11-01

    A crystal growth apparatus was designed and built to study the effect of growth modifiers, antifreeze proteins and antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs), on ice crystal growth kinetics and morphology. We used a capillary growth technique to obtain a single ice crystal with well-defined crystallographic orientation grown in AFGP solution. The basal plane was readily observed by rotation of the capillary. The main growth chamber is approximately a 0.8 ml cylindrical volume. A triple window arrangement was used to minimize temperature gradients and allow for up to 10 mm working distance objective lens. Temperature could be established to within +/-10 mK in as little as 3.5 min and controlled to within +/-2 mK after 15 min for at least 10 h. The small volume growth chamber and fast equilibration times were necessary for parabolic flight microgravity experiments. The apparatus was designed for use with inverted and side mount configurations.

  16. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Fatigue Failure of Single Crystal Nickel Base Turbine Blade Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Swanson, Gregory R.

    2000-01-01

    High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas-turbine engines is a pervasive problem affecting a wide range of components and materials. HCF is currently the primary cause of component failures in gas turbine aircraft engines. Turbine blades in high performance aircraft and rocket engines are increasingly being made of single crystal nickel superalloys. Single-crystal Nickel-base superalloys were developed to provide superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys previously used in the production of turbine blades and vanes. Currently the most widely used single crystal turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493 and PWA 1484. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. PWA1493, identical to PWA1480, but with tighter chemical constituent control, is used in the NASA SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) alternate turbopump, a liquid hydrogen fueled rocket engine. Objectives for this paper are motivated by the need for developing failure criteria and fatigue life evaluation procedures for high temperature single crystal components, using available fatigue data and finite element modeling of turbine blades. Using the FE (finite element) stress analysis results and the fatigue life relations developed, the effect of variation of primary and secondary crystal orientations on life is determined, at critical blade locations. The most advantageous crystal orientation for a given blade design is determined. Results presented demonstrates that control of secondary and primary crystallographic orientation has the potential to optimize blade design by increasing its resistance to fatigue crack growth without adding additional weight or cost.

  17. Investigation of Artificial Forced Cooling in the Bridgman Crystal Growth of Cadmium Zinc Telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juncheng; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Guodong; Li, Changxing; Lennon, Craig; Sivananthan, Siva

    2007-08-01

    The effects of artificial forced cooling on the solid liquid interface and on solute segregation were investigated by modeling the vertical Bridgman method for the single-crystal growth of CdZnTe, taking into consideration effects such as increasing the axial outward heat flux from the crucible bottom, the radial outward heat flux from the crucible wall, and the carbon film thickness on the crucible inner wall. Axial artificially forced cooling noticeably increases convection and the temperature gradient in the melt next to the solid liquid interface, and substantially reduces interface concavity at the initial solidification stage. Interface concavity increases a little when the solidification proceeds further, however. Axial artificially forced cooling reduces radial solute segregation of the initial segment of the grown crystal and slightly increases the solute iso-concentration segment. Radial artificially forced cooling enhances melt convection substantially, affects solid liquid interface concavity only slightly, and hardly affects solute segregation in the grown crystal. Doubling the carbon film thickness weakens convection of the melt in front of the interface, substantially increases interface concavity, and hardly affects solute segregation in the grown crystal.

  18. Crystal growth, structure analysis and characterisation of 2 - (1, 3 - dioxoisoindolin - 2 - yl) acetic acid single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Sankari, R. Siva, E-mail: sivasankari.sh@act.edu.in; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana

    2014-04-24

    Single crystal of dielectric material 2 - (1, 3 - dioxoisoindolin - 2 - yl) acetic acid has been grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. The grown crystal was harvested in 25 days. The crystal structure was analyzed by Single crystal X - ray diffraction. UV-vis-NIR analysis was performed to examine the optical property of the grown crystal. The thermal property of the grown crystal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The dielectric measurements were carried out and the dielectric constant was calculated and plotted at all frequencies.

  19. Synthesis of mesoporous zeolite single crystals with cheap porogens

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Haixiang; Li Changlin; Ren Jiawen

    2011-07-15

    Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals have been successfully synthesized by adding soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to a conventional zeolite synthesis system. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen sorption analysis, {sup 27}Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 27}Al MAS NMR), temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH{sub 3}-TPD) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The SEM images clearly show that all zeolite crystals possess the similar morphology with particle size of about 300 nm, the TEM images reveal that irregular intracrystalmore » pores are randomly distributed in the whole crystal. {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra indicate that nearly all of the Al atoms are in tetrahedral co-ordination in ZSM-5, UV-vis spectra confirm that nearly all of titanium atoms are incorporated into the framework of TS-1. The catalytic activity of meso-ZSM-5 in acetalization of cyclohexanone and meso-TS-1 in hydroxylation of phenol was also studied. The synthesis method reported in this paper is cost-effective and environmental friendly, can be easily expended to prepare other hierarchical structured zeolites. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous zeolite single crystals were synthesized by using cheap porogens as template. Highlights: > Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals were synthesized. > Soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as porogens. > The mesoporous zeolites had connected mesopores although closed pores existed. > Higher catalytic activities were obtained.« less

  20. Frictional properties of single crystals HMX, RDX and PETN explosives.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y Q; Huang, F L

    2010-11-15

    The frictional properties of single crystals of cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) secondary explosives are examined using a sensitive friction machine. The explosive crystals used for the measurements are at least 3.5 mm wide. The friction coefficients between crystals of the same explosive (i.e., HMX on HMX, etc.), crystals of different explosives (i.e., HMX on RDX, etc.), and each explosive and a well-polished gauge steel surface are determined. The frictional surfaces are also studied under an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) to analyze surface microstructural changes under increasing loading forces. The friction coefficients vary considerably with increasing normal loading forces and are particularly sensitive to slider shapes, crystal roughness and the mechanical properties of both the slider and the sample. With increasing loading forces, most friction experiments show surface damage, consisting of grooves, debris, and nano-particles, on both the slider and sample. In some cases, a strong evidence of a localized molten state is found in the central region of the friction track. Possible mechanisms that affect the friction coefficient are discussed based on microscopic observations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mutiple Czochralski growth of silicon crystals from a single crucible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, R. L.; Kachare, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for the Czochralski growth of silicon crystals is presented which is capable of producing multiple ingots from a single crucible. The growth chamber features a refillable crucible with a water-cooled, vacuum-tight isolation valve located between the pull chamber and the growth furnace tank which allows the melt crucible to always be at vacuum or low argon pressure when retrieving crystal or introducing recharge polysilicon feed stock. The grower can thus be recharged to obtain 100 kg of silicon crystal ingots from one crucible, and may accommodate crucibles up to 35 cm in diameter. Evaluation of the impurity contents and I-V characteristics of solar cells fabricated from seven ingots grown from two crucibles reveals a small but consistent decrease in cell efficiency from 10.4% to 9.6% from the first to the fourth ingot made in a single run, which is explained by impurity build-up in the residual melt. The crystal grower thus may offer economic benefits through the extension of crucible lifetime and the reduction of furnace downtime.

  2. Converting ceria polyhedral nanoparticles into single-crystal nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiangdong; Sayle, Dean C; Wang, Zhong Lin; Paras, M Sharon; Santora, Brian; Sutorik, Anthony C; Sayle, Thi X T; Yang, Yi; Ding, Yong; Wang, Xudong; Her, Yie-Shein

    2006-06-09

    Ceria nanoparticles are one of the key abrasive materials for chemical-mechanical planarization of advanced integrated circuits. However, ceria nanoparticles synthesized by existing techniques are irregularly faceted, and they scratch the silicon wafers and increase defect concentrations. We developed an approach for large-scale synthesis of single-crystal ceria nanospheres that can reduce the polishing defects by 80% and increase the silica removal rate by 50%, facilitating precise and reliable mass-manufacturing of chips for nanoelectronics. We doped the ceria system with titanium, using flame temperatures that facilitate crystallization of the ceria yet retain the titania in a molten state. In conjunction with molecular dynamics simulation, we show that under these conditions, the inner ceria core evolves in a single-crystal spherical shape without faceting, because throughout the crystallization it is completely encapsulated by a molten 1- to 2-nanometer shell of titania that, in liquid state, minimizes the surface energy. The principle demonstrated here could be applied to other oxide systems.

  3. Plastic strain arrangement in copper single crystals in sliding

    SciTech Connect

    Chumaevskii, Andrey V., E-mail: tch7av@gmail.com; Lychagin, Dmitry V., E-mail: dvl-tomsk@mail.ru; Tarasov, Sergei Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.tsc.ru

    2014-11-14

    Deformation of tribologically loaded contact zone is one of the wear mechanisms in spite of the fact that no mass loss may occur during this process. Generation of optimal crystallographic orientations of the grains in a polycrystalline materials (texturing) may cause hardening and reducing the deformation wear. To reveal the orientation dependence of an individual gain and simplify the task we use copper single crystals with the orientations of the compression axis along [111] and [110]. The plastic deformation was investigated by means of optical, scanning electron microscopy and EBSD techniques. It was established that at least four different zonesmore » were generated in the course of sliding test, such as non-deformed base metal, plastic deformation layer sliding, crystalline lattice reorientation layer and subsurface grain structure layer. The maximum plastic strain penetration depth was observed on [110]-single crystals. The minimum stability of [111]-crystals with respect to rotation deformation mode as well as activation of shear in the sliding contact plane provide for rotation deformation localization below the worn surface. The high-rate accumulation of misorientations and less strain penetration depth was observed on [111]-crystals as compared to those of [110]-oriented ones.« less

  4. Properties of pure single crystals of actinide compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, O.

    1989-07-01

    Actinide research started with substances of poor quality and a multitude of "unexplainable" results mostly found on powder samples of doubtful quality exerted some pressure on the crystal growers. As an example we may mention the measurements on UP. Type I antiferromagnetism was found below 123 K by neutron diffraction experiments on powdered samples. At 23 K another transition becomes apparent in susceptibility measurements. The change of the magnetic moments associated with this transition remained unexplained. It was only after the discovery of multi k structures in other actinide compounds that the need was seen to perform even inelastic neutron diffraction experiments on single crystals so that finally the true nature of the transition in UP could be revealed. NpAs is another illustrative example for the fact that sometimes it takes decades to get a clear understanding for things even so simple as macroscopic magnetic properties. The main reason for the need of single crystals is certainly the anisotropy of the magnetic moment encountered in all actinide compounds. Self-heating effects may prevent research on big crystals or might call for isotopic purity of certain samples.

  5. Constitutive modeling of superalloy single crystals with verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Eric; Walker, Kevin P.

    1985-01-01

    The goal is the development of constitutive equations to describe the elevated temperature stress-strain behavior of single crystal turbine blade alloys. The program includes both the development of a suitable model and verification of the model through elevated temperature-torsion testing. A constitutive model is derived from postulated constitutive behavior on individual crystallographic slip systems. The behavior of the entire single crystal is then arrived at by summing up the slip on all the operative crystallographic slip systems. This type of formulation has a number of important advantages, including the prediction orientation dependence and the ability to directly represent the constitutive behavior in terms which metallurgists use in describing the micromechanisms. Here, the model is briefly described, followed by the experimental set-up and some experimental findings to date.

  6. Nanofluidics of Single-Crystal Diamond Nanomechanical Resonators.

    PubMed

    Kara, V; Sohn, Y-I; Atikian, H; Yakhot, V; Lončar, M; Ekinci, K L

    2015-12-09

    Single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonators are being developed for countless applications. A number of these applications require that the resonator be operated in a fluid, that is, a gas or a liquid. Here, we investigate the fluid dynamics of single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonators in the form of nanocantilevers. First, we measure the pressure-dependent dissipation of diamond nanocantilevers with different linear dimensions and frequencies in three gases, He, N2, and Ar. We observe that a subtle interplay between the length scale and the frequency governs the scaling of the fluidic dissipation. Second, we obtain a comparison of the surface accommodation of different gases on the diamond surface by analyzing the dissipation in the molecular flow regime. Finally, we measure the thermal fluctuations of the nanocantilevers in water and compare the observed dissipation and frequency shifts with theoretical predictions. These findings set the stage for developing diamond nanomechanical resonators operable in fluids.

  7. Plastic Deformation of Aluminum Single Crystals at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R D; Young, A P; Schwope, A D

    1956-01-01

    This report describes the results of a comprehensive study of plastic deformation of aluminum single crystals over a wide range of temperatures. The results of constant-stress creep tests have been reported for the temperature range from 400 degrees to 900 degrees F. For these tests, a new capacitance-type extensometer was designed. This unit has a range of 0.30 inch over which the sensitivity is very nearly linear and can be varied from as low a sensitivity as is desired to a maximum of 20 microinches per millivolt with good stability. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of small amounts of prestraining, by two different methods, on the creep and tensile properties of these aluminum single crystals. From observations it has been concluded that plastic deformation takes place predominantly by slip which is accompanied by the mechanisms of kinking and polygonization.

  8. Spall behaviour of single crystal aluminium at three principal orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, G. D.; Chapman, D. J.; Whiteman, G.; Stirk, S. M.; Millett, J. C. F.; Johnson, S.

    2017-10-01

    A series of plate impact experiments have been conducted to study the spall strength of the three principal crystallographic orientations of single crystal aluminium ([100], [110] and, [111]) and ultra-pure polycrystalline aluminium. The samples have been shock loaded at two impact stresses (4 GPa and 10 GPa). Significant differences have been observed in the elastic behaviour, the pullback velocities, and the general shape of the wave profiles, which can be accounted for by considerations of the microscale homogeneity, the dislocation density, and the absence of grain boundaries in the single crystal materials. The data have shown that there is a consistent order of spall strength measured for the four sample materials. The [111] orientation has the largest spall strength and elastic limit, followed closely by [110], [100], and then the polycrystalline material. This order is consistent with both quasi-static data and geometrical consideration of Schmid factors.

  9. Catalytic Chemistry of Hydrocarbon Conversion Reactions on Metallic Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tysoe, Wilfred T.

    The ability to be able to follow the chemistry of adsorbates on model catalyst surfaces has, in principle, allowed us to peer inside the “black box” of a catalytic reaction and understand the pathway. Such a strategy is most simply implemented for well-ordered single crystal model catalysts for which the catalytic reaction proceeds in ultrahigh vacuum. Thus, in order to be a good model for the supported catalyst, the single crystal should catalyze the reactions with kinetics identical to those for the supported system. This chapter focuses on catalytic systems that fulfill these criteria, namely alkene and alkyne hydrogenation and acetylene cyclotrimerization on Pd(111). The surface chemistry and geometries of the reactants in ultrahigh vacuum are explored in detail allowing fundamental insights into the catalytic reaction pathways to be obtained.

  10. Neutron Transmission of Single-crystal Sapphire Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adib, M.; Kilany, M.; Habib, N.; Fathallah, M.

    2005-05-01

    An additive formula is given that permits the calculation of the nuclear capture, thermal diffuse and Bragg scattering cross-sections as a function of sapphire temperature and crystal parameters. We have developed a computer program that allows calculations of the thermal neutron transmission for the sapphire rhombohedral structure and its equivalent trigonal structure. The calculated total cross-section values and effective attenuation coefficient for single-crystalline sapphire at different temperatures are compared with measured values. Overall agreement is indicated between the formula and experimental data. We discuss the use of sapphire single crystal as a thermal neutron filter in terms of the optimum cystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature, cutting plane and tuning for efficient transmission of thermal-reactor neutrons.

  11. Depressed scattering across grain boundaries in single crystal graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiao; Jin, Zhi; Ma, Peng; Wang, Hong; Wang, Haomin; Shi, Jingyuan; Peng, Songang; Liu, Xinyu; Ye, Tianchun

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the electrical and quantum properties of single-crystal graphene (SCG) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Quantum Hall effect and Shubnikov de Hass oscillation, a distinguishing feature of a 2-dimensional electronic material system, were observed during the low temperature transport measurements. Decreased scattering from grain boundaries in SCG was proven through extracting information from weak localization theory. Our results facilitate understanding the electrical properties of SCG grown by CVD and its applications in high speed transistor and quantum devices.

  12. Elastic Domain Wall Waves in Ferroelectric Ceramics and Single Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    properties of piezoelectric and electrostrictive types of ferroelectric ceramics and single crystals. This was for the purpose of shedding light on the...effectiveness and general characteristics of fabrication techniques, as well as exploring basic physical mechanisms playing a role in the technology of...routing and processing devices on small ferroelectric wafers, fabricated by simple inexpensive poling and biasing techniques. Such devices ma) be

  13. Three-dimensional charge transport in organic semiconductor single crystals.

    PubMed

    He, Tao; Zhang, Xiying; Jia, Jiong; Li, Yexin; Tao, Xutang

    2012-04-24

    Three-dimensional charge transport anisotropy in organic semiconductor single crystals - both plates and rods (above and below, respectively, in the figure) - is measured in well-performing organic field-effect transistors for the first time. The results provide an excellent model for molecular design and device preparation that leads to good performance. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Internal friction measurement in high purity tungsten single crystal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieu, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    Internal friction peaks observed after small deformation in high purity tungsten single crystals between liquid helium temperature and 800 K in the frequency range 30-50 KHz, are studied as a function of orientation. An orientation effect is observed in the internal friction spectra due to the creation of internal stresses. The elementary processes related to these peaks are discussed in terms of kink generation and geometric kink motion on screw and edge dislocations in an internal stress field.

  15. Excitonic complexes in single zinc-blende GaN/AlN quantum dots grown by droplet epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Sergent, S.; Kako, S.; Bürger, M.

    2014-10-06

    We study by microphotoluminescence the optical properties of single zinc-blende GaN/AlN quantum dots grown by droplet epitaxy. We show evidences of both excitonic and multiexcitonic recombinations in individual quantum dots with radiative lifetimes shorter than 287 ± 8 ps. Owing to large band offsets and a large exciton binding energy, the excitonic recombinations of single zinc-blende GaN/AlN quantum dots can be observed up to 300 K.

  16. Influence of solvents on the habit modification of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parimaladevi, P.; Srinivasan, K.

    2013-02-01

    Restricted evaporation of solvent method was adopted for the growth of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals from different solvents. The crystal habits of grown crystals were analysed. The form of crystallization was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal behaviour of the grown crystals was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry.

  17. Structural differences between single crystal and polycrystalline UBe 13

    SciTech Connect

    Volz, Heather Michelle; Vogel, Sven C.; Smith, Alice Iulia

    Here, we report on observations of structural and chemical differences between samples of UBe 13 that were synthesised using two different methods. Unexplained discrepancies in properties between samples with differing synthesis had previously been found in this heavy fermion superconductor. A polycrystalline UBe13 sample was made by arc-melting the constituents. Single crystals were grown using an aluminium flux and had a consistently slightly larger lattice parameter than the polycrystals, which merited further study. Neutron diffraction data were collected at the Lujan Center at LANSCE on the HIPPO diffractometer. Aluminium was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in themore » flux-grown single crystal (0.803 wt%), and small amounts (~0.2 wt%) of thorium were detected in the UBe 13 polycrystalline sample. In order to probe the implications of the presence of Al, calculations by spin-polarised DFT-GGA+U show that the incorporation of Al onto the 96i site (the lowest symmetry site in the structure) is energetically more favourable than on other sites. In general, the trends calculated by DFT for bond lengths and lattice parameter increases are consistent with bond lengths experimentally observed by neutron diffraction, but specific percentage changes with aluminium incorporation may be obscured by the unexpected thorium in the polycrystalline sample. The aggregate of our initial observations suggests that incorporation of aluminium from the flux into single crystal UBe 13 is significant.« less

  18. Structural differences between single crystal and polycrystalline UBe 13

    DOE PAGES

    Volz, Heather Michelle; Vogel, Sven C.; Smith, Alice Iulia; ...

    2018-05-16

    Here, we report on observations of structural and chemical differences between samples of UBe 13 that were synthesised using two different methods. Unexplained discrepancies in properties between samples with differing synthesis had previously been found in this heavy fermion superconductor. A polycrystalline UBe13 sample was made by arc-melting the constituents. Single crystals were grown using an aluminium flux and had a consistently slightly larger lattice parameter than the polycrystals, which merited further study. Neutron diffraction data were collected at the Lujan Center at LANSCE on the HIPPO diffractometer. Aluminium was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in themore » flux-grown single crystal (0.803 wt%), and small amounts (~0.2 wt%) of thorium were detected in the UBe 13 polycrystalline sample. In order to probe the implications of the presence of Al, calculations by spin-polarised DFT-GGA+U show that the incorporation of Al onto the 96i site (the lowest symmetry site in the structure) is energetically more favourable than on other sites. In general, the trends calculated by DFT for bond lengths and lattice parameter increases are consistent with bond lengths experimentally observed by neutron diffraction, but specific percentage changes with aluminium incorporation may be obscured by the unexpected thorium in the polycrystalline sample. The aggregate of our initial observations suggests that incorporation of aluminium from the flux into single crystal UBe 13 is significant.« less

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure, NLO and Hirshfeld surface analysis of 1,2,3-triazolyl chalcone single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shruthi, C.; Ravindrachary, V.; Guruswamy, B.; Lokanath, N. K.; Kumara, Karthik; Goveas, Janet

    2018-05-01

    Needle shaped brown coloured single crystal of the title compound was grown by slow evaporation technique using methanol as solvent. The grown crystal was characterized using FT-IR, Single crystal XRD, UV-visible and NLO studies. Crystal structure was confirmed by FT-IR study and the functional groups were identified. XRD study reveals that the crystal belongs to orthorhombic crystal system with pnaa space group and the corresponding cell parameters were calculated. UV-visible spectrum shows that the crystal is transparent in the entire visible region and absorption takes place in the UV-range. NLO efficiency of the crystal obtained 0.66 times that of urea was determined by SHG test. The intermolecular interaction and percentage contribution of each individual atom in the crystal lattice was quantized using Hirshfeld surface and 2D finger print analysis.

  20. Diamond turning of Si and Ge single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, P.; Scattergood, R.O.

    Single-point diamond turning studies have been completed on Si and Ge crystals. A new process model was developed for diamond turning which is based on a critical depth of cut for plastic flow-to-brittle fracture transitions. This concept, when combined with the actual machining geometry for single-point turning, predicts that {open_quotes}ductile{close_quotes} machining is a combined action of plasticity and fracture. Interrupted cutting experiments also provide a meant to directly measure the critical depth parameter for given machining conditions.

  1. Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-05-09

    A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly. 12 figs.

  2. Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.

    1995-01-01

    A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly.

  3. Laser radiation frequency doubling in a single-crystal fibre based on a stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashin, V. V.; Nikolaev, D. A.; Rusanov, S. Ya; Tsvetkov, V. B.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the employment of single-crystal optical fibres based on lithium niobate for doubling the laser radiation frequency. The measured characteristics of the fibre confirm its high quality and spatial homogeneity. Parameters of the frequency doublers for neodymium laser radiation (λ = 1 mm) based on fibre and bulk single crystals are compared. Single crystals are grown by the method of laser-heated pedestal growing with heating by radiation of a CO2 laser (LHPG-method).

  4. Laser generation in opal-like single-crystal and heterostructure photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchyanov, A. S.; Plekhanov, A. I.

    2016-11-01

    This study describes the laser generation of a 6Zh rhodamine in artificial opals representing single-crystal and heterostructure films. The spectral and angular properties of emission and the threshold characteristics of generation are investigated. In the case where the 6Zh rhodamine was in a bulk opal, the so-called random laser generation was observed. In contrast to this, the laser generation caused by a distributed feedback inside the structure of the photonic bandgap was observed in photonic-crystal opal films.

  5. Single crystalline hollow metal-organic frameworks: a metal-organic polyhedron single crystal as a sacrificial template.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyehyun; Oh, Minhak; Kim, Dongwook; Park, Jeongin; Seong, Junmo; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Lah, Myoung Soo

    2015-02-28

    Single crystalline hollow metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with cavity dimensions on the order of several micrometers and hundreds of micrometers were prepared using a metal-organic polyhedron single crystal as a sacrificial hard template. The hollow nature of the MOF crystal was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy of the crystal sliced using a focused ion beam.

  6. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) for Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong-Ng, W.; Siegrist, T.; DeTitta, G.T.; Finger, L.W.; Evans, H.T.; Gabe, E.J.; Enright, G.D.; Armstrong, J.T.; Levenson, M.; Cook, L.P.; Hubbard, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material?? for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ???3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0 420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals' the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 A?? ?? 0.0062 A??, and c=12.9979 A?? ?? 0.020 A?? (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Ha??gg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies_ are rhombohedral, with space group R3c. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080 ?? 0.00029 A??, and c=12 99568 A?? ?? 0.00087 A?? (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Ha??gg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 A?? ?? 0

  7. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) For Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Ng, W.; Siegrist, T.; DeTitta, G. T.; Finger, L. W.; Evans, H. T.; Gabe, E. J.; Enright, G. D.; Armstrong, J. T.; Levenson, M.; Cook, L. P.; Hubbard, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material® for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ≈3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0.420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals: the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 ű0.0062 Å, and c=12.9979 ű0.020 Å (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Hägg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies– are rhombohedral, with space group R3¯c. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080±0.00029 Å, and c=12.99568 ű0.00087 Å (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Hägg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 ű0.0013 Å, and c = 12

  8. Growth, properties, and applications of potassium niobate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, G.; Fay, W.R.; Alekel, T. III

    1994-12-31

    Production refinements and pragmatic optical properties of the frequency converter crystal KNbO{sub 3} (KN) are highlighted regarding its commercialization. The growth, morphological orientation, and processing of KN crystals into devices are outlined. Passive absorption data are presented that define the effective window range for KN devices. An absorption band at 2.85 {mu}m is attributed to the presence of OH groups in the crystal, and its vibrational strength varies with crystal growth conditions and incident polarized light orientation. Although blue light induced infrared absorption (BLIRA) can reduce second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency at high power, single-pass conversion efficiencies of 1%/W{center_dot}cm maymore » be achieved with incident fundamental powers of 10 W. The ability of KN to non-critically phasematch by temperature tuning provides blue-green wavelengths; together with critical angle-tuned phasematching, the entire visible spectrum may be accessed with efficient SHG conversion.« less

  9. Crystal structures of carbonates up to Mbar pressures determined by single crystal synchrotron radiation diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlini, M.

    2013-12-01

    The recent improvements at synchrotron beamlines, currently allow single crystal diffraction experiments at extreme pressures and temperatures [1,2] on very small single crystal domains. We successfully applied such technique to determine the crystal structure adopted by carbonates at mantle pressures. The knowledge of carbon-bearing phases is in fact fundamental for any quantitative modelling of global carbon cycle. The major technical difficulty arises after first order transitions or decomposition reactions, since original crystal (apx. 10x10x5 μm3) is transformed in much smaller crystalline domains often with random orientation. The use of 3D reciprocal space visualization software and the improved resolution of new generation flat panel detectors, however, allow both identification and integration of each single crystal domain, with suitable accuracy for ab-initio structure solution, performed with direct and charge-flipping methods and successive structure refinements. The results obtained on carbonates, indicate two major crystal-chemistry trends established at high pressures. The CO32- units, planar and parallel in ambient pressure calcite and dolomite structures, becomes non parallel in calcite- and dolomite-II and III phases, allowing more flexibility in the structures with possibility to accommodate strain arising from different cation sizes (Ca and Mg in particular). Dolomite-III is therefore also observed to be thermodynamically stable at lower mantle pressures and temperatures, differently from dolomite, which undergoes decomposition into pure end-members in upper mantle. At higher pressure, towards Mbar (lowermost mantle and D'' region) in agreement with theoretical calculations [3,4] and other experimental results [5], carbon coordination transform into 4-fold CO4 units, with different polymerisation in the structure depending on carbonate composition. The second important crystal chemistry feature detected is related to Fe2+ in Fe

  10. Growth of high quality bulk size single crystals of inverted solubility lithium sulphate monohydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Silambarasan, A.; Rajesh, P., E-mail: rajeshp@ssn.edu.in; Ramasamy, P.

    2015-06-24

    The paper summarizes the processes of growing large lithium sulfate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals. We have established a procedure to grow high quality bulk size single crystals of inverted solubility LSMH by a newly developed unidirectional crystallization technique called the Sankeranarayenan - Ramasamy (SR) method. The convective flow of crystal growth processes from solution and the conditions of growing crystals of various aspects were discussed. Good quality LSMH single crystal is grown of the size 20 mmX80 mm without cracks, localized-defects and inclusions. The as-grown crystals are suitable for piezoelectric and nonlinear optical applications.

  11. An electron paramagnetic resonance study on irradiated triphenylphosphinselenid single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aras, Erdal; Karatas, Ozgul; Meric, Yasemin; Abbass, Hind Kh; Birey, Mehmet; Kilic, Ahmet

    2014-09-01

    The single crystals of triphenylphosphinselenid [C18H15PSe] were produced by slow evaporation of concentrated ethyl acetate solutions. These single crystals were exposed to 60Co gamma (γ) rays with a dose speed of 0.980 kGy/h at the room temperature for 72 h. The free radical over the sample was observed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-X band spectrometer. The EPR spectra were recorded between 120 and 400 K. Furthermore, the sample irradiated was rotated in steps of 10° and analyzed for different orientations of the crystal in the magnetic field. Only one radical structure was determined on the molecule. The hyperfine constants of the sample were found to be anisotropic. The average values of these constants and value of g were calculated as following: g=2.007656, aSe=37.47 G, aP=27.44 G, aHa=17.28 G, and aHb=18.16 G.

  12. Strength anomaly in B2 FeAl single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S.; Yoo, M.H.

    1994-12-31

    Strength and deformation microstructure of B2 Fe-39 and 48%Al single crystals (composition given in atomic percent), which were fully annealed to remove frozen-in vacancies, have been investigated at temperatures between room temperature and 1073K. The hardness of as-homogenized Fe-48Al is higher than that of as-homogenized Fe-39Al while after additional annealing at 698K the hardness of Fe-48Al becomes lower than that of Fe-39Al. Fe-39Al single crystals slowly cooled after homogenizing at a high temperature were deformed in compression as a function of temperature and crystal orientation. A peak of yield strength appears around 0.5T{sub m} (T{sub m} = melting temperature). Themore » orientation dependence of the critical resolved shear stress does not obey Schmid`s law even at room temperature and is quite different from that of b.c.c. metals and B2 intermetallics at low temperatures. At the peak temperature slip transition from <111>-type to <001>-type is found to occur macroscopically and microscopically, while it is observed in TEM that some of the [111] dislocations decompose into [101] and [010] on the (1096I) plane below the peak temperature. The physical sources for the positive temperature dependence of yield stress of B2 FeAl are discussed based on the obtained results.« less

  13. Analysis of synthetic diamond single crystals by X-ray topography and double-crystal diffractometry

    SciTech Connect

    Prokhorov, I. A., E-mail: igor.prokhorov@mail.ru; Ralchenko, V. G.; Bolshakov, A. P.

    2013-12-15

    Structural features of diamond single crystals synthesized under high pressure and homoepitaxial films grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been analyzed by double-crystal X-ray diffractometry and topography. The conditions of a diffraction analysis of diamond crystals using Ge monochromators have been optimized. The main structural defects (dislocations, stacking faults, growth striations, second-phase inclusions, etc.) formed during crystal growth have been revealed. The nitrogen concentration in high-pressure/high-temperature (HPHT) diamond substrates is estimated based on X-ray diffraction data. The formation of dislocation bundles at the film-substrate interface in the epitaxial structures has been revealed by plane-wave topography; these dislocations are likelymore » due to the relaxation of elastic macroscopic stresses caused by the lattice mismatch between the substrate and film. The critical thicknesses of plastic relaxation onset in CVD diamond films are calculated. The experimental techniques for studying the real diamond structure in optimizing crystal-growth technology are proven to be highly efficient.« less

  14. Crystal growth, structural, optical, mechanical and thermal properties of a new nonlinear optical single crystal: L-Ornithine monohydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, T; Ramamurthi, K

    2009-03-01

    Amino acid family crystals exhibit excellent nonlinear optical and electro optical properties. l-Ornithine monohydrochloride single crystal, belongs to the amino acid group, was grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, TGA, DTA and DSC analyses. UV-vis-NIR spectrum shows excellent transmission in the UV, visible and NIR region (300-1600nm). The mechanical properties of grown crystals were studied using Vickers microhardness tester. Its second harmonic generation efficiency was tested using Nd:YAG laser and is 1.25 times that of KDP.

  15. Crystal oscillators using negative voltage gain, single pole response amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive crystal oscillator is provided which employs negative voltage gain, single pole response amplifiers. The amplifiers may include such configurations as gate inverters, operational amplifiers and conventional bipolar transistor amplifiers, all of which operate at a frequency which is on the roll-off portion of their gain versus frequency curve. Several amplifier feedback circuit variations are employed to set desired bias levels and to allow the oscillator to operate at the crystal's fundamental frequency or at an overtone of the fundamental frequency. The oscillator is made less expensive than comparable oscillators by employing relatively low frequency amplifiers and operating them at roll-off, at frequencies beyond which they are customarily used. Simplicity is provided because operation at roll-off eliminates components ordinarily required in similar circuits to provide sufficient phase-shift in the feedback circuitry for oscillation to occur.

