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Sample records for zinc sulphate supplementation

  1. The effect of feed supplementation with zinc chelate and zinc sulphate on selected humoral and cell-mediated immune parameters and cytokine concentration in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Łukasz; Marek, Agnieszka; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Kalinowski, Marcin

    2017-06-01

    The ability of poultry to withstand infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses or protozoa depends upon the integrity of the immune system. Zinc is important for proper functioning of heterophils, mononuclear phagocytes and T lymphocytes. Numerous data indicate that the demand for zinc in poultry is not met in Poland due to its low content in feeds of vegetable origin. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplementation of inorganic (ZnSO 4 and ZnSO 4 + phytase enzyme), and organic forms of zinc (Zn with glycine and Zn with glycine and phytase enzyme) on selected parameters of the cellular and humoral immune response in broiler chickens by evaluating the percentage of CD3 + CD4 + , CD3 + CD8 + , CD25 + , MHC Class II, and BU-1 + lymphocytes, the phagocytic activity of monocytes and heterophils, and the concentration of IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α in the peripheral blood. Flow cytometry was used to determine selected cell-mediated immune response parameters. Phagocytic activity in whole blood was performed using the commercial Phagotest kit (ORPEGEN-Pharma, Immuniq, Poland). The results showed that supplementation with zinc chelates causes activation of the cellular and humoral immune response in poultry, helping to maintain the balance between the Th1 and Th2 response and enhancing resistance to infections. In contrast with chelates, the use of zinc in the form of sulphates has no immunomodulatory effect and may contribute to the development of local inflammatory processes in the digestive tract, increasing susceptibility to infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Reinvestigation of growth of 'L-valine zinc sulphate' crystal.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Jyai, Rita N

    2014-01-01

    A reinvestigation of the growth of l-valine zinc sulphate crystal is reported. The slow evaporation of an aqueous solution containing l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate results in the fractional crystallization of l-valine and not the organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical l-valine zinc sulphate crystal, as reported by Puhal Raj and Ramachandra Raja (2012). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Zinc supplementation in public health.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is necessary for physiological processes including defense against infections. Zinc deficiency is responsible for 4% of global child morbidity and mortality. Zinc supplements given for 10-14 days together with low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (Lo-ORS) are recommended for the treatment of childhood diarrhea. In children aged ≥ 6 months, daily zinc supplements reduce the duration of acute diarrhea episodes by 12 h and persistent diarrhea by 17 h. Zinc supplements could reduce diarrhea mortality in children aged 12-59 months by an estimated 23%; they are very safe but are associated with an increase in vomiting especially with the first dose. Heterogeneity between the results of trials is not understood but may be related to dose and the etiology of the diarrhea infection. Integration of zinc and Lo-ORS into national programs is underway but slowly, procurement problems are being overcome and the greatest challenge is changing health provider and caregiver attitudes to diarrhea management. Fewer trials have been conducted of zinc adjunct therapy in severe respiratory tract infections and there is as yet insufficient evidence to recommend addition of zinc to antibiotic therapy. Daily zinc supplements for all children >12 months of age in zinc deficient populations are estimated to reduce diarrhea incidence by 11-23%. The greatest impact is in reducing multiple episodes of diarrhea. The effect on duration of diarrheal episodes is less clear, but there may be up to 9% reduction. Zinc is also efficacious in reducing dysentery and persistent diarrhea. Zinc supplements may also prevent pneumonia by about 19%, but heterogeneity across studies has not yet been explained. When analyses are restricted to better quality studies using CHERG (Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group) methodology, zinc supplements are estimated to reduce diarrheal deaths by 13% and pneumonia deaths by 20%. National-level programs to combat childhood zinc deficiency should be

  4. Zinc supplementation for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Person, Osmar C; Puga, Maria Es; da Silva, Edina Mk; Torloni, Maria R

    2016-11-23

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound without external acoustic stimuli. Patients with severe tinnitus may have physical and psychological complaints and their tinnitus can cause deterioration in their quality of life. At present no specific therapy for tinnitus has been found to be satisfactory in all patients. In recent decades, a number of reports have suggested that oral zinc supplementation may be effective in the management of tinnitus. Since zinc has a role in cochlear physiology and in the synapses of the auditory system, there is a plausible mechanism of action for this treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral zinc supplementation in the management of patients with tinnitus. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 6); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 14 July 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing zinc supplementation versus placebo in adults (18 years and over) with tinnitus. We used the standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Our primary outcome measures were improvement in tinnitus severity and disability, measured by a validated tinnitus-specific questionnaire, and adverse effects. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, change in socioeconomic impact associated with work, change in anxiety and depression disorders, change in psychoacoustic parameters, change in tinnitus loudness, change in overall severity of tinnitus and change in thresholds on pure tone audiometry. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included three trials involving a total of 209 participants. The studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. All included studies had differences in participant selection criteria, length of follow-up and outcome measurement

  5. Zinc supplements for treating thalassaemia and sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Swe, Kye Mon Min; Abas, Adinegara B L; Bhardwaj, Amit; Barua, Ankur; Nair, N S

    2013-06-28

    control group, mean difference 47.40 (95% confidence interval -12.95 to 107.99). Regarding anthropometry, in one trial, height velocity was significantly increased in patients who received zinc supplementation for one to seven years duration, mean difference 3.37 (95% confidence interval 2.36 to 4.38) (total number of participants = 26). In one trial, however, there was no difference in body mass index between treatment groups.Zinc acetate supplementation for three months (in one trial) and one year (in two trials) (total number of participants = 71) was noted to increase the serum zinc level significantly in patients with sickle cell anaemia, mean difference 14.90 (95% confidence interval 6.94 to 22.86) and 20.25 (95% confidence interval 11.73 to 28.77) respectively. There was no significant difference in haemoglobin level between intervention and control groups, at either three months (one trial) or one year (one trial), mean difference 0.06 (95% confidence interval -0.84 to 0.96) and mean difference -0.07 (95% confidence interval -1.40 to 1.26) respectively. Regarding anthropometry, one trial showed no significant changes in body mass index or weight after one year of zinc acetate supplementation. In patients with sickle cell disease, the total number of sickle cell crises at one year were significantly decreased in the zinc sulphate supplemented group as compared to controls, mean difference -2.83 (95% confidence interval -3.51 to -2.15) (total participants 130), but not in zinc acetate group, mean difference 1.54 (95% confidence interval -2.01 to 5.09) (total participants 22). In one trial at three months and another at one year, the total number of clinical infections were significantly decreased in the zinc supplemented group as compared to controls, mean difference 0.05 (95% confidence interval 0.01 - 0.43) (total number of participants = 36), and mean difference -7.64 (95% confidence interval -10.89 to -4.39) (total number of participants = 21) respectively

  6. Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

  7. [Concordance between the zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites].

    PubMed

    Inês, Elizabete De Jesus; Pacheco, Flavia Thamiris Figueiredo; Pinto, Milena Carneiro; Mendes, Patrícia Silva de Almeida; Da Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Soares, Neci Matos; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina Aquino

    2016-12-01

    The diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections depends on the parasite load, the specific gravity density of the parasite eggs, oocysts or cysts, and the density and viscosity of flotation or sedimentation medium where faeces are processed. To evaluate the concordance between zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation in the recovery of parasites in faecal samples of children. Faecal samples of 330 children from day care centers were evaluated by zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation techniques. The frequencies of detection of parasites by each method were determined and the agreement between the diagnostic techniques was evaluated using the kappa index, with 95% confidence intervals. The faecal flotation in zinc sulphate diagnosed significantly more cases of Trichuris trichiura infection when compared to centrifugal sedimentation (39/330; 11.8% vs. 13/330; 3.9%, p<0.001), with low diagnostic concordance between methods (kappa=0.264; 95% CI: 0.102-0.427). Moreover, all positive samples for Enterobius vermicularis eggs (n=5) and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (n=3) were diagnosed only by zinc sulphate. No statistical differences were observed between methods for protozoa identification. The results showed that centrifugal flotation in zinc sulphate solution was significantly more likely to detect light helminths eggs such as those of T. trichiura and E. vermicularis in faeces than the centrifugal sedimentation process.

  8. Optimisation of the zinc sulphate turbidity test for the determination of immune status.

    PubMed

    Hogan, I; Doherty, M; Fagan, J; Kennedy, E; Conneely, M; Crowe, B; Lorenz, I

    2016-02-13

    Failure of passive transfer of maternal immunity occurs in calves that fail to absorb sufficient immunoglobulins from ingested colostrum. The zinc sulphate turbidity test has been developed to test bovine neonates for this failure. The specificity of this test has been shown to be less than ideal. The objective was to examine how parameters of the zinc sulphate turbidity test may be manipulated in order to improve its diagnostic accuracy. One hundred and five blood samples were taken from calves of dairy cows receiving various rates of colostrum feeding. The zinc sulphate turbidity test was carried out multiple times on each sample, varying the solution strength, time of reaction and wavelength of light used and the results compared with those of a radial immunodiffusion test, which is the reference method for measuring immunoglobulin concentration in serum. Reducing the time over which the reaction occurs, or increasing the wavelength of light used to read the turbidity, resulted in decreased specificity without improving sensitivity. Increasing the concentration of the zinc sulphate solution used in the test was shown to improve the specificity without decreasing sensitivity. Examination of the cut-off points suggested that a lower cut-off point would improve the performance. British Veterinary Association.

  9. A randomised controlled trial of oral zinc sulphate for primary dysmenorrhoea in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Zekavat, Omid R; Karimi, Mohammad Y; Amanat, Aida; Alipour, Farzaneh

    2015-08-01

    Primary dysmenorrhoea, the most common gynaecologic problem of adolescent females, is commonly treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or oral contraceptive pills. To compare the effect of zinc sulphate with that of placebo on the control of pain severity and duration in adolescent girls with primary dysmenorrhoea. In a three-month randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 120 adolescent females with primary dysmenorrhoea were randomly divided into two groups of sixty: an intervention group (zinc) and a control group (placebo). Zinc was administered in the form of a capsule containing 50 mg/day zinc sulphate beginning on the first day of menses and continuing until three days prior to the end of menses. Each month, the duration and severity of primary dysmenorrhoea were determined. Severity scoring was performed by using a 0-10 scaling system. In the first month, the duration of pain was significantly lower in the zinc group compared with the placebo group (P-value = 0.044), while there was no significant difference in pain severity between the groups (P-value = 0.497). In the second and third month, pain severity and duration in the zinc group were significantly lower than the placebo group (P-value <0.001). Both pain duration and pain severity were decreased by taking oral zinc. The results of our interventional study suggests that zinc may be used to treat primary dysmenorrhoea in adolescents. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Structural, thermal and optical properties of a semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystal: glycine zinc sulphate.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, T; Ramamurthi, K

    2007-10-01

    Glycine zinc sulphate salt was synthesized and the solubility and metastable zonewidth were estimated from the aqueous solution. Single crystals of glycine zinc sulphate were grown by solvent evaporation method from aqueous solution. Grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectral analyses. The range and percentage of optical transmission was ascertained by recording UV-vis-NIR spectrum. Thermal properties of the crystal were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Microhardness study was carried out on (01-1) face of the grown crystal. Its powder second harmonic generation efficiency was measured using Nd:YAG laser and the value was observed to be 0.7 times that of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate.

  11. Hexagonal ZnO porous plates prepared from microwave synthesized layered zinc hydroxide sulphate via thermal decomposition

    SciT

    Machovsky, Michal, E-mail: machovsky@ft.utb.cz; Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin; Kuritka, Ivo, E-mail: ivo@kuritka.net

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was synthesized in 3 min via microwave hydrothermal route. • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was converted into mesh like porous ZnO by calcining at 900°. • The process of transformation is topotactic. - Abstract: Layered zinc hydroxide sulphate (ZHS) was prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal precipitation of zinc sulphate monohydrate with hexamethylenetetramine. Under ambient conditions, the structure of ZHS determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) was found to be a mixture of zinc hydroxide sulphate pentahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·5H{sub 2}O and tetrahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·4H{sub 2}O. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was usedmore » for characterization of the prepared materials. Based on the interpretation of ZHS's thermal decomposition profile obtained by thermogravimetric analysis, ZnO of high purity was prepared by calcination at 900 °C for 2 h. The structure of the resulting ZnO was confirmed by the XRD. The morphology examination by scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous mesh-like ZnO structure developed from the ZHS precursor at the expense of mass removal due to the release of water and sulphate during the calcination.« less

  12. A dynamic model for predicting growth in zinc-deficient stunted infants given supplemental zinc.

    PubMed

    Wastney, Meryl E; McDonald, Christine M; King, Janet C

    2018-05-01

    Zinc deficiency limits infant growth and increases susceptibility to infections, which further compromises growth. Zinc supplementation improves the growth of zinc-deficient stunted infants, but the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc supplementation required to restore growth in an individual child is unknown. A dynamic model of zinc metabolism that predicts changes in weight and length of zinc-deficient, stunted infants with dietary zinc would be useful to define effective zinc supplementation regimens. The aims of this study were to develop a dynamic model for zinc metabolism in stunted, zinc-deficient infants and to use that model to predict the growth response when those infants are given zinc supplements. A model of zinc metabolism was developed using data on zinc kinetics, tissue zinc, and growth requirements for healthy 9-mo-old infants. The kinetic model was converted to a dynamic model by replacing the rate constants for zinc absorption and excretion with functions for these processes that change with zinc intake. Predictions of the dynamic model, parameterized for zinc-deficient, stunted infants, were compared with the results of 5 published zinc intervention trials. The model was then used to predict the results for zinc supplementation regimes that varied in the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc dosing. Model predictions agreed with published changes in plasma zinc after zinc supplementation. Predictions of weight and length agreed with 2 studies, but overpredicted values from a third study in which other nutrient deficiencies may have been growth limiting; the model predicted that zinc absorption was impaired in that study. The model suggests that frequent, smaller doses (5-10 mg Zn/d) are more effective for increasing growth in stunted, zinc-deficient 9-mo-old infants than are larger, less-frequent doses. The dose amount affects the duration of dosing necessary to restore and maintain plasma zinc concentration and growth.

