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Sample records for zinc sulfide thin

  1. Preparation of silver-activated zinc sulfide thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, C.; Swindells, F. E.

    1968-01-01

    Silver improves luminescence and reduces contamination of zinc sulfide phosphors. The silver is added after the zinc sulfide phosphors are deposited in thin films by vapor evaporation, but before calcining, by immersion in a solution of silver salt.

  2. Study of microstructure and electroluminescence of zinc sulfide thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao-hong, Liu; Yu-jiang, Wang; Mou-zhi, Chen; Zhen-xiang, Chen; Shu-nong, Sun; Mei-chun, Huang

    1998-03-01

    The electroluminscent zinc sulfide thin film doped with erbium, fabricated by thermal evaporation with two boats, are examined. The surface and internal electronic states of ZnS thin film are measured by means of x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The information on the relations between electroluminescent characteristics and internal electronic states of the film is obtained. And the effects of the microstructure of thin film doped with rare earth erbium on electroluminescence are discussed as well.

  3. Deposition of zinc sulfide thin films by chemical bath process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladeji, Isaiah O.; Chow, Lee

    1996-11-01

    Deposition of high quality zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin film over a large area is required if it is to be effectively used in electroluminescent devices, solar cells, and other optoelectronic devices. Of all deposition techniques, chemical bath deposition (CBD) is the least costly technique that meets the above requirements. Recently it is found that the growth of ZnS film, of thickness less than 100 nm in a single dip, by CBD is facilitated by the use of ammonia and hydrazine as complexing agents. Here we report that the thickness of the deposited ZnS film can be increased if ammonium salt is used as a buffer. We also present an analytical study to explain our results and to further understand the ZnS growth process in CBD.

  4. Synthesis, Deposition, and Microstructure Development of Thin Films Formed by Sulfidation and Selenization of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernomordik, Boris David

    Significant reduction in greenhouse gas emission and pollution associated with the global power demand can be accomplished by supplying tens-of-terawatts of power with solar cell technologies. No one solar cell material currently on the market is poised to meet this challenge due to issues such as manufacturing cost, material shortage, or material toxicity. For this reason, there is increasing interest in efficient light-absorbing materials that are comprised of abundant and non-toxic elements for thin film solar cell. Among these materials are copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4, or CZTS), copper zinc tin selenide (Cu2ZnSnSe4, or CZTSe), and copper zinc tin sulfoselenide alloys [Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x )4, or CZTSSe]. Laboratory power conversion efficiencies of CZTSSe-based solar cells have risen to almost 13% in less than three decades of research. Meeting the terawatt challenge will also require low cost fabrication. CZTSSe thin films from annealed colloidal nanocrystal coatings is an example of solution-based methods that can reduce manufacturing costs through advantages such as high throughput, high material utilization, and low capital expenses. The film microstructure and grain size affects the solar cell performance. To realize low cost commercial production and high efficiencies of CZTSSe-based solar cells, it is necessary to understand the fundamental factors that affect crystal growth and microstructure evolution during CZTSSe annealing. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals were synthesized via thermolysis of single-source cation and sulfur precursors copper, zinc and tin diethyldithiocarbamates. The average nanocrystal size could be tuned between 2 nm and 40 nm, by varying the synthesis temperature between 150 °C and 340 °C. The synthesis is rapid and is completed in less than 10 minutes. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm that the nanocrystals are nominally

  5. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of highly transparent zinc oxy-sulfide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugot, C.; Schneider, N.; Lincot, D.; Donsanti, F.

    2018-05-01

    The potential of Plasma Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition (PEALD) for the synthesis of zinc oxy-sulfide Zn(O,S) thin films was explored for the first time, using a supercycle strategy and DEZ, Ar/O2 plasma and H2S as precursors. The growth and the properties of the material were studied by varying the pulse ratio on the full range of composition and the process temperature from Tdep = 120 °C to 220 °C. PEALD-Zn(O,S) films could be grown from pure ZnO to pure ZnS compositions by varying the H2S/(O2 plasma + H2S) pulse ratio. Three distinct growth modes were identified depending on the nature of exchange mechanisms at the film surface during the growth. Films globally have an amorphous structure, except for the extremely sulfur-rich or sulfur-poor ones. High transmission values (up to 85% for Zn(O,S) for 500 < λ < 2500 nm) and optical band gaps (3.3-3.8 eV) have been obtained. The PEALD-Zn(O,S) process and the thin film properties were compared with ALD-Zn(O,S) to highlight the specificities, disadvantages and benefits of plasma enhancement for the synthesis of multi-element materials.

  6. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  7. Synthesis And Characterization of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanoparticles And Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Ankur

    Copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4, or CZTS) is emerging as an alternative material to the present thin film solar cell technologies such as Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdTe. All the elements in CZTS are abundant, environmentally benign, and inexpensive. In addition, CZTS has a band gap of ˜1.5 eV, the ideal value for converting the maximum amount of energy from the solar spectrum into electricity. CZTS has a high absorption coefficient (>104 cm-1 in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum) and only a few micron thick layer of CZTS can absorb all the photons with energies above its band gap. CZT(S,Se) solar cells have already reached power conversion efficiencies >10%. One of the ways to improve upon the CZTS power conversion efficiency is by using CZTS quantum dots as the photoactive material, which can potentially achieve efficiencies greater than the present thin film technologies at a fraction of the cost. However, two requirements for quantum-dot solar cells have yet to be demonstrated. First, no report has shown quantum confinement in CZTS nanocrystals. Second, the syntheses to date have not provided a range of nanocrystal sizes, which is necessary not only for fundamental studies but also for multijunction photovoltaic architectures. We resolved these two issues by demonstrating a simple synthesis of CZTS, Cu2SnS3, and alloyed (Cu2SnS3) x(ZnS)y nanocrystals with diameters ranging from 2 to 7 nm from diethyldithiocarbamate complexes. As-synthesized nanocrystals were characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy to confirm their phase purity. Nanocrystals of diameter less than 5 nm were found to exhibit a shift in their optical absorption spectra towards higher energy consistent with quantum confinement and previous theoretical predictions. Thin films from CZTS nanocrystals deposited on Mo-coated quartz substrates using drop casting were found to be continuous

  8. Processing of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanocrystal Dispersions for Thin Film Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Bryce Arthur

    A scalable and inexpensive renewable energy source is needed to meet the expected increase in electricity demand throughout the developed and developing world in the next 15 years without contributing further to global warming through CO2 emissions. Photovoltaics may meet this need but current technologies are less than ideal requiring complex manufacturing processes and/or use of toxic, rare-earth materials. Copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu 2ZnSnS4, CZTS) solar cells offer a true "green" alternative based upon non-toxic and abundant elements. Solution-based processes utilizing CZTS nanocrystal dispersions followed by high temperature annealing have received significant research attention due to their compatibility with traditional roll-to-roll coating processes. In this work, CZTS nanocrystal (5-35 nm diameters) dispersions were utilized as a production pathway to form solar absorber layers. Aerosol-based coating methods (aerosol jet printing and ultrasonic spray coating) were optimized for formation of dense, crack-free CZTS nanocrystal coatings. The primary variables underlying determination of coating morphology within the aerosol-coating parameter space were investigated. It was found that the liquid content of the aerosol droplets at the time of substrate impingement play a critical role. Evaporation of the liquid from the aerosol droplets during coating was altered through changes to coating parameters as well as to the CZTS nanocrystal dispersions. In addition, factors influencing conversion of CZTS nanocrystal coatings into dense, large-grained polycrystalline films suitable for solar cell development during thermal annealing were studied. The roles nanocrystal size, carbon content, sodium uptake, and sulfur pressure were found to have pivotal roles in film microstructure evolution. The effects of these parameters on film morphology, grain growth rates, and chemical makeup were analyzed from electron microscopy images as well as compositional analysis

  9. Effect of substrate baking temperature on zinc sulfide and germanium thin films optical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Gao, Jiaobo; Yang, Chongmin; Zhang, Jianfu; Liu, Yongqiang; Liu, Qinglong; Wang, Songlin; Mi, Gaoyuan; Wang, Huina

    2016-10-01

    ZnS and Ge are very normal optical thin film materials in Infrared wave. Studying the influence of different substrate baking temperature to refractive index and actual deposition rates is very important to promote optical thin film quality. In the same vacuum level, monitoring thickness and evaporation rate, we use hot evaporation to deposit ZnS thin film materials and use ion-assisted electron beam to deposit Ge thin film materials with different baking temperature. We measure the spectral transmittance with the spectrophotometer and calculate the actual deposition rates and the refractive index in different temperature. With the higher and higher temperature in a particular range, ZnS and Ge refractive index become higher and actual deposition rates become smaller. The refractive index of Ge film material change with baking temperature is more sensitive than ZnS. However, ZnS film actual deposition rates change with baking temperature is more sensitive than Ge.

  10. Cadmium zinc sulfide by solution growth

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Wen S.

    1992-05-12

    A process for depositing thin layers of a II-VI compound cadmium zinc sulfide (CdZnS) by an aqueous solution growth technique with quality suitable for high efficiency photovoltaic or other devices which can benefit from the band edge shift resulting from the inclusion of Zn in the sulfide. A first solution comprising CdCl.sub.2 2.5H.sub.2 O, NH.sub.4 Cl, NH.sub.4 OH and ZnCl.sub.2, and a second solution comprising thiourea ((NH.sub.2).sub.2 CS) are combined and placed in a deposition cell, along with a substrate to form a thin i.e. 10 nm film of CdZnS on the substrate. This process can be sequentially repeated with to achieve deposition of independent multiple layers having different Zn concentrations.

  11. Influence of annealing temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of amorphous Zinc Sulfide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göde, F.; Güneri, E.; Kariper, A.; Ulutaş, C.; Kirmizigül, F.; Gümüş, C.

    2011-11-01

    Zinc sulfide films have been deposited on glass substrates at room temperature by the chemical bath deposition technique. The growth mechanism is studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption spectra and electrical measurements. The as-deposited film was given thermal annealing treatment in air atmosphere at various temperatures (100, 200, 300 400 and 500 °C) for 1 h. The annealed film was also characterized by structural, optical and electrical studies. The structural analyses revealed that the as-deposited film was amorphous, but after being annealed at 500 °C, it changed to polycrystalline. The optical band gap is direct with a value of 4.01 eV, but this value decreased to 3.74 eV with annealing temperature, except for the 500 °C anneal where it only decreased to 3.82 eV. The refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), and real (ɛ1) and imaginary (ɛ2) parts of the dielectric constant are evaluated. Raman peaks appearing at ~478 cm-1, ~546 cm-1, ~778 cm-1 and ~1082 cm-1 for the annealed film (500 °C) were attributed to [TOl+LAΣ, 2TOΓ, 2LO, 3LO phonons of ZnS. The electrical conductivities of both as-deposited and annealed films have been calculated to be of the order of ~10-10 (Ω cm)-1 .

  12. Classification of polytype structures of zinc sulfide

    SciT

    Laptev, V.I.

    1994-12-31

    It is suggested that the existing classification of polytype structures of zinc sulfide be supplemented with an additional criterion: the characteristic of regular point systems (Wyckoff positions) including their type, number, and multiplicity. The consideration of the Wyckoff positions allowed the establishment of construction principles of known polytype series of different symmetries and the systematization (for the first time) of the polytypes with the same number of differently packed layers. the classification suggested for polytype structures of zinc sulfide is compact and provides a basis for creating search systems. The classification table obtained can also be used for numerous siliconmore » carbide polytypes. 8 refs., 4 tabs.« less

  13. Influence of Sulfide Nanoparticles on Dissolved Mercury and Zinc Quantification by Diffusive Gradient in Thin-Film Passive Samplers.

    PubMed

    Pham, Anh Le-Tuan; Johnson, Carol; Manley, Devon; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-11-03

    Diffusive gradient in thin-film (DGT) passive samplers are frequently used to monitor the concentrations of metals such as mercury and zinc in sediments and other aquatic environments. The application of these samplers generally presumes that they quantify only the dissolved fraction and not particle-bound metal species that are too large to migrate into the sampler. However, metals associated with very small nanoparticles (smaller than the pore size of DGT samplers) can be abundant in certain environments, yet the implications of these nanoparticles for DGT measurements are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine how the performance of the DGT sampler is affected by the presence of nanoparticulate species of Hg and Zn. DGT samplers were exposed to solutions containing known amounts of dissolved Hg(II) and nanoparticulate HgS (or dissolved Zn(II) and nanoparticulate ZnS). The amounts of Hg and Zn accumulated onto the DGT samplers were quantified over hours to days, and the rates of diffusion of the dissolved metal (i.e., the effective diffusion coefficient D) into the sampler's diffusion layer were calculated and compared for solutions containing varying concentrations of nanoparticles. The results suggested that the nanoparticles deposited on the surface of the samplers might have acted as sorbents, slowing the migration of the dissolved species into the samplers. The consequence was that the DGT sampler data underestimated the dissolved metal concentration in the solution. In addition, X-ray absorption spectroscopy was employed to determine the speciation of the Hg accumulated on the sampler binding layer, and the results indicated that HgS nanoparticles did not appear to directly contribute to the DGT measurement. Overall, our findings suggest that the deployment of DGT samplers in settings where nanoparticles are relevant (e.g., sediments) may result in DGT data that incorrectly estimated the dissolved metal concentrations. Models for metal uptake

  14. 21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Luminescent zinc sulfide. 73.2995 Section 73.2995 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2995 Luminescent zinc sulfide. (a) Identity. The color additive luminescent zinc sulfide...

  15. 21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Luminescent zinc sulfide. 73.2995 Section 73.2995 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2995 Luminescent zinc sulfide. (a) Identity. The color additive luminescent zinc sulfide...

  16. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Cadmium Zinc Sulfide Nanocomposite with Controlled Band Gap for Large-Area Thin-Film Optoelectronic Device Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Sk; Chakraborty, Koushik; Pal, Tanusri; Ghosh, Surajit

    2017-12-01

    Herein, we report the one pot single step solvothermal synthesis of reduced grapheme oxide-cadmium zinc sulfide (RGO-Cd0.5Zn0.5S) composite. The reduction in graphene oxide (GO), synthesis of Cd0.5Zn0.5S (mentioned as CdZnS in the text) nanorod and decoration of CdZnS nanorods onto RGO sheet were done simultaneously. The structural, morphological and optical properties were studied thoroughly by different techniques, such as XRD, TEM, UV-Vis and PL. The PL intensity of CdZnS nanorods quenches significantly after the attachment of RGO, which confirms photoinduced charge transformation from CdZnS nanorods to RGO sheet through the interface of RGO-CdZnS. An excellent photocurrent generation in RGO-CdZnS thin-film device has been observed under simulated solar light irradiation. The photocurrent as well as photosensitivity increases linearly with the solar light intensity for all the composites. Our study establishes that the synergistic effect of RGO and CdZnS in the composite is capable of getting promising applications in the field of optoelectronic devising.

  17. Microstructure and electroluminescent performance of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide doped with manganese films for integration in thin film electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topol, Anna Wanda

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) doped with manganese (Mn), ZnS:Mn, is widely recognized as the brightest and most effective electroluminescent (EL) phosphor used in current thin film electroluminescent (TFEL) devices. ZnS acts as a host lattice for the luminescent activator, Mn, leading to a highly efficient yellow-orange EL emission, and resulting in a wide array of applications in monochrome, multi-color and full color displays. Although this wide band dap (3.7 eV) material can be prepared by several deposition techniques, the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most promising for TFEL applications in terms of viable deposition rates, high thickness and composition uniformity, and excellent yield over large area panels. This study describes the development and optimization of a CVD ZnS:Mn process using diethylzinc [(C2H5)2Zn, DEZ], di-pi-cyclopentadienylmanganese [(C5H5)2Mn, CPMn], and hydrogen sulfide [H2S] as the chemical sources for, respectively, Zn, Mn, and S. The effects of key deposition parameters on resulting Film microstructure and performance are discussed, primarily in the context of identifying an optimized process window for best electroluminescence behavior. In particular, substrate temperature was observed to play a key role in the formation of high quality crystalline ZnS:Mn films leading to improved brightness and EL efficiency. Further investigations of the influence of temperature treatment on the structural characteristics and EL performance of the CVD ZnS:Mn film were carried out. In this study, the influence of post-deposition annealing both in-situ and ex-situ annealing processes, on chemical, structural, and electroluminescent characteristics of the phosphor layer are described. The material properties of the employed dielectric are among the key factors determining the performance, stability and reliability of the TFEL display and therefore, the choice of dielectric material for use in ACTFEL displays is crucial. In addition, the luminous

  18. 21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Luminescent zinc sulfide. 73.2995 Section 73.2995 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2995 Luminescent zinc sulfide. (a) Identity...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Luminescent zinc sulfide. 73.2995 Section 73.2995 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2995 Luminescent zinc sulfide. (a) Identity...

  20. 21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Luminescent zinc sulfide. 73.2995 Section 73.2995 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2995 Luminescent zinc sulfide. (a) Identity...

  1. Remediation of arsenic and lead with nanocrystalline zinc sulfide.

    PubMed

    Piquette, Alan; Cannon, Cody; Apblett, Allen W

    2012-07-27

    Nanocrystalline (1.7 ± 0.3 nm) zinc sulfide with a specific surface area up to 360 m(2) g(-1) was prepared from the thermal decomposition of a single-source precursor, zinc ethylxanthate. Zinc ethylxanthate decomposes to cubic zinc sulfide upon exposure to temperatures greater than or equal to 125 °C. The resulting zinc sulfide was tested as a water impurity extractant. The target impurities used in this study were As(5+), As(3+), and Pb(2+). The reaction of the nanocrystalline ZnS with Pb(2+) proceeds as a replacement reaction where solid PbS is formed and Zn(2+) is released into the aqueous system. Removal of lead to a level of less than two parts per billion is achievable. The results of a detailed kinetics experiment between the ZnS and Pb(2+) are included in this study. Unlike the instance of lead, both As(5+) and As(3+) adsorb on the surface of the ZnS extractant as opposed to an ion-exchange process. An uptake capacity of > 25 mg g(-1) for the removal of As(5+) is possible. The uptake of As(3+) appears to proceed by a slower process than that of the As(5+) with a capacity of nearly 20 mg g(-1). The nanocrystalline zinc sulfide was extremely successful for the removal of arsenic and lead from simulated oil sand tailing pond water.

  2. Zinc sulfide in intestinal cell granules of Ancylostoma caninum adults

    SciT

    Gianotti, A.J.; Clark, D.T.; Dash, J.

    1991-04-01

    A source of confusion has existed since the turn of the century about the reddish brown, weakly birefringent 'sphaerocrystals' located in the intestines of strongyle nematodes, Strongylus and Ancylostoma. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometric analyses were used for accurate determination of the crystalline order and elemental composition of the granules in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. The composition of the intestinal pigmented granules was identified unequivocally as zinc sulfide. It seems most probable that the granules serve to detoxify high levels of metallic ions (specifically zinc) present due to the large intake of host blood.

  3. Chemical Vapor Deposited Zinc Sulfide. SPIE Press Monograph

    SciT

    McCloy, John S.; Tustison, Randal W.

    2013-04-22

    Zinc sulfide has shown unequaled utility for infrared windows that require a combination of long-wavelength infrared transparency, mechanical durability, and elevated-temperature performance. This book reviews the physical properties of chemical vapor deposited ZnS and their relationship to the CVD process that produced them. An in-depth look at the material microstructure is included, along with a discussion of the material's optical properties. Finally, because the CVD process itself is central to the development of this material, a brief history is presented.

  4. Thermal neutron scintillators using unenriched boron nitride and zinc sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, J. E.; Cole, A. J.; Kirby, A.; Marsden, E.

    2015-06-01

    Thermal neutron detectors based on powdered zinc sulfide intimately mixed with a neutron capture compound have a history as long as scintillation technique itself. We show that using unenriched boron nitride powder, rather than the more commonly used enriched lithium fluoride, results in detection screens which produce less light but which are very considerably cheaper. Methods of fabricating large areas of this material are presented. The screens are intended for the production of large area low cost neutron detectors as a replacement for helium-3 proportional tubes.

  5. Integrated thin film cadmium sulfide solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickelsen, R. A.; Abbott, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and tests of flexible integrated thin-film cadmium sulfide solar cells and modules are discussed. The development of low cost and high production rate methods for interconnecting cells into large solar arrays is described. Chromium thin films were applied extensively in the deposited cell structures as a means to: (1) achieve high adherence between the cadmium sulfide films and the vacuum-metallized copper substrates, (2) obtain an ohmic contact to the cadmium sulfide films, and (3) improve the adherence of gold films as grids or contact areas.

  6. A field investigation of the relationship between zinc and acid volatile sulfide concentrations in freshwater sediments

    Ankley, Gerald T.; Liber, Karsten; Call, Daniel J.; Markee, Thomas P.; Canfield, Timothy J.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    1996-01-01

    Understanding relationships between cationic metals such as cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc, and amorphous iron sulfides, measured as acid volatile sulfide (AVS), is key to predicting metal bioavailability and toxicity insediments. The objective of the present study was to assess seasonal and spatial variations of AVS in freshwater sediments contaminated with zinc. Sediments were sampled from three streams with varying levels of zinc contamination at two different times, March and June of 1995, representing cold- and warm-weather situations. Interstitial (pore) water concentrations of zinc, and solid phase concentrations of AVS and zinc were measured in surficial and deep sediment horizons. Toxicity tests (10-d) with the amphipodHyalella azteca were conducted using intact cores. Sediment zinc concentrations from six sites within the primary test stream differed by about five-fold, and also varied seasonally. Acid volatile sulfide concentrations were generally lower than those of zinc, and pore water zinc concentrations typically were elevated. There was a positive correlation between solid-phase AVS and zinc concentrations, suggesting that the system was dominated by zinc, as opposed to iron sulfides. In contrast to expectations arising from some studies of seasonal variations of AVS in iron-dominated systems, AVS concentrations were smaller in June than in March. However, this was likely due to a major storm event and associated sediment scouring before the June sampling, rather than to seasonal processes related to variations in temperature and dissolved oxygen. Based upon an indirect analysis of depth variations in AVS, there was some indication that zinc sulfide might be less prone to oxidation than iron sulfide. There was a strong correlation between toxicity of the sediment samples toH. azteca and interstitial water concentrations of zinc; however, the possible contribution of other contaminants to sediment toxicity cannot be dismissed.

  7. Synthesis and interface structures of zinc sulfide sheathed zinc-cadmium nanowire heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guozhen; Bando, Yoshio; Gao, Yihua; Golberg, Dmitri

    2006-07-27

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) sheathed zinc (Zn)-cadmium (Cd) nanowire heterojunctions have been prepared by thermal evaporating of ZnS and CdS powders in a vertical induction furnace at 1200 degrees C. Studies found that both the Zn and Cd subnanowires, within a single nanoheterojunction, are single-crystallines with the growth directions perpendicular to the [210] plane, whereas the sheathed ZnS is polycrystalline with a thickness of ca. 5 nm. The Zn/Cd interface structure in the ZnS sheathed Zn-Cd nanowire heterojunctions was thoroughly experimentally studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and theoretically studied using a near-coincidence site lattice (NCSL) concept. The results show that the Cd and Zn have a crystalline orientation relationship as [0001]Zn//[0001]Cd, (10(-)10)Zn//(10(-)10)Cd, (01(-)10)Zn//(01(-)10)Cd, and ((-)1100)Zn//((-)1100)Cd.

  8. Inhibition effects of protein-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles on tumor cells growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ying; Wang, Hua-Jie; Cao, Cui; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Lin; Wang, Bao-Qing; Zhou, Jian-Guo

    2011-07-01

    In this article, a facile and environmentally friendly method was applied to fabricate BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the matrix. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the stable and well-dispersed nanoparticles with the diameter of 15.9 ± 2.1 nm were successfully prepared. The energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrograph, high resolution transmission electron microscope, and selected area electron diffraction measurements showed that the obtained nanoparticles had the amorphous structure and the coordination occurred between zinc sulfide surfaces and BSA in the nanoparticles. In addition, the inhibition effects of BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles on tumor cells growth were described in detail by cell viability analysis, optical and electron microscopy methods. The results showed that BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles could inhibit the metabolism and proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and the inhibition was dose dependent. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.36 mg/mL. Overall, this study suggested that BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles had the application potential as cytostatic agents and BSA in the nanoparticles could provide the modifiable site for the nanoparticles to improve their bioactivity or to endow them with the target function.

  9. Sulfidation behavior and mechanism of zinc silicate roasted with pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yong; Peng, Ning; Xue, Ke; Min, Xiaobo; Chai, Liyuan; Pan, Qinglin; Liang, Yanjie; Xiao, Ruiyang; Wang, Yunyan; Tang, Chongjian; Liu, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Sulfidation roasting followed by flotation is widely known as a possible generic technology for enriching valuable metals in low-grade Zn-Pb oxide ores. Zn2SiO4 is the primary Zn phase in willemite. Zn4Si2O7(OH)2(H2O), the main Zn phase in hemimorphite, transforms into Zn2SiO4 at temperatures above 600 °C. To enrich the Zn in willemite and hemimorphite, the Zn species should first be converted to ZnS. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the sulfidation reaction of Zn2SiO4 during roasting with pyrite is of vital important. In this study, the sulfidation behavior and reaction mechanisms of a Zn2SiO4-pyrite roasting system were determined using HSC 5.0 software, TG-FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, XPS and SEM-EDS. The results indicate that the sulfidation process can be divided into three steps: the decomposition of pyrite and formation of a sulfur-rich environment, the sulfur-induced migration of O2- and transformation of sulfur vapor, and the sulfidation reaction via oxygen-sulfur exchange. During the sulfidation roasting process, pyrite was converted to loose and porous Fe3O4, whereas Zn2SiO4 was transformed into ZnS and SiO2 in situ. These findings provide theoretical support for controlling the sulfidation roasting process of willemite and hemimorphite.

  10. Metal sulfide thin films by chemical spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krunks, Malle; Mellikov, Enn

    2001-04-01

    CdS, ZnS and CuS thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis method using metal chlorides and thiourea (tu) as starting materials. Metal sulfide films form as products of thermal decomposition of complexes Cd(tu)2Cl2, Zn(tu)2Cl2 and Cu(tu)Cl(DOT)1/2H2O, originally formed in aqueous solution at precursors molar ratio 1:2. The metal-ligand bonding is thermally stable up to 220 degrees Celsius, followed by multistep degradation process of complexes. The TG/DTA analysis show similar thermal behavior of complexes up to 300 degrees Celsius with the formation of metal sulfides in this decomposition step. In air intensive oxidation processes are detected close to 400, 600 and 720 degrees Celsius for Cu, Cd and Zn complexes, respectively. The results of thermoanalytical study and XRD of sprayed films show that CdS and ZnS films could be grown at 450 degrees Celsius even in air while deposition of copper sulfide films should be performed in an inert atmosphere. High total impurities content of 10 wt% in CdS films prepared at 240 degrees Celsius is originated from the precursor and reduced to 2 wt% by increasing the growth temperature up to 400 degrees Celsius.

  11. Anglesite and silver recovery from jarosite residues through roasting and sulfidization-flotation in zinc hydrometallurgy.

    PubMed

    Han, Haisheng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Jia, Baoliang; Tang, Honghu

    2014-08-15

    Hazardous jarosite residues contain abundant valuable minerals that are difficult to be recovered by traditional flotation process. This study presents a new route, roasting combined with sulfidization-flotation, for the recovery of anglesite and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. Surface appearance and elemental distribution of jarosite residues was examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, respectively. Decomposition and transformation mechanisms of jarosite residues were illustrated by differential thermal analysis. Results showed that after roasting combined with flotation, the grade and recovery of lead were 43.89% and 66.86%, respectively, and those of silver were 1.3 kg/t and 81.60%, respectively. At 600-700 °C, jarosite was decomposed to release encapsulated valuable minerals such as anglesite (PbSO4) and silver mineral; silver jarosite decomposed into silver sulfate (Ag2SO4); and zinc ferrite (ZnO · Fe2O3) decomposed into zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and hematite (Fe2O3). Bared anglesite and silver minerals were modified by sodium sulfide and easily collected by flotation collectors. This study demonstrates that the combination of roasting and sulfidization-flotation provides a promising process for the recovery of zinc, lead, and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of metals from lead-zinc mine tailings using bioleaching and followed by sulfide precipitation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Maoyou; Li, Guojian; Yan, Pingfang; Ren, Jie; Zheng, Li; Han, Dajian; Sun, Shuiyu; Huang, Shaosong; Zhong, Yujian

    2017-10-01

    Mine tailings often contain significant amounts of metals and sulfide, many traditional operations used to minerals was not as good as those currently available. This study investigated metals removal from lead-zinc mine tailings using bioleaching and followed by sulfide precipitation. Metals were dissolved from the tailings by the bacteria in a bioleaching reactor. During a 10% pulp density bioleaching experiment, approximately 0.82% Pb, 97.38% Zn, and 71.37% Fe were extracted after 50 days. With the pulp density of 10% and 20%, the dissolution of metals followed shrinking core kinetic model. Metals (Pb, Zn, and Fe) present in the pregnant bioleaching leachate. Metals were next precipitated as a sulfide phase using sodium sulfide (Na 2 S). Metal precipitations were selectively and quantitatively produced from the bioleaching leachate by adding Na 2 S. More than 99% of the zinc and 75% of the iron was precipitated using 25 g/L Na 2 S in the bioleaching leachate. The results in the study were to provide useful information for recovering or removing metals from lead-zinc mine tailings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elementary sulfur in effluent from denitrifying sulfide removal process as adsorbent for zinc(II).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Aijie; Wu, Dong-hai; Liu, Li-hong; Ren, Nanqi; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2012-10-01

    The denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process can simultaneously convert sulfide, nitrate and organic compounds into elementary sulfur (S(0)), di-nitrogen gas and carbon dioxide, respectively. However, the S(0) formed in the DSR process are micro-sized colloids with negatively charged surface, making isolation of S(0) colloids from other biological cells and metabolites difficult. This study proposed the use of S(0) in DSR effluent as a novel adsorbent for zinc removal from wastewaters. Batch and continuous tests were conducted for efficient zinc removal with S(0)-containing DSR effluent. At pH<7.5, removal rates of zinc(II) were increased with increasing pH. The formed S(0) colloids carried negative charge onto which zinc(II) ions could be adsorbed via electrostatic interactions. The zinc(II) adsorbed S(0) colloids further enhanced coagulation-sedimentation efficiency of suspended solids in DSR effluents. The DSR effluent presents a promising coagulant for zinc(II) containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Atomic layer deposition of metal sulfide thin films using non-halogenated precursors

    DOEpatents

    Martinson, Alex B. F.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2015-05-26

    A method for preparing a metal sulfide thin film using ALD and structures incorporating the metal sulfide thin film. The method includes providing an ALD reactor, a substrate, a first precursor comprising a metal and a second precursor comprising a sulfur compound. The first and the second precursors are reacted in the ALD precursor to form a metal sulfide thin film on the substrate. In a particular embodiment, the metal compound comprises Bis(N,N'-di-sec-butylacetamidinato)dicopper(I) and the sulfur compound comprises hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2S) to prepare a Cu.sub.2S film. The resulting metal sulfide thin film may be used in among other devices, photovoltaic devices, including interdigitated photovoltaic devices that may use relatively abundant materials for electrical energy production.

  15. Zinc stable isotope fractionation upon accelerated oxidative weathering of sulfidic mine waste.

    PubMed

    Matthies, R; Krahé, L; Blowes, D W

    2014-07-15

    Accelerated oxidative weathering in a reaction cell (ASTM D 5744 standard protocol) was performed over a 33 week period on well characterized, sulfidic mine waste from the Kidd Creek Cu-Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Canada. The cell leachate was monitored for physicochemical parameters, ion concentrations and stable isotope ratios of zinc. Filtered zinc concentrations (<0.45 μm) in the leachate ranged between 4.5 mg L(-1) and 1.9 g L(-1)-potentially controlled by pH, mineral solubility kinetics and (de)sorption processes. The zinc stable isotope ratios varied mass-dependently within +0.1 and +0.52‰ relative to IRMM 3702, and were strongly dependent on the pH (rpH-d66Zn=0.65, p<0.005, n=31). At a pH below 5, zinc mobilization was governed by sphalerite oxidation and hydroxide dissolution-pointing to the isotope signature of sphalerite (+0.1 to +0.16‰). Desorption processes resulted in enrichment of (66)Zn in the leachate reaching a maximum offset of +0.32‰ compared to the proposed sphalerite isotope signature. Over a period characterized by pH=6.1 ± 0.6, isotope ratios were significantly more enriched in (66)Zn with an offset of ≈ 0.23‰ compared to sphalerite, suggesting that zinc release may have been derived from a second zinc source, such as carbonate minerals, which compose 8 wt.% of the tailings. This preliminary study confirms the benefit of applying zinc isotopes alongside standard monitoring parameters to track principal zinc sources and weathering processes in complex multi-phase matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cadmium sulfide thin films growth by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariech, S.; Aida, M. S.; Bougdira, J.; Belmahi, M.; Medjahdi, G.; Genève, D.; Attaf, N.; Rinnert, H.

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been prepared by a simple technique such as chemical bath deposition (CBD). A set of samples CdS were deposited on glass substrates by varying the bath temperature from 55 to 75 °C at fixed deposition time (25 min) in order to investigate the effect of deposition temperature on CdS films physical properties. The determination of growth activation energy suggests that at low temperature CdS film growth is governed by the release of Cd2+ ions in the solution. The structural characterization indicated that the CdS films structure is cubic or hexagonal with preferential orientation along the direction (111) or (002), respectively. The optical characterization indicated that the films have a fairly high transparency, which varies between 55% and 80% in the visible range of the optical spectrum, the refractive index varies from 1.85 to 2.5 and the optical gap value of which can reach 2.2 eV. It can be suggested that these properties make these films perfectly suitable for their use as window film in thin films based solar cells.

  17. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Fitzgerald Jr, Curtis L.; ...

    2016-04-27

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale ( ≤24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of meso-scale experiments were performed using 100-l and 900-l reactors. Pasteurization and N 2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot-plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2 nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5g L -1, similar to small-scale batches.more » The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~ 320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98% of the buffer chemical costs. In conclusion, the final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, FTIR, DLS, and C/N analyses, which confirmed the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.« less

  18. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J; Fitzgerald, Curtis L; Lind, Randall F; Elkins, James G; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L; Watkins, Thomas R; Ivanov, Ilia N; Graham, David E

    2016-09-01

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale (≤ 24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of pilot-plant scale experiments were performed using 100-L and 900-L reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2-nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5 g L(-1), similar to the small-scale batches. The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width × 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic, and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98 % of the buffer chemical costs. The final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, TEM, FTIR, PL, DLS, HPLC, and C/N analyses, which confirmed that the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.

  19. Ultrasonic measurements of thin zinc layers on concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Henri; Brooks, Bill; Nguyen, Vinh; Koretsky, Milo

    2008-05-01

    In order to protect bridges at the coast from corrosion, a thin layer (approximately 0.5 mm) of zinc is sprayed on the concrete of the bridge. When this zinc layer is electrically connected to the reinforcing steel (rebar) and placed at a positive potential with respect to the rebar, oxidation is favored at the zinc layer and reduced at the rebar. The resulting protection of the rebar fails when the zinc layer delaminates from the concrete or when the zinc oxidation product layer becomes too thick. We have used ultrasonic detection to investigate the properties of the zinc layer. This method has been applied very successfully in the semiconductor industry. We present the details of the method and the expected response. Unfortunately, we are not able to measure changes in the zinc layer, because either the frequency we use (10-20 MHz) is too low, or scattering in the concrete is a dominant effect.

  20. Surface and capillary forces encountered by zinc sulfide microspheres in aqueous electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Gillies, Graeme; Kappl, Michael; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2005-06-21

    The colloid probe technique was used to investigate the interactions between individual zinc sulfide (ZnS) microspheres and an air bubble in electrolyte solution. Incorporation of zinc ions into the electrolyte solution overcomes the disproportionate zinc ion dissolution and mimics high-volume-fraction conditions common in flotation. Determined interaction forces revealed a distinct lack of long-ranged hydrophobic forces, indicated by the presence of a DLVO repulsion prior to particle engulfment. Single microsphere contact angles were determined from particle-bubble interactions. Contact angles increased with decreasing radii and with surface oxidation. Surface modification by the absorption of copper and subsequently potassium O-ethyldithiocarbonate (KED) reduced repulsive forces and strongly increased contact angles.

  1. Reexamining the functions of zinc sulfate as a selective depressant in differential sulfide flotation--the role of coagulation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingli; Liu, Qi

    2006-09-15

    Zinc sulfate is a well-known selective depressant for zinc sulfide minerals such as sphalerite during the flotation of complex Cu-Pb-Zn sulfide ores. It deactivates sphalerite flotation by substituting the activating metal ions, and depresses sphalerite flotation by forming hydrophilic coatings of zinc hydroxyl species on sphalerite surfaces. However, we recently observed that zinc sulfate could also induce coagulation of fine sphalerite particles and such coagulation significantly reduced the mechanical entrainment of the fine sphalerite. Therefore, it seems that the effectiveness of zinc sulfate as a selective sphalerite depressant is not only due to its ability to make mineral surface hydrophilic, which reduces genuine flotation, but also due to its ability to coagulate the mineral, which reduces mechanical entrainment. Zinc sulfate is a "dual function" selective flotation depressant.

  2. Morphology and thermal studies of zinc sulfide and cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuntokun, Jejenija; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Zn(II) and Cd(II) metal complexes of 1-cyano-1-carboethoxyethylene-2,2-dithiolato-κS,S'-bis(N,N-dimethylthiourea-κS) have been synthesized and characterized with analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The complexes were thermolysed in hexadecylamine at 200 °C to prepare ZnS and CdS nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD). TEM images showed spherically shaped nanoparticles, whose sizes are in the range 4.33-7.21 nm for ZnS and 4.95-7.7 nm CdS respectively and XRD confirmed cubic crystalline phases for the nanoparticles. The optical band gap energy evaluated from the absorption spectra are 2.88 eV (430 nm) and 2.81 eV (440 nm) for the ZnS and CdS nanoparticles respectively. The as-prepared metal sulfide nanoparticles were further incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to give ZnS/PVA and CdS/PVA composites. The polymer nanocomposites were studied to investigate their morphology and thermal properties relative to the pure PVA. XRD diffractions indicated that the crystalline phases of the nanoparticles and the sizes in PVA matrices remained unaltered. Infra-red spectra studies revealed interactions between the PVA and the metal sulfide nanoparticles and TGA studies show that the ZnS/PVA and CdS/PVA nanocomposites exhibit better thermal stability than the pure PVA.

  3. Conductive copper sulfide thin films on polyimide foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, J.; Gomez Daza, O.; Ixtlilco, L.; Nair, M. T. S.; Nair, P. K.

    2001-02-01

    Kapton polyimide is known for its high thermal stability, >400 °C. Copper sulfide thin films of 75 and 100 nm thickness were coated on DuPont Kapton HN polyimide foils of 25 µm thickness by floating them on a chemical bath containing copper complexes and thiourea. The coated foils were annealed at 150-400 °C in nitrogen, converting the coating from CuS to Cu1.8S. The sheet resistance of the annealed coatings (100 nm) is 10-50 Ω/□ and electrical conductivity, 2-10×103 Ω-1 cm- 1, which remain nearly constant even after the foils are immersed in 0.1-1 M HCl for 30-120 min. The coated polyimide has a transmittance (25-35%) peak located in the wavelength region 550-600 nm, with transmittance dropping to near zero below 450 nm and below 10% in the near-infrared spectral region. These characteristics are relevant in solar radiation control applications. The coated foils might also be used as conductive substrates for electrolytic deposition of metals and semiconductors and for optoelectronic device structures.

  4. Effects of humic substances on precipitation and aggregation of zinc sulfide nanoparticles

    Deonarine, Amrika; Lau, Boris L.T.; Aiken, George R.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticulate metal sulfides such as ZnS can influence the transport and bioavailability of pollutant metals in anaerobic environments. The aim of this work was to investigate how the composition of dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) influences the stability of zinc sulfide nanoparticles as they nucleate and aggregate in water with dissolved NOM. We compared NOM fractions that were isolated from several surface waters and represented a range of characteristics including molecular weight, type of carbon, and ligand density. Dynamic light scattering was employed to monitor the growth and aggregation of Zn−S−NOM nanoparticles in supersaturated solutions containing dissolved aquatic humic substances. The NOM was observed to reduce particle growth rates, depending on solution variables such as type and concentration of NOM, monovalent electrolyte concentration, and pH. The rates of growth increased with increasing ionic strength, indicating that observed growth rates primarily represented aggregation of charged Zn−S−NOM particles. Furthermore, the observed rates decreased with increasing molecular weight and aromatic content of the NOM fractions, while carboxylate and reduced sulfur content had little effect. Differences between NOM were likely due to properties that increased electrosteric hindrances for aggregation. Overall, results of this study suggest that the composition and source of NOM are key factors that contribute to the stabilization and persistence of zinc sulfide nanoparticles in the aquatic environment.

  5. Trace hydrogen sulfide gas sensor based on tungsten sulfide membrane-coated thin-core fiber modal interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Dashen; Feng, Wenlin; Wei, Jianwei; Qin, Xiang; Chen, Rong

    2017-11-01

    A novel fiber-optic hydrogen sulfide sensor based on a thin-core Mach-Zehnder fiber modal interferometer (TMZFI) is demonstrated and fabricated. This in-line interferometer is composed of a short section of thin-core fiber sandwiched between two standard single mode fibers, and the fast response to hydrogen sulfide is achieved via the construction of tungsten sulfide film on the outside surface of the TMZFI using the dip-coating and calcination technique. The fabricated sensing nanofilm is characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and spectroscopic analysis technology, etc. Experimental results showed that the WS2 sensing film has a hexagonal structure with a compact and porous morphology. The XPS and FTIR indicate that the existence of two elements (W and S) is demonstrated. With the increasing concentration of hydrogen sulfide, the interference spectra appear blue shift. In addition, a high sensitivity of 18.37 pm/ppm and a good linear relationship are obtained within a measurement range from 0 to 80 ppm. In addition, there is an excellent selectivity for H2S, which has also been proved by the surface adsorption energy results of tungsten sulfide with four gases (H2S, N2, O2 and CO2) by using the density functional theory calculations. This interferometer has the advantages of simple structure, high sensitivity and easy manufacture, and could be used in the safety monitoring field of hydrogen sulfide gas.

  6. Intense pulsed light annealing of copper zinc tin sulfide nanocrystal coatings

    SciT

    Williams, Bryce A.; Smeaton, Michelle A.; Holgate, Collin S.

    2016-09-15

    A promising method for forming the absorber layer in copper zinc tin sulfide [Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS)] thin film solar cells is thermal annealing of coatings cast from dispersions of CZTS nanocrystals. Intense pulsed light (IPL) annealing utilizing xenon flash lamps is a potential high-throughput, low-cost, roll-to-roll manufacturing compatible alternative to thermal annealing in conventional furnaces. The authors studied the effects of flash energy density (3.9–11.6 J/cm{sup 2}) and number of flashes (1–400) during IPL annealing on the microstructure of CZTS nanocrystal coatings cast on molybdenum-coated soda lime glass substrates (Mo-coated SLG). The annealed coatings exhibited cracks with two distinct linearmore » crack densities, 0.01 and 0.2 μm{sup −1}, depending on the flash intensity and total number of flashes. Low density cracking (0.01 μm{sup −1}, ∼1 crack per 100 μm) is caused by decomposition of CZTS at the Mo-coating interface. Vapor decomposition products at the interface cause blisters as they escape the coating. Residual decomposition products within the blisters were imaged using confocal Raman spectroscopy. In support of this hypothesis, replacing the Mo-coated SLG substrate with quartz eliminated blistering and low-density cracking. High density cracking is caused by rapid thermal expansion and contraction of the coating constricted on the substrate as it is heated and cooled during IPL annealing. Finite element modeling showed that CZTS coatings on low thermal diffusivity materials (i.e., SLG) underwent significant differential heating with respect to the substrate with rapid rises and falls of the coating temperature as the flash is turned on and off, possibly causing a build-up of tensile stress within the coating prompting cracking. Use of a high thermal diffusivity substrate, such as a molybdenum foil (Mo foil), reduces this differential heating and eliminates the high-density cracking. IPL annealing in presence

  7. Process for thin film deposition of cadmium sulfide

    DOEpatents

    Muruska, H. Paul; Sansregret, Joseph L.; Young, Archie R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention teaches a process for depositing layers of cadmium sulfide. The process includes depositing a layer of cadmium oxide by spray pyrolysis of a cadmium salt in an aqueous or organic solvent. The oxide film is then converted into cadmium sulfide by thermal ion exchange of the O.sup.-2 for S.sup.-2 by annealing the oxide layer in gaseous sulfur at elevated temperatures.

  8. Cryomilled zinc sulfide: A prophylactic for Staphylococcus aureus-infected wounds

    DOE PAGES

    Tran, Phat L.; Li, Jianqiang; Lungaro, Lisa; ...

    2018-04-23

    Bacterial pathogens that colonize wounds form biofilms, which protect the bacteria from the effect of host immune response and antibiotics. This paper examined the effectiveness of newly synthesized zinc sulfide in inhibiting biofilm development by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains. Zinc sulfide (ZnS) was anaerobically biosynthesized to produce CompA, which was further processed by cryomilling to maximize the antibacterial properties to produce CompB. The effect of the two compounds on the S. aureus strain AH133 was compared using zone of inhibition assay. The compounds were formulated in a polyethylene glycol cream. We compared the effect of the two compounds onmore » biofilm development by AH133 and two methicillin-resistant S. aureus clinical isolates using the in vitro model of wound infection. Zone of inhibition assay revealed that CompB is more effective than CompA. At 15 mg/application, the formulated cream of either compound inhibited biofilm development by AH133, which was confirmed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. At 20 mg/application, CompB inhibited biofilm development by the two methicillin-resistant S. aureus clinical isolates. To further validate the effectiveness of CompB, mice were treated using the murine model of wound infection. Finally, colony forming cell assay and in vivo live imaging results strongly suggested the inhibition of S. aureus growth.« less

  9. Cryomilled zinc sulfide: A prophylactic for Staphylococcus aureus-infected wounds

    SciT

    Tran, Phat L.; Li, Jianqiang; Lungaro, Lisa

    Bacterial pathogens that colonize wounds form biofilms, which protect the bacteria from the effect of host immune response and antibiotics. This paper examined the effectiveness of newly synthesized zinc sulfide in inhibiting biofilm development by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains. Zinc sulfide (ZnS) was anaerobically biosynthesized to produce CompA, which was further processed by cryomilling to maximize the antibacterial properties to produce CompB. The effect of the two compounds on the S. aureus strain AH133 was compared using zone of inhibition assay. The compounds were formulated in a polyethylene glycol cream. We compared the effect of the two compounds onmore » biofilm development by AH133 and two methicillin-resistant S. aureus clinical isolates using the in vitro model of wound infection. Zone of inhibition assay revealed that CompB is more effective than CompA. At 15 mg/application, the formulated cream of either compound inhibited biofilm development by AH133, which was confirmed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. At 20 mg/application, CompB inhibited biofilm development by the two methicillin-resistant S. aureus clinical isolates. To further validate the effectiveness of CompB, mice were treated using the murine model of wound infection. Finally, colony forming cell assay and in vivo live imaging results strongly suggested the inhibition of S. aureus growth.« less

  10. A Study on Dielectric Properties of Cadmium Sulfide-Zinc Sulfide Core-Shell Nanocomposites for Application as Nanoelectronic Filter Component in the Microwave Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Jutika; Datta, Pranayee

    2018-03-01

    Complex permittivities of cadmium sulfide (CdS), zinc sulfide (ZnS), and of cadmium sulfide-zinc sulfide (CdS/ZnS) core-shell nanoparticles embedded in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix (PVA) were measured in liquid phase using a VectorNetwork Analyzer in the frequency range of 500 MHz-10 GHz. These nanocomposites are modeled as an embedded capacitor, and their electric field distribution and polarization have been studied using COMSOL Multiphysics software. By varying the thickness of the shell and the number of inclusions, the capacitance values were estimated. It was observed that CdS, ZnS and CdS/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles embedded in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix show capacitive behavior. There is a strong influence of the dielectric properties in the capacitive behavior of the embedded nanocapacitor. The capping matrix, position and filling factors of nanoinclusions all affect the capacitive behavior of the tested nanocomposites. Application of the CdS, ZnS and CdS/ZnS core-shell nanocomposite as the passive low-pass filter circuit has also been investigated. From the present study, it has been found that CdS/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles embedded in PVA matrix are potential structures for application as nanoelectronic filter components in different areas of communication.

  11. A Study on Dielectric Properties of Cadmium Sulfide-Zinc Sulfide Core-Shell Nanocomposites for Application as Nanoelectronic Filter Component in the Microwave Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Jutika; Datta, Pranayee

    2018-07-01

    Complex permittivities of cadmium sulfide (CdS), zinc sulfide (ZnS), and of cadmium sulfide-zinc sulfide (CdS/ZnS) core-shell nanoparticles embedded in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix (PVA) were measured in liquid phase using a VectorNetwork Analyzer in the frequency range of 500 MHz-10 GHz. These nanocomposites are modeled as an embedded capacitor, and their electric field distribution and polarization have been studied using COMSOL Multiphysics software. By varying the thickness of the shell and the number of inclusions, the capacitance values were estimated. It was observed that CdS, ZnS and CdS/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles embedded in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix show capacitive behavior. There is a strong influence of the dielectric properties in the capacitive behavior of the embedded nanocapacitor. The capping matrix, position and filling factors of nanoinclusions all affect the capacitive behavior of the tested nanocomposites. Application of the CdS, ZnS and CdS/ZnS core-shell nanocomposite as the passive low-pass filter circuit has also been investigated. From the present study, it has been found that CdS/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles embedded in PVA matrix are potential structures for application as nanoelectronic filter components in different areas of communication.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Phase-pure Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4) Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Bradley Michael

    Semiconductor nanoparticles have been an important area of research in many different disciplines. A substantial amount of this work has been put toward advancing the field of photovoltaics. However, current p-type photovoltaic materials can not sustain the large scale production needed for future energy demands due to their low elemental abundance. Therefore, Earth abundant semiconductor materials have become of great interest to the photovoltaic community especially, the material copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS), also known by its mineral name kesterite. CZTS exhibits desirable properties for photovoltaics, such as elemental abundance, high absorption coefficient (~104 cm-1 ), high carrier concentration, and optimum direct band gap (1.5 eV). To date, solution based approaches for making CZTS have yielded the most promising conversion efficiencies in solar cells. To that end, the motivation of nanoparticle based inks that can be used in high throughput production are an attractive route for large scale deployment. This has driven the need to make high quality CZTS nanoparticles that possess the properties of the pure kesterite phase with high monodispersity that can be deposited into dense thin films. The inherent challenge of making a quaternary compound of a single phase has made this a difficult task; however, some of those fundamental problems are addressed in this thesis. This had resulted in the synthesis of phase-pure k-CZTS confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Furthermore, ultra-fast laser spectroscopy was done on CZTS thin films made from phase-pure kesterite nanoparticles synthesized in this work. This thesis provides new data that directly probes the lifetime of photogenerated free carriers in kesterite CZTS (k-CZTS) thin films.

  13. Laser-Induced Thermal-Mechanical Damage Characteristics of Cleartran Multispectral Zinc Sulfide with Temperature-Dependent Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yajing; Jiang, Yanxue; Yang, Yanqiang

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced thermal-mechanical damage characteristics of window materials are the focus problems in laser weapon and anti-radiation reinforcement technology. Thermal-mechanical effects and damage characteristics are investigated for cleartran multispectral zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin film window materials irradiated by continuous laser using three-dimensional (3D) thermal-mechanical model. Some temperature-dependent parameters are introduced into the model. The temporal-spatial distributions of temperature and thermal stress are exhibited. The damage mechanism is analyzed. The influences of temperature effect of material parameters and laser intensity on the development of thermal stress and the damage characteristics are examined. The results show, the von Mises equivalent stress along the thickness direction is fluctuant, which originates from the transformation of principal stresses from compressive stress to tensile stress with the increase of depth from irradiated surface. The damage originates from the thermal stress but not the melting. The thermal stress is increased and the damage is accelerated by introducing the temperature effect of parameters or the increasing laser intensity.

  14. Optical Analysis of Iron-Doped Lead Sulfide Thin Films for Opto-Electronic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidambara Kumar, K. N.; Khadeer Pasha, S. K.; Deshmukh, Kalim; Chidambaram, K.; Shakil Muhammad, G.

    Iron-doped lead sulfide thin films were deposited on glass substrates using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method (SILAR) at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the film shows a well formed crystalline thin film with face-centered cubic structure along the preferential orientation (1 1 1). The lattice constant is determined using Nelson Riley plots. Using X-ray broadening, the crystallite size is determined by Scherrer formula. Morphology of the thin film was studied using a scanning electron microscope. The optical properties of the film were investigated using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. We observed an increase in the optical band gap from 2.45 to 3.03eV after doping iron in the lead sulfide thin film. The cutoff wavelength lies in the visible region, and hence the grown thin films can be used for optoelectronic and sensor applications. The results from the photoluminescence study show the emission at 500-720nm. The vibrating sample magnetometer measurements confirmed that the lead sulfide thin film becomes weakly ferromagnetic material after doping with iron.

  15. Crystal Structure Characterization of Thin Layer Zinc Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyan, Aris; Susilawati; Azizatul Fitri, Siti; Ahzan, Sukainil

    2017-05-01

    In this research the characterization of the crystal structure of a thin layer of ZnO (zinc oxide) were synthesized by sol - gel method and spin coating deposited on a glass substrate. The samples were divided into three sol concentrations of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 Molar and two deposition temperature is 350 °C, and 550 °C. UV-Vis. spectrophotometer results showed that in the spectrum of visible light (wavelength range 300-800 nm) has a transmittance value of which increases with increasing concentration and temperature deposition of zinc oxide, otherwise the value of the absorption and the band gap energy decreases with the addition of concentration and deposition temperature. The transmittances value of the highest and lowest absorption was 93.5% and 0.03 is at a concentration of 0.1 M and zinc oxide deposition temperature of 550 °C, with a value of band gap energy of 2.98 eV. The XRD results showed that the zinc oxide crystal orientation in the field of 013 with a crystal grain size 14.4472 nm. SEM results showed the surface morphology of zinc oxide such as rod-like.

  16. Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, E.; Barquinha, P.; Pimentel, A.; Gonçalves, A.; Marques, A.; Pereira, L.; Martins, R.

    ZnO thin film transistors (ZnO-TFT) have been fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature with a bottom-gate configuration. The ZnO-TFT operates in the enhancement mode with a threshold voltage of 21 V, a field effect mobility of 20 cm2/Vs, a gate voltage swing of 1.24 V/decade and an on/off ratio of 2×105. The ZnO-TFT present an average optical transmission (including the glass substrate) of 80 % in the visible part of the spectrum. The combination of transparency, high channel mobility and room temperature processing makes the ZnO-TFT a very promising low cost optoelectronic device for the next generation of invisible and flexible electronics. Moreover, the processing technology used to fabricate this device is relatively simple and it is compatible with inexpensive plastic/flexible substrate technology.

  17. Visible-light-enhanced interactions of hydrogen sulfide with composites of zinc (oxy)hydroxide with graphite oxide and graphene.

    PubMed

    Seredych, Mykola; Mabayoje, Oluwaniyi; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2012-01-17

    Composites of zinc(oxy)hydroxide-graphite oxide and of zinc(oxy)hydroxide-graphene were used as adsorbents of hydrogen sulfide under ambient conditions. The initial and exhausted samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, potentiometric titration, EDX, thermal analysis, and nitrogen adsorption. An increase in the amount of H(2)S adsorbed/oxidized on their surfaces in comparison with that of pure Zn(OH)(2) is linked to the structure of the composite, the relative number of terminal hydroxyls, and the kind of graphene-based phase used. Although terminal groups are activated by a photochemical process, the graphite oxide component owing to the chemical bonds with the zinc(oxy)hydroxide phase and conductive properties helps in electron transfer, leading to more efficient oxygen activation via the formation of superoxide ions. Elemental sulfur, zinc sulfide, sulfite, and sulfate are formed on the surface. The formation of sulfur compounds on the surface of zinc(oxy)hydroxide during the course of the breakthrough experiments and thus Zn(OH)(2)-ZnS heterojunctions can also contribute to the increased surface activity of our materials. The results show the superiority of graphite oxide in the formation of composites owing to its active surface chemistry and the possibility of interface bond formation, leading to an increase in the number of electron-transfer reactions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Combinatorial study of zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, M. G.; Sanderson, R. J.; Hill, I. G.

    2008-01-01

    Groups of thin-film transistors using a zinc tin oxide semiconductor layer have been fabricated via a combinatorial rf sputtering technique. The ZnO :SnO2 ratio of the film varies as a function of position on the sample, from pure ZnO to SnO2, allowing for a study of zinc tin oxide transistor performance as a function of channel stoichiometry. The devices were found to have mobilities ranging from 2to12cm2/Vs, with two peaks in mobility in devices at ZnO fractions of 0.80±0.03 and 0.25±0.05, and on/off ratios as high as 107. Transistors composed predominantly of SnO2 were found to exhibit light sensitivity which affected both the on/off ratios and threshold voltages of these devices.

  19. Development of a lithium fluoride zinc sulfide based neutron multiplicity counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, Christian; Behling, Spencer; Baldez, Phoenix; Folsom, Micah; Kouzes, Richard; Kukharev, Vladislav; Lintereur, Azaree; Robinson, Sean; Siciliano, Edward; Stave, Sean; Valdez, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    The feasibility of a full-scale lithium fluoride zinc sulfide (LiF/ZnS) based neutron multiplicity counter has been demonstrated. The counter was constructed of modular neutron detecting stacks that each contain five sheets of LiF/ZnS interleaved between six sheets of wavelength shifting plastic with a photomultiplier tube on each end. Twelve such detector stacks were placed around a sample chamber in a square arrangement with lithiated high-density polyethylene blocks in the corners to reflect high-energy neutrons and capture low-energy neutrons. The final system design was optimized via modeling and small-scale test. Measuring neutrons from a 252Cf source, the counter achieved a 36% neutron detection efficiency (ɛ) and an 11 . 7 μs neutron die-away time (τ) for a doubles figure-of-merit (ɛ2 / τ) of 109. This is the highest doubles figure-of-merit measured to-date for a 3He-free neutron multiplicity counter.

  20. Magnetorheological finishing of chemical-vapor deposited zinc sulfide via chemically and mechanically modified fluids

    DOE PAGES

    Salzman, Sivan; Romanofsky, Henry J.; Giannechini, Lucca J.; ...