  16. Polarized IR-microscope spectra of guanidinium hydrogenselenate single crystal.

    PubMed

    Drozd, M; Baran, J

    2005-10-01

    The polarized IR-microscope spectra of C(NH2)3.HSeO4 small single crystal samples were measured at room temperature. The spectra are discussed with the framework of oriented gas model approximation and group theory. The stretching nuOH vibration of the hydrogen bond with the O...O distance of 2.616 A gives characteristic broad AB-type absorption in the IR spectra. The changes of intensity of the AB bands in function of polarizer angle are described. Detailed assignment for bands derived from stretching and bending modes of selenate anions and guanidinium cations were performed. The observed intensities of these bands in polarized infrared spectra were correlated with theoretical calculation of directional cosines of selected transition dipole moments for investigated crystal. The vibrational studies seem to be helpful in understanding of physical and chemical properties of described compound and also in design of new complexes with exactly defined behaviors.

  17. Drift mobility of holes in phenanthrene single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnonstine, T. J.; Hermann, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The temperature dependence of drift mobilities of holes in single crystals of phenanthrene was measured in the range from 203 to 353 K in three crystallographic directions. Below the anomaly temperature of 72 C, the mobility temperature dependences are consistent with the Munn and Siebrand slow-phonon hopping process in the b direction and the Munn and Siebrand slow-phonon coherent mode in the a and c prime directions. The drift mobility temperature dependences in crystals that have been cooled through the anomaly temperature in the presence of illumination and an electric field are consistent with the model of Spielberg et al. (1971), in which the hindered vibration of the 4,5 hydrogens introduces a new degree of freedom above 72 C.

  18. Polarised IR-microscope spectra of guanidinium hydrogensulphate single crystal.

    PubMed

    Drozd, M; Baran, J

    2006-07-01

    Polarised IR-microscope spectra of C(NH(2))(3)*HSO(4) small single crystal samples were measured at room temperature. The spectra are discussed on the basis of oriented gas model approximation and group theory. The stretching nuOH vibration of the hydrogen bond with the Ocdots, three dots, centeredO distance of 2.603A gives characteristic broad AB-type absorption in the IR spectra. The changes of intensity of the AB bands in function of polariser angle are described. Detailed assignments for bands derived from stretching and bending modes of sulphate anions and guanidinium cations were performed. The observed intensities of these bands in polarised infrared spectra were correlated with theoretical calculation of directional cosines of selected transition dipole moments for investigated crystal. The vibrational studies seem to be helpful in understanding of physical and chemical properties of described compound and also in design of new complexes with exactly defined behaviors.

  19. Shock-Induced phase transition of single crystal copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2017-05-01

    We have carried out a series of multi-million atoms non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effect of crystal orientation over the shock induced plasticity and phase transformation in single crystal copper. Crystallographic orientation of [100], [110] and [111] has been studied for various intensity of shock ranging from 1.0 km/s to 3.0 km/s. During shock wave propagation along <100> and <110>, a FCC-to-BCC phase transformation has been observed to occur behind the shock front at higher intensity of shock. Nucleated body centered phase is identified through common neighbor analysis, polyhedral matching template method, radial distribution function and also from the energetic of the particles.

  20. Magnetorheological finishing with chemically modified fluids for studying material removal of single-crystal ZnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzman, S.; Romanofsky, H. J.; Clara, Y. I.; Giannechini, L. J.; West, Garrett J.; Lambropoulos, J. C.; Jacobs, S. D.

    2013-09-01

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) of polycrystalline, chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) zinc sulfide (ZnS) and zinc selenide (ZnSe) can leave millimeter-size artifacts on the part surface. These pebble-like features come from the anisotropic mechanical and chemical properties of the ceramic material and from the CVD growth process itself. The resulting surface texture limits the use of MRF for polishing aspheric and other complex shapes using these important infrared (IR) ceramics. An investigation of the individual contributions of chemistry and mechanics to polishing of other polycrystalline ceramics has been employed in the past to overcome similar material anisotropy problems. The approach taken was to study the removal process for the different single-crystal orientations that comprise the ceramic, making adjustments to mechanics (polishing abrasive type and concentration) and polishing slurry chemistry (primarily pH) to equalize the removal rate for all crystal orientations. Polishing with the modified slurry was shown to prevent the development of surface texture. Here we present mechanical (microhardness testing) and chemical (acid etching) studies performed on the four single-crystal orientations of ZnS: 100, 110, 111, and 311. We found that the (111) plane is 35% to 55% harder and 30% to 40% more resistant to chemical etching than the other three planes. This relatively high degree of variation in these properties can help to explain the surface texture developed from MRF of the polycrystalline material. Theoretical calculations of microhardness, planar, and bond densities are presented and compared with the experimental data. Here surface characterization of these single-crystal orientations of ZnS for material removal and roughness with chemically modified MR fluids at various pH levels between pH 4 and pH 6 are presented for the first time.

  1. The Mobility Enhancement of Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Transistors via Low-temperature Crystallization using a Tantalum Catalytic Layer.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yeonwoo; Kim, Sang Tae; Kim, Kuntae; Kim, Mi Young; Oh, Saeroonter; Jeong, Jae Kyeong

    2017-09-07

    High-mobility indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are achieved through low-temperature crystallization enabled via a reaction with a transition metal catalytic layer. For conventional amorphous IGZO TFTs, the active layer crystallizes at thermal annealing temperatures of 600 °C or higher, which is not suitable for displays using a glass substrate. The crystallization temperature is reduced when in contact with a Ta layer, where partial crystallization at the IGZO back-channel occurs with annealing at 300 °C, while complete crystallization of the active layer occurs at 400 °C. The field-effect mobility is significantly boosted to 54.0 cm 2 /V·s for the IGZO device with a metal-induced polycrystalline channel formed at 300 °C compared to 18.1 cm 2 /V·s for an amorphous IGZO TFT without a catalytic layer. This work proposes a facile and effective route to enhance device performance by crystallizing the IGZO layer with standard annealing temperatures, without the introduction of expensive laser irradiation processes.

  2. Magnetic order of Nd 5 Pb 3 single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Jiaqiang; Ochi, Masayuki; Cao, Huibo B.

    We report millimeter-sized Nd 5Pb 3 single crystals grown out of a Nd–Co flux. We experimentally study the magnetic order of Nd 5Pb 3 single crystals by measuring the anisotropic magnetic properties, electrical resistivity under high pressure up to 8 GPa, specific heat, and neutron single crystal diffraction. Two successive magnetic orders are observed at T N1 = 44 K and T N2 = 8 K. The magnetic cells can be described with a propagation vector $k=(0.5, 0, 0)$ . Cooling below T N1, Nd1 and Nd3 order forming ferromagnetic stripes along the b-axis, and the ferromagnetic stripes are coupledmore » antiferromagnetically along the a-axis for the $k=(0.5, 0, 0)$ magnetic domain. Cooling below T N2, Nd2 orders antiferromagnetically to nearby Nd3 ions. All ordered moments align along the crystallographic c-axis. The magnetic order at T N1 is accompanied by a quick drop of electrical resistivity upon cooling and a lambda-type anomaly in the temperature dependence of specific heat. At T N2, no anomaly was observed in electrical resistivity but there is a weak feature in specific heat. The resistivity measurements under hydrostatic pressures up to 8 GPa suggest a possible phase transition around 6 GPa. Our first-principles band structure calculations show that Nd 5Pb 3 has the same electronic structure as does Y 5Si 3 which has been reported to be a one-dimensional electride with anionic electrons that do not belong to any atom. Our study suggests that R 5Pb 3 (R = rare earth) can be a materials playground for the study of magnetic electrides. To conclude, this deserves further study after experimental confirmation of the presence of anionic electrons.« less

  3. Pressure driven spin transition in siderite and magnesiosiderite single crystals.

    PubMed

    Weis, Christopher; Sternemann, Christian; Cerantola, Valerio; Sahle, Christoph J; Spiekermann, Georg; Harder, Manuel; Forov, Yury; Kononov, Alexander; Sakrowski, Robin; Yavaş, Hasan; Tolan, Metin; Wilke, Max

    2017-11-28

    Iron-bearing carbonates are candidate phases for carbon storage in the deep Earth and may play an important role for the Earth's carbon cycle. To elucidate the properties of carbonates at conditions of the deep Earth, we investigated the pressure driven magnetic high spin to low spin transition of synthetic siderite FeCO 3 and magnesiosiderite (Mg 0.74 Fe 0.26 )CO 3 single crystals for pressures up to 57 GPa using diamond anvil cells and x-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy to directly probe the iron 3d electron configuration. An extremely sharp transition for siderite single crystal occurs at a notably low pressure of 40.4 ± 0.1 GPa with a transition width of 0.7 GPa when using the very soft pressure medium helium. In contrast, we observe a broadening of the transition width to 4.4 GPa for siderite with a surprising additional shift of the transition pressure to 44.3 ± 0.4 GPa when argon is used as pressure medium. The difference is assigned to larger pressure gradients in case of argon. For magnesiosiderite loaded with argon, the transition occurs at 44.8 ± 0.8 GPa showing similar width as siderite. Hence, no compositional effect on the spin transition pressure is observed. The spectra measured within the spin crossover regime indicate coexistence of regions of pure high- and low-spin configuration within the single crystal.

  4. Magnetic order of Nd5Pb3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, J.-Q.; Ochi, M.; Cao, H. B.; Saparov, B.; Cheng, J.-G.; Uwatoko, Y.; Arita, R.; Sales, B. C.; Mandrus, D. G.

    2018-04-01

    We report millimeter-sized Nd5Pb3 single crystals grown out of a Nd-Co flux. We experimentally study the magnetic order of Nd5Pb3 single crystals by measuring the anisotropic magnetic properties, electrical resistivity under high pressure up to 8 GPa, specific heat, and neutron single crystal diffraction. Two successive magnetic orders are observed at T N1  =  44 K and T N2  =  8 K. The magnetic cells can be described with a propagation vector k=(0.5, 0, 0) . Cooling below T N1, Nd1 and Nd3 order forming ferromagnetic stripes along the b-axis, and the ferromagnetic stripes are coupled antiferromagnetically along the a-axis for the k=(0.5, 0, 0) magnetic domain. Cooling below T N2, Nd2 orders antiferromagnetically to nearby Nd3 ions. All ordered moments align along the crystallographic c-axis. The magnetic order at T N1 is accompanied by a quick drop of electrical resistivity upon cooling and a lambda-type anomaly in the temperature dependence of specific heat. At T N2, no anomaly was observed in electrical resistivity but there is a weak feature in specific heat. The resistivity measurements under hydrostatic pressures up to 8 GPa suggest a possible phase transition around 6 GPa. Our first-principles band structure calculations show that Nd5Pb3 has the same electronic structure as does Y5Si3 which has been reported to be a one-dimensional electride with anionic electrons that do not belong to any atom. Our study suggests that R 5Pb3 (R  =  rare earth) can be a materials playground for the study of magnetic electrides. This deserves further study after experimental confirmation of the presence of anionic electrons.

  5. Magnetic order of Nd5Pb3 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Yan, J-Q; Ochi, M; Cao, H B; Saparov, B; Cheng, J-G; Uwatoko, Y; Arita, R; Sales, B C; Mandrus, D G

    2018-04-04

    We report millimeter-sized Nd 5 Pb 3 single crystals grown out of a Nd-Co flux. We experimentally study the magnetic order of Nd 5 Pb 3 single crystals by measuring the anisotropic magnetic properties, electrical resistivity under high pressure up to 8 GPa, specific heat, and neutron single crystal diffraction. Two successive magnetic orders are observed at T N1   =  44 K and T N2   =  8 K. The magnetic cells can be described with a propagation vector [Formula: see text]. Cooling below T N1 , Nd1 and Nd3 order forming ferromagnetic stripes along the b-axis, and the ferromagnetic stripes are coupled antiferromagnetically along the a-axis for the [Formula: see text] magnetic domain. Cooling below T N2 , Nd2 orders antiferromagnetically to nearby Nd3 ions. All ordered moments align along the crystallographic c-axis. The magnetic order at T N1 is accompanied by a quick drop of electrical resistivity upon cooling and a lambda-type anomaly in the temperature dependence of specific heat. At T N2 , no anomaly was observed in electrical resistivity but there is a weak feature in specific heat. The resistivity measurements under hydrostatic pressures up to 8 GPa suggest a possible phase transition around 6 GPa. Our first-principles band structure calculations show that Nd 5 Pb 3 has the same electronic structure as does Y 5 Si 3 which has been reported to be a one-dimensional electride with anionic electrons that do not belong to any atom. Our study suggests that R 5 Pb 3 (R  =  rare earth) can be a materials playground for the study of magnetic electrides. This deserves further study after experimental confirmation of the presence of anionic electrons.

  6. Magnetic order of Nd 5 Pb 3 single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Jiaqiang; Ochi, Masayuki; Cao, Huibo B.; ...

    2018-03-02

    We report millimeter-sized Nd 5Pb 3 single crystals grown out of a Nd–Co flux. We experimentally study the magnetic order of Nd 5Pb 3 single crystals by measuring the anisotropic magnetic properties, electrical resistivity under high pressure up to 8 GPa, specific heat, and neutron single crystal diffraction. Two successive magnetic orders are observed at T N1 = 44 K and T N2 = 8 K. The magnetic cells can be described with a propagation vector $k=(0.5, 0, 0)$ . Cooling below T N1, Nd1 and Nd3 order forming ferromagnetic stripes along the b-axis, and the ferromagnetic stripes are coupledmore » antiferromagnetically along the a-axis for the $k=(0.5, 0, 0)$ magnetic domain. Cooling below T N2, Nd2 orders antiferromagnetically to nearby Nd3 ions. All ordered moments align along the crystallographic c-axis. The magnetic order at T N1 is accompanied by a quick drop of electrical resistivity upon cooling and a lambda-type anomaly in the temperature dependence of specific heat. At T N2, no anomaly was observed in electrical resistivity but there is a weak feature in specific heat. The resistivity measurements under hydrostatic pressures up to 8 GPa suggest a possible phase transition around 6 GPa. Our first-principles band structure calculations show that Nd 5Pb 3 has the same electronic structure as does Y 5Si 3 which has been reported to be a one-dimensional electride with anionic electrons that do not belong to any atom. Our study suggests that R 5Pb 3 (R = rare earth) can be a materials playground for the study of magnetic electrides. To conclude, this deserves further study after experimental confirmation of the presence of anionic electrons.« less

  7. Review of methods for preparatin of zinc and cadmium sulfide, selenide and telluride single cyrstals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucharczyk, M.; Zabludowska, K.

    1986-01-01

    The growth method of (Zn,Cd)S, (Zn,Cd)Se, (Zn,Cd)Te single crystals is reviewed. It is suggested that the method of sublimation-condensation is the most suitable to the conditions and facilities available, and should be employed in the Department of Physics of Bislystok Polytechnic.

  8. Sonication-assisted synthesis of a new cationic zinc nitrate complex with a tetradentate Schiff base ligand: Crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and investigation of different parameters influence on morphological properties.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, S A; Montazerozohori, M; Masoudiasl, A; Mahmoudi, G; White, J M

    2018-09-01

    A nanostructured cationic zinc nitrate complex with a formula of [ZnLNO 3 ]NO 3 (where L = (N 2 E,N 2' E)-N 1 ,N 1' -(ethane-1,2-diyl)bis(N 2 -((E)-3-phenylallylidene)ethane-1,2-diamine)) was prepared by sonochemical process and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The X-ray analysis demonstrates the formation of a cationic complex that metal center is five-coordinated by four nitrogen atom from Schiff base ligand and one oxygen atom from nitrate group. The crystal packing analysis demonstrates the essential role of the nitrate groups in the organization of supramolecular structure. The morphology and size of ultrasound-assisted synthesized zinc nitrate complex have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by changing parameters such as the concentration of initial reactants, the sonication power and reaction temperature. In addition the calcination of zinc nitrate complex in air atmosphere led to production of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Polarization-dependent exciton dynamics in tetracene single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Chunfeng, E-mail: cfzhang@nju.edu.cn; Xu, Yanqing

    2014-12-28

    We conduct polarization-dependent ultrafast spectroscopy to study the dynamics of singlet fission (SF) in tetracene single crystals. The spectrotemporal species for singlet and triplet excitons in transient absorption spectra are found to be strongly dependent on probe polarization. By carefully analyzing the polarization dependence, the signals contributed by different transitions related to singlet excitons have been disentangled, which is further applied to construct the correlation between dynamics of singlet and triplet excitons. The anisotropy of exciton dynamics provides an alternative approach to tackle the long-standing challenge in understanding the mechanism of singlet fission in organic semiconductors.

  10. Pyroelectric effect in tryglicyne sulphate single crystals - Differential measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trybus, M.

    2018-06-01

    A simple mathematical model of the pyroelectric phenomenon was used to explain the electric response of the TGS (triglycine sulphate) samples in the linear heating process in ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Experimental verification of mathematical model was realized. TGS single crystals were grown and four electrode samples were fabricated. Differential measurements of the pyroelectric response of two different regions of the samples were performed and the results were compared with data obtained from the model. Experimental results are in good agreement with model calculations.

  11. Depressurization amorphization of single-crystal boron carbide.

    PubMed

    Yan, X Q; Tang, Z; Zhang, L; Guo, J J; Jin, C Q; Zhang, Y; Goto, T; McCauley, J W; Chen, M W

    2009-02-20

    We report depressurization amorphization of single-crystal boron carbide (B4C) investigated by in situ high-pressure Raman spectroscopy. It was found that localized amorphization of B4C takes place during unloading from high pressures, and nonhydrostatic stresses play a critical role in the high-pressure phase transition. First-principles molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the depressurization amorphization results from pressure-induced irreversible bending of C-B-C atomic chains cross-linking 12 atom icosahedra at the rhombohedral vertices.

  12. PHz current switching in calcium fluoride single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Ojoon; Kim, D., E-mail: kimd@postech.ac.kr; Max Planck Center for Attosecond Science, Max Planck POSTECH/Korea Res. Init., Pohang 37673

    2016-05-09

    We demonstrate that a current can be induced and switched in a sub-femtosecond time-scale in an insulating calcium fluoride single crystal by an intense optical field. This measurement indicates that a sizable current can be generated and also controlled by an optical field in a dielectric medium, implying the capability of rapid current switching at a rate of optical frequency, PHz (10{sup 15} Hz), which is a couple of orders of magnitude higher than that of contemporary electronic signal processing. This demonstration may serve to facilitate the development of ultrafast devices in PHz frequency.

  13. The sublimation kinetics of GeSe single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irene, E. A.; Wiedemeier, H.

    1975-01-01

    The sublimation kinetics of (001) oriented GeSe single crystal platelets was studied by high-temperature mass spectroscopy, quantitative vacuum microbalance techniques, and hot stage optical microscopy. For a mean experimental temperature of 563 K, the activation enthalpy and entropy are found to equal 32.3 kcal/mole and 19.1 eu, respectively. The vaporization coefficient is less than unity for the range of test temperatures, and decreases with increasing temperature. The combined experimental data are correlated by means of a multistep surface adsorption mechanism.

  14. Zinc(II) complexes with heterocyclic ether, acid and amide. Crystal structure, spectral, thermal and antibacterial activity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabłońska-Wawrzycka, Agnieszka; Rogala, Patrycja; Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Hodorowicz, Maciej; Stadnicka, Katarzyna

    2016-02-01

    The reaction of zinc salts with heterocyclic ether (1-ethoxymethyl-2-methylimidazole (1-ExMe-2-MeIm)), acid (pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (2,3-pydcH2)) and amide (3,5-dimethylpyrazole-1-carboxamide (3,5-DMePzCONH2)) yielded three new zinc complexes formulated as [Zn(1-ExMe-2-MeIm)2Cl2] 1, fac-[Zn(H2O)6][Zn(2,3-pydcH)3]22 and [Zn(3,5-DMePz)2(NCO)2] 3. Complexes of 1 and 3 are four-coordinated with a tetrahedron as coordination polyhedron. However, compound 2 forms an octahedral cation-anion complex. The complex 3 was prepared by eliminating of the carboxamide group from the ligand and then the 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (3,5-DMePz) and isocyanates formed were employed as new ligands. The IR and X-ray studies have confirmed a bidentate fashion of coordination of the 2,3-pydcH and monodentate fashion of coordination of the 1-ExMe-2-MeIm and 3,5-DMePz to the Zn(II) ions. The crystal packing of Zn(II) complexes are stabilized by intermolecular classical hydrogen bonds of O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O types. The most interesting feature of the supramolecular architecture of complexes is the existence of C-H⋯O, C-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯π interactions and π⋯π stacking, which also contributes to structural stabilisation. The correlation between crystal structure and thermal stability of zinc complexes is observed. In all compounds the fragments of ligands donor-atom containing go in the last steps. Additionally, antimicrobial activities of compounds were carried out against certain Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and counts of CFU (colony forming units) were also determined. The achieved results confirmed a significant antibacterial activity of some tested zinc complexes. On the basis of the Δ log CFU values the antibacterial activity of zinc complexes follows the order: 3 > 2 > 1. Influence a number of N-donor atoms in zinc environment on antibacterial activity is also observed.

  15. Defect sensitive etching of hexagonal boron nitride single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, J. H.; Liu, S.; Hoffman, T.; Zhang, Yichao; Twigg, M. E.; Bassim, Nabil D.; Liang, Shenglong; Khan, Neelam

    2017-12-01

    Defect sensitive etching (DSE) was developed to estimate the density of non-basal plane dislocations in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) single crystals. The crystals employed in this study were precipitated by slowly cooling (2-4 °C/h) a nickel-chromium flux saturated with hBN from 1500 °C under 1 bar of flowing nitrogen. On the (0001) planes, hexagonal-shaped etch pits were formed by etching the crystals in a eutectic mixture of NaOH and KOH between 450 °C and 525 °C for 1-2 min. There were three types of pits: pointed bottom, flat bottom, and mixed shape pits. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed that the pointed bottom etch pits examined were associated with threading dislocations. All of these dislocations had an a-type burgers vector (i.e., they were edge dislocations, since the line direction is perpendicular to the [ 2 11 ¯ 0 ]-type direction). The pit widths were much wider than the pit depths as measured by atomic force microscopy, indicating the lateral etch rate was much faster than the vertical etch rate. From an Arrhenius plot of the log of the etch rate versus the inverse temperature, the activation energy was approximately 60 kJ/mol. This work demonstrates that DSE is an effective method for locating threading dislocations in hBN and estimating their densities.

  16. Structural, optical, mechanical and dielectric studies of pure and doped L-Prolinium trichloroacetate single crystals.

    PubMed

    Renuka, N; Ramesh Babu, R; Vijayan, N; Vasanthakumar, Geetha; Krishna, Anuj; Ramamurthi, K

    2015-02-25

    In the present work, pure and metal substituted L-Prolinium trichloroacetate (LPTCA) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-Visible-NIR, hardness, photoluminescence and dielectric studies. The dopant concentration in the crystals was measured by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of the pure and metal substituted LPTCA revealed that the grown crystals belong to the trigonal system. Ni(2+) and Co(2+) doping slightly altered the lattice parameters of LPTCA without affecting the basic structure of the crystal. FTIR spectral analysis confirms the presence of various functional groups in the grown crystals. The mechanical behavior of pure and doped crystals was analyzed by Vickers's microhardness test. The optical transmittance, dielectric and photoluminescence properties of the pure and doped crystals were analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Crystal growth and electrical properties of CuFeO 2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dordor, P.; Chaminade, J. P.; Wichainchai, A.; Marquestaut, E.; Doumerc, J. P.; Pouchard, M.; Hagenmuller, P.; Ammar, A.

    1988-07-01

    Delafossite-type CuFeO 2 single crystals have been prepared by a flux method: crystals obtained in a Cu crucible with LiBO 2 as flux are n-type whereas those prepared in a Pt crucible with a Cu 2O flux are p-type. Electrical measurements have revealed that n-type crystals exhibit weak anisotropic conductivities with large activation energies and small mobilities (r.t. values perpendicular and parallel to the c-axis: μ⊥ = 5 × 10 -5 and μ‖ = 10 -7 cm -2 V -1 sec -1). p-type crystals, less anisotropic, are characterized by low activation energies and higher mobilities ( μ⊥ = 34 and μ‖ = 8.9 cm 2 V -1 sec -1). A two -conduction-band model is proposed to account for the difference observed between the energy gap value deduced from photoelectrochemical measurements and the activation energy of the electrical conductivity in the intrinsic domain.

  18. Synthesis, crystal growth, structural, thermal, optical and mechanical properties of solution grown 4-methylpyridinium 4-hydroxybenzoate single crystal.

    PubMed

    Sudhahar, S; Krishna Kumar, M; Sornamurthy, B M; Mohan Kumar, R

    2014-01-24

    Organic nonlinear optical material, 4-methylpyridinium 4-hydroxybenzoate (4MPHB) was synthesized and single crystal was grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. Single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyses confirm the structure and crystalline perfection of 4MPHB crystal. Infrared, Raman and NMR spectroscopy techniques were used to elucidate the functional groups present in the compound. TG-DTA analysis was carried out in nitrogen atmosphere to study the decomposition stages, endothermic and exothermic reactions. UV-visible and Photoluminescence spectra were recorded for the grown crystal to estimate the transmittance and band gap energy respectively. Linear refractive index, birefringence, and SHG efficiency of the grown crystal were studied. Laser induced surface damage threshold and mechanical properties of grown crystal were studied to assess the suitability of the grown crystals for device applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth and surface topography of WSe{sub 2} single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, Vijay, E-mail: vijdix1@gmail.com; Vyas, Chirag; Pataniya, Pratik

    2016-05-06

    Tungsten Di-Selenide belongs to the family of TMDCs showing their potential applications in the fields of Optoelectronics and PEC solar cells. Here in the present investigation single crystals of WSe{sub 2} were grown by Direct Vapour Transport Technique in a dual zone furnace having temperature difference of 50 K between the two zones. These single crystals were characterized by EDAX which confirms the stiochiometry of the grown crystals. Surface topography of the crystal was studied by optical micrograph showing the left handed spirals on the surface of WSe{sub 2} crystals. Single crystalline nature of the crystals was confirmed by SAED.

  20. Temperature dependence of magnetoresistance in copper single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; Niewczas, M.

    2018-03-01

    Transverse magnetoresistance of copper single crystals has been measured in the orientation of open-orbit from 2 K to 20 K for fields up to 9 T. The experimental Kohler's plots display deviation between individual curves below 16 K and overlap in the range of 16 K-20 K. The violation of the Kohler's rule below 16 K indicates that the magnetotransport can not be described by the classical theory of electron transport on spherical Fermi surface with a single relaxation time. A theoretical model incorporating two energy bands, spherical and cylindrical, with different relaxation times has been developed to describe the magnetoresistance data. The calculations show that the electron-phonon scattering rates at belly and neck regions of the Fermi surface have different temperature dependencies, and in general, they do not follow T3 law. The ratio of the relaxation times in belly and neck regions decreases parabolically with temperature as A - CT2 , with A and C being constants.

  1. Large Scale Laser Crystallization of Solution-based Alumina-doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) Nanoinks for Highly Transparent Conductive Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Nian, Qiong; Callahan, Michael; Saei, Mojib; Look, David; Efstathiadis, Harry; Bailey, John; Cheng, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    A new method combining aqueous solution printing with UV Laser crystallization (UVLC) and post annealing is developed to deposit highly transparent and conductive Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) films. This technique is able to rapidly produce large area AZO films with better structural and optoelectronic properties than most high vacuum deposition, suggesting a potential large-scale manufacturing technique. The optoelectronic performance improvement attributes to UVLC and forming gas annealing (FMG) induced grain boundary density decrease and electron traps passivation at grain boundaries. The physical model and computational simulation developed in this work could be applied to thermal treatment of many other metal oxide films. PMID:26515670

  2. Process for Making Single-Domain Magnetite Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Lofgren, Gary E.; McKay, Gordan A.; Schwandt, Craig S.; Lauer, Howard V., Jr.; Socki, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    A process for making chemically pure, single-domain magnetite crystals substantially free of structural defects has been invented as a byproduct of research into the origin of globules in a meteorite found in Antarctica and believed to have originated on Mars. The globules in the meteorite comprise layers of mixed (Mg, Fe, and Ca) carbonates, magnetite, and iron sulfides. Since the discovery of the meteorite was announced in August 1996, scientists have debated whether the globules are of biological origin or were formed from inorganic materials by processes that could have taken place on Mars. While the research that led to the present invention has not provided a definitive conclusion concerning the origin of the globules, it has shown that globules of a different but related chemically layered structure can be grown from inorganic ingredients in a multistep precipitation process. As described in more detail below, the present invention comprises the multistep precipitation process plus a subsequent heat treatment. The multistep precipitation process was demonstrated in a laboratory experiment on the growth of submicron ankerite crystals, overgrown by submicron siderite and pyrite crystals, overgrown by submicron magnesite crystals, overgrown by submicron siderite and pyrite. In each step, chloride salts of appropriate cations (Ca, Fe, and Mg) were dissolved in deoxygenated, CO2- saturated water. NaHCO3 was added as a pH buffer while CO2 was passed continuously through the solution. A 15-mL aliquot of the resulting solution was transferred into each of several 20 mL, poly(tetrafluoroethylene)-lined hydrothermal pressure vessels. The vessels were closed in a CO2 atmosphere, then transferred into an oven at a temperature of 150 C. After a predetermined time, the hydrothermal vessels were removed from the oven and quenched in a freezer. Supernatant solutions were decanted, and carbonate precipitates were washed free of soluble salts by repeated decantations with

  3. The Ni and Co substitutions in iron chalcogenide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezusyy, V. L.; Gawryluk, D. J.; Malinowski, A.; Berkowski, M.; Cieplak, Marta Z.

    2015-03-01

    We study the ab-plane resistivity and Hall effect in Fe1-yMyTe0.65Se0.35 single crystals with M =Co or Ni, and y up to 0.2. The crystals are grown by Bridgman's method. The low-temperature Hall coefficient RH changes sign to negative for crystals with y exceeding 0.135 (Co) and 0.06 (Ni), consistent with the electron doping induced by these impurities. However, the RH remains positive for all samples at high T, suggesting that remnant hole pockets survive the doping, but the holes become localized at low T in heavily doped crystals. Superconducting transition temperature (Tc) approaches zero for y = 0.14 (Co), and 0.03 (Ni), while the resistivity at the Tc onset is only weakly affected by Co doping, but it increases strongly for the Ni. These results suggest that in case of Co impurity the Tc suppression may be attributed to electron doping. On the other hand, the Ni substitution, in addition to electron doping, induces strong localization effects at small impurity contents. Using two-band conduction model we argue that the localization of electron carriers is responsible for strong superconductivity suppression by Ni impurity. Supported by EC through the FunDMS Advanced Grant of the ERC (FP7 Ideas), by the Polish NCS Grant 2011/01/B/ST3/00462, and by the French-Polish Program PICS 2012. Performed in the laboratories co-financed by NanoFun Project POIG.02.02.00-00-025/09.

  4. Direction-specific interaction forces underlying zinc oxide crystal growth by oriented attachment

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, X.; Shen, Z.; Liu, J.; ...

    2017-10-10

    Here, crystallization by particle attachment is impacting our understanding of natural mineralization processes and holds promise for novel materials design. When particles assemble in crystallographic registry, expulsion of the intervening solvent and particle coalescence is enabled by near-perfect co-alignment via interparticle forces that remain poorly quantified. Here we report measurement and simulation of these nanoscale aligning forces for the ZnO(0001)-ZnO(000¯1) system in aqueous solution. Dynamic force spectroscopy using nanoengineered single crystal probes reveals an attractive force with 60o rotational periodicity. Calculated distance and orientation-dependent potentials of mean force show several attractive free energy wells distinguished by numbers of intervening watermore » layers, which reach a minimum when aligned. The calculated activation energy to separate the attractively bound solvated interfaces perfectly reproduces the measured 60o periodicity, revealing the key role of intervening water structuring as a basis to generate the interparticle torque that completes alignment and enables coalescence.« less

  5. Direction-specific interaction forces underlying zinc oxide crystal growth by oriented attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Shen, Z.; Liu, J.