  13. Degradation of Organic Matter from Stabilized Leachate by Using Zinc Sulphate as Coagulant Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, M. A.; Yusoff, MS; Adam, N. H.; Maz, M. R. R.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Alrozi, R.; Zawawi, M. H.

    2018-06-01

    Stabilized landfill leachate often contains higher organic fractions than the young one. The organics require several sequential treatments to render the leachate parameters concentrations to permissible discharge limits before being discharged to receiving water. This study focused on the application of Zinc Sulphate (ZnSO4) as coagulant agent followed with microfiltration of 0.45 µm pore size under different condition of landfill leachates. The results indicated that the sludge volume index (SVI), soluble COD and turbidity concentrations were inter-related to each other when compared under different ZnSO4 dosages. However, that was not the case when correlation between stabilized and young leachate were compared side by side. To conform the finding, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted and the results were further explained by the adequacy and significant of confidence interval. Finally, it was proven that, soluble and particulate COD had significant CI of 95% applicable for stabilized leachate alone.

  14. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  15. Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide123

    PubMed Central

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnić, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6–71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6–71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9–57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  16. Effects of zinc supplementation on obesity: study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Kumari M; Silva, Kdrr; Jayawardena, Ranil

    2016-11-04

    The prevalence of obesity is escalating alarmingly worldwide, and it is now becoming a rapidly growing epidemic in developing countries. Recent studies have reported that zinc has been implicated in altered lipid markers, insulin resistance and some obesity markers. There is a lack of evidence on zinc as a potential therapeutic agent to reduce weight and improve metabolic parameters in obese adults. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of zinc supplementation on obese adults in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate the effects of zinc supplementation on metabolic parameters in this population. This study will be conducted as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial for a period of 3 months at the clinical laboratory, Department of Applied Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka to assess the efficacy of daily zinc 20 mg supplementation in obese subjects. There will be a total of 80 subjects, aged between 18-60 years, of both genders, who are obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥25). Subjects will be stratified according to age, gender and BMI and randomly assigned into the test and placebo groups in a 1:1 ratio. The treatment drug is a capsule containing elemental zinc 20 mg as the active ingredient (as zinc sulphate). The placebo capsule will contain lactose monohydrate. The subjects will receive either zinc capsules or placebo daily for 3 months. The study treatments will be double blinded to both investigator and subject. The visits and the evaluations will be as follows: screening (visit 0), baseline (visit 1) and 3 month (visit 2). The primary outcome will be weight reduction among the obese subjects. Secondary outcome measures include glycaemic status (fasting blood glucose), lipid parameters (total cholesterol, triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and blood pressure. The trial protocol will aim to establish the effects of zinc supplementation on weight

  17. Effects of In Vitro Zinc Sulphate Additive to The Semen Extender on Water Buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) Spermatozoa before and after Freezing

    PubMed Central

    Dorostkar, Kamran; Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Khaki, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of in vitro zinc sulphate additive to semen extender on sperm parameters (progressive motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA stability) after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods In this Prospective longitudinal laboratory study, semen samples of 5 buffalo bulls of 3-5 years old were collected at 5 different occasions from Iran, Urmia during summer and autumn 2011, 25 samples were used in each treatment. Sperm progressive motility, viability and abnormal morphology were measured before and at 0.5 (T0), 1(T1) and 2(T2) hours after diluting semen(1:10 v/v) in Tris-citric acid based extender (without egg yolk and glycerol) at 37˚C containing none (control group), 0.072, 0.144, 0.288, 0.576 and 1.152 mg/L zinc sulphate to investigate dose and time effects. Next, a Tris-citric acid-egg yolk-glycerol extender (20% egg yolk and 7% glycerol) containing the same amount of zinc sulphate was prepared, diluted semen (1:10 v/v) was cooled and kept into a refrigerated chamber (4˚C) for 4 hours to equilibrate. Sperm progressive motility, viability, abnormal morphology, membrane integrity and DNA damage were estimated.The equilibrated semen was loaded in 0.5 ml French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Later, the frozen semen was thawed and the same parameters as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the frozen-thawed semen were determined. Results The results showed that zinc sulphate additive at the rate of 0.288 mg/L gave a higher protection of sperm progressive motility (53.7 ± 1.8% vs. 40.5 ± 1.7%), viability (70.8 ± 1.8% vs. 60.1 ± 1.5%), membrane integrity (67.3 ± 1.6% vs. 56.6 ± 1.7%), DNA stability (10.1 ± 0.47% vs. 11.8 ± 0.33% damaged DNA) through the process of dilution, equilibration and freeze-thawing and caused a higher TAC level (81 ± 3.3% vs. 63 ± 3.2 µmol/L) after freez-thawing compared to the control group. Adding 0.576 and 1.152 mg/L zinc sulphate, however

  18. Supplemental levels of iron and calcium interfere with repletion of zinc status in zinc-deficient animals.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, S; Platel, Kalpana

    2016-05-18

    Negative interactions between minerals interfering with each other's absorption are of concern when iron and calcium supplements are given to pregnant women and children. We have previously reported that supplemental levels of iron and calcium inhibit the bioaccessibility of zinc, and compromise zinc status in rats fed diets with high levels of these two minerals. The present study examined the effect of supplemental levels of iron and calcium on the recovery of zinc status during a zinc repletion period in rats rendered zinc-deficient. Iron and calcium, both individually and in combination, significantly interfered with the recovery of zinc status in zinc deficient rats during repletion with normal levels of zinc in the diet. Rats maintained on diets containing supplemental levels of these two minerals had significantly lower body weight, and the concentration of zinc in serum and organs was significantly lower than in zinc-deficient rats not receiving the supplements. Iron and calcium supplementation also significantly inhibited the activity of zinc-containing enzymes in the serum as well as liver. Both iron and calcium independently exerted this negative effect on zinc status, while their combination seemed to have a more prominent effect, especially on the activities of zinc containing enzymes. This investigation is probably the first systematic study on the effect of these two minerals on the zinc status of zinc deficient animals and their recovery during repletion with normal amounts of zinc.

  19. [Advances in the research of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation treatment in patients with severe burns].

    PubMed

    Wang, X X; Zhang, M J; Li, X B

    2018-01-20

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in human body, which plays an important role in regulating acute inflammatory response, glucose metabolism, anti-oxidation, immune and gastrointestinal function of patients with severe burns. Patients with severe burns may suffer from zinc deficiency because of insufficient amount of zinc intake from the diet and a large amount of zinc lose through wounds and urine. Zinc deficiency may affect their wound healing process and prognosis. This article reviews the characteristics of zinc metabolism in patients with severe burns through dynamic monitoring the plasma and urinary concentration of zinc. An adequate dosage of zinc supplemented to patients with severe burns by an appropriate method can increase the level of zinc in plasma and skin tissue and improve wound healing, as well as reduce the infection rates and mortality. At the same time, it is important to observe the symptoms and signs of nausea, dizziness, leukopenia and arrhythmia in patients with severe burns after supplementing excessive zinc.

  20. Associations between intestinal mucosal function and changes in plasma zinc concentration following zinc supplementation1

    PubMed Central

    Wessells, K. Ryan; Hess, Sonja Y.; Rouamba, Noel; Ouédraogo, Zinewendé P.; Kellogg, Mark; Goto, Rie; Duggan, Christopher; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Subclinical environmental enteropathy is associated with malabsorption of fats, carbohydrates, and vitamins A, B12 and folate; however, little information is available on mineral absorption. We therefore investigated the relationship between intestinal mucosal function (measured by the lactulose:mannitol permeability test and plasma citrulline concentration), and zinc absorption, as estimated by the change in plasma zinc concentration (PZC) following short-term zinc or placebo supplementation. Methods We conducted a randomized, partially-masked, placebo-controlled trial among 282 apparently healthy children 6–23 mo of age in Burkina Faso. After completing baseline intestinal function tests, participants received either 5 mg zinc, as zinc sulfate, or placebo, daily for 21 d. Results At baseline, mean ± SD PZC was 62.9 ± 11.9 µg/dL; median (IQR) urinary lactulose:mannitol (L:M) recovery ratio and plasma citrulline concentration were 0.04 (0.03 – 0.07) and 11.4 (9.0 – 15.6) µmol/L, respectively. Change in PZC was significantly greater in the zinc supplemented versus placebo group (15.6 ± 13.3 µg/dL vs. 0.02 ± 10.9 µg/dL; P < 0.0001), and was negatively associated with initial urinary L:M recovery ratio (−1.1 µg/dL per 50% increase in urinary L:M recovery ratio; P = 0.014); this latter relationship did not differ between supplementation groups (P = 0.26). Baseline plasma citrulline concentration was not associated with change in PZC. Conclusions Although altered intestinal permeability may reduce dietary zinc absorption, it likely does not undermine the efficacy of zinc supplementation, given the large increases in PZC following short-term zinc supplementation observed in this study, even among those with increased urinary L:M recovery ratios. PMID:23689263

  1. Zinc supplementation for the treatment of measles in children.

    PubMed

    Awotiwon, Ajibola A; Oduwole, Olabisi; Sinha, Anju; Okwundu, Charles I

    2017-06-20

    Measles is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally, despite increasing vaccine coverage. Zinc plays a significant role in the maintenance of normal immunological functions, therefore supplements given to zinc-deficient children will increase the availability of zinc and could reduce measles-related morbidity and mortality. This is an update of a review first published in 2015. To assess the effects of zinc supplementation in reducing morbidity and mortality in children with measles. We searched CENTRAL (03 February 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1946 to 03 February 2017), Embase (1974 to 03 February 2017), CINAHL (1981 to 03 February 2017), LILACS (1982 to 03 February 2017), Web of Science (1985 to 03 February 2017), and BIOSIS Previews (1985 to 27 June 2014). We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov, the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) on 03 February 2017 to identify unpublished and ongoing studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating the effects of zinc in reducing morbidity and mortality in children with measles. Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted data on outcomes, details of the interventions, and other study characteristics using a standardised data extraction form. We used risk ratio (RR) and hazard ratio (HR) as measures of effect with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included only one study, and did not conduct meta-analysis. We did not identify any new studies for inclusion in this update. One RCT met our inclusion criteria. The study was conducted in India and included 85 children diagnosed with measles and pneumonia. The trial showed no significant difference in mortality between children with measles and pneumonia who received zinc supplements and those who received placebo (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.01 to 8.14). There was no significant difference in time to

  2. Effect of oral zinc supplementation upon Taenia crassiceps murine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, G; Lastra, M D; Aguilar, A E; Pastelin, R; Rosas, G; Meneses, G; Sciutto, E; Lamoyi, E

    2001-10-01

    The effect of zinc supplementation on Taenia crassiceps murine cysticercosis was studied in susceptible BALB/cAnN mice. Female offspring of mice supplemented with high zinc throughout gestation and lactation were intraperitoneally infected with T. crassiceps cysticerci. Offspring from nonsupplemented mothers were used as controls. Significantly fewer parasites were recovered from zinc-supplemented mice (Zsm) 30 days after infection. Increased resistance was not related to the IgG antibody response. At early stages of infection, T cells from Zsm proliferated to T. crassiceps antigens, whereas cells from control mice did not respond. Infection caused in both groups a decrease in CD3+ cell percentages, which was more pronounced in the controls, and paralleled by a decrease in CD8+ cells; CD3+ and CD8+ percentages returned to normal levels at later stages of infection. In contrast, the CD4+ subpopulation only decreased in control mice. Intracellular cytokine determinations indicate that zinc supplementation favored a stronger and persistent type-1 T cell response in cysticerci-infected mice, which probably participates in the observed increased resistance.