    2016-02-19

    In this study, we describe the anisotropy in the material removal rate (MRR) of the polycrystalline, chemical-vapor deposited zinc sulfide (ZnS).We define the polycrystalline anisotropy via microhardness and chemical erosion tests for four crystallographic orientations of ZnS: (100), (110), (111), and (311). Anisotropy in the MRR was studied under magnetorheological finishing (MRF) conditions. Three chemically and mechanically modified magnetorheological (MR) fluids at pH values of 4, 5, and 6 were used to test the MRR variations among the four single-crystal planes. When polishing the single-crystal planes and the polycrystalline with pH 5 and pH 6MR fluids, variations were found inmore » the MRR among the four single-crystal planes and surface artifacts were observed on the polycrystalline material. When polishing the single-crystal planes and the polycrystalline with the modified MR fluid at pH 4, however, minimal variation was observed in the MRR among the four orientations and a reduction in surface artifacts was achieved on the polycrystalline material.« less

  1. Development of a lithium fluoride zinc sulfide based neutron multiplicity counter

    SciT

    Cowles, Christian; Behling, Spencer; Baldez, Phoenix

    Here, the feasibility of a full-scale lithium fluoride zinc sulfide (LiF/ZnS) based neutron multiplicity counter has been demonstrated. The counter was constructed of modular neutron detecting stacks that each contain five sheets of LiF/ZnS interleaved between six sheets of wavelength shifting plastic with a photomultiplier tube on each end. Twelve such detector stacks were placed around a sample chamber in a square arrangement with lithiated high-density polyethylene blocks in the corners to reflect high-energy neutrons and capture low-energy neutrons. The final system design was optimized via modeling and small-scale test. Measuring neutrons from a 252Cf source, the counter achieved amore » 36% neutron detection efficiency (ϵϵ) and an View the MathML source11.7μs neutron die-away time (ττ) for a doubles figure-of-merit (ϵ 2/τ) of 109. This is the highest doubles figure-of-merit measured to-date for a 3He-free neutron multiplicity counter.« less

  2. Optimization Photodetectors from Zinc Sulfide Deposited on Porous Silicon with Different Doping Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayef, Uday Muhsin; Khalaf, Haider Amer

    In this work, the structural properties of the zinc sulfide (ZnS) films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis which show an enhancement in the crystallite degree after doping with copper (Cu). Good matching between the ZnS and porous silicon (PS) structure was noted from the atomic force microscope (AFM) results. The reflectivity gave a clear observation of anti-reflected coating improvement for PS layer and more enhancements after the ZnS deposition. The optical properties show a blue shift in the bandgap for the ZnS deposited with higher substrate temperature and a red shift after doped with different elements. For ZnS/PS heterojunction, the electrical resistivity has been increased after PS layer formed and changed with the variation of the pore size and it was much higher after ZnS deposited on the PS. However, use of ZnS:Cu/PS photodetector showed much higher output current at the ultraviolet (UV) region compared to ZnS/PS. The ZnS:Cu/PS photodetector showed higher output current value than that of the ZnS/PS leading to improvement in the quantum efficiency of 42%.

  3. Development of a lithium fluoride zinc sulfide based neutron multiplicity counter

    DOE PAGES

    Cowles, Christian; Behling, Spencer; Baldez, Phoenix; ...

    2018-01-12

    Here, the feasibility of a full-scale lithium fluoride zinc sulfide (LiF/ZnS) based neutron multiplicity counter has been demonstrated. The counter was constructed of modular neutron detecting stacks that each contain five sheets of LiF/ZnS interleaved between six sheets of wavelength shifting plastic with a photomultiplier tube on each end. Twelve such detector stacks were placed around a sample chamber in a square arrangement with lithiated high-density polyethylene blocks in the corners to reflect high-energy neutrons and capture low-energy neutrons. The final system design was optimized via modeling and small-scale test. Measuring neutrons from a 252Cf source, the counter achieved amore » 36% neutron detection efficiency (ϵϵ) and an View the MathML source11.7μs neutron die-away time (ττ) for a doubles figure-of-merit (ϵ 2/τ) of 109. This is the highest doubles figure-of-merit measured to-date for a 3He-free neutron multiplicity counter.« less

  4. Magnetorheological finishing of chemical-vapor deposited zinc sulfide via chemically and mechanically modified fluids.

    PubMed

    Salzman, Sivan; Romanofsky, Henry J; Giannechini, Lucca J; Jacobs, Stephen D; Lambropoulos, John C

    2016-02-20

    We describe the anisotropy in the material removal rate (MRR) of the polycrystalline, chemical-vapor deposited zinc sulfide (ZnS). We define the polycrystalline anisotropy via microhardness and chemical erosion tests for four crystallographic orientations of ZnS: (100), (110), (111), and (311). Anisotropy in the MRR was studied under magnetorheological finishing (MRF) conditions. Three chemically and mechanically modified magnetorheological (MR) fluids at pH values of 4, 5, and 6 were used to test the MRR variations among the four single-crystal planes. When polishing the single-crystal planes and the polycrystalline with pH 5 and pH 6 MR fluids, variations were found in the MRR among the four single-crystal planes and surface artifacts were observed on the polycrystalline material. When polishing the single-crystal planes and the polycrystalline with the modified MR fluid at pH 4, however, minimal variation was observed in the MRR among the four orientations and a reduction in surface artifacts was achieved on the polycrystalline material.

  5. Optimal Magnetorheological Fluid for Finishing of Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Zinc Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzman, Sivan

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) of polycrystalline, chemical-vapor- deposited zinc sulfide (ZnS) optics leaves visible surface artifacts known as "pebbles". These artifacts are a direct result of the material's inner structure that consists of cone-like features that grow larger (up to a few millimeters in size) as deposition takes place, and manifest on the top deposited surface as "pebbles". Polishing the pebble features from a CVD ZnS substrate to a flat, smooth surface to below 10 nm root-mean-square is challenging, especially for a non-destructive polishing process such as MRF. This work explores ways to improve the surface finish of CVD ZnS processed with MRF through modification of the magnetorheological (MR) fluid's properties. A materials science approach is presented to define the anisotropy of CVD ZnS through a combination of chemical and mechanical experiments and theoretical predictions. Magnetorheological finishing experiments with single crystal samples of ZnS, whose cuts and orientations represent most of the facets known to occur in the polycrystalline CVD ZnS, were performed to explore the influence of material anisotropy on the material removal rate during MRF. By adjusting the fluid's viscosity, abrasive type concentration, and pH to find the chemo-mechanical conditions that equalize removal rates among all single crystal facets during MRF, we established an optimized, novel MR formulation to polish CVD ZnS without degrading the surface finish of the optic.

  6. Sulfidation treatment of molten incineration fly ashes with Na2S for zinc, lead and copper resource recovery.

    PubMed

    Kuchar, D; Fukuta, T; Onyango, M S; Matsuda, H

    2007-04-01

    The present study focuses on the conversion of heavy metals involved in molten incineration fly ashes to metal sulfides which could be thereafter separated by flotation. The sulfidation treatment was carried out for five molten incineration fly ashes (Fly ash-A to Fly ash-E) by contacting each fly ash with Na(2)S solution for a period of 10 min to 6h. The initial molar ratio of S(2-) to Me(2+) was adjusted to 1.20. The conversion of heavy metals to metal sulfides was evaluated by measuring the S(2-) residual concentrations using an ion selective electrode. The formation of metal sulfides was studied by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. In the case of Fly ash-A to Fly ash-D, more than 79% of heavy metals of zinc, lead and copper was converted to metal sulfides within the contacting period of 0.5h owing to a fast conversion of metal chlorides to metal sulfides. By contrast, the conversion of about 35% was achieved for Fly ash-E within the same contacting period, which was attributed to a high content of metal oxides. Further, the S(2-) to Me(2+) molar ratio was reduced to 1.00 to minimize Na(2)S consumption and the conversions obtained within the contacting period of 0.5h varied from 76% for Fly ash-D to 91% for Fly ash-C. Finally, soluble salts such as NaCl and KCl were removed during the sulfidation treatment, which brought about a significant enrichment in metals content by a factor varying from 1.5 for Fly ash-D to 4.9 for Fly ash-A.

  7. Acid Volatile Sulfides and Simultaneously Extracted Copper, Lead, and Zinc in Sediments of Sinclair Inlet, Washington

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    to Doug Vaught, J. Towell, and Eric Schlierman of Puget Sound Naval Shipyard for providing laboratory space, equipment, and logistical support for the...availability and mobility of toxic metal contamination in the sediments of Sinclair Inlet, Puget Sound , Washington, acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and... Puget Sound , Washington ........ 1 2. Apparatus used for measuring acid volatile sulfides ........................... 5 3. Sulfide electrode

  8. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaji, S.; Garcia, L. V.; Loredo, S. L.; Krishnan, B.; Aguilar Martinez, J. A.; Das Roy, T. K.; Avellaneda, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb2S3 thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb2S3 thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  9. Zinc nitride thin films: basic properties and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo-Cubero, A.; Gómez-Castaño, M.; García Núñez, C.; Domínguez, M.; Vázquez, L.; Pau, J. L.

    2017-02-01

    Zinc nitride films can be deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering using a Zn target at substrate temperatures lower than 250°C. This low deposition temperature makes the material compatible with flexible substrates. The asgrown layers present a black color, polycrystalline structures, large conductivities, and large visible light absorption. Different studies have reported about the severe oxidation of the layers in ambient conditions. Different compositional, structural and optical characterization techniques have shown that the films turn into ZnO polycrystalline layers, showing visible transparency and semi-insulating properties after total transformation. The oxidation rate is fairly constant as a function of time and depends on environmental parameters such as relative humidity or temperature. Taking advantage of those properties, potential applications of zinc nitride films in environmental sensing have been studied in the recent years. This work reviews the state-of-the-art of the zinc nitride technology and the development of several devices such as humidity indicators, thin film (photo)transistors and sweat monitoring sensors.

  10. Synthesis of zinc sulfide nanoparticles during zinc oxidization by H2S and H2S/H2O supercritical fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostrikov, A. A.; Fedyaeva, O. N.; Sokol, M. Ya.; Shatrova, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Formation of zinc sulfide nanoparticles was detected during interaction of bulk samples with hydrogen sulfide at supercritical parameters. Synthesis proceeds with liberation of H2 by the reaction nZn + nH2S = (ZnS) n + nH2. It has been found by the X-ray diffraction method, scanning electron microscopy, and mass spectrometry that the addition of water stimulates coupled reactions of nanoparticle synthesis nZn + nH2O = (ZnO) n + nH2 and (ZnO) n + nH2S = (ZnS) n + nH2O and brings about an increase in the synthesis rate and morphological changes of (ZnS) n nanoparticles.

  11. Development of a lithium fluoride zinc sulfide based neutron multiplicity counter

    SciT

    Cowles, Christian; Behling, Spencer; Baldez, Phoenix

    Past 3He shortages led to investigations into replacement options for neutron detectors in systems that previously used 3He-based technologies. The goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of a full-scale lithium fluoride with silver activated zinc sulfide (LiF/ZnS) based neutron multiplicity counter. The LiF/ZnS based neutron multiplicity counter (LiNMC) was developed based on an iterative process between modeling and experimental measurements. Each active region of the LiNMC contains five sheets of LiF/ZnS sandwiched between six sheets of wavelength shifting plastic to form neutron detection stacks. The wavelength shifted scintillation light was collected by photomultiplier tubes located on eachmore » end of the stacks. Twelve such detector stacks were placed around a sample chamber in a square arrangement with lithiated high density polyethylene blocks in the corners to reflect high energy neutrons and capture low energy neutrons. Preliminary calibration with a 252Cf neutron source showed that the LiNMC was able to achieve 36% neutron detection efficiency (ε) and an 11.7 μs neutron die-away time (τ) for a doubles Figure-of-merit (ε2/ τ) of 109. This is the highest doubles Figure-of-merit performance measured to-date for a 3He-free neutron multiplicity counter system. By the end of this project, the LiNMC’s basic components were integrated into a single laboratory scale system capable of proof-of-concept measurements.« less

  12. Acid production potentials of massive sulfide minerals and lead-zinc mine tailings: a medium-term study.

    PubMed

    Çelebi, Emin Ender; Öncel, Mehmet Salim; Kobya, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    Weathering of sulfide minerals is a principal source of acid generation. To determine acid-forming potentials of sulfide-bearing materials, two basic approaches named static and kinetic tests are available. Static tests are short-term, and easily undertaken within a few days and in a laboratory. In contrast, kinetic tests are long-term procedures and mostly carried out on site. In this study, experiments were conducted over a medium-term period of 2 months, not as short as static tests and also not as long as kinetic tests. As a result, pH and electrical conductivity oscillations as a function of time, acid-forming potentials and elemental contents of synthetically prepared rainwater leachates of massive sulfides and sulfide-bearing lead-zinc tailings from abandoned and currently used deposition areas have been determined. Although the lowest final pH of 2.70 was obtained in massive pyrite leachate, massive chalcopyrite leachate showed the highest titrable acidity of 1.764 g H 2 SO 4 /L. On the other hand, a composite of currently deposited mine tailings showed no acidic characteristic with a final pH of 7.77. The composite abandoned mine tailing leachate had a final pH of 6.70, close to the final pH of massive galena and sphalerite leachates, and produced a slight titrable acidity of 0.130 g H 2 SO 4 /L.

  13. Nanostructure of aluminium (Al) - Doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussin, Rosniza; Husin, M. Asri

    2017-12-01

    Aluminium (Al)-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) was deposited on glass substrates by using the sol-gel dip coating technique. Next, AZO sol-gel solution was produced via sol-gel method. Al was used as doped element with molar ratios of 1%, 2%, and 3%, while the calcination temperatures were set at 400°C, 500°C, and 600°C for 2 hours. In fact, characterization was carried out in order to determine the effect of calcination temperature and molar ratio of doping by using several techniques, such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). XRD was performed to investigate the crystal structure in which the ZnO was in wurtzite hexagonal form. Next, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the composition of thin films where the result revealed the existence of zinc, oxygen, and aluminium. The roughness of the deposited film was later measured by using the AFM approach where the findings indicated increment in RMS from 8.496 nm to 35.883 nm as the temperature was increased. Additionally, FESEM was carried out to look into the microstructure surfaces of the deposited AZO thin film for increased temperature caused the particle to grow bigger for all molar ratio of dopant. Lastly, UV-Vis was conducted to study the optical properties of AZO, in which the result demonstrated that AZO thin film possessed the highest transmittance percentage among all samples above 90% with band gap value that ranged from 3.25 eV to 3.32 eV.

  14. Formation of zinc sulfide species during roasting of ZnO with pyrite and its contribution on flotation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yong-Xing; Lv, Jin-Fang; Wang, Hua; Wen, Shu-Ming; Pang, Jie

    2018-05-18

    In this paper, formation of zinc sulfide species during roasting of ZnO with FeS 2 was investigated and its contribution on flotation was illustrated. The evolution process, phase and crystal growth were investigated by thermogravimetry (TG), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) along with thermodynamic calculation and scanning electron microscopy-Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), respectively, to interpret the formation mechanism of ZnS species. It was found that ZnS was initially generated at about 450 °C and then the reaction prevailed at about 600 °C. The generated Fe x S would dissolve into ZnS and then form (Zn, Fe)S compound in form of Fe 2 Zn 3 S 5 when temperature increased to about 750 °C. This obviously accelerated ZnS phase formation and growth. In addition, it was known that increasing of ZnO dosage had few effects on the decomposition behavior of FeS 2 . Then, flotation tests of different zinc oxide materials before and after treatment were performed to further confirm that the flotation performances of the treated materials could be obviously improved. Finally, a scheme diagram was proposed to regular its application to mineral processing. It was systematically illustrated that different types of ZnS species needed to be synthetized when sulfidization roasting-flotation process was carried out to treat zinc oxide materials.

  15. Formation of thin sulfide rinds on the CM parent body. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, L. B.; Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.; Zolensky, M.

    1994-01-01

    Many of the textures that are observed in CM chondrites have been alternately assigned nebular, parent-body, or combined nebular-parent body origins. Since it is very difficult to substantiate the production of complex textures in the nebula, an alternate approach to this problem is to rigorously determine which of the observable textures could have been produced by reasonable aqueous alteration processes on the CM parent body. Potential parent body reactions involving S deserve special attention because S-bearing phase define many important CM textures, such as rims. We have examined the possibility that the thin (about 5 microns) rinds of sulfides observed around some partially dissolved olivines within the chondrules and matrixes of CM chondrites were formed by the preferential precipitation of sulfides at or near dissolving olivine boundaries during parent-body alteration. Our model defines two infinite and parallel planes of olivine that are separated by pure water. Average separation distances between olivine grains in CM chondrites at the time of accretion (about 100-200 microns) were estimated by assuming a closed system fluid/rock ratio of 45% and varying the bimodal grain-size distribution. We restrict our calculations to the case of an isochemical system with sufficient bisulfide in solution to account for precipitation of pyrrhotite at STP. Our model examines the possibility that dissolving olivines with compositions between Fo(sub 0.9) and Fo(sub 0.4) can produce a strong gradient of Fe(2+) at pHs from 7 to 12 such that the precipitation of pyrrhotite will be initiated at the olivine-fluid boundary. Since CM phase equilibria is consistent with highly reducing conditions, Fe released by olivines would largely remain in solution as Fe(2+) until the solubility product of a Fe(2+) bearing phase was exceeded. Our calculations indicate that all examined combinations of olivine composition and pH yield a strong Fe(2+) gradient at the time the pyrrhotite

  16. Zinc cobalt sulfide nanosheets array derived from 2D bimetallic metal-organic frameworks for high-performance supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Tao, Kai; Han, Xue; Cheng, Qiuhui; Yang, Yujing; Yang, Zheng; Ma, Qingxiang; Han, Lei

    2018-04-19

    Porous ternary metal sulfide integrated electrode materials with abundant electroactive sites and redox reactions are very promising for supercapacitors. Here, porous zinc cobalt sulfide nanosheets array on Ni foam (Zn-Co-S/NF) has been successfully constructed by a facile growth of 2D bimetallic zinc/cobalt-based metal-organic frameworks (Zn/Co-MOF) nanosheets with leaf-like morphology on Ni foam, followed by additional sulfurization. The Zn-Co-S/NF nanosheets array is directly acted as an electrode for supercapacitor, showing much better electrochemical performance (2354.3 F g-1 and 88.6% retention over 1000 cycles) when compared with zinc cobalt sulfide powder (355.3 F g-1 and 75.8% retention over 1000 cycles), which is originated from good electric conductivity and mechanical stability, abundant electroactive sites, and facilitated transportation of electron and electrolyte ion endowed by the unique nanosheets array structure. The asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device assembled from Zn-Co-S/NF and activated carbon electrodes can deliver the highest energy density of 31.9 Wh kg-1 and the maximum power density of 8.5 kW kg-1. Most importantly, this ASC also presents good cycling stability (97% retention over 1000 cycles). Furthermore, a red light-emitting diode (LED) can be illuminated by two connected ASCs, indicating that as-synthesized Zn-Co-S/NF hold great potential for practical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Research on the magnetorheological finishing of large aperture off-axis aspheric optical surfaces for zinc sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfei; Huang, Wen; Zheng, Yongcheng; Ji, Fang; Xu, Min; Duan, Zhixin; Luo, Qing; Liu, Qian; Xiao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Zinc sulfide is a kind of typical infrared optical material, commonly produced using single point diamond turning (SPDT). SPDT can efficiently produce zinc sulfide aspheric surfaces with micro-roughness and acceptable figure error. However the tool marks left by the diamond turning process cause high micro-roughness that degrades the optical performance when used in the visible region of the spectrum. Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a deterministic, sub-aperture polishing technology that is very helpful in improving both surface micro-roughness and surface figure.This paper mainly investigates the MRF technology of large aperture off-axis aspheric optical surfaces for zinc sulfide. The topological structure and coordinate transformation of a MRF machine tool PKC1200Q2 are analyzed and its kinematics is calculated, then the post-processing algorithm model of MRF for an optical lens is established. By taking the post-processing of off-axis aspheric surfacefor example, a post-processing algorithm that can be used for a raster tool path is deduced and the errors produced by the approximate treatment are analyzed. A polishing algorithm of trajectory planning and dwell time based on matrix equation and optimization theory is presented in this paper. Adopting this algorithm an experiment is performed to machining a large-aperture off-axis aspheric surface on the MRF machine developed by ourselves. After several times' polishing, the figure accuracy PV is proved from 3.3λ to 2.0λ and RMS from 0.451λ to 0.327λ. This algorithm is used to polish the other shapes including spheres, aspheres and prisms.

  18. Leaching of Zinc Sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Experiments with a Controlled Redox Potential Indicate No Direct Bacterial Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, T. A.; Crundwell, F. K.

    1998-01-01

    The role of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in bacterial leaching of mineral sulfides is controversial. Much of the controversy is due to the fact that the solution conditions, especially the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions, change during experiments. The role of the bacteria would be more easily discernible if the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions were maintained at set values throughout the experimental period. In this paper we report results obtained by using the constant redox potential apparatus described previously (P. I. Harvey and F. K. Crundwell, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:2586–2592, 1997). This apparatus is designed to control the redox potential in the leaching compartment of an electrolytic cell by reduction or oxidation of dissolved iron. By controlling the redox potential the apparatus maintains the concentrations of ferrous and ferric ions at their initial values. Experiments were conducted in the presence of T. ferrooxidans and under sterile conditions. Analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfide in the absence of the bacteria and analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfate in the presence of the bacteria produced the same results. This indicates that the only role of the bacteria under the conditions used is regeneration of ferric ions in solution. In this work we found no evidence that there is a direct mechanism for bacterial leaching. PMID:9758769

  19. Impact of Sodium Contamination in Tin Sulfide Thin-Film Solar Cells

    DOE PAGES

    Steinmann, Vera; Brandt, Riley E.; Chakraborty, Rupak; ...

    2016-02-12

    Empirical observations show that sodium(Na) is a benign contaminant in some thin-filmsolar cells. Here, we intentionally contaminate thermally evaporated tin sulfide (SnS)thin-films with sodium and measure the SnS absorber properties and solar cellcharacteristics. The carrier concentration increases from 2 × 10 16 cm -3 to 4.3 × 10 17 cm -3 in Na-doped SnSthin-films, when using a 13 nm NaCl seed layer, which is detrimental for SnS photovoltaic applications but could make Na-doped SnS an attractive candidate in thermoelectrics. We observed trends in carrier concentration and found that it is in good agreement with density functional theory calculations, which predictmore » an acceptor-type NaSn defect with low formation energy.« less

  20. Optical characteristics of bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) thin films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, S.; Eid, A. H.; Omar, H.

    Thin films of bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) were grown by two deposition techniques, by thermal evaporation and by chemical deposition. The thermally deposited reactions consisted in depositing the individual elements, namely bismuth and sulfur, sequentially from a tungsten boat source and allowing the layers to interdiffuse to form the compound during the heat-treatment. The chemical deposition was based on the reaction between the triethanolamine compex of Bi3+ ions and thiourea in basic media. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis were made on as-deposited and on annealed films to determine their structure. The different electronic transitions and the optical constants are determined from the transmision and reflection data of these thin films for normal incidence. The optical gaps of Bi2S3 films show a remarkable dependence on the preparation method.

  1. Properties of Hydrogen Sulfide Sensors Based on Thin Films of Tin Dioxide and Tungsten Trioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevastianov, E. Yu.; Maksimova, N. K.; Chernikov, E. V.; Sergeichenko, N. V.; Rudov, F. V.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of hydrogen sulfide in the concentration range of 0-100 ppm on the characteristics of thin films of tin dioxide and tungsten trioxide obtained by the methods of magnetron deposition and modified with gold in the bulk and on the surface is studied. The impurities of antimony and nickel have been additionally introduced into the SnO2 bulk. An optimal operating temperature of sensors 350°C was determined, at which there is a satisfactory correlation between the values of the response to H2S and the response time. Degradation of the sensor characteristics is investigated in the long-term ( 0.5-1.5 years) tests at operating temperature and periodic exposure to hydrogen sulfide, as well as after conservation of samples in the laboratory air. It is shown that for the fabrication of H2S sensors, the most promising are thin nanocrystalline Au/WO3:Au films characterized by a linear concentration dependence of the response and high stability of parameters during exploitation.

  2. Enhancement in sensitivity of copper sulfide thin film ammonia gas sensor: Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation

    SciT

    Sagade, Abhay Abhimanyu; Sharma, Ramphal; Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sungdong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul 133-791

    2009-02-15

    The studies are carried out on the effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on surface morphology and electrical properties of copper sulfide (Cu{sub x}S) thin films with three different chemical compositions (x values). The irradiation experiments have been carried out on Cu{sub x}S films with x=1.4, 1.8, and 2 by 100 MeV gold heavy ions at room temperature. These as-deposited and irradiated thin films have been used to detect ammonia gas at room temperature (300 K). The SHI irradiation treatment on x=1.4 and 1.8 copper sulfide films enhances the sensitivity of the gas sensor. The results are discussed consideringmore » high electronic energy deposition by 100 MeV gold heavy ions in a matrix of copper sulfide.« less

  3. Method of removing hydrogen sulfide from gases utilizing a zinc oxide sorbent and regenerating the sorbent

    DOEpatents

    Jalan, Vinod M.; Frost, David G.

    1984-01-01

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500.degree. C. to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent.

  4. Bandgap-Engineered Zinc-Tin-Oxide Thin Films for Ultraviolet Sensors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tien-Hung; Chang, Sheng-Po; Chang, Shoou-Jinn

    2018-07-01

    Zinc-tin-oxide thin-film transistors were prepared by radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering, while an identical zinc-tin-oxide thin film was deposited simultaneously on a clear glass substrate to facilitate measurements of the optical properties. When we adjusted the deposition power of ZnO and SnO2, the bandgap of the amorphous thin film was dominated by the deposition power of SnO2. Since the thin-film transistor has obvious absorption in the ultraviolet region owing to the wide bandgap, the drain current increases with the generation of electron-hole pairs. As part of these investigations, a zinc-tin-oxide thin-film transistor has been fabricated that appears to be very promising for ultraviolet applications.

  5. Zinc sulfide and zinc selenide immersion gratings for astronomical high-resolution spectroscopy: evaluation of internal attenuation of bulk materials in the short near-infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kondo, Sohei; Yasui, Chikako; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Tokoro, Hitoshi; Terada, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    We measure the internal attenuation of bulk crystals of chemical vapor deposition zinc selenide (CVD-ZnS), chemical vapor deposition zinc sulfide (CVD-ZnSe), Si, and GaAs in the short near-infrared (sNIR) region to evaluate the possibility of astronomical immersion gratings with those high refractive index materials. We confirm that multispectral grade CVD-ZnS and CVD-ZnSe are best suited for the immersion gratings, with the smallest internal attenuation of αatt=0.01 to 0.03 cm-1 among the major candidates. The measured attenuation is roughly in proportion to λ-2, suggesting it is dominated by bulk scattering due to the polycrystalline grains rather than by absorption. The total transmittance in the immersion grating is estimated to be at least >80%, even for the spectral resolution of R=300,000. Two potential problems, the scattered light by the bulk material and the degradation of the spectral resolution due to the gradient illumination in the diffracted beam, are investigated and found to be negligible for usual astronomical applications. Since the remaining problem, the difficulty of cutting grooves on CVD-ZnS and CVD-ZnSe, has recently been overcome by the nanoprecision fly-cutting technique, ZnS and ZnSe immersion gratings for astronomy can be technically realized.

  6. On the origin of life in the zinc world. 2. Validation of the hypothesis on the photosynthesizing zinc sulfide edifices as cradles of life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Galperin, Michael Y

    2009-08-24

    The accompanying article (A.Y. Mulkidjanian, Biology Direct 4:26) puts forward a detailed hypothesis on the role of zinc sulfide (ZnS) in the origin of life on Earth. The hypothesis suggests that life emerged within compartmentalized, photosynthesizing ZnS formations of hydrothermal origin (the Zn world), assembled in sub-aerial settings on the surface of the primeval Earth. If life started within photosynthesizing ZnS compartments, it should have been able to evolve under the conditions of elevated levels of Zn2+ ions, byproducts of the ZnS-mediated photosynthesis. Therefore, the Zn world hypothesis leads to a set of testable predictions regarding the specific roles of Zn2+ ions in modern organisms, particularly in RNA and protein structures related to the procession of RNA and the "evolutionarily old" cellular functions. We checked these predictions using publicly available data and obtained evidence suggesting that the development of the primeval life forms up to the stage of the Last Universal Common Ancestor proceeded in zinc-rich settings. Testing of the hypothesis has revealed the possible supportive role of manganese sulfide in the primeval photosynthesis. In addition, we demonstrate the explanatory power of the Zn world concept by elucidating several points that so far remained without acceptable rationalization. In particular, this concept implies a new scenario for the separation of Bacteria and Archaea and the origin of Eukarya. The ability of the Zn world hypothesis to generate non-trivial veritable predictions and explain previously obscure items gives credence to its key postulate that the development of the first life forms started within zinc-rich formations of hydrothermal origin and was driven by solar UV irradiation. This concept implies that the geochemical conditions conducive to the origin of life may have persisted only as long as the atmospheric CO2 pressure remained above ca. 10 bar. This work envisions the first Earth biotopes as

  7. On the origin of life in the Zinc world. 2. Validation of the hypothesis on the photosynthesizing zinc sulfide edifices as cradles of life on Earth

    PubMed Central

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Galperin, Michael Y

    2009-01-01

    Background The accompanying article (A.Y. Mulkidjanian, Biology Direct 4:26) puts forward a detailed hypothesis on the role of zinc sulfide (ZnS) in the origin of life on Earth. The hypothesis suggests that life emerged within compartmentalized, photosynthesizing ZnS formations of hydrothermal origin (the Zn world), assembled in sub-aerial settings on the surface of the primeval Earth. Results If life started within photosynthesizing ZnS compartments, it should have been able to evolve under the conditions of elevated levels of Zn2+ ions, byproducts of the ZnS-mediated photosynthesis. Therefore, the Zn world hypothesis leads to a set of testable predictions regarding the specific roles of Zn2+ ions in modern organisms, particularly in RNA and protein structures related to the procession of RNA and the "evolutionarily old" cellular functions. We checked these predictions using publicly available data and obtained evidence suggesting that the development of the primeval life forms up to the stage of the Last Universal Common Ancestor proceeded in zinc-rich settings. Testing of the hypothesis has revealed the possible supportive role of manganese sulfide in the primeval photosynthesis. In addition, we demonstrate the explanatory power of the Zn world concept by elucidating several points that so far remained without acceptable rationalization. In particular, this concept implies a new scenario for the separation of Bacteria and Archaea and the origin of Eukarya. Conclusion The ability of the Zn world hypothesis to generate non-trivial veritable predictions and explain previously obscure items gives credence to its key postulate that the development of the first life forms started within zinc-rich formations of hydrothermal origin and was driven by solar UV irradiation. This concept implies that the geochemical conditions conducive to the origin of life may have persisted only as long as the atmospheric CO2 pressure remained above ca. 10 bar. This work envisions the

  8. Structural and optical studied of nano structured lead sulfide thin films prepared by the chemical bath deposition technique

    SciT

    Al Din, Nasser Saad, E-mail: nsaadaldin@yahoo.com; Hussain, Nabiha, E-mail: nabihahssin@yahoo.com; Jandow, Nidhal, E-mail: nidhaljandow@yahoo.com

    2016-07-25

    Lead (II) Sulfide PbS thin films were deposited on glass substrates at 25°C by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The structural properties of the films were studied as a function of the concentration of Thiourea (CS (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}) as Source of Sulfide and deposition time. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM. The obtained results showed that the as-deposited films Polycrystalline had cubic crystalline phase that belong to S.G: Fm3m. We found that they have preferred orientation [200]. Also the thickness of thin films decrease with deposition time after certain value and, itmore » observed free sulfide had orthorhombic phase. Optical properties showed that the thin films have high transmission at visible range and low transmission at UV, IR range. The films of PbS have direct band gap (I.68 - 2.32 ev) at 300 K the values of band energy decreases with increases thickness of the Lead (II) Sulfide films.« less

  9. Formation of Double-Shelled Zinc-Cobalt Sulfide Dodecahedral Cages from Bimetallic Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks for Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Guan, Bu Yuan; Yu, Le; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2017-06-12

    Complex metal-organic frameworks used as precursors allow design and construction of various nanostructured functional materials which might not be accessible by other methods. Here, we develop a sequential chemical etching and sulfurization strategy to prepare well-defined double-shelled zinc-cobalt sulfide (Zn-Co-S) rhombic dodecahedral cages (RDCs). Yolk-shelled zinc/cobalt-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (Zn/Co-ZIF) RDCs are first synthesized by a controlled chemical etching process, followed by a hydrothermal sulfurization reaction to prepare double-shelled Zn-Co-S RDCs. Moreover, the strategy reported in this work enables easy control of the Zn/Co molar ratio in the obtained double-shelled Zn-Co-S RDCs. Owing to the structural and compositional benefits, the obtained double-shelled Zn-Co-S RDCs exhibit enhanced performance with high specific capacitance (1266 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 ), good rate capability and long-term cycling stability (91 % retention over 10,000 cycles) as a battery-type electrode material for hybrid supercapacitors. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effects of different annealing atmospheres on the properties of cadmium sulfide thin films

    SciT

    Yücel, E., E-mail: dr.ersinyucel@gmail.com; Kahraman, S.; Güder, H.S.

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: The effects of different annealing atmospheres (air and sulfur) on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdS thin films were studied at three different pH values. - Highlights: • Compactness and smoothness of the films were enhanced after sulfur annealing. • Micro-strain values of some films were improved after sulfur annealing. • Dislocation density values of some films were improved after sulfur annealing. • Band gap values of the films were improved after sulfur annealing. - Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effects ofmore » different annealing atmospheres (air and sulfur) on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdS thin films were studied at three different pH values. Compactness and smoothness of the films (especially for pH 10.5 and 11) enhanced after sulfur annealing. pH value of the precursor solution remarkably affected the roughness, uniformity and particle sizes of the films. Based on the analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the films, micro-strain and dislocation density values of the sulfur-annealed films (pH 10.5 and 11) were found to be lower than those of air-annealed films. Air-annealed films (pH 10.5, 11 and 11.5) exhibited higher transmittance than sulfur-annealed films in the wavelength region of 550–800 nm. Optical band gap values of the films were found between 2.31 eV and 2.36 eV.« less

  11. Ultrasound-assisted analyte extraction for the determination of sulfate and elemental sulfur in zinc sulfide by different liquid chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Dash, K; Thangavel, S; Krishnamurthy, N V; Rao, S V; Karunasagar, D; Arunachalam, J

    2005-04-01

    The speciation and determination of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and elemental sulfur (S degree) in zinc sulfide (ZnS) using ion-chromatography (IC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) respectively is described. Three sample pretreatment approaches were employed with the aim of determining sulfate: (i) conventional water extraction of the analyte; (ii) solid-liquid aqueous extraction with an ultrasonic probe; and (iii) elimination of the zinc sulfide matrix via ion-exchange dissolution (IED). The separation of sulfate was carried out by an anion-exchange column (IonPac AS17), followed by suppressed conductivity detection. Elemental sulfur was extracted ultrasonically from the acid treated sample solution into chloroform and separated on a reversed phase HPLC column equipped with a diode array detector (DAD) at 264 nm. The achievable solid detection limits for sulfate and sulfur were 35 and 10 microg g(-1) respectively.

  12. Iron Sulfide Attenuates the Methanogenic Toxicity of Elemental Copper and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and their Soluble Metal Ion Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Gallagher, Sara; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A.

    2016-01-01

    Elemental copper (Cu0) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle (NP) toxicity to methanogens has been attributed to the release of soluble metal ions. Iron sulfide (FeS) partially controls the soluble concentration of heavy metals and their toxicity in aquatic environments. Heavy metals displace the Fe from FeS forming poorly soluble metal sulfides in the FeS matrix. Therefore, FeS may be expected to attenuate the NP toxicity. This work assessed FeS as an attenuator of the methanogenic toxicity of Cu0 and ZnO NPs and their soluble salt analogs. The toxicity attenuation capacity of fine (25–75 µm) and coarse (500 to 1200 µm) preparations of FeS (FeS-f and FeS-c respectively) was tested in the presence of highly inhibitory concentrations of CuCl2, ZnCl2 Cu0 and ZnO NPs. FeS-f attenuated methanogenic toxicity better than FeS-c. The results revealed that 2.5× less FeS-f than FeS-c was required to recover the methanogenic activity to 50% (activity normalized to uninhibited controls). The results also indicated that a molar FeS-f/Cu0 NP, FeS-f/ZnO NP, FeS-f/ZnCl2, and FeS-f/CuCl2 ratio of 2.14, 2.14, 4.28, and 8.56 respectively, was necessary to recover the methanogenic activity to >75%. Displacement experiments demonstrated that CuCl2 and ZnCl2 partially displaced Fe from FeS. As a whole, the results indicate that not all the sulfide in FeS was readily available to react with the soluble Cu and Zn ions which may explain the need for a large stoichiometric excesses of FeS to highly attenuate Cu and Zn toxicity. Overall, this study provides evidence that FeS attenuates the toxicity caused by Cu0 and ZnO NPs and their soluble ion analogs to methanogens. PMID:26803736

  13. Analysis of Zinc Oxide Thin Films Synthesized by Sol-Gel via Spin Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolgamott, Jon Carl

    Transparent conductive oxides are gaining an increasingly important role in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. Doped zinc oxide is a candidate as a low cost and nontoxic alternative to tin doped indium oxide. Lab results have shown that both n-type and p-type zinc oxide can be created on a small scale. This can allow zinc oxide to be used as either an electrode as well as a buffer layer to increase efficiency and protect the active layer in solar cells. Sol-gel synthesis is emerging as a low temperature, low cost, and resource efficient alternative to producing transparent conducting oxides such as zinc oxide. For sol-gel derived zinc oxide thin films to reach their potential, research in this topic must continue to optimize the known processing parameters and expand to new parameters to tighten control and create novel processing techniques that improve performance. The processing parameters of drying and annealing temperatures as well as cooling rate were analyzed to see their effect on the structure of the prepared zinc oxide thin films. There were also preliminary tests done to modify the sol-gel process to include silver as a dopant to produce a p-type thin film. The results from this work show that the pre- and post- heating temperatures as well as the cooling rate all play their own unique role in the crystallization of the film. Results from silver doping show that more work needs to be done to create a sol-gel derived p-type zinc oxide thin film.

  14. Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Chemical Spray Technique, Starting from Zinc Acetylacetonate and Indium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Rajesh; Maldonado, Arturo; Vega-Pérez, Jaime; Acosta, Dwight Roberto; Olvera, María De La Luz

    2014-01-01

    The physical characteristics of ultrasonically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films, with electrical resistivity as low as 3.42 × 10−3 Ω·cm and high optical transmittance, in the visible range, of 50%–70% is presented. Zinc acetylacetonate and indium chloride were used as the organometallic zinc precursor and the doping source, respectively, achieving ZnO:In thin films with growth rate in the order of 100 nm/min. The effects of both indium concentration and the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical characteristics were measured. All the films were polycrystalline, fitting well with hexagonal wurtzite type ZnO. A switching in preferential growth, from (002) to (101) planes for indium doped samples were observed. The surface morphology of the films showed a change from hexagonal slices to triangle shaped grains as the indium concentration increases. Potential applications as transparent conductive electrodes based on the resulting low electrical resistance and high optical transparency of the studied samples are considered. PMID:28788118

  15. Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Chemical Spray Technique, Starting from Zinc Acetylacetonate and Indium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Rajesh; Maldonado, Arturo; Vega-Pérez, Jaime; Acosta, Dwight Roberto; De La Luz Olvera, María

    2014-07-04

    The physical characteristics of ultrasonically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films, with electrical resistivity as low as 3.42 × 10 -3 Ω·cm and high optical transmittance, in the visible range, of 50%-70% is presented. Zinc acetylacetonate and indium chloride were used as the organometallic zinc precursor and the doping source, respectively, achieving ZnO:In thin films with growth rate in the order of 100 nm/min. The effects of both indium concentration and the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical characteristics were measured. All the films were polycrystalline, fitting well with hexagonal wurtzite type ZnO. A switching in preferential growth, from (002) to (101) planes for indium doped samples were observed. The surface morphology of the films showed a change from hexagonal slices to triangle shaped grains as the indium concentration increases. Potential applications as transparent conductive electrodes based on the resulting low electrical resistance and high optical transparency of the studied samples are considered.

  16. Design and fabrication of a miniature objective consisting of high refractive index zinc sulfide lenses for laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadfan, Adam; Pawlowski, Michal; Wang, Ye; Subramanian, Kaushik; Gabay, Ilan; Ben-Yakar, Adela; Tkaczyk, Tomasz

    2016-02-01

    A miniature laser ablation probe relying on an optical fiber to deliver light requires a high coupling efficiency objective with sufficient magnification in order to provide adequate power and field for surgery. A diffraction-limited optical design is presented that utilizes high refractive index zinc sulfide to meet specifications while reducing the miniature objective down to two lenses. The design has a hypercentric conjugate plane on the fiber side and is telecentric on the tissue end. Two versions of the objective were built on a diamond lathe-a traditional cylindrical design and a custom-tapered mount. Both received an antireflective coating. The objectives performed as designed in terms of observable resolution and field of view as measured by imaging a 1951 USAF resolution target. The slanted edge technique was used to find Strehl ratios of 0.75 and 0.78, respectively, indicating nearly diffraction-limited performance. Finally, preliminary ablation experiments indicated threshold fluence of gold film was comparable to similar reported probes.

  17. Surface-texture evolution of different chemical-vapor-deposited zinc sulfide flats polished with various magnetorheological fluids

    DOE PAGES

    Salzman, S.; Romanofsky, H. J.; Jacobs, S. D.; ...

    2015-08-19

    The macro-structure of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) zinc sulfide (ZnS) substrates is characterizedby cone-like structures that start growing at the early stages of deposition. As deposition progresses,these cones grow larger and reach centimeter size in height and millimeter size in width. It is challengingto polish out these features from the top layer, particularly for the magnetorheological finishing (MRF)process. A conventional MR fluid tends to leave submillimeter surface artifacts on the finished surface,which is a direct result of the cone-like structure. Here we describe the MRF process of polishing four CVD ZnS substrates, manufactured by four differentvendors, with conventional MR fluid at pHmore » 10 and zirconia-coated-CI (carbonyl iron) MR fluids at pH 4, 5,and 6. We report on the surface–texture evolution of the substrates as they were MRF polished with thedifferent fluids. We show that performances of the zirconia-coated-CI MR fluid at pH 4 are significantlyhigher than that of the same fluid at pH levels of 5 and 6 and moderately higher than that of a conventionalMR fluid at pH 10. An improvement in surface–texture variability from part to part was also observedwith the pH 4 MR fluid.« less

  18. Design and fabrication of a miniature objective consisting of high refractive index zinc sulfide lenses for laser surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shadfan, Adam; Pawlowski, Michal; Wang, Ye; Subramanian, Kaushik; Gabay, Ilan; Ben-Yakar, Adela; Tkaczyk, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    A miniature laser ablation probe relying on an optical fiber to deliver light requires a high coupling efficiency objective with sufficient magnification in order to provide adequate power and field for surgery. A diffraction-limited optical design is presented that utilizes high refractive index zinc sulfide to meet specifications while reducing the miniature objective down to two lenses. The design has a hypercentric conjugate plane on the fiber side and is telecentric on the tissue end. Two versions of the objective were built on a diamond lathe—a traditional cylindrical design and a custom-tapered mount. Both received an antireflective coating. The objectives performed as designed in terms of observable resolution and field of view as measured by imaging a 1951 USAF resolution target. The slanted edge technique was used to find Strehl ratios of 0.75 and 0.78, respectively, indicating nearly diffraction-limited performance. Finally, preliminary ablation experiments indicated threshold fluence of gold film was comparable to similar reported probes. PMID:28579656

  19. The oceanic budgets of nickel and zinc isotopes: the importance of sulfidic environments as illustrated by the Black Sea

    PubMed Central

    Little, Susan H.; Archer, Corey; Cameron, Vyllinniskii; Andersen, Morten B.; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic data collected to date as part of the GEOTRACES and other programmes show that the oceanic dissolved pool is isotopically heavy relative to the inputs for zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni). All Zn sinks measured until recently, and the only output yet measured for Ni, are isotopically heavier than the dissolved pool. This would require either a non-steady-state ocean or other unidentified sinks. Recently, isotopically light Zn has been measured in organic carbon-rich sediments from productive upwelling margins, providing a potential resolution of this issue, at least for Zn. However, the origin of the isotopically light sedimentary Zn signal is uncertain. Cellular uptake of isotopically light Zn followed by transfer to sediment does not appear to be a quantitatively important process. Here, we present Zn and Ni isotope data for the water column and sediments of the Black Sea. These data demonstrate that isotopically light Zn and Ni are extracted from the water column, probably through an equilibrium fractionation between different dissolved species followed by sequestration of light Zn and Ni in sulfide species to particulates and the sediment. We suggest that a similar, non-quantitative, process, operating in porewaters, explains the Zn data from organic carbon-rich sediments. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry’. PMID:29035259

  20. Paramagnetic dysprosium-doped zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed-laser deposition

    SciT

    Lo, Fang-Yuh, E-mail: fangyuhlo@ntnu.edu.tw; Ting, Yi-Chieh; Chou, Kai-Chieh

    2015-06-07

    Dysprosium(Dy)-doped zinc oxide (Dy:ZnO) thin films were fabricated on c-oriented sapphire substrate by pulsed-laser deposition with doping concentration ranging from 1 to 10 at. %. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman-scattering, optical transmission spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry revealed incorporation of Dy into ZnO host matrix without secondary phase. Solubility limit of Dy in ZnO under our deposition condition was between 5 and 10 at. % according to XRD and Raman-scattering characteristics. Optical transmission spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry also showed increase in both transmittance in ultraviolet regime and band gap of Dy:ZnO with increasing Dy density. Zinc vacancies and zinc interstitials were identified by photoluminescencemore » spectroscopy as the defects accompanied with Dy incorporation. Magnetic investigations with a superconducting quantum interference device showed paramagnetism without long-range order for all Dy:ZnO thin films, and a hint of antiferromagnetic alignment of Dy impurities was observed at highest doping concentration—indicating the overall contribution of zinc vacancies and zinc interstitials to magnetic interaction was either neutral or toward antiferromagnetic. From our investigations, Dy:ZnO thin films could be useful for spin alignment and magneto-optical applications.« less

  1. Controlling the Photocorrosion of Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles in Water by Doping with Chloride and Cobalt Ions.

    PubMed

    Weide, Philipp; Schulz, Katharina; Kaluza, Stefan; Rohe, Markus; Beranek, Radim; Muhler, Martin

    2016-12-06

    Photodegradation under UV light irradiation is a major drawback in photocatalytic applications of sulfide semiconductors. ZnS nanoparticles were doped with very low amounts of chloride or cobalt ions in the ppm range and codoped with chloride and cobalt ions during their synthesis by precipitation in aqueous solution followed by calcination. The high-temperature wurtzite phase annealed at 800 °C had a high susceptibility to UV irradiation in water, while the low-temperature zincblende phase annealed at 400 °C was found to be stable. Chlorine doping increased the rate of photocorrosion in water, whereas cobalt doping led to a stabilization of the ZnS nanoparticles. Based on photochemical and spectroscopic investigations applying UV/vis, X-ray photoelectron, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, the increased susceptibility of Cl-doped ZnS is ascribed to a higher number of surface point defects, whereas the stabilization by Co 2+ is caused by additional recombination pathways for the charge carriers in the bulk, thus avoiding photocorrosion processes at the surface. Additional doping of Cl-doped ZnS with cobalt ions was found to counteract the detrimental effect of the chloride ions efficiently.

  2. Subtractive Plasma-Assisted-Etch Process for Developing High Performance Nanocrystalline Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film-Transistors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    THIN - FILM - TRANSISTORS THESIS Thomas M. Donigan, First Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-027 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR...DEVELOPING HIGH PERFORMANCE NANOCRYSTALLINE ZINC-OXIDE THIN - FILM - TRANSISTORS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and...15-M-027 SUBTRACTIVE PLASMA-ASSISTED-ETCH PROCESS FOR DEVELOPING HIGH PERFORMANCE NANOCRYSTALLINE ZINC-OXIDE THIN - FILM - TRANSISTORS

  3. Room temperature chemical bath deposition of cadmium selenide, cadmium sulfide and cadmium sulfoselenide thin films with novel nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderHyde, Cephas A.; Sartale, S. D.; Patil, Jayant M.; Ghoderao, Karuna P.; Sawant, Jitendra P.; Kale, Rohidas B.

    2015-10-01

    A simple, convenient and low cost chemical synthesis route has been used to deposit nanostructured cadmium sulfide, selenide and sulfoselenide thin films at room temperature. The films were deposited on glass substrates, using cadmium acetate as cadmium ion and sodium selenosulfate/thiourea as a selenium/sulfur ion sources. Aqueous ammonia was used as a complex reagent and also to adjust the pH of the final solution. The as-deposited films were uniform, well adherent to the glass substrate, specularly reflective and red/yellow in color depending on selenium and sulfur composition. The X-ray diffraction pattern of deposited cadmium selenide thin film revealed the nanocrystalline nature with cubic phase; cadmium sulfide revealed mixture of cubic along with hexagonal phase and cadmium sulfoselenide thin film were grown with purely hexagonal phase. The morphological observations revealed the growth and formation of interesting one, two and three-dimensional nanostructures. The band gap of thin films was calculated and the results are reported.

  4. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  5. On the origin of life in the Zinc world: 1. Photosynthesizing, porous edifices built of hydrothermally precipitated zinc sulfide as cradles of life on Earth

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The complexity of the problem of the origin of life has spawned a large number of possible evolutionary scenarios. Their number, however, can be dramatically reduced by the simultaneous consideration of various bioenergetic, physical, and geological constraints. Results This work puts forward an evolutionary scenario that satisfies the known constraints by proposing that life on Earth emerged, powered by UV-rich solar radiation, at photosynthetically active porous edifices made of precipitated zinc sulfide (ZnS) similar to those found around modern deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Under the high pressure of the primeval, carbon dioxide-dominated atmosphere ZnS could precipitate at the surface of the first continents, within reach of solar light. It is suggested that the ZnS surfaces (1) used the solar radiation to drive carbon dioxide reduction, yielding the building blocks for the first biopolymers, (2) served as templates for the synthesis of longer biopolymers from simpler building blocks, and (3) prevented the first biopolymers from photo-dissociation, by absorbing from them the excess radiation. In addition, the UV light may have favoured the selective enrichment of photostable, RNA-like polymers. Falsification tests of this hypothesis are described in the accompanying article (A.Y. Mulkidjanian, M.Y. Galperin, Biology Direct 2009, 4:27). Conclusion The suggested "Zn world" scenario identifies the geological conditions under which photosynthesizing ZnS edifices of hydrothermal origin could emerge and persist on primordial Earth, includes a mechanism of the transient storage and utilization of solar light for the production of diverse organic compounds, and identifies the driving forces and selective factors that could have promoted the transition from the first simple, photostable polymers to more complex living organisms. Reviewers This paper was reviewed by Arcady Mushegian, Simon Silver (nominated by Arcady Mushegian), Antoine Danchin (nominated by

  6. On the origin of life in the zinc world: 1. Photosynthesizing, porous edifices built of hydrothermally precipitated zinc sulfide as cradles of life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y

    2009-08-24

    The complexity of the problem of the origin of life has spawned a large number of possible evolutionary scenarios. Their number, however, can be dramatically reduced by the simultaneous consideration of various bioenergetic, physical, and geological constraints. This work puts forward an evolutionary scenario that satisfies the known constraints by proposing that life on Earth emerged, powered by UV-rich solar radiation, at photosynthetically active porous edifices made of precipitated zinc sulfide (ZnS) similar to those found around modern deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Under the high pressure of the primeval, carbon dioxide-dominated atmosphere ZnS could precipitate at the surface of the first continents, within reach of solar light. It is suggested that the ZnS surfaces (1) used the solar radiation to drive carbon dioxide reduction, yielding the building blocks for the first biopolymers, (2) served as templates for the synthesis of longer biopolymers from simpler building blocks, and (3) prevented the first biopolymers from photo-dissociation, by absorbing from them the excess radiation. In addition, the UV light may have favoured the selective enrichment of photostable, RNA-like polymers. Falsification tests of this hypothesis are described in the accompanying article (A.Y. Mulkidjanian, M.Y. Galperin, Biology Direct 2009, 4:27). The suggested "Zn world" scenario identifies the geological conditions under which photosynthesizing ZnS edifices of hydrothermal origin could emerge and persist on primordial Earth, includes a mechanism of the transient storage and utilization of solar light for the production of diverse organic compounds, and identifies the driving forces and selective factors that could have promoted the transition from the first simple, photostable polymers to more complex living organisms.

  7. Impact of hydrogen and oxygen defects on the lattice parameter of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide

    SciT

    McCloy, John S.; Wolf, Walter; Wimmer, Erich

    2013-01-09

    The lattice parameter of cubic chemical vapor deposited (CVD) ZnS with measured oxygen concentrations < 0.6 at.% and hydrogen impurities of < 0.015 at.% have been measured and found to vary between -0.10% and +0.09% relative to the reference lattice parameter (5.4093 Å) of oxygen-free cubic ZnS as reported in the literature. Defects other than substitutional O must be invoked to explain these observed volume changes. The structure and thermodynamic stability of a wide range of native and impurity induced defects in ZnS have been determined by Ab initio calculations. Lattice contraction is caused by S-vacancies, substitutional O on Smore » sites, Zn vacancies, H in S vacancies, peroxy defects, and dissociated water in S-vacancies. The lattice is expanded by interstitial H, H in Zn vacancies, dihydroxy defects, interstitial oxygen, Zn and [ZnHn] complexes (n=1,…,4), interstitial Zn, and S2 dumbbells. Oxygen, though present, likely forms substitutional defects for sulfur resulting in lattice contraction rather than as interstitial oxygen resulting in lattice expansion. It is concluded based on measurement and calculations that excess zinc atoms either at anti-sites (i.e. Zn atoms on S-sites) or possibly as interstitial Zn are responsible for the relative increase of the lattice parameter of commercially produced CVD ZnS.« less

  8. Synthesis of zinc sulfide nanoparticles and their incorporation into poly(hydroxybutyrate) matrix in the formation of a novel nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Shahina; Raza, Zulfiqar Ali; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Jan, Tariq

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized through a modified chemical precipitation protocol and then mediated into poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) matrix to get ZnS/PHB nanocomposite. Mean diameter and zeta potential of ZnS NPs, as determined using dynamic light scattering technique (DLS), were observed to be 53 nm and ‑89 mV, respectively. The structural investigations performed using x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique depicted the phase purity of ZnS NPs exhibiting cubic crystal structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis was conducted to identify the presence or absence of bonding vibrational modes on the surface of synthesized single phase ZnS NPs. The FTIR analysis confirmed the metal to sulphur bond formation by showing the characteristic band at 1123 cm‑1. The UV–vis absorption spectra of ZnS NPs confirmed the synthesis of particles in nanoscale regime showing a λ max of 302 nm. These NPs were then successfully incorporated into PHB matrix to synthesize ZnS/PHB nanocomposite. The synthesis of nanocomposite was confirmed by EDX analysis. The chemical bonding and structural properties of ZnS/PHB nanocomposite were determined by FTIR and XRD analysis, respectively. The FTIR analysis confirmed the synthesis of ZnS/PHB nanocomposite. Moreover, XRD analysis showed that structure of nanocomposite was completely controlled by ZnS NPs as pure PHB exhibited orthorhombic crystal structure while the nanocomposite demonstrated cubic crystal structure of ZnS. Thermal properties of nanocomposite were studied through thermogravimetric analysis revealing that the incorporation of ZnS NPs into PHB matrix lead to enhance heat resistance properties of PHB.

  9. Effect of active zinc oxide dispersion on reduced graphite oxide for hydrogen sulfide adsorption at mid-temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hoon Sub; Park, Moon Gyu; Croiset, Eric; Chen, Zhongwei; Nam, Sung Chan; Ryu, Ho-Jung; Yi, Kwang Bok

    2013-09-01

    Composites of Zinc oxide (ZnO) with reduced graphite oxide (rGO) were synthesized and used as adsorbents for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at 300 °C. Various characterization methods (TGA, XRD, FT-IR, TEM and XPS) were performed in order to link their H2S adsorption performance to the properties of the adsorbent's surface. Microwave-assisted reduction process of graphite oxide (GO) provided mild reduction environment, allowing oxygen-containing functional groups to remain on the rGO surface. It was confirmed that for the ZnO/rGO synthesize using the microwave-assisted reduction method, the ZnO particle size and the degree of ZnO dispersion remained stable over time at 300 °C, which was not the case for only the ZnO particles themselves. This stable highly dispersed feature allows for sustained high surface area over time. This was confirmed through breakthrough experiments for H2S adsorption where it was found that the ZnO/rGO composite showed almost four times higher ZnO utilization efficiency than ZnO itself. The effect of the H2 and CO2 on H2S adsorption was also investigated. The presence of hydrogen in the H2S stream had a positive effect on the removal of H2S since it allows a reducing environment for Znsbnd O and Znsbnd S bonds, leading to more active sites (Zn2+) to sulfur molecules. On the other hand, the presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) showed the opposite trend, likely due to the oxidation environment and also due to possible competitive adsorption between H2S and CO2.

  10. Determination of acid forming potential of massive sulfide minerals and the tailings situated in lead/zinc mining district of Balya (NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelebi, E. Ender; Öncel, M. Salim

    2016-12-01

    Weathering of sulfide minerals is a major source of acid production in nature and especially in mining territories. Pyrite is not the only principal mineral that generates acid drainage: other sulfide minerals (sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, etc.) may also be responsible for acid production. In addition to massive sulfide minerals, sulfide-bearing mine tailings may also produce acid drainage due to oxidation and hydrolysis reactions in waste dumps. The lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mining region in Balya and Balıkesir, in Turkey, has operated mines intensively since the 1860s; so that characterization of the sulfide minerals and tailings situated and formed around the mining site is of great importance to secure a sustainable environment. For this purpose, acid production and neutralization potentials of massive sulfide ores of the region, and in the Pb/Zn process facility mine tailings from ten different points of tailings dam, have been determined by applied conventional Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) and Net Acid Generation (NAG) static tests after chemical and mineralogical analysis. The NAG pH and net acid production potential (NAPP) values were compared on a chart in order to classify the samples as either acid generating or non-acid generating. According to the comparisons, the sulfide minerals were classified as potentially acid forming (PAF). Massive pyrite had the highest NAPP and NAG pH value of 1966.6 kg H2SO4/ton and 1.91, respectively and the galena had the lowest NAPP value of 558.9 kg H2SO4/ton. However, the sphalerite NAG leachate pH value of 4.30 was the highest in sulfide minerals so that the sphalerite plotted near the uncertainty reference border in the PAF zone. In the mine tailings, NAPP values of 105.9 kg H2SO4/ton on average and the NAG pH values of over 7.5 were determined. In addition to these tests, water leaching (agitation test) was carried out on tailings in order to generate more information. The tailings did not generate acidic leachates as

  11. Development of Thin Section Zinc Die Casting Technology

    SciT

    Goodwin, Frank

    2013-10-31

    A new high fluidity zinc high pressure die casting alloy, termed the HF alloy, was developed during laboratory trials and proven in industrial production. The HF alloy permits castings to be achieved with section thicknesses of 0.3 mm or less. Technology transfer activities were conducted to develop usage of the HF high fluidity alloy. These included production of a brochure and a one-hour webinar on the HF alloy. The brochure was then sent to 1,184 product designers in the Interzinc database. There was excellent reception to this mailing, and from this initial contact 5 technology transfer seminars were conducted formore » 81 participants from 30 companies across a wide range of business sectors. Many of the successful applications to date involve high quality surface finishes. Design and manufacturing assistance was given for development of selected applications.« less

  12. Different distribution of in-situ thin carbon layer in hollow cobalt sulfide nanocages and their application for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Meng; Lu, Shi-Yu; Ma, Li; Gan, Meng-Yu; Lei, Yao; Zhang, Xiu-Ling; Fu, Gang; Yang, Pei-Shu; Yan, Mao-Fa

    2017-02-01

    Recently, cobalt sulfides emerge as a candidate for energy reserve and conversation. However, the problem of poor stability and low rate capability for cobalt sulfides restrict its practical application. Thin carbon layer (TCL) coated has been regarded as a promising constructing strategy for high performance supercapacitors, because TCL can promote the tremendous properties of bare materials. In this literature, we report a very interesting phenomenon that different distribution of in-situ carbon coated hollow CoS2 nanocages (external and both external and interior) can be synthesized only by adjusting sulfuration time, followed by calcination. Moreover, it is clearly observed that CoS2-C@TCL exhibits significant improvement for specific capacitance and good stability (better than CoS2@TCL and CoS2). These results compel us to design a series of experiments to figure out the reason and the more detailed mechanism is discussed in paper. More importantly, it will provide a new strategy for synthesis of special structure with in-situ carbon coated sulfide for energy conversion.