    Here, crystallization by particle attachment is impacting our understanding of natural mineralization processes and holds promise for novel materials design. When particles assemble in crystallographic registry, expulsion of the intervening solvent and particle coalescence is enabled by near-perfect co-alignment via interparticle forces that remain poorly quantified. Here we report measurement and simulation of these nanoscale aligning forces for the ZnO(0001)-ZnO(000¯1) system in aqueous solution. Dynamic force spectroscopy using nanoengineered single crystal probes reveals an attractive force with 60o rotational periodicity. Calculated distance and orientation-dependent potentials of mean force show several attractive free energy wells distinguished by numbers of intervening watermore » layers, which reach a minimum when aligned. The calculated activation energy to separate the attractively bound solvated interfaces perfectly reproduces the measured 60o periodicity, revealing the key role of intervening water structuring as a basis to generate the interparticle torque that completes alignment and enables coalescence.« less

  6. Strength and deformation of shocked diamond single crystals: Orientation dependence

    DOE PAGES

    Lang, John Michael Jr.; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding and quantifying the strength or elastic limit of diamond single crystals is of considerable scientific and technological importance, and has been a subject of long standing theoretical and experimental interest. To examine the effect of crystalline anisotropy on strength and deformation of shocked diamond single crystals, plate impact experiments were conducted to measure wave profiles at various elastic impact stresses up to ~120 GPa along [110] and [111] crystal orientations. Using laser interferometry, particle velocity histories and shock velocities in the diamond samples were measured and were compared with similar measurements published previously for shock compression along the [100]more » direction. Wave profiles for all three orientations showed large elastic wave amplitudes followed by time-dependent inelastic deformation. From the measured wave profiles, the elastic limits were determined under well characterized uniaxial strain loading conditions. The measured elastic wave amplitudes for the [110] and [111] orientations were lower for higher elastic impact stress (stress attained for an elastic diamond response), consistent with the result reported previously for [100] diamond. The maximum resolved shear stress (MRSS) on the {111}<110> slip systems was determined for each orientation, revealing significant orientation dependence. The MRSS values for the [100] and [110] orientations (~33 GPa) are 25-30% of theoretical estimates; the MRSS value for the [111] orientation is significantly lower (~23 GPa). Our results demonstrate that the MRSS depends strongly on the stress component normal to the {111} planes or the resolved normal stress (RNS), suggesting that the RNS plays a key role in inhibiting the onset of inelastic deformation. Lower elastic wave amplitudes at higher peak stress and the effect of the RNS are inconsistent with typical dislocation slip mechanisms of inelastic deformation, suggesting instead an inelastic response

  7. Strength and deformation of shocked diamond single crystals: Orientation dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, John Michael Jr.; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    Understanding and quantifying the strength or elastic limit of diamond single crystals is of considerable scientific and technological importance, and has been a subject of long standing theoretical and experimental interest. To examine the effect of crystalline anisotropy on strength and deformation of shocked diamond single crystals, plate impact experiments were conducted to measure wave profiles at various elastic impact stresses up to ~120 GPa along [110] and [111] crystal orientations. Using laser interferometry, particle velocity histories and shock velocities in the diamond samples were measured and were compared with similar measurements published previously for shock compression along the [100]more » direction. Wave profiles for all three orientations showed large elastic wave amplitudes followed by time-dependent inelastic deformation. From the measured wave profiles, the elastic limits were determined under well characterized uniaxial strain loading conditions. The measured elastic wave amplitudes for the [110] and [111] orientations were lower for higher elastic impact stress (stress attained for an elastic diamond response), consistent with the result reported previously for [100] diamond. The maximum resolved shear stress (MRSS) on the {111}<110> slip systems was determined for each orientation, revealing significant orientation dependence. The MRSS values for the [100] and [110] orientations (~33 GPa) are 25-30% of theoretical estimates; the MRSS value for the [111] orientation is significantly lower (~23 GPa). Our results demonstrate that the MRSS depends strongly on the stress component normal to the {111} planes or the resolved normal stress (RNS), suggesting that the RNS plays a key role in inhibiting the onset of inelastic deformation. Lower elastic wave amplitudes at higher peak stress and the effect of the RNS are inconsistent with typical dislocation slip mechanisms of inelastic deformation, suggesting instead an inelastic response

  8. Strength and deformation of shocked diamond single crystals: Orientation dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, J. M.; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding and quantifying the strength or elastic limit of diamond single crystals is of considerable scientific and technological importance, and has been a subject of long standing theoretical and experimental interest. To examine the effect of crystalline anisotropy on strength and deformation of shocked diamond single crystals, plate impact experiments were conducted to measure wave profiles at various elastic impact stresses up to ˜120 GPa along [110] and [111] crystal orientations. Using laser interferometry, particle velocity histories and shock velocities in the diamond samples were measured and were compared with similar measurements published previously for shock compression along the [100] direction. Wave profiles for all three orientations showed large elastic wave amplitudes followed by time-dependent inelastic deformation. From the measured wave profiles, the elastic limits were determined under well characterized uniaxial strain loading conditions. The measured elastic wave amplitudes for the [110] and [111] orientations were lower for higher elastic impact stress (stress attained for an elastic diamond response), consistent with the result reported previously for [100] diamond. The maximum resolved shear stress (MRSS) on the {111}⟨110⟩ slip systems was determined for each orientation, revealing significant orientation dependence. The MRSS values for the [100] and [110] orientations (˜33 GPa) are 25%-30% of theoretical estimates; the MRSS value for the [111] orientation is significantly lower (˜23 GPa). Our results demonstrate that the MRSS depends strongly on the stress component normal to the {111} planes or the resolved normal stress (RNS), suggesting that the RNS plays a key role in inhibiting the onset of inelastic deformation. Lower elastic wave amplitudes at higher peak stress and the effect of the RNS are inconsistent with typical dislocation slip mechanisms of inelastic deformation, suggesting instead an inelastic response

  9. Tribological properties of sintered polycrystalline and single crystal silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Srinivasan, M.

    1982-01-01

    Tribological studies and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses were conducted with sintered polycrystalline and single crystal silicon carbide surfaces in sliding contact with iron at various temperatures to 1500 C in a vacuum of 30 nPa. The results indicate that there is a significant temperature influence on both the friction properties and the surface chemistry of silicon carbide. The main contaminants on the as received sintered polycrystalline silicon carbide surfaces are adsorbed carbon, oxygen, graphite, and silicon dioxide. The surface revealed a low coefficient of friction. This is due to the presence of the graphite on the surface. At temperatures of 400 to 600 C graphite and copious amount of silicon dioxide were observed on the polycrystalline silicon carbide surface in addition to silicon carbide. At 800 C, the amount of the silicon dioxide decreased rapidly and the silicon carbide type silicon and carbon peaks were at a maximum intensity in the XPS spectra. The coefficients of friction were high in the temperature range 400 to 800 C. Small amounts of carbon and oxygen contaminants were observed on the as received single crystal silicon carbide surface below 250 C. Silicon carbide type silicon and carbon peaks were seen on the silicon carbide in addition to very small amount of graphite and silicon dioxide at temperatures of 450 to 800 C.

  10. Single Crystal Diamond Needle as Point Electron Source.

    PubMed

    Kleshch, Victor I; Purcell, Stephen T; Obraztsov, Alexander N

    2016-10-12

    Diamond has been considered to be one of the most attractive materials for cold-cathode applications during past two decades. However, its real application is hampered by the necessity to provide appropriate amount and transport of electrons to emitter surface which is usually achieved by using nanometer size or highly defective crystallites having much lower physical characteristics than the ideal diamond. Here, for the first time the use of single crystal diamond emitter with high aspect ratio as a point electron source is reported. Single crystal diamond needles were obtained by selective oxidation of polycrystalline diamond films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Field emission currents and total electron energy distributions were measured for individual diamond needles as functions of extraction voltage and temperature. The needles demonstrate current saturation phenomenon and sensitivity of emission to temperature. The analysis of the voltage drops measured via electron energy analyzer shows that the conduction is provided by the surface of the diamond needles and is governed by Poole-Frenkel transport mechanism with characteristic trap energy of 0.2-0.3 eV. The temperature-sensitive FE characteristics of the diamond needles are of great interest for production of the point electron beam sources and sensors for vacuum electronics.

  11. Single Crystal Diamond Needle as Point Electron Source

    PubMed Central

    Kleshch, Victor I.; Purcell, Stephen T.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond has been considered to be one of the most attractive materials for cold-cathode applications during past two decades. However, its real application is hampered by the necessity to provide appropriate amount and transport of electrons to emitter surface which is usually achieved by using nanometer size or highly defective crystallites having much lower physical characteristics than the ideal diamond. Here, for the first time the use of single crystal diamond emitter with high aspect ratio as a point electron source is reported. Single crystal diamond needles were obtained by selective oxidation of polycrystalline diamond films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Field emission currents and total electron energy distributions were measured for individual diamond needles as functions of extraction voltage and temperature. The needles demonstrate current saturation phenomenon and sensitivity of emission to temperature. The analysis of the voltage drops measured via electron energy analyzer shows that the conduction is provided by the surface of the diamond needles and is governed by Poole-Frenkel transport mechanism with characteristic trap energy of 0.2–0.3 eV. The temperature-sensitive FE characteristics of the diamond needles are of great interest for production of the point electron beam sources and sensors for vacuum electronics. PMID:27731379

  12. Single Crystal Diamond Needle as Point Electron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleshch, Victor I.; Purcell, Stephen T.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2016-10-01

    Diamond has been considered to be one of the most attractive materials for cold-cathode applications during past two decades. However, its real application is hampered by the necessity to provide appropriate amount and transport of electrons to emitter surface which is usually achieved by using nanometer size or highly defective crystallites having much lower physical characteristics than the ideal diamond. Here, for the first time the use of single crystal diamond emitter with high aspect ratio as a point electron source is reported. Single crystal diamond needles were obtained by selective oxidation of polycrystalline diamond films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Field emission currents and total electron energy distributions were measured for individual diamond needles as functions of extraction voltage and temperature. The needles demonstrate current saturation phenomenon and sensitivity of emission to temperature. The analysis of the voltage drops measured via electron energy analyzer shows that the conduction is provided by the surface of the diamond needles and is governed by Poole-Frenkel transport mechanism with characteristic trap energy of 0.2-0.3 eV. The temperature-sensitive FE characteristics of the diamond needles are of great interest for production of the point electron beam sources and sensors for vacuum electronics.

  13. Self-assembled single-crystal silicon circuits on plastic

    PubMed Central

    Stauth, Sean A.; Parviz, Babak A.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of self-assembly for the integration of freestanding micrometer-scale components, including single-crystal, silicon field-effect transistors (FETs) and diffusion resistors, onto flexible plastic substrates. Preferential self-assembly of multiple microcomponent types onto a common platform is achieved through complementary shape recognition and aided by capillary, fluidic, and gravitational forces. We outline a microfabrication process that yields single-crystal, silicon FETs in a freestanding, powder-like collection for use with self-assembly. Demonstrations of self-assembled FETs on plastic include logic inverters and measured electron mobility of 592 cm2/V-s. Finally, we extend the self-assembly process to substrates each containing 10,000 binding sites and realize 97% self-assembly yield within 25 min for 100-μm-sized elements. High-yield self-assembly of micrometer-scale functional devices as outlined here provides a powerful approach for production of macroelectronic systems. PMID:16968780

  14. Joint Development of a Fourth Generation Single Crystal Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walston, S.; Cetel, A.; MacKay, R.; OHara, K.; Duhl, D.; Dreshfield, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new, fourth generation, single crystal superalloy has been jointly developed by GE Aircraft Engines, Pratt & Whitney, and NASA. The focus of the effort was to develop a turbine airfoil alloy with long-term durability for use in the High Speed Civil Transport. In order to achieve adequate long-time strength improvements at moderate temperatures and retain good microstructural stability, it was necessary to make significant composition changes from 2nd and 3rd generation single crystal superalloys. These included lower chromium levels, higher cobalt and rhenium levels and the inclusion of a new alloying element, ruthenium. It was found that higher Co levels were beneficial to reducing both TCP precipitation and SRZ formation. Ruthenium caused the refractory elements to partition more strongly to the ' phase, which resulted in better overall alloy stability. The final alloy, EPM 102, had significant creep rupture and fatigue improvements over the baseline production alloys and had acceptable microstructural stability. The alloy is currently being engine tested and evaluated for advanced engine applications.

  15. OSL studies of alkali fluoroperovskite single crystals for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, D. Joseph; Raja, A.; Madhusoodanan, U.; Annalakshmi, O.; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a preliminary investigation of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of alkali fluoroperovskite single crystals for radiation dosimetry. The perovskite-like KMgF3, NaMgF3 and LiBaF3 polycrystalline compounds doped with rare earths (Eu2+ and Ce3+) were synthesized by standard solid state reaction technique. Phase purity of the synthesized compounds was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction technique. Single crystals of these compounds have been grown from melt by using vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger method. The Linearly Modulated OSL and Continuous Wave OSL measurements were performed in these alkali fluorides using blue light stimulation. Thermal bleaching experiments have shown that OSL signals originate from traps which are unstable near 200 °C, thus proving the suitability of the signals for dosimetric purposes. Optical bleaching measurements were also performed for these fluoride samples. OSL dose response was studied as a function of dose which was found to increase with beta dose.

  16. Electronic transport properties of single-crystal bismuth nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Sun, Xiangzhong; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Ying, Jackie Y.; Heremans, J.

    2000-02-01

    We present here a detailed study of the electrical transport properties of single-crystal bismuth nanowire arrays embedded in a dielectric matrix. Measurements of the resistance of Bi nanowire arrays with different wire diameters (60-110 nm) have been carried out over a wide range of temperatures (2.0-300 K) and magnetic fields (0-5.4 T). The transport properties of a heavily Te-doped Bi nanowire array have also been studied. At low temperatures, we show that the wire boundary scattering is the dominant scattering process for carriers in the undoped single-crystal Bi nanowires, while boundary scattering is less important for a heavily Te-doped sample, consistent with general theoretical considerations. The temperature dependences of the zero-field resistivity and of the longitudinal magneto-coefficient of the Bi nanowires were also studied and were found to be sensitive to the wire diameter. The quantum confinement of carriers is believed to play an important role in determining the overall temperature dependence of the zero-field resistivity. Theoretical considerations of the quantum confinement effects on the electronic band structure and on the transport properties of Bi nanowires are discussed. Despite the evidence for localization effects and diffusive electron interactions at low temperatures (T<=4.0 K), localization effects are not the dominant mechanisms affecting the resistivity or the magnetoresistance in the temperature range of this study.

  17. Synthesis of millimeter-scale transition metal dichalcogenides single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Gong, Yongji; Ye, Gonglan; Lei, Sidong; ...

    2016-02-10

    The emergence of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) atomic layers has opened up unprecedented opportunities in atomically thin electronics. Yet the scalable growth of TMD layers with large grain sizes and uniformity has remained very challenging. Here is reported a simple, scalable chemical vapor deposition approach for the growth of MoSe2 layers is reported, in which the nucleation density can be reduced from 105 to 25 nuclei cm -2, leading to millimeter-scale MoSe 2 single crystals as well as continuous macrocrystalline films with millimeter size grains. The selective growth of monolayers and multilayered MoSe2 films with well-defined stacking orientation canmore » also be controlled via tuning the growth temperature. In addition, periodic defects, such as nanoscale triangular holes, can be engineered into these layers by controlling the growth conditions. The low density of grain boundaries in the films results in high average mobilities, around ≈42 cm 2 V -1 s -1, for back-gated MoSe 2 transistors. This generic synthesis approach is also demonstrated for other TMD layers such as millimeter-scale WSe 2 single crystals.« less

  18. The fatigue damage behavior of a single crystal superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The uniaxial fatigue behavior of a single crystal superalloy, PWA 1480, is described. Both monotonic tensile and constant amplitude fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature, in an effort to assess the applicability of polycrystalline-based fatigue life prediction methods to a single crystal superalloy. The observed constant amplitude behavior correlated best using a stress-based life criterion. Nearly all specimens failed at surface or slightly subsurface microporosity; this is thought to be responsible for the unusually large amount of scatter in the test results. An additional term is developed in the stress-life equation for the purpose of accounting for the effect of microporosity on fatigue life. The form chosen is a function of the effective area of the failure-producing microporosity projected on a plane perpendicular to the loading axis, as well as the applied stress. This additional term correlated the data to within factors of two on life. Although speculative, extrapolation of the microporosity relation to zero micropore area indicates that approximately an order of magnitude improvement in fatigue life should result.

  19. Transient lateral photovoltaic effect in synthetic single crystal diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestopino, G.; Marinelli, M.; Milani, E.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2017-10-01

    A transient lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) is reported for a metal-semiconductor structure of synthetic single crystal diamond (SCD). A SCD Schottky photodiode was specifically designed to measure a LPE under collimated irradiation from a tunable pulsed laser. A transient lateral photovoltage parallel to the Schottky junction was indeed detected. LPE on the p-type doped SCD side showed a non-linearity of 2% and a fast response time, with a rise time of 2 μs and a decay time of 12 μs. The position sensitivity (up to 30 mV/mm at a laser wavelength of 220 nm and a pulse energy density of 2.9 μJ/mm2) was measured as a function of laser wavelength, and an ultraviolet (UV)-to-visible contrast ratio of about four orders of magnitude with a sharp cutoff at 225 nm was observed. Our results demonstrate that a large LPE at UV wavelengths is achievable in synthetic single crystal diamond, potentially opening opportunities for the study and application of LPE in diamond and for the fabrication of high performance visible blind UV position sensitive detectors with high sensitivity and microsecond scale response time.

  20. A crystallographic model for nickel base single crystal alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dame, L. T.; Stouffer, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a tool for the mechanical analysis of nickel-base single-crystal superalloys, specifically Rene N4, used in gas turbine engine components. This objective is achieved by developing a rate-dependent anisotropic constitutive model and implementing it in a nonlinear three-dimensional finite-element code. The constitutive model is developed from metallurgical concepts utilizing a crystallographic approach. An extension of Schmid's law is combined with the Bodner-Partom equations to model the inelastic tension/compression asymmetry and orientation-dependence in octahedral slip. Schmid's law is used to approximate the inelastic response of the material in cube slip. The constitutive equations model the tensile behavior, creep response and strain-rate sensitivity of the single-crystal superalloys. Methods for deriving the material constants from standard tests are also discussed. The model is implemented in a finite-element code, and the computed and experimental results are compared for several orientations and loading conditions.

  1. Growth of EuO Single Crystals at Reduced Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besara, Tiglet; Ramirez, Daniel; Whalen, Jeffrey; Siegrist, Theo

    Single crystals of Eu1-xBaxO have been grown in a barium-magnesium flux at moderate temperatures up to 1000°C, producing single crystals with barium doping levels ranging from x = 0 . 03 to x = 0 . 25 . Magnetic measurements show that the ferromagnetic Curie temperature TC correlates with the Ba doping levels, and a modified Heisenberg model is employed to describe the TC dependence on the stoichiometry. The decrease in TC is dominated by the Ba substitution on the Eu lattice with a small contribution arising from the lattice strain. Extrapolation of results indicates that a sample at x = 0 . 72 should have a TC = 0 K, potentially producing a quantum phase transition in this material. DOE SC-0008832, NSF DMR-1157490. This work was supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Science, under contract DOE SC-0008832. This work has been performed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, which is supported by the National Science Foundation Cooperative Agreement DMR-1157490, the State of Florida, and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Ultrafast dynamic response of single crystal β-HMX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaug, Joseph M.; Armstrong, Michael R.; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Radousky, Harry B.; Ferranti, Louis; Swan, Raymond; Gross, Rick; Teslich, Nick E.; Wall, Mark A.; Austin, Ryan A.; Fried, Laurence E.

    2017-01-01

    We report results from ultrafast compression experiments conducted on β-HMX single crystals. Results consist of nominally 12 picosecond time-resolved wave profile data, (ultrafast time domain interferometry -TDI measurements), that were analyzed to determine high-velocity wave speeds as a function of piston velocity. TDI results are used to validate calculations of anisotropic stress-strain behavior of shocked loaded energetic materials. Our previous results derived using a 350 ps duration compression drive revealed anisotropic elastic wave response in single crystal β-HMX from (110) and (010) impact planes. Here we present results using a 1.05 ns duration compression drive with a 950 ps interferometry window to extend knowledge of the anisotropic dynamic response of β-HMX within eight microns of the initial impact plane. We observe two distinct wave profiles from (010) and three wave profiles from (010) impact planes. The (110) impact plane wave speeds typically exceed (010) impact plane wave speeds at the same piston velocities. The development of multiple hydrodynamic wave profiles begins at 20 GPa for the (110) impact plane and 28 GPa for the (10) impact plane. We compare our ultrafast TDI results with previous gun and plate impact results on β-HMX and PBX9501.

  3. Modal reduction in single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yujie; Hill, Cary; Liu, Bo

    2015-10-12

    A new type of single crystal sapphire optical fiber (SCSF) design is proposed to reduce the number of guided modes via a highly dispersive cladding with a periodic array of high and low index regions in the azimuthal direction. The structure retains a “core” region of pure single crystal (SC) sapphire in the center of the fiber and a “cladding” region of alternating layers of air and SC sapphire in the azimuthal direction that is uniform in the radial direction. The modal characteristics and confinement losses of the fundamental mode were analyzed via the finite element method by varying themore » effective core diameter and the dimensions of the “windmill” shaped cladding. The simulation results showed that the number of guided modes were significantly reduced in the “windmill” fiber design, as the radial dimension of the air and SC sapphire cladding regions increase with corresponding decrease in the azimuthal dimension. It is anticipated that the “windmill” SCSF will readily improve the performance of current fiber optic sensors in the harsh environment and potentially enable those that were limited by the extremely large modal volume of unclad SCSF.« less

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure and spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of bridged trisbenzoato copper-zinc heterobinuclear complex of 2,2‧-bipyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Angira; Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Suryabhan; Borthakur, Rosmita; Basumatary, Debajani; Lal, Ram A.; Shangpung, Sankey

    2015-03-01

    The synthesis of the heterobinuclear copper-zinc complex [CuZn(bz)3(bpy)2]ClO4 (bz = benzoate) from benzoic acid and bipyridine is described. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of the heterobinuclear complex reveals the geometry of the benzoato bridged Cu(II)-Zn(II) centre. The copper or zinc atom is pentacoordinate, with two oxygen atoms from bridging benzoato groups and two nitrogen atoms from one bipyridine forming an approximate plane and a bridging oxygen atom from a monodentate benzoate group. The Cu-Zn distance is 3.345 Å. The complex is normal paramagnetic having μeff value equal to 1.75 BM, ruling out the possibility of Cu-Cu interaction in the structural unit. The ESR spectrum of the complex in CH3CN at RT exhibit an isotropic four line spectrum centred at g = 2.142 and hyperfine coupling constants Aav = 63 × 10-4 cm-1, characteristic of a mononuclear square-pyramidal copper(II) complexes. At LNT, the complex shows an isotropic spectrum with g|| = 2.254 and g⊥ = 2.071 and A|| = 160 × 10-4 cm-1. The Hamiltonian parameters are characteristic of distorted square pyramidal geometry. Cyclic voltammetric studies of the complex have indicated quasi-reversible behaviour in acetonitrile solution.

  5. Origin of green luminescence in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Čížek, J., E-mail: jakub.cizek@mff.cuni.cz; Hruška, P.; Melikhova, O.

    2015-06-22

    Combining photoluminescence and positron annihilation studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals with stoichiometry varied by controlled annealing enabled us to clarify the origin of green luminescence. It was found that green luminescence in ZnO has multiple origins and consists of a band at 2.3(1) eV due to recombination of electrons of the conduction band by zinc vacancy acceptors coupled with hydrogen and a band at 2.47(2) eV related to oxygen vacancies. The as-grown ZnO crystals contain zinc vacancies associated with hydrogen and exhibit a green luminescence at 2.3(1) eV. Annealing in Zn vapor removed zinc vacancies and introduced oxygen vacancies.more » This led to disappearance of the green luminescence band at 2.3(1) eV and appearance of a green emission at higher energy of 2.47(2) eV. Moreover, the color of the crystal was changed from colorless to dark red. In contrast, annealing of the as-grown crystal in Cd vapor did not remove zinc vacancies and did not cause any significant change of green luminescence nor change in coloration.« less

  6. Origin of green luminescence in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čížek, J.; Valenta, J.; Hruška, P.; Melikhova, O.; Procházka, I.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.

    2015-06-01

    Combining photoluminescence and positron annihilation studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals with stoichiometry varied by controlled annealing enabled us to clarify the origin of green luminescence. It was found that green luminescence in ZnO has multiple origins and consists of a band at 2.3(1) eV due to recombination of electrons of the conduction band by zinc vacancy acceptors coupled with hydrogen and a band at 2.47(2) eV related to oxygen vacancies. The as-grown ZnO crystals contain zinc vacancies associated with hydrogen and exhibit a green luminescence at 2.3(1) eV. Annealing in Zn vapor removed zinc vacancies and introduced oxygen vacancies. This led to disappearance of the green luminescence band at 2.3(1) eV and appearance of a green emission at higher energy of 2.47(2) eV. Moreover, the color of the crystal was changed from colorless to dark red. In contrast, annealing of the as-grown crystal in Cd vapor did not remove zinc vacancies and did not cause any significant change of green luminescence nor change in coloration.

  7. Single crystals of metal solid solutions: A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. F.; Gelles, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    Report describes growth of silver-alloy crystals under widely varying conditions of growth rate, temperature gradient, and magnetic field. Role of gravitation and convection on crystal substructure is analyzed, as well as influence of magnetic fields applied during crystallization.

  8. Metal-induced crystallization of amorphous zinc tin oxide semiconductors for high mobility thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ah Young; Kim, Sang Tae; Ji, Hyuk; Shin, Yeonwoo; Jeong, Jae Kyeong

    2016-04-01

    Transition tantalum induced crystallization of amorphous zinc tin oxide (a-ZTO) was observed at low temperature annealing of 300 °C. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an a-ZTO channel layer exhibited a reasonable field-effect mobility of 12.4 cm2/V s, subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.39 V/decade, threshold voltage (VTH) of 1.5 V, and ION/OFF ratio of ˜107. A significant improvement in the field-effect mobility (up to ˜33.5 cm2/V s) was achieved for crystallized ZTO TFTs: this improvement was accomplished without compromising the SS, VTH, or ION/OFF ratio due to the presence of a highly ordered microstructure.

  9. Metal-induced crystallization of amorphous zinc tin oxide semiconductors for high mobility thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ah Young; Ji, Hyuk; Kim, Sang Tae

    2016-04-11

    Transition tantalum induced crystallization of amorphous zinc tin oxide (a-ZTO) was observed at low temperature annealing of 300 °C. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an a-ZTO channel layer exhibited a reasonable field-effect mobility of 12.4 cm{sup 2}/V s, subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.39 V/decade, threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) of 1.5 V, and I{sub ON/OFF} ratio of ∼10{sup 7}. A significant improvement in the field-effect mobility (up to ∼33.5 cm{sup 2}/V s) was achieved for crystallized ZTO TFTs: this improvement was accomplished without compromising the SS, V{sub TH}, or I{sub ON/OFF} ratio due to the presence of a highly ordered microstructure.

  10. Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide: Phase Formation and Crystallization Kinetics during Millisecond Laser Spike Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, David Michael

    Flat panel displays have become ubiquitous, enabling products from highresolution cell phones to ultra-large television panels. Amorphous silicon (a- Si) has been the industry workhorse as the active semiconductor in pixeladdressing transistors due to its uniformity and low production costs. However, a-Si can no longer support larger and higher-resolution displays, and new materials with higher electron mobilities are required. Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), which retains the uniformity and low cost of amorphous films, has emerged as a viable candidate due to its enhanced transport properties. However, a-IGZO devices suffer from long-term instabilities--the origins of which are not yet fully understood--causing a drift in switching characteristics over time and affecting product lifetime. More recently, devices fabricated from textured nanocrystalline IGZO, termed c-axis aligned crystalline (CAAC), have demonstrated superior stability. Unfortunately, little is known regarding the phase formation and crystallization kinetics of either the CAAC structure or in the broader ternary IGZO system. Crystallinity and texture of CAAC IGZO films deposited by RF reactive sputtering were studied and characterized over a wide range of deposition conditions. The characteristic CAAC (0 0 9) peak at 2theta = 30° was observed by X-ray diffraction, and nanocrystalline domain texture was determined using a general area detector diffraction system (GADDS). Highly ordered CAAC films were obtained near the InGaZnO4 composition at a substrate temperature of 310 °C and in a 10%O2/90% Ar sputtering ambient. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the formation of CAAC and identified 2-3 nm domains coherently aligned over large ranges extending beyond the field of view (15 nm x 15 nm). Cross-section HRTEM of the CAAC/substrate interface shows formation of an initially disordered IGZO layer prior to CAAC formation, suggesting a nucleation mechanism

  11. Crystal growth, structural, thermal and mechanical behavior of l-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP) single crystals.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, M; Ramachandran, K; Anandan, P; Arivanandhan, M; Bhagavannarayana, G; Hayakawa, Y

    2014-12-10

    Single crystals of l-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP) have been grown successfully from the solution of l-arginine and 4-nitrophenol. Slow evaporation of solvent technique was adopted to grow the bulk single crystals. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the grown crystal has monoclinic crystal system with space group of P21. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis shows the good crystalline nature. The crystalline perfection of the grown single crystals was analyzed by HRXRD by employing a multicrystal X-ray diffractometer. The functional groups were identified from proton NMR spectroscopic analysis. Linear and nonlinear optical properties were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Kurtz powder technique respectively. It is found that the grown crystal has no absorption in the green wavelength region and the SHG efficiency was found to be 2.66 times that of the standard KDP. The Thermal stability of the crystal was found by obtaining TG/DTA curve. The mechanical behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by Vicker's microhardness method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Postsynthetic Improvement of the Physical Properties in a Metal-Organic Framework through a Single Crystal to Single Crystal Transmetallation.

    PubMed

    Grancha, Thais; Ferrando-Soria, Jesús; Zhou, Hong-Cai; Gascon, Jorge; Seoane, Beatriz; Pasán, Jorge; Fabelo, Oscar; Julve, Miguel; Pardo, Emilio

    2015-05-26

    A single crystal to single crystal transmetallation process takes place in the three-dimensional (3D) metal-organic framework (MOF) of formula Mg(II) 2 {Mg(II) 4 [Cu(II) 2 (Me3 mpba)2 ]3 }⋅45 H2 O (1; Me3 mpba(4-) =N,N'-2,4,6-trimethyl-1,3-phenylenebis(oxamate)). After complete replacement of the Mg(II) ions within the coordination network and those hosted in the channels by either Co(II) or Ni(II) ions, 1 is transmetallated to yield two novel MOFs of formulae Co2 (II) {Co(II) 4 [Cu(II) 2 (Me3 mpba)2 ]3 }⋅56 H2 O (2) and Ni2 (II) {Ni(II) 4 [Cu(II) 2 (Me3 mpba)2 ]3 }⋅ 54 H2 O (3). This unique postsynthetic metal substitution affords materials with higher structural stability leading to enhanced gas sorption and magnetic properties. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A preliminary review of organic materials single crystal growth by the Czochralski technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, B. G.; Shields, A. W.; Frazier, D. O.

    1988-09-01

    The growth of single crystals of organic compounds by the Czochralski method is reviewed. From the literature it is found that single crystals of benzil, a nonlinear optical material with a d sub 11 value of 11.2 + or - 1.5 x d sub 11 value of alpha quartz, has fewer dislocations than generally contained in Bridgman crystals. More perfect crystals were grown by repeated Czochralski growth. This consists of etching away the defect-containing portion of a Czochralski grown crystal and using it as a seed for further growth. Other compounds used to grow single crystals are benzophenone, 12-tricosanone (laurone), and salol. The physical properties, growth apparatus, and processing conditions presented in the literature are discussed. Moreover, some of the possible advantages of growing single crystals of organic compounds in microgravity to obtain more perfect crystals than on Earth are reviewed.

  14. A preliminary review of organic materials single crystal growth by the Czochralski technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, B. G.; Shields, A. W.; Frazier, D. O.

    1988-01-01

    The growth of single crystals of organic compounds by the Czochralski method is reviewed. From the literature it is found that single crystals of benzil, a nonlinear optical material with a d sub 11 value of 11.2 + or - 1.5 x d sub 11 value of alpha quartz, has fewer dislocations than generally contained in Bridgman crystals. More perfect crystals were grown by repeated Czochralski growth. This consists of etching away the defect-containing portion of a Czochralski grown crystal and using it as a seed for further growth. Other compounds used to grow single crystals are benzophenone, 12-tricosanone (laurone), and salol. The physical properties, growth apparatus, and processing conditions presented in the literature are discussed. Moreover, some of the possible advantages of growing single crystals of organic compounds in microgravity to obtain more perfect crystals than on Earth are reviewed.

  15. Numerical study of slip system activity and crystal lattice rotation under wedge nanoindents in tungsten single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz, T.; Schwaiger, R.; Wang, J.; Weygand, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    Tungsten is a promising material for plasma facing components in future nuclear fusion reactors. In the present work, we numerically investigate the deformation behavior of unirradiated tungsten (a body-centered cubic (bcc) single crystal) underneath nanoindents. A finite element (FE) model is presented to simulate wedge indentation. Crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulations were performed for face-centered and body-centered single crystals accounting for the slip system family {110} <111> in the bcc crystal system and the {111} <110> slip family in the fcc system. The 90° wedge indenter was aligned parallel to the [1 ¯01 ]-direction and indented the crystal in the [0 1 ¯0 ]-direction up to a maximum indentation depth of 2 µm. In both, the fcc and bcc single crystals, the activity of slip systems was investigated and compared. Good agreement with the results from former investigations on fcc single crystals was observed. Furthermore, the in-plane lattice rotation in the material underneath an indent was determined and compared for the fcc and bcc single crystals.