  3. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  4. Zinc Supplementation in Treatment of Children With Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Naziri, Mahdyieh; Taherahmadi, Hassan; Kahbazi, Manijeh; Tabaei, Aram

    2016-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is very common in children. Precocious diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important because of the permanent disease complications. Zinc increases the response to treatment in many infections. In this study, we explored the effect of zinc in treating UTI. Two hundred children with UTI were divided into 2 groups of 100 who were comparable in terms of age, sex, urine laboratory profiles, and clinical signs and symptoms. The control group received a standard treatment protocol for UTI and the intervention group received oral zinc sulfate syrup plus routine treatment of UTI. A faster recovery was observed in the patients receiving zinc, but abdominal pain was exacerbated by zinc and lasted longer. Three months after the treatment, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the time of fever stop and negative urine culture. In children with UTI, zinc supplementation has a positive effect in ameliorating severe dysuria and urinary frequency while the use of this medication is not recommended in the presence of abdominal pain.

  5. Zinc supplementation for the treatment of measles in children.

    PubMed

    Awotiwon, Ajibola A; Oduwole, Olabisi; Sinha, Anju; Okwundu, Charles I

    2015-03-20

    Measles is still an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally, despite increasing vaccine coverage. Zinc plays a significant role in the maintenance of normal immunological functions, therefore supplements given to zinc-deficient children will increase the availability of zinc and could reduce measles-related morbidity and mortality. To assess the effects of zinc supplementation in reducing morbidity and mortality in children with measles. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1946 to June week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to June 2014), CINAHL (1981 to June 2014), LILACS (1982 to June 2014), Web of Science (1985 to June 2014) and BIOSIS Previews (1985 to June 2014). We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) to identify unpublished and ongoing studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating the effects of zinc in reducing morbidity and mortality in children with measles. Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted data on outcomes, details of the interventions and other study characteristics using a standardised data extraction form. We used the risk ratio (RR) and hazard ratio as measures of effect with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included only one study and we did not conduct any meta-analysis. One RCT met our inclusion criteria. The study was conducted in India and included 85 children diagnosed with measles and pneumonia. The trial showed that there was no significant difference in mortality between the two groups (risk ratio (RR) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 8.14). Also, there was no significant difference in time to absence of fever between the two groups (hazard ratio (HR) 1.08, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.74). No treatment-related side effects were reported in either group. The overall quality of the evidence can be described as very low. We cannot draw any definite conclusions

  6. Apoptosis induced by microtubule disrupting drugs in cultured human lymphoma cells. Inhibitory effects of phorbol ester and zinc sulphate.

    PubMed

    Takano, Y; Okudaira, M; Harmon, B V

    1993-03-01

    The effects of the microtubule disrupting drugs (MDD) vinblastine, vincristine and colchicine on a human lymphoma cell line, BM 13674, were investigated. Twelve hours after administration of vinblastine (10(-3) mg/ml), vincristine (10(-2) mg/ml) or colchicine (10(-2) mg/ml), cell death with the characteristic morphology of apoptosis was observed in 71.6%, 82.2% and 76.9% of the cells respectively. The mode of death was confirmed as apoptotic by the occurrence of internucleosomal DNA cleavage, which was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis. For the purpose of casting light on the mechanism involved, inhibition tests were performed on apoptosis induced by one of these drugs, vinblastine, using a phorbol ester (PDBu), zinc sulphate and cycloheximide. PDBu, an activator of protein kinase C, and zinc sulphate, a putative inhibitor of the endonuclease were thought to be responsible for internucleosomal DNA cleavage; both markedly reduced the induction of apoptosis. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, on the other hand, had no inhibitory effect. Moreover, cycloheximide treatment per se enhanced apoptosis. This suggests that new protein synthesis is not required for the execution of vinblastine-induced apoptosis. Such a finding is in accord with recent reports suggesting that the "death program" within many cell types may be primed but unable to proceed due to concomitant production of specific "apoptotic inhibitors". It is suggested that phorbol esters prevent vinblastine-induced apoptosis in the BM 13674 cells by activating one or more of these specific "apoptotic inhibitors", possibly by means of PKC-mediated phosphorylation.

  7. Effect of short-term zinc supplementation on zinc and selenium tissue distribution and serum antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Skalny, Andrey A; Tinkov, Alexey A; Medvedeva, Yulia S; Alchinova, Irina B; Karganov, Mikhail Y; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-01-01

    A significant association between Zn and Se homeostasis exists. At the same time, data on the influence of zinc supplementation on selenium distribution in organs and tissues seem to be absent. Therefore, the primary objective of the current study is to investigate the influence of zinc asparaginate supplementation on zinc and selenium distribution and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in Wistar rats. 36 rats were used in the experiment. The duration of the experiment was 7 and 14 days in the first and second series, respectively. The rats in Group I were used as the control ones. Animals in Groups II and III daily obtained zinc asparaginate (ZnA) in the doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg weight, respectively. Zinc and selenium content in liver, kidneys, heart, muscle, serum and hair was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum SOD and GPx activity was analysed spectrophotometrically using Randox kits. Intragastric administration of zinc asparaginate significantly increased liver, kidney, and serum zinc content without affecting skeletal and cardiac muscle levels. Zinc supplementation also stimulated selenium retention in the rats' organs. Moreover, a significant positive correlation between zinc and selenium content was observed. Finally, zinc asparaginate treatment has been shown to modulate serum GPx but not SOD activity. The obtained data indicate that zinc-induced increase in GPx activity may be mediated through modulation of selenium status. However, future studies are required to estimate the exact mechanisms of zinc and selenium interplay.

  8. Serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin concentrations in infants receiving intravenous zinc and copper supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lockitch, G; Godolphin, W; Pendray, M R; Riddell, D; Quigley, G

    1983-02-01

    One hundred twenty-seven newborn infants requiring parenteral nutrition were randomly assigned to receive differing amounts of zinc (40 to 400 micrograms/kg/day) and copper (20 or 40 micrograms/kg/day) supplementation within five birth weight groups (600 to 2,500 gm). The serum zinc concentration remained relatively constant in the group receiving the most zinc supplementation after two weeks of therapy, but declined sharply in the groups receiving less supplementation. No effect of increased copper intake was noted on ceruloplasmin values, but a difference in serum copper concentrations was noted at two weeks. No correlation was noted between serum zinc and copper values or among those for serum zinc, retinol-binding protein, and prealbumin. Reference ranges were defined for serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin in the preterm infant.

  9. Potential reproduction and response of selenium and zinc mineral supplementation on quality of goat samosir semen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siswoyo, P.; Tafsin, M.; Handarini, R.

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of suppllementattion of selenium and zinc on semen quality and growth of samosir goat. The experimental design used latin square design (4x4). The treatment supplementation mineral on multi nutrient block (MNB) composed of without sipplementation (p0), +10ppm selenium (p1), +10ppm zinc (p2), +10ppm selenium and +10ppm zinc (p3). The result showed that supplementation mineral selenium and zinc increased significantly (p<0.05) average daily growth, feed consumtion, and lower feed convertion ratio. Semen quality of goat were supplemented by selenium and zinc influenced motility, viability, volume concentration, and responding hypo osmotic swelling (HOS). Combination supplementation selenium and zinc significanly had higher semen quality than ither treatment. It is concluded that supplementation selenium and zinc improve growth and semen quality of samosir goat.

  10. Compromised zinc status of experimental rats as a consequence of prolonged iron & calcium supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Jayalakshmi, S.; Platel, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Iron supplementation is usually given to pregnant and lactating women who may also have marginal deficiency of zinc. The negative impact of supplemental iron and calcium on zinc status is a cause of concern. The present investigation was undertaken to examine the effect of inclusion of iron and calcium in the diet at supplementary levels on zinc status of experimental rats. Methods: Groups of experimental rats were maintained on diets supplemented with iron (Molar ratio - Zn:Fe 1:30) and calcium (Molar ratio - Zn:Ca 1:667) both individually and in combination for six weeks. Zinc status of these rats was assessed by determining zinc concentration in circulation and in organs, and the activities of zinc containing enzymes in serum and liver. Results: The zinc status of experimental rats receiving supplemental levels of iron and calcium was significantly compromised. Zinc concentration in serum, kidney, spleen and liver was reduced significantly by both these minerals. Six weeks of supplementation of iron and calcium individually, significantly reduced the activity of liver and serum superoxide dismutase and alkaline phosphatase. Activity of liver alcohol dehydrogenase was lowered in calcium supplemented group and in calcium + iron supplemented group, while that of carbonic anhydrase was significantly reduced by iron, calcium and their combination. Interpretation & conclusions: Supplemental levels of iron and calcium, both individually and in combination, significantly compromised the zinc status of experimental rats. This negative effect of these two minerals was more prominent when these were supplemented for a period of six weeks. PMID:27121523

  11. Compromised zinc status of experimental rats as a consequence of prolonged iron & calcium supplementation.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, S; Platel, Kalpana

    2016-02-01

    Iron supplementation is usually given to pregnant and lactating women who may also have marginal deficiency of zinc. The negative impact of supplemental iron and calcium on zinc status is a cause of concern. The present investigation was undertaken to examine the effect of inclusion of iron and calcium in the diet at supplementary levels on zinc status of experimental rats. Groups of experimental rats were maintained on diets supplemented with iron (Molar ratio - Zn:Fe 1:30) and calcium (Molar ratio - Zn:Ca 1:667) both individually and in combination for six weeks. Zinc status of these rats was assessed by determining zinc concentration in circulation and in organs, and the activities of zinc containing enzymes in serum and liver. The zinc status of experimental rats receiving supplemental levels of iron and calcium was significantly compromised. Zinc concentration in serum, kidney, spleen and liver was reduced significantly by both these minerals. Six weeks of supplementation of iron and calcium individually, significantly reduced the activity of liver and serum superoxide dismutase and alkaline phosphatase. Activity of liver alcohol dehydrogenase was lowered in calcium supplemented group and in calcium + iron supplemented group, while that of carbonic anhydrase was significantly reduced by iron, calcium and their combination. Supplemental levels of iron and calcium, both individually and in combination, significantly compromised the zinc status of experimental rats. This negative effect of these two minerals was more prominent when these were supplemented for a period of six weeks.

  12. Oral zinc sulphate causes murine hair hypopigmentation and is a potent inhibitor of eumelanogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Plonka, P M; Handjiski, B; Michalczyk, D; Popik, M; Paus, R

    2006-07-01

    C57BL/6 a/a mice have been widely used to study melanogenesis, including in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies. Zinc cations modulate melanogenesis, but the net effect of Zn2+ in vivo is unclear, as the reported effects of Zn2+ on melanogenesis are ambiguous: zinc inhibits tyrosinase and glutathione reductase in vitro, but also enhances the activity of dopachrome tautomerase (tyrosinase-related protein-2) and has agonistic effects on melanocortin receptor signalling. To determine in a C57BL/6 a/a murine pilot study whether excess zinc ions inhibit, enhance or in any other way alter hair follicle melanogenesis in vivo, and to test the usefulness of EPR for this study. ZnSO(4).7H2O was continuously administered orally to C57BL/6 a/a mice during spontaneous and depilation-induced hair follicle cycling (20 mg mL-1; in drinking water; mean+/-SD daily dose 1.2+/-0.53 mL), and hair pigmentation was examined macroscopically, by routine histology and by EPR. Oral zinc cations induced a bright brown lightening of new hair shafts produced during anagen, but without inducing an EPR-detectable switch from eumelanogenesis to phaeomelanogenesis. The total content of melanin in the skin and hair shafts during the subsequent telogen phase, i.e. after completion of a full hair cycle, was significantly reduced in Zn-treated mice (P=0.0005). Compared with controls, melanin granules in precortical hair matrix keratinocytes, hair bulb melanocytes and hair shafts of zinc-treated animals were reduced and poorly pigmented. Over the course of several hair cycles, lasting hair shaft depigmentation was seen during long-term exposure to high-dose oral Zn2+. High-dose oral Zn2+ is a potent downregulator of eumelanin content in murine hair shafts in vivo. The C57BL/6 mouse model offers an excellent tool for further dissecting the as yet unclear underlying molecular basis of this phenomenon, while EPR technology is well suited for the rapid, qualitative and quantitative monitoring of

  13. Zinc Supplementation Ameliorates Diabetic Cataract Through Modulation of Crystallin Proteins and Polyol Pathway in Experimental Rats.