  13. Morphological impact of zinc oxide layers on the device performance in thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Faber, Hendrik; Klaumünzer, Martin; Voigt, Michael; Galli, Diana; Vieweg, Benito F; Peukert, Wolfgang; Spiecker, Erdmann; Halik, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    Zinc oxide thin-films are prepared either by spin coating of an ethanolic dispersion of nanoparticles (NP, diameter 5 nm) or by spray pyrolysis of a zinc acetate dihydrate precursor. High-resolution electron microscopy studies reveal a monolayer of particles for the low temperature spin coating approach and larger crystalline domains of more than 30 nm for the spray pyrolysis technique. Thin-film transistor devices (TFTs) based on spray pyrolysis films exhibit higher electron mobilities of up to 24 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) compared to 0.6 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) for NP based TFTs. These observations were dedicated to a reduced number of grain boundaries within the transistor channel.

  14. High Mobility Thin Film Transistors Based on Amorphous Indium Zinc Tin Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Noviyana, Imas; Lestari, Annisa Dwi; Putri, Maryane; Won, Mi-Sook; Bae, Jong-Seong; Heo, Young-Woo; Lee, Hee Young

    2017-01-01

    Top-contact bottom-gate thin film transistors (TFTs) with zinc-rich indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO) active layer were prepared at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Sintered ceramic target was prepared and used for deposition from oxide powder mixture having the molar ratio of In2O3:ZnO:SnO2 = 2:5:1. Annealing treatment was carried out for as-deposited films at various temperatures to investigate its effect on TFT performances. It was found that annealing treatment at 350 °C for 30 min in air atmosphere yielded the best result, with the high field effect mobility value of 34 cm2/Vs and the minimum subthreshold swing value of 0.12 V/dec. All IZTO thin films were amorphous, even after annealing treatment of up to 350 °C. PMID:28773058

  15. Copper-Zinc-Tin-Sulfur Thin Film Using Spin-Coating Technology

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Min-Yen; Lei, Po-Hsun; Lin, Shao-Hsein; Yang, Chyi-Da

    2016-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by using spin-coating and an annealing process, which can improve the crystallinity and morphology of the thin films. The grain size, optical gap, and atomic contents of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), tin (Sn), and sulfur (S) in a CZTS thin film absorber relate to the concentrations of aqueous precursor solutions containing copper chloride (CuCl2), zinc chloride (ZnCl2), tin chloride (SnCl2), and thiourea (SC(NH2)2), whereas the electrical properties of CZTS thin films depend on the annealing temperature and the atomic content ratios of Cu/(Zn + Sn) and Zn/Sn. All of the CZTS films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), Raman spectroscopy, and Hall measurements. Furthermore, CZTS thin film was deposited on an n-type silicon substrate by using spin-coating to form an Mo/p-CZTS/n-Si/Al heterostructured solar cell. The p-CZTS/n-Si heterostructured solar cell showed a conversion efficiency of 1.13% with Voc = 520 mV, Jsc = 3.28 mA/cm2, and fill-factor (FF) = 66%. PMID:28773647

  16. Analysis of indium zinc oxide thin films by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, A. C.; Beldjilali, S.; Socol, G.; Craciun, V.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Hermann, J.

    2011-10-01

    We have performed spectroscopic analysis of the plasma generated by Nd:YAG (λ = 266 nm) laser irradiation of thin indium zinc oxide films with variable In content deposited by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition on glass substrates. The samples were irradiated in 5 × 104 Pa argon using laser pulses of 5 ns duration and 10 mJ energy. The plasma emission spectra were recorded with an Echelle spectrometer coupled to a gated detector with different delays with respect to the laser pulse. The relative concentrations of indium and zinc were evaluated by comparing the measured spectra to the spectral radiance computed for a plasma in local thermal equilibrium. Plasma temperature and electron density were deduced from the relative intensities and Stark broadening of spectral lines of atomic zinc. Analyses at different locations on the deposited thin films revealed that the In/(In + Zn) concentration ratio significantly varies over the sample surface, from 0.4 at the borders to about 0.5 in the center of the film. The results demonstrate that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy allows for precise and fast characterization of thin films with variable composition.

  17. Photoconductivity study of acid on Zinc phthalocyanine pyridine thin films

    SciT

    Singh, Sukhwinder, E-mail: ss7667@gmail.com; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-05-06

    The Metal Phthalocyanine (MPc) have attracted much interest because of chemical and high thermal stability. Molecules forming a crystal of MPc are held together by weak attractive Vander Waals forces. Organic semiconductors have π conjugate bonds which allow electrons to move via π-electron cloud overlaps. Conduction mechanisms for organic semiconductor are mainly through tunneling; hopping between localized states, mobility gaps, and phonon assisted hopping. The photo conductivity of thin films of these complexes changes when exposed to oxidizing and reducing gases. Arrhenius plot is used to find the thermal activation energy in the intrinsic region and impurity scattering region. Arrheniusmore » plotsare used to find the thermal activation energy.« less

  18. Effect of cadmium incorporation on the properties of zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath, S. P.; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K.

    2018-02-01

    Cd x Zn1- x O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.20) thin films are deposited on soda lime glass substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. To check the thermal stability, Cd x Zn1- x O thin films are subjected to annealing. Both the as-deposited and annealed Cd x Zn1- x O thin films are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) to check the structural, surface morphological and compositional properties, respectively. XRD analysis reveals that the both as-deposited and annealed Cd x Zn1- x O thin films are (002) oriented with wurtzite structure. SEM studies confirm that as-deposited, as well as annealed Cd x Zn1- x O thin films are free from pinholes and cracks. Compositional analysis shows the deficiency in Cd content after annealing. Optical properties evaluated from UV-Vis spectroscopy shows red shift in the band gap for Cd x Zn1- x O thin films. Electrical property measured using two probe method shows a decrease in the resistance after Cd incorporation. The results indicate that cadmium can be successfully incorporated in zinc oxide thin films to achieve structural changes in the properties of films.

  19. Synthesis of zinc oxide thin films prepared by sol-gel for specific bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Tijjani; Basri, B.; Dhahi, Th. S.; Mohammed, Mohammed; Hashim, U.; Noriman, N. Z.; Dahham, Omar S.

    2017-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films this device to used for many application like chemical sensor, biosensor, solar energy, etc but my project to use for bioactivity(biosensor). Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been grown using sol-gel technique. Characterization was done using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray(EDX) and Electrical Measurement(I-V). ZnO thin film was successfully synthesized using low cost sol-gel spin coating method. The coupling of DNA probe to ZnO thin film supports modified with carboxylic acid (COOH) is certainly the best practical method to make DNA immobilization and it does not require any coupling agent which could be a source of variability during the spotting with an automatic device. So, selected this coupling procedure for further experiments. The sensor was tested with initial trial with low concentrated DNA and able to detect detection of the disease effectively. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer device with ZnO can detect at different concentration in order to valid the device capabilities for detecting development. The lowest concentration 1 µM HPV DNA probe can detect is 0.1 nM HPV target DNA.

  20. Photoconductivity study of acid on Zinc phthalocyanine pyridine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    The Metal Phthalocyanine (MPc) have attracted much interest because of chemical and high thermal stability. Molecules forming a crystal of MPc are held together by weak attractive Vander Waals forces. Organic semiconductors have π conjugate bonds which allow electrons to move via π-electron cloud overlaps. Conduction mechanisms for organic semiconductor are mainly through tunneling; hopping between localized states, mobility gaps, and phonon assisted hopping. The photo conductivity of thin films of these complexes changes when exposed to oxidizing and reducing gases. Arrhenius plot is used to find the thermal activation energy in the intrinsic region and impurity scattering region. Arrhenius plotsare used to find the thermal activation energy. The original version of this article supplied to AIP Publishing contained erroneous text at the end of the abstract. "Arrhenius plots are used to find the thermal activation energy." was deleted as it does not pertain to the article. In addition, a figure citation was cited incorrectly and an equation was missing. This has been corrected in the updated version republished on 4 December 2017.

  1. Electrical instability of high-mobility zinc oxynitride thin-film transistors upon water exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the effects of water absorption on the electrical performance and stability in high-mobility zinc oxynitride (ZnON) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The ZnON TFT exhibits a smaller field-effect mobility, lower turn-on voltage, and higher subthreshold slope with a deteriorated electrical stability under positive gate bias stresses after being exposed to water. From the Hall measurements, an increase of the electron concentration and a decrease of the Hall mobility are observed in the ZnON thin film after water absorption. The observed phenomena are mainly attributed to the water molecule-induced increase of the defective ZnXNY bond and the oxygen vacancy inside the ZnON thin film based on the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  2. Environmentally induced chemical and morphological heterogeneity of zinc oxide thin films

    SciT

    Jiang, Hua; Chou, Kang Wei; Petrash, Stanislas

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been reported to suffer from degradation in electrical properties, when exposed to elevated heat and humidity, often leading to failures of electronic devices containing ZnO films. This degradation appears to be linked to water and oxygen penetration into the ZnO film. However, a direct observation in the ZnO film morphological evolution detailing structural and chemical changes has been lacking. Here, we systematically investigated the chemical and morphological heterogeneities of ZnO thin films caused by elevated heat and humidity, simulating an environmental aging. X-ray fluorescence microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, grazing incidence small angle and widemore » angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultra-high-resolution SEM, and optical microscopy were carried out to examine ZnO and Al-doped ZnO thin films on two different substrates—silicon wafers and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. In the un-doped ZnO thin film, the simulated environmental aging is resulting in pin-holes. In the Al-doped ZnO thin films, significant morphological changes occurred after the treatment, with an appearance of platelet-shaped structures that are 100–200 nm wide by 1 μm long. Synchrotron x-ray characterization further confirmed the heterogeneity in the aged Al-doped ZnO, showing the formation of anisotropic structures and disordering. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated the formation of a zinc hydroxide in the aged Al-doped films. Utilizing advanced characterization methods, our studies provided information with an unprecedented level of details and revealed the chemical and morphologically heterogeneous nature of the degradation in ZnO thin films.« less

  3. Environmentally induced chemical and morphological heterogeneity of zinc oxide thin films

    SciT

    Jiang, Hua; Chou, Kang Wei; Petrash, Stanislas

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been reported to suffer from degradation in electrical properties, when exposed to elevated heat and humidity, often leading to failures of electronic devices containing ZnO films. This degradation appears to be linked to water and oxygen penetration into the ZnO film. However, a direct observation in the ZnO film morphological evolution detailing structural and chemical changes has been lacking. Here, we systematically investigated the chemical and morphological heterogeneities of ZnO thin films caused by elevated heat and humidity, simulating an environmental aging. X-ray fluorescence microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, grazing incidence small angle and widemore » angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultra-high-resolution SEM, and optical microscopy were carried out to examine ZnO and Al-doped ZnO thin films on two different substrates—silicon wafers and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. In the un-doped ZnO thin film, the simulated environmental aging is resulting in pin-holes. In the Al-doped ZnO thin films, significant morphological changes occurred after the treatment, with an appearance of platelet-shaped structures that are 100–200 nm wide by 1μm long. Synchrotron x-ray characterization further confirmed the heterogeneity in the aged Al-doped ZnO, showing the formation of anisotropic structures and disordering. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated the formation of a zinc hydroxide in the aged Al-doped films. In conclusion, utilizing advanced characterization methods, our studies provided information with an unprecedented level of details and revealed the chemical and morphologically heterogeneous nature of the degradation in ZnO thin films.« less

  4. Environmentally induced chemical and morphological heterogeneity of zinc oxide thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Hua; Chou, Kang Wei; Petrash, Stanislas; ...

    2016-09-02

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been reported to suffer from degradation in electrical properties, when exposed to elevated heat and humidity, often leading to failures of electronic devices containing ZnO films. This degradation appears to be linked to water and oxygen penetration into the ZnO film. However, a direct observation in the ZnO film morphological evolution detailing structural and chemical changes has been lacking. Here, we systematically investigated the chemical and morphological heterogeneities of ZnO thin films caused by elevated heat and humidity, simulating an environmental aging. X-ray fluorescence microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, grazing incidence small angle and widemore » angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultra-high-resolution SEM, and optical microscopy were carried out to examine ZnO and Al-doped ZnO thin films on two different substrates—silicon wafers and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. In the un-doped ZnO thin film, the simulated environmental aging is resulting in pin-holes. In the Al-doped ZnO thin films, significant morphological changes occurred after the treatment, with an appearance of platelet-shaped structures that are 100–200 nm wide by 1μm long. Synchrotron x-ray characterization further confirmed the heterogeneity in the aged Al-doped ZnO, showing the formation of anisotropic structures and disordering. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated the formation of a zinc hydroxide in the aged Al-doped films. In conclusion, utilizing advanced characterization methods, our studies provided information with an unprecedented level of details and revealed the chemical and morphologically heterogeneous nature of the degradation in ZnO thin films.« less

  5. Structure evolution of zinc oxide thin films deposited by unbalance DC magnetron sputtering

    SciT

    Aryanto, Didik, E-mail: didi027@lipi.go.id; Materials Research Group, Physics Department, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah; Marwoto, Putut

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are deposited on corning glass substrates using unbalanced DC magnetron sputtering. The effect of growth temperature on surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film is studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film are transformed against the increasing of growth temperature. The mean grain size of film and the surface roughness are inversely and directly proportional towards the growth temperature from room temperature to 300 °C, respectively. The smaller grain size and finer roughness of ZnO thin film are obtainedmore » at growth temperature of 400 °C. The result of AFM analysis is in good agreement with the result of XRD analysis. ZnO thin films deposited in a series of growth temperatures have hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structures and they exhibit transformations in the crystallographic orientation. The results in this study reveal that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film.« less

  6. Characterization of zinc oxide thin film for pH detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Uda; Fathil, M. F. M.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Uda, M. N. A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the fabrication process of the zinc oxide thin films for using to act as pH detection by using different PH solution. Sol-gel solution technique is used for preparing zinc oxide seed solution, followed by metal oxide deposition process by using spin coater on the silicon dioxide. Silicon dioxide layer is grown on the silicon wafer, then, ZnO seed solution is deposited on the silicon layer, baked, and annealing process carried on to undergo the characterization of its surface morphology, structural and crystalline phase. Electrical characterization is showed by using PH 4, 7, and 10 is dropped on the surface of the die, in addition, APTES solution is used as linker and also as a references of the electrical characterization.

  7. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  8. Zinc

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  9. Nanostructuring on zinc phthalocyanine thin films for single-junction organic solar cells

    SciT

    Chaudhary, Dhirendra K.; Kumar, Lokendra, E-mail: lokendrakr@allduniv.ac.in

    2016-05-23

    Vertically aligned and random oriented crystalline molecular nanorods of organic semiconducting Zinc Phthalocyanine (ZnPc) have been grown on ITO coated glass substrate using solvent volatilization method. Interesting changes in surface morphology were observed under different solvent treatment. Vertically aligned nanorods of ZnPc thin film were observed in the films treated with acetone, where as the random oriented nanorods were observed in the films treated with chloroform. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used for characterization of nanostructures. The optical properties of the nanorods have been investigated by UV-Vis. absorption spectroscopy.

  10. Zinc oxide integrated area efficient high output low power wavy channel thin film transistor

    SciT

    Hanna, A. N.; Ghoneim, M. T.; Bahabry, R. R.

    2013-11-25

    We report an atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide channel material integrated thin film transistor using wavy channel architecture allowing expansion of the transistor width in the vertical direction using the fin type features. The experimental devices show area efficiency, higher normalized output current, and relatively lower power consumption compared to the planar architecture. This performance gain is attributed to the increased device width and an enhanced applied electric field due to the architecture when compared to a back gated planar device with the same process conditions.

  11. Chemical Etching of Zinc Oxide for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hüpkes, Jürgen; Owen, Jorj I; Pust, Sascha E; Bunte, Eerke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Chemical etching is widely applied to texture the surface of sputter-deposited zinc oxide for light scattering in thin-film silicon solar cells. Based on experimental findings from the literature and our own results we propose a model that explains the etching behavior of ZnO depending on the structural material properties and etching agent. All grain boundaries are prone to be etched to a certain threshold, that is defined by the deposition conditions and etching solution. Additionally, several approaches to modify the etching behavior through special preparation and etching steps are provided. PMID:22162035

  12. The in vitro antifungal activity of ketoconazole, zinc pyrithione, and selenium sulfide against Pityrosporum and their efficacy as a shampoo in the treatment of experimental pityrosporosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Van Cutsem, J; Van Gerven, F; Fransen, J; Schrooten, P; Janssen, P A

    1990-06-01

    The fungistatic and fungicidal activity of ketoconazole, zinc pyrithione, and selenium sulfide against Pityrosporum, a yeast thought to play a pathogenic role in seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, was assessed in Dixon broth for Pityrosporum ovale and Sabouraud broth for Pityrosporum pachydermatis. Ketoconazole inhibited growth at concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 1 micrograms/ml. For zinc pyrithione and selenium sulfide higher concentrations were needed. In a guinea pig model the efficacy of treatment with four shampoos (Nizoral [Jansen], EDS Zinc [Schering], Zinkan [Lederle], and Selsun [Abbott]) was compared. The animals were inoculated for 7 consecutive days on intact skin. The lesions were scored for erythema, folliculitis, and hyperkeratosis 24 hours after the last inoculation and after treatment. Final evaluations were made 13 days after infection (10 days after last shampoo application). Treatment with undiluted and diluted (1:10) shampoos showed consistently superior clinical and mycologic results for Nizoral shampoo. None of the shampoos produced side effects.

  13. Properties of zinc tin oxide thin film by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riza, Muhammad Arif; Rahman, Abu Bakar Abd; Sepeai, Suhaila; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad; Teridi, Mohd Asri Mat; Ibrahim, Mohd Adib

    2018-05-01

    This study focuses on the properties of ZTO which have been deposited by a low-cost method namely aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). The precursors used in this method were zinc acetate dihidrate and tin chloride dihydrate for ZTO thin film deposition. Both precursors were mixed and stirred until fully dissolved before deposition. The ZTO was deposited on borosilicate glass substrate for the investigation of optical properties. The films deposited have passed the scotch tape adherence test. XRD revealed that the crystal ZTO is slightly in the form of perovskite structure but several deteriorations were also seen in the spectrum. The UV-Vis analysis showed high transmittance of ˜85% and the band gap was calculated to be 3.85 eV. The average thickness of the film is around 284 nm. The results showed that the ZTO thin films have been successfully deposited by the utilization of AACVD method.

  14. A new portable sulfide monitor with a zinc-oxide semiconductor sensor for daily use and field study.

    PubMed

    Tanda, Naoko; Washio, Jumpei; Ikawa, Kyoko; Suzuki, Kengo; Koseki, Takeyoshi; Iwakura, Masaki

    2007-07-01

    For measuring oral malodor in daily clinical practice and in field study, we developed and evaluated a highly sensitive portable monitor system. We examined sensitivity and specificity of the sensor for volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) and obstructive gases, such as ethanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde. Each mouth air provided by 46 people was measured by this monitor, gas chromatography (GC), and olfactory panel and compared with each other. Based on the result, we used the monitor for mass health examination of a rural town with standardized measuring. The sensor detected hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide with 10-1000 times higher sensitivity than the other gases. The monitor's specificity was significantly improved by a VSC-selective filter. There were significant correlations between VSC concentration by the sulfide monitor and by GC, and by organoleptic score. Thirty-six percent of 969 examinees had oral malodor in a rural town. Seventy-eight percent of 969 examinees were motivated to take care of their oral condition by oral malodor measuring with the monitor. The portable sulfide monitor was useful to promote oral health care not only in clinics, but also in field study. The simple and quick operation system and the standardized measuring make it one of parameters of oral condition.

  15. The zinc-loss effect and mobility enhancement of DUV-patterned sol-gel IGZO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kuan-Hsun; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Soppera, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the composition of the DUV-patterned sol-gel indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) and observe a significant zinc loss effect during developing when the DUV exposure is insufficient. The zinc loss, however, is beneficial for increasing the mobility. Reducing zinc to indium composition ratio from 0.5 to 0.02 can effectively increase mobility from 0.27 to 7.30 cm2 V-1 s-1 when the gallium to indium ratio is fixed as 0.25 and the post annealing process is fixed as 300 °C for 2 h. On the other hand, an IGO TFT fails to deliver a uniform film and a reproducible TFT performance, revealing the critical role of zinc in forming homogeneous IGZO TFTs.

  16. Chemical stability and electrical performance of dual-active-layered zinc-tin-oxide/indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors using a solution process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Ho; Rim, You Seung; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2013-07-10

    We investigated the chemical stability and electrical properties of dual-active-layered zinc-tin-oxide (ZTO)/indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) structures (DALZI) with the durability of the chemical damage. The IGZO film was easily corroded or removed by an etchant, but the DALZI film was effectively protected by the high chemical stability of ZTO. Furthermore, the electrical performance of the DALZI thin-film transistor (TFT) was improved by densification compared to the IGZO TFT owing to the passivation of the pin holes or pore sites and the increase in the carrier concentration due to the effect of Sn(4+) doping.

  17. Temperature Dependence of the Seebeck Coefficient in Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori, Amirreza; Masoumi, Saeed; Hashemi, Najmeh

    2017-12-01

    Thermoelectric devices are reliable tools for converting waste heat into electricity as they last long, produce no noise or vibration, have no moving elements, and their light weight makes them suitable for the outer space usage. Materials with high thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) have the most important role in the fabrication of efficient thermoelectric devices. Metal oxide semiconductors, specially zinc oxide has recently received attention as a material suitable for sensor, optoelectronic and thermoelectric device applications because of their wide direct bandgap, chemical stability, high-energy radiation endurance, transparency and acceptable zT. Understanding the thermoelectric properties of the undoped ZnO thin films can help design better ZnO-based devices. Here, we report the results of our experimental work on the thermoelectric properties of the undoped polycrystalline ZnO thin films. These films are deposited on alumina substrates by thermal evaporation of zinc in vacuum followed by a controlled oxidation process in air carried out at the 350-500 °C temperature range. The experimental setup including gradient heaters, thermometry system and Seebeck voltage measurement equipment for high resistance samples is described. Seebeck voltage and electrical resistivity of the samples are measured at different conditions. The observed temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient is discussed.

  18. Zinc Oxide Grown by CVD Process as Transparent Contact for Thin Film Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faÿ, S.; Shah, A.

    Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO films (MOCVD) [1] started to be comprehensively investigated in the 1980s, when thin film industries were looking for ZnO deposition processes especially useful for large-scale coatings at high growth rates. Later on, when TCO for thin film solar cells started to be developed, another advantage of growing TCO films by the CVD process has been highlighted: the surface roughness. Indeed, a large number of studies on CVD ZnO revealed that an as-grown rough surface cn be obtained with this deposition process [2-4]. A rough surface induces a light scattering effect, which can significantly improve light trapping (and therefore current photo-generation) within thin film silicon solar cells. The CVD process, indeed, directly leads to as-grown rough ZnO films without any post-etching step (the latter is often introduced to obtain a rough surface, when working with as-deposited flat sputtered ZnO). This fact could turn out to be a significant advantage when upscaling the manufacturing process for actual commercial production of thin film solar modules. The zinc and oxygen sources for CVD growth of ZnO films are given in Table 6.1.

  19. Dual operation characteristics of resistance random access memory in indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jyun-Bao; Chang, Ting-Chang; Huang, Jheng-Jie; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ting; Tseng, Hsueh-Chih; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Sze, Simon M.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors can be operated either as transistors or resistance random access memory devices. Before the forming process, current-voltage curve transfer characteristics are observed, and resistance switching characteristics are measured after a forming process. These resistance switching characteristics exhibit two behaviors, and are dominated by different mechanisms. The mode 1 resistance switching behavior is due to oxygen vacancies, while mode 2 is dominated by the formation of an oxygen-rich layer. Furthermore, an easy approach is proposed to reduce power consumption when using these resistance random access memory devices with the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor.

  20. Occurrence of silver minerals in a silver-rich pocket in the massive sulfide zinc-lead ores in the Edwards mine, New York

    SciT

    Serviss, C.R.; Grout, C.M.; Hagni, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Ore microscopic examination of uncommon silver-rich ores from the Edwards mine has detected three silver minerals, native silver, freibergite, and argentite, that were previously unreported in the literature from the Balmat-Edwards district. The zinc-lead ore deposits of the Balmat-Edwards District in northern New York are composed of very coarse-grained massive sulfides, principally sphalerite, galena, and pyrite. The typical ores contain small amounts of silver in solid solution galena. Galena concentrates produced from those ores have contained an average of 15 ounces of silver per ton of 60% lead concentrates. In contrast to the typical ore a silver-rich pocket, that measuredmore » three feet by three feet on the vertical mine face and was the subject of this study, contained nearly 1% silver in a zinc ore. Ore microscopic study shows that this ore is especially characterized by abundant, relatively fine-grained chalcopyrite with anhedral pyrite inclusions. Fine-grained sphalerite, native silver, argentite, freibergite and arsenopyrite occur in association with the chalcopyrite and as fracture-fillings in gangue minerals. Geochemically anomalous amounts of tin, barium, chromium, and nickel also are present in the silver-rich pocket. The silver-rich pocket may mark the locus of an early feeder vent or alternatively it may record a hydrothermal event that was superimposed upon the event responsible for the metamorphic ore textures.« less

  1. Fully transparent flexible tin-doped zinc oxide thin film transistors fabricated on plastic substrate.

    PubMed

    Han, Dedong; Zhang, Yi; Cong, Yingying; Yu, Wen; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2016-12-12

    In this work, we have successfully fabricated bottom gate fully transparent tin-doped zinc oxide thin film transistors (TZO TFTs) fabricated on flexible plastic substrate at low temperature by RF magnetron sputtering. The effect of O 2 /Ar gas flow ratio during channel deposition on the electrical properties of TZO TFTs was investigated, and we found that the O 2 /Ar gas flow ratio have a great influence on the electrical properties. TZO TFTs on flexible substrate has very nice electrical characteristics with a low off-state current (I off ) of 3 pA, a high on/off current ratio of 2 × 10 7 , a high saturation mobility (μ sat ) of 66.7 cm 2 /V•s, a steep subthreshold slope (SS) of 333 mV/decade and a threshold voltage (V th ) of 1.2 V. Root-Mean-Square (RMS) roughness of TZO thin film is about 0.52 nm. The transmittance of TZO thin film is about 98%. These results highlight that the excellent device performance can be realized in TZO film and TZO TFT can be a promising candidate for flexible displays.

  2. Fully transparent flexible tin-doped zinc oxide thin film transistors fabricated on plastic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dedong; Zhang, Yi; Cong, Yingying; Yu, Wen; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we have successfully fabricated bottom gate fully transparent tin-doped zinc oxide thin film transistors (TZO TFTs) fabricated on flexible plastic substrate at low temperature by RF magnetron sputtering. The effect of O2/Ar gas flow ratio during channel deposition on the electrical properties of TZO TFTs was investigated, and we found that the O2/Ar gas flow ratio have a great influence on the electrical properties. TZO TFTs on flexible substrate has very nice electrical characteristics with a low off-state current (Ioff) of 3 pA, a high on/off current ratio of 2 × 107, a high saturation mobility (μsat) of 66.7 cm2/V•s, a steep subthreshold slope (SS) of 333 mV/decade and a threshold voltage (Vth) of 1.2 V. Root-Mean-Square (RMS) roughness of TZO thin film is about 0.52 nm. The transmittance of TZO thin film is about 98%. These results highlight that the excellent device performance can be realized in TZO film and TZO TFT can be a promising candidate for flexible displays.

  3. Electrical properties of thin film transistors with zinc tin oxide channel layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seunghwan; Oh, Gyujin; Kim, Eun Kyu

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated thin film transistors (TFTs) with zinc tin oxide (ZTO) channel layer fabricated by using an ultra-high vacuum radio frequency sputter. ZTO thin films were grown at room temperature by co-sputtering of ZnO and SnO2, which applied power for SnO2 target was varied from 15 W to 90 W under a fixed sputtering power of 70 W for ZnO target. A post-annealing treatment to improve the film quality was done at temperature ranges from 300 to 600 °C by using the electrical furnace. The ZTO thin films showed good electrical and optical properties such as Hall mobility of more than 9 cm2/V·s, specific resistivity of about 2 × 102 Ω·cm, and optical transmittance of 85% in visible light region by optical bandgap of 3.3 eV. The ZTO-TFT with an excellent performance of channel mobility of 19.1 cm2/V·s and on-off ratio ( I on / I off ) of 104 was obtained from the films grown with SnO2 target power of 25 W and post-annealed at 450 °C. This result showed that ZTO film is promising on application to a high performance transparent TFTs.

  4. Temperature, Crystalline Phase and Influence of Substrate Properties in Intense Pulsed Light Sintering of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticle Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Michael; Gao, Zhongwei; Bansal, Shalu; Chang, Chih-Hung; Malhotra, Rajiv

    2018-02-02

    Intense Pulsed Light sintering (IPL) uses pulsed, visible light to sinter nanoparticles (NPs) into films used in functional devices. While IPL of chalcogenide NPs is demonstrated, there is limited work on prediction of crystalline phase of the film and the impact of optical properties of the substrate. Here we characterize and model the evolution of film temperature and crystalline phase during IPL of chalcogenide copper sulfide NP films on glass. Recrystallization of the film to crystalline covellite and digenite phases occurs at 126 °C and 155 °C respectively within 2-7 seconds. Post-IPL films exhibit p-type behavior, lower resistivity (~10 -3 -10 -4  Ω-cm), similar visible transmission and lower near-infrared transmission as compared to the as-deposited film. A thermal model is experimentally validated, and extended by combining it with a thermodynamic approach for crystal phase prediction and via incorporating the influence of film transmittivity and optical properties of the substrate on heating during IPL. The model is used to show the need to a-priori control IPL parameters to concurrently account for both the thermal and optical properties of the film and substrate in order to obtain a desired crystalline phase during IPL of such thin films on paper and polycarbonate substrates.

  5. The influence of visible light on transparent zinc tin oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görrn, P.; Lehnhardt, M.; Riedl, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-11-01

    The characteristics of transparent zinc tin oxide thin film transistors (TTFTs) upon illumination with visible light are reported. Generally, a reversible decrease of threshold voltage Vth, saturation field effect mobility μsat, and an increase of the off current are found. The time scale of the recovery in the dark is governed by the persistent photoconductivity in the semiconductor. Devices with tuned [Zn]:[Sn] ratio show a shift of Vth of less 2V upon illumination at 5mW/cm2 (brightness >30000cd/m2) throughout the visible spectrum. These results demonstrate TTFTs which are candidates as pixel drivers in transparent active-matrix organic light emitting diode displays.

  6. Light induced instabilities in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Migliorato, Piero; Jang, Jin

    2010-10-01

    The effect of exposure to ultraviolet radiation on the characteristics of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by sputtering is investigated. After illumination with 1.5 mW cm-2 of 365 nm radiation, in the absence of any bias stress, a persistent negative shift in the characteristics is observed in the dark. The magnitude of the shift increases with exposure time, saturating after about 10 min. Under these conditions the subthreshold exhibits a rigid shift of around 3.6 V and 7.5 V for TFTs with an active layer thickness of 20 nm and 50 nm, respectively. The shift in the dark increases (decreases) when a negative (positive) bias stress is applied under illumination. The instability behavior caused by exposure to light, in the absence of any bias stress, can be explained on the basis of ionization of neutral oxygen vacancies.

  7. Water-soluble thin film transistors and circuits based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung Hun; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Cho, In-Tak; Han, Sang Youn; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dong Joon; Shin, Jongmin; Baek, Geun Woo; Kim, Tae-il; Lee, Jong-Ho; Rogers, John A

    2015-04-22

    This paper presents device designs, circuit demonstrations, and dissolution kinetics for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) comprised completely of water-soluble materials, including SiNx, SiOx, molybdenum, and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Collections of these types of physically transient a-IGZO TFTs and 5-stage ring oscillators (ROs), constructed with them, show field effect mobilities (∼10 cm2/Vs), on/off ratios (∼2×10(6)), subthreshold slopes (∼220 mV/dec), Ohmic contact properties, and oscillation frequency of 5.67 kHz at supply voltages of 19 V, all comparable to otherwise similar devices constructed in conventional ways with standard, nontransient materials. Studies of dissolution kinetics for a-IGZO films in deionized water, bovine serum, and phosphate buffer saline solution provide data of relevance for the potential use of these materials and this technology in temporary biomedical implants.

  8. Structure of a zinc oxide ultra-thin film on Rh(100)

    SciT

    Yuhara, J.; Kato, D.; Matsui, T.

    The structural parameters of ultra-thin zinc oxide films on Rh(100) are investigated using low-energy electron diffraction intensity (LEED I–V) curves, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. From the analysis of LEED I–V curves and DFT calculations, two optimized models A and B are determined. Their structures are basically similar to the planer h-BN ZnO(0001) structure, although some oxygen atoms protrude from the surface, associated with an in-plane shift of Zn atoms. From a comparison of experimental STM images and simulated STM images, majority and minority structures observed in the STM images represent the two optimizedmore » models A and B, respectively.« less

  9. Multi-layered zinc oxide-graphene composite thin films for selective nitrogen dioxide sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Bhowmick, T.; Majumder, S. B.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, selective nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sensing characteristics of multi-layered graphene-zinc oxide (G-ZnO) thin films have been demonstrated at 150 °C. The response% of 5 ppm NO2 was measured to be 894% with response and recovery times estimated to be 150 s and 315 s, respectively. In these composite films, the interaction between graphene and zinc oxide is established through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with the analyses of photoluminescence spectra. Superior NO2 sensing of these films is due to simultaneous chemiadsorption of molecular oxygen and NO2 gases onto graphene and ZnO surfaces, resulting in an appreciable increase in the depletion layer width and thereby the sensor resistance. The sensor responses for other reducing gases (viz., CO, H2, and i-C4H10) are postulated to be due to their catalytic oxidation on the sensor surface, resulting in a decrease in the sensor resistance upon gas exposure. At lower operating temperature, due to the molecular nature of the chemiadsorbed oxygen, poor catalytic oxidation leads to a far lower sensor response for reducing gases as compared to NO2. For mixed NO2 and reducing gas sensing, we have reported that fast Fourier transformation of the resistance transients of all these gases in conjunction with principal component analyses forms a reasonably distinct cluster and, therefore, could easily be differentiated.

  10. Chromium and Ruthenium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films for Propane Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Pozos, Heberto; González-Vidal, José Luis; Torres, Gonzalo Alberto; Rodríguez-Baez, Jorge; Maldonado, Arturo; de la Luz Olvera, María; Acosta, Dwight Roberto; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Castañeda, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Chromium and ruthenium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Cr) and (ZnO:Ru) thin solid films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the sol-gel dip-coating method. A 0.6 M solution of zinc acetate dihydrate dissolved in 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine was used as basic solution. Chromium (III) acetylacetonate and Ruthenium (III) trichloride were used as doping sources. The Ru incorporation and its distribution profile into the films were proved by the SIMS technique. The morphology and structure of the films were studied by SEM microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements, respectively. The SEM images show porous surfaces covered by small grains with different grain size, depending on the doping element, and the immersions number into the doping solutions. The sensing properties of ZnO:Cr and ZnO:Ru films in a propane (C3H8) atmosphere, as a function of the immersions number in the doping solution, have been studied in the present work. The highest sensitivity values were obtained for films doped from five immersions, 5.8 and 900, for ZnO:Cr and ZnO:Ru films, respectively. In order to evidence the catalytic effect of the chromium (Cr) and ruthenium (Ru), the sensing characteristics of undoped ZnO films are reported as well. PMID:23482091

  11. Low Temperature Annealed Zinc Oxide Nanostructured Thin Film-Based Transducers: Characterization for Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Haarindraprasad, R.; Hashim, U.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Kashif, Mohd; Veeradasan, P.; Balakrishnan, S. R.; Foo, K. L.; Poopalan, P.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of sensing surfaces highly relies on nanostructures to enhance their sensitivity and specificity. Herein, nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of various thicknesses were coated on glass and p-type silicon substrates using a sol-gel spin-coating technique. The deposited films were characterized for morphological, structural, and optoelectronic properties by high-resolution measurements. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the deposited films have a c-axis orientation and display peaks that refer to ZnO, which exhibits a hexagonal structure with a preferable plane orientation (002). The thicknesses of ZnO thin films prepared using 1, 3, 5, and 7 cycles were measured to be 40, 60, 100, and 200 nm, respectively. The increment in grain size of the thin film from 21 to 52 nm was noticed, when its thickness was increased from 40 to 200 nm, whereas the band gap value decreased from 3.282 to 3.268 eV. Band gap value of ZnO thin film with thickness of 200 nm at pH ranging from 2 to 10 reduces from 3.263eV to 3.200 eV. Furthermore, to evaluate the transducing capacity of the ZnO nanostructure, the refractive index, optoelectric constant, and bulk modulus were analyzed and correlated. The highest thickness (200 nm) of ZnO film, embedded with an interdigitated electrode that behaves as a pH-sensing electrode, could sense pH variations in the range of 2-10. It showed a highly sensitive response of 444 μAmM-1cm-2 with a linear regression of R2 =0.9304. The measured sensitivity of the developed device for pH per unit is 3.72μA/pH. PMID:26167853

  12. Synthesis of ALD zinc oxide and thin film materials optimization for UV photodetector applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapily, Kandabara Nouhoum

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a direct, wide bandgap semiconductor material. It is thermodynamically stable in the wurtzite structure at ambient temperature conditions. ZnO has very interesting optical and electrical properties and is a suitable candidate for numerous optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, LEDs and UV-photodetectors. ZnO is a naturally n-type semiconductor. Due to the lack of reproducible p-type ZnO, achieving good homojunction ZnO-based photodiodes such as UV-photodetectors remains a challenge. Meanwhile, heterojunction structures of ZnO with p-type substrates such as SiC, GaN, NiO, AlGaN, Si etc. are used; however, those heterojunction diodes suffer from low efficiencies. ZnO is an n-type material with numerous intrinsic defect levels responsible for the electrical and optical behaviors. Presently, there is no clear consensus about the origin of those defects. In this work, ZnO was synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is a novel deposition technique suitable for nanotechnology engineering that provides unique features such as precise control of ZnO thin film with atomic resolution, high uniformity, good conformity and high aspect ratio. Using this novel deposition technique, the ALD ZnO deposition process was developed and optimized using diethyl zinc as the precursor for zinc and water vapor as the oxygen source. In order to optimize the film quality for use in electronic applications, the physical, mechanical and electrical properties were investigated. The structural and mechanical properties of the ALD ZnO thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), spectroscopic Ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, UV-VIS absorption and nanoindentation. The electrical characterizations were performed using C-V, I-V, DLTS, Hall Effect, and four-point probe. The intrinsic defects responsible

  13. The effect of Mg dopants on magnetic and structural properties of iron oxide and zinc ferrite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saritaş, Sevda; Ceviz Sakar, Betul; Kundakci, Mutlu; Yildirim, Muhammet

    2018-06-01

    Iron oxide thin films have been obtained significant interest as a material that put forwards applications in photovoltaics, gas sensors, biosensors, optoelectronic and especially in spintronics. Iron oxide is one of the considerable interest due to its chemical and thermal stability. Metallic ion dopant influenced superexchange interactions and thus changed the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of the thin film. Mg dopped zinc ferrite (Mg:ZnxFe3-xO4) crystal was used to avoid the damage of Fe3O4 (magnetite) crystal instead of Zn2+ in this study. Because the radius of the Mg2+ ion in the A-site (tetrahedral) is almost equal to that of the replaced Fe3+ ion. Inverse-spinel structure in which oxygen ions (O2-) are arranged to form a face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice where there are two kinds of sublattices, namely, A-site and B-site (octahedral) interstitial sites and in which the super exchange interactions occur. In this study, to increase the saturation of magnetization (Ms) value for iron oxide, inverse-spinal ferrite materials have been prepared, in which the iron oxide was doped by multifarious divalent metallic elements including Zn and Mg. Triple and quaternary; iron oxide and zinc ferrite thin films with Mg metal dopants were grown by using Spray Pyrolysis (SP) technique. The structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Mg dopped iron oxide (Fe2O3) and zinc ferrite (ZnxFe3-xO4) thin films have been investigated. Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) technique was used to study for the magnetic properties. As a result, we can say that Mg dopped iron oxide thin film has huge diamagnetic and of Mg dopped zinc ferrite thin film has paramagnetic property at bigger magnetic field.

  14. Preparation of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Film as Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) from Zinc Complex Compound on Thin Film Solar Cells: A Study of O2 Effect on Annealing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslih, E. Y.; Kim, K. H.

    2017-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for thin film solar cell application was successfully prepared through two step preparations which consisted of deposition by spin coating at 2000 rpm for 10 second and followed by annealing at 500 °C for 2 hours under O2 and ambient atmosphere. Zinc acetate dehydrate was used as a precursor which dissolved in ethanol and acetone (1:1 mol) mixture in order to make a zinc complex compound. In this work, we reported the O2 effect, reaction mechanism, structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties. ZnO thin film in this work shows a single phase of wurtzite, with n-type semiconductor and has band gap, carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity as 3.18 eV, 1.21 × 10-19cm3, 11 cm2/Vs, 2.35 × 10-3 Ωcm respectively which is suitable for TCO at thin film solar cell.

  15. Silicon induced stability and mobility of indium zinc oxide based bilayer thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ram Narayan; Tiwari, Nidhi; Liu, Po-Tsun; Shieh, Han-Ping D.; Kumar, Jitendra

    2016-11-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO), silicon containing IZO, and IZO/IZO:Si bilayer thin films have been prepared by dual radio frequency magnetron sputtering on glass and SiO2/Si substrates for studying their chemical compositions and electrical characteristics in order to ascertain reliability for thin film transistor (TFT) applications. An attempt is therefore made here to fabricate single IZO and IZO/IZO:Si bilayer TFTs to study the effect of film thickness, silicon incorporation, and bilayer active channel on device performance and negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) stability. TFTs with increasing single active IZO layer thickness exhibit decrease in carrier mobility but steady improvement in NBIS; the best values being μFE ˜ 27.0, 22.0 cm2/Vs and ΔVth ˜ -13.00, -6.75 V for a channel thickness of 7 and 27 nm, respectively. While silicon incorporation is shown to reduce the mobility somewhat, it raises the stability markedly (ΔVth ˜ -1.20 V). Further, IZO (7 nm)/IZO:Si (27 nm) bilayer based TFTs display useful characteristics (field effect mobility, μFE = 15.3 cm2/Vs and NBIS value, ΔVth =-0.75 V) for their application in transparent electronics.

  16. Thin transparent W-doped indium-zinc oxide (WIZO) layer on glass.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jun; Lim, Byung-Wook; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Kim, Tae-Won; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Heo, Gi-Seok; Kim, Kwang-Young

    2012-07-01

    Annealing effect on structural and electrical properties of W-doped IZO (WIZO) films for thin film transistors (TFT) was studied under different process conditions. Thin WIZO films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron co-sputtering technique using indium zinc oxide (10 wt.% ZnO-doped In2O3) and WO3 targets in room temperature. The post annealing temperature was executed from 200 degrees C to 500 degrees C under various O2/Ar ratios. We could not find any big difference from the surface observation of as grown films while it was found that the carrier density and sheet resistance of WIZO films were controlled by O2/Ar ratio and post annealing temperature. Furthermore, the crystallinity of WIZO film was changed as annealing temperature increased, resulting in amorphous structure at the annealing temperature of 200 degrees C, while clear In2O3 peak was observed for the annealed over 300 degrees C. The transmittance of as-grown films over 89% in visible range was obtained. As an active channel layer for TFT, it was found that the variation of resistivity, carrier density and mobility concentration of WIZO film decreased by annealing process.

  17. Thermal Cycling Behavior of Zinc Antimonide Thin Films for High Temperature Thermoelectric Power Generation Applications.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyung Cheoul; Woo, Chang-Su; Han, Seungwoo

    2015-08-19

    The zinc antimonide compound ZnxSby is one of the most efficient thermoelectric materials known at high temperatures due to its exceptional low thermal conductivity. For this reason, it continues to be the focus of active research, especially regarding its glass-like atomic structure. However, before practical use in actual surroundings, such as near a vehicle manifold, it is imperative to analyze the thermal reliability of these materials. Herein, we present the thermal cycling behavior of ZnxSby thin films in nitrogen (N2) purged or ambient atmosphere. ZnxSby thin films were prepared by cosputtering and reached a power factor of 1.39 mW m(-1) K(-2) at 321 °C. We found maximum power factor values gradually decreased in N2 atmosphere due to increasing resistivity with repeated cycling, whereas the specimen in air kept its performance. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy observations revealed that fluidity of Zn atoms leads to nanoprecipitates, porous morphologies, and even growth of a coating layer or fiber structures on the surface of ZnxSby after repetitive heating and cooling cycles. With this in mind, our results indicate that proper encapsulation of the ZnxSby surface would reduce these unwanted side reactions and the resulting degradation of thermoelectric performance.

  18. Modeling drain current of indium zinc oxide thin film transistors prepared by solution deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Lei; Liang, Xiaoci; Cai, Guangshuo; Pei, Yanli; Yao, Ruohe; Wang, Gang

    2018-06-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin film transistor (TFT) deposited by solution method is of considerable technological interest as it is a key component for the fabrication of flexible and cheap transparent electronic devices. To obtain a principal understanding of physical properties of solution-processed IZO TFT, a new drain current model that account for the charge transport is proposed. The formulation is developed by incorporating the effect of gate voltage on mobility and threshold voltage with the carrier charges. It is demonstrated that in IZO TFTs the below threshold regime should be divided into two sections: EC - EF > 3kT and EC - EF ≤ 3kT, where kT is the thermal energy, EF and EC represent the Fermi level and the conduction band edge, respectively. Additionally, in order to describe conduction mechanisms more accurately, the extended mobility edge model is conjoined, which can also get rid of the complicated and lengthy computations. The good agreement between measured and calculated results confirms the efficiency of this model for the design of integrated large-area thin film circuits.

  19. Thermo-optical characterization of cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide (CdSe/ZnS) quantum dots embedded in biocompatible materials.

    PubMed

    Pilla, Viviane; Alves, Leandro P; Iwazaki, Adalberto N; Andrade, Acácio A; Antunes, Andrea; Munin, Egberto

    2013-09-01

    Cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide (CdSe/ZnS) core-shell quantum dots (QDs) embedded in biocompatible materials were thermally and optically characterized with a thermal lens (TL) technique. Transient TL measurements were performed with a mode-mismatched, dual-beam (excitation and probe) configuration. A thermo-optical study of the CdSe/ZnS QDs was performed for different core diameters (3.5, 4.0, 5.2, and 6.6 nm) in aqueous solution and synthetic saliva, and three different core diameters (2.4, 2.9, and 4.1 nm) embedded in restorative dental resin (0.025% by mass). The thermal diffusivity results are characteristic of the biocompatible matrices. The radiative quantum efficiencies for aqueous solution and biofluid materials are dependent on the core size of the CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs. The results obtained from the fluorescence spectral measurements for the biocompatible materials support the TL results.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of transparent conductive zinc oxide thin films by sol-gel spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winarski, David

    Zinc oxide has been given much attention recently as it is promising for various semiconductor device applications. ZnO has a direct band gap of 3.3 eV, high exciton binding energy of 60 meV and can exist in various bulk powder and thin film forms for different applications. ZnO is naturally n-type with various structural defects, which sparks further investigation into the material properties. Although there are many potential applications for this ZnO, an overall lack of understand and control of intrinsic defects has proven difficult to obtain consistent, repeatable results. This work studies both synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide in an effort to produce high quality transparent conductive oxides. The sol-gel spin coating method was used to obtain highly transparent ZnO thin films with high UV absorbance. This research develops a new more consistent method for synthesis of these thin films, providing insight for maintaining quality control for each step in the procedure. A sol-gel spin coating technique is optimized, yielding highly transparent polycrystalline ZnO thin films with tunable electrical properties. Annealing treatment in hydrogen and zinc atmospheres is researched in an effort to increase electrical conductivity and better understand intrinsic properties of the material. These treatment have shown significant effects on the properties of ZnO. Characterization of doped and undoped ZnO synthesized by the sol-gel spin coating method was carried out using scanning electron microscopy, UV-Visible range absorbance, X-ray diffraction, and the Hall Effect. Treatment in hydrogen shows an overall decrease in the number of crystal phases and visible absorbance while zinc seems to have the opposite effect. The Hall Effect has shown that both annealing environments increase the n-type conductivity, yielding a ZnO thin film with a carrier concentration as high as 3.001 x 1021 cm-3.

  1. Effect of Zinc Oxide Film Deposition Position on the Characteristics of Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistors Fabricated by Low-Temperature Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takechi, Kazushige; Nakata, Mitsuru; Eguchi, Toshimasa; Otsuki, Shigeyoshi; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Kaneko, Setsuo

    2008-09-01

    We report on the effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) film deposition position on the characteristics of ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by magnetron sputtering with no intentional heating of the substrate. We evaluate the properties of ZnO (channel semiconductor) films deposited at various positions with respect to the target position. We show that the film deposition at a position off-centered from the target results in good TFT characteristics. This might be due to the fact that the off-centered deposition position is effective for suppressing the effect of energetic negative ions in the plasma.

  2. Synthesizing photovoltaic thin films of high quality copper-zinc-tin alloy with at least one chalcogen species

    DOEpatents

    Teeter, Glenn; Du, Hui; Young, Matthew

    2013-08-06

    A method for synthesizing a thin film of copper, zinc, tin, and a chalcogen species ("CZTCh" or "CZTSS") with well-controlled properties. The method includes depositing a thin film of precursor materials, e.g., approximately stoichiometric amounts of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), tin (Sn), and a chalcogen species (Ch). The method then involves re-crystallizing and grain growth at higher temperatures, e.g., between about 725 and 925 degrees K, and annealing the precursor film at relatively lower temperatures, e.g., between 600 and 650 degrees K. The processing of the precursor film takes place in the presence of a quasi-equilibrium vapor, e.g., Sn and chalcogen species. The quasi-equilibrium vapor is used to maintain the precursor film in a quasi-equilibrium condition to reduce and even prevent decomposition of the CZTCh and is provided at a rate to balance desorption fluxes of Sn and chalcogens.

  3. Zinc isotope ratio imaging of rat brain thin sections from stable isotope tracer studies by LA-MC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Urgast, Dagmar S; Hill, Sarah; Kwun, In-Sook; Beattie, John H; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi; Feldmann, Jörg

    2012-10-01

    Zinc stable isotope tracers (⁶⁷Zn and ⁷⁰Zn) were injected into rats at two different time points to investigate the feasibility of using tracers to study zinc kinetics at the microscale within distinct tissue features. Laser ablation coupled to multi-collector ICP-MS was used to analyse average isotope ratios in liver thin sections and to generate bio-images showing zinc isotope ratio distribution in brain thin sections. Average isotope ratios of all samples from treated animals were found to be statistically different (P < 0.05) from samples from untreated control animals. Furthermore, differing isotope ratios in physiological features of the brain, namely hippocampus, amygdala, cortex and hypothalamus, were identified. This indicates that these regions differ in their zinc metabolism kinetics. While cortex and hypothalamus contain more tracer two days after injection than 14 days after injection, the opposite is true for hippocampus and amygdala. This study showed that stable isotope tracer experiments can be combined with laser ablation MC-ICP-MS to measure trace element kinetics in tissues at a microscale level.

  4. Fully transparent thin film transistors based on zinc oxide channel layer and molybdenum doped indium oxide electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MÄ dzik, Mateusz; Elamurugu, Elangovan; Viegas, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report the fabrication of thin film transistors (TFT) with zinc oxide channel and molybdenum doped indium oxide (IMO) electrodes, achieved by room temperature sputtering. A set of devices was fabricated, with varying channel width and length from 5μm to 300μm. Output and transfer characteristics were then extracted to study the performance of thin film transistors, namely threshold voltage and saturation current, enabling to determine optimal fabrication process parameters. Optical transmission in the UV-VIS-IR are also reported.

  5. Spectral and angular-selective thermal emission from gallium-doped zinc oxide thin film structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakr, Enas; Bermel, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Simultaneously controlling both the spectral and angular emission of thermal photons can qualitatively change the nature of thermal radiation, and offers a great potential to improve a broad range of applications, including infrared light sources and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion of waste heat to electricity. For TPV in particular, frequency-selective emission is necessary for spectral matching with a photovoltaic converter, while directional emission is needed to maximize the fraction of emission reaching the receiver at large separation distances. This can allow the photovoltaics to be moved outside vacuum encapsulation. In this work, we demonstrate both directionally and spectrally-selective thermal emission for p-polarization, using a combination of an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) thin film backed by a metal reflector, a high contrast grating, and an omnidirectional mirror. Gallium-doped zinc oxide is selected as an ENZ material, with cross-over frequency in the near-infrared. The proposed structure relies on coupling guided modes (instead of plasmonic modes) to the ENZ thin film using the high contrast grating. The angular width is thus controlled by the choice of grating period. Other off-directional modes are then filtered out using the omnidirectional mirror, thus enhancing frequency selectivity. Our emitter design maintains both a high view factor and high frequency selectivity, leading to a factor of 8.85 enhancement over a typical blackbody emitter, through a combination of a 22.26% increase in view factor and a 6.88x enhancement in frequency selectivity. This calculation assumes a PV converter five widths away from the same width emitter in 2D at 1573 K.

  6. Flexible and High-Performance Amorphous Indium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistor Using Low-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jiazhen; Lee, Hwan-Jae; Oh, Saeroonter; Park, Jin-Seong

    2016-12-14

    Amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were deposited at different temperatures, by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using [1,1,1-trimethyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)silanaminato]indium (INCA-1) as the indium precursor, diethlzinc (DEZ) as the zinc precursor, and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as the reactant. The ALD process of IZO deposition was carried by repeated supercycles, including one cycle of indium oxide (In 2 O 3 ) and one cycle of zinc oxide (ZnO). The IZO growth rate deviates from the sum of the respective In 2 O 3 and ZnO growth rates at ALD growth temperatures of 150, 175, and 200 °C. We propose growth temperature-dependent surface reactions during the In 2 O 3 cycle that correspond with the growth-rate results. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated with the ALD-grown IZO thin films as the active layer. The amorphous IZO TFTs exhibited high mobility of 42.1 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and good positive bias temperature stress stability. Finally, flexible IZO TFT was successfully fabricated on a polyimide substrate without performance degradation, showing the great potential of ALD-grown TFTs for flexible display applications.

  7. Stability study of solution-processed zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue; Ndabakuranye, Jean Pierre; Kim, Dong Wook; Choi, Jong Sun; Park, Jaehoon

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the environmental dependence of the electrical stability of solution-processed n-channel zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) is reported. Under a prolonged negative gate bias stress, a negative shift in threshold voltage occurs in atmospheric air, whereas a negligible positive shift in threshold voltage occurs under vacuum. In the positive bias-stress experiments, a positive shift in threshold voltage was invariably observed both in atmospheric air and under vacuum. In this study, the negative gate-bias-stress-induced instability in atmospheric air is explained through an internal potential in the ZTO semiconductor, which can be generated owing to the interplay between H2O molecules and majority carrier electrons at the surface of the ZTO film. The positive bias-stress-induced instability is ascribed to electron-trapping phenomenon in and around the TFT channel region, which can be further augmented in the presence of air O2 molecules. These results suggest that the interaction between majority carriers and air molecules will have crucial implications for a reliable operation of solution-processed ZTO TFTs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Mechanical Flexibility of Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Prepared by Transfer Printing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun, K. T.; Hwang, W. J.; Sharma, B. K.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, Y. K.; Choa, S. H.

    In the present study, we demonstrate the performance of Zinc oxide thin film transistors (ZnO TFTs) array subjected to the strain under high bending test and the reliability of TFTs was confirmed for the bending fatigue test of 2000 cycles. Initially, ZnO TFTs were fabricated on Si substrate and subsequently transferred on flexible PET substrate using transfer printing process. It was observed that when the bending radius reached ≥ 11 mm then cracks start to initiate first at SiO2 bridges, acting as interconnecting layers among individual TFT. Whatever the strain is applied to the devices, it is almost equivalently adopted by the SiO2 bridges, as they are relatively weak compared to rest of the part. The initial cracking of destructed SiO2 bridge leads to the secondary cracks to the ITO electrodes upon further increment of bending radius. Numerical simulation suggested that the strain of SiO2 layer reached to fracture level of 0.55% which was concentrated at the edge of SiO2 bridge layer. It also suggests that the round shape of SiO2 bridge can be more fruitful to compensate the stress concentration and to prevent failure of device.

  9. Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated Using Sputter Deposition of Zinc Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Development of thin film transistors (TFTs) with conventional channel layer materials, such as amorphous silicon (a-Si) and polysilicon (poly-Si), has been extensively investigated. A-Si TFT currently serves the large flat panel industry; however advanced display products are demanding better TFT performance because of the associated low electron mobility of a-Si. This has motivated interest in semiconducting metal oxides, such as Zinc Oxide (ZnO), for TFT backplanes. This work involves the fabrication and characterization of TFTs using ZnO deposited by sputtering. An overview of the process details and results from recently fabricated TFTs following a full-factorial designed experiment will be presented. Material characterization and analysis of electrical results will be described. The investigated process variables were the gate dielectric and ZnO sputtering process parameters including power density and oxygen partial pressure. Electrical results showed clear differences in treatment combinations, with certain I-V characteristics demonstrating superior performance to preliminary work. A study of device stability will also be discussed.

  10. Defect-induced instability mechanisms of sputtered amorphous indium tin zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jinhee; Rim, You Seung; Li, Chao; Wu, Jiechen; Goorsky, Mark; Streit, Dwight

    2018-04-01

    We report the device performance and stability of sputtered amorphous indium-tin-zinc-oxide (ITZO) thin-film transistors as a function of oxygen ratio [O2/(Ar + O2)] during growth. Increasing the oxygen ratio enhanced the incorporation of oxygen during ITZO film growth and reduced the concentration of deep-level defects associated with oxygen vacancies. Under illumination with no bias stress, device stability and persistent photocurrent were improved with increased oxygen ratio. Bias stress tests of the devices were also performed with and without illumination. While high oxygen ratio growth conditions resulted in decreased deep-level oxygen vacancies in the ITZO material, the same conditions resulted in degradation of the interfacial layer between the ITZO channel and dielectric due to the migration of energetic oxygen ions to the interface. Therefore, when bias stress was applied, increased carrier trap density at the interface led to a decrease in device stability that offsets any improvement in the material itself. In order to take advantage of the improved ITZO material growth at a high oxygen ratio, the interface-related problems must be solved.

  11. Solution-processed zinc oxide nanoparticles/single-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangmei; Sun, Jia; Qian, Chuan; Hu, Xiaotao; Wu, Han; Huang, Yulan; Yang, Junliang

    2016-09-01

    Solution-processed thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the essential building blocks for manufacturing the low-cost and large-area consumptive electronics. Herein, solution-processed TFTs based on the composites of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were fabricated by the methods of spin-coating and doctor-blading. Through controlling the weight of SWCNTs, the ZnO/SWCNTs TFTs fabricated by spin-coating demonstrated a field-effect mobility of 4.7 cm2/Vs and a low threshold voltage of 0.8 V, while the TFTs devices fabricated by doctor-blading technique showed reasonable electrical performance with a mobility of 0.22 cm2/Vs. Furthermore, the ion-gel was used as an efficient electrochemical gate dielectric because of its large electric double-layer capacitance. The operating voltage of all the TFTs devices is as low as 4.0 V. The research suggests that ZnO/SWCNTs TFTs have the potential applications in low-cost, large-area and flexible consumptive electronics, such as chemical-biological sensors and smart label.