  16. Single Crystal DMs for Space-Based Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierden, Paul

    We propose to demonstrate the feasibility of a new manufacturing process for large aperture, high-actuator count microelectromechanical deformable mirrors (MEMS-DMs). These DMs are designed to fill a critical technology gap in NASA s plan for high- contrast space-based exoplanet observatories. We will manufacture a prototype DM with a continuous mirror facesheet, having an active aperture of 50mm diameter, supported by 2040 electrostatic actuators (50 across the diameter of the active aperture), spaced at a pitch of 1mm. The DM will be manufactured using silicon microfabrication tools. The strategic motivation for the proposed project is to advance MEMS DMs as an enabling technology in NASA s rapidly emerging program for extrasolar planet exploration. That goal is supported by an Astro2010 white paper on Technologies for Direct Optical Imaging of Exoplanets, which concluded that DMs are a critical component for all proposed internal coronagraph instrument concepts. That white paper pointed to great strides made by DM developers in the past decade, and acknowledged the components made by Boston Micromachines Corporation to be the most notable MEMS-based technology option. The principal manufacturing innovation in this project will be assembly of the DM through fusion bonding of three separate single crystal silicon wafers comprising the device s substrate, actuator array, and facesheet. The most significant challenge of this project will be to develop processes that allow reliable fusion bonds between multiple compliant silicon layers while yielding an optically flat surface and a robust electromechanical system. The compliance of the DM, which is required for its electromechanical function, will make it challenging to achieve the intimate, planar contact that is generally needed for success in fusion bonding. The manufacturing approach will use photolithography and reactive ion etching to pattern structural layers. Three wafer-scale devices will be patterned and

  17. Bulk growth of undoped and Nd3+ doped zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) monocrystal: Exploring the remarkably enhanced structural, optical, electrical and mechanical performance of Nd3+ doped ZTC crystal for NLO device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anis, Mohd; Muley, Gajanan. G.

    2017-05-01

    In current scenario good quality crystals are demanded for NLO device application hence present communication is aimed to grow bulk crystal and investigate the doping effect of rare earth element Nd3+ on structural, linear-nonlinear optical, luminescence, mechanical and dielectric properties of zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) crystal. The ZTC crystal of dimension 21×10×8 mm3 and the Nd3+ doped ZTC crystal of dimension 27×17×5 mm3 have been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The elemental analysis of Nd3+ doped ZTC single crystal has been performed by means of energy dispersive spectroscopic technique. The powder X-ray diffraction technique has been employed to confirm the crystalline phase and identify the effect of Nd3+ doping on structural dimensions of ZTC crystal. The grown crystals have been characterized by UV-Vis-NIR study in the range of 190-1100 nm to ascertain the enhancement in optical transparency of ZTC crystal facilitated by dopant Nd3+. The recorded transmittance data has been utilized to investigate the vital optical constants of grown crystals. The second order nonlinear optical behavior of grown crystals has been evaluated by means of Kurtz-Perry test and the second harmonic generation efficiency of Nd3+ doped ZTC crystal is found to be 1.24 times higher than ZTC crystal. The luminescence analysis has been performed to examine the electronic purity and the color centered photoluminescence emission nature of pure and Nd3+ doped ZTC crystals. The influence of Nd3+ ion on mechanical behavior of ZTC crystal has been investigated by means of microhardness studies. The nature of dielectric constant and dielectric loss of pure and Nd3+ doped ZTC crystal has been examined in the range of 40-100 °C under dielectric study. The Z-scan technique has been employed using the He-Ne laser to investigate the third order nonlinear optical (TONLO) nature of Nd3+ doped ZTC single crystal. The magnitude of TONLO susceptibility, absorption

  18. A theoretical model describing the one-dimensional growth of single crystals on free sustained substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ziran; Wang, Ke; Lu, Chenxi; Jin, Ying; Sui, Chenghua; Yan, Bo; Gao, Fan; Cai, Pinggen; Lv, Bin; Li, Yun; Chen, Naibo; Sun, Guofang; Xu, Fengyun; Ye, Gaoxiang

    2018-03-01

    We develop a theoretical model that interprets the growth mechanism of zinc (Zn) crystal nanorods on a liquid substrate by thermal evaporation. During deposition, Zn atoms diffuse randomly on an isotropic and quasi-free sustained substrate, the nucleation of the atoms results in the primary nanorod (or seed crystal) growth. Subsequently, a characteristic one-dimensional atomic aggregation is proposed, which leads to the accelerating growth of the crystal nanorod along its preferential growth direction until the growth terminates. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  19. Ignition and growth modeling of detonation reaction zone experiments on single crystals of PETN and HMX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Bradley W.; Tarver, Craig M.

    2017-01-01

    It has long been known that detonating single crystals of solid explosives have much larger failure diameters than those of heterogeneous charges of the same explosive pressed or cast to 98 - 99% theoretical maximum density (TMD). In 1957, Holland et al. demonstrated that PETN single crystals have failure diameters of about 8 mm, whereas heterogeneous PETN charges have failure diameters of less than 0.5 mm. Recently, Fedorov et al. quantitatively determined nanosecond time resolved detonation reaction zone profiles of single crystals of PETN and HMX by measuring the interface particle velocity histories of the detonating crystals and LiF windows using a PDV system. The measured reaction zone time durations for PETN and HMX single crystal detonations were approximately 100 and 260 nanoseconds, respectively. These experiments provided the necessary data to develop Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model parameters for the single crystal detonation reaction zones. Using these parameters, the calculated unconfined failure diameter of a PETN single crystal was 7.5 +/- 0.5 mm, close to the 8 mm experimental value. The calculated failure diameter of an unconfined HMX single crystal was 15 +/- 1 mm. The unconfined failure diameter of an HMX single crystal has not yet been determined precisely, but Fedorov et al. detonated 14 mm diameter crystals confined by detonating a HMX-based plastic bonded explosive (PBX) without initially overdriving the HMX crystals.

  20. Twin nucleation and migration in FeCr single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Patriarca, L.; Abuzaid, Wael; Sehitoglu, Huseyin, E-mail: huseyin@illinois.edu

    2013-01-15

    Tension and compression experiments were conducted on body-centered cubic Fe -47.8 at pct. Cr single crystals. The critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) magnitudes for slip nucleation, twin nucleation and twin migration were established. We show that the nucleation of slip occurs at a CRSS of about 88 MPa, while twinning nucleates at a CRSS of about 191 MPa with an associated load drop. Following twin nucleation, twin migration proceeds at a CRSS that is lower than the initiation stress ( Almost-Equal-To 114-153 MPa). The experimental results of the nucleation stresses indicate that the Schmid law holds to a first approximationmore » for the slip and twin nucleation cases, but to a lesser extent for twin migration particularly when considerable slip strains preceded twinning. The CRSSs were determined experimentally using digital image correlation (DIC) in conjunction with electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD). The DIC measurements enabled pinpointing the precise stress on the stress-strain curves where twins or slip were activated. The crystal orientations were obtained using EBSD and used to determine the activated twin and slip systems through trace analysis. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Digital image correlation allows to capture slip/twin initiation for bcc FeCr. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal orientations from EBSD allow slip/twin system indexing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nucleation of slip always precedes twinning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Twin growth is sustained with a lower stress than required for nucleation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Twin-slip interactions provide high hardening at the onset of plasticity.« less

  1. Secondary orientation effects in a single crystal superalloy under mechanical and thermal loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    The nickel-base single crystal superalloy PWA 1480 is a candidate blading material for the advanced turbopump development program of the SSME. In order to improve thermal fatigue resistance of the turbine blades, the single crystal superalloy PWA 1480 is grown along the low modulus zone axes (001) crystal orientation by a directional solidification process. Since cubic single crystal materials such as PWA 1480 exhibit anisotropic elastic behavior, the stresses developed within the single crystal superalloy due to mechanical and thermal loads are likely to be affected by the exact orientation of the secondary crystallographic direction with respect to the geometry of the turbine blade. The effects of secondary crystal orientation on the elastic response of single crystal PWA 1480 superalloy were investigated.

  2. The steady-state and transient electron transport within bulk zinc-blende indium nitride: The impact of crystal temperature and doping concentration variations

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqua, Poppy; O'Leary, Stephen K., E-mail: stephen.oleary@ubc.ca

    2016-03-07

    Within the framework of a semi-classical three-valley Monte Carlo electron transport simulation approach, we analyze the steady-state and transient aspects of the electron transport within bulk zinc-blende indium nitride, with a focus on the response to variations in the crystal temperature and the doping concentration. We find that while the electron transport associated with zinc-blende InN is highly sensitive to the crystal temperature, it is not very sensitive to the doping concentration selection. The device consequences of these results are then explored.

  3. Silicon nanostructure arrays prepared by single step metal assisted chemical etching from single crystal wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Kalyan; Das, Debajyoti

    2018-04-01

    Arrays of silicon nanostructures have been produced by single step Metal Assisted Chemical Etching (MACE) of single crystal Si-wafers at room temp and normal atmospheric condition. By studying optical and structural properties of the silicon nanowire like structures synthesized by Ag catalyst assisted chemical etching, a significant change in the reflectance spectra has been obtained leading to a gross reduction in reflectance from ˜31% to less than 1%. In comparison with bulk c-Si, the surface areas of the nanostructured samples have been increased significantly with the etching time, leading to an efficient absorption of light, favorable for photovoltaic applications.

  4. From protein structure to function via single crystal optical spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ronda, Luca; Bruno, Stefano; Bettati, Stefano; Storici, Paola; Mozzarelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The more than 100,000 protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography provide a wealth of information for the characterization of biological processes at the molecular level. However, several crystallographic “artifacts,” including conformational selection, crystallization conditions and radiation damages, may affect the quality and the interpretation of the electron density maps, thus limiting the relevance of structure determinations. Moreover, for most of these structures, no functional data have been obtained in the crystalline state, thus posing serious questions on their validity in infereing protein mechanisms. In order to solve these issues, spectroscopic methods have been applied for the determination of equilibrium and kinetic properties of proteins in the crystalline state. These methods are UV-vis spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, IR, EPR, Raman, and resonance Raman spectroscopy. Some of these approaches have been implemented with on-line instruments at X-ray synchrotron beamlines. Here, we provide an overview of investigations predominantly carried out in our laboratory by single crystal polarized absorption UV-vis microspectrophotometry, the most applied technique for the functional characterization of proteins in the crystalline state. Studies on hemoglobins, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate dependent enzymes and green fluorescent protein in the crystalline state have addressed key biological issues, leading to either straightforward structure-function correlations or limitations to structure-based mechanisms. PMID:25988179

  5. Solidification microstructures in single-crystal stainless steel melt pools

    SciTech Connect

    Sipf, J.B.; Boatner, L.A.; David, S.A.

    1994-03-01

    Development of microstructure of stationary melt pools of oriented stainless steel single crystals (70%Fe-15%Ni-15%Cr was analyzed. Stationary melt pools were formed by electron-beam and gas-tungsten-arc heating on (001), (011), and (111) oriented planes of the austenitic, fcc-alloy crystals. Characterization and analysis of resulting microstructure was carried out for each crystallographic plane and welding method. Results showed that crystallography which favors ``easy growth`` along the <100> family of directions is a controlling factor in the microstructural formation along with the melt-pool shape. The microstructure was found to depend on the melting method, since each method forms a unique melt-pool shape. Thesemore » results are used in making a three-dimensional reconstruction of the microstructure for each plane and melting method employed. This investigation also suggests avenues for future research into the microstructural properties of electron-beam welds as well as providing an experimental basis for mathematical models for the prediction of solidification microstructures.« less

  6. A discrete dislocation dynamics model of creeping single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaguru, M.; Keralavarma, S. M.

    2018-04-01

    Failure by creep is a design limiting issue for metallic materials used in several high temperature applications. Current theoretical models of creep are phenomenological with little connection to the underlying microscopic mechanisms. In this paper, a bottom-up simulation framework based on the discrete dislocation dynamics method is presented for dislocation creep aided by the diffusion of vacancies, known to be the rate controlling mechanism at high temperature and stress levels. The time evolution of the creep strain and the dislocation microstructure in a periodic unit cell of a nominally infinite single crystal is simulated using the kinetic Monte Carlo method, together with approximate constitutive laws formulated for the rates of thermal activation of dislocations over local pinning obstacles. The deformation of the crystal due to dislocation glide between individual thermal activation events is simulated using a standard dislocation dynamics algorithm, extended to account for constant stress periodic boundary conditions. Steady state creep conditions are obtained in the simulations with the predicted creep rates as a function of stress and temperature in good agreement with experimentally reported values. Arrhenius scaling of the creep rates as a function of temperature and power-law scaling with the applied stress are also reproduced, with the values of the power-law exponents in the high stress regime in good agreement with experiments.

  7. Simulations of surface stress effects in nanoscale single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadin, V.; Veske, M.; Vigonski, S.; Jansson, V.; Muszinsky, J.; Parviainen, S.; Aabloo, A.; Djurabekova, F.

    2018-04-01

    Onset of vacuum arcing near a metal surface is often associated with nanoscale asperities, which may dynamically appear due to different processes ongoing in the surface and subsurface layers in the presence of high electric fields. Thermally activated processes, as well as plastic deformation caused by tensile stress due to an applied electric field, are usually not accessible by atomistic simulations because of the long time needed for these processes to occur. On the other hand, finite element methods, able to describe the process of plastic deformations in materials at realistic stresses, do not include surface properties. The latter are particularly important for the problems where the surface plays crucial role in the studied process, as for instance, in the case of plastic deformations at a nanovoid. In the current study by means of molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element simulations we analyse the stress distribution in single crystal copper containing a nanovoid buried deep under the surface. We have developed a methodology to incorporate the surface effects into the solid mechanics framework by utilizing elastic properties of crystals, pre-calculated using MD simulations. The method leads to computationally efficient stress calculations and can be easily implemented in commercially available finite element software, making it an attractive analysis tool.

  8. Structural defects caused by swift ions in fluorite single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assylbayev, Ruslan; Lushchik, Aleksandr; Lushchik, Cheslav; Kudryavtseva, Irina; Shablonin, Evgeni; Vasil'chenko, Evgeni; Akilbekov, Abdirash; Zdorovets, Maxim

    2018-01-01

    A comparative study of radiation damage caused by the irradiation of oxygen-free calcium fluoride single crystals with ∼GeV 132Xe or 209Bi heavy ions, 100-keV light hydrogen ions (protons) or X-rays at room temperature has been performed. Optical absorption in a wide spectral region from NIR to VUV (1.5-10.5 eV), its dependence on stepwise preheating of the irradiated CaF2 crystals to a certain temperature as well as thermally stimulated luminescence accompanying the main annealing stages have been analyzed. It is shown that in addition to different F-type aggregates, Ca colloids and trifluorine quasi-molecules, complex and temperature stable structural defects responsible for VUV absorption (in particular, the 9.8 eV band) are induced in CaF2 only after irradiation with swift heavy ions. The origin and tentative creation mechanisms of such defects as well as the features of the used irradiation types are considered.

  9. Analysis of Phase Separation in Czochralski Grown Single Crystal Ilmenite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, R.; Powell, Kirk St. A.; Loregnard, Kieron R.; Lin, Sy-Chyi; Muthusami, Jayakumar; Zhou, Feng; Pandey, R. K.; Brown, Geoff; Hawley, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Ilmenite (FeTiOs) is a wide bandgap semiconductor with an energy gap of 2.58 eV. Ilmenite has properties suited for radiation tolerant applications, as well as a variety of other electronic applications. Single crystal ilmenite has been grown from the melt using the Czochralski method. Growth conditions have a profound effect on the microstructure of the samples. Here we present data from a variety of analytical techniques which indicate that some grown crystals exhibit distinct phase separation during growth. This phase separation is apparent for both post-growth annealed and unannealed samples. Under optical microscopy, there appear two distinct areas forming a matrix with an array of dots on order of 5 pm diameter. While appearing bright in the optical micrograph, atomic force microscope (AFM) shows the dots to be shallow pits on the surface. Magnetic force microscope (MFM) shows the dots to be magnetic. Phase identification via electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) indicates two major phases in the unannealed samples and four in the annealed samples, where the dots appear to be almost pure iron. This is consistent with micrographs taken with a scanning probe microscope used in the magnetic force mode. Samples that do not exhibit the phase separation have little or no discernible magnetic structure detectable by the MFM.

  10. Crystallization behavior of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide films and its effects on thin-film transistor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suko, Ayaka; Jia, JunJun; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Kawashima, Emi; Utsuno, Futoshi; Yano, Koki; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering and post-annealed in air at 300-1000 °C for 1 h to investigate the crystallization behavior in detail. X-ray diffraction, electron beam diffraction, and high-resolution electron microscopy revealed that the IGZO films showed an amorphous structure after post-annealing at 300 °C. At 600 °C, the films started to crystallize from the surface with c-axis preferred orientation. At 700-1000 °C, the films totally crystallized into polycrystalline structures, wherein the grains showed c-axis preferred orientation close to the surface and random orientation inside the films. The current-gate voltage (Id-Vg) characteristics of the IGZO thin-film transistor (TFT) showed that the threshold voltage (Vth) and subthreshold swing decreased markedly after the post-annealing at 300 °C. The TFT using the totally crystallized films also showed the decrease in Vth, whereas the field-effect mobility decreased considerably.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of single-crystalline zinc tin oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jen-Bin; Wu, Po-Feng; Lin, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Ya-Ting; Lee, Hsuan-Wei; Kao, Chia-Tze; Liao, Wei-Hsiang; Young, San-Lin

    2014-05-01

    Crystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO; zinc oxide with heavy tin doping of 33 at.%) nanowires were first synthesized using the electrodeposition and heat treatment method based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, which has an average diameter of about 60 nm. According to the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results, the synthesized ZTO nanowires are highly ordered and have high wire packing densities. The length of ZTO nanowires is about 4 μm, and the aspect ratio is around 67. ZTO nanowires with a Zn/(Zn + Sn) atomic ratio of 0.67 (approximately 2/3) were observed from an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns demonstrated that the ZTO nanowire is hexagonal single-crystalline. The study of ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/Vis/NIR) absorption showed that the ZTO nanowire is a wide-band semiconductor with a band gap energy of 3.7 eV.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of single-crystalline zinc tin oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jen-Bin; Wu, Po-Feng; Lin, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Ya-Ting; Lee, Hsuan-Wei; Kao, Chia-Tze; Liao, Wei-Hsiang; Young, San-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO; zinc oxide with heavy tin doping of 33 at.%) nanowires were first synthesized using the electrodeposition and heat treatment method based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, which has an average diameter of about 60 nm. According to the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results, the synthesized ZTO nanowires are highly ordered and have high wire packing densities. The length of ZTO nanowires is about 4 μm, and the aspect ratio is around 67. ZTO nanowires with a Zn/(Zn + Sn) atomic ratio of 0.67 (approximately 2/3) were observed from an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns demonstrated that the ZTO nanowire is hexagonal single-crystalline. The study of ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/Vis/NIR) absorption showed that the ZTO nanowire is a wide-band semiconductor with a band gap energy of 3.7 eV.

  13. Analysis of ripple formation in single crystal spot welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaz, M.; Corrigan, D.; Boatner, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    Stationary spot welds have been made at the (001) surface of Fe-l5%Ni-15%Cr single crystals using a Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA). On the top surface of the spot welds, very regular and concentric ripples were observed after solidification by differential interference color microscopy. Their height (typically 1--5 micrometers and spacing, typically approximately 60 micrometers) decreased with the radius of the pool. These ripples were successfully accounted for in terms of capillary-wave theory using the fundamental mode frequency f(sub 0) given by the first zero of the zero-order Bessel function. The spacing d between the ripples was then equated to v(sub s)/f(sub 0), where v(sub s) is the solidification rate. From the measured ripple spacing, the velocity of the pool was deduced as a function of the radius, and this velocity was in good agreement with the results of a heat-flow simulation.

  14. Cryogenic Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of Superconducting Iron Chalcogenide Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J. Y. T.; Fridman, Igor; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Wu, Maw-Kuen; Hu, Rongwei; Petrovic, C.

    2011-03-01

    We report scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements on the iron-based superconductors of the ``11'' family including Fe 1-y Te 1-x Se x and Fe 1-y Te 1-x Sx . Conductance spectra and atomically-resolved images are obtained on single crystals down to 300 mK. A gap-like structure is observed, showing an asymmetric spectral background, non-trivial spatial variation and temperature dependence. We discuss our data in terms of possible gap anisotropy and doping inhomogeneities, and in relation to other recent spectroscopic measurements on iron-based superconductors. Work supported by NSERC, CFI/OIT, CIFAR, Taiwan National Science Council, U.S. DOE and Brookhaven Science Associates (No. DE-Ac02-98CH10886), and in part by the Center for Emergent Superconductivity, an Energy Frontier Research Center.

  15. Nonlinear pyroelectric energy harvesting from relaxor single crystals.

    PubMed

    Khodayari, Akram; Pruvost, Sebastien; Sebald, Gael; Guyomar, Daniel; Mohammadi, Saber

    2009-04-01

    Energy harvesting from temperature variations in a Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))(0.955)Ti(0.045)O(3) single crystal was studied and evaluated using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle. The efficiency of this cycle related to Carnot cycle is 100 times higher than direct pyroelectric energy harvesting, and it can be as high as 5.5% for a 10 degrees C temperature variation and 2 kV/mm electric field. The amount of harvested energy for a 60 degrees C temperature variation and 2 kV/mm electric field is 242.7 mJ x cm(-3). The influence of ferroelectric phase transitions on the energy harvesting performance is discussed and illustrated with experimental results.

  16. Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, E.S.

    1980-05-09

    An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

  17. Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, Edward S.

    1982-01-01

    An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

  18. Growth of single-crystal YAG fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Nie, Craig D; Bera, Subhabrata; Harrington, James A

    2016-07-11

    Single-crystal YAG (Y3Al5O12) fibers have been grown by the laser heated pedestal growth technique with losses as low as 0.3 dB/m at 1.06 μm. These YAG fibers are as long as about 60 cm with diameters around 330 μm. The early fibers were grown from unoriented YAG seed fibers and these fibers exhibited facet steps or ridges on the surface of the fiber. However, recently we have grown fibers using an oriented seed to grow step-free fibers. Scattering losses made on the fibers indicate that the scattering losses are equal to about 30% of the total loss.

  19. Design and analysis of large-core single-mode windmill single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Yujie; Hill, Cary; Liu, Bo; ...

    2016-06-01

    We present a large-core single-mode “windmill” single crystal sapphire optical fiber (SCSF) design, which exhibits single-mode operation by stripping off the higher-order modes (HOMs) while maintaining the fundamental mode. The “windmill” SCSF design was analyzed using the finite element analysis method, in which all the HOMs are leaky. The numerical simulation results show single-mode operation in the spectral range from 0.4 to 2 μm in the windmill SCSF, with an effective core diameter as large as 14 μm. Such fiber is expected to improve the performance of many of the current sapphire fiber optic sensor structures.

  20. Growth and microtopographic study of CuInSe{sub 2} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Sanjaysinh M.; Chaki, Sunil, E-mail: sunilchaki@yahoo.co.in; Deshpande, M. P.

    2016-05-23

    The CuInSe{sub 2} single crystals were grown by chemical vapour transport (CVT) technique using iodine as transporting agent. The elemental composition of the as-grown CuInSe{sub 2} single crystals was determined by energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX). The unit cell crystal structure and lattice parameters were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The surface microtopographic study of the as-grown CuInSe{sub 2} single crystals surfaces were done to study the defects, growth mechanism, etc. of the CVT grown crystals.

  1. Method for the preparation of inorganic single crystal and polycrystalline electronic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, W. O. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    Large area, semiconductor crystals selected from group 3-5 compounds and alloys are provided for semiconductor device fabrication by the use of a selective etching operation which completely removes the substrate on which the desired crystal was deposited. The substrate, selected from the same group as the single crystal, has a higher solution rate than the epitaxial single crystal which is essentially unaffected by the etching solution. The preparation of gallium phosphide single crystals using a gallium arsenide substrate and a concentrated nitric acid etching solution is described.

  2. Third order nonlinear optical properties of a paratellurite single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclère, J.-R.; Hayakawa, T.; Roginskii, E. M.; Smirnov, M. B.; Mirgorodsky, A.; Couderc, V.; Masson, O.; Colas, M.; Noguera, O.; Rodriguez, V.; Thomas, P.

    2018-05-01

    The (a,b) plane angular dependence of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility, χ(3) , of a c-cut paratellurite (α-TeO2) single crystal was quantitatively evaluated here by the Z-scan technique, using a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser operated at 800 nm. In particular, the mean value Re( ⟨χ(3)⟩a,b )(α-TeO2) of the optical tensor has been extracted from such experiments via a direct comparison with the data collected for a fused silica reference glass plate. A R e (⟨χ(3)⟩(a,b )(α-TeO2)):R e (χ(3))(SiO2 glass) ratio roughly equal to 49.1 is found, and our result compares thus very favourably with the unique experimental value (a ratio of ˜50) reported by Kim et al. [J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76, 2486 (1993)] for a pure TeO2 glass. In addition, it is shown that the angular dependence of the phase modulation within the (a,b) plane can be fully understood in the light of the strong dextro-rotatory power known for TeO2 materials. Taking into account the optical activity, some analytical model serving to estimate the diagonal and non-diagonal components of the third order nonlinear susceptibility tensor has been thus developed. Finally, Re( χxxxx(3) ) and Re( χxxyy(3) ) values of 95.1 ×10-22 m 2/V2 and 42.0 ×10-22 m2/V2 , respectively, are then deduced for a paratellurite single crystal, considering fused silica as a reference.

  3. Process development for single-crystal silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohra, Mihir H.

    Solar energy is a viable, rapidly growing and an important renewable alternative to other sources of energy generation because of its abundant supply and low manufacturing cost. Silicon still remains the major contributor for manufacturing solar cells accounting for 80% of the market share. Of this, single-crystal solar cells account for half of the share. Laboratory cells have demonstrated 25% efficiency; however, commercial cells have efficiencies of 16% - 20% resulting from a focus on implementation processes geared to rapid throughput and low cost, thereby reducing the energy pay-back time. An example would be the use of metal pastes which dissolve the dielectric during the firing process as opposed to lithographically defined contacts. With current trends of single-crystal silicon photovoltaic (PV) module prices down to 0.60/W, almost all other PV technologies are challenged to remain cost competitive. This presents a unique opportunity in revisiting the PV cell fabrication process and incorporating moderately more expensive IC process practices into PV manufacturing. While they may drive the cost toward a 1/W benchmark, there is substantial room to "experiment", leading to higher efficiencies which will help maintain the overall system cost. This work entails a turn-key process designed to provide a platform for rapid evaluation of novel materials and processes. A two-step lithographic process yielding a baseline 11% - 13% efficient cell is described. Results of three studies have shown improvements in solar cell output parameters due to the inclusion of a back-surface field implant, a higher emitter doping and also an additional RCA Clean.

  4. Bulk crystal growth and their effective third order nonlinear optical properties of 2-(4-fluorobenzylidene) malononitrile (FBM) single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyadharshini, A.; Kalainathan, S.

    2018-04-01

    2-(4-fluorobenzylidene) malononitrile (FBM), an organic third order nonlinear (TONLO) single crystal with the dimensions of 32 × 7 × 11 mm3, has been successfully grown in acetone solution by slow evaporation technique at 35 °C. The crystal system (triclinic), space group (P-1) and crystalline purity of the titular crystal were measured by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. The molecular weight and the multiple functional groups of the FBM material were confirmed through the mass and FT-IR spectral analysis. UV-Vis-NIR spectral study enroles that the FBM crystal exhibits excellent transparency (83%) in the entire visible and near infra-red region with a wide bandgap 2.90 eV. The low dielectric constant (εr) value of FBM crystal is appreciable for microelectronics industry applications. Thermal stability and melting point (130.09 °C) were ascertained by TGA-DSC analysis. The laser-induced surface damage threshold (LDT) value of FBM specimen is found to be 2.14 GW/cm2, it is fairly good compared to other reported NLO crystals. The third - order nonlinear optical character of the FBM crystal was confirmed through the typical single beam Z-scan technique. All these finding authorized that the organic crystal of FBM is favorably suitable for NLO applications.

  5. A dislocation-based crystal plasticity framework for dynamic ductile failure of single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Thao; Luscher, D. J.; Wilkerson, J. W.

    2017-08-02

    We developed a framework for dislocation-based viscoplasticity and dynamic ductile failure to model high strain rate deformation and damage in single crystals. The rate-dependence of the crystal plasticity formulation is based on the physics of relativistic dislocation kinetics suited for extremely high strain rates. The damage evolution is based on the dynamics of void growth, which are governed by both micro-inertia as well as dislocation kinetics and dislocation substructure evolution. Furthermore, an averaging scheme is proposed in order to approximate the evolution of the dislocation substructure in both the macroscale as well as its spatial distribution at the microscale. Inmore » addition, a concept of a single equivalent dislocation density that effectively captures the collective influence of dislocation density on all active slip systems is proposed here. Together, these concepts and approximations enable the use of semi-analytic solutions for void growth dynamics developed in [J. Wilkerson and K. Ramesh. A dynamic void growth model governed by dislocation kinetics. J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 70:262–280, 2014.], which greatly reduce the computational overhead that would otherwise be required. The resulting homogenized framework has been implemented into a commercially available finite element package, and a validation study against a suite of direct numerical simulations was carried out.« less

  6. A dislocation-based crystal plasticity framework for dynamic ductile failure of single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thao; Luscher, D. J.; Wilkerson, J. W.

    2017-11-01

    A framework for dislocation-based viscoplasticity and dynamic ductile failure has been developed to model high strain rate deformation and damage in single crystals. The rate-dependence of the crystal plasticity formulation is based on the physics of relativistic dislocation kinetics suited for extremely high strain rates. The damage evolution is based on the dynamics of void growth, which are governed by both micro-inertia as well as dislocation kinetics and dislocation substructure evolution. An averaging scheme is proposed in order to approximate the evolution of the dislocation substructure in both the macroscale as well as its spatial distribution at the microscale. Additionally, a concept of a single equivalent dislocation density that effectively captures the collective influence of dislocation density on all active slip systems is proposed here. Together, these concepts and approximations enable the use of semi-analytic solutions for void growth dynamics developed in (Wilkerson and Ramesh, 2014), which greatly reduce the computational overhead that would otherwise be required. The resulting homogenized framework has been implemented into a commercially available finite element package, and a validation study against a suite of direct numerical simulations was carried out.

  7. Water weakening in experimentally deformed milky quartz single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stunitz, H.; Thust, A.; Kilian, R.; Heilbronner, R.; Behrens, H.; Tarantola, A.; Fitz Gerald, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural single crystals of quartz have been experimentally deformed in two orientations: (1) normal to one prism-plane, (2) In O+ orientation at temperatures of 900 and 1000°C, pressures of 1.0 and 1.5 GPa, and strain rates of ~1 x 10-6s-1. The starting material is milky quartz, consisting of dry quartz (H2O contents of <150 H/106Si) with fluid inclusions (FI). During pressurization many FI´s decrepitate. Cracks heal and small neonate FI´s form, increasing the number of FI´s drastically. During subsequent deformation, the size of FI´s is further reduced (down to ~10 nm). Sample deformation occurs by dominant dislocation glide on selected slip systems, accompanied by some dynamic recovery. Strongly deformed regions show FTIR spectra with a pointed broad absorption band in the ~3400 cm-1 region as a superposition of molecular H2O bands and three discrete absorption bands (at 3367, 3400, and 3434 cm-1). In addition, there is a discrete absorption band at 3585 cm-1, which only occurs in deformed regions. The 3585 cm-1 band is reduced or even disappears after annealing. This band is polarized and represents structurally bound H, its H-content is estimated to be 1-3% of the total H2O-content and appears to be associated with dislocations. The H2O weakening effect in our FI-bearing natural quartz crystals is assigned to the processes of dislocation generation and multiplication at small FI´s. The deformation processes in these crystals represent a recycling of H2O between FI´s, dislocation generation at very small fluid inclusions, incorporation of structurally bound H into dislocation cores, and release of H2O from dislocations back into FI´s during recovery. Cracking and crack healing play an important role in the recycling process and imply a close interrelationship between brittle and crystal plastic deformation. The H2O weakening by this process is of a disequilibrium nature and thus depends on the amount of H2O available.