    PubMed

    Barman, Susmita; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2018-05-13

    Non-enzymatic glycation of lens proteins and elevated polyol pathway in the eye lens have been the characteristic features of a diabetic condition. We have previously reported the benefits of zinc supplementation in reducing hyperglycemia and associated metabolic abnormalities and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. The current study explored whether zinc supplementation protects against cataractogenesis through modulation of glycation of lens proteins, elevated polyol pathway, oxidative stress, and proportion of different heat shock proteins in the eye lens of diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were fed with a zinc-enriched diet (5 and 10 times of normal) for 6 weeks. Supplemental zinc alleviated the progression and maturation of diabetes-induced cataract. Zinc was also effective in preventing the reduced content of total and imbalanced proportion of soluble proteins in the lens. Supplemental zinc also alleviated cross-linked glycation and concomitant expression of the receptor of glycated products and oxidative stress indicators in the eye lens. Zinc supplementation further induced the concentration of heat shock protein in the eye lens of diabetic rats, specifically α-crystallin. Zinc supplementation counteracted the elevated activity and expression of polyol pathway enzymes and molecules in the lens. The results of this animal study endorsed the advantage of zinc supplementation in exerting the antiglycating influence and downregulating polyol pathway enzymes to defer cataractogenesis in diabetic rats.

  14. Effects of Serum Zinc Supplementation on Pica Behavior of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofts, Ronald H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Of 806 institutionalized adults with mental retardation, 15.5 percent exhibited pica. Fifty-four percent of the pica group had serum zinc levels below normal range, whereas 7 percent of a control group had serum zinc levels below the normal range. After supplementation with chelated zinc, residents had significant reductions in pica. (Author/JDD)

  15. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring.

    PubMed

    Sharkar, Mohammad T K; Jou, Ming-Yu; Hossain, Mohammad B; Lönnerdal, Bo; Stephensen, Charles B; Raqib, Rubhana

    2011-08-01

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant rats with adequate Zn nutriture were supplemented with either Zn (1.5 mg Zn in 10% sucrose) or placebo (10% sucrose) during pregnancy (3 times/wk). At postnatal d 3, 4 pups of Zn-supplemented dams (Zn-P) were exchanged with 4 of placebo-supplemented dams (P-Zn). The remaining pups continued with their biological mothers (Zn-Zn and P-P). Pups were orally immunized with dinitrophenol ovalbumin-BSA and/or cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), and serum Zn concentrations and cellular and humoral responses were assessed. Pups of Zn-supplemented dams had higher serum Zn when fostered either by placebo- or Zn-supplemented dams compared to pups of placebo-supplemented dams (P < 0.01). Postnatal Zn exposure reduced the number of Peyer's patches in both the Zn-Zn and P-Zn groups (P < 0.01). Prenatal Zn exposure suppressed CTB- (P = 0.05) and BSA-specific proliferation response of Peyer's Patch lymphocytes (P = 0.07). Prenatal Zn exposure effects on the splenocyte cytokine response were differently influenced by fostering mothers' Zn status. Antigen presenting cell (APC) activity of splenocytes was lower in the Zn-Zn group than in the P-P group (P < 0.08). In conclusion, prenatal Zn exposure increases serum Zn levels in pups and suppresses antigen-specific proliferation and antibody responses and APC function, whereas postnatal exposure may suppress the mucosal immune reservoir.

  16. Zinc supplementation leads to immune modulation and improved survival in a juvenile model of murine sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ganatra, Hammad A; Varisco, Brian M; Harmon, Kelli; Lahni, Patrick; Opoka, Amy; Wong, Hector R

    2017-01-01

    Children with severe sepsis are known to have altered zinc homeostasis and decreased circulating zinc levels, suggesting a role for zinc supplementation to improve outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that zinc supplementation would improve survival in a juvenile model of polymicrobial sepsis. Juvenile (13-14-d-old) C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10 mg/kg of zinc via i.p. injections (or vehicle) for 3 d prior to induction of polymicrobial sepsis via i.p. cecal slurry injections. Survival after sepsis was followed for 3 d, and bacterial clearance, ex vivo phagocytosis, systemic inflammatory markers and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation were quantified. We found a significant survival benefit and decreased bacterial burden among zinc supplemented mice when compared with the control group. Zinc supplementation also resulted in enhanced phagocytic activity, greater neutrophil recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and NET formation, suggesting a possible mechanism for improved bacterial clearance and survival. We also noted decreased serum cytokine levels and decreased myeloperoxidase activity in lung tissue following zinc supplementation, suggesting attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response. In conclusion, zinc supplementation improves bacterial clearance, and hence survival, in juvenile mice with polymicrobial sepsis.

  17. Modulating the immune response by oral zinc supplementation: a single approach for multiple diseases.

    PubMed

    Overbeck, Silke; Rink, Lothar; Haase, Hajo

    2008-01-01

    Zinc is required for multiple cellular tasks, and especially the immune system depends on a sufficient availability of this essential trace element. During the last decades, many studies attempted to affect the outcome of various diseases by zinc supplementation. These efforts either aimed at supporting immunity by zinc administration or at correcting a loss of zinc secondary to the disease to restore the zinc-dependent functions of the immune system. This review aims to summarize the respective findings and to discuss possible molecular mechanisms by which zinc could influence viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, autoimmune diseases, and the response to vaccination. Zinc supplementation in diseases such as diarrhea, chronic hepatitis C, shigellosis, leprosy, tuberculosis, pneumonia, acute lower respiratory infection, and leishmaniasis seems beneficial. In contrast, the results for the common cold and malaria are still not conclusive, and zinc was ineffective in most vaccination and rheumatoid arthritis studies. For AIDS and type 1 diabetes, zinc supplementation may even be a risk factor for increased mortality or deterioration of the glucose metabolism, respectively. In these cases, zinc supplementation should be used with care and limited to clearly zinc-deficient individuals.

  18. Effect of zinc supplementation on neuronal precursor proliferation in the rat hippocampus after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Cope, Elise C; Morris, Deborah R; Gower-Winter, Shannon D; Brownstein, Naomi C; Levenson, Cathy W

    2016-05-01

    There is great deal of debate about the possible role of adult-born hippocampal cells in the prevention of depression and related mood disorders. We first showed that zinc supplementation prevents the development of the depression-like behavior anhedonia associated with an animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). This work then examined the effect of zinc supplementation on the proliferation of new cells in the hippocampus that have the potential to participate in neurogenesis. Rats were fed a zinc adequate (ZA, 30ppm) or zinc supplemented (ZS, 180ppm) diet for 4wk followed by TBI using controlled cortical impact. Stereological counts of EdU-positive cells showed that TBI doubled the density of proliferating cells 24h post-injury (p<0.05), and supplemental zinc significantly increased this by an additional 2-fold (p<0.0001). While the survival of these proliferating cells decreased at the same rate in ZA and in ZS rats after injury, the total density of newly born cells was approximately 60% higher in supplemented rats 1wk after TBI. Furthermore, chronic zinc supplementation resulted in significant increases in the density of new doublecortin-positive neurons one week post-TBI that were maintained for 4wk after injury (p<0.01). While the effect of zinc supplementation on neuronal precursor cells in the hippocampus was robust, use of targeted irradiation to eliminate these cells after zinc supplementation and TBI revealed that these cells are not the sole mechanism through which zinc acts to prevent depression associated with brain injury, and suggest that other zinc dependent mechanisms are needed for the anti-depressant effect of zinc in this model of TBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Zinc supplementation for improving glucose handling in pre-diabetes: A double blind randomized placebo controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Rafiqul; Attia, John; Ali, Liaquat; McEvoy, Mark; Selim, Shahjada; Sibbritt, David; Akhter, Ayesha; Akter, Shahnaz; Peel, Roseanne; Faruque, Omar; Mona, Tazreen; Lona, Hafiza; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2016-05-01

    There are a number of studies showing that zinc supplementation may improve glucose handling in people with established diabetes. We sought to investigate whether this zinc-dependent improvement in glucose handling could potentially be harnessed to prevent the progression of pre-diabetes to diabetes. In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, we determined participants' fasting blood glucose levels, (FBG) and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) parameters (beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance) at baseline and after 6 months of zinc supplementation. The Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences Hospital (BIHS) (Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh) database was used to identify 224 patients with prediabetes, of whom 55 met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate. The participants were randomized either to the intervention or control group using block randomization. The groups received either 30mg zinc sulphate dispersible tablet or placebo, once daily for six months. After six months, the intervention group significantly improved their FBG concentration compared to the placebo group (5.37±0.20mmol/L vs 5.69±0.26, p<0.001) as well as compared to their own baseline (5.37±0.20mmol/L vs 5.8±0.09, p<0.001). Beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance all showed a statistically significant improvement as well. To our knowledge this is the first trial to show an improvement in glucose handling using HOMA parameters in participants with prediabetes. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these findings and to explore clinical endpoints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on the synthesis, spectral, optical and thermal properties of l-Valine Zinc Sulphate: an organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical crystal.

    PubMed

    Puhal Raj, A; Ramachandra Raja, C

    2012-11-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) organic inorganic hybrid l-Valine Zinc Sulphate (LVZS) was synthesized and single crystals were obtained from saturated aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at 36°C using a constant temperature bath (CTB) with an accuracy of ±0.01°C. This crystal is reported with its characterization by single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR, TG/DTA analysis and SHG test. Single crystal XRD study reveals that LVZS crystallizes in monoclinic system with the lattice constants a=9.969(3) Å, b=7.238(3) Å, c=24.334(9) Å and cell volume is 1736.00Å(3). Sharp peaks observed in powder X-ray diffraction studies confirm the high degree of crystallinity of grown crystal. The incorporation of sulphate ion with l-valine is confirmed by FTIR spectrum in LVZS crystal(.) A remarkable increase in optical transparency has been observed in LVZS when compared to l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate Thermal properties of LVZS have been reported by using TG/DTA analysis. Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test confirms NLO property of the crystal and SHG efficiency of LVZS was found to be 1.34 times more than pure l-valine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc concentration and T cell proliferation in nursing home elderly:A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    Background: Zinc is essential for the regulation of immune response. T cell function declines with age. Zinc supplementation has the potential to improve serum zinc concentrations and immunity of nursing home elderly with low serum zinc concentration. Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of ...

  2. Effects of zinc supplementation on diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The number of people with diabetes and pre-diabetes are exponentially increasing. Studies on humans have shown the beneficial effects of Zinc supplementation in patients with diabetes. The present study aims to systematically evaluate the literature and meta-analyze the effects of Zinc supplementation on diabetes. A systematic review of published studies reporting the effects of Zinc supplementations on diabetes mellitus was undertaken. The literature search was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science and SciVerse Scopus. A meta-analysis of studies examining the effects of Zinc supplementation on clinical and biochemical parameters in patients with diabetes was performed. The total number of articles included in the present review is 25, which included 3 studies on type-1 diabetes and 22 studies on type-2 diabetes. There were 12 studies comparing the effects of Zinc supplementation on fasting blood glucose in patients with type-2 diabetes. The pooled mean difference in fasting blood glucose between Zinc supplemented and placebo groups was 18.13mg/dl (95%CI:33.85,2.41; p<0.05). 2-h post-prandial blood sugar also shows a similar distinct reduction in (34.87mg/dl [95%CI:75.44; 5.69]) the Zinc treated group. The reduction in HbA1c was 0.54% (95%CI:0.86;0.21) in the Zinc treated group. There were 8 studies comparing the effects of Zinc supplementation on lipid parameters in patients with type-2 diabetes. The pooled mean difference for total cholesterol between Zinc supplemented and placebo groups was 32.37mg/dl (95%CI:57.39,7.35; p<0.05). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol also showed a similar distinct reduction in the Zinc treated group, the pooled mean difference from random effects analysis was 11.19mg/dl (95%CI:21.14,1.25; p<0.05). Studies have also shown a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressures after Zinc supplementation. This first comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of Zinc

  3. Effects of zinc and multimineral vitamin supplementation on glycemic and lipid control in adult diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gunasekara, Priyanka; Hettiarachchi, Manjula; Liyanage, Chandrani; Lekamwasam, Sarath

    2011-01-26

    To evaluate the effects of zinc with or without other antioxidants on blood glucose, lipid profile, and serum creatinine in adult diabetics on long-term follow-up. Patients (n = 96) were randomly allocated to three groups: group A (n = 29) was supplemented with oral zinc sulfate (22 mg/day) and multivitamin/mineral (zinc+MVM) preparation; group B (n = 31) was given the same preparation without zinc (MVM); and group C (n = 36) was given a matching placebo for a period of 4 months in a single-blinded study. Blood samples were taken at baseline and after 4 months of supplementation to assess blood glucose (fasting and postprandial) and glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb(A1C)%) and serum levels of zinc, creatinine, and lipids. The zinc+MVM group had a mean change of fasting blood sugar -0.33 mmol/L (standard error of the mean 0.21 mmol/L) and was significant (P = 0.05) when compared with the other two groups (mean change in the MVM group +0.19 (0.31) mmol/L and +0.43 (0.23) mmol/L in the control group, respectively). The Hb(A1C)% level reduced significantly, irrespective of the baseline level, in zinc+MVM-supplemented individuals. In the other two groups, the change of Hb(A1C)% level was not significant. Serum lipid levels reduced significantly in the zinc+MVM and MVM groups. Zinc+MVM supplementation showed beneficial effects in the metabolic control of adult diabetics in addition to elevating their serum zinc level. Zinc supplementation improved glycemic control measured by Hb(A1C)% and fasting and postprandial glucose. Furthermore, zinc supplementation lowered serum cholesterol and cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio.