  12. Temporal and voltage stress stability of high performance indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Katsman, Alexander; Butcher, Amy L.; Paine, David C.; Zaslavsky, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) based on transparent oxide semiconductors, such as indium zinc oxide (IZO), are of interest due to their improved characteristics compared to traditional a-Si TFTs. Previously, we reported on top-gated IZO TFTs with an in-situ formed HfO2 gate insulator and IZO active channel, showing high performance: on/off ratio of ∼107, threshold voltage VT near zero, extracted low-field mobility μ0 = 95 cm2/V·s, and near-perfect subthreshold slope at 62 mV/decade. Since device stability is essential for technological applications, in this paper we report on the temporal and voltage stress stability of IZO TFTs. Our devices exhibit a small negative VT shift as they age, consistent with an increasing carrier density resulting from an increasing oxygen vacancy concentration in the channel. Under gate bias stress, freshly annealed TFTs show a negative VT shift during negative VG gate bias stress, while aged (>1 week) TFTs show a positive VT shift during negative VG stress. This indicates two competing mechanisms, which we identify as the field-enhanced generation of oxygen vacancies and the field-assisted migration of oxygen vacancies, respectively. A simplified kinetic model of the vacancy concentration evolution in the IZO channel under electrical stress is provided.

  13. Zinc-doping enhanced cadmium sulfide electrochemiluminescence behavior based on Au-Cu alloy nanocrystals quenching for insulin detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Wang, Chao; Li, Xiaojian; Khan, Malik Saddam; Sun, Xu; Ma, Hongmin; Fan, Dawei; Wei, Qin

    2017-11-15

    Novel and sensitive sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was fabricated for insulin detection. Au-ZnCd 14 S combined nitrogen doping mesoporous carbons (Au-ZnCd 14 S/NH 2 -NMCs) acted as sensing platform and Au-Cu alloy nanocrystals were employed as labels to quench the ECL of Au-ZnCd 14 S/NH 2 -NMCs. Zinc-doping promoted the ECL behavior of CdS nanocrystals, with the best ECL emission obtained when the molar ratio of Zn/Cd was 1:14. Simultaneously, the modification of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and combination with NH 2 -NMC further enhanced the ECL emission of ZnCd 14 S due to its excellent conductivity and large specific surface area, which is desirable for the immunosensor construction. Au-Cu alloy nanocrystals were employed in the ECL system of ZnCd 14 S/K 2 S 2 O 8 triggering ECL quenching effects. The ECL spectra of ZnCd 14 S, acting as the energy donor, exhibited well overlaps with the absorption band of Au-Cu alloy nanocrystals which acted as the energy acceptor, leading to an effective ECL resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET). On the basis of the ECL quenching effects, a sensitive ECL immunosensor for insulin detection was successfully constructed with a linear response range of insulin concentration from 0.1pg/mL to 30ng/mL and the limit of detection was calculated to be 0.03pg/mL (S/N = 3). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical Bath Deposited Zinc Sulfide Buffer Layers for Copper Indium Gallium Sulfur-selenide Solar Cells and Device Analysis

    SciT

    Kundu, Sambhu N.; Olsen, Larry C.

    2005-01-03

    Cd free CIGSS thin film solar cell structures with a MgF2/TCO/CGD-ZnS/CIGSS/Mo/SLG structure have been fabricated using chemical bath deposited (CBD)-ZnS buffer layers and high quality CIGSS absorber layers supplied from Shell Solar Industries. The use of CBD-ZnS, which is a higher band gap materials than CdS, improved the quantum efficiency of fabricated cells at lower wavelengths, leading to an increase in short circuit current. The best cell to date yielded an active area (0.43 cm2) efficiency of 13.3%. This paper also presents a discussion of the issues relating to the use of the CBD-ZnS buffer materials for improving device performance.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide regulates the levels of key metabolites and antioxidant defense system to counteract oxidative stress in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants exposed to high zinc regime.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Cengiz; Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha

    2018-05-01

    In the present experiment, we aimed to test the impact of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) on growth, key oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide, mineral elements, and antioxidative defense in Capia-type red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants subjected to high concentration of zinc (Zn). A factorial experiment was designed with two Zn levels (0.05 and 0.5 mM) and 0.2 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as a donor of H 2 S supplied in combination plus nutrient solution through the root zone. High level of Zn led to reduce dry mass, chlorophyll pigments, fruit yield, leaf maximum fluorescence, and relative water content, but enhanced endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), free proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL), H 2 S, as well as the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. Exogenously applied NaHS significantly enhanced plant growth, fruit yield, water status, the levels of H 2 S and proline as well as the activities of different antioxidant enzymes, while it significantly suppressed EL, MDA, and H 2 O 2 contents in the pepper plants receiving low level Zn. NaHS application to the control plants did not significantly change all these parameters tested except the dry matter which increased significantly. High Zn regime led to increase intrinsic Zn levels in the leaves and roots, but it lowered leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe) concentrations. However, NaHS reduces the Zn conc. and enhances Fe and N in leaf and root organs. It can be concluded that NaHS can mitigate the harmful effects of Zn on plant growth particularly by lowering the concentrations of H 2 O 2 , Zn, EL, and MDA, and enhancing the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and levels of essential nutrients in pepper plants.

  16. Simultaneous ultrasound-assisted ternary adsorption of dyes onto copper-doped zinc sulfide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Asfaram, Arash; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Hajati, Shaaker; Goudarzi, Alireza; Bazrafshan, Ali Akbar

    2015-06-15

    The simultaneous and competitive ultrasound-assisted removal of Auramine-O (AO), Erythrosine (Er) and Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solutions were rapidly performed onto copper-doped zinc sulfide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (ZnS:Cu-NP-AC). ZnS:Cu nanoparticles were studied by FESEM, XRD and TEM. First, the effect of pH was optimized in a one-at-a-time procedure. Then the dependency of dyes removal percentage in their ternary solution on the level and magnitude of variables such as sonication time, initial dyes concentrations and adsorbent dosage was fully investigated and optimized by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) as well as by regarding desirability function (DF) as a good and general criterion. The good agreement found between experimental and predicted values supports and confirms the suitability of the present model to predict adsorption state. The applied ultrasound strongly enhanced mass transfer process and subsequently performance. Hence, a small amount of the adsorbent (0.04 g) was capable to remove high percentage of dyes, i.e. 100%, 99.6% and 100% for MB, AO and Er, respectively, in very short time (2.5 min). The experimental equilibrium data fitting to Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models showed that the Langmuir model applies well for the evaluation and description of the actual behavior of adsorption. The small amount of proposed adsorbent (0.015 g) was applicable for successful removal of dyes (RE>99.0%) in short time (2.5 min) with high adsorption capacity in single component system (123.5 mg g(-1) for MB, 123 mg g(-1) for AO and 84.5 mg g(-1) for Er). Kinetics evaluation of experiments at various time intervals reveals that adsorption processes can be well predicated and fitted by pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural, optical and electrical properties of copper antimony sulfide thin films grown by a citrate-assisted single chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loranca-Ramos, F. E.; Diliegros-Godines, C. J.; Silva González, R.; Pal, Mou

    2018-01-01

    Copper antimony sulfide (CAS) has been proposed as low toxicity and earth abundant absorber materials for thin film photovoltaics due to their suitable optical band gap, high absorption coefficient and p-type electrical conductivity. The present work reports the formation of copper antimony sulfide by chemical bath deposition using sodium citrate as a complexing agent. We show that by tuning the annealing condition, one can obtain either chalcostibite or tetrahedrite phase. However, the main challenge was co-deposition of copper and antimony as ternary sulfides from a single chemical bath due to the distinct chemical behavior of these metals. The as-deposited films were subjected to several trials of thermal treatment using different temperatures and time to find the optimized annealing condition. The films were characterized by different techniques including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), profilometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectrophotometer, and Hall Effect measurements. The results show that the formation of chalcostibite and tetrahedrite phases is highly sensitive to annealing conditions. The electrical properties obtained for the chalcostibite films varied as the annealing temperature increases from 280 to 350 °C: hole concentration (n) = 1017-1018 cm-3, resistivity (ρ) = 1.74-2.14 Ωcm and carrier mobility (μ) = 4.7-9.26 cm2/Vseg. While for the tetrahedrite films, the electrical properties were n = 5 × 1019 cm-3, μ = 18.24 cm2/Vseg, and ρ = 5.8 × 10-3 Ωcm. A possible mechanism for the formation of ternary copper antimony sulfide has also been proposed.

  18. Structural and spectroscopic analysis of ex-situ annealed RF sputtered aluminium doped zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otieno, Francis; Airo, Mildred; Erasmus, Rudolph M.; Billing, David G.; Quandt, Alexander; Wamwangi, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Aluminium doped zinc oxide thin films are prepared by Radio Frequency magnetron sputtering in pure argon atmosphere at 100 W. The structural results reveal good film adhesion on a silicon substrate (001). The thin films were then subjected to heat treatment in a furnace under ambient air. The structural, morphological, and optical properties of the thin films as a function of deposition time and annealing temperatures have been investigated using Grazing incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD), Atomic Force Microscopy, and Scanning Electronic Microscopy. The photoluminescence properties of the annealed films showed significant changes in the optical properties attributed to mid gap defects. Annealing increases the crystallite size and the roughness of the film. The crystallinity of the films also improved as evident from the Raman and XRD studies.

  19. Effect of nitrogen doping on structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of radio frequency magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perumal, R.; Hassan, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Zinc oxide receives remarkable attention due to its several attractive physical properties. Zinc oxide thin films doped with nitrogen were grown by employing RF magnetron sputtering method at room temperature. Doping was accomplished in gaseous medium by mixing high purity nitrogen gas along with argon sputtering gas. Structural studies confirmed the high crystalline nature with c-axis oriented growth of the nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin films. The tensile strain was developed due to the incorporation of the nitrogen into the ZnO crystal lattice. Surface roughness of the grown films was found to be decreased with increasing doping level was identified through atomic force microscope analysis. The presenting phonon modes of each film were confirmed through FTIR spectral analysis. The increasing doping level leads towards red-shifting of the cut-off wavelength due to decrement of the band gap was identified through UV-vis spectroscopy. All the doped films exhibited p-type conductivity was ascertained using Hall measurements and the obtained results were presented.

  20. Properties of Al- and Ga-doped thin zinc oxide films treated with UV laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Asedy, Hayder J.; Al-Khafaji, Shuruq A.; Bakhtiar, Hazri; Bidin, Noriah

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the Nd:YAG laser irradiation treated modified properties of aluminum (Al) and gallium (Ga) co-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) (AGZO) films prepared on Si-substrate via combined sol-gel and spin-coating method. The impact of varying laser energy (150-200 mJ) on the structure, morphology, electrical and optical properties of such AGZO films were determined. Laser-treated samples were characterized using various analytical tools. Present techniques could achieve a high-quality polycrystalline films compared with those produced via conventional high temperature processing. AGZO films irradiated with third harmonics UV radiation (355 nm) from Nd:YAG laser source revealed very low resistivity of 4.02 × 10- 3 Ω cm. The structural properties grain size was calculated firm the X-ray diffraction spectra using the Scherrer equation that increased from 12.7 to 22.5 nm as the annealing laser energy increased from (150-200) mJ. The differences in crystallinity and orientation are explained in terms of the thermal effect caused by laser irradiation. (FESEM) images have been demonstrated that Nd:YAG laser annealing can significantly improve the crystallinity level, densification, and surface flatness of sol-gel derived AGZO thin films that occurred as a result of laser processing. Synthesized AGZO films displayed favorable growth orientation along (101) lattice direction. AGZO films with energy band gap of 3.37-3.41 eV were obtained. Results on the crystallinity, surface morphology, roughness, bonding vibration, absorption, photoluminescence, and resistivity of the laser-irradiated films were analyzed and discussed.

  1. Low-temperature growth and electronic structures of ambipolar Yb-doped zinc tin oxide transparent thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seol Hee; Ferblantier, Gerald; Park, Young Sang; Schmerber, Guy; Dinia, Aziz; Slaoui, Abdelilah; Jo, William

    2018-05-01

    The compositional dependence of the crystal structure, optical transmittance, and surface electric properties of the zinc tin oxide (Zn-Sn-O, shortened ZTO) thin films were investigated. ZTO thin films with different compositional ratios were fabricated on glass and p-silicon wafers using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The binding energy of amorphous ZTO thin films was examined by a X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The optical transmittance over 70% in the visible region for all the ZTO films was observed. The optical band gap of the ZTO films was changed as a result of the competition between the Burstein-Moss effect and renormalization. An electron concentration in the films and surface work function distribution were measured by a Hall measurement and Kelvin probe force microscopy, respectively. The mobility of the n- and p-type ZTO thin films have more than 130 cm2/V s and 15 cm2/V s, respectively. We finally constructed the band structure which contains band gap, work function, and band edges such as valence band maximum and conduction band minimum of ZTO thin films. The present study results suggest that the ZTO thin film is competitive compared with the indium tin oxide, which is a representative material of the transparent conducting oxides, regarding optoelectronic devices applications.

  2. Fabrication of zinc-dicarboxylate- and zinc-pyrazolate-carboxylate-framework thin films through vapour-solid deposition.

    PubMed

    Medishetty, Raghavender; Zhang, Zongji; Sadlo, Alexander; Cwik, Stefan; Peeters, Daniel; Henke, Sebastian; Mangayarkarasi, Nagarathinam; Devi, Anjana

    2018-05-17

    Fabrication of three-dimensional metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films has been investigated for the first time through the conversion of a ZnO layer via a pure vapour-solid deposition reaction at ambient pressure. The fabrication of MOF thin films with a dicarboxylate linker, (DMA)2[Zn3(bdc)4] (1) (bdc = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate), and a carboxy-pyrazolate linker, [Zn4O(dmcapz)6] (2) (dmcapz = 3,5-dimethyl-4-carboxypyrazole), involves the deposition of the linker and/or the preparation of a composite film preliminarily and its subsequent conversion into a MOF film using closed cell thermal treatment. Furthermore, it was possible to isolate thin films with a MOF-5 isotype structure grown along the [110] direction, using a carboxy-pyrazolate linker. This was achieved just by the direct reaction of the ZnO film and the organic linker vapors, employing a simple route that demonstrates the feasibility of MOF thin film fabrication using inexpensive routes at ambient pressure.

  3. Chemical and thermal stability of the characteristics of filtered vacuum arc deposited ZnO, SnO2 and zinc stannate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çetinörgü, E.; Goldsmith, S.

    2007-09-01

    ZnO, SnO2 and zinc stannate thin films were deposited on commercial microscope glass and UV fused silica substrates using filtered vacuum arc deposition system. During the deposition, the substrate temperature was at room temperature (RT) or at 400 °C. The film structure and composition were determined using x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The transmission of the films in the VIS was 85% to 90%. The thermal stability of the film electrical resistance was determined in air as a function of the temperature in the range 28 °C (RT) to 200 °C. The resistance of ZnO increased from ~ 5000 to 105 Ω when heated to 200 °C, that of SnO2 films increased from 500 to 3900 Ω, whereas that of zinc stannate thin films increased only from 370 to 470 Ω. During sample cooling to RT, the resistance of ZnO and SnO2 thin films continued to rise considerably; however, the increase in the zinc stannate thin film resistance was significantly lower. After cooling to RT, ZnO and SnO2 thin films became practically insulators, while the resistance of zinc stannate was 680 Ω. The chemical stability of the films was determined by immersing in acidic and basic solutions up to 27 h. The SnO2 thin films were more stable in the HCl solution than the ZnO and the zinc stannate thin films; however, SnO2 and zinc stannate thin films that were immersed in the NaOH solution did not dissolve after 27 h.

  4. Electrical properties of zinc-oxide-based thin-film transistors using strontium-oxide-doped semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shao-Hang; Zhang, Nan; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Hong; Jiang, Da-Peng; Liu, Xing-Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Strontium-zinc-oxide (SrZnO) films forming the semiconductor layers of thin-film transistors (TFTs) are deposited by using ion-assisted electron beam evaporation. Using strontium-oxide-doped semiconductors, the off-state current can be dramatically reduced by three orders of magnitude. This dramatic improvement is attributed to the incorporation of strontium, which suppresses carrier generation, thereby improving the TFT. Additionally, the presence of strontium inhibits the formation of zinc oxide (ZnO) with the hexagonal wurtzite phase and permits the formation of an unusual phase of ZnO, thus significantly changing the surface morphology of ZnO and effectively reducing the trap density of the channel. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 6140031454) and the Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications.

  5. Influence of pH on optoelectronic properties of zinc sulphide thin films prepared using hydrothermal and spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudapur, V. H.; Bennal, A. S.; Raju, A. B.

    2018-04-01

    The ZnS nanomaterial is synthesized by hydrothermal method under optimized conditions using Zinc acetate and sodium sulphide as precursors. The Zinc Sulphide thin films are obtained by simple spin coating method with high optical transmittance. The prepared thin films are adhesive and uniform. The x-ray diffraction analysis showed that the films are polycrystalline in cubic phase with the preferred orientation along (111) direction. Current-voltage curves were recorded at room temperature using Keithley 617 programmable electrometer and conductivity is calculated for the film coated on ITO by two probe method. The pH of the solution is varied by using ammonia and hydrochloric acid. The comparative studies of effect of pH on the morphology, crystallanity and optoelectronic properties of the films are studied. It is observed that the pH of the solution has large influence on optoelectronic properties. The thin film prepared with neutral pH has higher crystallanity, bandgap and conductivity as compared to the samples prepared in acidic or basic solutions.

  6. Enhancement of the electrical characteristics of thin-film transistors with indium-zinc-tin oxide/Ag/indium-zinc-tin oxide multilayer electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Dohyun; Yun, Dong Yeol; Cho, Woon-Jo; Kim, Tae Whan

    2014-08-01

    Transparent indium-zinc-tin oxide (IZTO)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were fabricated on glass substrates using a tilted dual-target radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system. The IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes exhibited a high optical transmittance in a visible region. The threshold voltage, the mobility, and the on/off-current ratio of the TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were enhanced in comparison with those of the TFTs with ITO electrodes. The source/drain contact resistance of the IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes was smaller than that of the IZTO TFTs with ITO electrodes, resulting in enhancement of their electrical characteristics.

  7. Optimization of the Solution-Based Indium-Zinc Oxide/Zinc-Tin Oxide Channel Layer for Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kiwon; Choi, Pyungho; Kim, Sangsub; Kim, Hyunki; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Jeonghyun; Hyeon, Younghwan; Koo, Kwangjun; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2018-09-01

    Double stacked indium-zinc oxide (IZO)/zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) active layers were employed in amorphous-oxide-semiconductor thin-film transistors (AOS TFTs). Channel layers of the TFTs were optimized by varying the molarity of ZTO back channel layers (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 M) and the electrical properties of IZO/ZTO double stacked TFTs were compared to single IZO and ZTO TFTs with varying the molarity and molar ratio. On the basis of the results, IZO/ZTO (0.1 M) TFTs showed the excellent electrical properties of saturation mobility (13.6 cm2/V·s), on-off ratio (7×106), and subthreshold swing (0.223 V/decade) compared to ZTO (0.1 M) of 0.73 cm2/V · s, 1 × 107, 0.416 V/decade and IZO (0.04 M) of 0.10 cm2/V · s, 5 × 106, 0.60 V/decade, respectively. This may be attributed to diffusing Sn into front layer during annealing process. In addition, with varying molarity of ZTO back channel layer, from 0.1 M to 0.3 M ZTO back channel TFTs, electrical properties and positive bias stability deteriorated with increasing molarity of back channel layer because of increasing total trap states. On the other hand, 0.05 M ZTO back channel TFT had inferior electrical properties than that of 0.1 M ZTO back channel TFT. It was related to back channel effect because of having thin thickness of channel layer. Among these devices, 0.1 M ZTO back channel TFT had a lowest total trap density, outstanding electrical properties and stability. Therefore, we recommended IZO/ZTO (0.1 M) TFT as a promising channel structure for advanced display applications.

  8. Numerical modeling and performance analysis of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film based gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punetha, Deepak; Ranjan, Rashmi; Pandey, Saurabh Kumar

    2018-05-01

    This manuscript describes the modeling and analysis of Zinc Oxide thin film based gas sensor. The conductance and sensitivity of the sensing layer has been described by change in temperature as well as change in gas concentration. The analysis has been done for reducing and oxidizing agents. Simulation results revealed the change in resistance and sensitivity of the sensor with respect to temperature and different gas concentration. To check the feasibility of the model, all the simulated results have been analyze by different experimental reported work. Wolkenstein theory has been used to model the proposed sensor and the simulation results have been shown by using device simulation software.

  9. Selenium Sulfide

    MedlinePlus

    ... minutes.Do not leave selenium sulfide on your hair, scalp, or skin for long periods (e.g., ... jewelry; selenium sulfide may damage it. Wash your hair with ordinary shampoo and rinse it well. Shake ...

  10. Photoluminescence of ZnS-SiO2:Ce Thin Films Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Masao

    2011-12-01

    Photoluminescent emissions of zinc sulfide-silica-cerium thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering were observed. The films consisted of ZnS nanocrystals embedded in amorphous SiO2 matrices. ZnS-SiO2:Ce films exhibited photoluminescence even without postannealing. Their emission spectra showed broad patterns in the visible range; the emitted colors depended on film composition.

  11. Oxygen Partial Pressure Impact on Characteristics of Indium Titanium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistor Fabricated via RF Sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ming-Hung; Chang, Sheng-Po; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Wu, Wei-Ting; Li, Jyun-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Indium titanium zinc oxide (InTiZnO) as the channel layer in thin film transistor (TFT) grown by RF sputtering system is proposed in this work. Optical and electrical properties were investigated. By changing the oxygen flow ratio, we can suppress excess and undesirable oxygen-related defects to some extent, making it possible to fabricate the optimized device. XPS patterns for O 1s of InTiZnO thin films indicated that the amount of oxygen vacancy was apparently declined with the increasing oxygen flow ratio. The fabricated TFTs showed a threshold voltage of −0.9 V, mobility of 0.884 cm2/Vs, on-off ratio of 5.5 × 105, and subthreshold swing of 0.41 V/dec. PMID:28672868

  12. Low-Temperature, Solution-Processed, Transparent Zinc Oxide-Based Thin-Film Transistors for Sensing Various Solvents.

    PubMed

    You, Hsin-Chiang; Wang, Cheng-Jyun

    2017-02-26

    A low temperature solution-processed thin-film transistor (TFT) using zinc oxide (ZnO) film as an exposed sensing semiconductor channel was fabricated to detect and identify various solution solvents. The TFT devices would offer applications for low-cost, rapid and highly compatible water-soluble detection and could replace conventional silicon field effect transistors (FETs) as bio-sensors. In this work, we demonstrate the utility of the TFT ZnO channel to sense various liquids, such as polar solvents (ethanol), non-polar solvents (toluene) and deionized (DI) water, which were dropped and adsorbed onto the channel. It is discussed how different dielectric constants of polar/non-polar solvents and DI water were associated with various charge transport properties, demonstrating the main detection mechanisms of the thin-film transistor.

  13. Low-Temperature, Solution-Processed, Transparent Zinc Oxide-Based Thin-Film Transistors for Sensing Various Solvents

    PubMed Central

    You, Hsin-Chiang; Wang, Cheng-Jyun

    2017-01-01

    A low temperature solution-processed thin-film transistor (TFT) using zinc oxide (ZnO) film as an exposed sensing semiconductor channel was fabricated to detect and identify various solution solvents. The TFT devices would offer applications for low-cost, rapid and highly compatible water-soluble detection and could replace conventional silicon field effect transistors (FETs) as bio-sensors. In this work, we demonstrate the utility of the TFT ZnO channel to sense various liquids, such as polar solvents (ethanol), non-polar solvents (toluene) and deionized (DI) water, which were dropped and adsorbed onto the channel. It is discussed how different dielectric constants of polar/non-polar solvents and DI water were associated with various charge transport properties, demonstrating the main detection mechanisms of the thin-film transistor. PMID:28772592

  14. Oxygen Partial Pressure Impact on Characteristics of Indium Titanium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistor Fabricated via RF Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ming-Hung; Chang, Sheng-Po; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Wu, Wei-Ting; Li, Jyun-Yi

    2017-06-26

    Indium titanium zinc oxide (InTiZnO) as the channel layer in thin film transistor (TFT) grown by RF sputtering system is proposed in this work. Optical and electrical properties were investigated. By changing the oxygen flow ratio, we can suppress excess and undesirable oxygen-related defects to some extent, making it possible to fabricate the optimized device. XPS patterns for O 1s of InTiZnO thin films indicated that the amount of oxygen vacancy was apparently declined with the increasing oxygen flow ratio. The fabricated TFTs showed a threshold voltage of -0.9 V, mobility of 0.884 cm²/Vs, on-off ratio of 5.5 × 10⁵, and subthreshold swing of 0.41 V/dec.

  15. Fabrication of Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistor by using Focused Ion Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wencong

    Compared with other transparent semiconductors, amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) has both good uniformity and high electron mobility, which make it as a good candidate for displays or large-scale transparent circuit. The goal of this research is to fabricate alpha-IGZO thin film transistor (TFT) with channel milled by focused ion beam (FIB). TFTs with different channel geometries can be achieved by applying different milling strategies, which facilitate modifying complex circuit. Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) was also introduced to understand the effect of trapped charges on the device performance. The investigation of the trapped charge at IGZO/SiO2 interface was performed on the IGZO TFT on p-Silicon substrate with thermally grown SiO2 as dielectric. The subgap density-of-state model was used for the simulation, which includes conduction band-tail trap states and donor-like state in the subgap. The result shows that the de-trapping and donor-state ionization determine the interface trapped charge density at various gate biases. Simulation of IGZO TFT with FIB defined channel on the same substrate was also applied. The drain and source were connected intentionally during metal deposition and separated by FIB milling. Based on the simulation, the Ga ions in SiO2 introduced by the ion beam was drifted by gate bias and affects the saturation drain current. Both side channel and direct channel transparent IGZO TFTs were fabricated on the glass substrate with coated ITO. Higher ion energy (30 keV) was used to etch through the substrate between drain and source and form side channels at the corner of milled trench. Lower ion energy (16 keV) was applied to stop the milling inside IGZO thin film and direct channel between drain and source was created. Annealing after FIB milling removed the residual Ga ions and the devices show switch feature. Direct channel shows higher saturation drain current (~10-6 A) compared with side channel (~10-7 A) because

  16. Evaluation of the optical characteristics of c-axis oriented zinc oxide thin films grown by sol gel spin coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisakh, K.; Behera, S.; Pati, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this work we have systematically studied the optical characteristics of synthesized wurzite zinc oxide thin films exhibiting (002) orientation. Using sol gel spin coating technique zinc oxide thin films are grown on pre cleaned fused quartz substrates. Structural properties of the films are studied using X-ray diffraction analysis. Micro structural analysis and thickness of the grown samples are analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. With an aim to investigate the optical characteristics of the grown zinc oxide thin films the transmission and reflection spectra are evaluated in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) range. Using envelope method, the refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, band gap energy and the thickness of the synthesized films are estimated from the recorded UV-VIS spectra. An attempt has also been made to study the influence of crystallographic orientation on the optical characteristics of the grown films.

  17. Language extraction from zinc sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varn, Dowman Parks

    2001-09-01

    Recent advances in the analysis of one-dimensional temporal and spacial series allow for detailed characterization of disorder and computation in physical systems. One such system that has defied theoretical understanding since its discovery in 1912 is polytypism. Polytypes are layered compounds, exhibiting crystallinity in two dimensions, yet having complicated stacking sequences in the third direction. They can show both ordered and disordered sequences, sometimes each in the same specimen. We demonstrate a method for extracting two-layer correlation information from ZnS diffraction patterns and employ a novel technique for epsilon-machine reconstruction. We solve a long-standing problem---that of determining structural information for disordered materials from their diffraction patterns---for this special class of disorder. Our solution offers the most complete possible statistical description of the disorder. Furthermore, from our reconstructed epsilon-machines we find the effective range of the interlayer interaction in these materials, as well as the configurational energy of both ordered and disordered specimens. Finally, we can determine the 'language' (in terms of the Chomsky Hierarchy) these small rocks speak, and we find that regular languages are sufficient to describe them.

  18. Transparent and Flexible Zinc Tin Oxide Thin Film Transistors and Inverters using Low-pressure Oxygen Annealing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kimoon; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Jiwan; Oh, Min Suk

    2018-05-01

    We report on the transparent and flexible enhancement-load inverters which consist of zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated at low process temperature. To control the electrical characteristics of oxide TFTs by oxygen vacancies, we applied low-pressure oxygen rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process to our devices. When we annealed the ZTO TFTs in oxygen ambient of 2 Torr, they showed better electrical characteristics than those of the devices annealed in the air ambient of 760 Torr. To realize oxide thin film transistor and simple inverter circuits on flexible substrate, we annealed the devices in O2 of 2 Torr at 150° C and could achieve the decent electrical properties. When we used transparent conductive oxide electrodes such as indium zinc oxide (IZO) and indium tin oxide (ITO), our transparent and flexible inverter showed the total transmittance of 68% in the visible range and the voltage gain of 5. And the transition voltage in voltage transfer curve was located well within the range of operation voltage.

  19. Effects of vacuum rapid thermal annealing on the electrical characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Woo; Cho, Won-Ju

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effects of vacuum rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the electrical characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin films. The a-IGZO films deposited by radiofrequency sputtering were subjected to vacuum annealing under various temperature and pressure conditions with the RTA system. The carrier concentration was evaluated by Hall measurement; the electron concentration of the a-IGZO film increased and the resistivity decreased as the RTA temperature increased under vacuum conditions. In a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a bottom-gate top-contact structure, the threshold voltage decreased and the leakage current increased as the vacuum RTA temperature increased. As the annealing pressure decreased, the threshold voltage decreased, and the leakage current increased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated changes in the lattice oxygen and oxygen vacancies of the a-IGZO films after vacuum RTA. At higher annealing temperatures, the lattice oxygen decreased and oxygen vacancies increased, which suggests that oxygen was diffused out in a reduced pressure atmosphere. The formation of oxygen vacancies increased the electron concentration, which consequently increased the conductivity of the a-IGZO films and reduced the threshold voltage of the TFTs. The results showed that the oxygen vacancies and electron concentrations of the a-IGZO thin films changed with the vacuum RTA conditions and that high-temperature RTA treatment at low pressure converted the IGZO thin film to a conductor.

  20. Influence of stress on the structural and dielectric properties of rf magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Rashmi; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2008-05-01

    Highly c axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared on 1737 Corning glass substrate by planar rf magnetron sputtering under varying pressure (10-50mTorr) and different oxygen percentage (40%-100%) in reactive gas mixtures. The as-grown ZnO thin films were found to have stress over a wide range from -6×1010to-9×107dynes/cm2. The presence of stress depends strongly on processing conditions, and films become almost stress free under a unique combination of sputtering pressure and reactive gas composition. The studies show a correlation of stress with structural and electrical properties of the ZnO thin film. The stressed films possess high electrical conductivity and exhibits strong dielectric dispersion over a wide frequency (1kHz-1MHz). The dielectric constant ɛ'(ω) of stress free ZnO film was almost frequency independent and was close to the bulk value. The measured value of dc conductivity, σdc(ω) and ac conductivity σac(ω) of stress free ZnO film was 1.3×10-9 and 6.8×10-5Ω-1cm-1, respectively. The observed variation in the structural and electrical properties of ZnO thin film with stress has been analyzed in the light of growth kinetics.

  1. Influence of a Boron Precursor on the Growth and Optoelectronic Properties of Electrodeposited Zinc Oxide Thin Film.

    PubMed

    Tsin, Fabien; Thomere, Angélica; Bris, Arthur Le; Collin, Stéphane; Lincot, Daniel; Rousset, Jean

    2016-05-18

    Highly transparent and conductive materials are required for many industrial applications. One of the interesting features of ZnO is the possibility to dope it using different elements, hence improving its conductivity. Results concerning the zinc oxide thin films electrodeposited in a zinc perchlorate medium containing a boron precursor are presented in this study. The addition of boron to the electrolyte leads to significant effects on the morphology and crystalline structure as well as an evolution of the optical properties of the material. Varying the concentration of boric acid from 0 to 15 mM strongly improves the compactness of the deposit and increases the band gap from 3.33 to 3.45 eV. Investigations were also conducted to estimate and determine the influence of boric acid on the electrical properties of the ZnO layers. As a result, no doping effect effect by boron was demonstrated. However, the role of boric acid on the material quality has also been proven and discussed. Boric acid strongly contributes to the growth of high quality electrodeposited zinc oxide. The high doping level of the film can be attributed to the perchlorate ions introduced in the bath. Finally, a ZnO layer electrodeposited in a boron rich electrolyte was tested as front contact of a Cu(In, Ga)(S, Se)2 based solar cell. An efficiency of 12.5% was measured with a quite high fill factor (>70%) which confirms the high conductivity of the ZnO thin film.

  2. Thin film transistor performance of amorphous indium–zinc oxide semiconductor thin film prepared by ultraviolet photoassisted sol–gel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodzasa, Takehito; Nobeshima, Taiki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Yoshida, Manabu

    2018-05-01

    We have fabricated an amorphous indium–zinc oxide (IZO, In/Zn = 3/1) semiconductor thin-film transistor (AOS-TFT) by the sol–gel technique using ultraviolet (UV) photoirradiation and post-treatment in high-pressure O2 at 200 °C. The obtained TFT showed a hole carrier mobility of 0.02 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 and an on/off current ratio of 106. UV photoirradiation leads to the decomposition of the organic agents and hydroxide group in the IZO gel film. Furthermore, the post-treatment annealing at a high O2 pressure of more than 0.6 MPa leads to the filling of the oxygen vacancies in a poor metal–oxygen network in the IZO film.

  3. Improvement in the electrical performance and bias-stress stability of dual-active-layered silicon zinc oxide/zinc oxide thin-film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Zhao, Gao-Wei; Lai, Pai-To; Yao, Ruo-He

    2016-08-01

    Si-doped zinc oxide (SZO) thin films are deposited by using a co-sputtering method, and used as the channel active layers of ZnO-based TFTs with single and dual active layer structures. The effects of silicon content on the optical transmittance of the SZO thin film and electrical properties of the SZO TFT are investigated. Moreover, the electrical performances and bias-stress stabilities of the single- and dual-active-layer TFTs are investigated and compared to reveal the effects of the Si doping and dual-active-layer structure. The average transmittances of all the SZO films are about 90% in the visible light region of 400 nm-800 nm, and the optical band gap of the SZO film gradually increases with increasing Si content. The Si-doping can effectively suppress the grain growth of ZnO, revealed by atomic force microscope analysis. Compared with that of the undoped ZnO TFT, the off-state current of the SZO TFT is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude and it is 1.5 × 10-12 A, and thus the on/off current ratio is increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In summary, the SZO/ZnO TFT with dual-active-layer structure exhibits a high on/off current ratio of 4.0 × 106 and superior stability under gate-bias and drain-bias stress. Projected supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61076113 and 61274085), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (Grant No. 2016A030313474), and the University Development Fund (Nanotechnology Research Institute, Grant No. 00600009) of the University of Hong Kong, China.

  4. Low-Temperature-Processed Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated by Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Yumi; Tani, Mai; Hattori, Nozomu; Miyatake, Naomasa; Horita, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2012-02-01

    We investigated zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films prepared by plasma assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD), and thin-film transistors (TFTs) with the ALD ZnO channel layer for application to next-generation displays. We deposited the ZnO channel layer by PA-ALD at 100 or 300 °C, and fabricated TFTs. The transfer characteristic of the 300 °C-deposited ZnO TFT exhibited high mobility (5.7 cm2 V-1 s-1), although the threshold voltage largely shifted toward the negative (-16 V). Furthermore, we deposited Al2O3 thin film as a gate insulator by PA-ALD at 100 °C for the low-temperature TFT fabrication process. In the case of ZnO TFTs with the Al2O3 gate insulator, the shift of the threshold voltage improved (-0.1 V). This improvement of the negative shift seems to be due to the negative charges of the Al2O3 film deposited by PA-ALD. On the basis of the experimental results, we confirmed that the threshold voltage of ZnO TFTs is controlled by PA-ALD for the deposition of the gate insulator.

  5. Fast light-induced reversible wettability of a zinc oxide nanorod array coated with a thin gold layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuefan; Du, Hejun; Kong, Junhua; Tran, Van-Thai; Koh, Jia Kai; Zhao, Chenyang; He, Chaobin

    2017-11-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has gained much attention recently due to its excellent physical and chemical properties, and has been extensively studied in energy harvesting applications such as photovoltaic and piezoelectric devices. In recent years, its reversible wettability has also attracted increasing interest. The wettability of ZnO nanostructures with various morphologies has been studied. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is still a lack of investigations on further modifications on ZnO to provide more benefits than pristine ZnO. Comprehensive studies on the reversible wettability are still needed. In this study, a ZnO nanorod array was prepared via a hydrothermal process and subsequently coated with thin gold layers with varied thickness. The morphologies and structures, optical properties and wettability were investigated. It is revealed that the ZnO-Au system possesses recoverable wettability upon switching between visible-ultraviolet light and a dark environment, which is verified by the contact angle change. The introduction of the thin gold layer to the ZnO nanorod array effectively increases the recovery rate of the wettability. The improvements are attributed to the hierarchical structures, which are formed by depositing thin gold layers onto the ZnO nanorod array, the visible light sensitivity due to the plasmonic effect of the deposited gold, as well as the fast charge-induced surface status change upon light illumination or dark storage. The improvement is beneficial to applications in environmental purification, energy harvesting, micro-lenses, and smart devices.

  6. On the effect of Ti on the stability of amorphous indium zinc oxide used in thin film transistor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunghwan; Paine, David C.

    2011-06-01

    In2O3-based amorphous oxide channel materials are of increasing interest for thin film transisitor applications due, in part, to the remarkable stability of this class of materials amorphous structure and electronic properties. We report that this stability is degraded in the presence of Ti, which is widely used as a contact and/or adhesion layer. A cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy analysis, supported by glancing incident angle x-ray and selected area diffraction examination, shows that amorphous indium zinc oxide in contact with Ti undergoes crystallization to the bixbyite phase and reacts to form the rutile phase of TiO2 at a temperature of 200 °C. A basic thermodynamic analysis is presented and forms the basis of a model that describes both the crystallization and the resistivity decrease.

  7. Codoping of zinc and tungsten for practical high-performance amorphous indium-based oxide thin film transistors

    SciT

    Kizu, Takio, E-mail: KIZU.Takio@nims.go.jp, E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito, E-mail: KIZU.Takio@nims.go.jp, E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp

    2015-09-28

    Using practical high-density sputtering targets, we investigated the effect of Zn and W codoping on the thermal stability of the amorphous film and the electrical characteristics in thin film transistors. zinc oxide is a potentially conductive component while W oxide is an oxygen vacancy suppressor in oxide films. The oxygen vacancy from In-O and Zn-O was suppressed by the W additive because of the high oxygen bond dissociation energy. With controlled codoping of W and Zn, we demonstrated a high mobility with a maximum mobility of 40 cm{sup 2}/V s with good stability under a negative bias stress in InWZnO thinmore » film transistors.« less

  8. Defect generation in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by positive bias stress at elevated temperature

    SciT

    Um, Jae Gwang; Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin, E-mail: jjang@khu.ac.kr

    2014-04-07

    We report on the generation and characterization of a hump in the transfer characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by positive bias temperature stress. The hump depends strongly on the gate bias stress at 100 °C. Due to the hump, the positive shift of the transfer characteristic in deep depletion is always smaller that in accumulation. Since, the latter shift is twice the former, with very good correlation, we conclude that the effect is due to creation of a double acceptor, likely to be a cation vacancy. Our results indicate that these defects are located near the gate insulator/activemore » layer interface, rather than in the bulk. Migration of donor defects from the interface towards the bulk may also occur under PBST at 100 °C.« less

  9. Effect of organic buffer layer in the electrical properties of amorphous-indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Hyung, Gun Woo; Li, Zhao-Hui; Son, Sung-Yong; Kwon, Sang Jik; Kim, Young Kwan; Cho, Eou Sik

    2012-07-01

    In this research, we reported on the fabrication of top-contact amorphous-indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an organic buffer layer between inorganic gate dielectric and active layer in order to improve the electrical properties of devices. By inserting an organic buffer layer, it was possible to make an affirmation of the improvements in the electrical characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs such as subthreshold slope (SS), on/off current ratio (I(ON/OFF)), off-state current, and saturation field-effect mobility (muFE). The a-IGZO TFTs with the cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (c-PVA) buffer layer exhibited the pronounced improvements of the muFE (17.4 cm2/Vs), SS (0.9 V/decade), and I(ON/OFF) (8.9 x 10(6)).

  10. Indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor with a planar split dual-gate structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Liu, Jie; Song, Jia-Qi; Lai, Pui-To; Yao, Ruo-He

    2017-12-01

    An amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) with a planar split dual gate (PSDG) structure has been proposed, fabricated and characterized. Experimental results indicate that the two independent gates can provide dynamical control of device characteristics such as threshold voltage, sub-threshold swing, off-state current and saturation current. The transconductance extracted from the output characteristics of the device increases from 4.0 × 10-6S to 1.6 × 10-5S for a change of control gate voltage from -2 V to 2 V, and thus the device could be used in a variable-gain amplifier. A significant advantage of the PSDG structure is its flexibility in controlling the device performance according to the need of practical applications.

  11. Crystalline-like temperature dependence of the electrical characteristics in amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, M.; Hernandez-Barrios, Y.; Cerdeira, A.; Ávila-Herrera, F.; Tinoco, J.; Moldovan, O.; Lime, F.; Iñiguez, B.

    2017-09-01

    A crystalline-like temperature dependence of the electrical characteristics of amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) is reported, in which the drain current reduces as the temperature is increased. This behavior appears for values of drain and gate voltages above which a change in the predominant conduction mechanism occurs. After studying the possible conduction mechanisms, it was determined that, for gate and drain voltages below these values, hopping is the predominant mechanism with the current increasing with temperature, while for values above, the predominant conduction mechanism becomes percolation in the conduction band or band conduction and IDS reduces as the temperature increases. It was determined that this behavior appears, when the effect of trapping is reduced, either by varying the density of states, their characteristic energy or both. Simulations were used to further confirm the causes of the observed behavior.

  12. Silicon Cations Intermixed Indium Zinc Oxide Interface for High-Performance Thin-Film Transistors Using a Solution Process.

    PubMed

    Na, Jae Won; Rim, You Seung; Kim, Hee Jun; Lee, Jin Hyeok; Hong, Seonghwan; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2017-09-06

    Solution-processed amorphous metal-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) utilizing an intermixed interface between a metal-oxide semiconductor and a dielectric layer are proposed. In-depth physical characterizations are carried out to verify the existence of the intermixed interface that is inevitably formed by interdiffusion of cations originated from a thermal process. In particular, when indium zinc oxide (IZO) semiconductor and silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) dielectric layer are in contact and thermally processed, a Si 4+ intermixed IZO (Si/IZO) interface is created. On the basis of this concept, a high-performance Si/IZO TFT having both a field-effect mobility exceeding 10 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and a on/off current ratio over 10 7 is successfully demonstrated.

  13. A compact model and direct parameters extraction techniques For amorphous gallium-indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Oana; Castro-Carranza, Alejandra; Cerdeira, Antonio; Estrada, Magali; Barquinha, Pedro; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira; Miljakovic, Slobodan; Iñiguez, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    An advanced compact and analytical drain current model for the amorphous gallium indium zinc oxide (GIZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) is proposed. Its output saturation behavior is improved by introducing a new asymptotic function. All model parameters were extracted using an adapted version of the Universal Method and Extraction Procedure (UMEM) applied for the first time for GIZO devices in a simple and direct form. We demonstrate the correct behavior of the model for negative VDS, a necessity for a complete compact model. In this way we prove the symmetry of source and drain electrodes and extend the range of applications to both signs of VDS. The model, in Verilog-A code, is implemented in Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools, such as Smart Spice, and compared with measurements of TFTs. It describes accurately the experimental characteristics in the whole range of GIZO TFTs operation, making the model suitable for the design of circuits using these types of devices.

  14. Phosphorus Doping Effect in a Zinc Oxide Channel Layer to Improve the Performance of Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dong-Suk; Moon, Yeon-Keon; Lee, Sih; Kim, Kyung-Taek; Moon, Dae-Yong; Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Woong-Sun; Park, Jong-Wan

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we fabricated phosphorus-doped zinc oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) using direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering at a relatively low temperature of 100°C. To improve the TFT device performance, including field-effect mobility and bias stress stability, phosphorus dopants were employed to suppress the generation of intrinsic defects in the ZnO-based semiconductor. The positive and negative bias stress stabilities were dramatically improved by introducing the phosphorus dopants, which could prevent turn-on voltage ( V ON) shift in the TFTs caused by charge trapping within the active channel layer. The study showed that phosphorus doping in ZnO was an effective method to control the electrical properties of the active channel layers and improve the bias stress stability of oxide-based TFTs.

  15. Bipolar charge storage characteristics in copper and cobalt co-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Herng, Tun Seng; Zeng, Kaiyang; Ding, Jun

    2012-10-24

    The bipolar charge phenomenon in Cu and Co co-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) film samples has been studied using scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques. Those ZnO samples are made using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. It is found that the addition of Cu and Co dopants suppresses the electron density in ZnO and causes a significant change in the work function (Fermi level) value of the ZnO film; this results in the ohmic nature of the contact between the electrode (probe tip) and codoped sample, whereas this contact exhibits a Schottky nature in the undoped and single-element-doped samples. These results are verified by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) measurements. It is also found that the co-doping (Cu and Co) can stabilize the bipolar charge, whereas Cu doping only stabilizes the positive charge in ZnO thin films.

  16. Disorder induced semiconductor to metal transition and modifications of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin film

    SciT

    Singh, Fouran; Kumar, Vinod; Chaudhary, Babloo

    2012-10-01

    This paper report on the disorder induced semiconductor to metal transition (SMT) and modifications of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin film. Disorder is induced using energetic ion irradiation. It eliminates the possibility of impurities induced transition. However, it is revealed that some critical concentration of defects is needed for inducing such kind of SMT at certain critical temperature. Above room temperature, the current-voltage characteristics in reverse bias attributes some interesting phenomenon, such as electric field induced charge transfer, charge trapping, and diffusion of defects. The transition is explained by the defects induced disorder and strain in ZnO crystallitesmore » created by high density of electronic excitations.« less

  17. Metal-induced crystallization of amorphous zinc tin oxide semiconductors for high mobility thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ah Young; Kim, Sang Tae; Ji, Hyuk; Shin, Yeonwoo; Jeong, Jae Kyeong

    2016-04-01

    Transition tantalum induced crystallization of amorphous zinc tin oxide (a-ZTO) was observed at low temperature annealing of 300 °C. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an a-ZTO channel layer exhibited a reasonable field-effect mobility of 12.4 cm2/V s, subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.39 V/decade, threshold voltage (VTH) of 1.5 V, and ION/OFF ratio of ˜107. A significant improvement in the field-effect mobility (up to ˜33.5 cm2/V s) was achieved for crystallized ZTO TFTs: this improvement was accomplished without compromising the SS, VTH, or ION/OFF ratio due to the presence of a highly ordered microstructure.

  18. Metal-induced crystallization of amorphous zinc tin oxide semiconductors for high mobility thin-film transistors

    SciT

    Hwang, Ah Young; Ji, Hyuk; Kim, Sang Tae

    2016-04-11

    Transition tantalum induced crystallization of amorphous zinc tin oxide (a-ZTO) was observed at low temperature annealing of 300 °C. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an a-ZTO channel layer exhibited a reasonable field-effect mobility of 12.4 cm{sup 2}/V s, subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.39 V/decade, threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) of 1.5 V, and I{sub ON/OFF} ratio of ∼10{sup 7}. A significant improvement in the field-effect mobility (up to ∼33.5 cm{sup 2}/V s) was achieved for crystallized ZTO TFTs: this improvement was accomplished without compromising the SS, V{sub TH}, or I{sub ON/OFF} ratio due to the presence of a highly ordered microstructure.

  19. Wrinkle-free graphene electrodes in zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors for large area applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hee; Park, Byeong-Ju; Park, Jozeph; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Yoon, Soon-Gil

    2017-02-17

    Wrinkle-free graphene was used to form the source-drain electrodes in thin film transistors based on a zinc tin oxide (ZTO) semiconductor. A 10 nm thick titanium adhesion layer was applied prior to transferring a conductive graphene film on top of it by chemical detachment. The formation of an interlayer oxide between titanium and graphene allows the achievement of uniform surface roughness over the entire substrate area. The resulting devices were thermally treated in ambient air, and a substantial decrease in field effect mobility is observed with increasing annealing temperature. The increase in electrical resistivity of the graphene film at higher annealing temperatures may have some influence, however the growth of the oxide interlayer at the ZTO/Ti boundary is suggested to be most influential, thereby inducing relatively high contact resistance.

  20. Wrinkle-free graphene electrodes in zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors for large area applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hee; Park, Byeong-Ju; Park, Jozeph; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Yoon, Soon-Gil

    2017-02-01

    Wrinkle-free graphene was used to form the source-drain electrodes in thin film transistors based on a zinc tin oxide (ZTO) semiconductor. A 10 nm thick titanium adhesion layer was applied prior to transferring a conductive graphene film on top of it by chemical detachment. The formation of an interlayer oxide between titanium and graphene allows the achievement of uniform surface roughness over the entire substrate area. The resulting devices were thermally treated in ambient air, and a substantial decrease in field effect mobility is observed with increasing annealing temperature. The increase in electrical resistivity of the graphene film at higher annealing temperatures may have some influence, however the growth of the oxide interlayer at the ZTO/Ti boundary is suggested to be most influential, thereby inducing relatively high contact resistance.

  1. Analysis of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor contact metal using Pilling-Bedworth theory and a variable capacitance diode model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Ahmed; Hasko, David G.; Milne, William I.; Flewitt, Andrew J.

    2013-04-01

    It is widely reported that threshold voltage and on-state current of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide bottom-gate thin-film transistors are strongly influenced by the choice of source/drain contact metal. Electrical characterisation of thin-film transistors indicates that the electrical properties depend on the type and thickness of the metal(s) used. Electron transport mechanisms and possibilities for control of the defect state density are discussed. Pilling-Bedworth theory for metal oxidation explains the interaction between contact metal and amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide, which leads to significant trap formation. Charge trapping within these states leads to variable capacitance diode-like behavior and is shown to explain the thin-film transistor operation.

  2. A mixed solution-processed gate dielectric for zinc-tin oxide thin-film transistor and its MIS capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hunho; Kwack, Young-Jin; Yun, Eui-Jung; Choi, Woon-Seop

    2016-09-01

    Solution-processed gate dielectrics were fabricated with the combined ZrO2 and Al2O3 (ZAO) in the form of mixed and stacked types for oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). ZAO thin films prepared with double coatings for solid gate dielectrics were characterized by analytical tools. For the first time, the capacitance of the oxide semiconductor was extracted from the capacitance-voltage properties of the zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) TFTs with the combined ZAO dielectrics by using the proposed metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure model. The capacitance evolution of the semiconductor from the TFT model structure described well the threshold voltage shift observed in the ZTO TFT with the ZAO (1:2) gate dielectric. The electrical properties of the ZTO TFT with a ZAO (1:2) gate dielectric showed low voltage driving with a field effect mobility of 37.01 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage of 2.00 V, an on-to-off current ratio of 1.46 × 105, and a subthreshold slope of 0.10 V/dec.

  3. A mixed solution-processed gate dielectric for zinc-tin oxide thin-film transistor and its MIS capacitance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hunho; Kwack, Young-Jin; Yun, Eui-Jung; Choi, Woon-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed gate dielectrics were fabricated with the combined ZrO2 and Al2O3 (ZAO) in the form of mixed and stacked types for oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). ZAO thin films prepared with double coatings for solid gate dielectrics were characterized by analytical tools. For the first time, the capacitance of the oxide semiconductor was extracted from the capacitance-voltage properties of the zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) TFTs with the combined ZAO dielectrics by using the proposed metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure model. The capacitance evolution of the semiconductor from the TFT model structure described well the threshold voltage shift observed in the ZTO TFT with the ZAO (1:2) gate dielectric. The electrical properties of the ZTO TFT with a ZAO (1:2) gate dielectric showed low voltage driving with a field effect mobility of 37.01 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage of 2.00 V, an on-to-off current ratio of 1.46 × 105, and a subthreshold slope of 0.10 V/dec. PMID:27641430

  4. Compositional dependence of optical and electrical properties of indium doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dintle, Lawrence K.; Luhanga, Pearson V. C.; Moditswe, Charles; Muiva, Cosmas M.

    2018-05-01

    The structural and optoelectronic properties of undoped and indium doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films grown on glass substrates through a simple reproducible custom-made pneumatic chemical spray pyrolysis technique are presented. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed a polycrystalline structure of hexagonal wurtzite phase growing preferentially along the (002) plane for the undoped sample. Increase in dopant content modified the orientation leading to more pronounced (100) and (101) reflections. Optical transmission spectra showed high transmittance of 80-90% in the visible range for all thin films. The optical band gap energy (Eg) was evaluated on the basis of the derivative of transmittance (dT/dλ) versus wavelength (λ) model and Tauc's extrapolation method in the region where the absorption coefficient, α ≥ 104 cm-1. The observed values of Eg were found to decrease generally with increasing In dopant concentration. From the figure of merit calculations a sample with 4 at.% In dopant concentration showed better optoelectronic properties.

  5. Selective metallization of amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor by using helium plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hun; Lee, Su Jeong; Porte, Yoann; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the effects of helium (He) plasma treatment on amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been investigated. The He plasma treatment induced a dramatic decrease of the resistivity in a-IGZO thin films from 1.25 × 106 to 5.93 mΩ cm. After 5 min He plasma treatment, the a-IGZO films showed an increase in carrier concentration to 6.70 × 1019 cm-3 combined with a high hall mobility of 15.7 cm2 V-1 s-1. The conductivity improvement was linked to the formation of oxygen vacancies during the He plasma treatment, which was observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The a-IGZO films did not appear to be damaged on the surface following the plasma treatment and showed a high transmittance of about 88.3% at a wavelength of 550 nm. The He plasma-treated a-IGZO films were used as source/drain (S/D) electrodes in a-IGZO TFTs. The devices demonstrated promising characteristics, on pair with TFTs using Al electrodes, with a threshold voltage (V T) of -1.97 V, sub-threshold slope (SS) of 0.52 V/decade, saturation mobility (μ sat) of 8.75 cm2 V-1 s-1, and on/off current ratio (I on/I off) of 2.66 × 108.

  6. Observation of decreasing resistivity of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin films with an increasing oxygen partial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anup K.; Adhikari, Sonachand; Gupta, Rajeev; Deepak

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the electrical resistivity behavior in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin films. It is well known that resistivity increases as the film is deposited at a higher and higher oxygen partial pressure; we also record the same. However, in process we have discovered a remarkable region, in the oxygen deficient condition, that the resistivity shows an inverse behavior. This leads to the possibility that resistive films, suitable for thin film transistors, can also be obtained in oxygen deficient deposition conditions. Optical spectroscopic investigation could discern between a-IGZO films grown in oxygen deficient and oxygen rich conditions. The related resistivity behavior could be correlated to the presence of sub-bandgap states in films deposited in oxygen deficiency. These subgap states appear to be due to defects arising from local variations around the cations or oxygen atoms. The likely cause is an increase in Ga relative to In around O atom and the nature of cation-cation interaction when an oxygen atom is missing.

  7. pH effect on structural and optical properties of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films

    SciT

    Munef, R. A.

    2015-03-30

    ZnO nanostructures were Deposited on Objekttrager glasses for various pH values by chemical bath deposition method using Zn (NO3)2·6H2O (zinc nitrate hexahydrate) solution at 75°C reaction temperature without any posterior treatments. The ZnO nanostructures obtained were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, UV). The structure was hexagonal and it was found that some peaks disappear with various pH values. The grain sizes of ZnO films increases from 22-to-29nm with increasing pH. The transmission of the films was (85-95%)

  8. Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film grown by pulse laser deposition technique

    SciT

    Mistry, Bhaumik V., E-mail: bhaumik-phy@yahoo.co.in; Joshi, U. S.

    Highly electrically conducting and transparent in visible light IGZO thin film were grown on glass substrate at substrate temperature of 400 C by a pulse laser deposition techniques. Structural, surface, electrical, and optical properties of IGZO thin films were investigated at room temperature. Smooth surface morphology and amorphous nature of the film has been confirmed from the AFM and GIXRD analysis. A resistivity down to 7.7×10{sup −3} V cm was reproducibly obtained while maintaining optical transmission exceeding 70% at wavelengths from 340 to 780 nm. The carrier densities of the film was obtain to the value 1.9×10{sup 18} cm{sup 3},more » while the Hall mobility of the IGZO thin film was 16 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1}S{sup −1}.« less

  9. Hydrothermal ore-forming processes in the light of studies in rock- buffered systems: I. Iron-copper-zinc-lead sulfide solubility relations

    Hemley, J.J.; Cygan, G.L.; Fein, J.B.; Robinson, G.R.; d'Angelo, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental studies, using cold-seal and extraction vessel techniques, were conducted on Fe, Pb, Zn, and Cu sulfide solubilities in chloride soultions at temperatures from 300?? to 700??C and pressures from 0.5 to 2 kbars. The solutions were buffered in pH by quartz monzonite and the pure potassium feldspar-muscovite-quartz assemblage and in fS2-fO2 largely by the assemblage pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite. Solubilities increase with increasing temperature and total chloride, and decrease with increasing pressure. The effect of increasing chloride concentration on solubility reflects primarily a shift to lower pH via the silicate buffer reactions. Similarity in behaviour with respect to the temperature and pressure of Fe, Zn, and Pb sulfide solubilities points to similarity in chloride speciation, and the neutral species appear to be dominant in the high-temperature region. -from Authors

  10. Effect of substrates on Zinc Oxide thin films fabrication using sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Rosmalini Ab; Taib, Nurmalina Mohd; Ahmad, Wan Rosmaria Wan; Aziz, Anees Abdul; Sabirin Zoolfakar, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    The properties of ZnO thin films were deposited on three different substrates via dip coating method was investigated. The films were prepared on glass, ITO and p-type silicon. Characterization of the film revealed that the properties of the dip coated ZnO thin films were influenced by the type of substrates. The grains on ITO and glass were ∼10 nm in size while the grains on wafer agglomerate together to form a denser film. Studies of the optical properties using UV-VIS-NIR of the fabricated films demonstrated that glass has the highest transmittance compared to ITO.

  11. A Two-Step Absorber Deposition Approach To Overcome Shunt Losses in Thin-Film Solar Cells: Using Tin Sulfide as a Proof-of-Concept Material System

    SciT

    Steinmann, Vera; Chakraborty, Rupak; Rekemeyer, Paul H.

    2016-08-31

    As novel absorber materials are developed and screened for their photovoltaic (PV) properties, the challenge remains to reproducibly test promising candidates for high-performing PV devices. Many early-stage devices are prone to device shunting due to pinholes in the absorber layer, producing 'false-negative' results. Here, we demonstrate a device engineering solution toward a robust device architecture, using a two-step absorber deposition approach. We use tin sulfide (SnS) as a test absorber material. The SnS bulk is processed at high temperature (400 degrees C) to stimulate grain growth, followed by a much thinner, low-temperature (200 degrees C) absorber deposition. At a lowermore » process temperature, the thin absorber overlayer contains significantly smaller, densely packed grains, which are likely to provide a continuous coating and fill pinholes in the underlying absorber bulk. We compare this two-step approach to the more standard approach of using a semi-insulating buffer layer directly on top of the annealed absorber bulk, and we demonstrate a more than 3.5x superior shunt resistance Rsh with smaller standard error ..sigma..Rsh. Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) measurements indicate a lower density of pinholes in the SnS absorber bulk when using the two-step absorber deposition approach. We correlate those findings to improvements in the device performance and device performance reproducibility.« less

  12. Exchange bias in zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB based metallic glass composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, Lisha; T, Hysen; P, Geetha; B, Aravind P.; Ojha, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Ramanujan, R. V.; Anantharaman, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The Exchange bias phenomenon and methods to manipulate the bias field in a controlled manner are thrust areas in magnetism due to its sophisticated theoretical concepts as well as advanced technological utility in the field of spintronics. The Exchange bias effect is observed as a result of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic (FM-AFM) exchange interaction, usually observed as a loop shift on field cooling below the Neel temperature of AFM. In the present study, we have chosen zinc ferrite which is a well known antiferromagnet, and FeNiMoB based metallic glass as the ferromagnet. The films were prepared by RF sputtering technique. The thickness and composition was obtained by RBS. The magnetic studies using SQUID VSM indicate exchange bias effect in the system. The effect of thermal annealing on exchange bias effect was studied. The observed exchange bias in the zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB system is not due to FM-AFM coupling but due to spin glass-ferromagnetic interaction.