  8. Synthesis, crystal growth, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a nonlinear optical single crystal: ammonium sulfate hydrogen sulphamate (ASHS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, K.; Nandhini, S.; Muniyappan, S.; Arumanayagam, T.; Vivek, P.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2018-04-01

    Ammonium sulfate hydrogen sulphamate (ASHS), an inorganic nonlinear optical crystal, was grown from the aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The single-crystal XRD confirms that the grown single crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system with the space group of Pna21. Powder XRD confirms the crystalline nature and the diffraction planes were indexed. Crystalline perfection of grown crystal was analysed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve technique. UV-Vis-NIR studies revealed that ASHS crystal has optical transparency 65% and lower cut-off wavelength at 218 nm. The violet light emission of the crystal was identified by photoluminescence studies. The particle size-dependent second-harmonic generation efficiency for ASHS crystal was evaluated by Kurtz-Perry powder technique using Nd:YAG laser which established the existence of phase matching. Surface laser damage threshold value was evaluated using Nd:YAG laser. Optical homogeneity of the crystal was evaluated using modified channel spectrum method through birefringence study. Thermal analysis reveals that ASHS crystal is stable up to 213 °C. The mechanical behaviour of the ASHS crystal was analysed using Vickers microhardness study.

  9. Wafer-scale single-crystal perovskite patterned thin films based on geometrically-confined lateral crystal growth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lynn; Baek, Jangmi; Park, Kyung Sun; Lee, Yong-EunKoo; Shrestha, Nabeen K.; Sung, Myung M.

    2017-01-01

    We report a facile roll-printing method, geometrically confined lateral crystal growth, for the fabrication of large-scale, single-crystal CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films. Geometrically confined lateral crystal growth is based on transfer of a perovskite ink solution via a patterned rolling mould to a heated substrate, where the solution crystallizes instantly with the immediate evaporation of the solvent. The striking feature of this method is that the instant crystallization of the feeding solution under geometrical confinement leads to the unidirectional lateral growth of single-crystal perovskites. Here, we fabricated single-crystal perovskites in the form of a patterned thin film (3 × 3 inch) with a high carrier mobility of 45.64 cm2 V−1 s−1. We also used these single-crystal perovskite thin films to construct solar cells with a lateral configuration. Their active-area power conversion efficiency shows a highest value of 4.83%, which exceeds the literature efficiency values of lateral perovskite solar cells. PMID:28691697

  10. Solid-state molecular organometallic chemistry. Single-crystal to single-crystal reactivity and catalysis with light hydrocarbon substrates.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, F Mark; McKay, Alasdair I; Martinez-Martinez, Antonio J; Rees, Nicholas H; Krämer, Tobias; Macgregor, Stuart A; Weller, Andrew S

    2017-08-01

    Single-crystal to single-crystal solid/gas reactivity and catalysis starting from the precursor sigma-alkane complex [Rh(Cy 2 PCH 2 CH 2 PCy 2 )(η 2 η 2 -NBA)][BAr F 4 ] (NBA = norbornane; Ar F = 3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 C 6 H 3 ) is reported. By adding ethene, propene and 1-butene to this precursor in solid/gas reactions the resulting alkene complexes [Rh(Cy 2 PCH 2 CH 2 PCy 2 )(alkene) x ][BAr F 4 ] are formed. The ethene ( x = 2) complex, [Rh(Cy 2 PCH 2 CH 2 PCy 2 )(ethene) 2 ][BAr F 4 ]-Oct , has been characterized in the solid-state (single-crystal X-ray diffraction) and by solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Rapid, low temperature recrystallization using solution methods results in a different crystalline modification, [Rh(Cy 2 PCH 2 CH 2 PCy 2 )(ethene) 2 ][BAr F 4 ]-Hex , that has a hexagonal microporous structure ( P 6 3 22). The propene complex ( x = 1) [Rh(Cy 2 PCH 2 CH 2 PCy 2 )(propene)][BAr F 4 ] is characterized as having a π-bound alkene with a supporting γ-agostic Rh···H 3 C interaction at low temperature by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, variable temperature solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, as well as periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A fluxional process occurs in both the solid-state and solution that is proposed to proceed via a tautomeric allyl-hydride. Gas/solid catalytic isomerization of d 3 -propene, H 2 C 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111

  11. Ultrasonic Determination of Combinations of Third-Order Elastic Constants of Small Cubic Single Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    crystals Cesium cadmium fluoride Ultrasonic wave propagation Potassium zinc fluoride Nonlinear acoustics 20. A’?S1 RACT (Continue on reverse side If...is the stray capacitance of the detector, L is the inductance of the wire leading from the banana jack to the BNC connector (shown in Figure 111-2). Z...The samples on which measurements were made included [lO0] and [1111 copper samples, a sample of potassium zinc fluoride (KZnF 3 ) and a sample of

  12. Brownmillerite Ca 2 Co 2 O 5 : Synthesis, Stability, and Re-entrant Single Crystal to Single Crystal Structural Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Junjie; Zheng, Hong; Malliakas, Christos D.

    2014-11-20

    We synthesized Ca 2Co 2O 5 in the brownmillerite form using a high-pressure optical-image floating zone furnace, and single crystals with dimensions up to 1.4×0.8×0.5 mm 3 were obtained. At room temperature, Ca 2Co 2O 5 crystallizes as a fully ordered brownmillerite variant in the orthorhombic space group Pcmb (No. 57) with unit cell parameters a=5.28960(10) Å, b=14.9240(2) Å, and c=10.9547(2) Å. Furthermore, with decreasing temperature, it undergoes re-entrant sequence of first-order structural phase transitions (Pcmb→ P2/c11→ P121/m1→ Pcmb) that is unprecedented among brownmillerites, broadening the family of space groups available to these materials and challenging current approaches for sortingmore » the myriad variants of brownmillerite structures. Magnetic susceptibility data indicate antiferromagnetic ordering in Ca 2Co 2O 5 occurs near 240 K, corroborated by neutron powder diffraction. Below 140 K, Ca 2Co 2O 5 shows a weak ferromagnetic component directed primarily along the b axis, and it also exhibits thermal and magnetic history dependence in magnetization.« less

  13. Modulating the immune response by oral zinc supplementation: a single approach for multiple diseases.

    PubMed

    Overbeck, Silke; Rink, Lothar; Haase, Hajo

    2008-01-01

    Zinc is required for multiple cellular tasks, and especially the immune system depends on a sufficient availability of this essential trace element. During the last decades, many studies attempted to affect the outcome of various diseases by zinc supplementation. These efforts either aimed at supporting immunity by zinc administration or at correcting a loss of zinc secondary to the disease to restore the zinc-dependent functions of the immune system. This review aims to summarize the respective findings and to discuss possible molecular mechanisms by which zinc could influence viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, autoimmune diseases, and the response to vaccination. Zinc supplementation in diseases such as diarrhea, chronic hepatitis C, shigellosis, leprosy, tuberculosis, pneumonia, acute lower respiratory infection, and leishmaniasis seems beneficial. In contrast, the results for the common cold and malaria are still not conclusive, and zinc was ineffective in most vaccination and rheumatoid arthritis studies. For AIDS and type 1 diabetes, zinc supplementation may even be a risk factor for increased mortality or deterioration of the glucose metabolism, respectively. In these cases, zinc supplementation should be used with care and limited to clearly zinc-deficient individuals.

  14. Epitaxial lift-off of electrodeposited single-crystal gold foils for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahenderkar, Naveen K.; Chen, Qingzhi; Liu, Ying-Chau; Duchild, Alexander R.; Hofheins, Seth; Chason, Eric; Switzer, Jay A.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a simple and inexpensive procedure for epitaxial lift-off of wafer-size flexible and transparent foils of single-crystal gold using silicon as a template. Lateral electrochemical undergrowth of a sacrificial SiOx layer was achieved by photoelectrochemically oxidizing silicon under light irradiation. A 28-nanometer-thick gold foil with a sheet resistance of 7 ohms per square showed only a 4% increase in resistance after 4000 bending cycles. A flexible organic light-emitting diode based on tris(bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) that was spin-coated on a foil exploited the transmittance and flexibility of the gold foil. Cuprous oxide as an inorganic semiconductor that was epitaxially electrodeposited onto the gold foils exhibited a diode quality factor n of 1.6 (where n = 1.0 for an ideal diode), compared with a value of 3.1 for a polycrystalline deposit. Zinc oxide nanowires electrodeposited epitaxially on a gold foil also showed flexibility, with the nanowires intact up to 500 bending cycles.

  15. Crystal growth, piezoelectric, non-linear optical and mechanical properties of lithium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Senthilkumar; Paulraj, Rajesh; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-05-01

    Semi-organic lithium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate non-linear optical single crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at 35 °C. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study showed that the grown crystal belongs to the triclinic system with space group P1. The mechanical strength decreases with increasing load. The piezoelectric coefficient is found to be 1.41 pC/N. The nonlinear optical property was measured using Kurtz Perry powder technique and SHG efficiency was almost equal to that of KDP.

  16. Fabrication of Single Crystal MgO Capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for machining MgO crystal blocks into forms for containing metallic and silicate liquids at temperatures up to 2,400 C, and pressures up to at least 320 kilobars. Possible custom shapes include tubes, rods, insulators, capsules, and guides. Key differences in this innovative method include drilling along the crystallographic zone axes, use of a vibration minimizing material to secure the workpiece, and constant flushing of material swarf with a cooling medium/lubricant (water). A single crystal MgO block is cut into a section .5 mm thick, 1 cm on a side, using a low-speed saw with a 0.004 blade. The cut is made parallel to the direction of cleavage. The block may be cut to any thickness to achieve the desired length of the piece. To minimize drilling vibrations, the MgO block is mounted on a piece of adhesive putty in a vise. The putty wad cradles the bottom half of the entire block. Diamond coring tools are used to drill the MgO to the desired custom shape, with water used to wet and wash the surface of swarf. Compressed air may also be used to remove swarf during breaks in drilling. The MgO workpiece must be kept cool at all times with water. After all the swarf is rinsed off, the piece is left to dry overnight. If the workpiece is still attached to the base of the MgO block after drilling, it may be cut off by using a diamond cutoff wheel on a rotary hand tool or by using a low-speed saw.

  17. Defects induced in cerium dioxide single crystals by electron irradiation

    DOE PAGES

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Miro, Sandrine; Touati, Nadia; ...

    2018-01-12

    In this work, Micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy were used to study the damage production in cerium dioxide (CeO 2) single crystals by electron irradiation for three energies (1.0, 1.4, and 2.5 MeV). The Raman-active T 2g peak was left unchanged after 2.5-MeV electron irradiation at a high fluence. This shows that no structural modifications occurred for the cubic fluorite structure. UV-visible optical absorption spectra exhibited a characteristic sub band-gap tail for 1.4-MeV and 2.5-MeV energies, but not for 1.0 MeV. Narrow EPR lines were recorded near liquid-helium temperature after 2.5-MeV electronmore » irradiation; whereas no such signal was found for the virgin un-irradiated crystal or after 1.0-MeV irradiation for the same fluence. The angular variation of these lines in the {111} plane revealed a weak g-factor anisotropy assigned to Ce 3+ ions (with the 4f 1 configuration) in a high-symmetry local environment. Finally, it is concluded that Ce 3+ ions may be produced by a reduction resulting from the displacement damage process. However, no evidence of F + or F 0 center or hole center formation due to irradiation was found from the present EPR and optical absorption spectra.« less

  18. Defects induced in cerium dioxide single crystals by electron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Miro, Sandrine; Touati, Nadia

    In this work, Micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy were used to study the damage production in cerium dioxide (CeO 2) single crystals by electron irradiation for three energies (1.0, 1.4, and 2.5 MeV). The Raman-active T 2g peak was left unchanged after 2.5-MeV electron irradiation at a high fluence. This shows that no structural modifications occurred for the cubic fluorite structure. UV-visible optical absorption spectra exhibited a characteristic sub band-gap tail for 1.4-MeV and 2.5-MeV energies, but not for 1.0 MeV. Narrow EPR lines were recorded near liquid-helium temperature after 2.5-MeV electronmore » irradiation; whereas no such signal was found for the virgin un-irradiated crystal or after 1.0-MeV irradiation for the same fluence. The angular variation of these lines in the {111} plane revealed a weak g-factor anisotropy assigned to Ce 3+ ions (with the 4f 1 configuration) in a high-symmetry local environment. Finally, it is concluded that Ce 3+ ions may be produced by a reduction resulting from the displacement damage process. However, no evidence of F + or F 0 center or hole center formation due to irradiation was found from the present EPR and optical absorption spectra.« less

  19. Study of the possibility of growing germanium single crystals under low temperature gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovskih, V. A.; Kasimkin, P. V.; Shlegel, V. N.; Vasiliev, Y. V.; Gridchin, V. A.; Podkopaev, O. I.; Zhdankov, V. N.

    2014-03-01

    The possibility of growing germanium single crystals under low temperature gradients in order to produce a dislocation-free material has been studied. Germanium crystals with a dislocation density of about 100-200 cm-2 have been grown in a system with a weight control of crystal growth at maximum axial gradients of about 1.5 K/cm.

  20. Effect of crystal orientation on conductivity and electron mobility in single-crystal alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Fritz G.; Delorenzi, Horst G.; Janora, Kevin H.

    1992-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of high-purity, single-crystal alumina is determined parallel to and perpendicular to the c-axis. The mean conductivity of four samples of each orientation is a factor 3.3 higher parallel to the c-axis than perpendicular to it. The conductivity as a function of temperature is attributed to extrinsic electron conduction at temperatures from 400 to 900 C, and intrinsic semiconduction at temperatures from 900 to 1300 C. In the high-temperature regime, the slope on all eight specimens is 4.7 +/- 0.1 eV. Hence, the thermal bandgap at O K is 9.4 +/- 0.2 eV.

  1. The density and compositional analysis of titanium doped sapphire single crystal grown by the Czocharlski method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuma, H. H.; Ibrahim, Z.; Othaman, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Titanium doped sapphire (Ti:Al2O3) crystal has attracted attention not only as beautiful gemstones, but also due to their applications as high power laser action. It is very important crystal for tunable solid state laser. Ti:Al2O3 crystals have been success grown using the Czocharlski method with automatic diameter control (ADC) system. The crystals were grown with different pull rates. The structure of the crystal was characterized with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The density of the crystal was measurement based on the Archimedes principle and the chemical composition of the crystal was confirmed by the Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy. The XRD patterns of crystals are showed single main peak with a high intensity. Its shows that the samples are single crystal. The Ti:Al2O3 grown with different pull rate will affect the distribution of the concentration of dopant Ti3+ and densities on the sapphire crystals boules as well on the crystal growth process. The increment of the pull rate will increase the percentage distribution of Ti3+ and on the densities of the Ti:Al2O3 crystal boules. This may be attributed to the speed factor of the pull rate of the crystal that then caused changes in the heat flow in the furnace and then causes the homogeneities is changed of species distribution of atoms along crystal.

  2. Investigation of Advanced Processed Single-Crystal Turbine Blade Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. J.; Biondo, C. M.; DeLuca, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    This investigation studied the influence of thermal processing and microstructure on the mechanical properties of the single-crystal, nickel-based superalloys PWA 1482 and PWA 1484. The objective of the program was to develop an improved single-crystal turbine blade alloy that is specifically tailored for use in hydrogen fueled rocket engine turbopumps. High-gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and alternate heat treatment (HT) processing parameters were developed to produce pore-free, eutectic-free microstructures with different (gamma)' precipitate morphologies. Test materials were cast in high thermal gradient solidification (greater than 30 C/cm (137 F/in.)) casting furnaces for reduced dendrite arm spacing, improved chemical homogeneity, and reduced interdendritic pore size. The HIP processing was conducted in 40 cm (15.7 in.) diameter production furnaces using a set of parameters selected from a trial matrix study. Metallography was conducted on test samples taken from each respective trial run to characterize the as-HIP microstructure. Post-HIP alternate HT processes were developed for each of the two alloys. The goal of the alternate HT processing was to fully solution the eutectic gamma/(gamma)' phase islands and to develop a series of modified (gamma)' morphologies for subsequent characterization testing. This was accomplished by slow cooling through the (gamma)' solvus at controlled rates to precipitate volume fractions of large (gamma)'. Post-solution alternate HT parameters were established for each alloy providing additional volume fractions of finer precipitates. Screening tests included tensile, high-cycle fatigue (HCF), smooth and notched low-cycle fatigue (LCF), creep, and fatigue crack growth evaluations performed in air and high pressure (34.5 MPa (5 ksi)) hydrogen at room and elevated temperature. Under the most severe embrittling conditions (HCF and smooth and notched LCF in 34.5 MPa (5 ksi) hydrogen at 20 C (68 F), screening test

  3. Effect of Chain Conformation on the Single-Molecule Melting Force in Polymer Single Crystals: Steered Molecular Dynamics Simulations Study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Wenke

    2017-02-28

    Understanding the relationship between polymer chain conformation as well as the chain composition within the single crystal and the mechanical properties of the corresponding single polymer chain will facilitate the rational design of high performance polymer materials. Here three model systems of polymer single crystals, namely poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), polyethylene (PE), and nylon-66 (PA66) have been chosen to study the effects of chain conformation, helical (PEO) versus planar zigzag conformation (PE, PA66), and chain composition (PE versus PA66) on the mechanical properties of a single polymer chain. To do that, steered molecular dynamics simulations were performed on those polymer single crystals by pulling individual polymer chains out of the crystals. Our results show that the patterns of force-extension curve as well as the chain moving mode are closely related to the conformation of the polymer chain in the single crystal. In addition, hydrogen bonds can enhance greatly the force required to stretch the polymer chain out of the single crystal. The dynamic breaking and reformation of multivalent hydrogen bonds have been observed for the first time in PA66 at the single molecule level.

  4. ExpandplusCrystal Structures of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) Zinc Fingers Bound to DNA

    SciTech Connect

    M Langelier; J Planck; S Roy

    2011-12-31

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) has two homologous zinc finger domains, Zn1 and Zn2, that bind to a variety of DNA structures to stimulate poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis activity and to mediate PARP-1 interaction with chromatin. The structural basis for interaction with DNA is unknown, which limits our understanding of PARP-1 regulation and involvement in DNA repair and transcription. Here, we have determined crystal structures for the individual Zn1 and Zn2 domains in complex with a DNA double strand break, providing the first views of PARP-1 zinc fingers bound to DNA. The Zn1-DNA and Zn2-DNA structures establish a novel, bipartite mode of sequence-independent DNAmore » interaction that engages a continuous region of the phosphodiester backbone and the hydrophobic faces of exposed nucleotide bases. Biochemical and cell biological analysis indicate that the Zn1 and Zn2 domains perform distinct functions. The Zn2 domain exhibits high binding affinity to DNA compared with the Zn1 domain. However, the Zn1 domain is essential for DNA-dependent PARP-1 activity in vitro and in vivo, whereas the Zn2 domain is not strictly required. Structural differences between the Zn1-DNA and Zn2-DNA complexes, combined with mutational and structural analysis, indicate that a specialized region of the Zn1 domain is re-configured through the hydrophobic interaction with exposed nucleotide bases to initiate PARP-1 activation.« less

  5. Growth and characterization of 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzophenone single crystals using vertical Bridgman technique

    SciTech Connect

    Aravinth, K., E-mail: anandcgc@gmail.com; Babu, G. Anandha, E-mail: anandcgc@gmail.com; Ramasamy, P., E-mail: anandcgc@gmail.com

    2014-04-24

    4-chloro-3-nitrobenzophenone (4C3N) has been grown by using vertical Bridgman technique. The grown crystal was confirmed by Powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was examined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. The fluorescence spectra of grown 4C3N single crystals exhibit emission peak at 575 nm. The micro hardness measurements were used to analyze the mechanical property of the grown crystal.

  6. EPR study of free radical in gamma-irradiated bis(cyclopentadienyl)zirconium dichloride single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliskan, Betul; Caliskan, Ali Cengiz

    2017-06-01

    Bis(cyclopentadienyl)zirconium dichloride (BCZD; zirconocene dichloride) single crystals were exposed to 60Co-γ irradiation at room temperature. The irradiated single crystals were investigated between 125 and 470 K by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The spectra of the crystals were found to be temperature independent. The paramagnetic center was attributed to the cyclopentadienyl radical. The g values of the radiation damage center observed in BCZD single crystal and the hyperfine structure constants of the free electron with nearby protons were obtained.

  7. Capillarity creates single-crystal calcite nanowires from amorphous calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Hetherington, Nicola B J; Noel, Elizabeth H; Kröger, Roland; Charnock, John M; Christenson, Hugo K; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2011-12-23

    Single-crystal calcite nanowires are formed by crystallization of morphologically equivalent amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles within the pores of track etch membranes. The polyaspartic acid stabilized ACC is drawn into the membrane pores by capillary action, and the single-crystal nature of the nanowires is attributed to the limited contact of the intramembrane ACC particle with the bulk solution. The reaction environment then supports transformation to a single-crystal product. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Thermal, mechanical, optical and dielectric properties of piperazinium hydrogen phosphite monohydrate NLO single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, R.; Praveen Kumar, P.

    2018-05-01

    Optical transparent crystal of piperazinium hydrogen phosphite monohydrate (PHPM) was grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystal was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the crystal belongs to monoclinic system. The functional groups present in PHPM crystal were confirmed by FTIR analysis. UV-Visible spectrum shows that the PHPM crystal is transparent in the visible region. The mechanical behavior of PHPM crystal was characterized by Vickers hardness test. Thermal stability of PHPM crystal was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis. Dielectric studies were also carried out for the grown crystal. The third-order nonlinear parameters such as nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient have been calculated using Z scan technique.

  9. Effect of zinc-borate glass addition on the thermal properties of the cordierite/Al2O3 composites containing nano-sized spinel crystal.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sinae; Kang, Seunggu

    2013-11-01

    Low-melting zinc-borate glass was added to the cordierite/Al2O3 composite in order to improve the sintering facility of Al2O3 and formation of nano-sized spinel crystal of high thermal conductivity. Increasing the ZnO/B2O3 ratio in the zinc-borate glass increased the ZnAl2O4 spinel and decreased the Al4B2O9 crystal peak intensities in X-ray diffraction pattern. The XRD peak intensities of the ZnAl2O4 spinel and Al4B2O9 crystals in the specimen containing 10 wt% zinc-borate glass (10G series) are higher than that of the specimen containing 5 wt% zinc-borate glass (5G series). The microstructures of most 10G series specimens had the flower-shaped crystal which was composed of 50 nm wide and 250 nm long needle-like crystals and identified as ZnAl2O4 spinel phase. The thermal conductivity of the 10G series specimen was higher than that of the 5G series in any ZnO/B2O3 ratio due to the formation of plenty of nano-sized ZnAl2O4 spinel of high thermal conductivity. Particularly, the thermal conductivity of the cordierite/Al2O3 composite containing 10 wt% zinc-borate glass of ZnO/B2O3 weight ratio = 1.5 was 3.8 W/Km which is much higher than that of the published value (3.0 W/Km).

  10. Development of single cell protectors for sealed silver-zinc cells, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Donovan, R. L.; Lear, J. W.; Murray, B.

    1976-01-01

    A single cell protector (SCP) assembly capable of protecting a single silver-zinc (Ag Zn) battery cell was designed, fabricated, and tested. The SCP provides cell-level protection against overcharge and overdischarge by a bypass circuit. The bypass circuit consists of a magnetic-latching relay that is controlled by the high and low-voltage limit comparators. Although designed specifically for secondary Ag-Zn cells, the SCP is flexible enough to be adapted to other rechargeable cells. Eighteen SCPs were used in life testing of an 18-cell battery. The cells were sealed Ag-Zn system with inorganic separators. For comparison, another 18-cell battery was subjected to identical life test conditions, but with battery-level protection rather than cell-level. An alternative approach to the SCP design in the form of a microprocessor-based system was conceptually designed. The comparison of SCP and microprocessor approaches is also presented and a preferred approach for Ag-Zn battery protection is discussed.

  11. Zinc-finger protein-targeted gene regulation: Genomewide single-gene specificity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Siyuan; Guschin, Dmitry; Davalos, Albert; Lee, Ya-Li; Snowden, Andrew W.; Jouvenot, Yann; Zhang, H. Steven; Howes, Katherine; McNamara, Andrew R.; Lai, Albert; Ullman, Chris; Reynolds, Lindsey; Moore, Michael; Isalan, Mark; Berg, Lutz-Peter; Campos, Bradley; Qi, Hong; Spratt, S. Kaye; Case, Casey C.; Pabo, Carl O.; Campisi, Judith; Gregory, Philip D.

    2003-01-01

    Zinc-finger protein transcription factors (ZFP TFs) can be designed to control the expression of any desired target gene, and thus provide potential therapeutic tools for the study and treatment of disease. Here we report that a ZFP TF can repress target gene expression with single-gene specificity within the human genome. A ZFP TF repressor that binds an 18-bp recognition sequence within the promoter of the endogenous CHK2 gene gives a >10-fold reduction in CHK2 mRNA and protein. This level of repression was sufficient to generate a functional phenotype, as demonstrated by the loss of DNA damage-induced CHK2-dependent p53 phosphorylation. We determined the specificity of repression by using DNA microarrays and found that the ZFP TF repressed a single gene (CHK2) within the monitored genome in two different cell types. These data demonstrate the utility of ZFP TFs as precise tools for target validation, and highlight their potential as clinical therapeutics. PMID:14514889

  12. Synthesis of uniformly distributed single- and double-sided zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocombs

    SciTech Connect

    Altintas Yildirim, Ozlem; Liu, Yuzi; Petford-Long, Amanda K.

    Uniformly distributed single- and double-sided zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomb structures have been prepared by a vapor-liquid-solid technique from a mixture of ZnO nanoparticles and graphene nanoplatelets. The ZnO seed nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple precipitation method. The structure of the ZnO nanocombs could easily be controlled by tuning the carrier-gas flow rate during growth. Higher flow rate resulted in the formation of uniformly-distributed single-sided comb structures with nanonail-shaped teeth, as a result of the self-catalysis effect of the catalytically active Zn-terminated polar (0001) surface. Lower gas flow rate was favorable for production of double-sided comb structures with the twomore » sets of teeth at an angle of similar to 110 degrees to each other along the comb ribbon, which was attributed to the formation of a bicrystal nanocomb ribbon. Lastly, the formation of such a double-sided structure with nanonail-shaped teeth has not previously been reported.« less

  13. Synthesis of uniformly distributed single- and double-sided zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocombs

    DOE PAGES

    Altintas Yildirim, Ozlem; Liu, Yuzi; Petford-Long, Amanda K.

    2015-08-21

    Uniformly distributed single- and double-sided zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomb structures have been prepared by a vapor-liquid-solid technique from a mixture of ZnO nanoparticles and graphene nanoplatelets. The ZnO seed nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple precipitation method. The structure of the ZnO nanocombs could easily be controlled by tuning the carrier-gas flow rate during growth. Higher flow rate resulted in the formation of uniformly-distributed single-sided comb structures with nanonail-shaped teeth, as a result of the self-catalysis effect of the catalytically active Zn-terminated polar (0001) surface. Lower gas flow rate was favorable for production of double-sided comb structures with the twomore » sets of teeth at an angle of similar to 110 degrees to each other along the comb ribbon, which was attributed to the formation of a bicrystal nanocomb ribbon. Lastly, the formation of such a double-sided structure with nanonail-shaped teeth has not previously been reported.« less

  14. Thermal conductivity of high purity synthetic single crystal diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inyushkin, A. V.; Taldenkov, A. N.; Ralchenko, V. G.; Bolshakov, A. P.; Koliadin, A. V.; Katrusha, A. N.

    2018-04-01

    Thermal conductivity of three high purity synthetic single crystalline diamonds has been measured with high accuracy at temperatures from 6 to 410 K. The crystals grown by chemical vapor deposition and by high-pressure high-temperature technique demonstrate almost identical temperature dependencies κ (T ) and high values of thermal conductivity, up to 24 W cm-1K-1 at room temperature. At conductivity maximum near 63 K, the magnitude of thermal conductivity reaches 285 W cm-1K-1 , the highest value ever measured for diamonds with the natural carbon isotope composition. Experimental data were fitted with the classical Callaway model for the lattice thermal conductivity. A set of expressions for the anharmonic phonon scattering processes (normal and umklapp) has been proposed which gives an excellent fit to the experimental κ (T ) data over almost the whole temperature range explored. The model provides the strong isotope effect, nearly 45%, and the high thermal conductivity (>24 W cm-1K-1 ) for the defect-free diamond with the natural isotopic abundance at room temperature.

  15. Radiation tolerance of piezoelectric bulk single-crystal aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Parks; Bernhard R. Tittmann

    2014-07-01

    For practical use in harsh radiation environments, we pose selection criteria for piezoelectric materials for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and material characterization. Using these criteria, piezoelectric aluminum nitride is shown to be an excellent candidate. The results of tests on an aluminumnitride-based transducer operating in a nuclear reactor are also presented. We demonstrate the tolerance of single-crystal piezoelectric aluminum nitride after fast and thermal neutron fluences of 1.85 × 1018 neutron/cm2 and 5.8 × 1018 neutron/cm2, respectively, and a gamma dose of 26.8 MGy. The radiation hardness of AlN is most evident from the unaltered piezoelectric coefficient d33, which measured 5.5more » pC/N after a fast and thermal neutron exposure in a nuclear reactor core for over 120 MWh, in agreement with the published literature value. The results offer potential for improving reactor safety and furthering the understanding of radiation effects on materials by enabling structural health monitoring and NDE in spite of the high levels of radiation and high temperatures, which are known to destroy typical commercial ultrasonic transducers.« less

  16. Single crystal CVD diamond membranes for betavoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfaure, C.; Pomorski, M.; de Sanoit, J.; Bergonzo, P.; Saada, S.

    2016-06-01

    A single crystal diamond large area thin membrane was assembled as a p-doped/Intrinsic/Metal (PIM) structure and used in a betavoltaic configuration. When tested with a 20 keV electron beam from a high resolution scanning electron microscope, we measured an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.85 V, a charge collection efficiency (CCE) of 98%, a fill-factor of 80%, and a total conversion efficiency of 9.4%. These parameters are inherently linked to the diamond membrane PIM structure that allows full device depletion even at 0 V and are among the highest reported up to now for any other material tested for betavoltaic devices. It enables to drive a high short-circuit current Isc up to 7.12 μA, to reach a maximum power Pmax of 10.48 μW, a remarkable value demonstrating the high-benefit of diamond for the realization of long-life radioisotope based micro-batteries.

  17. Radiation attenuation by single-crystal diamond windows

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, M.; Pruteanu, C. G.; Donnelly, M. -E.

    As artificial diamond becomes more cost effective it is likely to see increasing use as a window for sample environment equipment used in diffraction experiments. Such windows are particularly useful as they exhibit exceptional mechanical properties in addition to being highly transparent to both X-ray and neutron radiation. A key application is in high-pressure studies, where diamond anvil cells (DACs) are used to access extreme sample conditions. However, despite their utility, an important consideration when using single-crystal diamond windows is their interaction with the incident beam. In particular, the Bragg condition will be satisfied for specific angles and wavelengths, leadingmore » to the appearance of diamond Bragg spots on the diffraction detectors but also, unavoidably, to loss of transmitted intensity of the beam that interacts with the sample. This effect can be particularly significant for energy-dispersive measurements, for example, in time-of-flight neutron diffraction work using DACs. This article presents a semi-empirical approach that can be used to correct for this effect, which is a prerequisite for the accurate determination of diffraction intensities.« less

  18. Radiation attenuation by single-crystal diamond windows

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, Malcolm; Pruteanu, Ciprian G.; Donnelly, Mary -Ellen

    As artificial diamond becomes more cost effective it is likely to see increasing use as a window for sample environment equipment used in diffraction experiments. Such windows are particularly useful as they exhibit exceptional mechanical properties in addition to being highly transparent to both X-ray and neutron radiation. A key application is in high-pressure studies, where diamond anvil cells (DACs) are used to access extreme sample conditions. However, despite their utility, an important consideration when using single-crystal diamond windows is their interaction with the incident beam. In particular, the Bragg condition will be satisfied for specific angles and wavelengths, leadingmore » to the appearance of diamond Bragg spots on the diffraction detectors but also, unavoidably, to loss of transmitted intensity of the beam that interacts with the sample. This effect can be particularly significant for energy-dispersive measurements, for example, in time-of-flight neutron diffraction work using DACs. Furthermore, this article presents a semi-empirical approach that can be used to correct for this effect, which is a prerequisite for the accurate determination of diffraction intensities.« less

  19. Radiation attenuation by single-crystal diamond windows

    DOE PAGES

    Guthrie, Malcolm; Pruteanu, Ciprian G.; Donnelly, Mary -Ellen; ...