  4. Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Pregnancy and Infant Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; King, Janet C.

    2013-01-01

    Poor maternal zinc status has been associated with foetal loss, congenital malformations, intrauterine growth retardation, reduced birth weight, prolonged labour and preterm or post-term deliveries. A meta-analysis completed in 2007 showed that maternal zinc supplementation resulted in a small but significant reduction in preterm birth. The purposes of this analysis are to update that previous review and expand the scope of assessment to include maternal, infant and child health outcomes. Electronic searches were carried out to identify peer-reviewed, randomised controlled trials where daily zinc supplementation was given for at least one trimester of pregnancy. The co-authors applied the study selection criteria, assessed trial quality and abstracted data. A total of 20 independent intervention trials involving more than 11 000 births were identified. The 20 trials took place across five continents between 1977 and 2008. Most studies assessed the zinc effect against a background of other micronutrient supplements, but five were placebo-controlled trials of zinc alone. The provided dose of supplemental zinc ranged from 5 to 50 mg/day. Only the risk of preterm birth reached statistical significance (summary relative risk 0.86 [95% confidence interval 0.75, 0.99]). There was no evidence that supplemental zinc affected any parameter of foetal growth (risk of low birth weight, birth weight, length at birth or head circumference at birth). Six of the 20 trials were graded as high quality. The evidence that maternal zinc supplementation lowers the risk of preterm birth was graded low; evidence for a positive effect on other foetal outcomes was graded as very low. The effect of zinc supplementation on preterm birth, if causal, might reflect a reduction in maternal infection, a primary cause of prematurity. While further study would be needed to explore this possibility in detail, the overall public health benefit of zinc supplementation in pregnancy appears limited. PMID

  5. Iron, copper, and zinc status: response to supplementation with zinc or zinc and iron in adult females.

    PubMed

    Yadrick, M K; Kenney, M A; Winterfeldt, E A

    1989-01-01

    Response of iron, copper, and zinc status to supplementation with Zn or a combination of Zn and Fe was assessed in adult females in a 10-wk study. Group Z received 50 mg Zn/d as Zn gluconate; group F-Z received 50 mg Fe as ferrous sulfate monohydrate in addition to the Zn. For Group Z, serum ferritin, hematocrit, and erythrocyte Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (ESOD) were significantly lower (p less than 0.05) after 10 wk supplementation compared with pretreatment levels. Serum Zn increased (p less than 0.01) but no change occurred in serum ceruloplasmin, hemoglobin, or salivary sediment Zn with treatment. For Group F-Z ESOD decreased with treatment as did salivary sediment Zn (p less than 0.05). Serum ferritin and serum Zn increased significantly, but hemoglobin, hematocrit, and ceruloplasmin were not affected by this treatment. Supplementation with Zn poses a risk to Fe and Cu status. Inclusion of Fe with Zn ameliorates the effect on Fe but not on Cu status.

  6. Zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of persistent diarrhea and dysentery among low socioeconomic children in India.

    PubMed

    Sazawal, S; Black, R E; Bhan, M K; Jalla, S; Bhandari, N; Sinha, A; Majumdar, S

    1996-02-01

    Persistent diarrhea (PD) and dysentery (DD) account for most diarrhea-associated deaths among children in developing countries. Zinc deficiency can cause stunting and impaired immune function, both of which are risk factors for these diarrheal illnesses. We investigated the effect of zinc supplementation on the incidence of PD and DD in a community-based, double-blind randomized trial in children 6-35 mo of age. Increase over baseline in plasma zinc concentrations in the supplemented group compared with a control group (3.61 vs. 0.009 mumol.L-1), indicated successful supplementation. The overall reductions in the zinc supplemented group of 21% in the incidence of PD (95% CI -6 to 42%) and 14% in the incidence of dysentery (95% CI -15 to 36%) were not significant. There was a significant interaction of treatment effect with baseline plasma zinc concentration and age for PD and with gender for DD. In the zinc-supplemented group compared with the control group, the incidence of PD was reduced by 73% (P < 0.05; 95% CI 34 to 91%) in children with a baseline zinc < 7.65 mumol.L-1 and by 49% (P < 0.05; 95%CI 24 to 66%) in children > 11 mo of age. Zinc supplementation resulted in a 38% (P < 0.05 95%CI 8 to 59%) reduction in the incidence of DD in boys. There was no effect on PD among children 6-11 mo old or on DD in girls. In conclusion, zinc supplementation had a significant impact on the incidence of persistent diarrhea in children > 1 y old and in children with low plasma zinc, as well as on dysentery in boys. These findings may have important implications for reducing diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality.

  7. Effects of dietary supplementation with tribasic zinc sulfate or zinc sulfate on growth performance, zinc content and expression of zinc transporters in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bo; Zhou, Xihong; Wu, Jie; Long, Ciming; Yao, Yajun; Peng, Hongxing; Wan, Dan; Wu, Xin

    2017-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of zinc sulfate (ZS) and tribasic zinc sulfate (TBZ) as sources of supplemental zinc on growth performance, serum zinc (Zn) content and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Zn transporters (ZnT1/ZnT2/ZnT5/ZIP4/DMT1) of young growing pigs. A total of 96 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs were randomly allotted to two treatments and were fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg Zn from either ZS or TBZ for 28 days. Feed : gain ratio in pigs fed TBZ were lower (P < 0.05) than pigs fed ZS, and average daily weight gain tended to increase (0.05 ≤ P ≤ 0.10) in pigs fed TBZ. Compared with pigs fed ZS, pigs fed TBZ had a higher CuZn-superoxide dismutase and Zn content in serum (P < 0.05) while they had a lower Zn content in feces (P < 0.05). In addition, ZIP4 mRNA expression of zinc transporter in either duodenum or jejunum of pigs fed TBZ were higher (P < 0.05) than pigs fed ZS. These results indicate that TBZ is more effective in serum Zn accumulation and intestinal Zn absorption, and might be a potential substitute for ZS in young growing pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Effects of zinc supplementation on Shiga toxin 2e-producing Escherichia coli in vitro.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Ryoko; Katsuge, Tomoko; Sasaki, Yosuke; Goto, Shinya; Sueyoshi, Masuo

    2017-10-07

    Swine edema disease is caused by Shiga toxin (Stx) 2e-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Addition of highly concentrated zinc formulations to feed has been used to treat and prevent the disease, but the mechanism of the beneficial effect is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of highly concentrated zinc formulations on bacterial growth, hemolysin production, and an Stx2e release by STEC in vitro. STEC strain MVH269 isolated from a piglet with edema disease was cultured with zinc oxide (ZnO) or with zinc carbonate (ZnCO 3 ), each at up to 3,000 ppm. There was no effect of zinc addition on bacterial growth. Nonetheless, the cytotoxic activity of Stx2e released into the supernatant was significantly attenuated in the zinc-supplemented media compared to that in the control, with the 50% cytotoxic dose values of 163.2 ± 12.7, 211.6 ± 33.1 and 659.9 ± 84.2 after 24 hr of growth in the presence of ZnO, ZnCO 3 , or no supplemental zinc, respectively. The hemolytic zones around colonies grown on sheep blood agar supplemented with zinc were significantly smaller than those of colonies grown on control agar. Similarly, hemoglobin absorbance after exposure to the supernatants of STEC cultures incubated in sheep blood broth supplemented with zinc was significantly lower than that resulting from exposure to the control supernatant. These in vitro findings indicated that zinc formulations directly impair the factors associated with the virulence of STEC, suggesting a mechanism by which zinc supplementation prevents swine edema disease.

  9. The influence of inflammation on plasma zinc concentration in apparently healthy, HIV+ Kenyan adults and zinc responses after a multi-micronutrient supplement.

    PubMed

    Mburu, A S W; Thurnham, D I; Mwaniki, D L; Muniu, E M; Alumasa, F M

    2010-05-01

    Plasma zinc is an important biomarker of zinc status, but the concentration is depressed by inflammation. Apparently healthy adults, who tested positive twice for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but who had not reached stage IV or clinical AIDS, were randomly allocated to receive a food supplement (n=17 and 21) or the food plus a micronutrient capsule (MN; n=10 men and n=33 women) containing 15 mg zinc/day. We used the inflammation biomarkers, C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), to identify subjects with and without inflammation and determine the effect of inflammation on the response of plasma zinc concentrations to the MN and food supplements. There were no differences between men and women either in plasma zinc or in the responses to the supplements and their data were combined. Plasma zinc was lower in those with inflammation than without. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that inflammation blocked increases in plasma zinc, and there was an approximate 10% increase in plasma zinc concentration in response to the MN supplement (P=0.023) in those without inflammation. Subgroup analysis showed mean changes in plasma zinc of 0.95 and -0.83 micromol/l (P=0.031) in response to the MN and food treatments, respectively, in those without inflammation at both time points. Inflammation seems to block any increase in plasma zinc after MN supplement and it is important to identify those without inflammation to determine the effectiveness of a zinc supplementation program.

  10. Oral Zinc Supplementation Decreases the Serum Iron Concentration in Healthy Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; de Medeiros Rocha, Érika Dantas; de Araújo Silva, Alfredo; Costa, João Batista Sousa; França, Mardone Cavalcante; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Brandão-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001). However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001) and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia. PMID:25192026

  11. Effects of zinc supplementation on subscales of anorexia in children: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Khademian, Majid; Farhangpajouh, Neda; Shahsanaee, Armindokht; Bahreynian, Maryam; Mirshamsi, Mehran; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on improving the appetite and its subscales in children. Methods: This study was conducted in 2013 in Isfahan, Iran. It had two phases. At the first step, after validation of the Child Eating Behaviour Questionaire (CEBQ), it was completed for 300 preschool children, who were randomly selected. The second phase was conducted as a randomized controlled trial. Eighty of these children were randomly selected, and were randomly assigned to two groups of equal number receiving zinc (10 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Results: Overall 77 children completed the trial (39 in the case and 3 in the control group).The results showed that zinc supplement can improve calorie intake in children by affecting some CEBQ subscales like Emotional over Eating and Food Responsible. Conclusion: Zinc supplementation had positive impact in promoting the calorie intake and some subscales of anorexia. PMID:25674110

  12. Effects of zinc supplementation on subscales of anorexia in children: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Khademian, Majid; Farhangpajouh, Neda; Shahsanaee, Armindokht; Bahreynian, Maryam; Mirshamsi, Mehran; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on improving the appetite and its subscales in children. This study was conducted in 2013 in Isfahan, Iran. It had two phases. At the first step, after validation of the Child Eating Behaviour Questionaire (CEBQ), it was completed for 300 preschool children, who were randomly selected. The second phase was conducted as a randomized controlled trial. Eighty of these children were randomly selected, and were randomly assigned to two groups of equal number receiving zinc (10 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Overall 77 children completed the trial (39 in the case and 3 in the control group).The results showed that zinc supplement can improve calorie intake in children by affecting some CEBQ subscales like Emotional over Eating and Food Responsible. Zinc supplementation had positive impact in promoting the calorie intake and some subscales of anorexia.