  13. Exchange bias in zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB based metallic glass composite thin films

    SciT

    R, Lisha; P, Geetha; B, Aravind P.

    2015-06-24

    The Exchange bias phenomenon and methods to manipulate the bias field in a controlled manner are thrust areas in magnetism due to its sophisticated theoretical concepts as well as advanced technological utility in the field of spintronics. The Exchange bias effect is observed as a result of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic (FM-AFM) exchange interaction, usually observed as a loop shift on field cooling below the Neel temperature of AFM. In the present study, we have chosen zinc ferrite which is a well known antiferromagnet, and FeNiMoB based metallic glass as the ferromagnet. The films were prepared by RF sputtering technique. The thickness andmore » composition was obtained by RBS. The magnetic studies using SQUID VSM indicate exchange bias effect in the system. The effect of thermal annealing on exchange bias effect was studied. The observed exchange bias in the zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB system is not due to FM-AFM coupling but due to spin glass-ferromagnetic interaction.« less

  14. Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic detection of chlorine utilizing polyvinylpyrolidone supported zinc oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2015-03-21

    A highly sensitive chlorine sensor for an aqueous medium is fabricated using an optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (OFSPR) system. An OFSPR-based chlorine sensor is designed with a multilayer-type platform by zinc oxide (ZnO) and polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) film morphology manipulations. Among all the methodologies of transduction reported in the field of solid state chemical and biochemical sensing, our attention is focused on the Kretschmann configuration optical fiber sensing technique using the mechanism of surface plasmon resonance. The optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chlorine sensor is developed using a multimode optical fiber with the PVP-supported ZnO film deposited over a silver-coated unclad core of the fiber. A spectral interrogation mode of operation is used to characterize the sensor. In an Ag/ZnO/PVP multilayer system, the absorption of chlorine in the vicinity of the sensing region is performed by the PVP layer and the zinc oxide layer enhances the shift in resonance wavelength. It is, experimentally, demonstrated that the SPR wavelength shifts nonlinearly towards the red side of the visible region with an increase in the chlorine concentration in an aqueous medium while the sensitivity of the sensor decreases linearly with an increase in the chlorine concentration. As the proposed sensor utilizes an optical fiber, it possesses the additional advantages of fiber such as less signal degradation, less susceptibility to electromagnetic interference, possibility of remote sensing, probe miniaturization, probe re-usability, online monitoring, small size, light weight and low cost.

  15. Thickness Dependent Nanostructural, Morphological, Optical and Impedometric Analyses of Zinc Oxide-Gold Hybrids: Nanoparticle to Thin Film.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Veeradasan; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C B; Haarindraprasad, R; Liu, Wei-Wen; Poopalan, P; Balakrishnan, S R; Thivina, V; Ruslinda, A R

    2015-01-01

    The creation of an appropriate thin film is important for the development of novel sensing surfaces, which will ultimately enhance the properties and output of high-performance sensors. In this study, we have fabricated and characterized zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon substrates, which were hybridized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain ZnO-Aux (x = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nm) hybrid structures with different thicknesses. Nanoscale imaging by field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed increasing film uniformity and coverage with the Au deposition thickness. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the AuNPs exhibit an increasing average diameter (5-10 nm). The face center cubic Au were found to co-exist with wurtzite ZnO nanostructure. Atomic force microscopy observations revealed that as the Au content increased, the overall crystallite size increased, which was supported by X-ray diffraction measurements. The structural characterizations indicated that the Au on the ZnO crystal lattice exists without any impurities in a preferred orientation (002). When the ZnO thickness increased from 10 to 40 nm, transmittance and an optical bandgap value decreased. Interestingly, with 50 nm thickness, the band gap value was increased, which might be due to the Burstein-Moss effect. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the overall structural defect (green emission) improved significantly as the Au deposition increased. The impedance measurements shows a decreasing value of impedance arc with increasing Au thicknesses (0 to 40 nm). In contrast, the 50 nm AuNP impedance arc shows an increased value compared to lower sputtering thicknesses, which indicated the presence of larger sized AuNPs that form a continuous film, and its ohmic characteristics changed to rectifying characteristics. This improved hybrid thin film (ZnO/Au) is suitable for a wide range of sensing applications.

  16. Thickness Dependent Nanostructural, Morphological, Optical and Impedometric Analyses of Zinc Oxide-Gold Hybrids: Nanoparticle to Thin Film

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, Veeradasan; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Haarindraprasad, R.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Poopalan, P.; Balakrishnan, S. R.; Thivina, V.; Ruslinda, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    The creation of an appropriate thin film is important for the development of novel sensing surfaces, which will ultimately enhance the properties and output of high-performance sensors. In this study, we have fabricated and characterized zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon substrates, which were hybridized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain ZnO-Aux (x = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nm) hybrid structures with different thicknesses. Nanoscale imaging by field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed increasing film uniformity and coverage with the Au deposition thickness. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the AuNPs exhibit an increasing average diameter (5–10 nm). The face center cubic Au were found to co-exist with wurtzite ZnO nanostructure. Atomic force microscopy observations revealed that as the Au content increased, the overall crystallite size increased, which was supported by X-ray diffraction measurements. The structural characterizations indicated that the Au on the ZnO crystal lattice exists without any impurities in a preferred orientation (002). When the ZnO thickness increased from 10 to 40 nm, transmittance and an optical bandgap value decreased. Interestingly, with 50 nm thickness, the band gap value was increased, which might be due to the Burstein-Moss effect. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the overall structural defect (green emission) improved significantly as the Au deposition increased. The impedance measurements shows a decreasing value of impedance arc with increasing Au thicknesses (0 to 40 nm). In contrast, the 50 nm AuNP impedance arc shows an increased value compared to lower sputtering thicknesses, which indicated the presence of larger sized AuNPs that form a continuous film, and its ohmic characteristics changed to rectifying characteristics. This improved hybrid thin film (ZnO/Au) is suitable for a wide range of sensing applications. PMID:26694656

  17. Low-Concentration Indium Doping in Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Films for Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Lee, Hyeonju; Kwon, Jung-Hyok; Kim, Eui-Jik; Park, Jaehoon

    2017-07-31

    We investigated the influence of low-concentration indium (In) doping on the chemical and structural properties of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) films and the electrical characteristics of bottom-gate/top-contact In-doped ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs). The thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis results showed that thermal annealing at 400 °C for 40 min produces In-doped ZnO films. As the In content of ZnO films was increased from 1% to 9%, the metal-oxygen bonding increased from 5.56% to 71.33%, while the metal-hydroxyl bonding decreased from 72.03% to 9.63%. The X-ray diffraction peaks and field-emission scanning microscope images of the ZnO films with different In concentrations revealed a better crystalline quality and reduced grain size of the solution-processed ZnO thin films. The thickness of the In-doped ZnO films also increased when the In content was increased up to 5%; however, the thickness decreased on further increasing the In content. The field-effect mobility and on/off current ratio of In-doped ZnO TFTs were notably affected by any change in the In concentration. Considering the overall TFT performance, the optimal In doping concentration in the solution-processed ZnO semiconductor was determined to be 5% in this study. These results suggest that low-concentration In incorporation is crucial for modulating the morphological characteristics of solution-processed ZnO thin films and the TFT performance.

  18. Low-Concentration Indium Doping in Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Films for Thin-Film Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue; Lee, Hyeonju; Kim, Eui-Jik; Park, Jaehoon

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the influence of low-concentration indium (In) doping on the chemical and structural properties of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) films and the electrical characteristics of bottom-gate/top-contact In-doped ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs). The thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis results showed that thermal annealing at 400 °C for 40 min produces In-doped ZnO films. As the In content of ZnO films was increased from 1% to 9%, the metal-oxygen bonding increased from 5.56% to 71.33%, while the metal-hydroxyl bonding decreased from 72.03% to 9.63%. The X-ray diffraction peaks and field-emission scanning microscope images of the ZnO films with different In concentrations revealed a better crystalline quality and reduced grain size of the solution-processed ZnO thin films. The thickness of the In-doped ZnO films also increased when the In content was increased up to 5%; however, the thickness decreased on further increasing the In content. The field-effect mobility and on/off current ratio of In-doped ZnO TFTs were notably affected by any change in the In concentration. Considering the overall TFT performance, the optimal In doping concentration in the solution-processed ZnO semiconductor was determined to be 5% in this study. These results suggest that low-concentration In incorporation is crucial for modulating the morphological characteristics of solution-processed ZnO thin films and the TFT performance. PMID:28773242

  19. A tri-layer thin film containing graphene oxide to protect zinc substrates from wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Gu, Zhengpeng; Yuan, Ningyi; Chu, Fuqiang; Cheng, Guanggui; Ding, Jianning

    2018-06-01

    Due to its excellent properties, Zn alloy is widely used in daily life. However, the poor wear-resisting properties of Zn alloys limits their application. In this paper, a tri-layer thin film consisting of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS), graphene oxide (GO) and perfluoropolyethers (PFPE) were successfully prepared on the surface of Zn alloy to improve the wear-resisting properties. The as-prepared tri-layer thin films were characterized by atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurement. In addition, the tribological properties of the as-prepared tri-layer thin films were studied on a ball-on-plate tribometer and the morphologies of worn surfaces were observed using 3D noncontact interferometric microscope. Compared with the control samples, the tri-layer thin films showed excellent friction-reducing and wear-resisting properties, which was attributed to the synergistic effect of the GO as the load-carrying layer and the PFPE as the lubricating layer.

  20. Abundances of Copper and Zinc in Stars of the Galactic Thin and Thick Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbaneva, T. I.; Mishenina, T. V.; Basak, N. Yu.; Soubiran, C.; Kovtyukh, V. V.

    The spectra of studied stars were obtained with the ELODIE spectrograph at the 1.93-m telescope of the Observatoire de Haute Provence (France). The determination of Cu and Zn abundances was carried out in LTE assumption by model atmosphere method, for Cu the hyperfine structure was taken into account. Cu and Zn abundance trends for thin and thick disk's stars are presented.

  1. Structural and optical studies on antimony and zinc doped CuInS2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Rabeh, M.; Chaglabou, N.; Kanzari, M.; Rezig, B.

    2009-11-01

    The influence of Zn and Sb impurities on the structural, optical and electrical properties of CuInS2 thin films on corning 7059 glass substrates was studied. Undoped and Zn or Sb doped CuInS2 thin films were deposited by thermal evaporation method and annealed in vacuum at temperature of 450 ∘C Undoped thin films were grown from CuInS2 powder using resistively heated tungsten boats. Zn species was evaporated from a thermal evaporator all together to the CuInS2 powder and Sb species was mixed in the starting powders. The amount of the Zn or Sb source was determined to be in the range 0-4 wt% molecular weight compared with the CuInS2 alloy source. The films were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Optical reflection and transmission and resistance measurements. The films thicknesses were in the range 450-750 nm. All the Zn: CuInS2 and Sb: CuInS2 thin films have relatively high absorption coefficient between 104 cm-1 and 105 cm-1 in the visible and the near-IR spectral range. The bandgap energies are in the range of 1.472-1.589 eV for Zn: CuInS2 samples and 1.396-1.510 eV for the Sb: CuInS2 ones. The type of conductivity of these films was determined by the hot probe method. Furthermore, we found that Zn and Sb-doped CuInS2 thin films exhibit P type conductivity and we predict these species can be considered as suitable candidates for use as acceptor dopants to fabricate CuInS2-based solar cells.

  2. Elucidating doping driven microstructure evolution and optical properties of lead sulfide thin films grown from a chemical bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Bhaskar Chandra; Bector, Keerti; Laha, Ranjit

    2018-03-01

    Doping driven remarkable microstructural evolution of PbS thin films grown by a single-step chemical bath deposition process at 60 °C is reported. The undoped films were discontinuous with octahedral-shaped crystallites after 30 min of deposition, whereas Cu doping led to a distinctly different surface microstructure characterized by densely packed elongated crystallites. A mechanism, based on the time sequence study of microstructural evolution of the films, and detailed XRD and Raman measurements, has been proposed to explain the contrasting microstructure of the doped films. The incorporation of Cu forms an interface layer, which is devoid of Pb. The excess Cu ions in this interface layer at the initial stages of film growth strongly interact and selectively stabilize the charged {111} faces containing either Pb or S compared to the uncharged {100} faces that contain both Pb and S. This interaction interferes with the natural growth habit resulting in the observed surface features of the doped films. Concurrently, the Cu-doping potentially changed the optical properties of the films: A significant widening of the bandgap from 1.52 eV to 1.74 eV for increase in Cu concentration from 0 to 20% was observed, making it a highly potential absorber layer in thin film solar cells.

  3. Hydrogen plasma treatment for improved conductivity in amorphous aluminum doped zinc tin oxide thin films

    SciT

    Morales-Masis, M., E-mail: monica.moralesmasis@epfl.ch; Ding, L.; Dauzou, F.

    2014-09-01

    Improving the conductivity of earth-abundant transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) remains an important challenge that will facilitate the replacement of indium-based TCOs. Here, we show that a hydrogen (H{sub 2})-plasma post-deposition treatment improves the conductivity of amorphous aluminum-doped zinc tin oxide while retaining its low optical absorption. We found that the H{sub 2}-plasma treatment performed at a substrate temperature of 50 °C reduces the resistivity of the films by 57% and increases the absorptance by only 2%. Additionally, the low substrate temperature delays the known formation of tin particles with the plasma and it allows the application of the process to temperature-sensitivemore » substrates.« less

  4. Investigation on the negative bias illumination stress-induced instability of amorphous indium-tin-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jaeman; Kim, Dae Geun; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Lim, Jun-Hyung; Lee, Je-Hun; Kim, Yong-Sung; Ahn, Byung Du; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2014-10-01

    The quantitative analysis of mechanism on negative bias illumination stress (NBIS)-induced instability of amorphous indium-tin-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) was suggested along with the effect of equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of gate insulator. The analysis was implemented through combining the experimentally extracted density of subgap states and the device simulation. During NBIS, it was observed that the thicker EOT causes increase in both the shift of threshold voltage and the variation of subthreshold swing as well as the hump-like feature in a transfer curve. We found that the EOT-dependence of NBIS instability can be clearly explicated with the donor creation model, in which a larger amount of valence band tail states is transformed into either the ionized oxygen vacancy VO2+ or peroxide O22- with the increase of EOT. It was also found that the VO2+-related extrinsic factor accounts for 80%-92% of the total donor creation taking place in the valence band tail states while the rest is taken by the O22- related intrinsic factor. The ratio of extrinsic factor compared to the total donor creation also increased with the increase of EOT, which could be explained by more prominent oxygen deficiency. The key founding of our work certainly represents that the established model should be considered very effective for analyzing the instability of the post-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) ZnO-based compound semiconductor TFTs with the mobility, which is much higher than those of a-IGZO TFTs.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of high mobility spin-coated zinc oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shaivalini; Chakrabarti, P.

    2012-10-01

    A ZnO based thin film transistor (TFT) with bottom-gate configuration and SiO2 as insulating layer has been fabricated and characterized. The ZnO thin film was prepared by spin coating the sol-gel solution on the p-type Si wafers. The optical and structural properties of ZnO films were investigated using UV measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result of UV-visible study confirms that the films have a good absorbance in UV region and relatively low absorbance in the visible region. The TFT exhibited an off-current of 2.5×10-7 A. The values of field effect channel mobility and on/off current ratio extracted for the device, measured 11 cm2/V.s and ~102 respectively. The value of threshold voltage was found to be 1.3 V.

  6. Origin of stress in radio frequency magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Rashmi; Gupta, Vinay; Tan, H. H.; Sreenivas, K.; Jagadish, C.

    2011-03-01

    Highly c-axis oriented ZnO thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by planar rf magnetron sputtering under varying pressure (10-50 mTorr) and oxygen percentage (50-100%) in the reactive gas (Ar + O2) mixture. The as-grown films were found to be stressed over a wide range from -1 × 1011 to -2 × 108 dyne/cm2 that in turn depends strongly on the processing conditions, and the film becomes stress free at a unique combination of sputtering pressure and reactive gas composition. Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) analyses identified the origin of stress as lattice distortion due to defects introduced in the ZnO thin film. FTIR study reveals that Zn-O bond becomes stronger with the increase in oxygen fraction in the reactive gas mixture. The lattice distortion or stress depends on the type of defects introduced during deposition. PL spectra show the formation of a shoulder in band emission with an increase in the processing pressure and are related to the presence of stress. The ratio of band emission to defect emission decreases with the increase in oxygen percentage from 50 to 100%. The studies show a correlation of stress with the structural, vibrational, and photoluminescence properties of the ZnO thin film. The systematic study of the stress will help in the fabrication of efficient devices based on ZnO film.

  7. Optical and electrical properties of bismuth-sulfide (Bi2S3) thin films prepared by thermal evaporation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Siham; Sharaf, Fouad

    Thin films of Bi2S3, of thickness in the range 300 to 500 nm, were produced by thermal evaporation technique. The reaction consisted in depositing the two elements (bismuth and sulfur) from a boat source and allowing their atoms to interdiffuse to form the compound during the deposition on quartz substrates. The material has been characterized by X-ray studies, optical and electrical measurements. When these films were annealed at 353 K, 393 K and 453 K for 5 hours, a nearly amorphous to polycrystalline transition was observed. The absorption coefficient revealed the existence of an allowed direct transition with Eg = 1.56 eV. The activation energies for electrical conduction in low and high temperature regions are 0.28 eV and 0.73 eV, respectively.

  8. Development of sputtered CuSbS2 thin films grown by sequential deposition of binary sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Montes, M. I.; Vieyra-Brito, O.; Mathews, N. R.; Mathew, X.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, CuSbS2 thin films were developed by annealing binary precursors deposited sequentially by rf magnetron sputtering. The recrystallization process was optimized and the films were extensively characterized using a number of tools such as XRD, Raman, SEM, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Hall, UV–vis spectroscopy, Ellipsometry, Seebeck, and photoresponse. The influence of annealing temperature on the structure, morphology, elemental composition, optical and electrical properties are reported. Annealing below 350 °C resulted in famatinite (Cu3SbS4) and chalcostibite (CuSbS2) ternaries as well as binary phases. Phase-pure chalcostibite was obtained in the range of 350 °C–375 °C. At 400 °C, although CuSbS2 was predominant, tetrahedrite phase (Cu12Sb4S13) appeared as an additional phase. The elemental composition of the films was slightly sulfur deficient, and the atomic percentages of Cu, Sb and S showed a dependence on annealing temperature. The material properties of the phase-pure CuSbS2 thin films are: optical band gap in the range of 1.5–1.62 eV, absorption coefficient close to 105 cm‑1, atomic ratios of Cu/Sb ∼1 and (Cu + Sb)/S ∼1.2, crystal size 18.3–24.5 nm and grain size 50–300 nm. The films were photo-sensitive, showed p-type semiconductor behavior. Electrical resistivity, carrier density and hole mobility were 94–459 Ω cm, 1.6–7.0 × 1015 cm‑3 and 8.4–9.5 cm2 V‑1 s respectively.

  9. Corrosion Behavior of Cu40Zn in Sulfide-Polluted 3.5% NaCl Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Q. N.; Xu, N.; Bao, Y. F.; Jiang, Y. F.; Gu, W.; Yang, Z.; Zheng, Y. G.; Qiao, Y. X.

    2017-10-01

    The corrosion behavior of a duplex-phase brass Cu40Zn in clean and sulfide-polluted 3.5% NaCl solutions was investigated by conducting electrochemical and gravimetric measurements. The corrosion product films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The presence of sulfide shifted the corrosion potential of Cu40Zn toward a more negative value by 100 mV and increased the mass loss rate by a factor of 1.257 compared with the result in the clean solution. The corrosion product film in the clean solution was thin and compact; it mainly consisted of oxides, such as ZnO and Cu2O. By contrast, the film in the sulfide-polluted solution was thick and porous. It mainly contained sulfides and zinc hydroxide chloride (i.e., Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O). The presence of sulfide ions accelerated the corrosion damage of Cu40Zn by hindering the formation of protective oxides and promoting the formation of a defective film which consisted of sulfides and hydroxide chlorides.

  10. Characterization and modeling of cadmium chloride treated cadmium telluride/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Graham Lane

    treatment and also leads to thinning of the CdS layer. Solar cell modeling was employed to investigate possible mechanisms for performance degradation. Modeling was done with AMPS and SCAPS modeling software. Models were created to investigate the effects of minority carrier lifetime, CdS thickness, and a low bandgap CdTe layer. Modeling results showed that the formation of a low bandgap CdTe layer combined with CdS thinning reduces device performance. Further research is needed using a statistically significant number of samples to investigate other possible degradation mechanisms associated with extended CdCl2 treatment.

  11. High Stability Performance of Quinary Indium Gallium Zinc Aluminum Oxide Films and Thin-Film Transistors Deposited Using Vapor Cooling Condensation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yung-Hao; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2017-08-01

    High-quality indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) thin films with various Al contents have been deposited using the vapor cooling condensation method. The electron mobility of the IGZAO films was improved by 89.4% on adding Al cation to IGZO film. The change in the electron concentration and mobility of the IGZAO films was 7.3% and 7.0%, respectively, when the temperature was changed from 300 K to 225 K. These experimental results confirm the high performance and stability of the IGZAO films. The performance stability mechanisms of IGZAO thin-film transistors (TFTs) were investigated in comparison with IGZO TFTs.

  12. Homo-junction ferroelectric field-effect-transistor memory device using solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Bhansali, Unnat. S.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2012-06-01

    High performance homo-junction field-effect transistor memory devices were prepared using solution processed transparent lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films for both the ferroelectric and semiconducting active layers. A highest field-effect mobility of 8.7 cm2/Vs was obtained along with an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. The ferroelectric thin film transistors showed a low sub-threshold swing value of 0.19 V/dec and a significantly reduced device operating voltage (±4 V) compared to the reported hetero-junction ferroelectric transistors, which is very promising for low-power non-volatile memory applications.

  13. Charge Transport in Low-Temperature Processed Thin-Film Transistors Based on Indium Oxide/Zinc Oxide Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Krausmann, Jan; Sanctis, Shawn; Engstler, Jörg; Luysberg, Martina; Bruns, Michael; Schneider, Jörg J

    2018-06-20

    The influence of the composition within multilayered heterostructure oxide semiconductors has a critical impact on the performance of thin-film transistor (TFT) devices. The heterostructures, comprising alternating polycrystalline indium oxide and zinc oxide layers, are fabricated by a facile atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, enabling the tuning of its electrical properties by precisely controlling the thickness of the individual layers. This subsequently results in enhanced TFT performance for the optimized stacked architecture after mild thermal annealing at temperatures as low as 200 °C. Superior transistor characteristics, resulting in an average field-effect mobility (μ sat. ) of 9.3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ( W/ L = 500), an on/off ratio ( I on / I off ) of 5.3 × 10 9 , and a subthreshold swing of 162 mV dec -1 , combined with excellent long-term and bias stress stability are thus demonstrated. Moreover, the inherent semiconducting mechanism in such multilayered heterostructures can be conveniently tuned by controlling the thickness of the individual layers. Herein, devices comprising a higher In 2 O 3 /ZnO ratio, based on individual layer thicknesses, are predominantly governed by percolation conduction with temperature-independent charge carrier mobility. Careful adjustment of the individual oxide layer thicknesses in devices composed of stacked layers plays a vital role in the reduction of trap states, both interfacial and bulk, which consequently deteriorates the overall device performance. The findings enable an improved understanding of the correlation between TFT performance and the respective thin-film composition in ALD-based heterostructure oxides.

  14. Rapid Thermal Annealing for Solution Synthesis of Transparent Conducting Aluminum Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Sana; De Matteis, Fabio; Davoli, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    Transparent conducting oxide films with optimized dopant molar ratio have been prepared with limited pre- and postdeposition annealing duration of 10 min. Multiple aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) layers were spin-coated on ordinary glass substrates. The predeposition consolidation temperature and dopant molar ratio were optimized for electrical conductivity and optical transparency. Next, a group of films were deposited on Corning glass substrates from precursor solutions with the optimized dopant ratio, followed by postdeposition rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at different temperatures and in controlled environments. The lowest resistivity of 10.1 × 10-3 Ω cm was obtained for films receiving RTA at 600°C for 10 min each in vacuum then in N2-5%H2 environment, while resistivity of 20.3 × 10-3 Ω cm was obtained for films subjected to RTA directly in N2-5%H2. Optical measurements revealed average total transmittance of about 85% in the visible region. A direct allowed transition bandgap was determined based on the absorption edge with a value slightly above 3.0 eV, within the typical range for semiconductors. RTA resulted in desorption of oxygen with enhanced carrier concentration and crystallinity, which increased the carrier mobility with decreased bulk resistivity while maintaining the required optical transparency.

  15. Electrical and structural characterization of IZO (indium oxide-zinc oxide) thin films for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaglioglu, Burag

    Materials for oxide-based transparent electronics have been recently reported in the literature. These materials include various amorphous and crystalline compounds based on multi-component oxides and many of them offer useful combinations of transparency, controllable carrier concentrations, and reasonable n-carrier mobility. In this thesis, the properties of amorphous and crystalline In2O3-10wt%ZnO, IZO, thin films were investigated for their potential use in oxide electronics. The room temperature deposition of this material using DC magnetron sputtering results in the formation of amorphous films. Annealing amorphous IZO films at 500°C in air produces a previously unknown crystalline compound. Using electron diffraction experiments, it is reported that the crystal structure of this compound is based on the high-pressure rhombohedral phase of In2O3. Electrical properties of different phases of IZO were explored and it was concluded that amorphous films offer most promising characteristics for device applications. Therefore, thin film transistors (TFT) were fabricated based on amorphous IZO films where both the channel and metallization layers were deposited from the same target. The carrier densities in the channel and source-drain layers were adjusted by changing the oxygen content in the sputter chamber during deposition. The resulting transistors operate as depletion mode n-channel field effect devices with high saturation mobilities.

  16. Mechanism of polarization switching in wurtzite-structured zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Ayako; Ogawa, Takafumi; Fisher, Craig A. J.; Kuwabara, Akihide; Shimizu, Takao; Yasui, Shintaro; Itoh, Mitsuru; Moriwake, Hiroki

    2016-09-01

    The properties of a potentially new class of ferroelectric materials based on wurtzite-structured ZnO thin films are examined using the first-principles calculations. Theoretical P-E hysteresis loops were calculated using the fixed-D method for both unstrained and (biaxially) strained single crystals. Ferroelectric polarization switching in ZnO (S.G. P63mc) is shown to occur via an intermediate non-polar structure with centrosymmetric P63/mmc symmetry by displacement of cations relative to anions in the long-axis direction. The calculated coercive electric field (Ec) for polarization switching was estimated to be 7.2 MV/cm for defect-free monocrystalline ZnO. During switching, the short- and long-axis lattice parameters expand and contract, respectively. The large structural distortion required for switching may explain why ferroelectricity in this compound has not been reported experimentally for pure ZnO. Applying an epitaxial tensile strain parallel to the basal plane is shown to be effective in lowering Ec during polarization, with a 5% biaxial expansion resulting in a decrease of Ec to 3.5 MV/cm. Comparison with calculated values for conventional ferroelectric materials suggests that the ferroelectric polarization switching of wurtzite-structured ZnO may be achievable by preparing high-quality ZnO thin films with suitable strain levels and low defect concentrations.

  17. Morphological Influence of Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Films on Electrical Characteristics of Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeonju; Zhang, Xue; Hwang, Jaeeun; Park, Jaehoon

    2016-10-19

    We report on the morphological influence of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconductor films on the electrical characteristics of ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs). Different film morphologies were produced by controlling the spin-coating condition of a precursor solution, and the ZnO films were analyzed using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and Hall measurement. It is shown that ZnO TFTs have a superior performance in terms of the threshold voltage and field-effect mobility, when ZnO crystallites are more densely packed in the film. This is attributed to lower electrical resistivity and higher Hall mobility in a densely packed ZnO film. In the results of consecutive TFT operations, a positive shift in the threshold voltage occurred irrespective of the film morphology, but the morphological influence on the variation in the field-effect mobility was evident. The field-effect mobility in TFTs having a densely packed ZnO film increased continuously during consecutive TFT operations, which is in contrast to the mobility decrease observed in the less packed case. An analysis of the field-effect conductivities ascribes these results to the difference in energetic traps, which originate from structural defects in the ZnO films. Consequently, the morphological influence of solution-processed ZnO films on the TFT performance can be understood through the packing property of ZnO crystallites.

  18. Channel length dependence of negative-bias-illumination-stress in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    SciT

    Um, Jae Gwang; Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin, E-mail: jjang@khu.ac.kr

    2015-06-21

    We have investigated the dependence of Negative-Bias-illumination-Stress (NBIS) upon channel length, in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The negative shift of the transfer characteristic associated with NBIS decreases for increasing channel length and is practically suppressed in devices with L = 100-μm. The effect is consistent with creation of donor defects, mainly in the channel regions adjacent to source and drain contacts. Excellent agreement with experiment has been obtained by an analytical treatment, approximating the distribution of donors in the active layer by a double exponential with characteristic length L{sub D} ∼ L{sub n} ∼ 10-μm, the latter being the electron diffusion length. The model alsomore » shows that a device with a non-uniform doping distribution along the active layer is in all equivalent, at low drain voltages, to a device with the same doping averaged over the active layer length. These results highlight a new aspect of the NBIS mechanism, that is, the dependence of the effect upon the relative magnitude of photogenerated holes and electrons, which is controlled by the device potential/band profile. They may also provide the basis for device design solutions to minimize NBIS.« less

  19. Improvement in gate bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors using microwave irradiation

    SciT

    Jo, Kwang-Won; Cho, Won-Ju, E-mail: chowj@kw.ac.kr

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of microwave irradiation (MWI) post-deposition-annealing (PDA) treatment on the gate bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) and compared the results with a conventional thermal annealing PDA treatment. The MWI-PDA-treated a-IGZO TFTs exhibited enhanced electrical performance as well as improved long-term stability with increasing microwave power. The positive turn-on voltage shift (ΔV{sub ON}) as a function of stress time with positive bias and varying temperature was precisely modeled on a stretched-exponential equation, suggesting that charge trapping is a dominant mechanism in the instability of MWI-PDA-treated a-IGZO TFTs. The characteristicmore » trapping time and average effective barrier height for electron transport indicate that the MWI-PDA treatment effectively reduces the defects in a-IGZO TFTs, resulting in a superior resistance against gate bias stress.« less

  20. Semiconductor to metallic transition in bulk accumulated amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide dual gate thin-film transistor

    SciT

    Chun, Minkyu; Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Jang, Jin, E-mail: jjang@khu.ac.kr

    We investigated the effects of top gate voltage (V{sub TG}) and temperature (in the range of 25 to 70 {sup o}C) on dual-gate (DG) back-channel-etched (BCE) amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) characteristics. The increment of V{sub TG} from -20V to +20V, decreases the threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) from 19.6V to 3.8V and increases the electron density to 8.8 x 10{sup 18}cm{sup −3}. Temperature dependent field-effect mobility in saturation regime, extracted from bottom gate sweep, show a critical dependency on V{sub TG}. At V{sub TG} of 20V, the mobility decreases from 19.1 to 15.4 cm{sup 2}/V ⋅ s with increasingmore » temperature, showing a metallic conduction. On the other hand, at V{sub TG} of - 20V, the mobility increases from 6.4 to 7.5cm{sup 2}/V ⋅ s with increasing temperature. Since the top gate bias controls the position of Fermi level, the temperature dependent mobility shows metallic conduction when the Fermi level is above the conduction band edge, by applying high positive bias to the top gate.« less

  1. Coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor with He plasma treated heavily doped layer

    SciT

    Jeong, Ho-young; LG Display R and D Center, 245 Lg-ro, Wollong-myeon, Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do 413-811; Lee, Bok-young

    We report thermally stable coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with heavily doped n{sup +} a-IGZO source/drain regions. Doping is through He plasma treatment in which the resistivity of the a-IGZO decreases from 2.98 Ω cm to 2.79 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm after treatment, and then it increases to 7.92 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm after annealing at 300 °C. From the analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the concentration of oxygen vacancies in He plasma treated n{sup +}a-IGZO does not change much after thermal annealing at 300 °C, indicating thermally stable n{sup +} a-IGZO, even for TFTs with channel length L = 4 μm. Field-effect mobility of the coplanar a-IGZO TFTsmore » with He plasma treatment changes from 10.7 to 9.2 cm{sup 2}/V s after annealing at 300 °C, but the performance of the a-IGZO TFT with Ar or H{sub 2} plasma treatment degrades significantly after 300 °C annealing.« less

  2. Inert gas annealing effect in solution-processed amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungwoon; Jeong, Jaewook

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the annealing effect of solution-processed amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs), under ambient He (He-device), is systematically analyzed by comparison with those under ambient O2 (O2-device) and N2 (N2-device), respectively. The He-device shows high field-effect mobility and low subthreshold slope owing to the minimization of the ambient effect. The degradation of the O2- and N2-device performances originate from their respective deep acceptor-like and shallow donor-like characteristics, which can be verified by comparison with the He-device. However, the three devices show similar threshold voltage instability under prolonged positive bias stress due to the effect of excess oxygen. Therefore, annealing in ambient He is the most suitable method for the fabrication of reference TFTs to study the various effects of the ambient during the annealing process in solution-processed a-IGZO TFTs.

  3. Analytical drain current model for symmetric dual-gate amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ting; Liao, Congwei; Huang, Shengxiang; Yu, Tianbao; Deng, Lianwen

    2018-01-01

    An analytical drain current model based on the surface potential is proposed for amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-InGaZnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a synchronized symmetric dual-gate (DG) structure. Solving the electric field, surface potential (φS), and central potential (φ0) of the InGaZnO film using the Poisson equation with the Gaussian method and Lambert function is demonstrated in detail. The compact analytical model of current-voltage behavior, which consists of drift and diffusion components, is investigated by regional integration, and voltage-dependent effective mobility is taken into account. Comparison results demonstrate that the calculation results obtained using the derived models match well with the simulation results obtained using a technology computer-aided design (TCAD) tool. Furthermore, the proposed model is incorporated into SPICE simulations using Verilog-A to verify the feasibility of using DG InGaZnO TFTs for high-performance circuit designs.

  4. Achieving high carrier mobility exceeding 70 cm2/Vs in amorphous zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Tae; Shin, Yeonwoo; Yun, Pil Sang; Bae, Jong Uk; Chung, In Jae; Jeong, Jae Kyeong

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a new defect engineering concept for low-cost In- and Ga-free zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). This concept is comprised of capping ZTO films with tantalum (Ta) and a subsequent modest thermal annealing treatment at 200 °C. The Ta-capped ZTO TFTs exhibited a remarkably high carrier mobility of 70.8 cm2/Vs, low subthreshold gate swing of 0.18 V/decade, threshold voltage of -1.3 V, and excellent ION/OFF ratio of 2 × 108. The improvement (> two-fold) in the carrier mobility compared to the uncapped ZTO TFT can be attributed to the effective reduction of the number of adverse tailing trap states, such as hydroxyl groups or oxygen interstitial defects, which stems from the scavenging effect of the Ta capping layer on the ZTO channel layer. Furthermore, the Ta-capped ZTO TFTs showed excellent positive and negative gate bias stress stabilities. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Enhancement of the Device Performance and the Stability with a Homojunction-structured Tungsten Indium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistor.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Woo; Song, Aeran; Choi, Dukhyun; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Kwun-Bum

    2017-09-14

    Tungsten-indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (WIZO-TFTs) were fabricated using a radio frequency (RF) co-sputtering system with two types of source/drain (S/D)-electrode material of conducting WIZO (homojunction structure) and the indium-tin oxide (ITO) (heterojunction structure) on the same WIZO active-channel layer. The electrical properties of the WIZO layers used in the S/D electrode and the active-channel layer were adjusted through oxygen partial pressure during the deposition process. To explain enhancements of the device performance and stability of the homojunction-structured WIZO-TFT, a systematic investigation of correlation between device performance and physical properties at the interface between the active layer and the S/D electrodes such as the contact resistance, surface/interfacial roughness, interfacial-trap density, and interfacial energy-level alignments was conducted. The homojunction-structured WIZO-TFT exhibited a lower contact resistance, smaller interfacial-trap density, and flatter interfacial roughness than the WIZO-TFT with the heterojunction structure. The 0.09 eV electron barrier of the homojunction-structured WIZO-TFT is lower than the 0.21 eV value that was obtained for the heterojunction-structured WIZO-TFT. This reduced electron barrier may be attributed to enhancements of device performance and stability, that are related to the carrier transport.

  6. Crystallization behavior of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide films and its effects on thin-film transistor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suko, Ayaka; Jia, JunJun; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Kawashima, Emi; Utsuno, Futoshi; Yano, Koki; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering and post-annealed in air at 300-1000 °C for 1 h to investigate the crystallization behavior in detail. X-ray diffraction, electron beam diffraction, and high-resolution electron microscopy revealed that the IGZO films showed an amorphous structure after post-annealing at 300 °C. At 600 °C, the films started to crystallize from the surface with c-axis preferred orientation. At 700-1000 °C, the films totally crystallized into polycrystalline structures, wherein the grains showed c-axis preferred orientation close to the surface and random orientation inside the films. The current-gate voltage (Id-Vg) characteristics of the IGZO thin-film transistor (TFT) showed that the threshold voltage (Vth) and subthreshold swing decreased markedly after the post-annealing at 300 °C. The TFT using the totally crystallized films also showed the decrease in Vth, whereas the field-effect mobility decreased considerably.

  7. Optically transparent thin-film transistors based on 2D multilayer MoS₂ and indium zinc oxide electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Junyeon; Hong, Young Ki; Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Park, Yu Jin; Yoo, Byungwook; Kim, Jiwan; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Oh, Min Suk; Kim, Sunkook

    2015-01-21

    We report on optically transparent thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated using multilayered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as the active channel, indium tin oxide (ITO) for the back-gated electrode and indium zinc oxide (IZO) for the source/drain electrodes, respectively, which showed more than 81% transmittance in the visible wavelength. In spite of a relatively large Schottky barrier between MoS2 and IZO, the n-type behavior with a field-effect mobility (μ(eff)) of 1.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) was observed in as-fabricated transparent MoS2 TFT. In order to enhance the performances of transparent MoS2 TFTs, a picosecond pulsed laser was selectively irradiated onto the contact region of the IZO electrodes. Following laser annealing, μ(eff) increased to 4.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and the on-off current ratio (I(on)/I(off)) increased to 10(4), which were attributed to the reduction of the contact resistance between MoS2 and IZO.

  8. Morphological Influence of Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Films on Electrical Characteristics of Thin-Film Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeonju; Zhang, Xue; Hwang, Jaeeun; Park, Jaehoon

    2016-01-01

    We report on the morphological influence of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconductor films on the electrical characteristics of ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs). Different film morphologies were produced by controlling the spin-coating condition of a precursor solution, and the ZnO films were analyzed using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and Hall measurement. It is shown that ZnO TFTs have a superior performance in terms of the threshold voltage and field-effect mobility, when ZnO crystallites are more densely packed in the film. This is attributed to lower electrical resistivity and higher Hall mobility in a densely packed ZnO film. In the results of consecutive TFT operations, a positive shift in the threshold voltage occurred irrespective of the film morphology, but the morphological influence on the variation in the field-effect mobility was evident. The field-effect mobility in TFTs having a densely packed ZnO film increased continuously during consecutive TFT operations, which is in contrast to the mobility decrease observed in the less packed case. An analysis of the field-effect conductivities ascribes these results to the difference in energetic traps, which originate from structural defects in the ZnO films. Consequently, the morphological influence of solution-processed ZnO films on the TFT performance can be understood through the packing property of ZnO crystallites. PMID:28773973

  9. Facile fabrication of wire-type indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors applicable to ultrasensitive flexible sensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong-Gyu; Tak, Young Jun; Kim, Hee Jun; Kim, Won-Gi; Yoo, Hyukjoon; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2018-04-03

    We fabricated wire-type indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) using a self-formed cracked template based on a lift-off process. The electrical characteristics of wire-type IGZO TFTs could be controlled by changing the width and density of IGZO wires through varying the coating conditions of template solution or multi-stacking additional layers. The fabricated wire-type devices were applied to sensors after functionalizing the surface. The wire-type pH sensor showed a sensitivity of 45.4 mV/pH, and this value was an improved sensitivity compared with that of the film-type device (27.6 mV/pH). Similarly, when the wire-type device was used as a glucose sensor, it showed more variation in electrical characteristics than the film-type device. The improved sensing properties resulted from the large surface area of the wire-type device compared with that of the film-type device. In addition, we fabricated wire-type IGZO TFTs on flexible substrates and confirmed that such structures were very resistant to mechanical stresses at a bending radius of 10 mm.

  10. Fabrication of Zinc Oxide-Based Thin-Film Transistors by Radio Frequency Sputtering for Ultraviolet Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ming-Hung; Chang, Sheng-Po; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Li, Chih-Wei; Li, Jyun-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chien

    2018-05-01

    In this study, zinc indium tin oxide thin-film transistors (ZITO TFTs) were fabricated by the radio frequency (RF) sputtering deposition method. Adding indium cations to ZnO by co-sputtering allows the development of ZITO TFTs with improved performance. Material characterization revealed that ZITO TFTs have a threshold voltage of 0.9 V, a subthreshold swing of 0.294 V/decade, a field-effect mobility of 5.32 cm2/Vs, and an on-off ratio of 4.7 × 105. Furthermore, an investigation of the photosensitivity of the fabricated devices was conducted by an illumination test. The responsivity of ZITO TFTs was 26 mA/W, with 330-nm illumination and a gate bias of -1 V. The UV-to-visible rejection ratio for ZITO TFTs was 2706. ZITO TFTs were observed to have greater UV light sensitivity than that of ZnO TFTs. We believe that these results suggest a significant step toward achieving high photosensitivity. In addition, the ZITO semiconductor system could be a promising candidate for use in high performance transparent TFTs, as well as further sensing applications.

  11. Selective UV–O3 treatment for indium zinc oxide thin film transistors with solution-based multiple active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yu-Jung; Jeong, Jun-Kyo; Park, Jung-Hyun; Jeong, Byung-Jun; Lee, Hi-Deok; Lee, Ga-Won

    2018-06-01

    In this study, a method to control the electrical performance of solution-based indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) is proposed by ultraviolet–ozone (UV–O3) treatment on the selective layer during multiple IZO active layer depositions. The IZO film is composed of triple layers formed by spin coating and UV–O3 treatment only on the first layer or last layer. The IZO films are compared by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the results show that the atomic ratio of oxygen vacancy (VO) increases in the UV–O3 treatment on the first layer, while it decreases on last layer. The device characteristics of the bottom gated structure are also improved in the UV–O3 treatment on the first layer. This indicates that the selective UV–O3 treatment in a multi-stacking active layer is an effective method to optimize TFT properties by controlling the amount of VO in the IZO interface and surface independently.

  12. Enhanced electrical and optical properties of room temperature deposited Aluminium doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) thin films by excimer laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El hamali, S. O.; Cranton, W. M.; Kalfagiannis, N.; Hou, X.; Ranson, R.; Koutsogeorgis, D. C.

    2016-05-01

    High quality transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) often require a high thermal budget fabrication process. In this study, Excimer Laser Annealing (ELA) at a wavelength of 248 nm has been explored as a processing mechanism to facilitate low thermal budget fabrication of high quality aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films. 180 nm thick AZO films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature on fused silica substrates. The effects of the applied RF power and the sputtering pressure on the outcome of ELA at different laser energy densities and number of pulses have been investigated. AZO films deposited with no intentional heating at 180 W, and at 2 mTorr of 0.2% oxygen in argon were selected as the optimum as-deposited films in this work, with a resistivity of 1×10-3 Ω.cm, and an average visible transmission of 85%. ELA was found to result in noticeably reduced resistivity of 5×10-4 Ω.cm, and enhancing the average visible transmission to 90% when AZO is processed with 5 pulses at 125 mJ/cm2. Therefore, the combination of RF magnetron sputtering and ELA, both low thermal budget and scalable techniques, can provide a viable fabrication route of high quality AZO films for use as transparent electrodes.

  13. Device level optimization of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)–zinc oxide polymer nanocomposite thin films for ferroelectric applications

    SciT

    C K, Subash, E-mail: cksubash08@gmail.com; Valiyaneerilakkal, Uvais; Varghese, Soney

    Polymer nanocomposite was prepared using poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowder, which are ferroelectric in nature. Nanocomposite was prepared in various concentrations(0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1 wt. %) using probe ultra-sonication, followed by spin coating and annealing at 120 °C for 2 h to improve the formation of β-phase. Metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitor was fabricated using this optimized thin film as a ferroelectric layer. Device level optimization was carried out by polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis studies of this film, which shows polarization enhancement of composite. Various characterization techniques like atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffractionmore » were used to study the β-phase formation of nancomposite. The capacitance–voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were studied through varying frequency and temperature. C-V measurements show an increase of 79% in the capacitance of polymer nanocomposite, which can be used for the fabrication of ferroelectric devices.« less

  14. Fabrication and characteristics of high-performance and high-stability aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Dongfang; Han, Dedong; Huang, Fuqing; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Suoming; Qi, Lin; Cong, Yingying; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Fully transparent aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were successfully fabricated on glass substrates at room temperature. Superior properties, such as a high saturation mobility of 59.3 cm2 V-1 s-1, a positive threshold voltage of 1.3 V, a steep subthreshold swing of 122.9 mV/dec, an off-state current on the order of 10-12 A, and an on/off ratio of 2.7 × 108, were obtained. The electrical properties of the AZO TFTs were successively studied within a period of six months. Small property degenerations could be observed from the test results obtained within the study period, which proved the high-performance and high-stability characteristics of AZO TFTs. Furthermore, hysteresis loop scanning of AZO TFTs was performed, and a small hysteresis could be detected in the scanning curves, which suggested the superior properties of a dielectric and a channel-insulator interface. Lastly, we succeeded in manufacturing an organic LED (OLED) flat panel display panel driven by AZO TFTs and obtained an excellent display effect from it. We believe that AZO TFTs are a promising candidate successor to Si-based TFTs in next-generation flat panel displays.

  15. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  16. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films grown on various substrates using facing target sputtering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Lee, Chang Hyun; Shon, Sun Young; Kim, Bong Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were fabricated on various substrates, such as glass, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), at room temperature using a facing target sputtering (FTS) system with hetero ZnO and Al2O3 targets, and their electrical and optical properties were investigated. The AZO film on glass exhibited compressive stress while the films on the plastic substrates showed tensile stress. These stresses negatively affected the crystalline quality of the AZO films, and it is suggested that the poor crystalline quality of the films may be related to the neutral Al-based defect complexes formed in the films; these complexes act as neutral impurity scattering centers. AZO films with good optoelectronic properties could be formed on the glass and plastic substrates by the FTS technique using the hetero targets. The AZO films deposited on the glass, PEN, and PET substrates showed very low resistivities, of 5.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, 7.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, and 7.4 × 10-4 Ω cm, respectively. Further, the figure merit of the AZO film formed on the PEN substrate in the visible range (400-700 nm) was significantly higher than that of the AZO film on PET and similar to that of the AZO film on glass. Finally, the average transmittances of the films in the visible range (400-700 nm) were 83.16% (on glass), 76.3% (on PEN), and 78.16% (on PET).

  17. Effect of mesa structure formation on the electrical properties of zinc oxide thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shaivalini; Chakrabarti, P

    2014-05-01

    ZnO based bottom-gate thin film transistor (TFT) with SiO2 as insulating layer has been fabricated with two different structures. The effect of formation of mesa structure on the electrical characteristics of the TFTs has been studied. The formation of mesa structure of ZnO channel region can definitely result in better control over channel region and enhance value of channel mobility of ZnO TFT. As a result, by fabricating a mesa structured TFT, a better value of mobility and on-state current are achieved at low voltages. A typical saturation current of 1.85 x 10(-7) A under a gate bias of 50 V is obtained for non mesa structure TFT while for mesa structured TFT saturation current of 5 x 10(-5) A can be obtained at comparatively very low gate bias of 6.4 V.

  18. Mechanism of polarization switching in wurtzite-structured zinc oxide thin films

    SciT

    Konishi, Ayako; Ogawa, Takafumi; Fisher, Craig A. J.

    2016-09-05

    The properties of a potentially new class of ferroelectric materials based on wurtzite-structured ZnO thin films are examined using the first-principles calculations. Theoretical P-E hysteresis loops were calculated using the fixed-D method for both unstrained and (biaxially) strained single crystals. Ferroelectric polarization switching in ZnO (S.G. P6{sub 3}mc) is shown to occur via an intermediate non-polar structure with centrosymmetric P6{sub 3}/mmc symmetry by displacement of cations relative to anions in the long-axis direction. The calculated coercive electric field (E{sub c}) for polarization switching was estimated to be 7.2 MV/cm for defect-free monocrystalline ZnO. During switching, the short- and long-axis latticemore » parameters expand and contract, respectively. The large structural distortion required for switching may explain why ferroelectricity in this compound has not been reported experimentally for pure ZnO. Applying an epitaxial tensile strain parallel to the basal plane is shown to be effective in lowering E{sub c} during polarization, with a 5% biaxial expansion resulting in a decrease of E{sub c} to 3.5 MV/cm. Comparison with calculated values for conventional ferroelectric materials suggests that the ferroelectric polarization switching of wurtzite-structured ZnO may be achievable by preparing high-quality ZnO thin films with suitable strain levels and low defect concentrations.« less

  19. Electro-thermal control of aluminum-doped zinc oxide/vanadium dioxide multilayered thin films for smart-device applications

    PubMed Central

    Skuza, J. R.; Scott, D. W.; Mundle, R. M.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the electro-thermal control of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) /vanadium dioxide (VO2) multilayered thin films, where the application of a small electric field enables precise control of the applied heat to the VO2 thin film to induce its semiconductor-metal transition (SMT). The transparent conducting oxide nature of the top Al:ZnO film can be tuned to facilitate the fine control of the SMT of the VO2 thin film and its associated properties. In addition, the Al:ZnO film provides a capping layer to the VO2 thin film, which inhibits oxidation to a more energetically favorable and stable V2O5 phase. It also decreases the SMT of the VO2 thin film by approximately 5–10 °C because of an additional stress induced on the VO2 thin film and/or an alteration of the oxygen vacancy concentration in the VO2 thin film. These results have significant impacts on technological applications for both passive and active devices by exploiting this near-room-temperature SMT. PMID:26884225

  20. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition zinc oxide for multifunctional thin film electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourey, Devin A.

    A novel, weak oxidant, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process has been used to fabricate stable, high mobility ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) and fast circuits on glass and polyimide substrates at 200°C. Weak oxidant PEALD provides a simple, fast deposition process which results in uniform, conformal coatings and highly crystalline, dense ZnO thin films. These films and resulting devices have been compared with those prepared by spatial atomic layer deposition (SALD) throughout the work. Both PEALD and SALD ZnO TFTs have high field-effect mobility (>20 cm 2/V·s) and devices with ALD Al2O3 passivation can have excellent bias stress stability. Temperature dependent measurements of PEALD ZnO TFTs revealed a mobility activation energy < 5 meV and can be described using a simple percolation model with a Gaussian distribution of near-conduction band barriers. Interestingly, both PEALD and SALD devices operate with mobility > 1 cm2/V·s even at temperatures < 10 K. The effects of high energy irradiation have also been investigated. Devices exposed to 1 MGy of gamma irradiation showed small threshold voltage shifts (<2 V) which were fully recoverable with short (1 min) low-temperature (200°C) anneals. ZnO TFTs exhibit a range of non-ideal behavior which has direct implications on how important parameters such as mobility and threshold voltage are quantified. For example, the accumulation-dependent mobility and contact effects can lead to significant overestimations in mobility. It is also found that self-heating plays and important role in the non-ideal behavior of oxide TFTs on low thermal conductivity substrates. In particular, the output conductance and a high current device runaway breakdown effect can be directly ascribed to self-heating. Additionally, a variety of simple ZnO circuits on glass and flexible substrates were demonstrated. A backside exposure process was used to form gate-self-aligned structures with reduced parasitic capacitance and

  1. Defect-mediated magnetism of transition metal doped zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Bradley Kirk

    Magnetism in transition metal doped wide band-gap materials is of interest to further the fundamental science of materials and future spintronics applications. Large inter-dopant separations require mediation of ferromagnetism by some method; carrier-mediated mechanisms are typically applicable to dilute magnetic semiconductors with low Curie temperatures. Dilute magnetic oxides, commonly with poor conductivity and TC above room temperature, cannot be described within this theory. Recent experiment and theory developments suggest that ferromagnetic exchange in these materials can be mediated by defects. This research includes experimental results justifying and developing this approach. Thin films of Cr doped ZnO (band gap ˜3.3 eV) were deposited with several processing variations to enhance the effects of either 0-dimensional (vacancy, hydrogen-related defect) or two-dimensional defects (surface/interface) and thereby affect magnetism and conductivity. We observe surface magnetism in dielectric thin films of oxygen-saturated ZnO:Cr with spontaneous magnetic moment and conductance dropping approximately exponentially with increasing thickness. Uniform defect concentrations would not result in such magnetic ordering behavior indicating that magnetism is mediated either by surface defects or differing concentrations of point defects near the surface. Polarized neutron reflectivity profiling confirms a magnetically active region of ˜8 nm at the film surface. Hydrogen is notoriously present as a defect and carrier dopant in ZnO, and artificial introduction of hydrogen in dielectric ZnO:Cr films results in varying electronic and magnetic behavior. Free carriers introduced with hydrogen doping are not spin-polarized requiring an alternative explanation for ferromagnetism. We find from positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements that hydrogen doping increases the concentration of an altered VZn-related defect (a preliminary interpretation) throughout the film, which

  2. Nanostructured zinc oxide thin film for application to surface plasmon resonance based cholesterol biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2015-11-01

    ZnO thin film was deposited on gold coated glass prism by RF sputtering technique in glancing angle deposition (GLAD) configuration. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the deposited film were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. ZnO coated Au prisms (ZnO/Au/prism) were used to excite surface plasmons in Kretschmann configuration at the Au- ZnO interface on a laboratory assembled Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) measurement setup. Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) enzyme was immobilized on the ZnO/Au/prism structure by physical adsorption technique. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels were fabricated over ChOx/ZnO/Au/prism system and various concentrations of cholesterol were passed over the sensor surface. The concentration of cholesterol was varied from 0.12 to 10.23 mM and the SPR reflectance curves were recorded in both static as well as dynamic modes demonstrating a high sensitivity of 0.36° mM-1.

  3. Electric Field-aided Selective Activation for Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Heesoo; Chang, Ki Soo; Tak, Young Jun; Jung, Tae Soo; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, Won-Gi; Chung, Jusung; Jeong, Chan Bae; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-10-01

    A new technique is proposed for the activation of low temperature amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) backplanes through application of a bias voltage and annealing at 130 °C simultaneously. In this ‘electrical activation’, the effects of annealing under bias are selectively focused in the channel region. Therefore, electrical activation can be an effective method for lower backplane processing temperatures from 280 °C to 130 °C. Devices fabricated with this method exhibit equivalent electrical properties to those of conventionally-fabricated samples. These results are analyzed electrically and thermodynamically using infrared microthermography. Various bias voltages are applied to the gate, source, and drain electrodes while samples are annealed at 130 °C for 1 hour. Without conventional high temperature annealing or electrical activation, current-voltage curves do not show transfer characteristics. However, electrically activated a-IGZO TFTs show superior electrical characteristics, comparable to the reference TFTs annealed at 280 °C for 1 hour. This effect is a result of the lower activation energy, and efficient transfer of electrical and thermal energy to a-IGZO TFTs. With this approach, superior low-temperature a-IGZO TFTs are fabricated successfully.

  4. Electric Field-aided Selective Activation for Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heesoo; Chang, Ki Soo; Tak, Young Jun; Jung, Tae Soo; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, Won-Gi; Chung, Jusung; Jeong, Chan Bae; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-01-01

    A new technique is proposed for the activation of low temperature amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) backplanes through application of a bias voltage and annealing at 130 °C simultaneously. In this ‘electrical activation’, the effects of annealing under bias are selectively focused in the channel region. Therefore, electrical activation can be an effective method for lower backplane processing temperatures from 280 °C to 130 °C. Devices fabricated with this method exhibit equivalent electrical properties to those of conventionally-fabricated samples. These results are analyzed electrically and thermodynamically using infrared microthermography. Various bias voltages are applied to the gate, source, and drain electrodes while samples are annealed at 130 °C for 1 hour. Without conventional high temperature annealing or electrical activation, current-voltage curves do not show transfer characteristics. However, electrically activated a-IGZO TFTs show superior electrical characteristics, comparable to the reference TFTs annealed at 280 °C for 1 hour. This effect is a result of the lower activation energy, and efficient transfer of electrical and thermal energy to a-IGZO TFTs. With this approach, superior low-temperature a-IGZO TFTs are fabricated successfully. PMID:27725695

  5. Electric Field-aided Selective Activation for Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesoo; Chang, Ki Soo; Tak, Young Jun; Jung, Tae Soo; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, Won-Gi; Chung, Jusung; Jeong, Chan Bae; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-10-11

    A new technique is proposed for the activation of low temperature amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) backplanes through application of a bias voltage and annealing at 130 °C simultaneously. In this 'electrical activation', the effects of annealing under bias are selectively focused in the channel region. Therefore, electrical activation can be an effective method for lower backplane processing temperatures from 280 °C to 130 °C. Devices fabricated with this method exhibit equivalent electrical properties to those of conventionally-fabricated samples. These results are analyzed electrically and thermodynamically using infrared microthermography. Various bias voltages are applied to the gate, source, and drain electrodes while samples are annealed at 130 °C for 1 hour. Without conventional high temperature annealing or electrical activation, current-voltage curves do not show transfer characteristics. However, electrically activated a-IGZO TFTs show superior electrical characteristics, comparable to the reference TFTs annealed at 280 °C for 1 hour. This effect is a result of the lower activation energy, and efficient transfer of electrical and thermal energy to a-IGZO TFTs. With this approach, superior low-temperature a-IGZO TFTs are fabricated successfully.