    2017-02-01

    As artificial diamond becomes more cost effective it is likely to see increasing use as a window for sample environment equipment used in diffraction experiments. Such windows are particularly useful as they exhibit exceptional mechanical properties in addition to being highly transparent to both X-ray and neutron radiation. A key application is in high-pressure studies, where diamond anvil cells (DACs) are used to access extreme sample conditions. However, despite their utility, an important consideration when using single-crystal diamond windows is their interaction with the incident beam. In particular, the Bragg condition will be satisfied for specific angles and wavelengths, leadingmore » to the appearance of diamond Bragg spots on the diffraction detectors but also, unavoidably, to loss of transmitted intensity of the beam that interacts with the sample. This effect can be particularly significant for energy-dispersive measurements, for example, in time-of-flight neutron diffraction work using DACs. Furthermore, this article presents a semi-empirical approach that can be used to correct for this effect, which is a prerequisite for the accurate determination of diffraction intensities.« less

  20. Analysis of ripple formation in single crystal spot welds

    SciTech Connect

    Rappaz, M.; Corrigan, D.; Boatner, L.A.

    1997-10-01

    Stationary spot welds have been made at the (001) surface of Fe-l5%Ni-15%Cr single crystals using a Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA). On the top surface of the spot welds, very regular and concentric ripples were observed after solidification by differential interference color microscopy. Their height (typically 1--5 {micro}m) and spacing (typically {approximately} 60 {micro}m) decreased with the radius of the pool. These ripples were successfully accounted for in terms of capillary-wave theory using the fundamental mode frequency f{sub 0} given by the first zero of the zero-order Bessel function. The spacing d between the ripples was then equated to v{sub s}/f{submore » 0}, where v{sub s} is the solidification rate. From the measured ripple spacing, the velocity of the pool was deduced as a function of the radius, and this velocity was in good agreement with the results of a heat-flow simulation.« less

  1. Deformation of periodic nanovoid structures in Mg single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuozhi; Su, Yanqing; Zare Chavoshi, Saeed

    2018-01-01

    Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in Mg single crystal containing periodic cylindrical voids subject to uniaxial tension along the z direction are carried out. Models with different initial void sizes and crystallographic orientations are explored using two interatomic potentials. It is found that (i) a larger initial void always leads to a lower yield stress, in agreement with an analytic prediction; (ii) in the model with x[\\bar{1}100]-y[0001]-z[11\\bar{2}0] orientations, the two potentials predict different types of tension twins and phase transformation; (iii) in the model with x[0001]-y[11\\bar{2}0]-z[\\bar{1}100] orientations, the two potentials identically predict the nucleation of edge dislocations on the prismatic plane, which then glide away from the void, resulting in extrusions at the void surface; in the case of the smallest initial void, these surface extrusions pinch the void into two voids. Besides bringing new physical understanding of the nanovoid structures, our work highlights the variability and uncertainty in MD simulations arising from the interatomic potential, an issue relatively lightly addressed in the literature to date.

  2. On plastic flow in notched hexagonal close packed single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvarajou, Balaji; Kondori, Babak; Benzerga, A. Amine; Joshi, Shailendra P.

    2016-09-01

    The micromechanics of anisotropic plastic flow by combined slip and twinning is investigated computationally in single crystal notched specimens. Constitutive relations for hexagonal close packed materials are used which take into account elastic anisotropy, thirty potential deformation systems, various hardening mechanisms and rate-sensitivity. The specimens are loaded perpendicular to the c-axis but the presence of a notch generates three-dimensional triaxial stress states. The study is motivated by recent experiments on a polycrystalline magnesium alloy. To enable comparisons with these where appropriate, three sets of activation thresholds for the various deformation systems are used. For the conditions that most closely mimic the alloy material, attention is focused on the relative roles of pyramidal 〈 c + a 〉 and prismatic 〈 a 〉 slip, as well as on the emergence of {1012bar}[101bar1] extension twinning at sufficiently high triaxiality. In all cases, the spatial variations of stress triaxiality and plastic strain, inclusive of various system activities, are quantified along with their evolution upon straining. The implications of these findings in fundamental understanding of ductile failure of HCP alloys in general and Mg alloys in particular are discussed.

  3. Single crystal CVD diamond membranes for betavoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Delfaure, C.; Pomorski, M., E-mail: michal.pomorski@cea.fr; Sanoit, J. de

    2016-06-20

    A single crystal diamond large area thin membrane was assembled as a p-doped/Intrinsic/Metal (PIM) structure and used in a betavoltaic configuration. When tested with a 20 keV electron beam from a high resolution scanning electron microscope, we measured an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 1.85 V, a charge collection efficiency (CCE) of 98%, a fill-factor of 80%, and a total conversion efficiency of 9.4%. These parameters are inherently linked to the diamond membrane PIM structure that allows full device depletion even at 0 V and are among the highest reported up to now for any other material tested for betavoltaic devices. Itmore » enables to drive a high short-circuit current I{sub sc} up to 7.12 μA, to reach a maximum power P{sub max} of 10.48 μW, a remarkable value demonstrating the high-benefit of diamond for the realization of long-life radioisotope based micro-batteries.« less

  4. Superconducting Properties of CeIr3 Single Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yoshiki J.; Nakamura, Ai; Shimizu, Yusei; Maurya, Arvind; Homma, Yoshiya; Li, Dexin; Honda, Fuminori; Aoki, Dai

    2018-05-01

    Superconducting properties of CeIr3 single crystal with rhombohedral structure were examined for the first time using DC magnetization, specific heat, and electrical resistivity measurements. A bulk type-II superconductivity was clearly detected at Tc = 3.4 K, which is the second highest Tc among Ce-based intermetallic compounds. The thermodynamic properties as well as an upper critical field Hc2(0) ˜ 46.5 kOe for the H || c-axis are fully consistent with the weak-coupling BCS regime. The observed √{H} variation of C(H)/T becomes less pronounced upon cooling, possibly suggesting a suppression of low-energy quasiparticle excitations in an anisotropic s-wave gap in CeIr3, as observed in CeRu2. The origin of superconductivity is discussed from the viewpoints of the valence of Ce atom and Ir 5d-electron with a strong spin-orbit coupling.

  5. Reduction of precursor decay anomaly in single crystal lithium fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Yukio

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal that the precursor decay anomaly in single crystal lithium fluoride is reduced by Sano's decay curve [Y. Sano, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7616 (1999)], which is much smaller in slope than Asay's decay curve [J. R. Asay, G. R. Fowles, G. E. Duvall, M. H. Miles, and R. F. Tinder, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2132 (1972)]. To this end, strain, particle, velocity, and stress in a precursor and near the leading edge of the follower changing with time along Sano's decay curve are first analyzed quantitatively. The analysis verified the existence of degenerate contraction waves I and II and a subrarefaction wave R', and the decay process [Y. Sano, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 3746 (1995)] caused in sequence by evolving followers C, I, II, R', Rb. Next, inequalities relating decay rates qualitatively to plastic strain rates at the leading edge of the follower, which are derived using the properties of the followers, are incorporated into the analysis. Calculation results showed that the plastic strain rates were reduced by low decay rates. This indicates that the precursor decay anomaly might be greatly reduced by Sano's decay curve.

  6. Fabrication of Single Crystal Gallium Phosphide Thin Films on Glass.

    PubMed

    Emmer, Hal; Chen, Christopher T; Saive, Rebecca; Friedrich, Dennis; Horie, Yu; Arbabi, Amir; Faraon, Andrei; Atwater, Harry A

    2017-07-05

    Due to its high refractive index and low absorption coefficient, gallium phosphide is an ideal material for photonic structures targeted at the visible wavelengths. However, these properties are only realized with high quality epitaxial growth, which limits substrate choice and thus possible photonic applications. In this work, we report the fabrication of single crystal gallium phosphide thin films on transparent glass substrates via transfer bonding. GaP thin films on Si (001) and (112) grown by MOCVD are bonded to glass, and then the growth substrate is removed with a XeF 2 vapor etch. The resulting GaP films have surface roughnesses below 1 nm RMS and exhibit room temperature band edge photoluminescence. Magnesium doping yielded p-type films with a carrier density of 1.6 × 10 17  cm -3 that exhibited mobilities as high as 16 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . Due to their unique optical properties, these films hold much promise for use in advanced optical devices.

  7. Single Crystal Diamond Beam Position Monitors with Radiofrequency Electronic Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Solar, B.; Graafsma, H.; Potdevin, G.

    2010-06-23

    Over the energy range 5{approx}30 keV a suitably contacted, thin ({approx}100 {mu}m) diamond plate can be operated in situ as a continuous monitor of X-ray beam intensity and position as the diamond absorbs only a small percentage of the incident beam. Single crystal diamond is a completely homogeneous material showing fast (ns), spatially uniform signal response and negligible (

  8. Fabrication of Single Crystal Gallium Phosphide Thin Films on Glass

    DOE PAGES

    Emmer, Hal; Chen, Christopher T.; Saive, Rebecca; ...

    2017-07-05

    Due to its high refractive index and low absorption coefficient, gallium phosphide is an ideal material for photonic structures targeted at the visible wavelengths. However, these properties are only realized with high quality epitaxial growth, which limits substrate choice and thus possible photonic applications. In this work, we report the fabrication of single crystal gallium phosphide thin films on transparent glass substrates via transfer bonding. GaP thin films on Si (001) and (112) grown by MOCVD are bonded to glass, and then the growth substrate is removed with a XeF 2 vapor etch. The resulting GaP films have surface roughnessesmore » below 1 nm RMS and exhibit room temperature band edge photoluminescence. Magnesium doping yielded p-type films with a carrier density of 1.6 × 10 17 cm -3 that exhibited mobilities as high as 16 cm 2V -1s -1. Therefore, due to their unique optical properties, these films hold much promise for use in advanced optical devices.« less

  9. Magnetic Torque in Single Crystal Ni-Mn-Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobza, Anthony; Müllner, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic shape memory alloys deform in an external magnetic field in two distinct ways: by axial straining—known as magnetic-field-induced strain—and by bending when exposed to torque. Here, we examine the magnetic torque that a magnetic field exerts on a long Ni-Mn-Ga rod. A single crystal specimen of Ni-Mn-Ga was constrained with respect to bending and subjected to an external magnetic field. The torque required to rotate the specimen in the field was measured as a function of the orientation of the sample with the external magnetic field, strain, and the magnitude of the external magnetic field. The torque was analyzed based on the changes in the free energy with the angle between the field and the sample. The contributions of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and shape anisotropy to the Zeeman energy determine the net torque. The torque is large when magneotcrystalline and shape anisotropies act synergistically and small when these anisotropies act antagonistically.

  10. SHG in DASMS single-crystal film producing ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahyi, Ayayi; Khatavkar, Sanchit; Thakur, Mrinal

    2002-03-01

    Single-crystal film of the molecular salt, DASMS (noncentrosymmetric phase), has been grown using the modified shear method.^1 The DASMS film is orange in color, showing strong birefringence. The absorption spectrum of DASMS has a maximum at 590 nm, with the onset at about 600 nm and continuing to UV but with a dip around 400 nm. Such a spectrum allows efficient SHG at short wavelengths (400 nm). A Ti:Sapphire laser producing 200 fs pulses at 82 MHz with an average power of 50mW was used for the SHG experiment. The fundamental wavelength was 760nm giving SHG at 380 nm corresponding to the dip in the absorption spectrum. The beam was focused on the film using a 4" focal length lens. From the power measurements, an efficiency of 0.1% in SHG has been observed in a 1μm thick film indicating that the magnitude of d-coefficient is larger than 2000 pm/V. 1. M. Thakur and S. Meyler, Macromolecules, 18 2341 (1985); M. Thakur, Y. Shani, G.C. Chi and K. O'Brien, Synth. Met., 28 D595 (1989).

  11. Fabrication of Single Crystal Gallium Phosphide Thin Films on Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Emmer, Hal; Chen, Christopher T.; Saive, Rebecca

    Due to its high refractive index and low absorption coefficient, gallium phosphide is an ideal material for photonic structures targeted at the visible wavelengths. However, these properties are only realized with high quality epitaxial growth, which limits substrate choice and thus possible photonic applications. In this work, we report the fabrication of single crystal gallium phosphide thin films on transparent glass substrates via transfer bonding. GaP thin films on Si (001) and (112) grown by MOCVD are bonded to glass, and then the growth substrate is removed with a XeF 2 vapor etch. The resulting GaP films have surface roughnessesmore » below 1 nm RMS and exhibit room temperature band edge photoluminescence. Magnesium doping yielded p-type films with a carrier density of 1.6 × 10 17 cm -3 that exhibited mobilities as high as 16 cm 2V -1s -1. Therefore, due to their unique optical properties, these films hold much promise for use in advanced optical devices.« less

  12. Mesopores induced zero thermal expansion in single-crystal ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhaohui; Zhao, Ruoyu; Chen, Xing; Li, Ming; Li, Xiang; Tian, He; Zhang, Ze; Han, Gaorong

    2018-04-24

    For many decades, zero thermal expansion materials have been the focus of numerous investigations because of their intriguing physical properties and potential applications in high-precision instruments. Different strategies, such as composites, solid solution and doping, have been developed as promising approaches to obtain zero thermal expansion materials. However, microstructure controlled zero thermal expansion behavior via interface or surface has not been realized. Here we report the observation of an impressive zero thermal expansion (volumetric thermal expansion coefficient, -1.41 × 10 -6  K -1 , 293-623 K) in single-crystal ferroelectric PbTiO 3 fibers with large-scale faceted and enclosed mesopores. The zero thermal expansion behavior is attributed to a synergetic effect of positive thermal expansion near the mesopores due to the oxygen-based polarization screening and negative thermal expansion from an intrinsic ferroelectricity. Our results show that a fascinating surface construction in negative thermal expansion ferroelectric materials could be a promising strategy to realize zero thermal expansion.

  13. Ultraviolet Laser-induced ignition of RDX single crystal

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhonghua; Zhang, Chuanchao; Liu, Wei; Li, Jinshan; Huang, Ming; Wang, Xuming; Zhou, Guorui; Tan, Bisheng; Yang, Zongwei; Li, Zhijie; Li, Li; Yan, Hongwei; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zu, Xiaotao

    2016-01-01

    The RDX single crystals are ignited by ultraviolet laser (355 nm, 6.4 ns) pulses. The laser-induced damage morphology consisted of two distinct regions: a core region of layered fracture and a peripheral region of stripped material surrounding the core. As laser fluence increases, the area of the whole crack region increases all the way, while both the area and depth of the core region increase firstly, and then stay stable over the laser fluence of 12 J/cm2. The experimental details indicate the dynamics during laser ignition process. Plasma fireball of high temperature and pressure occurs firstly, followed by the micro-explosions on the (210) surface, and finally shock waves propagate through the materials to further strip materials outside and yield in-depth cracks in larger surrounding region. The plasma fireball evolves from isotropic to anisotropic under higher laser fluence resulting in the damage expansion only in lateral direction while maintaining the fixed depth. The primary insights into the interaction dynamics between laser and energetic materials can help developing the superior laser ignition technique. PMID:26847854

  14. Growth, structural, optical and surface analysis of piperazinium tartrate: A NLO single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Apurva; Raseel Rahman M., K.; Nair, Lekha

    2018-05-01

    Single crystal of piperazinium tartrate (PPZT) was grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. Crystallinity of grown crystal was examined by powder X-ray diffraction. High transparency and wide band gap were observed in the UV-Visible spectroscopic studies. Intense and broad emissions were observed in the blue region, as that is indicated by photoluminescence spectroscopy. The quality of the grown PPZT single crystals were analyzed by the etching studies using the water as the etchant.

  15. Arc-melting preparation of single crystal LaB.sub.6 cathodes

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, Edwin D.; Verhoeven, John D.

    1977-06-21

    A method for preparing single crystals of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB.sub.6) by arc melting a rod of compacted LaB.sub.6 powder. The method is especially suitable for preparing single crystal LaB.sub.6 cathodes for use in scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM).

  16. Growth of single crystals from solutions using semi-permeable membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varkey, A. J.; Okeke, C. E.

    1983-05-01

    A technique suitable for growth of single crystals from solutions using semi-preamble membranes is described. Using this technique single crystals of copper sulphate, potassium bromide and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate have been successfully grown. Advantages of this technique over other methods are discussed.

  17. Method for surface passivation and protection of cadmium zinc telluride crystals

    DOEpatents

    Mescher, Mark J.; James, Ralph B.; Schlesinger, Tuviah E.; Hermon, Haim

    2000-01-01

    A method for reducing the leakage current in CZT crystals, particularly Cd.sub.1-x Zn.sub.x Te crystals (where x is greater than equal to zero and less than or equal to 0.5), and preferably Cd.sub.0.9 Zn.sub.0.1 Te crystals, thereby enhancing the ability of these crystal to spectrally resolve radiological emissions from a wide variety of radionuclides. Two processes are disclosed. The first method provides for depositing, via reactive sputtering, a silicon nitride hard-coat overlayer which provides significant reduction in surface leakage currents. The second method enhances the passivation by oxidizing the CZT surface with an oxygen plasma prior to silicon nitride deposition without breaking the vacuum state.

  18. Phenoxo bridged dinuclear Zn(II) Schiff base complex as new precursor for preparation zinc oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structures and photoluminescence studies

    SciTech Connect

    Saeednia, S., E-mail: sami_saeednia@yahoo.com; Iranmanesh, P.; Ardakani, M. Hatefi

    Highlights: • A novel nano-scale Zn(II) complex was synthesized by solvothermal method. • Chemical structure of the nanostructures was characterized as well as bulk complex. • The photoluminescence property of the complex was investigated at room temperature. • The thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were carried out. • Thermal decomposition of the nanostructures was prepared zinc oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Nanoparticles of a novel Zn(II) Schiff base complex, [Zn(HL)NO{sub 3}]{sub 2} (1), (H{sub 2}L = 2-[(2-hydroxy-propylimino) methyl] phenol), was synthesized by using solvothermal method. Shape, morphology and chemical structure of the synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),more » X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectoscopy (FT-IR) and UV–vis spectroscopy. Structural determination of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The results were revealed that the zinc complex is a centrosymmetric dimer in which deprotonated phenolates bridge the two five-coordinate metal atoms and link the two halves of the dimer. The thermal stability of compound 1 was analyzed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of the initial substrates concentration and reaction time on size and morphology of compound 1 nanostructure was investigated as well. Furthermore, the luminescent properties of the complex 1 were examined. ZnO nanoparticles with diameter between 15 and 20 nm were simply synthesized by solid-state transformation of compound 1 at 700 °C.« less

  19. A novel ultra-broadband single polarization single mode photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Linghong; Zheng, Yi; Hou, Lantian; Zheng, Kai; Peng, Jiying; Zhao, Xingtao

    2017-08-01

    The concept of employing a central hole infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal (NLC) and two additional air holes in the core region is exploited to obtain an ultra-broadband single polarization single mode photonic crystal fiber (SPSM-PCF). The effects of structural parameters on the SPSM operation are studied using the full-vectorial finite element method. Numerical results show that the proposed structure can attain the SPSM operation bandwidth of 1610 nm (from 1.51 to 3.12 μm) with confinement loss lower than 0.01 dB/km. The SPSM operation range can also be widely tuned to shorter wavelengths by adjusting the structure parameters. And meanwhile, a broad dispersion-flattened SPSM PCF is also obtained around the communication wavelength. Moreover, the dual-core SPSM PCF has also been investigated, enabling potential applications in the wavelength splitter of 1.31 and 1.55 μm bands at a short fiber length of 1.629 mm with SPSM operation.

  20. Electrical characteristics of organic perylene single-crystal-based field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin-Woo; Kang, Han-Saem; Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Kihyun; Cho, Mi-Yeon; Kwon, Young-Wan; Joo, Jinsoo; Kim, Jae-Il; Hong, Chang-Seop

    2007-12-01

    We report on the fabrication of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using perylene single crystal as the active material and their electrical characteristics. Perylene single crystals were directly grown from perylene powder in a furnace using a relatively short growth time of 1-3 h. The crystalline structure of the perylene single crystals was characterized by means of a single-crystal x-ray diffractometer. In order to place the perylene single crystal onto the Au electrodes of the field-effect transistor, a polymethlymethacrylate thin layer was spin-coated on top of the crystal surface. The OFETs fabricated using the perylene single crystal showed a typical p-type operating mode. The field-effect mobility of the perylene crystal based OFETs was measured to be ˜9.62×10-4 cm2/V s at room temperature. The anisotropy of the mobility implying the existence of different mobilities when applying currents in different directions was observed for the OFETs, and the existence of traps in the perylene crystal was found through the measurements of the temperature-dependent mobility at various operating drain voltages.

  1. The evolution of machining-induced surface of single-crystal FCC copper via nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Huang, Hu; Zhao, Hongwei; Ma, Zhichao; Yang, Yihan; Hu, Xiaoli

    2013-05-01

    The physical properties of the machining-induced new surface depend on the performance of the initial defect surface and deformed layer in the subsurface of the bulk material. In this paper, three-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations of nanoindentation are preformed on the single-point diamond turning surface of single-crystal copper comparing with that of pristine single-crystal face-centered cubic copper. The simulation results indicate that the nucleation of dislocations in the nanoindentation test on the machining-induced surface and pristine single-crystal copper is different. The dislocation embryos are gradually developed from the sites of homogeneous random nucleation around the indenter in the pristine single-crystal specimen, while the dislocation embryos derived from the vacancy-related defects are distributed in the damage layer of the subsurface beneath the machining-induced surface. The results show that the hardness of the machining-induced surface is softer than that of pristine single-crystal copper. Then, the nanocutting simulations are performed along different crystal orientations on the same crystal surface. It is shown that the crystal orientation directly influences the dislocation formation and distribution of the machining-induced surface. The crystal orientation of nanocutting is further verified to affect both residual defect generations and their propagation directions which are important in assessing the change of mechanical properties, such as hardness and Young's modulus, after nanocutting process.

  2. Origins of low resistivity and Ge donor level in Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kamioka, K.; Oga, T.; Izawa, Y.

    2013-12-04

    The energy level of Ge in Ge-ion implanted ZnO single crystals is studied by Hall-effect and photoluminescence (PL) methods. The variations in resistivity from ∼10{sup 3} Ωcm for un-implanted samples to ∼10{sup −2} Ωcm for as-implanted ones are observed. The resistivity is further decreased to ∼10{sup −3} Ωcm by annealing. The origins of the low resistivity are attributed to both the zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}) related defects and the electrical activated Ge donor. An activation energy of Ge donors estimated from the temperature dependence of carrier concentration is 102 meV. In PL studies, the new peak at 372 nm (3.33more » eV) related to the Ge donor is observed in 1000 °C annealed samples.« less

  3. Effect of grain boundary on the field-effect mobility of microrod single crystal organic transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaekyun; Kang, Jingu; Cho, Sangho; Yoo, Byungwook; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu

    2014-11-01

    High-performance microrod single crystal organic transistors based on a p-type 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) semiconductor are fabricated and the effects of grain boundaries on the carrier transport have been investigated. The spin-coating of C8-BTBT and subsequent solvent vapor annealing process enabled the formation of organic single crystals with high aspect ratio in the range of 10 - 20. It was found that the organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on these single crystals yield a field-effect mobility and an on/off current ratio of 8.04 cm2/Vs and > 10(5), respectively. However, single crystal OFETs with a kink, in which two single crystals are fused together, exhibited a noticeable drop of field-effect mobility, and we claim that this phenomenon results from the carrier scattering at the grain boundary.

  4. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of radiation-induced paramagnetic centers in succinic anhydride single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliskan, Betul; Caliskan, Ali Cengiz; Er, Emine

    2017-09-01

    Succinic anhydride single crystals were exposed to 60Co-gamma irradiation at room temperature. The irradiated single crystals were investigated at 125 K by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy. The investigation of EPR spectra of irradiated single crystals of succinic anhydride showed the presence of two succinic anhydride anion radicals. The anion radicals observed in gamma-irradiated succinic anhydride single crystal were created by the scission of the carbon-oxygen double bond. The structure of EPR spectra demonstrated that the hyperfine splittings arise from the same radical species. The reduction of succinic anhydride was identified which is formed by the addition of an electron to oxygen of the Csbnd O bond. The g values, the hyperfine structure constants and direction cosines of the radiation damage centers observed in succinic anhydride single crystal were obtained.

  5. Interdiffusion behavior between NiAlHf coating and Ni-based single crystal superalloy with different crystal orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruili; Gong, Xueyuan; Peng, Hui; Ma, Yue; Guo, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    NiAlHf coatings were deposited onto Ni-based single crystal (SC) superalloy with different crystal orientations by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The effects of the crystal orientations of the superalloy substrate on inter-diffusion behavior between the substrate and the NiAlHf coating were investigated. Substrate diffusion zone (SDZ) containing needle-like μ phases and interdiffusion zone (IDZ) mainly consisting of the ellipsoidal and rod-like μ phases were formed in the SC alloy after heat-treatment 10 h at 1100 °C. The thickness of secondary reaction zone (SRZ) formed in the SC alloy with (0 1 1) crystal orientation is about 14 μm after 50 h heat-treatment at 1100 °C, which is relatively thicker than that in the SC alloy with (0 0 1) crystal orientation, whereas the IDZ revealed similar thickness.

  6. Structural and optical properties of WTe2 single crystals synthesized by DVT technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Vijay; Vyas, Chirag; Pathak, V. M.; Soalanki, G. K.; Patel, K. D.

    2018-05-01

    Layered transition metal di-chalcogenide (LTMDCs) crystals have attracted much attention due to their potential in optoelectronic device applications recently due to realization of their monolayer based structures. In the present investigation we report growth of WTe2 single crystals by direct vapor transport (DVT) technique. These crystals are then characterized by energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX) to study stoichiometric composition after growth. The structural properties are studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) is used to confirm orthorhombic structure of grown WTe2 crystal. Surface morphological properties of the crystals are also studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The optical properties of the grown crystals are studied by UV-Visible spectroscopy which gives direct band gap of 1.44 eV for grown WTe2 single crystals.

  7. Crystal growth and characterization of third order nonlinear optical piperazinium bis(4-hydroxybenzenesulphonate) (P4HBS) single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichan, Karuppasamy; Muthu, Senthil Pandian; Perumalsamy, Ramasamy

    2017-09-01

    The organic single crystal of piperazinium bis(4-hydroxybenzenesulphonate) (P4HBS) was grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) at room temperature. The lattice parameters of the grown crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Functional groups of P4HBS crystal were confirmed by FTIR spectrum analysis. The optical quality of the grown crystal was identified by the UV-Vis NIR spectrum analysis. The grown crystal has good optical transmittance in the range of 410-1100 nm. In photoluminescence spectrum, sharp emission peaks are observed, which indicates the ultraviolet (UV) emission. The photoconductivity study reveals that the grown crystal has negative photoconductive nature. The thermal behaviour of the P4HBS crystal was investigated by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The mechanical stability of grown crystal was analyzed and the indentation size effect (ISE) was explained by Hays-Kendall's (HK) approach and proportional specimen resistance model (PSRM). Chemical etching study was carried out and the etch pit density (EPD) was calculated. The dielectric constant (ε‧) and dielectric loss (tan δ) as a function of frequency were measured for the grown crystal. The solid state parameters such as valence electron, plasma energy, Penn gap and Fermi energy were evaluated theoretically for the P4HBS using the empirical relation. The estimated values are used to calculate the electronic polarizability. The third-order nonlinear optical properties such as nonlinear refractive index (n2), absorption co-efficient (β) and susceptibility (χ(3)) were studied by Z-scan technique at 632.8 nm using He-Ne laser.

  8. High purity, low dislocation GaAs single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T.; Holmes, D. E.; Kirkpatrick, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid encapsulated Czochralski crystal growth techniques for producing undoped, high resistivity, low dislocation material suitable for device applications is described. Technique development resulted in reduction of dislocation densities in 3 inch GaAs crystals. Control over the melt stoichiometry was determined to be of critical importance for the reduction of twinning and polycrystallinity during growth.

  9. In Vivo Biochemistry: Single-Cell Dynamics of Cyclic Di-GMP in Escherichia coli in Response to Zinc Overload.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jongchan; Dippel, Andrew B; Wang, Xin C; Hammond, Ming C

    2018-01-09

    Intracellular signaling enzymes drive critical changes in cellular physiology and gene expression, but their endogenous activities in vivo remain highly challenging to study in real time and for individual cells. Here we show that flow cytometry can be performed in complex media to monitor single-cell population distributions and dynamics of cyclic di-GMP signaling, which controls the bacterial colonization program. These in vivo biochemistry experiments are enabled by our second-generation RNA-based fluorescent (RBF) biosensors, which exhibit high fluorescence turn-on in response to cyclic di-GMP. Specifically, we demonstrate that intracellular levels of cyclic di-GMP in Escherichia coli are repressed with excess zinc, but not with other divalent metals. Furthermore, in both flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy setups, we monitor the dynamic increase in cellular cyclic di-GMP levels upon zinc depletion and show that this response is due to de-repression of the endogenous diguanylate cyclase DgcZ. In the presence of zinc, cells exhibit enhanced cell motility and increased sensitivity to antibiotics due to inhibited biofilm formation. Taken together, these results showcase the application of RBF biosensors in visualizing single-cell dynamic changes in cyclic di-GMP signaling in direct response to environmental cues such as zinc and highlight our ability to assess whether observed phenotypes are related to specific signaling enzymes and pathways.

  10. Growth of PBI 2 single crystals from stoichiometric and Pb excess melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, T.; Kinpara, M.; Wang, J. F.; Mimura, K.; Isshiki, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have successfully grown high-purity and -quality PbI 2 single crystals by the vertical Bridgman method. The rocking curves of four-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) show 120 arcsec in full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra at 7.8 K show the resolved intensive exciton emission line and the weak DAP emission band. The deep-level emissions are not observed. The measurement of the electrical and radiographic properties show that Leadiodide (PbI 2) single crystal has a resistivity of 5×10 10 Ω cm and imager lag is 8 s, respectively. In order to improve the controllability of crystal growth, PbI 2 single crystals were also grown from a lead (Pb) excess PbI 2 source. The experimental results show very good reproducibility. In addition, the growth models of crystal are proposed, and the growth mechanism is discussed.

  11. Method for the growth of large low-defect single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor); Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Trunek, Andrew J. (Inventor); Spry, David J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and the benefits resulting from the product thereof are disclosed for the growth of large, low-defect single-crystals of tetrahedrally-bonded crystal materials. The process utilizes a uniquely designed crystal shape whereby the direction of rapid growth is parallel to a preferred crystal direction. By establishing several regions of growth, a large single crystal that is largely defect-free can be grown at high growth rates. This process is particularly suitable for producing products for wide-bandgap semiconductors, such as SiC, GaN, AlN, and diamond. Large low-defect single crystals of these semiconductors enable greatly enhanced performance and reliability for applications involving high power, high voltage, and/or high temperature operating conditions.

  12. Growth and studies of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate single crystal for nonlinear optical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sathya, P.; Gopalakrishnan, R., E-mail: krgkrishnan@annauniv.edu

    2015-06-24

    Cyclohexylammonium 4-Methoxy Benzoate (C4MB) was synthesised and the functional groups were confirmed by FTIR analysis. The purified C4MB (by repeated recrystallisation) was used for single crystal growth. Single crystal of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate was successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth method at ambient temperature. Structural orientations were determined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer. Optical absorption and cut off wavelength were identified by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Thermal stability of the crystal was studied from thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses curves. Mechanical stability of the grown crystal was analysed by Vicker’s microhardness tester. The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) study revealed that themore » C4MB compound exhibits the SHG efficiency 3.3 times greater than KDP crystal.« less

  13. Crystalline perfection and optical studies of L-Histidinium dihydrogen phosphate orthophosphoric acid (LHDP) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ittyachan, Reena; Arunkumar, A.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2015-10-01

    Single crystals of L-Histidinium dihydrogenphosphate orthophosphoric acid (LHDP) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystals were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The HRXRD rocking curve measurements revealed the crystalline perfection of grown crystal and the absence of structural grain boundaries. The lower optical cut-off wavelength for this crystal was observed at 240 nm. The third order nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) and susceptibility (χ(3)) were calculated by Z-scan studies using Nd: YAG laser as a source. The single shot laser damage threshold of grown crystal was measured to be 6.286 GW/cm2 using Nd: YAG laser.

  14. Synthesis, growth, crystal structure, optical and third order nonlinear optical properties of quinolinium derivative single crystal: PNQI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthigha, S.; Krishnamoorthi, C.

    2018-03-01

    An organic quinolinium derivative nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal, 1-ethyl-2-[2-(4-nitro-phenyl)-vinyl]-quinolinium iodide (PNQI) was synthesized and successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Formation of a crystalline compound was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The quinolinium compound PNQI crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system with a centrosymmetric space group of P-1 symmetry. The molecular structure of PNQI was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. The thermal properties of the crystal have been investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. The optical characteristics obtained from UV-Vis-NIR spectral data were described and the cut-off wavelength observed at 506 nm. The etching study was performed to analyse the growth features of PNQI single crystal. The third order NLO properties such as nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) and nonlinear susceptibility (χ (3)) of the crystal were investigated using Z-scan technique at 632.8 nm of Hesbnd Ne laser.