  13. Effects of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation on homocysteine levels and related enzyme expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, Mingyan; Rech, Leslie; Wu, Yinghong; Goltz, Douglas; Taylor, Carla G; House, James D

    2015-04-01

    Methionine synthase (MS) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) are both zinc (Zn)-dependent methyltransferases and involved in the methylation of homocysteine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary Zn supply on homocysteine levels and expression of the two enzymes in growing rats. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned randomly to four dietary groups (n=8/group) for 3 weeks: Zn deficient (ZD; <1mg Zn/kg); Zn control (ZC; 30mg Zn/kg); Zn supplemented (ZS; 300mg Zn/kg); pair fed (PF; 30mg Zn/kg) to the ZD group. Serum and femur Zn concentrations were 83% and 58% lower in ZD, and 49% and 62% higher in ZS compared to ZC (P<0.001), respectively. The ZD rats had lower feed intake (37%), body weight gains (45%), liver (43%) and kidney (31%) weights than those of ZC (P<0.001), but these parameters in ZD were not significantly different from the PF controls. Serum homocysteine concentrations were 65% higher in ZD compared to PF (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference in serum folate levels between ZD and PF groups. The mRNA expression of liver and kidney MS was 57% and 38% lower in ZD than PF (P<0.001), respectively. Hepatic and renal BHMT mRNA levels were not altered in ZD compared to controls. The aforementioned measurements were not significantly different between ZS and ZC groups, except Zn levels. These results demonstrated that homocysteine homeostasis appeared to be disturbed by Zn deficiency but not Zn supplementation, and elevated serum homocysteine might be due to reduced expression of MS during Zn deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Supplementation with Zinc and Other Micronutrients on Malaria in Tanzanian Children: A Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Veenemans, Jacobien; Milligan, Paul; Prentice, Andrew M.; Schouten, Laura R. A.; Inja, Nienke; van der Heijden, Aafke C.; de Boer, Linsey C. C.; Jansen, Esther J. S.; Koopmans, Anna E.; Enthoven, Wendy T. M.; Kraaijenhagen, Rob J.; Demir, Ayse Y.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Mbugi, Erasto V.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Verhoef, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Background It is uncertain to what extent oral supplementation with zinc can reduce episodes of malaria in endemic areas. Protection may depend on other nutrients. We measured the effect of supplementation with zinc and other nutrients on malaria rates. Methods and Findings In a 2×2 factorial trial, 612 rural Tanzanian children aged 6–60 months in an area with intense malaria transmission and with height-for-age z-score≤−1.5 SD were randomized to receive daily oral supplementation with either zinc alone (10 mg), multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc, or placebo. Intervention group was indicated by colour code, but neither participants, researchers, nor field staff knew who received what intervention. Those with Plasmodium infection at baseline were treated with artemether-lumefantrine. The primary outcome, an episode of malaria, was assessed among children reported sick at a primary care clinic, and pre-defined as current Plasmodium infection with an inflammatory response, shown by axillary temperature ≥37.5°C or whole blood C-reactive protein concentration ≥8 mg/L. Nutritional indicators were assessed at baseline and at 251 days (median; 95% reference range: 191–296 days). In the primary intention-to-treat analysis, we adjusted for pre-specified baseline factors, using Cox regression models that accounted for multiple episodes per child. 592 children completed the study. The primary analysis included 1,572 malaria episodes during 526 child-years of observation (median follow-up: 331 days). Malaria incidence in groups receiving zinc, multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc and placebo was 2.89/child-year, 2.95/child-year, 3.26/child-year, and 2.87/child-year, respectively. There was no evidence that multi-nutrients influenced the effect of zinc (or vice versa). Neither zinc nor multi-nutrients influenced malaria rates (marginal analysis; adjusted HR, 95% CI: 1.04, 0.93–1.18 and 1.10, 0.97–1.24 respectively). The

  15. Supplementation of the diet with Salecan attenuates the symptoms of colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mengyi; Wang, Zhongqiu; Chen, Jinping; Zhan, Yibei; Wang, Tao; Xia, Lin; Wang, Shiming; Hua, Zichun; Zhang, Jianfa

    2014-05-28

    As a water-soluble extracellular β-glucan produced by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, Salecan has an excellent toxicological profile and exerts multiple physiological effects. The aims of the present study were to investigate the protective effects of a Salecan diet in the well-defined dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model of experimental murine colitis and to elucidate the mechanism involved in its effects with special attention being paid to its effect on the production of TNF-α, a primary mediator involved in the inflammatory response. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet supplemented with either 4 or 8 % Salecan for 26 d and DSS was administered to induce acute colitis during the last 5 d of the experimental period. Several clinical and inflammatory parameters as well as mRNA expression of TNF-α and Dectin-1 were evaluated. The results indicated that the dietary incorporation of Salecan attenuated the severity of DSS colitis as evidenced by the decreased disease activity index, reduced severity of anaemia, attenuated changes in colon architecture and reduced colonic myeloperoxidase activity. This protection was associated with the down-regulation of TNF-α mRNA levels, which might derive from its ability to increase Dectin-1 mRNA levels. In conclusion, the present study suggests that Salecan contributes to the reduction of colonic damage and inflammation in mice with DSS-induced colitis and holds promise as a new, effective nutritional supplement in the management of inflammatory bowel disease.

  16. Thyroid Hormone Indices in Computer Workers with Emphasis on the Role of Zinc Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ahmed Ibrahim; Hegazy, Noha Mohamed; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Mahdy-Abdallah, Heba; Hammouda, Hamdy A A; Shaban, Eman Essam

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of computer monitor-emitted radiation on thyroid hormones and the possible protective role of zinc supplementation. The study included three groups. The first group (group B) consisted of 42 computer workers. This group was given Zinc supplementation in the form of one tablet daily for eight weeks. The second group (group A) comprised the same 42 computer workers after zinc supplementation. A group of 63 subjects whose job does not entail computer use was recruited as a control Group (Group C). All participants filled a questionnaire including detailed medical and occupational histories. They were subjected to full clinical examination. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and zinc levels were measured in all participants. TSH, FT3, FT4 and zinc concentrations were decreased significantly in group B relative to group C. In group A, all tested parameters were improved when compared with group B. The obtained results revealed that radiation emitted from computers led to changes in TSH and thyroid hormones (FT3 and FT4) in the workers. Improvement after supplementation suggests that zinc can ameliorate hazards of such radiation on thyroid hormone indices.

  17. Effect of additional vitamin E and zinc supplementation on immunological changes in peripartum Sahiwal cows.

    PubMed

    Chandra, G; Aggarwal, A; Kumar, M; Singh, A K; Sharma, V K; Upadhyay, R C

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to exploit ameliorative effect of additional vitamin E and/or zinc supplementation on immune response of peripartum Sahiwal cows. Thirty-two pregnant dry Sahiwal cows were blocked into four treatment groups (n = 8), namely control, zinc (Zn), vitamin E (Vit E) and zinc + vitamin E (Zn + Vit E). Feeding regimen was same in all the groups except that the Sahiwal cows in the zinc-, vitamin E- and zinc + vitamin E-fed groups were additionally supplemented with 60 mg Zn/kg DM, 1000 IU vitamin E and 60 mg/kg + 1000 IU Zn + vitamin E, respectively, from day 60 pre-partum to day 90 post-partum. Blood samples were collected on days -60, -45, -30, -15, -7, -3, 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 with respect to day of parturition and analysed for total immunoglobulin (TIG), immunoglobulin G (IgG), interleukin-2 (IL-2), vitamin E (Vit E) and zinc (Zn) status. Before calving, cows showed a decrease in plasma TIG, IgG, IL-2, Vit E and Zn levels. However, increased levels of plasma TIG, IgG, IL-2, Vit E and Zn were observed after calving. After calving, Sahiwal cows supplemented with Zn + Vit E had higher plasma TIG, IgG and IL-2 in comparison with cows of control and Zn + Vit E-fed groups. In the present study, plasma vitamin E level was higher in Vit E-fed and Zn + Vit E-fed cows; however, zinc level was higher in Zn- and Zn + Vit E-supplemented cows. In conclusion, a reduced immune response during peripartum period in Sahiwal cows was ameliorated by dietary vitamin E and zinc supplementation. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Effect of zinc supplementation on E-ADA activity, seric zinc, and cytokines levels of Trypanosoma evansi infected Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Baldissera, Matheus D; Oliveira, Camila B; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; Leal, Marta L R; Thomé, Gustavo R; Zanini, Daniela; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Nunes, Matheus A G; Dressler, Valderi L; Monteiro, Silvia G; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on the ecto-adenosine deaminase activity (E-ADA), zinc seric levels and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL -10) on rats experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. Four groups with 10 rats each were used as negative controls (groups A and B), while the animals from the groups C and D were infected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL of cryopreserved blood containing 1.4 × 10(4) of trypanosomes. Animals of groups B and D received two doses of Zinc (Zn) at 5 mg kg(-1), subcutaneously, on the 2nd and 7th day post-infection (PI). Blood samples were collected on days 5 (n = 5) and 15 PI (n = 5). Zn supplementation was able to increase the rat's longevity and to reduce their parasitemia. It was observed that seric Zn levels were increased on infected animals under Zn supplementation. Animals that were infected and supplemented with Zn showed changes in E-ADA activity and in cytokine levels (P < 0.05). Zn supplementation of healthy animals (Group B), increased the E-ADA activity, as well as reduced the concentration of cytokines. Infected animals from groups C and D showed increased levels of cytokines. Finally, we observed that Zn supplementation led to a modulation on cytokine's level in rats infected by T. evansi, as well as in E-ADA activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of L-aspartic acid on the growth, structure and spectral studies of Zinc (tris) Thiourea Sulphate (ZTS) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Bincy Susan; Krishnamurthy, R.; Rajasekaran, R.

    2014-11-01

    Single crystals of pure and L-aspartic acid doped Zinc (Tris) Thiourea Sulphate (ZTS) were grown from aqueous solution by solution growth method. The cell parameters and structure of the grown crystals were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. The presence of functional group in the compound has been confirmed by FTIR and FT-Raman analysis. The optical transparency range has been studied through UV-Vis spectroscopy. TGA/DTA studies show thermal stability of the grown crystals. Microhardness study reveals that the hardness number (Hv) increases with load for pure and doped ZTS crystals. Dielectric studies have been carried out and the results are discussed. The second harmonic generation was confirmed for L-aspartic acid doped ZTS which is greater than pure ZTS.

  20. The Effects of Supplemental Zinc and Honey on Wound Healing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sazegar, Ghasem; Seyed Reza, Attarzadeh Hosseini; Behravan, Effat

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Clinicians have long been searching for ways to obtain "super normal" wound healing. Zinc supplementation improves the healing of open wounds. Honey can improve the wound healing with its antibacterial properties. Giving supplemental zinc to normal rats can increase the wound tensile strength. This work is to study the concurrent effects of zinc and honey in wound healing of normal rats. Materials and Methods One hundred and seventy two young rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, zinc-supplement, applied honey, zinc-supplement and applied honey. Two areas of skin about 4 cm² were excised. The wound area was measured every 2 days. After 3 weeks, all animals were killed and tensile strength of wounds, zinc concentration of blood and histological improvement of wounds were evaluated. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and the mean differences were tested. Results It was found that honey could inhibit the bacterial growth in skin excisions. The tensile strength was increased significantly in the second to fourth groups at 21st day (P< 0.001). Also there was a significant increase in tensile strength at the same time in the fourth group. The results of the histological study showed a considerable increase in the collagen fibers, re-epithelialization and re-vascularization in the second to fourth groups. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that zinc sulfate could retard re-epithelialization, but when used with natural honey (administered topically) it could have influent wound healing in non-zinc-deficient subjects as well. PMID:23493488

  1. The effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth, body composition, and growth factors in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gómez, N Marta; Doménech, Eduardo; Barroso, Flora; Castells, Silvia; Cortabarria, Carmen; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2003-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth, body composition, and growth factors in premature infants. Thirty-six preterm infants (gestational age: 32.0 +/- 2.1 weeks, birth weight: 1704 +/- 364 g) participated in a longitudinal double-blind, randomized clinical trial. They were randomly allocated either to the supplemental (S) group fed with a standard term formula supplemented with zinc (final content 10 mg/L) and a small quantity of copper (final content 0.6 mg/L), or to the placebo group fed with the same formula without supplementation (final content of zinc: 5 mg/L and copper: 0.4 mg/L), from 36 weeks postconceptional age until 6 months corrected postnatal age. At each evaluation, anthropometric variables and bioelectrical impedance were measured, a 3-day dietary record was collected, and a blood sample was taken. We analyzed serum levels of total alkaline phosphatase, skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sALP), insulin growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, IGF binding protein-1, zinc and copper, and the concentrations of zinc in erythrocytes. The S group had significantly higher zinc levels in serum and erythrocytes and lower serum copper levels with respect to the placebo group. We found that the S group had a greater linear growth (from baseline to 3 months corrected age: Delta score deviation standard length: 1.32 +/-.8 vs.38 +/-.8). The increase in total body water and in serum levels of sALP was also significantly higher in the S group (total body water: 3 months; corrected age: 3.8 +/-.5 vs 3.5 +/-.4 kg, 6 months; corrected age: 4.5 +/-.5 vs 4.2 +/-.4 kg; sALP: 3 months; corrected age: 140.2 +/- 28.7 vs 118.7 +/- 18.8 micro g/L). Zinc supplementation has a positive effect on linear growth in premature infants.