  6. Carbonyl sulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Carbonyl sulfide ; CASRN 463 - 58 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  7. Hydrogen sulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 03 / 005 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE ( CAS No . 7783 - 06 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2003 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been

  8. Selenium sulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenium sulfide ; CASRN 7446 - 34 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  9. MOCVD Growth and Characterization of n-type Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Yaacov, Tammy

    In the past decade, there has been widespread effort in the development of zinc oxide as a II-V1 semiconductor material. ZnO has potential advantages in optoelectronip device applications due to its unique electrical and optical properties. What stands out among these properties is its wide direct bandgap of 3.37 eV and its high electrical conductivity and transparency in the visible and near-UV regions of the spectrum. ZnO can be grown heteroepitaxially on GaN under near lattice-matched conditions and homoepitaxially as well, as high-quality bulk ZnO substrates are commercially available. This dissertation focuses on the development of the growth of high-quality, single crystal n-type ZnO films, control of n-type conductivity, as well as its application as a transparent contact material in GaN-based devices. The first part of this dissertation is an extensive heteroepitaxial and homoepitaxial growth study presenting the properties of ZnO(0001) layers grown on GaN(0001) templates and ZnO(0001) substrates. We show that deposition on GaN requires a two-step growth technique involving the growth of a low temperature nucleation layer before growing a high temperature epitaxial layer in order to obtain smooth ZnO films with excellent crystal quality and step-flow surface morphology. We obtained homoepitaxial ZnO(0001) films of structural quality and surface morphology that is comparable to the as-received substrates, and showed that a high growth temperature (≥1000°C) is needed in order to achieve step-flow growth mode. We performed n-type doping experiments, and established the conditions for which Indium effectively controls the n-type conductivity of ZnO films grown on GaN(0001) templates. A peak carrier concentration of 3.22x 10 19cm-3 and minimum sheet resistance of 97 O/square was achieved, while simultaneously maintaining good morphology and crystal quality. Finally, we present In-doped ZnO films implemented as p-contacts for GaN-based solar cells and LEDs

  10. Photo-Patternable ZnO Thin Films Based on Cross-Linked Zinc Acrylate for Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Complementary Inverters.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Jin; An, Tae Kyu; Yun, Dong-Jin; Kim, Lae Ho; Park, Seonuk; Kim, Yebyeol; Nam, Sooji; Lee, Keun Hyung; Kim, Se Hyun; Jang, Jaeyoung; Park, Chan Eon

    2016-03-02

    Complementary inverters consisting of p-type organic and n-type metal oxide semiconductors have received considerable attention as key elements for realizing low-cost and large-area future electronics. Solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) have great potential for use in hybrid complementary inverters as n-type load transistors because of the low cost of their fabrication process and natural abundance of active materials. The integration of a single ZnO TFT into an inverter requires the development of a simple patterning method as an alternative to conventional time-consuming and complicated photolithography techniques. In this study, we used a photocurable polymer precursor, zinc acrylate (or zinc diacrylate, ZDA), to conveniently fabricate photopatternable ZnO thin films for use as the active layers of n-type ZnO TFTs. UV-irradiated ZDA thin films became insoluble in developing solvent as the acrylate moiety photo-cross-linked; therefore, we were able to successfully photopattern solution-processed ZDA thin films using UV light. We studied the effects of addition of a tiny amount of indium dopant on the transistor characteristics of the photopatterned ZnO thin films and demonstrated low-voltage operation of the ZnO TFTs within ±3 V by utilizing Al2O3/TiO2 laminate thin films or ion-gels as gate dielectrics. By combining the ZnO TFTs with p-type pentacene TFTs, we successfully fabricated organic/inorganic hybrid complementary inverters using solution-processed and photopatterned ZnO TFTs.

  11. Direct synthesis and characterization of optically transparent conformal zinc oxide nanocrystalline thin films by rapid thermal plasma CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Joachim D.; Esposito, Heather J.; Teh, Kwok Siong

    2011-10-01

    We report a rapid, self-catalyzed, solid precursor-based thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition process for depositing a conformal, nonporous, and optically transparent nanocrystalline ZnO thin film at 130 Torr (0.17 atm). Pure solid zinc is inductively heated and melted, followed by ionization by thermal induction argon/oxygen plasma to produce conformal, nonporous nanocrystalline ZnO films at a growth rate of up to 50 nm/min on amorphous and crystalline substrates including Si (100), fused quartz, glass, muscovite, c- and a-plane sapphire (Al2O3), gold, titanium, and polyimide. X-ray diffraction indicates the grains of as-deposited ZnO to be highly textured, with the fastest growth occurring along the c-axis. The individual grains are observed to be faceted by (103) planes which are the slowest growth planes. ZnO nanocrystalline films of nominal thicknesses of 200 nm are deposited at substrate temperatures of 330°C and 160°C on metal/ceramic substrates and polymer substrates, respectively. In addition, 20-nm- and 200-nm-thick films are also deposited on quartz substrates for optical characterization. At optical spectra above 375 nm, the measured optical transmittance of a 200-nm-thick ZnO film is greater than 80%, while that of a 20-nm-thick film is close to 100%. For a 200-nm-thick ZnO film with an average grain size of 100 nm, a four-point probe measurement shows electrical conductivity of up to 910 S/m. Annealing of 200-nm-thick ZnO films in 300 sccm pure argon at temperatures ranging from 750°C to 950°C (at homologous temperatures between 0.46 and 0.54) alters the textures and morphologies of the thin film. Based on scanning electron microscope images, higher annealing temperatures appear to restructure the ZnO nanocrystalline films to form nanorods of ZnO due to a combination of grain boundary diffusion and bulk diffusion. PACS: films and coatings, 81.15.-z; nanocrystalline materials, 81.07.Bc; II-VI semiconductors, 81.05.Dz.

  12. The effect of annealing ambient on the characteristics of an indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistor.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyeon; Bang, Seokhwan; Lee, Seungjun; Park, Joohyun; Ko, Youngbin; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2011-07-01

    In this study, the effects of different annealing conditions (air, O2, N2, vacuum) on the chemical and electrical characteristics of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFT) were investigated. The contact resistance and interface properties between the IGZO film and the gate dielectric improved after an annealing treatment. However, the chemical bonds in the IGZO bulk changed under various annealing atmospheres, which, in turn, altered the characteristics of the TFTs. The TFTs annealed in vacuum and N2 ambients exhibited undesired switching properties due to the high carrier concentration (>10(17) cm(-3)) of the IGZO active layer. In contrast, the IGZO TFTs annealed in air and oxygen ambients displayed clear transfer characteristics due to an adequately adjusted carrier concentration in the operating range of the TFT. Such an optimal carrier concentration arose through the stabilization of unstable chemical bonds in the IGZO film. With regard to device performance, the TFTs annealed in O2 and air exhibited saturation mobility values of 8.29 and 7.54 cm2/Vs, on-off ratios of 7.34 x 10(8) and 3.95 x 10(8), and subthreshold swing (SS) values of 0.23 and 0.19 V/decade, respectively. Therefore, proper annealing ambients contributed to internal modifications in the IGZO structure and led to an enhancement in the oxidation state of the metal. As a result, defects such as oxygen vacancies were eliminated. Oxygen annealing is thus effective for controlling the carrier concentration of the active layer, decreasing electron traps, and enhancing TFT performance.

  13. Improvement of Electrical Characteristics and Stability of Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistors Using Nitrocellulose Passivation Layer.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kwan Yup; Tak, Young Jun; Kim, Won-Gi; Hong, Seonghwan; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2017-04-19

    In this research, nitrocellulose is proposed as a new material for the passivation layers of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs). The a-IGZO TFTs with nitrocellulose passivation layers (NC-PVLs) demonstrate improved electrical characteristics and stability. The a-IGZO TFTs with NC-PVLs exhibit improvements in field-effect mobility (μ FE ) from 11.72 ± 1.14 to 20.68 ± 1.94 cm 2 /(V s), threshold voltage (V th ) from 1.85 ± 1.19 to 0.56 ± 0.35 V, and on/off current ratio (I on/off ) from (5.31 ± 2.19) × 10 7 to (4.79 ± 1.54) × 10 8 compared to a-IGZO TFTs without PVLs, respectively. The V th shifts of a-IGZO TFTs without PVLs, with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) PVLs, and with NC-PVLs under positive bias stress (PBS) test for 10,000 s represented 5.08, 3.94, and 2.35 V, respectively. These improvements were induced by nitrogen diffusion from NC-PVLs to a-IGZO TFTs. The lone-pair electrons of diffused nitrogen attract weakly bonded oxygen serving as defect sites in a-IGZO TFTs. Consequently, the electrical characteristics are improved by an increase of carrier concentration in a-IGZO TFTs, and a decrease of defects in the back channel layer. Also, NC-PVLs have an excellent property as a barrier against ambient gases. Therefore, the NC-PVL is a promising passivation layer for next-generation display devices that simultaneously can improve electrical characteristics and stability against ambient gases.

  14. Structure and Electronic Properties of Crystalline and Amorphous Zinc Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proffit, Diana Elizabeth

    The local structures and surface electronic properties of crystalline (c-) and amorphous (a-) Zn and Sn codoped In2O3 (ZITO) films were studied. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements confirm that Zn and Sn dopants occupy In sites in the bixbyite structure of c-ZITO. Also, Zn dopants are generally under-coordinated and some compensated Sn dopants are over-coordinated, as demonstrated by the trend in coordination numbers (CN) of CNSn>CNIn>CNZn. Aliovalent Sn dopants form Frank-Kostlin clusters, (2Sn•InO'' i)x , which can act as donors when reduced. XAS and anomalous X-ray scattering studies on a-ZITO show that the local structure in a-ZITO is somewhat different than that in c-ZITO, particularly around Zn. The Zn-O bond length is significantly smaller than in c-ZITO and Zn is 4-fold coordinated. The smaller coordination numbers in a-ZITO follow the same trend as in c-ZITO. Unlike in c-ZITO, variations in the Sn/Zn ratio do not alter the electrical properties of a-ZITO, although variations in deposition oxygen pressure do. The 3-D geometrical arrangement linking local structure units seems to play a key role in charge balancing ZITO. As measured by in situ grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering, ZITO crystallizes at a higher temperature than In2 O3 and Sn-doped In2O3. The difference is attributed to a higher activation energy, which may result from the unique structure around Zn in a-ZITO. Increasing the codoping level consistently increases crystallization temperature. For a given codoping level, the crystallization temperature during deposition is lower than that during post-deposition annealing. X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that a-ZITO and c-ZITO thin films have similar surface electronic properties. In situ a-ZITO and c-ZITO films have low ionization potentials that are similar to In2O3. However, dry-air-annealed in situ films, ex situ films, and bulk ceramics have higher ionization potentials that are

  15. Effects of spatial and temporal variation of acid-volatile sulfide on the bioavailability of copper and zinc in freshwater sediments

    Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Giesty, John P.

    1996-01-01

    Variation in concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) in sediments from the upper Clark Fork River of Montana, USA, was associated with differences in bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn and growth of larvae of the midge, Chironomus tentans. Growth of midge larvae was significantly greater and bioaccumulation of Cu was significantly less in surface sections (0–3 cm depth) of sediment cores, which had greater concentrations of AVS and lesser ratios of simultaneously extracted metals to AVS (SEM:AVS ratios) than in subsurface sediments (6–9 cm). Concentrations of AVS were significantly less in sediments incubated with oxic overlying water for 9 weeks than in the same sediments incubated under anoxic conditions. Bioaccumulation of Cu differed significantly between incubation treatments, corresponding to differences in concentrations of AVS and SEM:AVS ratios, although midge growth did not. Bioaccumulation of Zn did not differ significantly between depth strata of sediment cores or between incubation treatments. When results from the two sets of bioassays were combined, bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn, but not growth, was significantly correlated with SEM:AVS ratios and other estimates of bioavailable metal fractions in sediments. Growth of midge larvae was significantly correlated with bioaccumulation of Zn, but not Cu, suggesting that Zn was the greater contributor to the toxicity of these sediments. Assessments of the toxicity of metal-contaminated freshwater sediments should consider the effects of spatial and temporal variation in AVS concentrations on metal bioavailability.

  16. Thin-Film Photovoltaic Device Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scofield, John H.

    2003-01-01

    This project will primarily involve the fabrication and characterization of thin films and devices for photovoltaic applications. The materials involved include Il-VI materials such as zinc oxide, cadmium sulfide, and doped analogs. The equipment ot be used will be sputtering and physical evaporations. The types of characterization includes electrical, XRD, SEM and CV and related measurements to establish the efficiency of the devices. The faculty fellow will be involved in a research team composed of NASA and University researchers as well as students and other junior researchers.

  17. High-performance varistors simply by hot-dipping zinc oxide thin films in Pr6O11: Influence of temperature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Peng, Zhijian; Wang, Qi; Wang, Chengbiao; Fu, Xiuli

    2017-01-01

    High-performance ZnO-Pr6O11 thin-film varistors were fabricated simply by hot-dipping oxygen-deficient zinc oxide thin films in Pr6O11 powder. The films had a composition of ZnO0.81 and a thickness of about 200 nm, which were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering a sintered zinc oxide ceramic target. Special attention was paid on the temperature dependence of the varistors. In 50 min with hot-dipping temperature increased from 300–700 °C, the nonlinear coefficient (α) of the varistors increased, but with higher temperature it decreased again. Correspondingly, the leakage current (IL) decreased first and then increased, owing mainly to the formation and destroying of complete zinc oxide/Pr6O11 grain boundaries. The breakdown field (E1mA) decreased monotonously from 0.02217 to 0.01623 V/nm with increasing temperature (300–800 °C), due to the decreased number of effective grain boundaries in the varistors. The varistors prepared at 700 °C exhibited the optimum nonlinear properties with the highest α = 39.29, lowest IL = 0.02736 mA/cm2, and E1mA = 0.01757 V/nm. And after charge-discharge at room temperature for 1000 times, heating at 100 or 250 °C for up to 100 h, or applying at up to 250 °C, the varistors still performed well. Such nanoscaled thin-film varistors will be very promising in electrical/electronic devices working at low voltage. PMID:28155890

  18. Analytical modeling of localized surface plasmon resonance in heterostructure copper sulfide nanocrystals

    SciT

    Caldwell, Andrew H.; Ha, Don-Hyung; Ding, Xiaoyue

    2014-10-28

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in semiconductor nanocrystals is a relatively new field of investigation that promises greater tunability of plasmonic properties compared to metal nanoparticles. A novel process by which the LSPR in semiconductor nanocrystals can be altered is through heterostructure formation arising from solution-based cation exchange. Herein, we describe the development of an analytical model of LSPR in heterostructure copper sulfide-zinc sulfide nanocrystals synthesized via a cation exchange reaction between copper sulfide (Cu 1.81S) nanocrystals and Zn ions. The cation exchange reaction produces dual-interface, heterostructure nanocrystals in which the geometry of the copper sulfide phase can be tunedmore » from a sphere to a thin disk separating symmetrically-grown sulfide (ZnS) grains. Drude model electronic conduction and Mie-Gans theory are applied to describe how the LSPR wavelength changes during cation exchange, taking into account the morphology evolution and changes to the local permittivity. The results of the modeling indicate that the presence of the ZnS grains has a significant effect on the out-of-plane LSPR mode. By comparing the results of the model to previous studies on solid-solid phase transformations of copper sulfide in these nanocrystals during cation exchange, we show that the carrier concentration is independent of the copper vacancy concentration dictated by its atomic phase. The evolution of the effective carrier concentration calculated from the model suggests that the out-of-plane resonance mode is dominant. The classical model was compared to a simplified quantum mechanical model which suggested that quantum mechanical effects become significant when the characteristic size is less than ~8 nm. Overall, we find that the analytical models are not accurate for these heterostructured semiconductor nanocrystals, indicating the need for new model development for this emerging field.« less

  19. Analytical modeling of localized surface plasmon resonance in heterostructure copper sulfide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Andrew H.; Ha, Don-Hyung; Ding, Xiaoyue; Robinson, Richard D.

    2014-10-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in semiconductor nanocrystals is a relatively new field of investigation that promises greater tunability of plasmonic properties compared to metal nanoparticles. A novel process by which the LSPR in semiconductor nanocrystals can be altered is through heterostructure formation arising from solution-based cation exchange. Herein, we describe the development of an analytical model of LSPR in heterostructure copper sulfide-zinc sulfide nanocrystals synthesized via a cation exchange reaction between copper sulfide (Cu1.81S) nanocrystals and Zn ions. The cation exchange reaction produces dual-interface, heterostructure nanocrystals in which the geometry of the copper sulfide phase can be tuned from a sphere to a thin disk separating symmetrically-grown sulfide (ZnS) grains. Drude model electronic conduction and Mie-Gans theory are applied to describe how the LSPR wavelength changes during cation exchange, taking into account the morphology evolution and changes to the local permittivity. The results of the modeling indicate that the presence of the ZnS grains has a significant effect on the out-of-plane LSPR mode. By comparing the results of the model to previous studies on solid-solid phase transformations of copper sulfide in these nanocrystals during cation exchange, we show that the carrier concentration is independent of the copper vacancy concentration dictated by its atomic phase. The evolution of the effective carrier concentration calculated from the model suggests that the out-of-plane resonance mode is dominant. The classical model was compared to a simplified quantum mechanical model which suggested that quantum mechanical effects become significant when the characteristic size is less than ˜8 nm. Overall, we find that the analytical models are not accurate for these heterostructured semiconductor nanocrystals, indicating the need for new model development for this emerging field.

  20. Analytical modeling of localized surface plasmon resonance in heterostructure copper sulfide nanocrystals

    SciT

    Caldwell, Andrew H.; Ha, Don-Hyung; Robinson, Richard D., E-mail: rdr82@cornell.edu

    2014-10-28

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in semiconductor nanocrystals is a relatively new field of investigation that promises greater tunability of plasmonic properties compared to metal nanoparticles. A novel process by which the LSPR in semiconductor nanocrystals can be altered is through heterostructure formation arising from solution-based cation exchange. Herein, we describe the development of an analytical model of LSPR in heterostructure copper sulfide-zinc sulfide nanocrystals synthesized via a cation exchange reaction between copper sulfide (Cu{sub 1.81}S) nanocrystals and Zn ions. The cation exchange reaction produces dual-interface, heterostructure nanocrystals in which the geometry of the copper sulfide phase can be tunedmore » from a sphere to a thin disk separating symmetrically-grown sulfide (ZnS) grains. Drude model electronic conduction and Mie-Gans theory are applied to describe how the LSPR wavelength changes during cation exchange, taking into account the morphology evolution and changes to the local permittivity. The results of the modeling indicate that the presence of the ZnS grains has a significant effect on the out-of-plane LSPR mode. By comparing the results of the model to previous studies on solid-solid phase transformations of copper sulfide in these nanocrystals during cation exchange, we show that the carrier concentration is independent of the copper vacancy concentration dictated by its atomic phase. The evolution of the effective carrier concentration calculated from the model suggests that the out-of-plane resonance mode is dominant. The classical model was compared to a simplified quantum mechanical model which suggested that quantum mechanical effects become significant when the characteristic size is less than ∼8 nm. Overall, we find that the analytical models are not accurate for these heterostructured semiconductor nanocrystals, indicating the need for new model development for this emerging field.« less

  1. A hybrid artificial neural network and particle swarm optimization for prediction of removal of hazardous dye brilliant green from aqueous solution using zinc sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Ansari, A.; Bahari, F.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Vafaei, A.

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, zinc sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (ZnS-NP-AC) simply was synthesized in the presence of ultrasound and characterized using different techniques such as SEM and BET analysis. Then, this material was used for brilliant green (BG) removal. To dependency of BG removal percentage toward various parameters including pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and contact time were examined and optimized. The mechanism and rate of adsorption was ascertained by analyzing experimental data at various time to conventional kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and second order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models. Comparison according to general criterion such as relative error in adsorption capacity and correlation coefficient confirm the usability of pseudo-second-order kinetic model for explanation of data. The Langmuir models is efficiently can explained the behavior of adsorption system to give full information about interaction of BG with ZnS-NP-AC. A multiple linear regression (MLR) and a hybrid of artificial neural network and partial swarm optimization (ANN-PSO) model were used for prediction of brilliant green adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Comparison of the results obtained using offered models confirm higher ability of ANN model compare to the MLR model for prediction of BG adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Using the optimal ANN-PSO model the coefficient of determination (R2) were 0.9610 and 0.9506; mean squared error (MSE) values were 0.0020 and 0.0022 for the training and testing data set, respectively.

  2. A hybrid artificial neural network and particle swarm optimization for prediction of removal of hazardous dye brilliant green from aqueous solution using zinc sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Ansari, A; Bahari, F; Ghaedi, A M; Vafaei, A

    2015-02-25

    In the present study, zinc sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (ZnS-NP-AC) simply was synthesized in the presence of ultrasound and characterized using different techniques such as SEM and BET analysis. Then, this material was used for brilliant green (BG) removal. To dependency of BG removal percentage toward various parameters including pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and contact time were examined and optimized. The mechanism and rate of adsorption was ascertained by analyzing experimental data at various time to conventional kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and second order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models. Comparison according to general criterion such as relative error in adsorption capacity and correlation coefficient confirm the usability of pseudo-second-order kinetic model for explanation of data. The Langmuir models is efficiently can explained the behavior of adsorption system to give full information about interaction of BG with ZnS-NP-AC. A multiple linear regression (MLR) and a hybrid of artificial neural network and partial swarm optimization (ANN-PSO) model were used for prediction of brilliant green adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Comparison of the results obtained using offered models confirm higher ability of ANN model compare to the MLR model for prediction of BG adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Using the optimal ANN-PSO model the coefficient of determination (R(2)) were 0.9610 and 0.9506; mean squared error (MSE) values were 0.0020 and 0.0022 for the training and testing data set, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of sputtering deposition parameters on electrical and optical properties of aluminium-doped zinc oxide thin films for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczak, Ewelina; Agata, Zdyb; Gulkowski, Slawomir; Fave, Alain; Fourmond, Erwann

    2017-11-01

    Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCOs) characterized by high visible transmittance and low electrical resistivity play an important role in photovoltaic technology. Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) is one of the TCOs that can find its application in thin film solar cells (CIGS or CdTe PV technology) as well as in other microelectronic applications. In this paper some optical and electrical properties of ZnO:Al thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering method have been investigated. AZO layers have been deposited on the soda lime glass substrates with use of variable technological parameters such as pressure in the deposition chamber, power applied and temperature during the process. The composition of AZO films has been investigated by EDS method. Thickness and refraction index of the deposited layers in dependence on certain technological parameters of sputtering process have been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The measurements of transmittance and sheet resistance were also performed.

  4. Relative SHG measurements of metal thin films: Gold, silver, aluminum, cobalt, chromium, germanium, nickel, antimony, titanium, titanium nitride, tungsten, zinc, silicon and indium tin oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Franklin; Grabtchak, Serge; Whelan, William M.; Ponomarenko, Sergey A.; Cada, Michael

    We have experimentally measured the surface second-harmonic generation (SHG) of sputtered gold, silver, aluminum, zinc, tungsten, copper, titanium, cobalt, nickel, chromium, germanium, antimony, titanium nitride, silicon and indium tin oxide thin films. The second-harmonic response was measured in reflection using a 150 fs p-polarized laser pulse at 1561 nm. We present a clear comparison of the SHG intensity of these films relative to each other. Our measured relative intensities compare favorably with the relative intensities of metals with published data. We also report for the first time to our knowledge the surface SHG intensity of tungsten and antimony relative to that of well known metallic thin films such as gold and silver.

  5. Photoluminescence spectral study of single cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide colloidal nanocrystals in poly(methyl methacrylate) and quantum dots molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yaoming

    Quantum dots (QDs)and Nano-crystals (NCs) have been studies for decades. Because of the nanoscale quantum confinement, delta shape like energy density states and narrowband emitters properties, they hold great promise for numerous optoelectronics and photonics applications. They could be used for tunable lasers, white LED, Nano-OLED, non-volatile memory and solar cells. They are also the most promising candidates for the quantum computing. The benefits for NCs over QDs is that NCs can be incorporated into a variety of polymers as well as thin films of bulk semiconductors. These exceptional flexibility and structural control distinguish NCs from the more traditional QD structures fabricated using epitaxial growth techniques. In my research of work, I studied the photoluminescence (PL) and absorption character of ensemble NCs incorporated in Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). To understand the behavior of the NCs in PMMA, it is important to measure a singe NC to avoid the inhomogenous broading of many NCs. So I particularly studied the behavior of a single NC in PMMA matrix. A microphotoluminescence setup to optically isolate a single nanocrystal is used. Random spectral shift and blinking behavior (on and off) are found. Addition to that, two color spectral shifting, is a major phenomena found in the system. Other interesting results such as PL intensity changes (decreasing or increasing with time) and quenching effect are observed and explained too. From the correlation function, we can distinguish the phonon replicas. The energy of these phonons can be calculated very accurately from the experiment result. The Huang-Rhys factors can be estimated too. Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), from highly strained-layer heteroepitaxy in the Stranski-Krastanow (S-K) growth mode, have been intensively studied because of the delta-function-like density of states, which is significant for optoelectronic applications. Spontaneous formation of semiconductor quantum

  6. Tuning the surface morphology of aluminium doped zinc oxide thin films by arrayed nanorods through chemical growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devasia, Sebin; Anila, E. I.

    2018-04-01

    Here we report the growth and characterization of chemically grown aluminium doped zinc oxide nanorods on seed layers. The seed layers were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis which acted as the growth centers. The growth duration of nanorods were varied from 3h to 12h in steps of 3h. Further, investigations on their structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties. The SEM images confirmed the hexagonal shaped nanorod arrays grown on the seed layers. Later, the x-ray diffraction measurements revealed the pure zinc oxide phase of the samples. Photoluminescence and photoconductivity studies were carried out to analyze the potential of its optoelectronic properties.

  7. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1985-11-26

    A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  8. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, Stanford R.; Yeung, Edward S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  9. Solution-processed flexible fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors fabricated on plastic film at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jin-Suk; Jeon, Jun-Hyuck; Hwang, Young Hwan; Park, Hyungjin; Ryu, Minki; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Transparent flexible fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were demonstrated using the spin-coating method of the metal fluoride precursor aqueous solution with annealing at 200°C for 2 hrs on polyethylene naphthalate films. The proposed thermal evolution mechanism of metal fluoride aqueous precursor solution examined by thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy can easily explain oxide formation. The chemical composition analysed by XPS confirms that the fluorine was doped in the thin films annealed below 250°C. In the IZO:F thin films, a doped fluorine atom substitutes for an oxygen atom generating a free electron or occupies an oxygen vacancy site eliminating an electron trap site. These dual roles of the doped fluorine can enhance the mobility and improve the gate bias stability of the TFTs. Therefore, the transparent flexible IZO:F TFT shows a high mobility of up to 4.1 cm(2)/V·s and stable characteristics under the various gate bias and temperature stresses.

  10. Solution-Processed Flexible Fluorine-doped Indium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Plastic Film at Low Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jin-Suk; Jeon, Jun-Hyuck; Hwang, Young Hwan; Park, Hyungjin; Ryu, Minki; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Transparent flexible fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were demonstrated using the spin-coating method of the metal fluoride precursor aqueous solution with annealing at 200°C for 2 hrs on polyethylene naphthalate films. The proposed thermal evolution mechanism of metal fluoride aqueous precursor solution examined by thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy can easily explain oxide formation. The chemical composition analysed by XPS confirms that the fluorine was doped in the thin films annealed below 250°C. In the IZO:F thin films, a doped fluorine atom substitutes for an oxygen atom generating a free electron or occupies an oxygen vacancy site eliminating an electron trap site. These dual roles of the doped fluorine can enhance the mobility and improve the gate bias stability of the TFTs. Therefore, the transparent flexible IZO:F TFT shows a high mobility of up to 4.1 cm2/V·s and stable characteristics under the various gate bias and temperature stresses. PMID:23803977

  11. Addressing the selectivity issue of cobalt doped zinc oxide thin film iso-butane sensors: Conductance transients and principal component analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Majumder, S. B.

    2017-07-01

    Iso-butane (i-C4H10) is one of the major components of liquefied petroleum gas which is used as fuel in domestic and industrial applications. Developing chemi-resistive selective i-C4H10 thin film sensors remains a major challenge. Two strategies were undertaken to differentiate carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and iso-butane gases from the measured conductance transients of cobalt doped zinc oxide thin films. Following the first strategy, the response and recovery transients of conductances in these gas environments are fitted using the Langmuir adsorption kinetic model to estimate the heat of adsorption, response time constant, and activation energies for adsorption (response) and desorption (recovery). Although these test gases have seemingly different vapor densities, molecular diameters, and reactivities, analyzing the estimated heat of adsorption and activation energies (for both adsorption and desorption), we could not differentiate these gases unequivocally. However, we have found that the lower the vapor density, the faster the response time irrespective of the test gas concentration. As a second strategy, we demonstrated that feature extraction of conductance transients (using fast Fourier transformation) in conjunction with the pattern recognition algorithm (principal component analysis) is more fruitful to address the cross-sensitivity of Co doped ZnO thin film sensors. We have found that although the dispersion among different concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide could not be avoided, each of these three gases forms distinct clusters in the plot of principal component 2 versus 1 and therefore could easily be differentiated.

  12. Gate bias stress stability under light irradiation for indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors based on anodic aluminium oxide gate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Lan, Linfeng; Xu, Miao; Wang, Lei; Xu, Hua; Luo, Dongxiang; Zou, Jianhua; Tao, Hong; Yao, Rihui; Peng, Junbiao

    2011-11-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) using indium zinc oxide as the active layer and anodic aluminium oxide (Al2O3) as the gate dielectric layer were fabricated. The device showed an electron mobility of as high as 10.1 cm2 V-1 s-1, an on/off current ratio of as high as ~108, and a turn-on voltage (Von) of only -0.5 V. Furthermore, this kind of TFTs was very stable under positive bias illumination stress. However, when the device experienced negative bias illumination stress, the threshold voltage shifted to the positive direction. It was found that the instability under negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) was due to the electrons from the Al gate trapping into the Al2O3 dielectric when exposed to the illuminated light. Using a stacked structure of Al2O3/SiO2 dielectrics, the device became more stable under NBIS.

  13. Influences of Gate Bias and Light Stresses on Device Characteristics of High-Energy Electron-Beam-Irradiated Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Based Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kyeong Min; Moon, Hye Ji; Ryu, Min Ki; Cho, Kyoung Ik; Yun, Eui-Jung; Bae, Byung Seong

    2012-09-01

    Under white light illumination, amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) showed a large negative shift of threshold voltage of more than -15 V depending on the process conditions. We investigated the influences of both gate bias and white light illumination on device properties of IGZO-based TFTs untreated and treated with high-energy electron beam irradiation (HEEBI). The TFTs were treated with HEEBI in air at room temperature (RT), electron beam energy of 0.8 MeV, and a dose of 1×1014 electrons/cm2. The HEEBI-treated TFTs showed an improved stability under negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) and positive bias illumination stress (PBIS) compared with non-HEEBI-treated TFTs, suggesting that the acceptor-like defects might be generated by HEEBI treatment near the valence band edge.

  14. A thermalization energy analysis of the threshold voltage shift in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors under positive gate bias stress

    SciT

    Niang, K. M.; Flewitt, A. J., E-mail: ajf@eng.cam.ac.uk; Barquinha, P. M. C.

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) employing an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) channel layer exhibit a positive shift in the threshold voltage under the application of positive gate bias stress (PBS). The time and temperature dependence of the threshold voltage shift was measured and analysed using the thermalization energy concept. The peak energy barrier to defect conversion is extracted to be 0.75 eV and the attempt-to-escape frequency is extracted to be 10{sup 7} s{sup −1}. These values are in remarkable agreement with measurements in a-IGZO TFTs under negative gate bias illumination stress (NBIS) reported recently (Flewitt and Powell, J. Appl. Phys.more » 115, 134501 (2014)). This suggests that the same physical process is responsible for both PBS and NBIS, and supports the oxygen vacancy defect migration model that the authors have previously proposed.« less

  15. Alumina nanoparticle/polymer nanocomposite dielectric for flexible amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors on plastic substrate with superior stability

    SciT

    Lai, Hsin-Cheng; Pei, Zingway, E-mail: zingway@dragon.nchu.edu.tw; Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan

    In this study, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were incorporated into polymer as a nono-composite dielectric for used in a flexible amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) on a polyethylene naphthalate substrate by solution process. The process temperature was well below 100 °C. The a-IGZO TFT exhibit a mobility of 5.13 cm{sup 2}/V s on the flexible substrate. After bending at a radius of 4 mm (strain = 1.56%) for more than 100 times, the performance of this a-IGZO TFT was nearly unchanged. In addition, the electrical characteristics are less altered after positive gate bias stress at 10 V for 1500 s. Thus, this technology ismore » suitable for use in flexible displays.« less

  16. Positive Bias Instability of Bottom-Gate Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with a SiOx/SiNx-Stacked Gate Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Mamoru; Kamada, Yudai; Hiramatsu, Takahiro; Li, Chaoyang; Kimura, Mutsumi; Fujita, Shizuo; Hirao, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    The positive bias instabilities of the zinc oxide thin-film transistors (ZnO TFTs) with a SiOx/SiNx-stacked gate insulator have been investigated. The film quality of a gate insulator of SiOx, which forms an interface with the ZnO channel, was varied by changing the gas mixture ratio of SiH4/N2O/N2 during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The positive bias stress endurance of ZnO TFT strongly depended on the deposition condition of the SiOx gate insulator. From the relaxations of the transfer curve shift after imposition of positive bias stress, transfer curves could not be recovered completely without any thermal annealing. A charge trapping in a gate insulator rather than that in bulk ZnO and its interface with a gate insulator is a dominant instability mechanism of ZnO TFTs under positive bias stress.

  17. Thin-film transistors based on poly(3,3‴-dialkyl-quarterthiophene) and zinc oxide nanowires with improved ambient stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Sara M. C.; Hsieh, Gen-Wen; Unalan, Husnu E.; Dag, Sefa; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.; Milne, William I.

    2011-03-01

    The ambient stability of thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires embedded in poly(3,3‴-dialkyl-quarterthiophene) was monitored through time dependence of electrical characteristics over a period of 16 months. The hybrid-based TFT showed an initial hole mobility in the linear regime of 4.2×10-4 cm2/V s. After 16 months storage in ambient conditions (exposed to air, moisture, and light) the mobility decreased to 2.3×10-5 cm2/V s. Comparatively the organic-based TFT lost total carrier mobility after one month storage making the hybrid-based TFTs more suitable for transistor applications when improved stability combined with structural flexibility are required.

  18. Effective enhancement of hydrophilicity of solution indium zinc oxide-based thin-film transistors by oxygen plasma treatment of deposition layer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Hsin-Chiang; Wang, Yu-Chih

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the use of a simple and efficient sol-gel solution method for synthesizing indium zinc oxide (IZO) films for use as semiconductor channel layers in thin-film transistors (TFTs) on p-type silicon substrates. The performance of IZO-based TFTs was investigated, and the effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the surface of dielectric SiN x was observed. Oxygen plasma treatment effectively enhanced the electron mobility in IZO-based TFT devices from 0.005 to 1.56 cm2 V-1 s-1, an increase of more than 312 times, and effectively enhanced device performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the IZO film was performed to clarify element bonding.

  19. Back-channel-etch amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors: The impact of source/drain metal etch and final passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Manoj; Bhoolokam, Ajay; Steudel, Soeren; Chasin, Adrian; Myny, Kris; Maas, Joris; Groeseneken, Guido; Heremans, Paul

    2014-11-01

    We report on the impact of source/drain (S/D) metal (molybdenum) etch and the final passivation (SiO2) layer on the bias-stress stability of back-channel-etch (BCE) configuration based amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). It is observed that the BCE configurations TFTs suffer poor bias-stability in comparison to etch-stop-layer (ESL) TFTs. By analysis with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), as well as by a comparative analysis of contacts formed by other metals, we infer that this poor bias-stability for BCE transistors having Mo S/D contacts is associated with contamination of the back channel interface, which occurs by Mo-containing deposits on the back channel during the final plasma process of the physical vapor deposited SiO2 passivation.

  20. Effect of solvent volume on the physical properties of aluminium doped nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films deposited using a simplified spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabena Begum, N.; Mohan, R.; Ravichandran, K.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were deposited by employing a low cost and simplified spray technique using a perfume atomizer from starting solutions having different volumes (10, 20, … , 50 mL) of solvent. The effect of solvent volume on the structural, electrical, optical, photoluminescence (PL) and surface morphological properties was studied. The electrical resistivity of the AZO films is remarkably influenced by the variation in the solvent volume. The X-ray diffraction profiles clearly showed that all the films have preferential orientation along the (0 0 2) plane irrespective of the solvent volume. The crystallite size was found to be in the nano range of 35-46 nm. The optical transmittance in the visible region is desirably high (>85%). The AFM images show columnar morphology with varying grain size. The PL studies revealed that the AZO film deposited from 50 mL of solvent volume has good quality with lesser defect density.

  1. Effect of Al2O3 insulator thickness on the structural integrity of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide based thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Jun; Hwang, In-Ju; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2014-12-01

    The current transparent oxide semiconductors (TOSs) technology provides flexibility and high performance. In this study, multi-stack nano-layers of TOSs were designed for three-dimensional analysis of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) based thin film transistors (TFTs). In particular, the effects of torsional and compressive stresses on the nano-sized active layers such as the a-IGZO layer were investigated. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the structural integrity of a-IGZO based TFTs with three different thicknesses of the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) insulator (δ = 10, 20, and 30 nm), respectively, using a commercial code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The results are graphically depicted for operating conditions.

  2. Effects of low-temperature (120 °C) annealing on the carrier concentration and trap density in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors

    SciT

    Kim, Jae-sung; Piao, Mingxing; Jang, Ho-Kyun

    2014-12-28

    We report an investigation of the effects of low-temperature annealing on the electrical properties of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the charge carrier concentration, which is related to the density of oxygen vacancies. The field-effect mobility was found to decrease as a function of the charge carrier concentration, owing to the presence of band-tail states. By employing the transmission line method, we show that the contact resistance did not significantly contribute to the changes in device performance after annealing. In addition, using low-frequency noise analyses, we found that themore » trap density decreased by a factor of 10 following annealing at 120 °C. The switching operation and on/off ratio of the a-IGZO TFTs improved considerably after low-temperature annealing.« less

  3. Highly stable field emission from ZnO nanowire field emitters controlled by an amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojie; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Zhipeng; Ou, Hai; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Lowering the driving voltage and improving the stability of nanowire field emitters are essential for them to be applied in devices. In this study the characteristics of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire field emitter arrays (FEAs) controlled by an amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) were studied. A low driving voltage along with stabilization of the field emission current were achieved. Modulation of field emission currents up to three orders of magnitude was achieved at a gate voltage of 0–32 V for a constant anode voltage. Additionally, a-IGZO TFT control can dramatically reduce the emission current fluctuation (i.e., from 46.11 to 1.79% at an emission current of ∼3.7 µA). Both the a-IGZO TFT and ZnO nanowire FEAs were prepared on glass substrates in our research, demonstrating the feasibility of realizing large area a-IGZO TFT-controlled ZnO nanowire FEAs.

  4. Amorphous indium-tin-zinc oxide films deposited by magnetron sputtering with various reactive gases: Spatial distribution of thin film transistor performance

    SciT

    Jia, Junjun; Torigoshi, Yoshifumi; Shigesato, Yuzo, E-mail: yuzo@chem.aoyama.ac.jp

    This work presents the spatial distribution of electrical characteristics of amorphous indium-tin-zinc oxide film (a-ITZO), and how they depend on the magnetron sputtering conditions using O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2}O as the reactive gases. Experimental results show that the electrical properties of the N{sub 2}O incorporated a-ITZO film has a weak dependence on the deposition location, which cannot be explained by the bombardment effect of high energy particles, and may be attributed to the difference in the spatial distribution of both the amount and the activity of the reactive gas reaching the substrate surface. The measurement for themore » performance of a-ITZO thin film transistor (TFT) also suggests that the electrical performance and device uniformity of a-ITZO TFTs can be improved significantly by the N{sub 2}O introduction into the deposition process, where the field mobility reach to 30.8 cm{sup 2} V{sup –1} s{sup –1}, which is approximately two times higher than that of the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide TFT.« less

  5. Continuous fabrication of a MnS/Co nanofibrous air electrode for wide integration of rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Fu, Jing; Zhang, Yining; Li, Matthew; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Li, Guang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2017-10-26

    Exploring highly efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts toward the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions is essential for the realization of high-performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Herein, a novel nanofibrous bifunctional electrocatalyst film, consisting of metallic manganese sulfide and cobalt encapsulated by nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (CMS/NCNF), is prepared through a continuous electrospinning method followed by carbonization treatment. The CMS/NCNF bifunctional catalyst shows both comparable ORR and OER performances to those of commercial precious metal-based catalysts. Furthermore, the free-standing CMS/NCNF fibrous thin film is directly used as the air electrode in a solid-state zinc-air battery, which exhibits superior flexibility while retaining stable battery performance at different bending angles. This study provides a versatile design route for the rational design of free-standing bifunctional catalysts for direct use as the air electrode in rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

  6. High quality nitrogen-doped zinc oxide thin films grown on ITO by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Trilok Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Purohit, L. P.

    2015-11-01

    Highly transparent N-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on ITO coated corning glass substrate by sol-gel method. Ammonium nitrate was used as a dopant source of N with varying the doping concentration 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 at%. The DSC analysis of prepared NZO sols is observed a phase transition at 150 °C. X-ray diffraction pattern showed the preferred (002) peak of ZnO, which was deteriorated with increased N concentrations. The transmittance of NZO thin films was observed to be ~88%. The bandgap of NZO thin films increased from 3.28 to 3.70 eV with increased N concentration from 0 to 3 at%. The maximum carrier concentration 8.36×1017 cm-3 and minimum resistivity 1.64 Ω cm was observed for 3 at% N doped ZnO thin films deposited on glass substrate. These highly transparent ZnO thin films can be used as a window layer in solar cells and optoelectronic devices.

  7. Influence of gamma ray irradiation and annealing temperature on the optical constants and spectral dispersion parameters of metal-free and zinc tetraphenylporphyrin thin films: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Zeyada, H M; Makhlouf, M M; El-Nahass, M M

    2015-09-05

    In this work, we report on the effect of γ-ray irradiation and annealing temperature on the optical properties of metal-free tetraphenylporphyrin, H2TPP, and zinc tetraphenylporphyrin, ZnTPP, thin films. Thin films of H2TPP and ZnTPP were successfully prepared by the thermal evaporation technique. The optical properties of H2TPP and ZnTPP films were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range from 200 to 2500 nm. The absorption spectra of H2TPP showed four absorption bands, namely the Q, B, N and M bands. The effect of inserting Zn atom into the cavity of porphyrin macrocycle in ZnTPP molecule distorted the Q and B bands, reduced the width of absorption region and influenced the optical constants and dispersion parameters. In all conditions, the type of electron transition is indirect allowed transition. Anomalous dispersion is observed in the absorption region but normal dispersion occurs in the transparent region of spectra. We adopted multi-oscillator model and the single oscillator model to interpret the anomalous and normal dispersion, respectively. We have found that the annealing temperature has mostly the opposite effect of γ-ray irradiation on absorption and dispersion characteristics of these films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synergistic effects of water addition and step heating on the formation of solution-processed zinc tin oxide thin films: towards high-mobility polycrystalline transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Genmao; Duan, Lian; Zhao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yunge; Dong, Guifang; Zhang, Deqiang; Qiu, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility and good uniformity are attractive for next-generation flat panel displays. In this work, solution-processed polycrystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin film with well-ordered microstructure is prepared, thanks to the synergistic effect of water addition and step heating. The step heating treatment other than direct annealing induces crystallization, while adequate water added to precursor solution further facilitates alloying and densification process. The optimal polycrystalline ZTO film is free of hierarchical sublayers, and featured with an increased amount of ternary phases, as well as a decreased fraction of oxygen vacancies and hydroxides. TFT devices based on such an active layer exhibit a remarkable field-effect mobility of 52.5 cm2 V-1 s-1, a current on/off ratio of 2 × 105, a threshold voltage of 2.32 V, and a subthreshold swing of 0.36 V dec-1. Our work offers a facile method towards high-performance solution-processed polycrystalline metal oxide TFTs.

  9. Effect of top gate potential on bias-stress for dual gate amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor

    SciT

    Chun, Minkyu; Um, Jae Gwang; Park, Min Sang

    We report the abnormal behavior of the threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) shift under positive bias Temperature stress (PBTS) and negative bias temperature stress (NBTS) at top/bottom gate in dual gate amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). It is found that the PBTS at top gate shows negative transfer shift and NBTS shows positive transfer shift for both top and bottom gate sweep. The shift of bottom/top gate sweep is dominated by top gate bias (V{sub TG}), while bottom gate bias (V{sub BG}) is less effect than V{sub TG}. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profile provides the evidence of Inmore » metal diffusion to the top SiO{sub 2}/a-IGZO and also the existence of large amount of In{sup +} under positive top gate bias around top interfaces, thus negative transfer shift is observed. On the other hand, the formation of OH{sup −} at top interfaces under the stress of negative top gate bias shows negative transfer shift. The domination of V{sub TG} both on bottom/top gate sweep after PBTS/NBTS is obviously occurred due to thin active layer.« less

  10. Highly improved photo-induced bias stability of sandwiched triple layer structure in sol-gel processed fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongha; Park, Hyungjin; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve the reliability of TFT, an Al2O3 insulating layer is inserted between active fluorine doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F) thin films to form a sandwiched triple layer. All the thin films were fabricated via low-cost sol-gel process. Due to its large energy bandgap and high bonding energy with oxygen atoms, the Al2O3 layer acts as a photo-induced positive charge blocking layer that effectively blocks the migration of both holes and V o2+ toward the interface between the gate insulator and the semiconductor. The inserted Al2O3 triple layer exhibits a noticeably low turn on voltage shift of -0.7 V under NBIS as well as the good TFT performance with a mobility of 10.9 cm2/V ṡ s. We anticipate that this approach can be used to solve the stability issues such as NBIS, which is caused by inescapable oxygen vacancies.

  11. Optimization of a Solution-Processed SiO2 Gate Insulator by Plasma Treatment for Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yesul; Pearson, Christopher; Kim, Hyun-Gwan; Park, Man-Young; Kim, Hongdoo; Do, Lee-Mi; Petty, Michael C

    2016-01-27

    We report on the optimization of the plasma treatment conditions for a solution-processed silicon dioxide gate insulator for application in zinc oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). The SiO2 layer was formed by spin coating a perhydropolysilazane (PHPS) precursor. This thin film was subsequently thermally annealed, followed by exposure to an oxygen plasma, to form an insulating (leakage current density of ∼10(-7) A/cm(2)) SiO2 layer. Optimized ZnO TFTs (40 W plasma treatment of the gate insulator for 10 s) possessed a carrier mobility of 3.2 cm(2)/(V s), an on/off ratio of ∼10(7), a threshold voltage of -1.3 V, and a subthreshold swing of 0.2 V/decade. In addition, long-term exposure (150 min) of the pre-annealed PHPS to the oxygen plasma enabled the maximum processing temperature to be reduced from 180 to 150 °C. The resulting ZnO TFT exhibited a carrier mobility of 1.3 cm(2)/(V s) and on/off ratio of ∼10(7).

  12. The effect of the solution flow rate on the properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attaf, A.; Benkhetta, Y.; Saidi, H.; Bouhdjar, A.; Bendjedidi, H.; Nouadji, M.; Lehraki, N.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we used a system based on ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. By witch, we have deposited thin films of zinc oxide (ZnO) with the variation of solution flow rate from 50 ml / h to 150 ml / h, and set other parameters such as the concentration of the solution, the deposition time, substrate temperature and the nozzel -substrate distance. In order to study the influence of the solution flow rate on the properties of the films produced, we have several characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction to determine the films structure, the scanning electron microscopy SEM for the morphology of the surfaces, EDS spectroscopy for the chemical composition, UV-Visible-Nir spectroscopy for determination the optical proprieties of thin films.The experimental results show that: the films have hexagonal structure at the type (wurtzite), the average size of grains varies from 20.11 to 32.45 nm, the transmittance of the films equals 80% in visible rang and the band gap is varied between 3.274 and 3.282 eV, when the solution flow rate increases from 50 to 150 ml/h.

  13. Highly improved photo-induced bias stability of sandwiched triple layer structure in sol-gel processed fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide thin film transistor

    SciT

    Kim, Dongha; Park, Hyungjin; Bae, Byeong-Soo, E-mail: bsbae@kaist.ac.kr

    In order to improve the reliability of TFT, an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} insulating layer is inserted between active fluorine doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F) thin films to form a sandwiched triple layer. All the thin films were fabricated via low-cost sol-gel process. Due to its large energy bandgap and high bonding energy with oxygen atoms, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer acts as a photo-induced positive charge blocking layer that effectively blocks the migration of both holes and V {sub o}{sup 2+} toward the interface between the gate insulator and the semiconductor. The inserted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} triple layer exhibits amore » noticeably low turn on voltage shift of −0.7 V under NBIS as well as the good TFT performance with a mobility of 10.9 cm{sup 2}/V ⋅ s. We anticipate that this approach can be used to solve the stability issues such as NBIS, which is caused by inescapable oxygen vacancies.« less

  14. Realization of write-once-read-many-times memory device with O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide thin film

    SciT

    Liu, P., E-mail: liup0013@ntu.edu.sg; Chen, T. P., E-mail: echentp@ntu.edu.sg; Li, X. D.

    2014-01-20

    A write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices based on O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films has been demonstrated. The device has a simple Al/IGZO/Al structure. The device has a normally OFF state with a very high resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2 V is ∼10{sup 9} Ω for a device with the radius of 50 μm) as a result of the O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the IGZO thin films. The device could be switched to an ON state with a low resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2 V is ∼10{sup 3} Ω for the radius of 50 μm) by applying amore » voltage pulse (e.g., 10 V/1 μs). The WORM device has good data-retention and reading-endurance capabilities.« less

  15. Investigation of anticorrosion properties of nanocomposites of spray coated zinc oxide and titanium dioxide thin films on stainless steel (304L SS) in saline environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P, Muhamed Shajudheen V.; S, Saravana Kumar; V, Senthil Kumar; Maheswari A, Uma; M, Sivakumar; Rani K, Anitha

    2018-01-01

    The present study reports the anticorrosive nature of nanocomposite thin films of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide on steel substrate (304L SS) using spray coating method. The morphology and chemical constituents of the nanocomposite thin film were characterized by field effect scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of x-ray (EDAX) studies. From the EDAX studies, it was observed that nanocomposite coatings of desired stoichiometry can be synthesized using present coating technique. The cyclic voltametric techniques such as Tafel analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis were conducted to study the anticorrosion properties of the coatings. The E corr values obtained from Tafel polarization curves of the sample coated with nanocomposites of ZnO and TiO2 in different ratios (5:1, 1:1 and 1:5) indicated that the corrosion resistance was improved compared to bare steel. The coating resistance values obtained from the Nyquist plot after fitting with equivalent circuit confirmed the improved anticorrosion performance of the coated samples. The sample coated with ZnO: TiO2 in the ratio 1:5 showed better corrosion resistance compared to other ratios. The Tafel and EIS studies were repeated after exposure to 5% NaCl for 390 h and the results indicated the anticorrosive nature of the coating in the aggressive environment. The root mean square deviation of surface roughness values calculated from the AFM images before and after salt spray indicated the stability of coating in the saline environment.

  16. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOEpatents

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1992-07-07

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  17. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOEpatents

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1991-10-22

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  18. SULFIDE MINERALS IN SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation processes of metal sulfides in sediments, especially iron sulfides, have been the subjects of intense scientific research because of linkages to the global biogeochemical cycles of iron, sulfur, carbon, and oxygen. Transition metal sulfides (e.g., NiS, CuS, ZnS, Cd...

  19. Electrochemical hydrogen sulfide biosensors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tailin; Scafa, Nikki; Xu, Li-Ping; Zhou, Shufeng; Abdullah Al-Ghanem, Khalid; Mahboob, Shahid; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-02-21

    The measurement of sulfide, especially hydrogen sulfide, has held the attention of the analytical community due to its unique physiological and pathophysiological roles in biological systems. Electrochemical detection offers a rapid, highly sensitive, affordable, simple, and real-time technique to measure hydrogen sulfide concentration, which has been a well-documented and reliable method. This review details up-to-date research on the electrochemical detection of hydrogen sulfide (ion selective electrodes, polarographic hydrogen sulfide sensors, etc.) in biological samples for potential therapeutic use.

  20. Rapid curing of solution-processed zinc oxide films by pulse-light annealing for thin-film transistor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Jaehoon; Hwang, Jaeeun; Kim, Hong Doo; Ryu, Jin Hwa; Lee, Kang Bok; Baek, Kyu Ha; Do, Lee-Mi; Choi, Jong Sun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a pulse-light annealing method is proposed for the rapid fabrication of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) thinfilm transistors (TFTs). Transistors that were fabricated by the pulse-light annealing method, with the annealing being carried out at 90℃ for 15 s, exhibited a mobility of 0.05 cm2/Vs and an on/off current ratio of 106. Such electrical properties are quite close to those of devices that are thermally annealed at 165℃ for 40 min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of ZnO films showed that the activation energy required to form a Zn-O bond is entirely supplied within 15 s of pulse-light exposure. We conclude that the pulse-light annealing method is viable for rapidly curing solution-processable oxide semiconductors for TFT applications.

  1. Sulfide scaling in low enthalpy geothermal environments; A survey

    SciT

    Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C.

    1989-01-01

    A review of the sulfide scaling phenomena in low-temperature environments is presented. While high-temperature fluids tend to deposit metal sulfides because of their high concentrations of dissolved metals and variations of temperature, pressure and fluid chemistry, low temperature media are characterized by very low metal content but much higher dissolved sulfide. In the case of the goethermal wells of the Paris Basin, detailed studies demonstrate that the relatively large concentrations of chloride and dissolved sulfide are responsible for corrosion and consequent formation of iron sulfide scale composed of mackinawite, pyrite and pyrrhotite. The effects of the exploitation schemes are farmore » less important than the corrosion of the casings. The low-enthalpy fluids that do not originate from sedimentary aquifers (such as in Iceland and Bulgaria), have a limited corrosion potential, and the thin sulfide film that appears may prevent the progress of corrosion.« less

  2. Improvement of Self-Heating of Indium Gallium Zinc Aluminum Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Using Al2O3 Barrier Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Li-Yi; Lee, Hsin-Ying; Lin, Yung-Hao; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2018-02-01

    To study the self-heating effect, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) barrier layers of various thicknesses have been inserted between the channel layer and insulator layer in bottom-gate-type indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). Each IGZAO channel layer was deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate by using a magnetron radiofrequency cosputtering system with dual targets composed of indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) and Al. The 3 s orbital of Al cation provided an extra transport pathway and widened the conduction-band bottom, thus increasing the electron mobility of the IGZAO films. The Al-O bonds were able to sustain the oxygen stability of the IGZAO films. The self-heating behavior of the resulting IGZAO TFTs was studied by Hall measurements on the IGZAO films as well as the electrical performance of the IGZAO TFTs with Al2O3 barrier layers of various thicknesses at different temperatures. IGZAO TFTs with 50-nm-thick Al2O3 barrier layer were stressed by positive gate bias stress (PGBS, at gate-source voltage V GS = 5 V and drain-source voltage V DS = 0 V); at V GS = 5 V and V DS = 10 V, the threshold voltage shifts were 0.04 V and 0.2 V, respectively, much smaller than for the other IGZAO TFTs without Al2O3 barrier layer, which shifted by 0.2 V and 1.0 V when stressed under the same conditions.

  3. Bio-sorbable, liquid electrolyte gated thin-film transistor based on a solution-processed zinc oxide layer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mandeep; Palazzo, Gerardo; Romanazzi, Giuseppe; Suranna, Gian Paolo; Ditaranto, Nicoletta; Di Franco, Cinzia; Santacroce, Maria Vittoria; Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf; Magliulo, Maria; Manoli, Kyriaki; Torsi, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Among the metal oxide semiconductors, ZnO has been widely investigated as a channel material in thin-film transistors (TFTs) due to its excellent electrical properties, optical transparency and simple fabrication via solution-processed techniques. Herein, we report a solution-processable ZnO-based thin-film transistor gated through a liquid electrolyte with an ionic strength comparable to that of a physiological fluid. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the ZnO films upon exposure to water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) are discussed in terms of the operation stability and electrical performance of the ZnO TFT devices. The improved device characteristics upon exposure to PBS are associated with the enhancement of the oxygen vacancies in the ZnO lattice due to Na(+) doping. Moreover, the dissolution kinetics of the ZnO thin film in a liquid electrolyte opens the possible applicability of these devices as an active element in "transient" implantable systems.

  4. Sulfidation Roasting of Hemimorphite with Pyrite for the Enrichment of Zn and Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Xiao-Bo; Xue, Ke; Ke, Yong; Zhou, Bo-Sheng; Li, Yang-Wen-Jun; Wang, Qing-Wei

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing consumption of zinc and the depletion of zinc sulfide ores, the exploitation of low-grade zinc oxide ores may be important for the sustainability of the zinc industry. Hemimorphite, a zinc hydroxyl silicate hydrate, is a significant source of Zn and Pb. It is difficult to obtain Zn and Pb from the hemimorphite using traditional technology. In this work, for the first time, sulfidation roasting of hemimorphite with pyrite was studied for the enrichment of Zn and Pb by a flotation process. Four stages of sulfidation roasting were determined based on x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry analysis. Then, the effects of sulfidation temperature, pyrite dosage and reaction time on the sulfidation percentages were investigated at the laboratory scale. The experimental results showed that the sulfidation percentages of Pb and Zn were as high as 98.08% and 90.55% under optimum conditions, respectively. Finally, a flotation test was performed to enrich Zn and Pb in the sulfidation product. A flotation concentrate with 8.78% Zn and 9.25% Pb was obtained, and the recovery of Zn and Pb reached 56.14% and 75.94%, respectively.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of three-dimensional transition metal ions doped zinc oxide based dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Kousik

    Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), especially 3d-transition metal (TM) doped ZnO based DMS materials are the most promising candidates for optoelectronics and spintronics applications; e.g. in spin light emitting diode (SLED), spin transistors, and spin field effect transistors (SFET), etc. In the present dissertation, thin films of Zn1-xTMxO (TM = Co2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+) were grown on (0001) oriented Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The films were highly c-axis oriented, nearly single crystalline, and defects free for a limited concentration of the dilution of transition metal ions. In particular, we have obtained single crystalline phases of Zn1-xTMxO thin films for up to 10, 3, and 5 stoichiometric percentages of Co2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+ respectively. Raman micro-probe system was used to understand the structural and lattice dynamical properties at different physical conditions. The confinement of optical phonons in the disorder lattice was explained by alloy potential fluctuation (APF) using a spatial correlation (SC) model. The detailed analysis of the optical phonon behavior in disorder lattice confirmed the substitution of the transition metal ions in Zn 2+ site of the ZnO host lattice. The secondary phases of ZnCo 2O4, CuO, and ZnMn2O4 were detected in higher Co, Cu, and Mn doped ZnO thin films respectively; where as, XRD did not detect these secondary phases in the same samples. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in Co2+ and Cu2+ ions doped ZnO thin films with maximum saturation magnetization (Ms) of 1.0 and 0.76 muB respectively. The origin of the observed ferromagnetism in Zn1-xCoxO thin films was tested by the controlled introduction of shallow donors (Al) in Zn0.9-x Co0.1O:Alx (x = 0.005 and 0.01) thin films. The saturation magnetization for the 10% Co-doped ZnO (1.0 muB /Co) at 300K reduced (˜0.25 muB/Co) due to Al doping. The observed ferromagnetism and the reduction due to Al doping can be explained by the Bound

  6. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  7. Long-term stabilization of sprayed zinc oxide thin film transistors by hexafluoropropylene oxide self assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortel, Marlis; Kalinovich, Nataliya; Röschenthaler, Gerd-Volker; Wagner, Veit

    2013-09-01

    Surface functionalization of solution processed zinc oxide layers was studied in transistors with bottom-gate bottom-contact configuration aiming at suppression of trapping processes to increase device stability. Saturation of electrically active surface sites and formation of a moisture barrier to decrease the impact of humid atmosphere was successfully shown by binding hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO) on the metal oxide semiconductor. Deep trap level related electrical parameters, i.e., stability, hysteresis, and on-set voltage, improved rapidly within 60 s of exposure which was attributed to occupation of sites characterized by low adsorption energies, e.g., at edges. In contrast, shallow trap level related parameters, i.e., mobility, showed a much slower process of improvement. Identical behavior was determined for the contact angle. A physical model is presented by applying first order reaction kinetics equation to Young's law and multiple trapping and release model which relates the dependence of the contact angle and the mobility to the hexafluoropropylene oxide deposition time. Consistent time constants of τ = ≪1 min, 2 min, and 250 min were extracted for mobility and contact angle which implies a direct dependence on the surface coverage. Mobility decreased at short deposition times, recovered at medium deposition times and improved strongly by 2.4 cm2 V-1 s-1 for long deposition times of 1400 min. A microscopic model of these phenomena is given with interpretation of the different time constants found in the experiment.