  15. Synthesis, crystal growth and characterization of a phase matchable nonlinear optical single crystal: p-chloro dibenzylideneacetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindra, H. J.; John Kiran, A.; Nooji, Satheesha Rai; Dharmaprakash, S. M.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Kalluraya, Balakrishna; Rotermund, Fabian

    2008-05-01

    Good quality single crystals of p-chloro dibenzylideneacetone (CDBA) of size 13 mm×8 mm×2 mm were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystals were confirmed by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. From the thermo gravimetric/differential thermal (TG/DT) analysis, the CDBA was found to be thermally stable up to 250 °C. The mechanical stability of the crystal is comparable with that of the other reported chalcones. The lower optical cut-off wavelength for this crystal was observed at 440 nm. The laser damage threshold of the crystal was 0.6 GW/cm 2 at 532 nm. The second harmonic generation conversion efficiency of the powder sample of CDBA was found to be 4.5 times greater than that of urea. We also demonstrate the existence of the phase matching property in this crystal using Kurtz powder technique.

  16. Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, Gary; Scott, Brian; Wang, Anbo

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program “Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation,” funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. This project was completed in three phases, each with a separate focus. Phase I of the program, from October 1999 to April 2002, was devoted to development of sensing schema for use in high temperature, harsh environments. Different sensing designs were proposed and tested in the laboratory. Phase II of the program, frommore » April 2002 to April 2009, focused on bringing the sensor technologies, which had already been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensors could be deployed in harsh industrial environments and eventually become commercially viable through a series of field tests. Also, a new sensing scheme was developed and tested with numerous advantages over all previous ones in Phase II. Phase III of the program, September 2009 to December 2013, focused on development of the new sensing scheme for field testing in conjunction with materials engineering of the improved sensor packaging lifetimes. In Phase I, three different sensing principles were studied: sapphire air-gap extrinsic Fabry-Perot sensors; intensity-based polarimetric sensors; and broadband polarimetric sensors. Black body radiation tests and corrosion tests were also performed in this phase. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. At the beginning of Phase II, in June 2004, the BPDI sensor was tested at the Wabash River coal

  17. Precipitation of thin-film organic single crystals by a novel crystal growth method using electrospray and ionic liquid film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Keita; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2018-04-01

    We report an organic single crystal growth technique, which uses a nonvolatile liquid thin film as a crystal growth field and supplies fine droplets containing solute from the surface of the liquid thin film uniformly and continuously by electrospray deposition. Here, we investigated the relationships between the solute concentration of the supplied solution and the morphology and size of precipitated crystals for four types of fluorescent organic low molecule material [tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3), 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD), N,N‧-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N‧-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), and N,N-bis(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB)] using an ionic liquid as the nonvolatile liquid. As the concentration of the supplied solution decreased, the morphology of precipitated crystals changed from dendritic or leaf shape to platelike one. At the solution concentration of 0.1 mg/ml, relatively large platelike single crystals with a diagonal length of over 100 µm were obtained for all types of material. In the experiment using ionic liquid and dioctyl sebacate as nonvolatile liquids, it was confirmed that there is a clear positive correlation between the maximum volume of the precipitated single crystal and the solubility of solute under the same solution supply conditions.

  18. Compositional Effects on Nickel-Base Superalloy Single Crystal Microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Rebecca A.; Gabb, Timothy P.; Garg,Anita; Rogers, Richard B.; Nathal, Michael V.

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen nickel-base superalloy single crystals containing 0 to 5 wt% chromium (Cr), 0 to 11 wt% cobalt (Co), 6 to 12 wt% molybdenum (Mo), 0 to 4 wt% rhenium (Re), and fixed amounts of aluminum (Al) and tantalum (Ta) were examined to determine the effect of bulk composition on basic microstructural parameters, including gamma' solvus, gamma' volume fraction, volume fraction of topologically close-packed (TCP) phases, phase chemistries, and gamma - gamma'. lattice mismatch. Regression models were developed to describe the influence of bulk alloy composition on the microstructural parameters and were compared to predictions by a commercially available software tool that used computational thermodynamics. Co produced the largest change in gamma' solvus over the wide compositional range used in this study, and Mo produced the largest effect on the gamma lattice parameter and the gamma - gamma' lattice mismatch over its compositional range, although Re had a very potent influence on all microstructural parameters investigated. Changing the Cr, Co, Mo, and Re contents in the bulk alloy had a significant impact on their concentrations in the gamma matrix and, to a smaller extent, in the gamma' phase. The gamma phase chemistries exhibited strong temperature dependencies that were influenced by the gamma and gamma' volume fractions. A computational thermodynamic modeling tool significantly underpredicted gamma' solvus temperatures and grossly overpredicted the amount of TCP phase at 982 C. Furthermore, the predictions by the software tool for the gamma - gamma' lattice mismatch were typically of the wrong sign and magnitude, but predictions could be improved if TCP formation was suspended within the software program. However, the statistical regression models provided excellent estimations of the microstructural parameters based on bulk alloy composition, thereby demonstrating their usefulness.

  19. Covalently Bound Monomolecular Layers on Si Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidsey, Christopher E. D.

    1996-03-01

    Methods and reagents borrowed from the molecular synthetic chemistry of silicon compounds have been used to form covalently bound monomolecular layers on silicon single crystals. Organic monolayers bound covalently to silicon could form the basis for silicon/organic interfaces useful in sensor structures. In a representative reaction, alkyl monolayers with densities approaching that of crystalline polyethylene have been prepared by the radical-initiated insertion of 1-alkenes into the Si-H bonds of hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surfaces footnote M. R. Linford, P. Fenter, P. M. Eisenberger and C. E. D Chidsey, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 3145-3155 (1995). It has recently been found that this insertion reaction can also be initiated by illumination with UV light having sufficient energy to break the Si-H bond. Synchrotron-based high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and diffraction have demonstrated the expected Si-C bond in such monolayers footnote J. H. Terry, R. Cao, P. A. Pianetta, M. R. Linford and C. E. D. Chidsey, unpublished results. An alternate approach to similar monolayers has been found to be the chlorination of hydrogen-terminated Si(111) with Cl_2, followed by the nucleophilic displacement of chlorine with alkyl lithium reagents. The well-behaved chemical transformations of the hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces appear to result from the essentially bulk termination of the silicon lattice with closed-shell silicon hydride "functional groups" on the surface. In addition to the formation of novel organic layers, a full understanding of the reactivity of the hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces should lead to better control of key technological silicon interfaces such as Si/SiO_2, Si/epi-Si, and Si/metal.

  20. Localized deformation in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Paul H.; Efaw, Corey M.; Patten, Lance K.; Hollar, Courtney; Watson, Chad S.; Knowlton, William B.; Müllner, Peter

    2018-06-01

    The magnetomechanical behavior of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys such as Ni-Mn-Ga, and hence the relationship between structure and nanoscale magnetomechanical properties, is of interest for their potential applications in actuators. Furthermore, due to its crystal structure, the behavior of Ni-Mn-Ga is anisotropic. Accordingly, nanoindentation and magnetic force microscopy were used to probe the nanoscale mechanical and magnetic properties of electropolished single crystalline 10M martensitic Ni-Mn-Ga as a function of the crystallographic c-axis (easy magnetization) direction relative to the indentation surface (i.e., c-axis in-plane versus out-of-plane). Load-displacement curves from 5-10 mN indentations on in-plane regions exhibited pop-in during loading, whereas this phenomenon was absent in out-of-plane regions. Additionally, the reduced elastic modulus measured for the c-axis out-of-plane orientation was ˜50% greater than for in-plane. Although heating above the transition temperature to the austenitic phase followed by cooling to the room temperature martensitic phase led to partial recovery of the indentation deformation, the magnitude and direction of recovery depended on the original relative orientation of the crystallographic c-axis: positive recovery for the in-plane orientation versus negative recovery (i.e., increased indent depth) for out-of-plane. Moreover, the c-axis orientation for out-of-plane regions switched to in-plane upon thermal cycling, whereas the number of twins in the in-plane regions increased. We hypothesize that dislocation plasticity contributes to the permanent deformation, while pseudoelastic twinning causes pop-in during loading and large recovery during unloading in the c-axis in-plane case. Minimization of indent strain energy accounts for the observed changes in twin orientation and number following thermal cycling.

  1. Characterization of Cadmium-Zinc Telluride Crystals Grown by 'Contactless' PVT Using Synchrotron White Beam Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Gillies, D.; Grasza, K.; Chung, H.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.

    1997-01-01

    Crystals of Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te grown by Physical Vapor Transport (PVT) using self-seeding 'contactless' techniques were characterized using synchrotron radiation (reflection, transmission, and Laue back-reflection X-ray topography). Crystals of low (x = 0.04) and high (up to x approx. = 0.4) ZnTe content were investigated. Twins and defects such as dislocations, precipitates, and slip bands were identified. Extensive inhomogeneous strains present in some samples were found to be generated by interaction (sticking) with the pedestal and by composition gradients in the crystals. Large (up to about 5 mm) oval strain fields were observed around some Te precipitates. Low angle grain boundaries were found only in higher ZnTe content (x greater than or equal to 0.2) samples.

  2. Solution-processed zinc oxide nanoparticles/single-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangmei; Sun, Jia; Qian, Chuan; Hu, Xiaotao; Wu, Han; Huang, Yulan; Yang, Junliang

    2016-09-01

    Solution-processed thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the essential building blocks for manufacturing the low-cost and large-area consumptive electronics. Herein, solution-processed TFTs based on the composites of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were fabricated by the methods of spin-coating and doctor-blading. Through controlling the weight of SWCNTs, the ZnO/SWCNTs TFTs fabricated by spin-coating demonstrated a field-effect mobility of 4.7 cm2/Vs and a low threshold voltage of 0.8 V, while the TFTs devices fabricated by doctor-blading technique showed reasonable electrical performance with a mobility of 0.22 cm2/Vs. Furthermore, the ion-gel was used as an efficient electrochemical gate dielectric because of its large electric double-layer capacitance. The operating voltage of all the TFTs devices is as low as 4.0 V. The research suggests that ZnO/SWCNTs TFTs have the potential applications in low-cost, large-area and flexible consumptive electronics, such as chemical-biological sensors and smart label.

  3. Wideband Single-Crystal Transducer for Bone Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Yu; Snook, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    excitation signal to the transducer and amplifying the signal received from the transducer. The excitation signal may be either a wide-bandwidth signal to excite the transducer across its entire operational spectrum, or a narrow-bandwidth signal optimized for a particular measurement technique. The transducer face is applied to the skin covering the bone to be characterized, and may be operated in through-transmission mode using two transducers, or in pulse-echo mode. The transducer is a unique combination of material, design, and fabrication technique. It is based on single-crystal lead magnesium niobate lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric material. As compared to the commonly used piezoceramics, this piezocrystal has superior piezoelectric and elastic properties, which results in devices with superior bandwidth, source level, and power requirements. This design necessitates a single resonant frequency. However, by operating in a transverse length-extensional mode, with the electric field applied orthogonally to the extensional direction, resonators of different sizes can share common electrodes, resulting in a multiply-resonant structure. With carefully sized resonators, and the superior bandwidth of piezocrystal, the resonances can be made to overlap to form a smooth, wide-bandwidth characteristic.

  4. Demonstration of single crystal growth via solid-solid transformation of a glass

    DOE PAGES

    Savytskii, Dmytro; Knorr, Brian; Dierolf, Volkmar; ...

    2016-03-18

    Many advanced technologies have relied on the availability of single crystals of appropriate material such as silicon for microelectronics or superalloys for turbine blades. Similarly, many promising materials could unleash their full potential if they were available in a single crystal form. However, the current methods are unsuitable for growing single crystals of these oftentimes incongruently melting, unstable or metastable materials. Here we demonstrate a strategy to overcome this hurdle by avoiding the gaseous or liquid phase, and directly converting glass into a single crystal. Specifically, Sb 2S 3 single crystals are grown in Sb-S-I glasses as an example ofmore » this approach. In this first unambiguous demonstration of an all-solid-state glass → crystal transformation, extraneous nucleation is avoided relative to crystal growth via spatially localized laser heating and inclusion of a suitable glass former in the composition. Lastly, the ability to fabricate patterned single-crystal architecture on a glass surface is demonstrated, providing a new class of micro-structured substrate for low cost epitaxial growth, active planar devices, etc.« less

  5. Elastic response of zone axis (001)-oriented PWA 1480 single crystal: The influence of secondary orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of secondary orientation on the elastic response of a zone axis (001)-oriented nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, PWA 1480, was investigated under mechanical loading conditions by applying finite element techniques. Elastic stress analyses were performed with a commercially available finite element code. Secondary orientation of the single-crystal superalloy was offset with respect to the global coordinate system in increments from 0 to 90 deg and stresses developed within the single crystal were determined for each loading condition. The results indicated that the stresses were strongly influenced by the angular offset between the secondary crystal orientation and the global coordinate system. The degree of influence was found to vary with the type of loading condition (mechanical, thermal, or combined) imposed on the single-crystal superalloy.

  6. Elastic response of (001)-oriented PWA 1480 single crystal - The influence of secondary orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Abdul-Azis, Ali; Mcgaw, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The influence of secondary orientation on the elastic response of a zone axis (001)-oriented nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, PWA 1480, was investigated under mechanical loading conditions by applying finite element techniques. Elastic stress analyses were performed with a commercially available finite element code. Secondary orientation of the single-crystal superalloy was offset with respect to the global coordinate system in increments from 0 to 90 deg and stresses developed within the single crystal were determined for each loading condition. The results indicated that the stresses were strongly influenced by the angular offset between the secondary crystal orientation and the global coordinate system. The degree of influence was found to vary with the type of loading condition (mechanical, thermal, or combined) imposed on the single-crystal superalloy.

  7. Electrical resistivity measurements on fragile organic single crystals in the diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, T.; Tanaka, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Miyazaki, T.

    2001-05-01

    A method of sample assembly for four-probe resistivity measurements on fragile organic single crystals using a diamond anvil cell is presented. A procedure to keep insulation between the metal gasket and four leads of thin gold wires bonded to the sample crystal by gold paint is described in detail. The resistivity measurements performed on a single crystal of an organic semiconductor and that of neutral molecules up to 15 GPa and down to 4.2 K showed that this new procedure of four-probe diamond anvil resistivity measurements enables us to obtain sufficiently accurate resistivity data of organic crystals.

  8. Bismuth zinc vanadate, BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}: New crystal structure type and electronic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Eliziario Nunes, Sayonara; Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP; Wang, Chun-Hai

    2015-02-15

    We report a combined experimental and computational study of the crystal structure and electronic properties of bismuth zinc vanadate, BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}, known for its visible light photocatalytic activity. The crystal structure has been solved from laboratory powder X-ray diffraction data using the repeated minimisations from random starting values method. BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6} adopts a new structure type, based on the following building blocks: corner- and edge-sharing ZnO{sub 4} tetrahedra, ZnO{sub 6} octahedra and VO{sub 4} tetrahedra, and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 12} dimers. It is the only known member of the BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Pb, Ca, Cd, Mn, Zn, Mg, Cu;more » A=V, P, As) family which does not appear to be structurally closely related to others. The electronic structure of BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}, calculated by DFT methods, shows that it is an indirect gap semiconductor with a calculated band gap of 1.6 eV, which compares favourably to the experimentally measured value of 2.4 eV. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}, a new structure type in the BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Mg, Ca, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, Zn; A=V, P, As) family. - Highlights: • Structure solution from PXRD data by repeated minimisations from random starting values. • New structure type in the BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Pb, Ca, Cd, Mn, Zn, Mg, Cu; A=V, P, As) family. • Electronic structure calculation.« less

  9. Crystal growth and transport properties of CuAlO2 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahimi, R.; Rekhila, G.; Trari, M.; Bessekhouad, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The transport properties of the delafossite CuAlO2 single crystal, grown by the flux method, are confined in ∞[AlO2] layers extending in the (001) plans. The dielectric properties are measured up to 490 K in the frequency range (102-105 Hz). The small variation of the dielectric loss tan(δ) is attributed to the wide space charge region. The linear plot log (conductivity) vs. 1000/ T follows an Arrhenius type law and the results are discussed in terms of electron hopping among localized states. The activation energy (0.18 eV) gives an effective mass of 16 m 0 indicating that the levels in the vicinity of the Fermi level are strongly localized. Hence, the increase of the conductivity (σ) results from a thermal activation of the mobility (μ300 K = 1.2 × 10-5 cm-2 V-1 s-1). The sign of hole like small polarons is that of p type carriers originating from oxygen intercalation. The thermopower is little temperature dependent and characteristic of non degenerate conductivity with a low holes concentration and a large concentration of surface states within the gap region.

  10. Crystal growth, structural, optical, thermal and dielectric properties of lithium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Senthilkumar; Paulraj, Rajesh; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-11-01

    The vibrational groups of the lithium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate have been investigated by FTIR and FT- Raman analyses. It has low absorbance in the UV-Vis-NIR region. The laser damage threshold study confirms that the material withstands upto 30 mJ with time of 7 s, after that circular dot damage is seen on the surface. The dark region of the surface damage spot occurs due to the thermal effects. The material is thermally stable upto 93 °C and there is no weight loss below this temperature. The dielectric studies were carried out at the frequency regions of 1 kHz-1 MHz and different temperatures from 40 °C to 80 °C. Semi-organic non-linear optical (NLO) single crystal lithium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate has been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The Hirshfeld surface analysis was performed to understand the different intermolecular interactions in the title compound. The fingerprint plots contain the highest portion of H⋯O/O⋯H (48.3%) interactions.

  11. Fluid inclusions and microstructures in experimentally deformed quartz single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thust, A.; Tarantola, A.; Heilbronner, R.; Stünitz, H.

    2009-04-01

    The "H2O-weakening" effect that reduces the strength of quartz dramatically (e.g. Griggs & Blacic 1965) is still not understood. For example, Kronenberg & Tullis (1984) conclude that the weakening effect is pressure dependent while Paterson (1989) infers a glide and recovery control of water. Obviously, the spatial distribution and transport of H2O are important factors (Kronenberg et al. 1986, FitzGerald et al. 1991). We have carried out experiments on milky quartz in a Griggs deformation apparatus. Cylinders (6.5 mm in diameter, 12-13 mm in length) from a milky zone of a natural quartz single crystal have been cored in orientations (1) normal to one of the prism planes and (2) 45˚ to and 45˚ to (O+orientation). At 1 GPa confining pressure, 900˚ C and 10-6s-1, the flow strength is 150 MPa for samples with orientation (1). Further experiments are needed to establish the flow strength for orientation (2). FTIR measurements on double-polished thick sections (200-500 μm) in the undeformed quartz material yield an average H2O content of approximately 100 H/106Si. The water is heterogeneously distributed in the sample. Direct measurements on fluid inclusions yield a H2O content of more than 25 000 H/106Si. Thus, the H2O in the undeformed material is predominantly present in fluid inclusions of size from tens to hundred microns. Micro-thermometric measurements at low temperature indicate the presence of different salts in the fluid inclusions. The ice melting temperature, between -6.9 and -7.4˚ C, indicate an average salinity of 10.5 wt% NaCl. After deformation the distribution of H2O is more homogeneous throughout the sample. The majority of the big inclusions have disappeared and very small inclusions of several microns to sub-micron size have formed. FTIR measurements in zones of undulatory extinction and shear bands show an average H2O content of approximately 3000 H/106Si. Moreover, the larger fluid inclusions are characterized by a higher salinity (12 wt%) due

  12. Magnetic spherical cores partly coated with periodic mesoporous organosilica single crystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wei, Yong; Li, Wei; Deng, Yonghui; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2012-03-07

    Core-shell structured materials are of special significance in various applications. Until now, most reported core-shell structures have polycrystalline or amorphous coatings as their shell layers, with popular morphologies of microspheres or quasi-spheres. However, the single crystals, either mesoscale or atomic ones, are still rarely reported as shell layers. If single crystals can be coated on core materials, it would result in a range of new type core-shell structures with various morphologies, and probably more potential applications. In this work, we demonstrate that periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) single crystals can partly grow on magnetic microspheres to form incomplete Fe(3)O(4)@nSiO(2)@PMO core-shell materials in aqueous solution, which indeed is the first illustration that mesoporous single-crystal materials can be used as shell layers for preparation of core-shell materials. The achieved materials have advantages of high specific surface areas, good magnetic responses, embedded functional groups and cubic mesopore channels, which might provide them with various application conveniences. We suppose the partial growth is largely decided by the competition between growing tendency of single crystals and the resistances to this tendency. In principle, other single crystals, including a range of atomic single crystals, such as zeolites, are able to be developed into such core-shell structures.

  13. Formation of Isolated Zn Vacancies in ZnO Single Crystals by Absorption of Ultraviolet Radiation: A Combined Study Using Positron Annihilation, Photoluminescence, and Mass Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Enamul H.; Weber, Marc H.; McCluskey, Matthew D.

    2013-07-01

    Positron annihilation spectra reveal isolated zinc vacancy (VZn) creation in single-crystal ZnO exposed to 193-nm radiation at 100mJ/cm2 fluence. The appearance of a photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.18 eV in irradiated ZnO is attributed to an electronic transition from the VZn acceptor level at ˜100meV to the conduction band. The observed VZn density profile and hyperthermal Zn+ ion emission support zinc vacancy-interstitial Frenkel pair creation by exciting a wide 6.34 eV Zn-O antibonding state at 193-nm photon—a novel photoelectronic process for controlled VZn creation in ZnO.

  14. Formation of isolated Zn vacancies in ZnO single crystals by absorption of ultraviolet radiation: a combined study using positron annihilation, photoluminescence, and mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Enamul H; Weber, Marc H; McCluskey, Matthew D

    2013-07-05

    Positron annihilation spectra reveal isolated zinc vacancy (V(Zn)) creation in single-crystal ZnO exposed to 193-nm radiation at 100 mJ/cm(2) fluence. The appearance of a photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.18 eV in irradiated ZnO is attributed to an electronic transition from the V(Zn) acceptor level at ~100 meV to the conduction band. The observed V(Zn) density profile and hyperthermal Zn(+) ion emission support zinc vacancy-interstitial Frenkel pair creation by exciting a wide 6.34 eV Zn-O antibonding state at 193-nm photon-a novel photoelectronic process for controlled V(Zn) creation in ZnO.

  15. Containerless processing of single crystals in low-G environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, H. U.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments on containerless crystal growth from the melt were conducted during Skylab missions SL3 and SL4 (Skylab Experiment M-560). Six samples of InSb were processed, one of them heavily doped with selenium. The concept of the experiment is discussed and related to general crystal growth methods and their merits as techniques for containerless processing in space. The morphology of the crystals obtained is explained in terms of volume changes associated with solidification and wetting conditions during solidification. All samples exhibit extremely well developed growth facets. Analysis by X-ray topographical methods and chemical etching shows that the crystals are of high structural perfection. Average dislocation density as revealed by etching is of the order of 100 per sq cm; no dislocation clusters could be observed in the space-grown samples. A sequence of striations that is observed in the first half of the selenium-doped sample is explained as being caused by periodic surface breakdown.

  16. Single shot ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry (UDE) of laser-driven shocks in single crystal explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, Von H; Mcgrane, Shawn D; Moore, David S

    2009-01-01

    We report on the first experiments to measure states in shocked energetic single crystals with dynamic ellipsometry. We demonstrate that these ellipsometric techniques can produce reasonable Hugoniot values using small amounts of crystalline RDX and PETN. Pressures, particle velocities and shock velocities obtained using shocked ellipsometry are comparable to those found using gas-gun flyer plates and molecular dynamics calculations. The adaptation of the technique from uniform thin films of polymers to thick non-perfect crystalline materials was a significant achievement. Correct sample preparation proved to be a crucial component. Through trial and error, we were able to resolve polishing issues, samplemore » quality problems, birefringence effects and mounting difficulties that were not encountered using thin polymer films.« less

  17. Growth of mercuric iodide single crystals from dimethylsulfoxide

    DOEpatents

    Carlston, Richard C.

    1976-07-13

    Dimethylsulfoxide is used as a solvent for the growth of red mercuric iodide (HgI.sub.2) crystals for use in radiation detectors. The hygroscopic property of the solvent allows controlled amounts of water to enter into the solvent phase and diminish the large solubility of HgI.sub.2 so that the precipitating solid collects as well-defined euhedral crystals which grow into a volume of several cc.

  18. Preparative crystallization of a single chain antibody using an aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Huettmann, Hauke; Berkemeyer, Matthias; Buchinger, Wolfgang; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-11-01

    A simultaneous crystallization and aqueous two-phase extraction of a single chain antibody was developed, demonstrating process integration. The process conditions were designed to form an aqueous two-phase system, and to favor crystallization, using sodium sulfate and PEG-2000. At sufficiently high concentrations of PEG, a second phase was generated in which the protein crystallization occurred simultaneously. The single chain antibody crystals were partitioned to the top, polyethylene glycol-rich phase. The crystal nucleation took place in the sodium sulfate-rich phase and at the phase boundary, whereas crystal growth was progressing mainly in the polyethylene glycol-rich phase. The crystals in the polyethylene glycol-rich phase grew to a size of >50 µm. Additionally, polyethylene glycol acted as an anti-solvent, thus, it influenced the crystallization yield. A phase diagram with an undersaturation zone, crystallization area, and amorphous precipitation zone was established. Only small differences in polyethylene glycol concentration caused significant shifts of the crystallization yield. An increase of the polyethylene glycol content from 2% (w/v) to 4% (w/v) increased the yield from approximately 63-87%, respectively. Our results show that crystallization in aqueous two-phase systems is an opportunity to foster process integration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The tensile effect on crack formation in single crystal silicon irradiated by intense pulsed ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Guoying; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Zhong, Haowen; Cui, Xiaojun; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Xiaofu; Yu, Xiao; Le, Xiaoyun

    2017-10-01

    Improving antifatigue performance of silicon substrate is very important for the development of semiconductor industry. The cracking behavior of silicon under intense pulsed ion beam irradiation was studied by numerical simulation in order to understand the mechanism of induced surface peeling observed by experimental means. Using molecular dynamics simulation based on Stillinger Weber potential, tensile effect on crack growth and propagation in single crystal silicon was investigated. Simulation results reveal that stress-strain curves of single crystal silicon at a constant strain rate can be divided into three stages, which are not similar to metal stress-strain curves; different tensile load velocities induce difference of single silicon crack formation speed; the layered stress results in crack formation in single crystal silicon. It is concluded that the crack growth and propagation is more sensitive to strain rate, tensile load velocity, stress distribution in single crystal silicon.

  20. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Dibromido{2-[(4-tert-butylmethylphenyl) iminomethyl]pyridine-κ2 N, N'}Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaj, M.; Ghazanfarpour-Darjani, M.; Seftejani, F. B.; Lalegani, A.

    2017-12-01

    The title compound [Zn( dip)Br2] was synthesized using the Schiff base bidentate ligand (E)-4- tert-butyl- N-(pyridine-2-ylmethylene)benzeneamine ( dip) and zinc(II) bromide salts. It has been characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that in this structure, the zinc(II) ion is located on an inversion center and exhibits a ZnN2Br2 tetrahedral geometry. In this structure the dip ligand is coordinated with zinc(II) ion in a cyclic-bidentate fashion forming a five-membered metallocyclic ring. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic sp. gr. P21/ m with a = 9.2700(13) Å, b = 7.6128(11) Å, c = 12.3880(17) Å, and β = 97.021(3)°.

  1. Low Leakage Superconducting Tunnel Junctions with a Single Crystal Al2O3 Barrier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-30

    have recently implemented Josephson junction superconducting devices into qubits [1-6]. Before a multi -qubit quantum computer is realized, however...Low-Leakage Superconducting Tunnel Junctions with a Single-Crystal Al2O3 Barrier* S Oh1,2, K Cicak1, R McDermott3, K B Cooper3, K D Osborn1, R W...growth scheme for single-crystal Al2O3 tunnel barriers. The barriers are epitaxially grown on single-crystal rhenium (Re) base electrodes that are

  2. Ductile-to-Brittle transition in <111> hadfield steel single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafurova, E. G.; Chumlyakov, Yu. I.

    2010-10-01

    The deformation mechanism and the character of fracture of <111> austenitic Hadfield steel single crystals are studied during tension in the temperature range 77-673 K by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that a change in the fracture mechanism from ductile to brittle fracture according to the fractography criterion takes place at a higher temperature than that determined from a change in the elongation to failure of the single crystals. The ductile-to-brittle transition in the Hadfield steel single crystals is shown to be related to a high level of deforming stresses induced by solid-solution hardening and to mechanical twinning.

  3. Anisotropic constitutive modeling for nickel base single crystal superalloys using a crystallographic approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, D. C.; Sheh, M. Y.

    1988-01-01

    A micromechanical model based on crystallographic slip theory was formulated for nickel-base single crystal superalloys. The current equations include both drag stress and back stress state variables to model the local inelastic flow. Specially designed experiments have been conducted to evaluate the effect of back stress in single crystals. The results showed that (1) the back stress is orientation dependent; and (2) the back stress state variable in the inelastic flow equation is necessary for predicting anelastic behavior of the material. The model also demonstrated improved fatigue predictive capability. Model predictions and experimental data are presented for single crystal superalloy Rene N4 at 982 C.

  4. Erbium Distribution in Single Crystal YAG Fibers Grown by Laser-Heated Pedestal Growth Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-28

    single crystal YAG fibers grown by laser - heated pedestal growth technique Single crystal (SC) yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) as a host...inserted into a SC YAG tube. This rod-in-tube was used as a preform in our laser -heated pedestal growth (LHPG) apparatus to grow a fiber with a radial...fibers grown by laser -heated pedestal growth technique Report Title Single crystal (SC) yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) as a host material has

  5. Method for preparing homogeneous single crystal ternary III-V alloys

    DOEpatents

    Ciszek, Theodore F.

    1991-01-01

    A method for producing homogeneous, single-crystal III-V ternary alloys of high crystal perfection using a floating crucible system in which the outer crucible holds a ternary alloy of the composition desired to be produced in the crystal and an inner floating crucible having a narrow, melt-passing channel in its bottom wall holds a small quantity of melt of a pseudo-binary liquidus composition that would freeze into the desired crystal composition. The alloy of the floating crucilbe is maintained at a predetermined lower temperature than the alloy of the outer crucible, and a single crystal of the desired homogeneous alloy is pulled out of the floating crucible melt, as melt from the outer crucible flows into a bottom channel of the floating crucible at a rate that corresponds to the rate of growth of the crystal.

  6. Compression of Single-Crystal Orthopyroxene to 60GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, G. J.; Dera, P. K.; Holl, C. M.; Dorfman, S. M.; Duffy, T. S.

    2010-12-01

    Orthopyroxene ((Mg,Fe)SiO3) is one of the dominant phases in Earth’s upper mantle - it makes up ~20% of the upper mantle by volume. At high pressures and temperatures, this phase undergoes several well-characterized phase transitions. However, when compressed at low temperature and high-pressure, orthopyroxene is predicted to exhibit metastable behavior(1). Previous researchers have found orthoenstatite (Mg endmember of orthopyroxene) persists up to ~10 GPa, and diffraction(2-3), Raman(4), and elasticity(5) experiments suggest a phase transition above this pressure to an as-yet unidentified structure. While earlier diffraction data has surprisingly only been evaluated for structural information to ~9 GPa(2), changes in high-pressure Raman spectra to ~70 GPa indicate that several more high-pressure phase transitions in orthopyroxene are likely, including at least one change in Si-coordination(6). We have recently conducted exploratory experiments to further elucidate the high-pressure behavior of orthopyroxene. Compressing a single crystal of Fe-rich orthopyroxene (Fe0.66Mg0.24Ca0.05SiO3) using a diamond anvil cell, we observe phase transitions at ~10, 14, and 30 GPa, with the new phases having monoclinic, orthorhombic, and orthorhombic symmetries, respectively. While the first two transitions do not show a significant change in volume, the phase transition at ~30 GPa shows a large decrease in volume, which is consistent with a change in Si coordination number to mixed 4- and 6-fold coordination. References: [1] S. Jahn, American Mineralogist 93, 528-532 (2008). [2] R. J. Angel, J. M. Jackson, American Mineralogist 87, 558-561 (2002). [3] R. J. Angel, D. A. Hugh-Jones, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 99, 19,777-19,783 (1994). [4] G. Serghiou, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 34, 587-590 (2003). [5] J. Kung et al., Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 147, 27-44 (2004). [6] G. Serghiou, A. Chopelas, R. Boehler, Journal of Physics: Condensed

  7. Charged-particle spectroscopy in organic semiconducting single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ciavatti, A.; Basiricò, L.; Fraboni, B.