  2. Zinc supplementation augments TGF-β1-dependent regulatory T cell induction.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Martina; Meurer, Steffen K; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Rink, Lothar

    2017-03-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a pivotal role in immune regulation. For proper immune function, also trace elements such as zinc, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin (IL)-10 are indispensable. Hence, in this study the influence of TGF-β1, IL-10, and zinc supplementation on Treg cells differentiation was investigated. A synergistic effect of a combined zinc and TGF-β1 treatment on Foxp3 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC) was found by performing Western blot analysis. Additionally, combined treatment causes elevated Smad 2/3 phosphorylation, which plays an important role in Foxp3 expression. This is due to a TGF-β1-mediated increase of intracellular-free zinc measured by zinc probes Fluozin3-AM and ZinPyr-1. Moreover, zinc as well as TGF-β1 treatment caused significantly reduced interferon (IFN)-γ secretion in MLC. Combined zinc and TGF-β1 treatment provoked an increased Treg cell induction due to a triggered intracellular zinc signal, which in association with an increased Smad 2/3 activation leads to a boosted Foxp3 expression and resulting in an ameliorated allogeneic reaction in MLC. Thus, zinc can be used as a favorable additive to elevate the induction of Treg cells in adverse immune reactions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Zinc supplementation suppresses the progression of bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fang; Sheng, Qin; Xu, Xinhua; Huang, Wenli; Kang, Y James

    2015-09-01

    Metallothionein (MT) gene therapy leads to resolution of liver fibrosis in mouse model, in which the activation of collagenases is involved in the regression of liver fibrosis. MT plays a critical role in zinc sequestration in the liver suggesting its therapeutic effect would be mediated by zinc. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that zinc supplementation suppresses liver fibrosis. Male Kunming mice subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) resulted in liver fibrosis as assessed by increased α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen I production/deposition in the liver. Zinc supplementation was introduced 4 weeks after BDL surgery via intragastric administration once daily for 2 weeks resulting in a significant reduction in the collagen deposition in the liver and an increase in the survival rate. Furthermore, zinc suppressed gene expression of α-SMA and collagen I and enhanced the capacity of collagen degradation, as determined by the increased activity of total collagenases and elevated mRNA and protein levels of MMP13. Therefore, the results demonstrate that zinc supplementation suppresses BDL-induced liver fibrosis through both inhibiting collagen production and enhancing collagen degradation. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  4. The effectiveness of zinc supplementation in men with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Man-Na; Tong, Guo-Yu; Sun, Shou-Yue; Zhu, Yan-Hua; Cao, Ying; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Hong; Niu, Ben; Li, Hong; Guo, Qing-Hua; Gao, Yan; Zhu, Da-Long; Li, Xiao-Ying

    2017-01-01

    A multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled superiority trial with 18 months of follow-up was conducted to investigate whether oral zinc supplementation could further promote spermatogenesis in males with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) receiving sequential purified urinary follicular-stimulating hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (uFSH/hCG) replacement. Sixty-seven Chinese male IHH patients were recruited from the Departments of Endocrinology in eight tertiary hospitals and randomly allocated into the sequential uFSH/hCG group (Group A, n = 34) or the sequential uFSH plus zinc supplementation group (Group B, n = 33). In Group A, patients received sequential uFSH (75 U, three times a week every other 3 months) and hCG (2000 U, twice a week) treatments. In Group B, patients received oral zinc supplementation (40 mg day-1 ) in addition to the sequential uFSH/hCG treatment given to patients in Group A. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a sperm concentration ≥1.0 × 106 ml-1 during the 18 months. The comparison of efficacy between Groups A and B was analyzed. Nineteen of 34 (55.9%) patients receiving sequential uFSH/hCG and 20 of 33 (60.6%) patients receiving sequential uFSH/hCG plus zinc supplementation achieved sperm concentrations ≥1.0 × 106 ml-1 by intention to treat analyses. No differences between Group A and Group B were observed as far as the efficacy of inducing spermatogenesis (P = 0.69). We concluded that the sequential uFSH/hCG plus zinc supplementation regimen had a similar efficacy to the sequential uFSH/hCG treatment alone. The additional improvement of 40 mg day-1 oral zinc supplementation on spermatogenesis and masculinization in male IHH patients is very subtle.

  5. Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Growth Outcomes in Children under 5 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enju; Pimpin, Laura; Shulkin, Masha; Kranz, Sarah; Duggan, Christopher P; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2018-03-20

    (1) Background: The effects of zinc supplementation on child growth, and prior reviews of these studies, have shown mixed results. We aim to systematically review and meta-analyze randomized controlled trials evaluating effects of preventive zinc supplementation for 3 months or longer during pregnancy or in children up to age 5 years on pregnancy outcomes and child growth; (2) Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and trial registries for eligible trials up to October 10, 2017. Inclusion selection and data extractions were performed independently and in duplicate. Study quality was evaluated by the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Findings were pooled using random effects meta-analysis, with heterogeneity assessed by I ² and τ² statistic, stratified analyses, and meta-regression, and publication bias by Egger's and Begg's tests; (3) Results: Seventy-eight trials with 34,352 unique participants were identified, including 24 during pregnancy and 54 in infancy/childhood. Maternal zinc supplementation did not significantly increase birth weight (weighted mean difference (WMD) = 0.08 kg, 95%CI: -0.05, 0.22) or decrease the risk of low birth weight (RR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.52-1.11). Zinc supplementation after birth increased height (WMD = 0.23 cm, 95%CI: 0.09-0.38), weight (WMD = 0.14 kg, 95%CI: 0.07-0.21), and weight-for-age Z -score (WMD = 0.04, 95%CI: 0.001-0.087), but not height-for-age Z -score (WMD = 0.02, 95%CI: -0.01-0.06) or weight-for-height Z score (WMD = 0.02, 95%CI: -0.03-0.06). Child age at zinc supplementation appeared to modify the effects on height ( P -interaction = 0.002) and HAZ ( P -interaction = 0.06), with larger effects of supplementation starting at age ≥2 years (WMD for height = 1.37 cm, 95%CI: 0.50-2.25; WMD for HAZ = 0.12, 95%CI: 0.05-0.19). No significant effects of supplementation were found on the risk of stunting, underweight or wasting; (4) Conclusion: Although the possibility of publication bias and small

  6. Supplementation with zinc in rats enhances memory and reverses an age-dependent increase in plasma copper.

    PubMed

    Sandusky-Beltran, Leslie A; Manchester, Bryce L; McNay, Ewan C

    2017-08-30

    Zinc and copper are essential trace elements. Dyshomeostasis in these two metals has been observed in Alzheimer's disease, which causes profound cognitive impairment. Insulin therapy has been shown to enhance cognitive performance; however, recent data suggest that this effect may be at least in part due to the inclusion of zinc in the insulin formulation used. Zinc plays a key role in regulation of neuronal glutamate signaling, suggesting a possible link between zinc and memory processes. Consistent with this, zinc deficiency causes cognitive impairments in children. The effect of zinc supplementation on short- and long-term recognition memory, and on spatial working memory, was explored in young and adult male Sprague Dawley rats. After behavioral testing, hippocampal and plasma zinc and copper were measured. Age increased hippocampal zinc and copper, as well as plasma copper, and decreased plasma zinc. An interaction between age and treatment affecting plasma copper was also found, with zinc supplementation reversing elevated plasma copper concentration in adult rats. Zinc supplementation enhanced cognitive performance across tasks. These data support zinc as a plausible therapeutic intervention to ameliorate cognitive impairment in disorders characterized by alterations in zinc and copper, such as Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduction of arsenite-enhanced ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage by supplemental zinc

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Karen L.; King, Brenee S.; Sandoval, Monica M.; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen and there is evidence that arsenic augments the carcinogenicity of DNA damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR) thereby acting as a co-carcinogen. Inhibition of DNA repair is one proposed mechanism to account for the co-carcinogenic actions of arsenic. We and others find that arsenite interferes with the function of certain zinc finger DNA repair proteins. Furthermore, we reported that zinc reverses the effects of arsenite in cultured cells and a DNA repair target protein, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. In order to determine whether zinc ameliorates the effects of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes and in an in vivo model, normal human epidermal keratinocytes and SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to arsenite, zinc or both before solar-simulated (ss) UVR exposure. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, DNA damage and mutation frequencies at the hprt locus were measured in each treatment group in normal human keratinocytes. DNA damage was assessed in vivo by immunohistochemical staining of skin sections isolated from SKH-1 hairless mice. Cell-based findings demonstrate that ssUVR-induced DNA damage and mutagenesis are enhanced by arsenite, and supplemental zinc partially reverses the arsenite effect. In vivo studies confirm that zinc supplementation decreases arsenite-enhanced DNA damage in response to ssUVR exposure. From these data we can conclude that zinc offsets the impact of arsenic on ssUVR-stimulated DNA damage in cells and in vivo suggesting that zinc supplementation may provide a strategy to improve DNA repair capacity in arsenic exposed human populations. PMID:23523584

  8. Role of oral zinc supplementation for reduction of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: a systematic review of current evidence.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Sharma, Pradeep; Shastri, Sweta

    2017-08-01

    Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is frequently seen condition in the NICU. Oral zinc has been tried for the prevention of hyperbilirubinemia. To evaluate the role of oral zinc supplementation for reduction of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in term and preterm infants. The literature search was done for various randomized control trial (RCT) by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Index Copernicus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Thomson Reuters (ESCI), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) and other data base. This review included six RCT that fulfilled inclusion criteria. One study evaluated the role of zinc in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and remaining enrolled neonates  ≥35 weeks of gestation. The dose of zinc varied from 5 to 20 mg/day and duration from 5-7 days. All the studies used zinc sulfate, only one study used zinc gluconate. The total neonates enrolled in these different RCT are 749. Role of zinc in the prevention of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is not supported by the current evidence. Only one study was able to show reduction in the mean TSB level and requirement of phototherapy with zinc, and the remaining studies did not report any positive effect. None of the studies showed any effect on the duration of phototherapy, incidence of phototherapy, age of starting of phototherapy and any serious adverse effect.

  9. Zinc supplementation influences genomic stability biomarkers, antioxidant activity, and zinc transporter genes in an elderly Australian population with low zinc status.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Razinah; Thomas, Philip; Zalewski, Peter; Fenech, Michael

    2015-06-01

    An increased intake of Zinc (Zn) may reduce the risk of degenerative diseases but may prove to be toxic if taken in excess. This study aimed to investigate whether zinc carnosine supplement can improve Zn status, genome stability events, and Zn transporter gene expression in an elderly (65-85 years) South Australian cohort with low plasma Zn levels. A 12-week placebo-controlled intervention trial was performed with 84 volunteers completing the study, (placebo, n = 42) and (Zn group, n = 42). Plasma Zn was significantly increased (p < 0.05) by 5.69% in the Zn supplemented group after 12 weeks. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the micronucleus frequency (-24.18%) was observed for the Zn supplemented cohort relative to baseline compared to the placebo group. Reductions of -7.09% for tail moment and -8.76% for tail intensity were observed for the Zn group (relative to baseline) (p < 0.05). Telomere base damage was found to be also significantly decreased in the Zn group (p < 0.05). Both MT1A and ZIP1 expression showed a significant increase in the Zn supplemented group (p < 0.05). Zn supplementation may have a beneficial effect in an elderly population with low Zn levels by improving Zn status, antioxidant profile, and lowering DNA damage. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on DNA Damage in Rats with Experimental Kidney Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yegin, Sevim Çiftçi; Dede, Semiha; Mis, Leyla; Yur, Fatmagül

    2017-04-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of zinc on oxidative DNA damage in rats with experimental acute and chronic kidney deficiency. Six groups of five Wistar-Albino rats each were assigned as controls (C), acute kidney deficiency (AKD), zinc-supplemented (+Zn), acute kidney deficiency, zinc-supplemented (AKD + Zn), chronic kidney deficiency (CKD) and zinc-supplemented chronic kidney deficiency (CKD + Zn). The levels of 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were determined, being the lowest in the CKD group (p < 0.05), higher in the C group than those of rats with CKD but lower than that of all the other groups (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the controls and the CKD + Zn group, or between the AKD and the +Zn groups. Among all groups, the highest 8-OHdG level was found in the AKD + Zn group (p < 0.05). DNA damage was greater in acute renal failure than in rats with chronic renal failure. The DNA damage in the zinc group was significantly higher than in the controls.