  8. Study on the sulfidation behavior of smithsonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dandan; Wen, Shuming; Deng, Jiushuai; Liu, Jian; Mao, Yingbo

    2015-02-01

    Zinc extraction from low-grade mineral resources of oxidized zinc has recently become a focus of study. Sulfidation is an important process in oxidized ore flotation. In this study, the influence of sulfur ion adsorption on smithsonite surface was investigated with the use of zeta potential, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. Zeta potential measurements of sodium sulfide showed that sulfur ions were adsorbed onto the surface of pure smithsonite, as evidenced by the increased negative charge and the decrease in the pHIEP of smithsonite from 7.7 to 6 after sodium sulfide treatment. The ICP test revealed the gradual reduction in sulfur ion adsorption onto the surface of smithsonite in pulp sulfur. After 30 min of absorption, CS in the solution declined from 1000 × 10-6 mol/L to 1.4 × 10-6 mol/L. SEM results showed that the mineral surface was partially changed to ZnS film after sodium sulfide treatment, whereas EDS analysis results showed that 2% S is contained on the smithsonite surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated the presence of a characteristic signal peak of sulfur ions after sulfidation. Sulfur concentration increased to 11.89%, whereas oxygen concentration decreased from 42.31% to 13.74%. Sulfur ions were not only present during chemical adsorption, but were also incorporated into the crystal lattices of minerals by the exchange reaction between S2- and CO32- ions.

  9. Light/negative bias stress instabilities in indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors explained by creation of a double donor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorato, Piero; Delwar Hossain Chowdhury, Md; Gwang Um, Jae; Seok, Manju; Jang, Jin

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics for amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide Thin film transistors as a function of active layer thickness shows that negative bias under illumination stress (NBIS) is quantitatively explained by creation of a bulk double donor, with a shallow singly ionized state ɛ(0/+) > EC-0.073 eV and a deep doubly ionized state ɛ(++/+) < EC-0.3 eV. The gap density of states, extracted from the capacitance-voltage curves, shows a broad peak between EC-E = 0.3 eV and 1.0 eV, which increases in height with NBIS stress time and corresponds to the broadened transition energy between singly and doubly ionized states. We propose that the center responsible is an oxygen vacancy and that the presence of a stable singly ionized state, necessary to explain our experimental results, could be due to the defect environment provided by the amorphous network.

  10. Synaptic behaviors of thin-film transistor with a Pt/HfO x /n-type indium-gallium-zinc oxide gate stack.

    PubMed

    Yang, Paul; Park, Daehoon; Beom, Keonwon; Kim, Hyung Jun; Kang, Chi Jung; Yoon, Tae-Sik

    2018-07-20

    We report a variety of synaptic behaviors in a thin-film transistor (TFT) with a metal-oxide-semiconductor gate stack that has a Pt/HfO x /n-type indium-gallium-zinc oxide (n-IGZO) structure. The three-terminal synaptic TFT exhibits a tunable synaptic weight with a drain current modulation upon repeated application of gate and drain voltages. The synaptic weight modulation is analog, voltage-polarity dependent reversible, and strong with a dynamic range of multiple orders of magnitude (>10 4 ). This modulation process emulates biological synaptic potentiation, depression, excitatory-postsynaptic current, paired-pulse facilitation, and short-term to long-term memory transition behaviors as a result of repeated pulsing with respect to the pulse amplitude, width, repetition number, and the interval between pulses. These synaptic behaviors are interpreted based on the changes in the capacitance of the Pt/HfO x /n-IGZO gate stack, the channel mobility, and the threshold voltage that result from the redistribution of oxygen ions by the applied gate voltage. These results demonstrate the potential of this structure for three-terminal synaptic transistor using the gate stack composed of the HfO x gate insulator and the IGZO channel layer.

  11. Electrical Performance and Reliability Improvement of Amorphous-Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with HfO2 Gate Dielectrics by CF4 Plasma Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Tseng, Fan-Ping; Tseng, Chiao-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    In this work, amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) with a HfO2 gate insulator and CF4 plasma treatment was demonstrated for the first time. Through the plasma treatment, both the electrical performance and reliability of the a-IGZO TFT with HfO2 gate dielectric were improved. The carrier mobility significantly increased by 80.8%, from 30.2 cm2/V∙s (without treatment) to 54.6 cm2/V∙s (with CF4 plasma treatment), which is due to the incorporated fluorine not only providing an extra electron to the IGZO, but also passivating the interface trap density. In addition, the reliability of the a-IGZO TFT with HfO2 gate dielectric has also been improved by the CF4 plasma treatment. By applying the CF4 plasma treatment to the a-IGZO TFT, the hysteresis effect of the device has been improved and the device’s immunity against moisture from the ambient atmosphere has been enhanced. It is believed that the CF4 plasma treatment not only significantly improves the electrical performance of a-IGZO TFT with HfO2 gate dielectric, but also enhances the device’s reliability. PMID:29772767

  12. Solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin-film transistors at low temperatures between 100 and 300 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangmei; Qian, Chuan; Sun, Jia; Liu, Peng; Huang, Yulan; Gao, Yongli; Yang, Junliang

    2016-04-01

    Lithium-doped zinc oxide (Li-ZnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated by solution process at the low temperatures ranged from 100 to 300 °C. Li-ZnO TFTs fabricated at 300 °C under nitrogen condition showed a mobility of 1.2 cm2/Vs. Most importantly, the mobility of Li-ZnO TFT devices fabricated at 100 °C could be increased significantly from 0.08 to 0.4 cm2/Vs by using double spin-coated and UV irradiation-treated Li-ZnO film, and the on-/off-current ratio is in the order of 106. Notably, the XPS analyses proved that the performance improvement was originated from the chemical composition or stoichiometry evolution, in which the hydroxide was converted into metal oxide and accelerated the formation of the oxygen vacancies. Furthermore, low-voltage operating Li-ZnO TFTs were demonstrated by using a high-capacitance ion gel gate dielectrics. The Li-ZnO TFTs with an operating voltage as low as 2 V exhibited the carrier mobilities of 2.1 and 0.65 cm2/Vs for the devices treated at 300 and 100 °C, respectively. The low-temperature, solution-processed Li-ZnO TFTs showed greatly potential applications in flexible displays, smart label, and sensors.

  13. Stacked color image sensor using wavelength-selective organic photoconductive films with zinc-oxide thin film transistors as a signal readout circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hokuto; Aihara, Satoshi; Namba, Masakazu; Watabe, Toshihisa; Ohtake, Hiroshi; Kubota, Misao; Egami, Norifumi; Hiramatsu, Takahiro; Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Furuta, Mamoru; Nitta, Hiroshi; Hirao, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Our group has been developing a new type of image sensor overlaid with three organic photoconductive films, which are individually sensitive to only one of the primary color components (blue (B), green (G), or red (R) light), with the aim of developing a compact, high resolution color camera without any color separation optical systems. In this paper, we firstly revealed the unique characteristics of organic photoconductive films. Only choosing organic materials can tune the photoconductive properties of the film, especially excellent wavelength selectivities which are good enough to divide the incident light into three primary colors. Color separation with vertically stacked organic films was also shown. In addition, the high-resolution of organic photoconductive films sufficient for high-definition television (HDTV) was confirmed in a shooting experiment using a camera tube. Secondly, as a step toward our goal, we fabricated a stacked organic image sensor with G- and R-sensitive organic photoconductive films, each of which had a zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film transistor (TFT) readout circuit, and demonstrated image pickup at a TV frame rate. A color image with a resolution corresponding to the pixel number of the ZnO TFT readout circuit was obtained from the stacked image sensor. These results show the potential for the development of high-resolution prism-less color cameras with stacked organic photoconductive films.

  14. Electrical Performance and Reliability Improvement of Amorphous-Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with HfO₂ Gate Dielectrics by CF₄ Plasma Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Tseng, Fan-Ping; Tseng, Chiao-Yuan

    2018-05-17

    In this work, amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) with a HfO₂ gate insulator and CF₄ plasma treatment was demonstrated for the first time. Through the plasma treatment, both the electrical performance and reliability of the a-IGZO TFT with HfO₂ gate dielectric were improved. The carrier mobility significantly increased by 80.8%, from 30.2 cm²/V∙s (without treatment) to 54.6 cm²/V∙s (with CF₄ plasma treatment), which is due to the incorporated fluorine not only providing an extra electron to the IGZO, but also passivating the interface trap density. In addition, the reliability of the a-IGZO TFT with HfO₂ gate dielectric has also been improved by the CF₄ plasma treatment. By applying the CF₄ plasma treatment to the a-IGZO TFT, the hysteresis effect of the device has been improved and the device's immunity against moisture from the ambient atmosphere has been enhanced. It is believed that the CF₄ plasma treatment not only significantly improves the electrical performance of a-IGZO TFT with HfO₂ gate dielectric, but also enhances the device's reliability.

  15. High-pressure Gas Activation for Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors at 100 °C.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Gi; Tak, Young Jun; Du Ahn, Byung; Jung, Tae Soo; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-03-14

    We investigated the use of high-pressure gases as an activation energy source for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). High-pressure annealing (HPA) in nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) gases was applied to activate a-IGZO TFTs at 100 °C at pressures in the range from 0.5 to 4 MPa. Activation of the a-IGZO TFTs during HPA is attributed to the effect of the high-pressure environment, so that the activation energy is supplied from the kinetic energy of the gas molecules. We reduced the activation temperature from 300 °C to 100 °C via the use of HPA. The electrical characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs annealed in O2 at 2 MPa were superior to those annealed in N2 at 4 MPa, despite the lower pressure. For O2 HPA under 2 MPa at 100 °C, the field effect mobility and the threshold voltage shift under positive bias stress were improved by 9.00 to 10.58 cm(2)/V.s and 3.89 to 2.64 V, respectively. This is attributed to not only the effects of the pressurizing effect but also the metal-oxide construction effect which assists to facilitate the formation of channel layer and reduces oxygen vacancies, served as electron trap sites.

  16. Low-temperature fabrication of an HfO2 passivation layer for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors using a solution process.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seonghwan; Park, Sung Pyo; Kim, Yeong-Gyu; Kang, Byung Ha; Na, Jae Won; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2017-11-24

    We report low-temperature solution processing of hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) passivation layers for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). At 150 °C, the hafnium chloride (HfCl 4 ) precursor readily hydrolyzed in deionized (DI) water and transformed into an HfO 2 film. The fabricated HfO 2 passivation layer prevented any interaction between the back surface of an a-IGZO TFT and ambient gas. Moreover, diffused Hf 4+ in the back-channel layer of the a-IGZO TFT reduced the oxygen vacancy, which is the origin of the electrical instability in a-IGZO TFTs. Consequently, the a-IGZO TFT with the HfO 2 passivation layer exhibited improved stability, showing a decrease in the threshold voltage shift from 4.83 to 1.68 V under a positive bias stress test conducted over 10,000 s.

  17. Damage-free back channel wet-etch process in amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors using a carbon-nanofilm barrier layer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dongxiang; Zhao, Mingjie; Xu, Miao; Li, Min; Chen, Zikai; Wang, Lang; Zou, Jianhua; Tao, Hong; Wang, Lei; Peng, Junbiao

    2014-07-23

    Amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (IZO-TFTs) with damage-free back channel wet-etch (BCE) process were investigated. A carbon (C) nanofilm was inserted into the interface between IZO layer and source/drain (S/D) electrodes as a barrier layer. Transmittance electron microscope images revealed that the 3 nm-thick C nanofilm exhibited a good corrosion resistance to a commonly used H3PO4-based etchant and could be easily eliminated. The TFT device with a 3 nm-thick C barrier layer showed a saturated field effect mobility of 14.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), a subthreshold swing of 0.21 V/decade, an on-to-off current ratio of 8.3 × 10(10), and a threshold voltage of 2.0 V. The favorable electrical performance of this kind of IZO-TFTs was due to the protection of the inserted C to IZO layer in the back-channel-etch process. Moreover, the low contact resistance of the devices was proved to be due to the graphitization of the C nanofilms after annealing. In addition, the hysteresis and thermal stress testing confirmed that the usage of C barrier nanofilms is an effective method to fabricate the damage-free BCE-type devices with high reliability.

  18. Synaptic behaviors of thin-film transistor with a Pt/HfO x /n-type indium–gallium–zinc oxide gate stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Paul; Park, Daehoon; Beom, Keonwon; Kim, Hyung Jun; Kang, Chi Jung; Yoon, Tae-Sik

    2018-07-01

    We report a variety of synaptic behaviors in a thin-film transistor (TFT) with a metal-oxide-semiconductor gate stack that has a Pt/HfO x /n-type indium–gallium–zinc oxide (n-IGZO) structure. The three-terminal synaptic TFT exhibits a tunable synaptic weight with a drain current modulation upon repeated application of gate and drain voltages. The synaptic weight modulation is analog, voltage-polarity dependent reversible, and strong with a dynamic range of multiple orders of magnitude (>104). This modulation process emulates biological synaptic potentiation, depression, excitatory-postsynaptic current, paired-pulse facilitation, and short-term to long-term memory transition behaviors as a result of repeated pulsing with respect to the pulse amplitude, width, repetition number, and the interval between pulses. These synaptic behaviors are interpreted based on the changes in the capacitance of the Pt/HfO x /n-IGZO gate stack, the channel mobility, and the threshold voltage that result from the redistribution of oxygen ions by the applied gate voltage. These results demonstrate the potential of this structure for three-terminal synaptic transistor using the gate stack composed of the HfO x gate insulator and the IGZO channel layer.

  19. Mechanics of graded glass composites and zinc oxide thin films grown at 90 degrees Celsius in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillery, Scott Pierson

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the mechanical stability of two different material systems. The glass laminate system, exhibiting a threshold strength when placed under an applied load and ZnO thin films grown on GaN buffered Al2O3 substrates, exhibiting variations in film stability with changes to the Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth architecture. The glass laminates were fabricated to contain periodic thin layers containing biaxial compressive stresses using ion exchange treatments to create residual compressive stresses at the surface of soda lime silicate glass sheets. Wafer direct bonding of the ion exchanged glass sheets resulted in the fabrication of glass laminates with thin layers of compressive stress adjacent to the glass interfaces. The threshold flexural strength of the ion exchanged glass laminates was determined to be 112 MPa after the introduction of indentation cracks with indent loads ranging from 1kg to 5kg and the laminates were found to exhibit a threshold strength, i.e., a stress below which failure will not occur. Contrary to similar ceramic laminates where cracks either propagate across the compressive layer or bifurcate within the compressive layer, the cracks in the glass laminates were deflected along the interface between the bonded sheets. ZnO films were grown on (0001) GaN buffered Al2O3 substrates by aqueous solution routes at 90°C. The films were found to buckle under compressive residual stresses at film thicknesses greater than 4mum. Lateral epitaxial overgrowth techniques using hexagonal hole arrays showed an increasing film stability with larger array spacing, resulting in film thicknesses up to 92mum. Stress determinations using Raman spectroscopy indicated that stress relaxation at the free surface during film growth played a major role in film stability. Investigations using Finite Element Analysis and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the strain energy within the film/substrate system decreased with increasing array

  20. Effect of Hydrogen in Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistor Grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Jungyol; Seo, Ogweon; Jeong, Euihyuk; Seo, Hyunseok; Lee, Byeongon; Choi, Yearn-Ik

    2007-04-01

    We studied the transport characteristics of ZnO grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) at temperatures between 200 and 500 °C. The crystal quality, measured by X-ray diffraction, improved as the growth temperature increased. However, the mobility measured in the thin-film transistor (TFT) decreased in films grown at higher temperatures. In our experiments, a ZnO TFT grown at 250 °C showed good electrical characteristics, with a 13 cm2 V-1 s-1 mobility and a 103 on/off ratio. We conclude that hydrogen incorporated during MOCVD growth plays an important role in determining the transistor characteristics. This was supported by results of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), where a higher hydrogen concentration was observed in films grown at lower temperatures.

  1. Selective Metallization of Well Aligned PS-b-P2VP Block Copolymers in Thin Films and in Confined Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievert, James D.; Watkins, James J.; Russell, Thomas P.

    2006-03-01

    Well aligned, microphase-separated structures of styrene-2-vinylpyridine block copolymers are being used as templates for macromolecule-metal nanocomposites. These composites are either prepared as thin films or confined in nanoporous aluminum oxide membranes. Under optimal conditions, templates are prepared as thin films or confined nanorods and metallized without disturbing the ordered structure. We have developed a procedure that deposits metal within the polymer using supercritical carbon dioxide-soluble metal precursors. The use of supercritical carbon dioxide allows for selective metallization of the polymer at or below the glass transition, without disrupting the morphology. In addition, similar procedures have been investigated using metal salts and acids. Using these techniques, metals and metal-sulfides including silver, gold, platinum and zinc sulfide have been selectively deposited.

  2. Influence of processing conditions on the optical properties of chemically deposited zinc sulphide (ZnS) thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igweoko, A. E.; Augustine, C.; Idenyi, N. E.; Okorie, B. A.; Anyaegbunam, F. N. C.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present the influence of post deposition annealing and varying concentration on the optical properties of ZnS thin films fabricated by chemical bath deposition (CBD) at 65 °C from chemical baths comprising NH3/SC(NH2)2/ZnSO4 solutions at pH of about 10. The film samples were annealed at temperatures ranging from 373 K–473 K and the concentration of the film samples vary from 0.1 M–0.7 M. Post deposition annealing and concentration played an important role on the optical parameters investigated which includes absorbance, transmittance, reflectance, absorption coefficient, band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient. The optical parameters were found to vary with post deposition annealing in one direction and concentration of Zn2+ in the reverse direction. For instance, post deposition annealing increases the band gap from 3.65 eV for as-deposited to 3.70 eV, 3.75 eV and 3.85 eV for annealed at 373 K, 423 K and 473 K respectively whereas concentration of Zn2+ decreases the band gap from 3.95 eV at 0.1 M to 3.90 eV, 3.85 eV and 3.80 eV at 0.3 M, 0.5 M and 0.7 M respectively. The fundamental absorption edge of ZnS thin films shifted toward the highest photon energies (blue shift) after annealing and shifted toward the lowest photon energies (red shift) with increasing Zn ions concentration. A linear relation between band gap energy and Urbach energy was found. After annealing, the Urbach energy increases form 3.10 eV to 3.50 eV and decreases from 3.40 eV to 3.10 eV at varying Zn2+ concentration. The property of wide band gap makes ZnS suitable for buffer layer of film solar cells, permitting more light especially the short wavelength light into absorber layer.

  3. Electrical dependence on the chemical composition of the gate dielectric in indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    SciT

    Tari, Alireza, E-mail: atari@uwaterloo.ca; Lee, Czang-Ho; Wong, William S.

    Bottom-gate thin-film transistors were fabricated by depositing a 50 nm InGaZnO (IGZO) channel layer at 150 °C on three separate gate dielectric films: (1) thermal SiO{sub 2}, (2) plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD) SiN{sub x}, and (3) a PECVD SiO{sub x}/SiN{sub x} dual-dielectric. X-ray photoelectron and photoluminescence spectroscopy showed the V{sub o} concentration was dependent on the hydrogen concentration of the underlying dielectric film. IGZO films on SiN{sub x} (high V{sub o}) and SiO{sub 2} (low V{sub o}) had the highest and lowest conductivity, respectively. A PECVD SiO{sub x}/SiN{sub x} dual-dielectric layer was effective in suppressing hydrogen diffusion from the nitride layer intomore » the IGZO and resulted in higher resistivity films.« less

  4. Anaerobic Digestion Alters Copper and Zinc Speciation.

    PubMed

    Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Guiresse, Maritxu; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-09-19

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used organic waste treatment process. However, little is known on how it could alter the speciation of contaminants in organic waste. This study was focused on determining the influence of anaerobic digestion on the speciation of copper and zinc, two metals that generally occur at high concentration in organic waste. Copper and zinc speciation was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in four different raw organic wastes (predigestion) and their digested counterparts (postdigestion, i.e., digestates). The results highlighted an increase in the digestates of the proportion of amorphous or nanostructured copper sulfides as well as amorphous or nanostructured zinc sulfides and zinc phosphate as compared to raw waste. We therefore suggest that the environmental fate of these elements would be different when spreading either digestates or raw waste on cropland.

  5. Improvement in electrical characteristics of eco-friendly indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors by photocatalytic reaction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun Ki; Park, Sung Pyo; Na, Jae Won; Lee, Jin Hyeok; Kim, Dongwoo; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2018-05-11

    Eco-friendly solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated through photocatalytic reaction of titanium dioxide (PRT). The titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) surface reacts with H 2 O under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation and generates hydroxyl radicals (OH∙). These hydroxyl radicals accelerate the decomposition of large organic compounds such as 2-methoxyethanol (2ME; one of the representative solvents for solution-processed metal oxides), creating smaller organic molecular structures compared with 2ME. The decomposed small organic materials have low molar masses and low boiling points, which help improving electrical properties via diminishing defect sites in oxide channel layers and fabricating low temperature solution-processed oxide TFTs. As a result, the field-effect mobility improved from 4.29 to 10.24 cm 2 /V·s for IGZO TFTs and from 2.78 to 7.82 cm 2 /V·s for IZO TFTs, and the V th shift caused by positive bias stress (PBS) and negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) over 1,000 s under 5,700 lux decreased from 6.2 to 2.9 V and from 15.3 to 2.8 V, respectively. In theory, TiO 2 has a permanent photocatalytic reaction; as such, hydroxyl radicals are generated continuously under UV irradiation, improving the electrical characteristics of solution-processed IZO TFTs even after four iterations of TiO 2 recycling in this study. Thus, the PRT method provides an eco-friendly approach for high-performance solution-processed oxide TFTs.

  6. Thin-walled SnO2 nanotubes functionalized with Pt and Au catalysts via the protein templating route and their selective detection of acetone and hydrogen sulfide molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Ji-Soo; Kim, Sang-Joon; Choi, Seon-Jin; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Hakim, Meggie; Rothschild, Avner; Kim, Il-Doo

    2015-10-01

    Bio-inspired Pt (~2 nm) and Au (~2.7 nm) catalysts encapsulated by a protein shell, i.e., Pt-apoferritin (Pt@AF) and Au-apoferriten (Au@AF), were synthesized via the hollow protein nanocage (apoferritin) templating route and directly functionalized on the interior and exterior walls of electrospun SnO2 nanotubes (NTs) during controlled single-nozzle electrospinning followed by high temperature calcination with heating rate control. Fast crystallization of the exterior shell and outward diffusion of the interior Sn precursors and crystallites result in the continued growth of a tubular wall, which is related to rapid heating driven Ostwald-ripening behavior. Very importantly, the Pt and Au nanoparticles (NPs) were immobilized onto thin-walled SnO2 NTs with a diameter of ~350 nm and a shell thickness of ~40 nm without any aggregation of catalysts due to high dispersibility, which originated from repulsive electrostatic (Coulombic) forces acting on the surface charged protein shells, leading to an enhanced catalytic effect and outstanding gas sensing properties. Pt-loaded SnO2 NTs exhibited superior acetone response (Rair/Rgas = 92 at 5 ppm) compared to pure SnO2 NFs (Rair/Rgas = 4.8 at 5 ppm) and SnO2 NTs (Rair/Rgas = 11 at 5 ppm) while Au-loaded SnO2 NTs showed a high response when exposed to hydrogen sulfide (Rair/Rgas = 34 at 5 ppm), offering selective gas detection with minimal cross-sensitivity against other interfering gases such as NH3, CO, NO, C6H5CH3, and C5H12. Our results provide a new insight into facile, cost-effective, and highly dispersible catalyst loading on the interior and exterior walls of hollow metal oxide NTs via simple electrospinning as a potential breath analyzer.Bio-inspired Pt (~2 nm) and Au (~2.7 nm) catalysts encapsulated by a protein shell, i.e., Pt-apoferritin (Pt@AF) and Au-apoferriten (Au@AF), were synthesized via the hollow protein nanocage (apoferritin) templating route and directly functionalized on the interior and exterior walls

  7. Effects of Ga:N addition on the electrical performance of zinc tin oxide thin film transistor by solution-processing.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Byung Du; Jeon, Hye Ji; Park, Jin-Seong

    2014-06-25

    This paper addressed the effect of gallium nitrate hydrate addition on thin film transistor (TFT) performance and positive bias stability of amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) TFTs by solution processing, Further, the mechanisms responsible for chemical properties and electronic band structure are explored. A broad exothermic peak accompanied by weight loss appeared in the range from about 350 to 570 °C for the ZTO solution; the thermal reaction of the Ga-ZTO:N solution was completed at 520 °C. This is because the gallium nitrate hydrate precursor promoted the decomposition and dehydroxylation reaction for Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O and/or SnCl2·2H2O precursors. The concentrations of carbon and chloride in gallium nitrate hydrate added ZTO films annealed at 400 °C have a lower value (C 0.65, Cl 0.65 at. %) compared with those of ZTO films (C 3.15, Cl 0.82 at. %). Absorption bands at 416, 1550, and 1350 cm(-1) for GaZTO:N films indicated the presence of ZnGa2O4, N-H, and N═O groups by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurement, respectively. As a result, an inverted staggered Ga-ZTO:N TFT exhibited a mobility of 4.84 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in the saturation region, a subthreshold swing of 0.35 V/decade, and a threshold gate voltage (Vth) of 0.04 V. In addition, the instability of Vth values of the ZTO TFTs under positive bias stress conditions was suppressed by adding Ga and N from 13.6 to 3.17 V, which caused a reduction in the oxygen-related defects located near the conduction band.

  8. High-pressure Gas Activation for Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors at 100 °C

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Gi; Tak, Young Jun; Du Ahn, Byung; Jung, Tae Soo; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the use of high-pressure gases as an activation energy source for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). High-pressure annealing (HPA) in nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) gases was applied to activate a-IGZO TFTs at 100 °C at pressures in the range from 0.5 to 4 MPa. Activation of the a-IGZO TFTs during HPA is attributed to the effect of the high-pressure environment, so that the activation energy is supplied from the kinetic energy of the gas molecules. We reduced the activation temperature from 300 °C to 100 °C via the use of HPA. The electrical characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs annealed in O2 at 2 MPa were superior to those annealed in N2 at 4 MPa, despite the lower pressure. For O2 HPA under 2 MPa at 100 °C, the field effect mobility and the threshold voltage shift under positive bias stress were improved by 9.00 to 10.58 cm2/V.s and 3.89 to 2.64 V, respectively. This is attributed to not only the effects of the pressurizing effect but also the metal-oxide construction effect which assists to facilitate the formation of channel layer and reduces oxygen vacancies, served as electron trap sites. PMID:26972476

  9. Influence of source and drain contacts on the properties of indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors based on amorphous carbon nanofilm as barrier layer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dongxiang; Xu, Hua; Zhao, Mingjie; Li, Min; Xu, Miao; Zou, Jianhua; Tao, Hong; Wang, Lei; Peng, Junbiao

    2015-02-18

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (α-IGZO TFTs) with damage-free back channel wet-etch (BCE) process were achieved by introducing a carbon nanofilm as a barrier layer. We investigate the effects of different source-and-drain (S/D) materials on TFT performance. We find the TFT with Ti/C S/D electrodes exhibits a superior performance with higher output current, lower threshold voltage, and higher effective electron mobility compared to that of Mo/C S/D electrodes. Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are employed to analysis the interfacial interaction between S/D metal/C/α-IGZO layers. The results indicate that the better performance of TFTs with Ti/C electrodes should be attributed to the formations of Ti-C and Ti-O at the Ti/C-contact regions, which lead to a lower contact resistance, whereas Mo film is relatively stable and does not react easily with C nanofilm, resulting in a nonohmic contact behavior between Mo/C and α-IGZO layer. However, both kinds of α-IGZO TFTs show good stability under thermal bias stress, indicating that the inserted C nanofilms could avoid the impact on the α-IGZO channel regions during S/D electrodes formation. Finally, we successfully fabricated a high-definition active-matrix organic lighting emitting diode prototype driven by α-IGZO TFTs with Ti/C electrodes in a pilot line.

  10. Invisible and microscopic gold in pyrite: Methods and new data for massive sulfide ores of the Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikentyev, I. V.

    2015-07-01

    particles was registered in the ores of these deposits by the methods of transmission electron microscopy. The low degree (or absence) of metamorphic recrystallization results in (1) predomination of thin intergrowths of sulfides, which is the main reason for the bad concentration of ores (especially for the Galkinsk deposit) and (2) the high portion of "invisible" gold in the massive sulfide ores, which explains the low yield of Au in copper and zinc concentrates, since it is lost in tailings with predominating pyrite.

  11. Sulfide and Oxide Heterostructures For the SrTiO3 Thin Film Growth on Si and Their Structural and Interfacial Stabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Young‑Zo; Song, Jeong‑Hwan; Konishi, Yoshinori; Kawasaki, Masashi; Koinuma, Hideomi; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2006-03-01

    Epitaxial SrTiO3 (STO) thin films with high electrical properties were grown on Si using ZnS single- and SrS/MnS hetero-buffer layers. STO films on both ZnS-buffered and SrS/MnS-buffered Si showed two growth orientations, (100) and (110). The temperature dependence of the growth orientation for STO films was different for the ZnS single-buffer layer in comparison with the SrS/MnS heterobuffer layers. (100) growth of STO films on SrS/MnS-buffered Si became dominant at high temperatures about 700 °C, while (100) growth of STO films on ZnS-buffered Si became dominant at a relatively low growth temperature of 550 °C. STO(100) films on ZnS-buffered and SrS/MnS-buffered Si showed lattice and domain matches for epitaxial relationships with [001]ZnS\\parallel[011]STO and SrS[001]\\parallel[011]STO, respectively via 45° in-plane rotation of STO films relative to both ZnS and SrS layers. The ZnS buffer layer contained many stacking faults because of the mismatch between ZnS and Si, however, those defects were terminated at the ZnS/STO interface. In contrast, the MnS buffer was very stable against stacking defect formation. Transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed the presence of a disordered region at the ZnS/Si and MnS/Si interfaces. Auger electron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results showed that a good MnS/Si interface at the initial growth stage degraded to a SiS2-x-rich phase during MnS deposition and again into a SiO2-x-rich phase during STO deposition at the high growth temperature of 700 °C. It was also observed that STO on SrS/MnS-buffered Si showed a markedly high dielectric constant compared with that of STO on ZnS-buffered Si.

  12. Formation of Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis: The Importance of the Water Content in the Aerosol Solution and the Substrate Temperature for Enhancing Electrical Transport

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Rajesh; Castañeda, Luis; Moctezuma, Rosario; Vega-Pérez, Jaime; De La Luz Olvera, María; Maldonado, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Indium doped zinc oxide [ZnO:In] thin films have been deposited at 430°C on soda-lime glass substrates by the chemical spray technique, starting from zinc acetate and indium acetate. Pulverization of the solution was done by ultrasonic excitation. The variations in the electrical, structural, optical, and morphological characteristics of ZnO:In thin films, as a function of both the water content in the starting solution and the substrate temperature, were studied. The electrical resistivity of ZnO:In thin films is not significantly affected with the increase in the water content, up to 200 mL/L; further increase in water content causes an increase in the resistivity of the films. All films show a polycrystalline character, fitting well with the hexagonal ZnO wurtzite-type structure. No preferential growth in samples deposited with the lowest water content was observed, whereas an increase in water content gave rise to a (002) growth. The surface morphology of the films shows a consistency with structure results, as non-geometrical shaped round grains were observed in the case of films deposited with the lowest water content, whereas hexagonal slices, with a wide size distribution were observed in the other cases. In addition, films deposited with the highest water content show a narrow size distribution. PMID:28817056

  13. Formation of Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis: The Importance of the Water Content in the Aerosol Solution and the Substrate Temperature for Enhancing Electrical Transport.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Rajesh; Castañeda, Luis; Moctezuma, Rosario; Vega-Pérez, Jaime; Olvera, María De La Luz; Maldonado, Arturo

    2012-03-12

    Indium doped zinc oxide [ZnO:In] thin films have been deposited at 430°C on soda-lime glass substrates by the chemical spray technique, starting from zinc acetate and indium acetate. Pulverization of the solution was done by ultrasonic excitation. The variations in the electrical, structural, optical, and morphological characteristics of ZnO:In thin films, as a function of both the water content in the starting solution and the substrate temperature, were studied. The electrical resistivity of ZnO:In thin films is not significantly affected with the increase in the water content, up to 200 mL/L; further increase in water content causes an increase in the resistivity of the films. All films show a polycrystalline character, fitting well with the hexagonal ZnO wurtzite-type structure. No preferential growth in samples deposited with the lowest water content was observed, whereas an increase in water content gave rise to a (002) growth. The surface morphology of the films shows a consistency with structure results, as non-geometrical shaped round grains were observed in the case of films deposited with the lowest water content, whereas hexagonal slices, with a wide size distribution were observed in the other cases. In addition, films deposited with the highest water content show a narrow size distribution.

  14. Process for fabricating polycrystalline semiconductor thin-film solar cells, and cells produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Xuanzhi; Sheldon, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A novel, simplified method for fabricating a thin-film semiconductor heterojunction photovoltaic device includes initial steps of depositing a layer of cadmium stannate and a layer of zinc stannate on a transparent substrate, both by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, followed by the depositing of dissimilar layers of semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride, and heat treatment to convert the cadmium stannate to a substantially single-phase material of a spinel crystal structure. Preferably, the cadmium sulfide layer is also deposited by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, and the cadmium telluride layer is deposited by close space sublimation at an elevated temperature effective to convert the amorphous cadmium stannate to the polycrystalline cadmium stannate with single-phase spinel structure.

  15. High temperature regenerable hydrogen sulfide removal agents

    DOEpatents

    Copeland, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A system for high temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases using regenerable sorbents. One sorbent is stannic oxide (tin oxide, SnO.sub.2), the other sorbent is a metal oxide or mixed metal oxide such as zinc ferrite (ZnFe.sub.2 O.sub.4). Certain otherwise undesirable by-products, including hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) are reused by the system, and elemental sulfur is produced in the regeneration reaction. A system for refabricating the sorbent pellets is also described.

  16. Effect of direct current sputtering power on the behavior of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors under negative bias illumination stress: A combination of experimental analyses and device simulation

    SciT

    Jang, Jun Tae; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin

    The effect of direct current sputtering power of indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) on the performance and stability of the corresponding thin-film transistor devices was studied. The field effect mobility increases as the IGZO sputter power increases, at the expense of device reliability under negative bias illumination stress (NBIS). Device simulation based on the extracted sub-gap density of states indicates that the field effect mobility is improved as a result of the number of acceptor-like states decreasing. The degradation by NBIS is suggested to be induced by the formation of peroxides in IGZO rather than charge trapping.

  17. Selective Sulfidation of Lead Smelter Slag with Pyrite and Flotation Behavior of Synthetic ZnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Junwei; Liu, Wei; Wang, Dawei; Jiao, Fen; Zhang, Tianfu; Qin, Wenqing

    2016-08-01

    The selective sulfidation of lead smelter slag with pyrite in the presence of carbon and Na salts, and the flotation behavior of synthetic ZnS were studied. The effects of temperature, time, pyrite dosage, Na salts, and carbon additions were investigated based on thermodynamic calculation, and correspondingly, the growth mechanism of ZnS particles was studied at high temperatures. The results indicated that the zinc in lead smelter slag was selectively converted into zinc sulfides by sulfidation roasting. The sulfidation degree of zinc was increased until the temperature, time, pyrite, and carbon dosages reached their optimum values, under which it was more than 95 pct. The growth of ZnS particles largely depended upon roasting temperature, and the ZnS grains were significantly increased above 1373 K (1100 °C) due to the formation of a liquid phase. After the roasting, the zinc sulfides generated had a good floatability, and 88.34 pct of zinc was recovered by conventional flotation.

  18. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  19. Effect of top gate bias on photocurrent and negative bias illumination stress instability in dual gate amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistor

    SciT

    Lee, Eunji; Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Park, Min Sang

    We have studied the effect of top gate bias (V{sub TG}) on the generation of photocurrent and the decay of photocurrent for back channel etched inverted staggered dual gate structure amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film-transistors. Upon 5 min of exposure of 365 nm wavelength and 0.7 mW/cm{sup 2} intensity light with negative bottom gate bias, the maximum photocurrent increases from 3.29 to 322 pA with increasing the V{sub TG} from −15 to +15 V. By changing V{sub TG} from negative to positive, the Fermi level (E{sub F}) shifts toward conduction band edge (E{sub C}), which substantially controls the conversion of neutral vacancy to charged one (V{submore » O} → V{sub O}{sup +}/V{sub O}{sup 2+} + e{sup −}/2e{sup −}), peroxide (O{sub 2}{sup 2−}) formation or conversion of ionized interstitial (O{sub i}{sup 2−}) to neutral interstitial (O{sub i}), thus electron concentration at conduction band. With increasing the exposure time, more carriers are generated, and thus, maximum photocurrent increases until being saturated. After negative bias illumination stress, the transfer curve shows −2.7 V shift at V{sub TG} = −15 V, which gradually decreases to −0.42 V shift at V{sub TG} = +15 V. It clearly reveals that the position of electron quasi-Fermi level controls the formation of donor defects (V{sub O}{sup +}/V{sub O}{sup 2+}/O{sub 2}{sup 2−}/O{sub i}) and/or hole trapping in the a-IGZO /interfaces.« less

  20. Iron sulfide deposits at Wadi Wassat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Roberts, R.J.; Rossman, D.L.; Bagdady, A.Y.; Conway, C.M.; Helaby, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Massive and disseminated iron sulfide deposits in Wadi Wassat form lenticular, stratabound deposits in cherty Precambrian sedimentary rocks interlayered with Precambrian calcareous sedimentary rocks, pyroclastic rocks, and andesitic flow rocks. These rocks have been cut by a wide variety of plutonic and dike rocks including gabbro, diorite, granodiorite, diabase, rhyolite, and granite. The zone containing the sulfide lenses is nearly 16 km long and is cut off by granitic rocks at both the northern and southern ends. The lenses are as much as 200 m thick; one can be traced along strike for more than 4 km. The lenses consist mostly of iron sulfides. Pyrite is the principal sulfide mineral; near intrusive bodies the pyrite has been partially converted to pyrrhotite and locally mobilized into fractures. The sulfides have been oxidized to a depth of about 25 m. Preliminary calculations indicate that about 107,500,000 tons of sulfides, averaging 40 percent iron and 35 percent sulfur, are available to a depth of i00 m. Small amounts of nickel, cobalt, zinc, and copper are also present, but at metal prices prevailing in early 1981, these do not constitute significant resources.

  1. Mechanism study on the sulfidation of ZnO with sulfur and iron oxide at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Junwei; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Tianfu; Xue, Kai; Li, Wenhua; Jiao, Fen; Qin, Wenqing

    2017-02-01

    The mechanism of ZnO sulfidation with sulfur and iron oxide at high temperatures was studied. The thermodynamic analysis, sulfidation behavior of zinc, phase transformations, morphology changes, and surface properties were investigated by HSC 5.0 combined with FactSage 7.0, ICP, XRD, optical microscopy coupled with SEM-EDS, and XPS. The results indicate that increasing temperature and adding iron oxide can not only improve the sulfidation of ZnO but also promote the formation and growth of ZnS crystals. Fe2O3 captured the sulfur in the initial sulfidation process as iron sulfides, which then acted as the sulfurizing agent in the late period, thus reducing sulfur escape at high temperatures. The addition of carbon can not only enhance the sulfidation but increase sulfur utilization rate and eliminate the generation of SO2. The surfaces of marmatite and synthetic zinc sulfides contain high oxygen due to oxidation and oxygen adsorption. Hydroxyl easily absorbs on the surface of iron-bearing zinc sulfide (Zn1-xFexS). The oxidation of synthetic Zn1-xFexS is easier than marmatite in air.

  2. Mechanism study on the sulfidation of ZnO with sulfur and iron oxide at high temperature

    PubMed Central

    Han, Junwei; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Tianfu; Xue, Kai; Li, Wenhua; Jiao, Fen; Qin, Wenqing

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of ZnO sulfidation with sulfur and iron oxide at high temperatures was studied. The thermodynamic analysis, sulfidation behavior of zinc, phase transformations, morphology changes, and surface properties were investigated by HSC 5.0 combined with FactSage 7.0, ICP, XRD, optical microscopy coupled with SEM-EDS, and XPS. The results indicate that increasing temperature and adding iron oxide can not only improve the sulfidation of ZnO but also promote the formation and growth of ZnS crystals. Fe2O3 captured the sulfur in the initial sulfidation process as iron sulfides, which then acted as the sulfurizing agent in the late period, thus reducing sulfur escape at high temperatures. The addition of carbon can not only enhance the sulfidation but increase sulfur utilization rate and eliminate the generation of SO2. The surfaces of marmatite and synthetic zinc sulfides contain high oxygen due to oxidation and oxygen adsorption. Hydroxyl easily absorbs on the surface of iron-bearing zinc sulfide (Zn1−xFexS). The oxidation of synthetic Zn1−xFexS is easier than marmatite in air. PMID:28186156

  3. SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

  4. Study on the surface sulfidization behavior of smithsonite at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jin-fang; Tong, Xiong; Zheng, Yong-xing; Xie, Xian; Wang, Cong-bing

    2018-04-01

    Surface sulfidization behavior of smithsonite at high temperature was investigated by X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD) along with thermodynamic calculation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The XRD and thermodynamic analyses indicated that the smithsonite was decomposed into zincite at high temperatures. After introducing a small amount of pyrite, artificial sulfides were formed at surface of the obtained zincite. The XPS analyses revealed that the sulfide species including zinc sulfide and zinc disulfide were generated at the zincite surface. The EPMA analyses demonstrated that the film of sulfides was unevenly distributed at the zincite surface. The average concentration of elemental sulfur at the sample surface increased with increasing of pyrite dosage. A suitable mole ratio of FeS2 to ZnCO3 for the surface thermal modification was determined to be about 0.3. These findings can provide theoretical support for improving the process during which the zinc recovery from refractory zinc oxide ores is achieved by xanthate flotation.

  5. Selective Sulfidation of Lead Smelter Slag with Sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Junwei; Liu, Wei; Wang, Dawei; Jiao, Fen; Qin, Wenqing

    2016-02-01

    The selective sulfidation of lead smelter slag with sulfur was studied. The effects of temperature, sulfur dosage, carbon, and Na salts additions were investigated based on thermodynamic calculation. The results indicated that more than 96 pct of zinc in the slag could be converted into sulfides. Increasing temperature, sulfur dosage, or Na salts dosage was conducive to the sulfidation of the zinc oxides in the slag. High temperature and excess Na salts would result in the more consumption of carbon and sulfur. Carbon addition not only promoted the selective sulfidation but reduced the sulfur dosage and eliminated the generation of SO2. Iron oxides had a buffering role on the sulfur efficient utilization. The transformation of sphalerite to wurtzite was feasible under reducing condition at high temperature, especially above 1273 K (1000 °C). The growth of ZnS particles largely depended upon the roasting temperature. They were significantly increased when the temperature was above 1273 K (1000 °C), which was attributed to the formation of a liquid phase.

  6. Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2011-01-01

    Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

  7. Two-stage unified stretched-exponential model for time-dependence of threshold voltage shift under positive-bias-stresses in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Chan-Yong; Kim, Hee-Joong; Hong, Sae-Young; Song, Sang-Hun; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we show that the two-stage unified stretched-exponential model can more exactly describe the time-dependence of threshold voltage shift (ΔV TH) under long-term positive-bias-stresses compared to the traditional stretched-exponential model in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). ΔV TH is mainly dominated by electron trapping at short stress times, and the contribution of trap state generation becomes significant with an increase in the stress time. The two-stage unified stretched-exponential model can provide useful information not only for evaluating the long-term electrical stability and lifetime of the a-IGZO TFT but also for understanding the stress-induced degradation mechanism in a-IGZO TFTs.

  8. Using KrF ELA to Improve Gate-Stacked LaAlO₃/ZrO₂ Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with Novel Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Hung; Chang, Kow-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Xin; Wang, Shui-Jinn

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD) technique and KrF excimer laser annealing (ELA) were employed for the fabrication of indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors (IGZO-TFTs). Device with a 150 mJ/cm2 laser annealing densities demonstrated excellent electrical characteristics with improved on/off current ratio of 4.7×107, high channel mobility of 10 cm2/V-s, and low subthreshold swing of 0.15 V/dec. The improvements are attributed to the adjustment of oxygen vacancies in the IGZO channel to an appropriate range of around 28.3% and the reduction of traps at the high-k/IGZO interface.

  9. Hemimorphite Ores: A Review of Processing Technologies for Zinc Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ailiang; Li, Mengchun; Qian, Zhen; Ma, Yutian; Che, Jianyong; Ma, Yalin

    2016-10-01

    With the gradual depletion of zinc sulfide ores, exploration of zinc oxide ores is becoming more and more important. Hemimorphite is a major zinc oxide ore, attracting much attention in the field of zinc metallurgy although it is not the major zinc mineral. This paper presents a critical review of the treatment for extraction of zinc with emphasis on flotation, pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods based on the properties of hemimorphite. The three-dimensional framework structure of hemimorphite with complex linkage of its structural units lead to difficult desilicification before extracting zinc in the many metallurgical technologies. It is found that the flotation method is generally effective in enriching zinc minerals from hemimorphite ores into a high-grade concentrate for recovery of zinc. Pure zinc can be produced from hemimorphite or/and willemite with a reducing reagent, like methane or carbon. Leaching reagents, such as acid and alkali, can break the complex structure of hemimorphite to release zinc in the leached solution without generation of silica gel in the hydrometallurgical process. For optimal zinc extraction, combing flotation with pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods may be required.

  10. Sulfide bonded atomic radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, G. V.; Ross, N. L.; Cox, D. F.

    2017-09-01

    The bonded radius, r b(S), of the S atom, calculated for first- and second-row non-transition metal sulfide crystals and third-row transition metal sulfide molecules and crystals indicates that the radius of the sulfur atom is not fixed as traditionally assumed, but that it decreases systematically along the bond paths of the bonded atoms with decreasing bond length as observed in an earlier study of the bonded radius of the oxygen atom. When bonded to non-transition metal atoms, r b(S) decreases systematically with decreasing bond length from 1.68 Å when the S atom is bonded to the electropositive VINa atom to 1.25 Å when bonded to the more electronegative IVP atom. In the case of transition metal atoms, rb(S) likewise decreases with decreasing bond length from 1.82 Å when bonded to Cu and to 1.12 Å when bonded to Fe. As r b(S) is not fixed at a given value but varies substantially depending on the bond length and the field strength of the bonded atoms, it is apparent that sets of crystal and atomic sulfide atomic radii based on an assumed fixed radius for the sulfur atom are satisfactory in that they reproduce bond lengths, on the one hand, whereas on the other, they are unsatisfactory in that they fail to define the actual sizes of the bonded atoms determined in terms of the minima in the electron density between the atoms. As such, we urge that the crystal chemistry and the properties of sulfides be studied in terms of the bond lengths determined by adding the radii of either the atomic and crystal radii of the atoms but not in terms of existing sets of crystal and atomic radii. After all, the bond lengths were used to determine the radii that were experimentally determined, whereas the individual radii were determined on the basis of an assumed radius for the sulfur atom.

  11. Sulfidation behavior of ZnFe2O4 roasted with pyrite: Sulfur inducing and sulfur-oxygen interface exchange mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Xiaobo; Zhou, Bosheng; Ke, Yong; Chai, Liyuan; Xue, Ke; Zhang, Chun; Zhao, Zongwen; Shen, Chen

    2016-05-01

    The sulfidation roasting behavior was analyzed in detail to reveal the reaction mechanism. Information about the sulfidation reaction, including phase transformation, ionic migration behavior and morphological change, were obtained by XRD, 57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy, XPS and SEM analysis. The results showed that the sulfidation of zinc ferrite is a process of sulfur inducing and sulfur-oxygen interface exchange. This process can be divided into six stages: decomposition of FeS2, formation of the oxygen-deficient environment, migration of O2- induced by S2(g), formation of ZnFe2O4-δ, migration of Fe2+ accompanied by the precipitation of ZnO, and the sulfur-oxygen interface exchange reaction. The sulfidation products were zinc blende, wurtzite, magnetite and a fraction of zinc-bearing magnetite. These findings can provide theoretical support for controlling the process during which the recovery of Zn and Fe is achieved through the combined flotation-magnetic separation process.

  12. On the existence of free and metal complexed sulfide in the Arabian Sea and its oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theberge, Stephen M.; Luther, George W.; Farrenkopf, Anna M.

    Free hydrogen sulfide was not detected in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea during legs D1 (September 1992) and D3 (October-November 1992) of the Netherlands Indian Ocean Programme (NIOP). However, sulfide complexed to metals was detected by cathodic stripping square wave voltammetry at 2 nM or less throughout the water column. A slight increase in sulfide was measured in the OMZ relative to the surface waters and may be related to sulfur release from organic matter during decomposition. Sulfide complexes are of two general types at low concentrations of metal and sulfide. First, metals such as Mn, Fe, Co and Ni form complexes with bisulfide ion (HS -) that are kinetically labile to dissociation and are reactive. Second, metals such as Cu and Zn form multinuclear complexes with sulfide (S 2-) that are kinetically inert to dissociation; thus, they are less reactive than free (bi)sulfide and the labile metal bisulfide complexes. Zinc and copper sulfide complexes are important in allowing hydrogen sulfide to persist in seawater which contains measurable oxygen.

  13. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  14. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  15. Investigation on growth, structural, optical, electrical and X-ray sensing properties of chemically deposited zinc bismuth sulfide (ZnxBi2‑xS3) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabarish, R.; Suriyanarayanan, N.; Kalita, J. M.; Sarma, M. P.; Wary, G.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, ZnxBi2‑xS3 films were synthesized (x = 0.2 M) by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique at different bath temperatures (60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C). The role of bath temperature on the formation of the films has been examined. The crystalline nature, structural parameters and surface morphology of the films were ascertained using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) respectively. These studies confirmed the formation of crystalline Zn0.2Bi1.8S3 films with uniform distribution of homogenous grains. The characterization results revealed that the film deposited at 70 °C has the good crystalline quality than the films deposited at 60 and 80 °C. Further, the optical absorption spectra showed that the bandgap (E g ) of the film deposited at 70 °C was about 2.39 eV which was found to be less than the same film deposited at 60 and 80 °C. The Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristics of all the films were measured under dark condition. This showed that the electrical conductivity of the film deposited at 70 °C was 1.61 × 10‑5 S cm‑1 which is ten times higher than other films. Further, the I-V characteristics of the film deposited at 70 °C was studied under x-ray radiation. The current under the x-ray radiation was significantly higher compared to the dark current. The x-ray detection sensitivity of the film was found to be maximum at 0.7 V and gradually decreases with increase of bias voltage. This analysis reveals that the film deposited at 70 °C can be used as an x-ray sensor.

  16. On the origin of the changes in the opto-electrical properties of boron-doped zinc oxide films after plasma surface treatment for thin-film silicon solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Kim, Youngkuk; Lee, Youn-Jung; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Nguyen, Cam Phu Thi; Lee, Jaehyung; Yi, Junsin

    2018-03-01

    The modification of the steep and sharp valleys on the surface of the boron-doped zinc oxide (BZO) front electrodes by plasma surface treatment is a critical process for avoiding a significant reduction in the electrical performance of thin-film silicon solar cells. In this work, we report the origin of the changes in the electrical and optical properties of the BZO films that occur after this process. On the basis of an analysis of the chemical states, we found an improvement of the carrier concentration along with the treatment time that was mainly due to an increase of the oxygen vacancy. This indicated a deficiency of the oxygen in the BZO films under argon-ion bombardment. The red-shift of the A1 longitudinal optical mode frequency in the Raman spectra that was attributed to the existence of vacancy point defects within the films also strengthened this argument. The significant reduction of the haze ratio as well as the appearance of interference peaks on the transmittance spectra as the treatment time was increased were mainly due to the smoothing of the film surface, which indicated a degradation of the light-scattering capability of the BZO films. We also observed a gain of the visible-region transmittance that was attributed to the decrease of the thickness of the BZO films after the plasma surface treatment, instead of the crystallinity improvement. On the basis of our findings, we have proposed a further design rule of the BZO front electrodes for thin-film silicon solar cell applications.

  17. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  18. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  19. Indium oxide co-doped with tin and zinc: A simple route to highly conducting high density targets for TCO thin-film fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadeddin, I.; Hilal, H. S.; Decourt, R.; Campet, G.; Pecquenard, B.

    2012-07-01

    Indium oxide co-doped with tin and zinc (ITZO) ceramics have been successfully prepared by direct sintering of the powders mixture at 1300 °C. This allowed us to easily fabricate large highly dense target suitable for sputtering transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films, without using any cold or hot pressing techniques. Hence, the optimized ITZO ceramic reaches a high relative bulk density (˜ 92% of In2O3 theoretical density) and higher than the well-known indium oxide doped with tin (ITO) prepared under similar conditions. All X-ray diagrams obtained for ITZO ceramics confirms a bixbyte structure typical for In2O3 only. This indicates a higher solubility limit of Sn and Zn when they are co-doped into In2O3 forming a solid-solution. A very low value of electrical resistivity is obtained for [In2O3:Sn0.10]:Zn0.10 (1.7 × 10-3 Ω cm, lower than ITO counterpart) which could be fabricated to high dense ceramic target suing pressure-less sintering.

  20. Novel band structures in silicene on monolayer zinc sulfide substrate.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-shi; Zhang, Chang-wen; Yan, Shi-shen; Hu, Shu-jun; Ji, Wei-xiao; Wang, Pei-ji; Li, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Opening a sizable band gap in the zero-gap silicene without lowering the carrier mobility is a key issue for its application in nanoelectronics. Based on first-principles calculations, we find that the interaction energies are in the range of -0.09‒0.3 eV per Si atom, indicating a weak interaction between silicene and ZnS monolayer and the ABZn stacking is the most stable pattern. The band gap of silicene can be effectively tuned ranging from 0.025 to 1.05 eV in silicene and ZnS heterobilayer (Si/ZnS HBL). An unexpected indirect-direct band gap crossover is also observed in HBLs, dependent on the stacking pattern, interlayer spacing and external strain effects on silicene. Interestingly, the characteristics of Dirac cone with a nearly linear band dispersion relation of silicene can be preserved in the ABS pattern which is a metastable state, accompanied by a small electron effective mass and thus the carrier mobility is expected not to degrade much. These provide a possible way to design effective FETs out of silicene on a ZnS monolayer.

  1. Zinc sulfide quantum dots for photocatalytic and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Alexander A.; Leonov, Andrei A.; Zhuikova, Elena I.; Postnova, Irina V.; Voznesenskiy, Sergey S.

    2017-09-01

    Herein, we report the photocatalytic and sensing applications of pure and Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots. The quantum dots were prepared by a chemical precipitation in an aqueous solution in the presence of glutathione as a stabilizing agent. The synthesized quantum dots were used as effective photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue dye. Interestingly, fully degradation of methylene blue dye was achieved in 5 min using pure ZnS quantum dots. Further, the synthesized quantum dots were used as efficient sensing element for methane fluorescent sensor. Interfering studies confirmed that the developed sensor possesses very good sensitivity and selectivity towards methane.

  2. The Influence of Hafnium Doping on Density of States in Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Deposited via Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xingwei; Qin, Cunping; Song, Jiantao; Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Xueyin; Zhang, Zhilin

    2017-12-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with atomic layer deposition (ALD) HfZnO (HZO) as channel layer and Al 2 O 3 as gate insulator were successfully fabricated. Compared with ZnO-TFT, the stability of HZO-TFT was obviously improved as Hf doping can suppress the generation of oxygen related defects. The transfer characteristics of TFTs at different temperatures were also investigated, and temperature stability enhancement was observed for the TFT with Hf doping. The density of states (DOS) was calculated based on the experimentally obtained E a , which can explain the experimental observation. A high-field effect mobility of 9.4 cm 2 /Vs, a suitable turn-on voltage of 0.26 V, a high on/off ratio of over 10 7 and a steep sub-threshold swing of 0.3 V/decade were obtained in HZO-TFT. The results showed that temperature stability enhancement in HfZnO thin-film transistors are attributed to the smaller DOS.

  3. The Influence of Hafnium Doping on Density of States in Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Deposited via Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xingwei; Qin, Cunping; Song, Jiantao; Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Xueyin; Zhang, Zhilin

    2017-01-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with atomic layer deposition (ALD) HfZnO (HZO) as channel layer and Al2O3 as gate insulator were successfully fabricated. Compared with ZnO-TFT, the stability of HZO-TFT was obviously improved as Hf doping can suppress the generation of oxygen related defects. The transfer characteristics of TFTs at different temperatures were also investigated, and temperature stability enhancement was observed for the TFT with Hf doping. The density of states (DOS) was calculated based on the experimentally obtained E a, which can explain the experimental observation. A high-field effect mobility of 9.4 cm2/Vs, a suitable turn-on voltage of 0.26 V, a high on/off ratio of over 107 and a steep sub-threshold swing of 0.3 V/decade were obtained in HZO-TFT. The results showed that temperature stability enhancement in HfZnO thin-film transistors are attributed to the smaller DOS.

  4. Optical properties of thin films of zinc oxide quantum dots and polydimethylsiloxane: UV-blocking and the effect of cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Eita, Mohamed; El Sayed, Ramy; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2012-12-01

    Thin films of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and ZnO quantum dots (QDs) were built up as multilayers by spin-coating. The films are characterized by a UV-blocking ability that increases with increasing number of bilayers. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of the thin films occur at 522 nm, which is the PL wavelength of the ZnO QDs dispersion, but with a lower intensity and a quantum yield (QY) less than 1% that of the dispersion. Cross-linking has introduced new features to the absorption spectra in that the absorption peak was absent. These changes were attributed to the morphological and structural changes revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. TEM showed that the ZnO particle size in the film increased from 7 (±2.7) nm to 16 (±7.8) upon cross-linking. The FTIR spectra suggest that ZnO QDs are involved in the cross-linking of PDMS and that the surface of the ZnO QDs has been chemically modified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel method for improving cerussite sulfidization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qi-cheng; Wen, Shu-ming; Zhao, Wen-juan; Cao, Qin-bo; Lü, Chao

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of flotation behavior, solution measurements, and surface analyses were performed to investigate the effects of chloride ion addition on the sulfidization of cerussite in this study. Micro-flotation tests indicate that the addition of chloride ions prior to sulfidization can significantly increase the flotation recovery of cerussite, which is attributed to the formation of more lead sulfide species on the mineral surface. Solution measurement results suggest that the addition of chloride ions prior to sulfidization induces the transformation of more sulfide ions from pulp solution onto the mineral surface by the formation of more lead sulfide species. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectroscopy indicate that more lead sulfide species form on the mineral surface when chloride ions are added prior to sulfidization. These results demonstrate that the addition of chloride ions prior to sulfidization can significantly improve the sulfidization of cerussite, thereby enhancing the flotation performance.

  6. A study on the high temperature-dependence of the electrical properties in a solution-deposited zinc-tin-oxide thin-film transistor operated in the saturation region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kyeong Min; Bae, Byung Seong; Jung, Myunghee; Yun, Eui-Jung

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effects of high temperatures in the range of 292 - 393 K on the electrical properties of solution-processed amorphous zinc-tin-oxide (a-ZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) operated in the saturation region. The fabricated a-ZTO TFTs have a non-patterned bottom gate and top contact structure, and they use a heavily-doped Si wafer and SiO2 as a gate electrode and a gate insulator layer, respectively. In a-ZTO TFTs, the trap release energy ( E TR ) was deduced by using Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. The decreasing E TR toward zero with increasing gate voltage (the density of trap states ( n s )) in the a-ZTO active layer can be attributed to a shift of the Fermi level toward the mobility edge with increasing gate voltage. The TFTs with low gate voltage (low n s ) exhibit multiple trap and release characteristics and show thermally-activated behavior. In TFTs with a high gate voltage (high n s ), however, we observe decreasing mobility and conductivity with increasing temperature at temperatures ranging from 303 to 363 K. This confirms that the E TR can drop to zero, indicating a shift of the Fermi level beyond the mobility edge. Hence, the mobility edge is detected at the cusp between thermally-activated transport and band transport.