    2016-04-11

    The use of organic materials as radiation detectors has grown, due to the easy processability in liquid phase at room temperature and the possibility to cover large areas by means of low cost deposition techniques. Direct charged-particle detectors based on solution-grown Organic Semiconducting Single Crystals (OSSCs) are shown to be capable to detect charged particles in pulse mode, with very good peak discrimination. The direct charged-particle detection in OSSCs has been assessed both in the planar and in the vertical axes, and a digital pulse processing algorithm has been used to perform pulse height spectroscopy and to study the chargemore » collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage. Taking advantage of the charge spectroscopy and the good peak discrimination of pulse height spectra, an Hecht-like behavior of OSSCs radiation detectors is demonstrated. It has been possible to estimate the mobility-lifetime value in organic materials, a fundamental parameter for the characterization of radiation detectors, whose results are equal to μτ{sub coplanar} = (5 .5 ± 0.6 ) × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V and μτ{sub sandwich} = (1 .9 ± 0.2 ) × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V, values comparable to those of polycrystalline inorganic detectors. Moreover, alpha particles Time-of-Flight experiments have been carried out to estimate the drift mobility value. The results reported here indicate how charged-particle detectors based on OSSCs possess a great potential as low-cost, large area, solid-state direct detectors operating at room temperature. More interestingly, the good detection efficiency and peak discrimination observed for charged-particle detection in organic materials (hydrogen-rich molecules) are encouraging for their further exploitation in the detection of thermal and high-energy neutrons.« less

  8. Crystal front shape control by use of an additional heater in a Czochralski sapphire single crystal growth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Min-Jae; Han, Xue-Feng; Choi, Ho-Gil; Yi, Kyung-Woo

    2017-09-01

    The quality of sapphire single crystals used as substrates for LED production is largely influenced by two defects: dislocation density and bubbles trapped in the crystal. In particular, the dislocation density has a higher value in sapphire grown by the Czochralski (CZ) method than by other methods. In the present study, we predict a decreased value for the convexity and thermal gradient at the crystal front (CF) through the use of an additional heater in an induction-heated CZ system. In addition, we develop a solute concentration model by which the location of bubble formation in CZ growth is calculated, and the results are compared with experimental results. We further calculate the location of bubble entrapment corresponding with the use of an additional heater. We find that sapphire crystal growth with an additional heater yields a decreased thermal gradient at the CF, together with decreased CF convexity, improved energy efficiency, and improvements in terms of bubble formation location.

  9. Growth and characterization of new semiorganic nonlinear optical and piezoelectric lithium sulfate monohydrate oxalate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Harsh; Sinha, Nidhi; Kumar, Binay, E-mail: b3kumar69@yahoo.co.in

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A new semiorganic single crystal of LSO grown by slow evaporation technique. • Morphological studies of the LSO crystal deduced by BFDH law. • In the UV–vis spectrum wide transparent region and large band gap were found. • SHG is equal to KDP crystal and d{sub 33} was found to be equal to 6pC/N. • Grown crystal belongs to softer category. - Abstract: New semiorganic crystal of lithium sulfate monohydrate oxalate (LSO) for nonlinear application was synthesized by controlled slow evaporation method. The growth rate of various planes of the grown crystal was estimated by morphological study. Singlemore » crystal XRD analysis confirmed that the crystal belongs to triclinic lattice with space group P1. High transparency (∼95%) with large band gap (4.57 eV) was analyzed by UV–vis studies. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy were used to identify various functional groups present in the LSO crystal. SHG efficiency was found to be equal to the KDP crystal. Thermal stability (up to 117.54 °C) and melting point (242 °C) of the crystal were studied by TG-DTA. In dielectric measurements, the value of dielectric constant decreases with increase in frequency. Hardness studies confirmed soft nature of crystals. The piezoelectric coefficient was found to be 6pC/N along [0 0 1].« less

  10. Zinc fractionation in contaminated soils by sequential and single extractions: influence of soil properties and zinc content.

    PubMed

    Voegelin, Andreas; Tokpa, Gerome; Jacquat, Olivier; Barmettler, Kurt; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2008-01-01

    We studied the fractionation of zinc (Zn) in 49 contaminated soils as influenced by Zn content and soil properties using a seven-step sequential extraction procedure (F1: NH4NO3; F2: NH4-acetate, pH 6; F3: NH3OHCl, pH 6; F4: NH4-EDTA, pH 4.6; F5: NH4-oxalate, pH 3; F6: NH4-oxalate/ascorbic acid, pH 3; F7: residual). The soils had developed from different geologic materials and covered a wide range in soil pH (4.0-7.3), organic C content (9.3-102 g kg(-1)), and clay content (38-451 g kg(-1)). Input of aqueous Zn with runoff water from electricity towers during 26 to 74 yr resulted in total soil Zn contents of 3.8 to 460 mmol kg(-1). In acidic soils (n = 24; pH <6.0), Zn was mainly found in the mobile fraction (F1) and the last two fractions (F6 and F7). In neutral soils (n = 25; pH > or =6.0), most Zn was extracted in the mobilizable fraction (F2) and the intermediate fractions (F4 and F5). The extractability of Zn increased with increasing Zn contamination of the soils. The sum of mobile (F1) and mobilizable (F2) Zn was independent of soil pH, the ratio of Zn in F1 over F1+F2 plotted against soil pH, exhibited the typical shape of a pH sorption edge and markedly increased from pH 6 to pH 5, reflecting the increasing lability of mobilizable Zn with decreasing soil pH. In conclusion, the extractability of Zn from soils contaminated with aqueous Zn after decades of aging under field conditions systematically varied with soil pH and Zn content. The same trends are expected to apply to aqueous Zn released from decomposing Zn-bearing contaminants, such as sewage sludge or smelter slag. The systematic trends in Zn fractionation with varying soil pH and Zn content indicate the paramount effect of these two factors on molecular scale Zn speciation. Further research is required to characterize the link between the fractionation and speciation of Zn and to determine how Zn loading and soil physicochemical properties affect Zn speciation in soils.

  11. Gallium arsenide single crystal solar cell structure and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A production method and structure for a thin-film GaAs crystal for a solar cell on a single-crystal silicon substrate (10) comprising the steps of growing a single-crystal interlayer (12) of material having a closer match in lattice and thermal expansion with single-crystal GaAs than the single-crystal silicon of the substrate, and epitaxially growing a single-crystal film (14) on the interlayer. The material of the interlayer may be germanium or graded germanium-silicon alloy, with low germanium content at the silicon substrate interface, and high germanium content at the upper surface. The surface of the interface layer (12) is annealed for recrystallization by a pulsed beam of energy (laser or electron) prior to growing the interlayer. The solar cell structure may be grown as a single-crystal n.sup.+ /p shallow homojunction film or as a p/n or n/p junction film. A Ga(Al)AS heteroface film may be grown over the GaAs film.

  12. Fe-Al alloy single-crystal thin film preparation for basic magnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Tatsuya; Kawai, Tetsuroh; Futamoto, Masaaki; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Inaba, Nobuyuki

    2018-04-01

    Fe100-xAlx (x = 0, 4, 10, 20, 30 at. %) alloy films of 40 nm thickness are prepared on MgO(001) single-crystal substrates by varying substrate temperature from room temperature to 600 °C. Single-crystal films of (001) orientation with bcc-based disordered A2 structure are obtained for the Al content range of x = 0 - 20 at. %. An ordered phase of DO3 structure is observed in Fe70Al30 films prepared at temperatures higher than 200 °C, whereas (001) oriented single-crystal films of A2 structure are obtained when prepared at room temperature. The film surface profile does not depend much on the film composition, while the surface roughness increases with increasing substrate temperature. Island-like crystals are observed for films prepared at 600°C for all compositions. Difference in lattice spacing measured parallel and perpendicular to the substrate is noted for the single-crystal thin films and it increases with increasing Al content. The lattice strain in single-crystal film is caused possibly to accommodate the lattice mismatch with the MgO substrate. The (001)-oriented single-crystal films with A2 structure show four-fold symmetries in in-plane magnetic anisotropy with the easy magnetization axis A2[100] and the hard magnetization axis A2[110], whereas the films with DO3 ordered structure show almost isotropic magnetic properties.

  13. Single crystal and optical ceramic multicomponent garnet scintillators: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuntao; Luo, Zhaohua; Jiang, Haochuan; Meng, Fang; Koschan, Merry; Melcher, Charles L.

    2015-04-01

    Multicomponent garnet materials can be made in optical ceramic as well as single crystal form due to their cubic crystal structure. In this work, high-quality Gd3Ga3Al2O12:0.2 at% Ce (GGAG:Ce) single crystal and (Gd,Lu)3Ga3Al2O12:1 at% Ce (GLuGAG:Ce) optical ceramics were fabricated by the Czochralski method and a combination of hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) and annealing treatment, respectively. Under optical and X-ray excitation, the GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic exhibits a broad Ce3+ transition emission centered at 550 nm, while the emission peak of the GGAG:Ce single crystal is centered at 540 nm. A self-absorption effect in GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic results in this red-shift of the Ce3+ emission peak compared to that in the GGAG:Ce single crystal. The light yield under 662 keV γ-ray excitation was 45,000±2500 photons/MeV and 48,200±2410 photons/MeV for the GGAG:Ce single crystal and GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic, respectively. An energy resolution of 7.1% for 662 keV γ-rays was achieved in the GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic with a Hamamatsu R6231 PMT, which is superior to the value of 7.6% for a GGAG:Ce single crystal. Scintillation decay time measurements under 137Cs irradiation show two exponential decay components of 58 ns (47%) and 504 ns (53%) for the GGAG:Ce single crystal, and 84 ns (76%) and 148 ns (24%) for the GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic. The afterglow level after X-ray cutoff in the GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic is at least one order of magnitude lower than in the GGAG:Ce single crystal.

  14. Morphological, spectroscopic and thermal studies of samarium chloride coordinated single crystal grown by slow evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slathia, Goldy; Raina, Bindu; Gupta, Rashmi; Bamzai, K. K.

    2018-05-01

    The synthesis of samarium chloride coordinated single crystal was carried out at room temperature by slow evaporation method. The crystal possesses a well defined hexagonal morphology with six symmetrically equivalent growth sectors separated by growth boundaries. The theoretical morphology has been established by structural approach using Bravaise-Friedele-Donnaye-Harker (BFDH) law. Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy was carried in order to study the geometry and structure of the crystal. The detailed thermogravimetric analysis elucidates the thermal stability of the complex.

  15. Preliminary experiments on phase conjugation for flow visualization. [barium titanate single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weimer, D.; Howes, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    Barium titanate single crystals are discussed in the context of: the procedure for polarizing a crystal; a test for phase conjugation; transients in the production of phase conjugation; real time readout by a separate laser of a hologram induced within the crystal, including conjugation response times to on-off switching of each beam; and a demonstration of a Twyman-Green interferometer utilizing phase conjugation.

  16. Study on the temperature field of large-sized sapphire single crystal furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, J. P.; Jiang, J. W.; Liu, K. G.; Peng, X. B.; Jian, D. L.; Li, I. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the temperature field of large-sized (120kg, 200kg and 300kg grade) sapphire single crystal furnace was simulated. By keeping the crucible diameter ratio and the insulation system unchanged, the power consumption, axial and radial temperature gradient, solid-liquid surface shape, stress distribution and melt flow were studied. The simulation results showed that with the increase of the single crystal furnace size, the power consumption increased, the temperature field insulation effect became worse, the growth stress value increased and the stress concentration phenomenon occurred. To solve these problems, the middle and bottom insulation system should be enhanced during designing the large-sized sapphire single crystal furnace. The appropriate radial and axial temperature gradient was favorable to reduce the crystal stress and prevent the occurrence of cracking. Expanding the interface between the seed and crystal was propitious to avoid the stress accumulation phenomenon.

  17. Structural, spectral and birefringence studies of semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystal: Calcium5-sulfosalicylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalini, D.; Kalainathan, S.; Ambika, V. Revathi; Hema, N.; Jayalakshmi, D.

    2017-11-01

    Semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal Calcium5-Sulfosalicylate (CA5SS) was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The cell parameters and molecular structure of the grown crystal were studied by single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of various functional groups of the grown crystal was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) analysis. UV-Visible spectrum shows that CA5SS crystals have high transmittance in the range of 330-900 nm. The refractive index, birefringence and transient photoluminescence properties of the grown crystal were analyzed. The frequency doubling of the grown crystal (CA5SS) were studied and compared with that of KDP.

  18. Growth and characterization of high-purity SiC single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, G.; Balakrishna, V.; Brandt, C. D.

    2000-04-01

    High-purity SiC single crystals with diameter up to 50 mm have been grown by the physical vapor transport method. Finite element analysis was used for thermal modeling of the crystal growth cavity in order to reduce stress in the grown crystal. Crystals are grown in high-purity growth ambient using purified graphite furniture and high-purity SiC sublimation sources. Undoped crystals up to 50 mm in diameter with micropipe density less than 100 cm -2 have been grown using this method. These undoped crystals exhibit resistivities in the 10 3 Ω cm range and are p-type due to the presence of residual acceptor impurities, mainly boron. Semi-insulating SiC material is obtained by doping the crystal with vanadium. Vanadium has a deep donor level located near the middle of the band gap, which compensates the residual acceptor resulting in semi-insulating behavior.

  19. Strain-relief by single dislocation loops in calcite crystals grown on self-assembled monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Ihli, Johannes; Clark, Jesse N.; Côté, Alexander S.; Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Schenk, Anna S.; Kulak, Alexander N.; Comyn, Timothy P.; Chammas, Oliver; Harder, Ross J.; Duffy, Dorothy M.; Robinson, Ian K.; Meldrum, Fiona C.

    2016-01-01

    Most of our knowledge of dislocation-mediated stress relaxation during epitaxial crystal growth comes from the study of inorganic heterostructures. Here we use Bragg coherent diffraction imaging to investigate a contrasting system, the epitaxial growth of calcite (CaCO3) crystals on organic self-assembled monolayers, where these are widely used as a model for biomineralization processes. The calcite crystals are imaged to simultaneously visualize the crystal morphology and internal strain fields. Our data reveal that each crystal possesses a single dislocation loop that occupies a common position in every crystal. The loops exhibit entirely different geometries to misfit dislocations generated in conventional epitaxial thin films and are suggested to form in response to the stress field, arising from interfacial defects and the nanoscale roughness of the substrate. This work provides unique insight into how self-assembled monolayers control the growth of inorganic crystals and demonstrates important differences as compared with inorganic substrates. PMID:27302863

  20. A first-principle model of 300 mm Czochralski single-crystal Si production process for predicting crystal radius and crystal growth rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhongchao; Seto, Tatsuru; Kim, Sanghong; Kano, Manabu; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Mizuta, Masahiko; Hasebe, Shinji

    2018-06-01

    The Czochralski (CZ) process is the dominant method for manufacturing large cylindrical single-crystal ingots for the electronics industry. Although many models and control methods for the CZ process have been proposed, they were only tested with small equipment and only a few industrial application were reported. In this research, we constructed a first-principle model for controlling industrial CZ processes that produce 300 mm single-crystal silicon ingots. The developed model, which consists of energy, mass balance, hydrodynamic, and geometrical equations, calculates the crystal radius and the crystal growth rate as output variables by using the heater input, the crystal pulling rate, and the crucible rise rate as input variables. To improve accuracy, we modeled the CZ process by considering factors such as changes in the positions of the crucible and the melt level. The model was validated with the operation data from an industrial 300 mm CZ process. We compared the calculated and actual values of the crystal radius and the crystal growth rate, and the results demonstrated that the developed model simulated the industrial process with high accuracy.

  1. Unique spatiotemporal biomolecular emission profiles on single zinc oxide nanorods and applications in ultrasensitive biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpreet

    There has been longstanding interest in improving the optical detection capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy to achieve ultrahigh resolution and sensitivity in chemical and biological sensing applications. To promote these efforts, I present my work characterizing and developing zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) as advanced optical detection platforms that can enable enhanced intensity and stability of adsorbed fluorophore-coupled biomolecules. First, I present my unique findings profiling the temporal and spatial characteristics of biomolecular fluorescence on individual ZnO NRs in which I've identified highly localized, non-linear optical phenomena of fluorescence intensification on nanorod ends (FINE) and enhanced photostability. Using combined experimental and computational strategies, I elucidate the fundamental physicochemical origins of these optical phenomena by systematically decoupling various biomolecular, chemical, and nanomaterial factors. On the biomolecular side, I evaluate the roles of fluorophores with varying spectroscopic properties and concentrations as well as facet-selective biomolecular adsorption on the unique spatiotemporal optical responses on single ZnO NRs. From the chemical/nanomaterial context, I profile the biomolecular emission behaviors on single ZnO NRs as a function of varying NR physical dimensions, NR orientations, and positions along the NR long axis I also present the results of employing finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulations to corroborate my multifold experimental findings. The FDTD results further clarify the passive waveguiding capacity of the ZnO NRs to couple the radiation of surface-adsorpbed emitters and form evanescent waves that propagate to the NR ends before final emission into the far-field, confirming the experimental manifestation of FINE.. I also present an application exploiting the optical enhancement enabled by ZnO NRs in which I've engineered and validated a novel biosensing assay for the

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of superconducting single crystals of HgBa2CuO4+δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertinotti, A.; Viallet, V.; Colson, D.; Marucco, J.-F.; Hammann, J.; Forget, A.; Le Bras, G.

    1996-02-01

    Single crystals of HgBa2CuO4+δ of submillimetric sizes were grown with the same one step, low pressure, gold amalgamation technique used to obtain single crystals of HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+δ. Remarkable superconducting properties are displayed by the samples which are optimally doped as grown. The sharpness of the transition profiles of the magnetic susceptibility, its anisotropy dependence and the volume fraction exhibiting the Meissner effect exceed the values obtained with the best crystal samples of Hg-1223. X-rays show that no substitutional defects have been found in the mercury plane, in particular no mixed occupancy of copper at the mercury site. The interstitial oxygen content at (1/2, 1/2, 0) δ = 0.066+/-0.008 is about one third that observed in optimally doped Hg-1223, resulting in an identical doping level per CuO2 plane in both compounds.

  3. Growth of propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate single crystals and its characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunagaran, N.; Ramasamy, P.

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of Propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) using methanol as a solvent. The PHB single crystal of dimension up to 27×16×8 mm3 has been grown in a period of 18 days at room temperature. The optical transparency of the grown PHB crystal has been measured on (212) plane by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The crystal has 60% of transparency in the entire visible region. The thermo gravimetric analysis (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies reveal that the crystal is thermally stable up to 99°C. The mechanical strength of the grown PHB crystal is measured using Vickers microhardness tester. The chemical etching studies were carried out on (212) plane using methanol etchant. The laser damage threshold of PHB crystal is 1.3 GW/cm2. The dielectric properties have been investigated. The birefringence value is found to be 0.10148 at the wavelength of 504 nm. The refractive index of grown PHB single crystal is 1.6753.

  4. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structures and thermal analyses of some new antimicrobial zinc complexes: New configurations and nano-size structures.

    PubMed

    Masoudiasl, A; Montazerozohori, M; Naghiha, R; Assoud, A; McArdle, P; Safi Shalamzari, M

    2016-04-01

    Some new five coordinated ZnLX2 complexes, where L is N3-Schiff base ligand obtained by condensation reaction between diethylenetriamine and (E)-3-(2-nitrophenyl)acrylaldehyde and X (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), N3(-) and NCS(-)), were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, (1)H and (13)CNMR, UV-visible, ESI-mass spectra and molar conductivity measurements. The structures of zinc iodide and thiocyanate complexes were determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The X-ray results showed that the Zn (II) center in these complexes is five-coordinated in a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal configuration. Zinc iodide and thiocyanate complexes crystallize in the monoclinic and triclinic systems with space groups of C2/c and P1- with eight and two molecules per unit cell respectively. The crystal packing of the complexes consists of intermolecular interactions such as C-H(…)O and C-H(…)I, C-H(···)S, N(…)O, together with π-π stacking and some other unexpected interactions. The mentioned interactions cause three-dimensional supramolecular structure in the solid state. Zinc complexes were also prepared in nano-structure by sonochemical method confirmed by XRD, SEM and TEM analyses. Moreover, ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by direct thermolysis of zinc iodide complex. Furthermore, antimicrobial and thermal properties of the compounds were completely investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of structural and optical properties of YAG and Nd:YAG single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kostić, S.; Lazarević, Z.Ž., E-mail: lzorica@yahoo.com; Radojević, V.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Transparent YAG and pale pink Nd:YAG single crystals were produced by the Czochralski technique. • Growth mechanisms and shape of the liquid/solid interface and incorporation of Nd{sup 3+} were studied. • The structure of the crystals was investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. • The 15 Raman and 17 IR modes were observed. • The obtained YAG and Nd:YAG single crystals were without core and of good optical quality. - Abstract: Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) and yttrium aluminum garnet doped with neodymium (Nd:YAG) single crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique. Themore » critical diameter and the critical rate of rotation were calculated. Suitable polishing and etching solutions were determined. As a result of our experiments, the transparent YAG and pale pink Nd:YAG single crystals were produced. The obtained crystals were studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. The crystal structure was confirmed by XRD. The 15 Raman and 17 IR modes were observed. The Raman and IR spectroscopy results are in accordance with X-ray diffraction analysis. The obtained YAG and Nd:YAG single crystals were without core and of good optical quality. The absence of a core was confirmed by viewing polished crystal slices. Also, it is important to emphasize that the obtained Nd:YAG single crystal has a concentration of 0.8 wt.% Nd{sup 3+} that is characteristic for laser materials.« less

  6. A single-solenoid pulsed-magnet system for single-crystal scattering studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Zahirul; Capatina, Dana; Ruff, Jacob P. C.; Das, Ritesh K.; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Narumi, Yasuo; Welp, Ulrich; Canfield, Paul C.

    2012-03-01

    We present a pulsed-magnet system that enables x-ray single-crystal diffraction in addition to powder and spectroscopic studies with the magnetic field applied on or close to the scattering plane. The apparatus consists of a single large-bore solenoid, cooled by liquid nitrogen. A second independent closed-cycle cryostat is used for cooling samples near liquid helium temperatures. Pulsed magnetic fields close to ˜30 T with a zero-to-peak-field rise time of ˜2.9 ms are generated by discharging a 40 kJ capacitor bank into the magnet coil. The unique characteristic of this instrument is the preservation of maximum scattering angle (˜23.6°) on the entrance and exit sides of the magnet bore by virtue of a novel double-funnel insert. This instrument will facilitate x-ray diffraction and spectroscopic studies that are impractical, if not impossible, to perform using split-pair and narrow-opening solenoid magnets. Furthermore, it offers a practical solution for preserving optical access in future higher-field pulsed magnets.

  7. Crystal-field analysis of U3+ ions in K2LaX5 (X=Cl, Br or I) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbowiak, M.; Edelstein, N.; Gajek, Z.; Drożdżyński, J.

    1998-11-01

    An analysis of low temperature absorption spectra of U3+ ions doped in K2LaX5 (X=Cl, Br or I) single crystals is reported. The energy levels of the U3+ ion in the single crystals were assigned and fitted to a semiempirical Hamiltonian representing the combined atomic and crystal-field interactions at the Cs symmetry site. An analysis of the nephelauxetic effect and crystal-field splittings in the series of compounds is also reported.

  8. Synthesis, growth and characterization of L-Phenylalaninium methanesulfonate nonlinear optical single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangaiyarkarasi, K.; Ravichandran, A. T.; Anitha, K.; Manivel, A.

    2018-03-01

    The titled compound, L-Phenylalaninium methanesulfonate (LPA-MS) was synthesized and grown into single crystals by slow solvent evaporation solution growth technique in aqueous solution containing equimolar concentrations of L-phenylalanine and methanesulfonic acid at room temperature. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal structure with P21 space group and the unit cell parameters are a = 5.312 (10) Å, b = 8.883 (2) Å and c = 25.830 (7) Å. The functional groups of the LPA-MS crystal were confirmed with FT-IR and FT-Raman analysis. The carbon-hydrogen skeleton was confirmed with 1H NMR and 13C NMR analysis. TG-DTG and DSC studies were carried out to determine the thermal stability of the crystals. The optical transparency ranges were studied through UV-vis-spectroscopy and the crystal was found to be transparent in the visible region. The second Harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the grown LPA-MS crystal was measured by the Kurtz-Perry powder technique. The dipolar nature of the L-phenylalaninium methanesulfonate and the presence of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the molecules are the vital factors responsible for the existence of SHG activity in the crystal.

  9. Self-reporting inhibitors: single crystallization process to get two optically pure enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xinhua; Ye, Xichong; Cui, Jiaxi; Li, Bowen; Li, Na; Zhang, Jie

    2018-05-22

    Collection of two optically pure enantiomers in a single crystallization process can significantly increase the chiral separation efficiency but it's hard to realize nowadays. Herein we describe, for the first time, a self-reporting strategy for visualizing the crystallization process by a kind of dyed self-assembled inhibitors made from the copolymers with tri(ethylene glycol)-grafting polymethylsiloxane as main chains and poly(N6-methacryloyl-L-lysine) as side chains. When applied with seeds together for the fractional crystallization of conglomerates, the inhibitors can label the formation of the secondary crystals and guide us to completely separate the crystallization process of two enantiomers with colorless crystals as the first product and red crystals as the secondary product. This method leads to high optical purity of D/L-Asn·H2O (99.9 ee% for D-crystals and 99.5 ee% for L-crystals) in a single crystallization process. Moreover, it requires low feeding amount of additives and shows excellent recyclability. We foresee its great potential in developing novel chiral separation methods that can be used in different scales. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Orientation and Temperature Dependence of Work-Hardening Rate in Cd Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uçar, N.

    1997-03-01

    The orientation and temperature dependence of the work-hardening rate (WHR) has been investigated in tension in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 K in Cd single crystals. The WHR was found to decrease rapidly with increasing temperature. For 21-1-3 orientated crystals, the WHR increases firstly with increasing temperature until it passes a maximum at about 350 K.

  11. The zinc fingers of YY1 bind single-stranded RNA with low sequence specificity.

    PubMed

    Wai, Dorothy C C; Shihab, Manar; Low, Jason K K; Mackay, Joel P

    2016-11-02

    Classical zinc fingers (ZFs) are traditionally considered to act as sequence-specific DNA-binding domains. More recently, classical ZFs have been recognised as potential RNA-binding modules, raising the intriguing possibility that classical-ZF transcription factors are involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation via direct RNA binding. To date, however, only one classical ZF-RNA complex, that involving TFIIIA, has been structurally characterised. Yin Yang-1 (YY1) is a multi-functional transcription factor involved in many regulatory processes, and binds DNA via four classical ZFs. Recent evidence suggests that YY1 also interacts with RNA, but the molecular nature of the interaction remains unknown. In the present work, we directly assess the ability of YY1 to bind RNA using in vitro assays. Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX) was used to identify preferred RNA sequences bound by the YY1 ZFs from a randomised library over multiple rounds of selection. However, a strong motif was not consistently recovered, suggesting that the RNA sequence selectivity of these domains is modest. YY1 ZF residues involved in binding to single-stranded RNA were identified by NMR spectroscopy and found to be largely distinct from the set of residues involved in DNA binding, suggesting that interactions between YY1 and ssRNA constitute a separate mode of nucleic acid binding. Our data are consistent with recent reports that YY1 can bind to RNA in a low-specificity, yet physiologically relevant manner. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Methods for producing single crystal mixed halide perovskites

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Yixin

    2017-07-11

    An aspect of the present invention is a method that includes contacting a metal halide and a first alkylammonium halide in a solvent to form a solution and maintaining the solution at a first temperature, resulting in the formation of at least one alkylammonium halide perovskite crystal, where the metal halide includes a first halogen and a metal, the first alkylammonium halide includes the first halogen, the at least one alkylammonium halide perovskite crystal includes the metal and the first halogen, and the first temperature is above about 21.degree. C.

  13. III-V semiconductor solid solution single crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertner, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility and desirability of space growth of bulk IR semiconductor crystals for use as substrates for epitaxial IR detector material were researched. A III-V ternary compound (GaInSb) and a II-VI binary compound were considered. Vapor epitaxy and quaternary epitaxy techniques were found to be sufficient to permit the use of ground based binary III-V crystals for all major device applications. Float zoning of CdTe was found to be a potentially successful approach to obtaining high quality substrate material, but further experiments were required.

  14. Method for Growing Low-Defect Single Crystal Heteroepitaxial Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor); Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for growing high-quality low-defect crystal films heteroepitaxially on substrates that are different than the crystal films. The growth of the first two heteroepitaxial bilayers is performed on a first two-dimensional nucleate island before a second growth of two-dimensional nucleation is allowed to start. The method is particularly suited for the growth of 3C-SiC, 2H-AlN, or 2H-GaN on 6H-SiC, 4H-SiC, or silicon substrates.

  15. The Growth of Berlinite (AlPO4) Single Crystals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    Solubility of AlPO 4 18 6. Solubility Data of Jahn and Kordes on AlPO4 19 7. AlPO 4 Seed Crystal 23 8. Tem-Pres Hydrothermal Research Unit 25 9...Since the vapor pressure of water rises rapidly with temperature, a closed hydrothermal system was used. In a seeded hydrothermal growth process, the...to investigate the hydrothermal growth of Berlinite (AlPO4 ) to determine the optimum growth conditions for large high quality crystals. Over thirty

  16. Crystal structure of Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein with a di-nuclear ferroxidase center in a zinc or cadmium-bound form

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, Hideshi, E-mail: h-yokoya@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp; Tsuruta, Osamu; Akao, Naoya

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structures of a metal-bound Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two zinc ions were tetrahedrally coordinated by ferroxidase center (FOC) residues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two cadmium ions were coordinated in a trigonal-bipyramidal and octahedral manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second metal ion was more weakly coordinated than the first at the FOC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A zinc ion was found in one negatively-charged pore suitable as an ion path. -- Abstract: Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) is a Dps-like iron storage protein forming a dodecameric shell, and promotes adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells. The crystal structure of HP-NAP in a Zn{sup 2+}-more » or Cd{sup 2+}-bound form reveals the binding of two zinc or two cadmium ions and their bridged water molecule at the ferroxidase center (FOC). The two zinc ions are coordinated in a tetrahedral manner to the conserved residues among HP-NAP and Dps proteins. The two cadmium ions are coordinated in a trigonal-bipyramidal and distorted octahedral manner. In both structures, the second ion is more weakly coordinated than the first. Another zinc ion is found inside of the negatively-charged threefold-related pore, which is suitable for metal ions to pass through.« less

  17. Development of a Single-Crystal Fifth-Generation Nickel Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushin, N. V.; Elyutin, E. S.; Visik, E. M.; Golynets, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    The chemical and phase compositions of a rhenium-ruthenium-containing fifth-generation VZhM8 nickel superalloy, which is intended for single-crystal turbine blades of an aviation engine, are calculated using computer simulation. VZhM8 alloy <001>, <011>, and <111> single crystals are fabricated. The microstructure, the γ/γ' misfit, the segregation coefficients of alloying elements, the dissolution temperature of the γ' phase, and the solidus and liquidus temperatures of the VZhM8 alloy single crystals in the as-cast state and after heat treatment are studied. The temperature-time dependences of the static elastic modulus, the short-term mechanical properties, and the long-term strength of the alloy single crystals are determined

  18. Dry-growth of silver single-crystal nanowires from porous Ag structure

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chuantong, E-mail: chenchuantong@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nagao, Shijo; Jiu, Jinting

    A fabrication method of single crystal Ag nanowires in large scale is introduced without any chemical synthesis in wet processes, which usually generates fivefold twinned nanowires of fcc metals. Dense single-crystal nanowires grow on a mechanically polished surface of micro-porous Ag structure, which is created from Ag micro-particles. The diameter and the length of the nanowires can be controlled simply by changing the temperature and the time of the heating during the nanowire growth in air. Unique growth mechanism is described in detail, based on stress-induced migration accelerated by the micro-porous structure where the origin of Ag nanowires growth ismore » incubated. Transmission electron microscopy analysis on the single crystal nanowires is also presented. This simple method offered an alternative preparation for metallic nanowires, especially with the single crystal structure in numerous applications.« less

  19. Environmental Qualification of a Single-Crystal Silicon Mirror for Spaceflight Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John; Chambers, John; Rohrback. Scott; Bly, Vincent; Morell, Armando; Budinoff, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is the environmental qualification of a single-crystal silicon mirror for spaceflight use. The single-crystal silicon mirror technology is a previous innovation, but until now, a mirror of this type has not been qualified for spaceflight use. The qualification steps included mounting, gravity change measurements, vibration testing, vibration- induced change measurements, thermal cycling, and testing at the cold operational temperature of 225 K. Typical mirrors used for cold applications for spaceflight instruments include aluminum, beryllium, glasses, and glass-like ceramics. These materials show less than ideal behavior after cooldown. Single-crystal silicon has been demonstrated to have the smallest change due to temperature change, but has not been spaceflight-qualified for use. The advantage of using a silicon substrate is with temperature stability, since it is formed from a stress-free single crystal. This has been shown in previous testing. Mounting and environmental qualification have not been shown until this testing.

  20. Electron spin resonance of an irradiated single crystal of potassium hydrogen maleate

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, Machio; Itoh, Koichi

    1963-09-15

    Electron spin resonance absorptions of x-irradiated single crystals of potassium hydrogen maleate and potassium deuterium maleate were observed. Both compounds gave the same hyperfine structures, although the slightly sharper line widths were observed for the deuterium exchanged compound.