  7. Improvement of bias-stability in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by using solution-processed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation

    SciT

    An, Sungjin; Mativenga, Mallory; Kim, Youngoo

    2014-08-04

    We demonstrate back channel improvement of back-channel-etch amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors by using solution-processed yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) passivation. Two different solvents, which are acetonitrile (35%) + ethylene glycol (65%), solvent A and deionized water, solvent B are investigated for the spin-on process of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation—performed after patterning source/drain (S/D) Mo electrodes by a conventional HNO{sub 3}-based wet-etch process. Both solvents yield devices with good performance but those passivated by using solvent B exhibit better light and bias stability. Presence of yttrium at the a-IGZO back interface, where it occupies metal vacancy sites, is confirmed by X-ray photoelectronmore » spectroscopy. The passivation effect of yttrium is more significant when solvent A is used because of the existence of more metal vacancies, given that the alcohol (65% ethylene glycol) in solvent A may dissolve the metal oxide (a-IGZO) through the formation of alkoxides and water.« less

  8. Remarkable changes in interface O vacancy and metal-oxide bonds in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by long time annealing at 250 °C

    SciT

    Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Um, Jae Gwang; Jang, Jin, E-mail: jjang@khu.ac.kr

    We have studied the effect of long time post-fabrication annealing on negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film-transistors. Annealing for 100 h at 250 °C increased the field effect mobility from 14.7 cm{sup 2}/V s to 17.9 cm{sup 2}/V s and reduced the NBIS instability remarkably. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the oxygen vacancy and OH were found to exist at the interfaces of a-IGZO with top and bottom SiO{sub 2}. Long time annealing helps to decrease the vacancy concentration and increase the metal-oxygen bonds at the interfaces; this leads to increase in the free carrier concentrations in a-IGZO and field-effect mobility.more » X-ray reflectivity measurement indicated the increment of a-IGZO film density of 5.63 g cm{sup −3} to 5.83 g cm{sup −3} (3.4% increase) by 100 h annealing at 250 °C. The increase in film density reveals the decrease of O vacancy concentration and reduction of weak metal-oxygen bonds in a-IGZO, which substantially helps to improve the NBIS stability.« less

  9. A room temperature process for the fabrication of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors with co-sputtered Zr x Si1- x O2 Gate dielectric and improved electrical and hysteresis performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Shui-Jinn; Liu, Pang-Yi; Wu, Chien-Hung; Wu, Nai-Sheng; Yan, Hao-Ping; Lin, Tseng-Hsing

    2017-04-01

    The use of co-sputtered zirconium silicon oxide (Zr x Si1- x O2) gate dielectrics to improve the gate controllability of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (α-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) through a room-temperature fabrication process is proposed and demonstrated. With the sputtering power of the SiO2 target in the range of 0-150 W and with that of the ZrO2 target kept at 100 W, a dielectric constant ranging from approximately 28.1 to 7.8 is obtained. The poly-structure formation immunity of the Zr x Si1- x O2 dielectrics, reduction of the interface trap density suppression, and gate leakage current are examined. Our experimental results reveal that the Zr0.85Si0.15O2 gate dielectric can lead to significantly improved TFT subthreshold swing performance (103 mV/dec) and field effect mobility (33.76 cm2 V-1 s-1).

  10. High-performance low-cost back-channel-etch amorphous gallium-indium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors by curing and passivation of the damaged back channel.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Chul; Ahn, Seung-Eon; Lee, Ho-Nyeon

    2013-12-11

    High-performance, low-cost amorphous gallium-indium-zinc oxide (a-GIZO) thin-film-transistor (TFT) technology is required for the next generation of active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes. A back-channel-etch structure is the most appropriate device structure for high-performance, low-cost a-GIZO TFT technology. However, channel damage due to source/drain etching and passivation-layer deposition has been a critical issue. To solve this problem, the present work focuses on overall back-channel processes, such as back-channel N2O plasma treatment, SiOx passivation deposition, and final thermal annealing. This work has revealed the dependence of a-GIZO TFT characteristics on the N2O plasma radio-frequency (RF) power and frequency, the SiH4 flow rate in the SiOx deposition process, and the final annealing temperature. On the basis of these results, a high-performance a-GIZO TFT with a field-effect mobility of 35.7 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), a subthreshold swing of 185 mV dec(-1), a switching ratio exceeding 10(7), and a satisfactory reliability was successfully fabricated. The technology developed in this work can be realized using the existing facilities of active-matrix liquid-crystal display industries.

  11. Prevention of sulfide oxidation in sulfide-rich waste rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyström, Elsa; Alakangas, Lena

    2015-04-01

    The ability to reduce sulfide oxidation in waste rock after mine closure is a widely researched area, but to reduce and/or inhibit the oxidation during operation is less common. Sulfide-rich (ca 30 % sulfur) waste rock, partially oxidized, was leached during unsaturated laboratory condition. Trace elements such as As and Sb were relatively high in the waste rock while other sulfide-associated elements such as Cu, Pb and Zn were low compared to common sulfide-rich waste rock. Leaching of unsaturated waste rock lowered the pH, from around six down to two, resulting in continuously increasing element concentrations during the leaching period of 272 days. The concentrations of As (65 mg/L), Cu (6.9 mg/L), Sb (1.2 mg/L), Zn (149 mg/L) and S (43 g/L) were strongly elevated at the end of the leaching period. Different alkaline industrial residues such as slag, lime kiln dust and cement kiln dust were added as solid or as liquid to the waste rock in an attempt to inhibit sulfide oxidation through neo-formed phases on sulfide surfaces in order to decrease the mobility of metals and metalloids over longer time scale. This will result in a lower cost and efforts of measures after mine closure. Results from the experiments will be presented.

  12. Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1987-01-06

    A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  13. Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, Stanford R.; Yeung, Edward S.

    1987-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  14. Improving the properties of zinc oxide thin-film surface acoustic wave device on glass substrate by introducing double alumina layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Wen-Ching; Huang, Yi-Fan; Wu, Mu-Shiang

    2017-10-01

    ZnO films with c-axis (0002) orientation have been successfully grown by RF magnetron sputtering on Al2O3/glass substrates. The alumina films were firstly deposited on glass substrates, and then secondly deposited on interdigital transducer/ZnO film/alumina film/glass substrates by electron beam evaporation. The crystalline structure and surface roughness of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The phase velocity and coupling coefficient of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) device were both increased when we deposited the double alumina layers. On the other hand, the temperature coefficient of frequency becomes better if we increase the thickness of the lower alumina film. The experimental result is beneficial for improving the performance of the ZnO thin-film SAW devices on inexpensive glass substrates.

  15. Optical phonons in nanostructured thin films composed by zincblende zinc selenide quantum dots in strong size-quantization regime: Competition between phonon confinement and strain-related effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejova, Biljana

    2014-05-01

    Raman scattering in combination with optical spectroscopy and structural studies by X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the phonon confinement and strain-induced effects in 3D assemblies of variable-size zincblende ZnSe quantum dots close packed in thin film form. Nanostructured thin films were synthesized by colloidal chemical approach, while tuning of the nanocrystal size was enabled by post-deposition thermal annealing treatment. In-depth insights into the factors governing the observed trends of the position and half-width of the 1LO band as a function of the average QD size were gained. The overall shifts in the position of 1LO band were found to result from an intricate compromise between the influence of phonon confinement and lattice strain-induced effects. Both contributions were quantitatively and exactly modeled. Accurate assignments of the bands due to surface optical (SO) modes as well as of the theoretically forbidden transverse optical (TO) modes were provided, on the basis of reliable physical models (such as the dielectric continuum model of Ruppin and Englman). The size-dependence of the ratio of intensities of the TO and LO modes was studied and discussed as well. Relaxation time characterizing the phonon decay processes in as-deposited samples was found to be approximately 0.38 ps, while upon post-deposition annealing already at 200 °C it increases to about 0.50 ps. Both of these values are, however, significantly smaller than those characteristic for a macrocrystalline ZnSe sample.

  16. Thermoelectric Properties of Lanthanum Sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C.; Lockwood, R.; Parker, J. B.; Zoltan, A.; Zoltan, L. D.; Danielson, L.; Raag, V.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes measurement of Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and Hall effect in gamma-phase lanthanum sulfide with composition of La3-x S4. Results of study, part of search for high-temperature thermoelectric energy-conversion materials, indicate this sulfide behaves like extrinsic semiconductor over temperature range of 300 to 1,400 K, with degenerate carrier concentration controlled by stoichiometric ratio of La to S.

  17. Chemical Bonding in Sulfide Minerals

    SciT

    Vaughan, David J.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    An understanding of chemical bonding and electronic structure in sulfide minerals is central to any attempt at understanding their crystal structures, stabilities and physical properties. It is also an essential precursor to understanding reactivity through modeling surface structure at the molecular scale. In recent decades, there have been remarkable advances in first principles (ab initio) methods for the quantitative calculation of electronic structure. These advances have been made possible by the very rapid development of high performance computers. Several review volumes that chart the applications of these developments in mineralogy and geochemistry are available (Tossell and Vaughan, 1992; Cygan andmore » Kubicki, 2001). An important feature of the sulfide minerals is the diversity of their electronic structures, as evidenced by their electrical and magnetic properties (see Pearce et al. 2006, this volume). Thus, sulfide minerals range from insulators through semiconductors to metals, and exhibit every type of magnetic behavior. This has presented problems for those attempting to develop bonding models for sulfides, and also led to certain misconceptions regarding the kinds of models that may be appropriate. In this chapter, chemical bonding and electronic structure models for sulfides are reviewed with emphasis on more recent developments. Although the fully ab initio quantitative methods are now capable of a remarkable degree of sophistication in terms of agreement with experiment and potential to interpret and predict behavior with varying conditions, both qualitative and more simplistic quantitative approaches will also be briefly discussed. This is because we believe that the insights which they provide are still helpful to those studying sulfide minerals. In addition to the application of electronic structure models and calculations to solid sulfides, work on sulfide mineral surfaces (Rosso and Vaughan 2006a,b) and solution complexes and clusters

  18. Influences of dietary uptake and reactive sulfides on metal bioavailability from aquatic sediments

    Lee, B.-G.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding how animals are exposed to the large repository of metal pollutants in aquatic sediments is complicated and is important in regulatory decisions. Experiments with four types of invertebrates showed that feeding behavior and dietary uptake control bioaccumulation of cadmium, silver, nickel, and zinc. Metal concentrations in animal tissue correlated with metal concentrations extracted from sediments, but not with metal in porewater, across a range of reactive sulfide concentrations, from 0.5 to 30 micromoles per gram. These results contradict the notion that metal bioavailability in sediments is controlled by geochemical equilibration of metals between porewater and reactive sulfides, a proposed basis for regulatory criteria for metals.

  19. Study of structural and optical properties of ZnS zigzag nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahchamani, Seyyed Zabihollah; Rezagholipour Dizaji, Hamid; Ehsani, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-11-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanostructured thin films of different thicknesses with zigzag shapes have been deposited on glass substrates by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. Employing a homemade accessory attached to the substrate holder enabled the authors to control the substrate temperature and substrate angle. The prepared samples were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-VIS. spectroscopy techniques. The structural studies revealed that the film deposited at room temperature crystallized in cubic structure. The FESEM images of the samples confirmed the formation of zigzag nano-columnar shape with mean diameter about 60-80 nm. By using the data obtained from optical studies, the real part of the refractive index (n), the absorption coefficient (α) and the band gap (Eg) of the samples were calculated. The results show that the refractive indices of the prepared films are very sensitive to deposition conditions.

  20. Growth of different phases and morphological features of MnS thin films by chemical bath deposition: Effect of deposition parameters and annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannachi, Amira; Maghraoui-Meherzi, Hager

    2017-03-01

    Manganese sulfide thin films have been deposited on glass slides by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The effects of preparative parameters such as deposition time, bath temperature, concentration of precursors, multi-layer deposition, different source of manganese, different complexing agent and thermal annealing on structural and morphological film properties have been investigated. The prepared thin films have been characterized using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). It exhibit the metastable forms of MnS, the hexagonal γ-MnS wurtzite phase with preferential orientation in the (002) plane or the cubic β-MnS zinc blende with preferential orientation in the (200) plane. Microstructural studies revealed the formation of MnS crystals with different morphologies, such as hexagons, spheres, cubes or flowers like.

  1. Self-aligned top-gate amorphous indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors exceeding low-temperature poly-Si transistor performance.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Chul; Lee, Ho-Nyeon; Im, Seongil

    2013-08-14

    Thin-film transistor (TFT) is a key component of active-matrix flat-panel displays (AMFPDs). These days, the low-temperature poly silicon (LTPS) TFTs are to match with advanced AMFPDs such as the active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display, because of their high mobility for fast pixel switching. However, the manufacturing process of LTPS TFT is quite complicated, costly, and scale-limited. Amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS) TFT technology is another candidate, which is as simple as that of conventioanl amorphous (a)-Si TFTs in fabrication but provides much superior device performances to those of a-Si TFTs. Hence, various AOSs have been compared with LTPS for active channel layer of the advanced TFTs, but have always been found to be relatively inferior to LTPS. In the present work, we clear the persistent inferiority, innovating the device performaces of a-IZO TFT by adopting a self-aligned coplanar top-gate structure and modifying the surface of a-IZO material. Herein, we demonstrate a high-performance simple-processed a-IZO TFT with mobility of ∼157 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), SS of ∼190 mV dec(-1), and good bias/photostabilities, which overall surpass the performances of high-cost LTPS TFTs.

  2. Simultaneous Automatic Electrochemical Detection of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Lead Ions in Environmental Samples Using a Thin-Film Mercury Electrode and an Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Kudr, Jiri; Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Gumulec, Jaromir; Nejdl, Lukas; Blazkova, Iva; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ion quantification, while Zn(II) did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME) were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933). PMID:25558996

  3. Luminescence in Sulfides: A Rich History and a Bright Future

    PubMed Central

    Smet, Philippe F.; Moreels, Iwan; Hens, Zeger; Poelman, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Sulfide-based luminescent materials have attracted a lot of attention for a wide range of photo-, cathodo- and electroluminescent applications. Upon doping with Ce3+ and Eu2+, the luminescence can be varied over the entire visible region by appropriately choosing the composition of the sulfide host. Main application areas are flat panel displays based on thin film electroluminescence, field emission displays and ZnS-based powder electroluminescence for backlights. For these applications, special attention is given to BaAl2S4:Eu, ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Cu. Recently, sulfide materials have regained interest due to their ability (in contrast to oxide materials) to provide a broad band, Eu2+-based red emission for use as a color conversion material in white-light emitting diodes (LEDs). The potential application of rare-earth doped binary alkaline-earth sulfides, like CaS and SrS, thiogallates, thioaluminates and thiosilicates as conversion phosphors is discussed. Finally, this review concludes with the size-dependent luminescence in intrinsic colloidal quantum dots like PbS and CdS, and with the luminescence in doped nanoparticles.

  4. High-efficiency thin-film GaAs solar cells, phase2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Thin GaAs epi-layers with good crystallographic quality were grown using a (100) Si-substrate on which a thin Ge epi-interlayer was grown by CVD from germane. Both antireflection-coated metal oxide semiconductor (AMOS) and n(+)/p homojunction structures were studied. The AMOS cells were fabricated on undoped-GaAs epi-layers deposited on bulk poly-Ge substrates using organo-metallic CVD film-growth, with the best achieved AM1 conversion efficiency being 9.1%. Both p-type and n(+)-type GaAs growth were optimized using 50 ppm dimethyl zinc and 1% hydrogen sulfide, respectively. A direct GaAs deposition method in fabricating ultra-thin top layer, epitaxial n(+)/p shallow homojunction solar cells on (100) GaAs substrates (without anodic thinning) was developed to produce large area (1 sq/cm) cells, with 19.4% AM1 conversion efficiency achieved. Additionally, an AM1 conversion efficiency of 18.4% (17.5% with 5% grid coverage) was achieved for a single crystal GaAs n(+)/p cell grown by OM-CVD on a Ge wafer.

  5. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1996-01-01

    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  6. Inhaled Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Gian Paolo; Searles, Robert; Yu, Binglan; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Ichinose, Fumito; Zapol, Warren M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Breathing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been reported to induce a suspended animation–like state with hypothermia and a concomitant metabolic reduction in rodents. However, the impact of H2S breathing on cardiovascular function remains incompletely understood. In this study, the authors investigated the cardiovascular and metabolic effects of inhaled H2S in a murine model. Methods The impact of breathing H2S on cardiovascular function was examined using telemetry and echocardiography in awake mice. The effects of breathing H2S on carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption were measured at room temperature and in a warmed environment. Results Breathing H2S at 80 parts per million by volume at 27°C ambient temperature for 6 h markedly reduced heart rate, core body temperature, respiratory rate, and physical activity, whereas blood pressure remained unchanged. Echocardiography demonstrated that H2S exposure decreased both heart rate and cardiac output but preserved stroke volume. Breathing H2S for 6 h at 35°C ambient temperature (to prevent hypothermia) decreased heart rate, physical activity, respiratory rate, and cardiac output without altering stroke volume or body temperature. H2S breathing seems to induce bradycardia by depressing sinus node activity. Breathing H2S for 30 min decreased whole body oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production at either 27° or 35°C ambient temperature. Both parameters returned to baseline levels within 10 min after the cessation of H2S breathing. Conclusions Inhalation of H2S at either 27° or 35°C reversibly depresses cardiovascular function without changing blood pressure in mice. Breathing H2S also induces a rapidly reversible reduction of metabolic rate at either body temperature. PMID:18362598

  7. Sulfur and sulfides in chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocchi, Yves; Libourel, Guy

    2013-10-01

    The nature and distribution of sulfides within type I PO, POP and PP chondrules of the carbonaceous chondrite Vigarano (CV3) have been studied by secondary electron microscopy and electron microprobe. They occur predominantly as spheroidal blebs composed entirely of low-Ni iron sulfide (troilite, FeS) or troilite + magnetite but in less abundance in association with metallic Fe-Ni beads in opaque assemblages. Troilites are mainly located within the low-Ca pyroxene outer zone and their amounts increase with the abundance of low-Ca pyroxene within chondrules, suggesting co-crystallization of troilite and low-Ca pyroxene during high-temperature events. We show that sulfur concentration and sulfide occurrence in chondrules obey high temperature sulfur solubility and saturation laws. Depending on the fS2 and fO2 of the surrounding gas and on the melt composition, mainly the FeO content, sulfur dissolved in chondrule melts may eventually reach a concentration limit, the sulfur content at sulfide saturation (SCSS), at which an immiscible iron sulfide liquid separates from the silicate melt. The occurrence of both a silicate melt and an immiscible iron sulfide liquid is further supported by the non-wetting behavior of sulfides on silicate phases in chondrules due to the high interfacial tension between their precursor iron-sulfide liquid droplets and the surrounding silicate melt during the high temperature chondrule-forming event. The evolution of chondrule melts from PO to PP towards more silicic compositions, very likely due to high PSiO(g) of the surrounding nebular gas, induces saturation of FeS at much lower S content in PP than in PO chondrules, leading to the co-crystallization of iron sulfides and low-Ca pyroxenes. Conditions of co-saturation of low-Ca pyroxene and FeS are only achieved in non canonical environments characterized by high partial pressures of sulfur and SiO and redox conditions more oxidizing than IW-3. Fe and S mass balance calculations also

  8. Influence of the charge trap density distribution in a gate insulator on the positive-bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    SciT

    Kim, Eungtaek; Kim, Choong-Ki; Lee, Myung Keun

    We investigated the positive-bias stress (PBS) instability of thin film transistors (TFTs) composed of different types of first-gate insulators, which serve as a protection layer of the active surface. Two different deposition methods, i.e., the thermal atomic layer deposition (THALD) and plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were applied for the deposition of the first GI. When THALD was used to deposit the GI, amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs showed superior stability characteristics under PBS. For example, the threshold voltage shift (ΔV{sub th}) was 0 V even after a PBS time (t{sub stress}) of 3000 s under a gate voltage (V{submore » G}) condition of 5 V (with an electrical field of 1.25 MV/cm). On the other hand, when the first GI was deposited by PEALD, the ΔV{sub th} value of a-IGZO TFTs was 0.82 V after undergoing an identical amount of PBS. In order to interpret the disparate ΔV{sub th} values resulting from PBS quantitatively, the average oxide charge trap density (N{sub T}) in the GI and its spatial distribution were investigated through low-frequency noise characterizations. A higher N{sub T} resulted during in the PEALD type GI than in the THALD case. Specifically, the PEALD process on a-IGZO layer surface led to an increasing trend of N{sub T} near the GI/a-IGZO interface compared to bulk GI owing to oxygen plasma damage on the a-IGZO surface.« less

  9. Chemically Deposited Thin-Film Solar Cell Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, R.; Junek, W.; Gorse, J.; Thompson, T.; Harris, J.; Hehemann, D.; Hepp, A.; Rybicki, G.

    2005-01-01

    We have been working on the development of thin film photovoltaic solar cell materials that can be produced entirely by wet chemical methods on low-cost flexible substrates. P-type copper indium diselenide (CIS) absorber layers have been deposited via electrochemical deposition. Similar techniques have also allowed us to incorporate both Ga and S into the CIS structure, in order to increase its optical bandgap. The ability to deposit similar absorber layers with a variety of bandgaps is essential to our efforts to develop a multi-junction thin-film solar cell. Chemical bath deposition methods were used to deposit a cadmium sulfide (CdS) buffer layers on our CIS-based absorber layers. Window contacts were made to these CdS/CIS junctions by the electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO). Structural and elemental determinations of the individual ZnO, CdS and CIS-based films via transmission spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy will be presented. The electrical characterization of the resulting devices will be discussed.

  10. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  11. Lifting of Administrative Stay for Hydrogen Sulfide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA lifted the Administrative Stay of the TRI reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide can reasonably be anticipated to cause chronic health effects in humans and significant adverse effects in aquatic organisms.

  12. A Reaction Involving Oxygen and Metal Sulfides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, William D. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a procedure for oxygen generation by thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate in presence of manganese dioxide, reacted with various sulfides. Provides a table of sample product yields for various sulfides. (JM)

  13. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S...

  14. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  15. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  16. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  17. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  18. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  19. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504...-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown (as defined in...

  20. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604...-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown (as defined in...

  1. Nanostructured metal sulfides for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Xianhong; Tan, Huiteng; Yan, Qingyu

    2014-08-01

    Advanced electrodes with a high energy density at high power are urgently needed for high-performance energy storage devices, including lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs), to fulfil the requirements of future electrochemical power sources for applications such as in hybrid electric/plug-in-hybrid (HEV/PHEV) vehicles. Metal sulfides with unique physical and chemical properties, as well as high specific capacity/capacitance, which are typically multiple times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials, are currently studied as promising electrode materials. However, the implementation of these sulfide electrodes in practical applications is hindered by their inferior rate performance and cycling stability. Nanostructures offering the advantages of high surface-to-volume ratios, favourable transport properties, and high freedom for the volume change upon ion insertion/extraction and other reactions, present an opportunity to build next-generation LIBs and SCs. Thus, the development of novel concepts in material research to achieve new nanostructures paves the way for improved electrochemical performance. Herein, we summarize recent advances in nanostructured metal sulfides, such as iron sulfides, copper sulfides, cobalt sulfides, nickel sulfides, manganese sulfides, molybdenum sulfides, tin sulfides, with zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensional morphologies for LIB and SC applications. In addition, the recently emerged concept of incorporating conductive matrices, especially graphene, with metal sulfide nanomaterials will also be highlighted. Finally, some remarks are made on the challenges and perspectives for the future development of metal sulfide-based LIB and SC devices.

  2. Cadmium sulfide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.

    1975-01-01

    Development, fabrication and applications of CdS solar cells are reviewed in detail. The suitability of CdS cells for large solar panels and microcircuitry, and their low cost, are emphasized. Developments are reviewed by manufacturer-developer. Vapor phase deposition of thin-film solar cells, doping and co-evaporation, sputtering, chemical spray, and sintered layers are reviewed, in addition to spray deposition, monograin layer structures, and silk screening. Formation of junctions by electroplating, evaporation, brushing, CuCl dip, and chemiplating are discussed, along with counterelectrode fabrication, VPD film structures, the Cu2S barrier layer, and various photovoltaic effects (contact photovoltage, light intensity variation, optical enhancement), and various other CdS topics.

  3. Sulfide Homeostasis and Nitroxyl Intersect via Formation of Reactive Sulfur Species in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hui; Shen, Jiangchuan; Edmonds, Katherine A.; Luebke, Justin L.; Hickey, Anne K.; Palmer, Lauren D.; Chang, Feng-Ming James; Bruce, Kevin A.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal human pathogen and a major cause of nosocomial infections. As gaseous signaling molecules, endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO·) protect S. aureus from antibiotic stress synergistically, which we propose involves the intermediacy of nitroxyl (HNO). Here, we examine the effect of exogenous sulfide and HNO on the transcriptome and the formation of low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiol persulfides of bacillithiol, cysteine, and coenzyme A as representative of reactive sulfur species (RSS) in wild-type and ΔcstR strains of S. aureus. CstR is a per- and polysulfide sensor that controls the expression of a sulfide oxidation and detoxification system. As anticipated, exogenous sulfide induces the cst operon but also indirectly represses much of the CymR regulon which controls cysteine metabolism. A zinc limitation response is also observed, linking sulfide homeostasis to zinc bioavailability. Cellular RSS levels impact the expression of a number of virulence factors, including the exotoxins, particularly apparent in the ΔcstR strain. HNO, like sulfide, induces the cst operon as well as other genes regulated by exogenous sulfide, a finding that is traced to a direct reaction of CstR with HNO and to an endogenous perturbation in cellular RSS, possibly originating from disassembly of Fe-S clusters. More broadly, HNO induces a transcriptomic response to Fe overload, Cu toxicity, and reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species and shares similarity with the sigB regulon. This work reveals an H2S/NO· interplay in S. aureus that impacts transition metal homeostasis and virulence gene expression. IMPORTANCE Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic molecule and a recently described gasotransmitter in vertebrates whose function in bacteria is not well understood. In this work, we describe the transcriptomic response of the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus to quantified changes in levels of cellular

  4. Sulfide Homeostasis and Nitroxyl Intersect via Formation of Reactive Sulfur Species in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui; Shen, Jiangchuan; Edmonds, Katherine A; Luebke, Justin L; Hickey, Anne K; Palmer, Lauren D; Chang, Feng-Ming James; Bruce, Kevin A; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E; Skaar, Eric P; Giedroc, David P

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal human pathogen and a major cause of nosocomial infections. As gaseous signaling molecules, endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and nitric oxide (NO·) protect S. aureus from antibiotic stress synergistically, which we propose involves the intermediacy of nitroxyl (HNO). Here, we examine the effect of exogenous sulfide and HNO on the transcriptome and the formation of low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiol persulfides of bacillithiol, cysteine, and coenzyme A as representative of reactive sulfur species (RSS) in wild-type and Δ cstR strains of S. aureus . CstR is a per- and polysulfide sensor that controls the expression of a sulfide oxidation and detoxification system. As anticipated, exogenous sulfide induces the cst operon but also indirectly represses much of the CymR regulon which controls cysteine metabolism. A zinc limitation response is also observed, linking sulfide homeostasis to zinc bioavailability. Cellular RSS levels impact the expression of a number of virulence factors, including the exotoxins, particularly apparent in the Δ cstR strain. HNO, like sulfide, induces the cst operon as well as other genes regulated by exogenous sulfide, a finding that is traced to a direct reaction of CstR with HNO and to an endogenous perturbation in cellular RSS, possibly originating from disassembly of Fe-S clusters. More broadly, HNO induces a transcriptomic response to Fe overload, Cu toxicity, and reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species and shares similarity with the sigB regulon. This work reveals an H 2 S/NO· interplay in S. aureus that impacts transition metal homeostasis and virulence gene expression. IMPORTANCE Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is a toxic molecule and a recently described gasotransmitter in vertebrates whose function in bacteria is not well understood. In this work, we describe the transcriptomic response of the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus to quantified changes in levels of cellular

  5. Photovoltaic semiconductor materials based on alloys of tin sulfide, and methods of production

    DOEpatents

    Lany, Stephan

    2016-06-07

    Photovoltaic thin-film materials comprising crystalline tin sulfide alloys of the general formula Sn.sub.1-x(R).sub.xS, where R is selected from magnesium, calcium and strontium, as well as methods of producing the same, are disclosed.

  6. Update on zinc biology.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has become a prominent nutrient of clinical and public health interest in the new millennium. Functions and actions for zinc emerge as increasingly ubiquitous in mammalian anatomy, physiology and metabolism. There is undoubtedly an underpinning in fundamental biology for all of the aspects of zinc in human health (clinical and epidemiological) in pediatric and public health practice. Unfortunately, basic science research may not have achieved a full understanding as yet. As a complement to the applied themes in the companion articles, a selection of recent advances in the domains homeostatic regulation and transport of zinc is presented; they are integrated, in turn, with findings on genetic expression, intracellular signaling, immunity and host defense, and bone growth. The elements include ionic zinc, zinc transporters, metallothioneins, zinc metalloenzymes and zinc finger proteins. In emerging basic research, we find some plausible mechanistic explanations for delayed linear growth with zinc deficiency and increased infectious disease resistance with zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  8. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  9. p-Chlorophenyl methyl sulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p - Chlorophenyl methyl sulfide ; CASRN 123 - 09 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for N

  10. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.; Iton, Lennox E.; Pasterczyk, James W.; Winterer, Markus; Krause, Theodore R.

    1994-01-01

    A zeolite based catalyst for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C.sub.2 + hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  11. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, V.A.; Iton, L.E.; Pasterczyk, J.W.; Winterer, M.; Krause, T.R.

    1994-04-26

    A zeolite-based catalyst is described for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C[sub 2]+ hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  12. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  13. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    SciT

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  15. Review of Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-23

    decomposition.  Chemical  stability  of  ZnO  improves  significantly with  addition  of  dopants  (such as Al, Ga, fluorine (F),  Cobalt  (Co)). The best...films. However, it is achieved by producing them with a non-stoichiometric composition or by introducing appropriate dopants which decrease the...non‐stoichiometric  composition  or  by  introducing  appropriate  dopants   which  decrease  the  resistivity  while  retaining a good transparency [3

  16. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  17. Metal sulfide for battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidotti, Ronald A.

    1988-08-01

    A number of metal sulfides can be used in batteries as a cathode (reducible) material as part of an electrochemical couple to provide energy. There are a number of physical and chemical characteristics that can be evaluated for screening potential candidates for use in batteries. These include: cell potential vs. Li, thermal and chemical stability, electrical conductivity, allotropic form (phase), reaction kinetics during discharge, type of discharge mechanism, and material rechargeability. These are reviewed in general, with emphasis on sulfides of copper, iron, and molybdenum which are currently being used as cathodes in Li and Li-alloy batteries. The presence of impurities can adversely impact performance when naturally occurring sulfide minerals are used for battery applications. Sandia National Laboratories uses natural pyrite (FeS2) for its high-temperature, thermally activated Li(Si)/FeS2 batteries. The purification and processing procedures for the FeS2 involves both chemical and physical methods. Flotation was found to yield comparable results as HF leaching for removal of silica, but without the negative health and environmental concerns associated with this technique.

  18. Chemical dissolution of sulfide minerals

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Chemical dissolution treatments involving the use of aqua regia, 4 N HNO3, H2O2-ascorbic acid, oxalic acid, KClO3+HCl, and KClO3+HCl followed by 4 N HNO3 were applied to specimens of nine common sulfide minerals (galena, chalcopyrite, cinnabar, molybdenite, orpiment, pyrite, stibnite, sphalerite, and tetrahedrite) mixed individually with a clay loam soil. The resultant decrease in the total sulfur content of the mixture, as determined by using the Leco induction furnace, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of each chemical treatment. A combination of KClO3+HCl followed by 4 N HNO3 boiling gently for 20 min has been shown to be very effective in dissolving all the sulfide minerals. This treatment is recommended to dissolve metals residing in sulfide minerals admixed with secondary weathering products, as one step in a fractionation scheme whereby metals in soluble and adsorbed forms, and those associated with organic materials and secondary oxides, are first removed by other chemical extractants.

  19. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  20. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504... § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown (as defined in § 250.490 of this...

  1. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604... § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown (as defined in § 250.490 of this...

  2. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504... § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown (as defined in § 250.490 of this...

  3. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504... § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown (as defined in § 250.490 of this...

  4. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604... § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown (as defined in § 250.490 of this...

  5. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604... § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown (as defined in § 250.490 of this...

  6. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  7. A study on the optics of copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) solar cells with ultra-thin absorber layers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Man; Wachters, Arthur J H; van Deelen, Joop; Mourad, Maurice C D; Buskens, Pascal J P

    2014-03-10

    We present a systematic study of the effect of variation of the zinc oxide (ZnO) and copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) layer thickness on the absorption characteristics of CIGS solar cells using a simulation program based on finite element method (FEM). We show that the absorption in the CIGS layer does not decrease monotonically with its layer thickness due to interference effects. Ergo, high precision is required in the CIGS production process, especially when using ultra-thin absorber layers, to accurately realize the required thickness of the ZnO, cadmium sulfide (CdS) and CIGS layer. We show that patterning the ZnO window layer can strongly suppress these interference effects allowing a higher tolerance in the production process.

  8. Spatial impacts of inorganic ligand availability and localized microbial community structure on mitigation of zinc laden mine water in sulfate-reducing bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Drennan, Dina M; Almstrand, Robert; Ladderud, Jeffrey; Lee, Ilsu; Landkamer, Lee; Figueroa, Linda; Sharp, Jonathan O

    2017-05-15

    Sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs) represent a passive, sustainable, and long-term option for mitigating mining influenced water (MIW) during release. Here we investigate spatial zinc precipitation profiles as influenced by substrate differentiation, inorganic ligand availability (inorganic carbon and sulfide), and microbial community structure in pilot-scale SRBR columns fed with sulfate and zinc-rich MIW. Through a combination of aqueous sampling, geochemical digests, electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, we were able to delineate zones of enhanced zinc removal, identify precipitates of varying stability, and discern the temporal and spatial evolution of zinc, sulfur, and calcium associations. These geochemical insights revealed spatially variable immobilization regimes between SRBR columns that could be further contrasted as a function of labile (alfalfa-dominated) versus recalcitrant (woodchip-dominated) solid-phase substrate content. Both column subsets exhibited initial zinc removal as carbonates; however precipitation in association with labile substrates was more pronounced and dominated by metal-sulfide formation in the upper portions of the down flow columns with micrographs visually suggestive of sphalerite (ZnS). In contrast, a more diffuse and lower mass of zinc precipitation in the presence of gypsum-like precipitates occurred within the more recalcitrant column systems. While removal and sulfide-associated precipitation were spatially variable, whole bacterial community structure (ANOSIM) and diversity estimates were comparatively homogeneous. However, two phyla exhibited a potentially selective relationship with a significant positive correlation between the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes and sulfide-bound zinc. Collectively these biogeochemical insights indicate that depths of maximal zinc sulfide precipitation are temporally dynamic, influenced by substrate composition and broaden our understanding of bio

  9. A review of zinc oxide mineral beneficiation using flotation method.

    PubMed

    Ejtemaei, Majid; Gharabaghi, Mahdi; Irannajad, Mehdi

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, extraction of zinc from low-grade mining tailings of oxidized zinc has been a matter of discussion. This is a material which can be processed by flotation and acid-leaching methods. Owing to the similarities in the physicochemical and surface chemistry of the constituent minerals, separation of zinc oxide minerals from their gangues by flotation is an extremely complex process. It appears that selective leaching is a promising method for the beneficiation of this type of ore. However, with the high consumption of leaching acid, the treatment of low-grade oxidized zinc ores by hydrometallurgical methods is expensive and complex. Hence, it is best to pre-concentrate low-grade oxidized zinc by flotation and then to employ hydrometallurgical methods. This paper presents a critical review on the zinc oxide mineral flotation technique. In this paper, the various flotation methods of zinc oxide minerals which have been proposed in the literature have been detailed with the aim of identifying the important factors involved in the flotation process. The various aspects of recovery of zinc from these minerals are also dealt with here. The literature indicates that the collector type, sulfidizing agent, pH regulator, depressants and dispersants types, temperature, solid pulp concentration, and desliming are important parameters in the process. The range and optimum values of these parameters, as also the adsorption mechanism, together with the resultant flotation of the zinc oxide minerals reported in the literature are summarized and highlighted in the paper. This review presents a comprehensive scientific guide to the effectiveness of flotation strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Partitioning of zinc among common ferromagnesian minerals and implications for hydrothermal mobilization

    Johnson, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    In systems where metals are scavenging from crystalline rocks by through-flowing fluids, the important host minerals must be dissolved or must undergo cation-exchange reactions with the fluid. Whereas copper resides in sulfides, zinc resides in magnetic and, to a lesser extent, in biotite, clinopyroxene and olivine. Magnetite is known from petrographic studies to be more resistant to alteration than sulfides. For metals extracted from crystalline rocks, the Cu:Zn mass ratio may thus decrease with progressive alteration. In systems where metals are scavenged from cooling magmas by exsolving fluids, the metals are partitioned among melt, fluid and any crystals that have fractionated. For zinc, crystal fractionation may be an important sink if magnetite or biotite crystallize before fluid saturation. The zinc concentrations of magmatic fluids will thus be reduced. -from Author

  11. Two mechanisms of oral malodor inhibition by zinc ions

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Nao; Nakano, Yoshio; Watanabe, Takeshi; Yoneda, Masahiro; Hirofuji, Takao; Hanioka, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of this study was to reveal the mechanisms by which zinc ions inhibit oral malodor. Material and Methods The direct binding of zinc ions to gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was assessed in comparison with other metal ions. Nine metal chlorides and six metal acetates were examined. To understand the strength of H2S volatilization inhibition, the minimum concentration needed to inhibit H2S volatilization was determined using serial dilution methods. Subsequently, the inhibitory activities of zinc ions on the growth of six oral bacterial strains related to volatile sulfur compound (VSC) production and three strains not related to VSC production were evaluated. Results Aqueous solutions of ZnCl2, CdCl2, CuCl2, (CH3COO)2Zn, (CH3COO)2Cd, (CH3COO)2Cu, and CH3COOAg inhibited H2S volatilization almost entirely. The strengths of H2S volatilization inhibition were in the order Ag+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+. The effect of zinc ions on the growth of oral bacteria was strain-dependent. Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586 was the most sensitive, as it was suppressed by medium containing 0.001% zinc ions. Conclusions Zinc ions have an inhibitory effect on oral malodor involving the two mechanisms of direct binding with gaseous H2S and suppressing the growth of VSC-producing oral bacteria. PMID:29364345

  12. Two mechanisms of oral malodor inhibition by zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nao; Nakano, Yoshio; Watanabe, Takeshi; Yoneda, Masahiro; Hirofuji, Takao; Hanioka, Takashi

    2018-01-18

    The aim of this study was to reveal the mechanisms by which zinc ions inhibit oral malodor. The direct binding of zinc ions to gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was assessed in comparison with other metal ions. Nine metal chlorides and six metal acetates were examined. To understand the strength of H2S volatilization inhibition, the minimum concentration needed to inhibit H2S volatilization was determined using serial dilution methods. Subsequently, the inhibitory activities of zinc ions on the growth of six oral bacterial strains related to volatile sulfur compound (VSC) production and three strains not related to VSC production were evaluated. Aqueous solutions of ZnCl2, CdCl2, CuCl2, (CH3COO)2Zn, (CH3COO)2Cd, (CH3COO)2Cu, and CH3COOAg inhibited H2S volatilization almost entirely. The strengths of H2S volatilization inhibition were in the order Ag+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+. The effect of zinc ions on the growth of oral bacteria was strain-dependent. Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586 was the most sensitive, as it was suppressed by medium containing 0.001% zinc ions. Zinc ions have an inhibitory effect on oral malodor involving the two mechanisms of direct binding with gaseous H2S and suppressing the growth of VSC-producing oral bacteria.

  13. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  14. Effect of particle-particle shearing on the bioleaching of sulfide minerals.

    PubMed

    Chong, N; Karamanev, D G; Margaritis, A

    2002-11-05

    The biological leaching of sulfide minerals, used for the production of gold, copper, zinc, cobalt, and other metals, is very often carried out in slurry bioreactors, where the shearing between sulfide particles is intensive. In order to be able to improve the efficiency of the bioleaching, it is of significant importance to know the effect of particle shearing on the rate of leaching. The recently proposed concept of ore immobilization allowed us to study the effect of particle shearing on the rate of sulfide (pyrite) leaching by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Using this concept, we designed two very similar bioreactors, the main difference between which was the presence and absence of particle-particle shearing. It was shown that when the oxygen mass transfer was not the rate-limiting step, the rate of bioleaching in the frictionless bioreactor was 2.5 times higher than that in a bioreactor with particle friction (shearing). The concentration of free suspended cells in the frictionless bioreactor was by orders of magnitude lower than that in the frictional bioreactor, which showed that particle friction strongly reduces the microbial attachment to sulfide surface, which, in turn, reduces the rate of bioleaching. Surprisingly, it was found that formation of a layer of insoluble iron salts on the surface of sulfide particles is much slower under shearless conditions than in the presence of particle-particle shearing. This was explained by the effect of particle friction on liquid-solid mass transfer rate. The results of this study show that reduction of the particle friction during bioleaching of sulfide minerals can bring important advantages not only by increasing significantly the bioleaching rate, but also by increasing the rate of gas-liquid oxygen mass transfer, reducing the formation of iron precipitates and reducing the energy consumption. One of the efficient methods for reduction of particle friction is ore immobilization in a porous matrix. Copyright 2002

  15. Zinc Signals and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc. PMID:29064429

  16. Molybdenum sulfide/carbide catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Alonso, Gabriel [Chihuahua, MX; Chianelli, Russell R [El Paso, TX; Fuentes, Sergio [Ensenada, MX; Torres, Brenda [El Paso, TX

    2007-05-29

    The present invention provides methods of synthesizing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2) and carbon-containing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2-xC.sub.x) catalysts that exhibit improved catalytic activity for hydrotreating reactions involving hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrogenation. The present invention also concerns the resulting catalysts. Furthermore, the invention concerns the promotion of these catalysts with Co, Ni, Fe, and/or Ru sulfides to create catalysts with greater activity, for hydrotreating reactions, than conventional catalysts such as cobalt molybdate on alumina support.

  17. Preparation of amorphous sulfide sieves

    DOEpatents

    Siadati, Mohammad H.; Alonso, Gabriel; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2006-11-07

    The present invention involves methods and compositions for synthesizing catalysts/porous materials. In some embodiments, the resulting materials are amorphous sulfide sieves that can be mass-produced for a variety of uses. In some embodiments, methods of the invention concern any suitable precursor (such as thiomolybdate salt) that is exposed to a high pressure pre-compaction, if need be. For instance, in some cases the final bulk shape (but highly porous) may be same as the original bulk shape. The compacted/uncompacted precursor is then subjected to an open-flow hot isostatic pressing, which causes the precursor to decompose and convert to a highly porous material/catalyst.

  18. Effects of Various Parameters on Structural and Optical Properties of CBD-Grown ZnS Thin Films: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Tarkeshwar; Lilhare, Devjyoti; Khare, Ayush

    2018-02-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique have proved their capability in a wide area of applications including electroluminescent and display devices, solar cells, sensors, and field emitters. These semiconducting thin films have attracted a much attention from the scientific community for industrial and research purposes. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review on the effect of various parameters on various properties of CBD-grown ZnS films. In the first part, we discuss the historical background of ZnS, its basic properties, and the advantages of the CBD technique. Detailed discussions on the film growth, structural and optical properties of ZnS thin films affected by various parameters, such as bath temperature and concentration, deposition time, stirring speed, complexing agents, pH value, humidity in the environment, and annealing conditions, are also presented. In later sections, brief information about the recent studies and findings is also added to explore the scope of research work in this field.

  19. Variation in sulfide tolerance of photosystem II in phylogenetically diverse cyanobacteria from sulfidic habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Scott R.; Bebout, Brad M.

    2004-01-01

    Physiological and molecular phylogenetic approaches were used to investigate variation among 12 cyanobacterial strains in their tolerance of sulfide, an inhibitor of oxygenic photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria from sulfidic habitats were found to be phylogenetically diverse and exhibited an approximately 50-fold variation in photosystem II performance in the presence of sulfide. Whereas the degree of tolerance was positively correlated with sulfide levels in the environment, a strain's phenotype could not be predicted from the tolerance of its closest relatives. These observations suggest that sulfide tolerance is a dynamic trait primarily shaped by environmental variation. Despite differences in absolute tolerance, similarities among strains in the effects of sulfide on chlorophyll fluorescence induction indicated a common mode of toxicity. Based on similarities with treatments known to disrupt the oxygen-evolving complex, it was concluded that sulfide toxicity resulted from inhibition of the donor side of photosystem II.

  20. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen...

  1. Sulfide oxidation under chemolithoautotrophic denitrifying conditions.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ricardo Beristain; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Rowlette, Pieter; Flores, Elias Razo; Gómez, Jorge; Field, Jim A

    2006-12-20

    Chemolithoautotrophic denitrifying microorganisms oxidize reduced inorganic sulfur compounds coupled to the reduction of nitrate as an electron acceptor. These denitrifiers can be applied to the removal of nitrogen and/or sulfur contamination from wastewater, groundwater, and gaseous streams. This study investigated the physiology and kinetics of chemolithotrophic denitrification by an enrichment culture utilizing hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur, or thiosulfate as electron donor. Complete oxidation of sulfide to sulfate was observed when nitrate was supplemented at concentrations equal or exceeding the stoichiometric requirement. In contrast, sulfide was only partially oxidized to elemental sulfur when nitrate concentrations were limiting. Sulfide was found to inhibit chemolithotrophic sulfoxidation, decreasing rates by approximately 21-fold when the sulfide concentration increased from 2.5 to 10.0 mM, respectively. Addition of low levels of acetate (0.5 mM) enhanced denitrification and sulfate formation, suggesting that acetate was utilized as a carbon source by chemolithotrophic denitrifiers. The results of this study indicate the potential of chemolithotrophic denitrification for the removal of hydrogen sulfide. The sulfide/nitrate ratio can be used to control the fate of sulfide oxidation to either elemental sulfur or sulfate. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dissolved sulfides in the oxic water column of San Francisco Bay, California

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Luther, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Trace contaminants enter major estuaries such as San Francisco Bay from a variety of point and nonpoint sources and may then be repartitioned between solid and aqueous phases or altered in chemical speciation. Chemical speciation affects the bioavailability of metals as well as organic ligands to planktonic and benthic organisms, and the partitioning of these solutes between phases. Our previous, work in south San Francisco Bay indicated that sulfide complexation with metals may be of particular importance because of the thermodynamic stability of these complexes. Although the water column of the bay is consistently well-oxygenated and typically unstratified with respect to dissolved oxygen, the kinetics of sulfide oxidation could exert at least transient controls on metal speciation. Our initial data on dissolved sulfides in the main channel of both the northern and southern components of the bay consistently indicate submicromolar concenrations (from <1 nM to 162 nM), as one would expect in an oxidizing environment. However, chemical speciation calculations over the range of observed sulfide concentrations indicate that these trace concentrations in the bay water column can markedly affect chemical speciation of ecologically significant trace metals such as cadmium, copper, and zinc.

  3. Percutaneous absorption of selenium sulfide

    SciT

    Farley, J.; Skelly, E.M.; Weber, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine selenium levels in the urine of Tinea patients before and after overnight application of a 2.5% selenium sulfide lotion. Selenium was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Hydride generation and carbon rod atomization were studied. It was concluded from this study that selenium is absorbed through intact skin. Selenium is then excreted, at least partially, in urine, for at least a week following treatment. The data show that absorption and excretion of selenium vary on an individual basis. Selenium levels in urine following a single application of selenium sulfide lotion do notmore » indicate that toxic amounts of selenium are being absorbed. Repeated treatments with SeS/sub 2/ result in selenium concentrations in urine which are significantly higher than normal. Significant matrix effects are observed in the carbon rod atomization of urine samples for selenium determinations, even in the presence of a matrix modifier such as nickel. The method of standard additions is required to obtain accurate results in the direct determination of selenium in urine by carbon rod AAS.« less

  4. Weathering of sulfides on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.; Fisher, Duncan S.

    1987-01-01

    Pyrrhotite-pentlandite assemblages in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks may have contributed significantly to the chemical weathering reactions that produce degradation products in the Martian regolith. By analogy and terrestrial processes, a model is proposed whereby supergene alteration of these primary Fe-Ni sulfides on Mars has generated secondary sulfides (e.g., pyrite) below the water table and produced acidic groundwater containing high concentrations of dissolved Fe, Ni, and sulfate ions. The low pH solutions also initiated weathering reactions of igneous feldspars and ferromagnesian silicates to form clay silicate and ferric oxyhydroxide phases. Near-surface oxidation and hydrolysis of ferric sulfato-and hydroxo-complex ions and sols formed gossan above the water table consisting of poorly crystalline hydrated ferric sulfates (e.g., jarosite), oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite), and silica (opal). Underlying groundwater, now permafrost contains hydroxo sulfato complexes of Fe, Al, Mg, Ni, which may be stabilized in frozen acidic solutions beneath the surface of Mars. Sublimation of permafrost may replenish colloidal ferric oxides, sulfates, and phyllosilicates during dust storms on Mars.

  5. Protective Coats For Zinc-Rich Primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G, III

    1993-01-01

    Report describes tests of topcoats for inorganic zinc-rich primers on carbon steel. Topcoats intended to provide additional protection against corrosion in acidic, salty seacoast-air/rocket-engine-exhaust environment of Space Shuttle launch site. Tests focused on polyurethane topcoats on epoxy tie coats on primers. Part of study involved comparison between "high-build" coating materials and thin-film coating materials.

  6. Vesicle-metal-sulfide assemblages from the Chelyabinsk meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronikov, A.; Lauretta, D.; Hill, D.; Andronikova, I.

    2014-07-01

    On February 15, 2013, an ET object entered the Earth's atmosphere over the Russian city of Chelyabinsk. It entered at a preatmospheric velocity of 18.6 km/sec at the angle of 17--20°. The bolide responsible for this event was estimated to be 17-20 m in diameter and had a mass of ˜10 Ktons; the ensuing airburst occurred at an altitude >20 km and released a total energy of ˜440 kT [1,2]. The Chelyabinsk meteorite is an equilibrated LL5 ordinary chondrite, shock stage S4, and weathering grade WG0 similar to other LL5 falls [1,2]. Our studied sample is an impact melt breccia consisting of shock-darkened chondrite clasts (SDC) and vesicular impact melt lithology (IML). The SDC have recrystallized textures and contain barred- and porphyritic-olivine, porphyritic-olivine-pyroxene and radial-pyroxene chondrules in the intrachondrule matrix. A dense network of thin fractures in the SDC is filled up with opaque minerals [cf. 3]. Metals in the SDC are kamacite (4.7--8.5 % Ni), taenite (21.4--33.5 % Ni), and martensite (14.5--18.6 % Ni). The IML consists mostly of tiny (<10 microns) silicate grains surrounded by patches of glass. The IML is characterized by the presence of multiple vesicles (up to 1 mm) in silicate matrix. The vesicles are often filled up with sulfide-metal assemblages or only with sulfide. Metals in the IML are martensite (12.9--18.4 % Ni) and taenite (19.3--47.3 % Ni). Sulfides from both SDC and IML are Ni-bearing troilite (62.2--64.2 % Fe; 35.2--37.2 % S; 3000--5000 ppm Ni), with rare pentlandite (41.2--48.6 % Fe, 33.2--34.3 % S, 19.4--23.9 % Ni). The presence of abundant vesicles in the IML indicates strong heating and volatilization. Since no other phase except for sulfide-metal assemblages were observed to fill up vesicles, the likely source of volatiles is S vapor formed by vaporization of FeS during impact melting [cf. 4]. Molten metal and sulfide coalesced into droplets of metal-sulfide liquids forming eventually sulfide-metal assemblages. A

  7. Zinc and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Juan P.; Guo, Liang; Yoo, Changwon; Stewart, Tiffanie S

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process through which cells overcome stressful conditions. Inasmuch as faulty autophagy has been associated with aging, neuronal degeneration disorders, diabetes, and fatty liver, autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning the role of zinc in the regulation of autophagy, the role of autophagy in zinc metabolism, and the potential role of autophagy as a mediator of the protective effects of zinc. Data from in vitro studies consistently support the notion that zinc is critical for early and late autophagy. Studies have shown inhibition of early and late autophagy in cells cultured in medium treated with zinc chelators. Conversely, excess zinc added to the medium has shown to potentiate the stimulation of autophagy by tamoxifen, H2O2, ethanol and dopamine. The potential role of autophagy in zinc homeostasis has just begun to be investigated.Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy dysregulation causes significant changes in cellular zinc homeostasis. Autophagy may mediate the protective effect of zinc against lipid accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation by promoting degradation of lipid droplets, inflammasomes, p62/SQSTM1 and damaged mitochondria.Studies with humans and animal models are necessary to determine whether autophagy is influenced by zinc intake. PMID:25012760

  8. Electrical characterization of grain boundaries of CZTS thin films using conductive atomic force microscopy techniques

    SciT

    Muhunthan, N.; Singh, Om Pal; Toutam, Vijaykumar, E-mail: toutamvk@nplindia.org

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Experimental setup for conducting AFM (C-AFM). - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin film was grown by reactive co-sputtering. • The electronic properties were probed using conducting atomic force microscope, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy and scanning capacitance microscopy. • C-AFM current flow mainly through grain boundaries rather than grain interiors. • SKPM indicated higher potential along the GBs compared to grain interiors. • The SCM explains that charge separation takes place at the interface of grain and grain boundary. - Abstract: Electrical characterization of grain boundaries (GB) of Cu-deficient CZTS (Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide) thin films wasmore » done using atomic force microscopic (AFM) techniques like Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM), Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). Absorbance spectroscopy was done for optical band gap calculations and Raman, XRD and EDS for structural and compositional characterization. Hall measurements were done for estimation of carrier mobility. CAFM and KPFM measurements showed that the currents flow mainly through grain boundaries (GB) rather than grain interiors. SCM results showed that charge separation mainly occurs at the interface of grain and grain boundaries and not all along the grain boundaries.« less

  9. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1997-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  10. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1999-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  11. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1999-02-02

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  12. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1997-12-30

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  13. Sulfide binding properties of truncated hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Francesco P; Comandini, Alessandra; Bonamore, Alessandra; Boechi, Leonardo; Boubeta, Fernando Martin; Feis, Alessandro; Smulevich, Giulietta; Boffi, Alberto

    2010-03-16

    The truncated hemoglobins from Bacillus subtilis (Bs-trHb) and Thermobifida fusca (Tf-trHb) have been shown to form high-affinity complexes with hydrogen sulfide in their ferric state. The recombinant proteins, as extracted from Escherichia coli cells after overexpression, are indeed partially saturated with sulfide, and even highly purified samples still contain a small but significant amount of iron-bound sulfide. Thus, a complete thermodynamic and kinetic study has been undertaken by means of equilibrium and kinetic displacement experiments to assess the relevant sulfide binding parameters. The body of experimental data indicates that both proteins possess a high affinity for hydrogen sulfide (K = 5.0 x 10(6) and 2.8 x 10(6) M(-1) for Bs-trHb and Tf-trHb, respectively, at pH 7.0), though lower with respect to that reported previously for the sulfide avid Lucina pectinata I hemoglobins (2.9 x 10(8) M(-1)). From the kinetic point of view, the overall high affinity resides in the slow rate of sulfide release, attributed to hydrogen bonding stabilization of the bound ligand by distal residue WG8. A set of point mutants in which these residues have been replaced with Phe indicates that the WG8 residue represents the major kinetic barrier to the escape of the bound sulfide species. Accordingly, classical molecular dynamics simulations of SH(-)-bound ferric Tf-trHb show that WG8 plays a key role in the stabilization of coordinated SH(-) whereas the YCD1 and YB10 contributions are negligible. Interestingly, the triple Tf-trHb mutant bearing only Phe residues in the relevant B10, G8, and CD1 positions is endowed with a higher overall affinity for sulfide characterized by a very fast second-order rate constant and 2 order of magnitude faster kinetics of sulfide release with respect to the wild-type protein. Resonance Raman spectroscopy data indicate that the sulfide adducts are typical of a ferric iron low-spin derivative. In analogy with other low-spin ferric sulfide

  14. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  15. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  16. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciT

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remainedmore » constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.« less

  17. Lithium-cupric sulfide cell

    SciT

    Cuesta, A.J.; Bump, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Lithium cells have become the primary power source for cardiac pacemakers due to their reliability and longevity at low current drain rates. A lithium-cupric sulfide cell was developed which makes maximum use of the shape of a pacemaker's battery compartment. The cell has a stable voltage throughout 90% of its lifetime. It then drops to a second stable voltage before depletion. The voltage drop creates a small decrease in pacemaker rate, which alerts the physician to replace the pacemaker. No loss of capacity due to self-discharge as been seen to date, and cells have proven to be safe under extrememore » conditions. 2 refs.« less

  18. Microbial control of hydrogen sulfide production

    SciT

    Montgomery, A.D.; Bhupathiraju, V.K.; Wofford, N.

    1995-12-31

    A sulfide-resistant strain of Thiobacillus denitrificans, strain F, prevented the accumulation of sulfide by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans when both organisms were grown in liquid medium. The wild-type strain of T. denitrificans did not prevent the accumulation of sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans. Strain F also prevented the accumulation of sulfide by a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from an oil field brine. Fermentation balances showed that strain F stoichiometrically oxidized the sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans and the oil field brine enrichment to sulfate. The ability of a strain F to control sulfide production in an experimental system of coresmore » and formation water from the Redfield, Iowa, natural gas storage facility was also investigated. A stable, sulfide-producing biofilm was established in two separate core systems, one of which was inoculated with strain F while the other core system (control) was treated in an identical manner, but was not inoculated with strain F. When formation water with 10 mM acetate and 5 mM nitrate was injected into both core systems, the effluent sulfide concentrations in the control core system ranged from 200 to 460 {mu}M. In the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were lower, ranging from 70 to 110 {mu}M. In order to determine whether strain F could control sulfide production under optimal conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria, the electron donor was changed to lactate and inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphate sources) were added to the formation water. When nutrient-supplemented formation water with 3.1 mM lactate and 10 mM nitrate was used, the effluent sulfide concentrations of the control core system initially increased to about 3,800 {mu}M, and then decreased to about 1,100 {mu}M after 5 weeks. However, in the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were much lower, 160 to 330 {mu}M.« less

  19. The mineralogical transformation of a polymetallic sulfide ore during partial roasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Louis

    2001-12-01

    A partial desulfurization roasting process has been tested on a typical copper-zinc sulfide concentrate in a Nichols Herreshoff monohearth pilot furnace. In this process, the sulfur is partially removed and iron, to a certain degree, is preferentially oxidized. The mineralogical characterizations of the reaction products at different residence times enable the recognition of a sequence of reactions and various textural relationships during the roasting. The testing showed that a controlled desulfurization at a temperature as low as 650°C can lead to the decomposition of chalcopyrite, resulting in the formation of discrete particles of Cu2S having a size ranging from five to 20 micrometers or more.

  20. Thin-film semiconductor rectifier has improved properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Cadmium selenide-zinc selenide film is used as a thin film semiconductor rectifier. The film is vapor-deposited in a controlled concentration gradient into a glass substrate to form the required junctions between vapor-deposited gold electrodes.