  11. Zinc and iron supplementation on motor and language milestone scores of infants and toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Surkan, Pamela J.; Siegel, Emily H.; Patel, Shivani; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Tielsch, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of zinc and iron-folic acid supplementation on motor and language milestones in Nepali children. Methods A total of 544 children 4–17 months old residing in Ishwarpur, Nepal were randomized to receive placebo, iron-folic acid, zinc and zinc plus iron-folic acid daily. Data were collected at baseline and at three month intervals for one year. Main effects of zinc and iron folic-acid supplementation were estimated for motor and language milestones. We modeled crude and adjusted mean cumulative changes in scores between visits 1 and 5, and adjusted rates-of-change. Results Adjusted differences in motor milestone scores between visits 1 and 5 and rates-of-change were not significantly different for zinc and non-zinc groups (adj. β=−0.7, 95% CI: −1.4, 0.01; adj. β=−0.1, 95% CI:−0.5, 0.3, respectively). Motor milestones in children receiving and not receiving iron supplements were not significantly different (adj. β=0.1, 95% CI:−0.7, 0.8 from visit 1 to 5; adj. β=0.1, 95% CI:−0.3, 0.5 for rate-of-change). Children receiving zinc had a 0.8 lower mean crude change in language score between visits 1 and 5 compared to children not receiving zinc (95% CI −1.3,−0.3), but significance was lost after adjustment (adj. β=−0.2, 95% CI:−0.6, 0.2, comparing visits 1 to 5; β=−0.1, 95% CI:−0.3, 0.2 for rate-of-change). We observed no significant difference in motor or language milestone scores due to iron supplementation.. Conclusion After one year, neither zinc nor iron-folic acid supplementation in Nepali children improved attainment of motor or language milestones. PMID:23298972

  12. Effect of short term zinc supplementation on iron status of children with acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Zaka-ur-Rab, Zeeba; Ahmad, Syed Moiz; Naim, Mohammed; Alam, Seema; Adnan, Mohammad

    2015-05-01

    To study the effect of short term (2 wk) zinc supplementation on hemoglobin and iron status of children with acute diarrhea. This study was a prospective, open label, single arm interventional trial conducted from June 2008 through October 2009 in a teaching hospital of North India. Three to sixty months old children presenting with acute diarrhea participated in the study. Subjects were supplemented with recommended doses of oral zinc gluconate for 2 wk. Changes in levels of hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, and serum ferritin were the main outcome measures. Sixty-two patients completed the study successfully. The prevalence of anemia before and after 2 wk of zinc supplementation remained unchanged. However, a small decline (p > 0.05) was observed in mean hemoglobin (from 8.95 ± 1.4 to 8.73 ± 1.43 g/dL), serum iron (79.56 ± 45.81 to 78.61 ± 44.41 μg/dL) and ferritin (84.77 ± 45.35 to 83.55 ± 44.10 ng/mL) levels. Total iron binding capacity increased from 331.60 ± 109.72 to 341.30 ± 119.90 μg/dL post supplementation (p > 0.05). Even though statistically insignificant, the small change observed in the levels of hemoglobin, and indicators of iron status following short term zinc supplementation might assume significance in some settings in developing countries where children receive short courses of zinc repeatedly for frequent diarrheal episodes.

  13. Alterations in fear response and spatial memory in pre- and post-natal zinc supplemented rats: remediation by copper.

    PubMed

    Railey, Angela M; Micheli, Teresa L; Wanschura, Patricia B; Flinn, Jane M

    2010-05-11

    The role of zinc in the nervous system is receiving increased attention. At a time when dietary fortification and supplementation have increased the amount of zinc being consumed, little work has been done on the effects of enhanced zinc on behavior. Both zinc and copper are essential trace minerals that are acquired from the diet; under normal conditions the body protects against zinc overload, but at excessive dosages, copper deficiency has been seen. In order to examine the effect of enhanced metal administration on learning and memory, Sprague Dawley rats were given water supplemented with 10ppm Zn, 10ppm Zn+0.25ppm Cu, or normal lab water, during pre- and post-natal development. Fear conditioning tests at 4months showed significantly higher freezing rates during contextual retention and extinction and cued extinction for rats drinking water supplemented with zinc, suggesting increased anxiety compared to controls raised on lab water. During the MWM task at 9months, zinc-enhanced rats had significantly longer latencies to reach the platform compared to controls. The addition of copper to the zinc supplemented water brought freezing and latency levels closer to that of controls. These data demonstrate the importance of maintaining appropriate intake of both metals simultaneously, and show that long-term supplementation with zinc may cause alterations in memory. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A 14-mo zinc-supplementation trial in apparently healthy Chilean preschool children.

    PubMed

    Ruz, M; Castillo-Duran, C; Lara, X; Codoceo, J; Rebolledo, A; Atalah, E

    1997-12-01

    Apparently healthy preschool children (46 boys, 52 girls) aged 27-50 mo from low socioeconomic conditions who attended daycare centers in Santiago participated in a 14-mo long double-blind zinc supplementation trial. Unlike most previous studies, no additional inclusion criteria such as short stature or slow growth rate were considered. Subjects were pair matched according to sex and age and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the supplemented group, which received 10 mg Zn/d, and the placebo group. Selected anthropometric, clinical, dietary, biochemical, and functional indexes were determined at the beginning of the study and after 6 and 14 mo of intervention. Actual dietary zinc intake was 66% of the recommended dietary allowance. Height gain after 14 mo was on average 0.5 cm higher in the supplemented group (P = 0.10). The response, however, was different between sexes. Boys from the supplemented group gained 0.9 cm more than those in the placebo group (P = 0.045). No effect was seen in girls. Although no significant differences were observed in the rest of the variables studied, trends (0.05 < P < 0.10) in the supplemented group compared with the placebo group for increased midarm muscle area in boys, improved response to tuberculin, and reduced rates of parasite reinfestation were noted. We conclude that in preschool children of low socioeconomic status, zinc is a limiting factor in the expression of growth potential.

  15. Effect of maternal zinc supplementation on the cardiometabolic profile of Peruvian children: results from a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Mispireta, ML; Caulfield, LE; Zavaleta, N; Merialdi, M; Putnick, DL; Bornstein, MH; DiPietro, JA

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient for the development of the fetal renal, cardiovascular, and metabolic systems; however, there is limited evidence of its effects on the postnatal cardiometabolic function. In this study, we evaluated the effect of maternal zinc supplementation during pregnancy on the cardiometabolic profile of the offspring in childhood. A total of 242 pregnant women were randomly assigned to receive a daily supplement containing iron + folic acid with or without zinc. A follow-up study was conducted when children of participating mothers were 4.5 years of age to evaluate their cardiometabolic profile, including anthropometric measures of body size and composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. No difference in measures of child cardiometabolic risk depending on whether mothers received supplemental zinc during pregnancy. Our results do not support the hypothesis that maternal zinc supplementation reduces the risk of offspring cardiometabolic disease. PMID:27748235

  16. The beneficial effect of dietary zinc supplementation on anaemia and immunosuppression in Trypanosoma brucei infected rats.

    PubMed

    Eze, J I; Ayogu, L C; Abonyi, F O; Eze, U U

    2015-07-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element crucial for normal development and function of cells mediating nonspecific immunity and protects bio-molecules from oxidative damage. This study was designed to assess the effects of dietary zinc supplementation on anaemia and immunity of trypanosome-infected rats. Thirty rats, divided into five groups (A-E) of 6 each, were used for the study. Parameters used to assess the effect of the supplementation are antibody response to Sheep RBC using direct haemagglutination test, parasitaemia using the rapid matching method, WBC count using the improved Neubauer haemocytometer method, haemoglobin concentration using the cynomethaemoglobin technique while PCV was determined using the microhaematocrit method. The pre-infection supplementation did not prolong the pre-patent period significantly (p > 0.05). However, it significantly (p < 0.05) increased the packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, leucocyte count, and antibody titre by day 7 on the supplementation (OTS). Following infection on day 7 OTS, the PCV and Hb decreased but remained significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the infected not supplemented (INS) group, while on day 14 OTS, they maintained a significantly (p < 0.05) higher antibody titre as compared to other groups. On day 21 OTS, theweight of 8 ppm and not infected not supplemented (NINS) groups was significantly (p < 0.05) higher but the relative organ weight of their liver and spleen was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than 2 ppm, 4 ppm and INS groups. On day 21 OTS, the parasitaemia levels of INS group was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the supplemented groups. From the results, dietary zinc supplementation can be useful in the management of anaemia and immunosupression caused by trypanosomes in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of hypotensive therapy combined with modified diet or zinc supplementation on biochemical parameters and mineral status in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Skrypnik, Katarzyna; Szulińska, Monika; Kupsz, Justyna; Bogdański, Paweł

    2018-05-01

    Hypotensive therapy leads to a number of trace elements metabolism disturbances. Zinc balance is frequently affected by antihypertensive treatment. To evaluate the effect of a hypotensive treatment, modified diet and zinc supplementation on mineral status and selected biochemical parameters in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients on monotherapy. In the first stage, arterial hypertension in ninety-eight human subjects was diagnosed. In the second stage, antihypertensive monopharmacotherapy was implemented. In the third stage, patients were randomized into three groups and continued antihypertensive monotherapy: group D received an optimal-mineral-content diet, group S received zinc supplementation, and group C had no changes in diet or zinc supplementation. Iron, zinc, and copper concentrations in serum, erythrocytes, urine, and hair were determined. Lipids, glucose, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were assayed in serum. Antihypertensive monotherapy decreased zinc concentration in serum and erythrocytes and increased the level of zinc in urine, decreased CAT and SOD activity, TNF-α concentration in serum, and increased the level of NO in the serum. Zinc supply led to an increase in zinc concentration in serum, erythrocytes, and hair (in group S only). In the groups with higher zinc intake, decreased glucose concentration in the serum was observed. Significant correlation was seen between the zinc and glucose serum concentrations. Hypotensive drugs disturb zinc status in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. Antihypertensive monotherapy combined with increased zinc supply in the diet or supplementation favorably modify zinc homeostasis and regulate glucose status without blood pressure affecting in patients with hypertension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Chronic and Acute Zinc Supplementation on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ozyıldırım, Serhan; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Sahna, Engin; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-07-01

    The present study aims to explore the effects of chronic and acute zinc sulfate supplementation on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. The study registered 50 adult male rats which were divided into five groups in equal numbers as follows: group 1, normal control; group 2, sham; group 3, myocardial ischemia reperfusion (My/IR): the group which was fed on a normal diet and in which myocardial I/R was induced; group 4, myocardial ischemia reperfusion + chronic zinc: (5 mg/kg i.p. zinc sulfate for 15 days); and group 5, myocardial ischemia reperfusion + acute zinc: the group which was administered 15 mg/kg i.p. zinc sulfate an hour before the operation and in which myocardial I/R was induced. The collected blood and cardiac tissue samples were analyzed using spectrophotometric method to determine levels of MDA, as an indicator of tissue injury, and GSH, as an indicator of antioxidant activity. The highest plasma and heart tissue MDA levels were measured in group 3 (p < 0.05). Group 5 had lower MDA values than group 3, while group 4 had significantly lower MDA values than groups 3 and 5 (p < 0.05). The highest erythrocyte GSH values were found in group 4 (p < 0.05). Erythrocyte GSH values in group 5 were higher than those in group 3 (p < 0.05). The highest GSH values in heart tissue were measured in group 4 (p < 0.05). The results of the study reveal that the antioxidant activity inhibited by elevated oxidative stress in heart ischemia reperfusion in rats is restored partially by acute zinc administration and markedly by chronic zinc supplementation.

  19. Serum zinc, copper and iron status of children with coeliac disease on three months of gluten-free diet with or without four weeks of zinc supplements: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Negi, K; Kumar, R; Sharma, L; Datta, S P; Choudhury, M; Kumar, P

    2018-04-01

    Data about the effect of zinc supplementation with gluten-free diet on normalisation of plasma zinc, copper and iron in patients with coeliac disease are scanty. We evaluated the effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc, copper and iron levels in patients with coeliac disease, by randomising 71 children newly diagnosed with coeliac disease into two groups: Group A = gluten-free diet (GFD); and Group B = gluten-free diet with zinc supplements (GFD +Zn). The rise in iron and zinc was significantly higher in the latter, but the mean rise of copper levels was slightly higher in the former, but the difference was not significant.

  20. Effects of zinc and magnesium supplements on postpartum depression and anxiety: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fard, Fatemeh Edalati; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi, Sakineh; Farshbaf-Khalili, Azizeh; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Asgharian, Hanieh

    2017-10-01

    Postpartum anxiety and depression are prevalent disorders. The authors of this study aimed to determine the effects of zinc and magnesium supplements on depressive symptoms and anxiety in postpartum women referred to three governmental, educational hospitals in Tabriz, Iran during 2014-2015. In this triple-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial, the participants were randomly assigned to the zinc sulfate, magnesium sulfate, and placebo groups (n = 33 per group). The intervention groups received a 27-mg zinc sulfate tablet or 320-mg magnesium sulfate tablet per day for 8 weeks, whereas the control group received a placebo tablet each day during the same period. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were completed before and 8 weeks after the intervention. Blood samples were drawn from each participant to determine serum levels of zinc and magnesium before intervention at 48 hours after delivery. Also, a 24-hour dietary questionnaire was used during the first and last 3 days of the intervention. Adjusting for baseline scores as well as zinc and magnesium serum levels, no significant difference was observed between groups 8 weeks after delivery in mean scores of depressive symptoms (p = .553), state anxiety (p = .995), and trait anxiety (p = .234). This study concluded magnesium and zinc did not reduce postpartum anxiety and depressive symptoms.

  1. Effects of Dietary Zinc Pectin Oligosaccharides Chelate Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Tissue Zinc Concentrations of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongcheng; Yu, Huimin; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Cui, Hu; Wan, Chunmeng; Gao, Xiuhua

    2016-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc pectin oligosaccharides (Zn-POS) chelate on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and tissue zinc concentrations of Arbor Acre broilers aged from 1 to 42 days. A total of 576 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 9 replicates per group and 16 chicks per replicate. Chicks were fed either a basal diet (control) or basal diet supplemented with Zn-POS at 300 (Zn-POS-300), 600 (Zn-POS-600), or 900 mg/kg (Zn-POS-900), respectively, for 42 days. A 3-day metabolism trial was conducted during the last week of the experiment feeding. The average daily gain and the average daily feed intake of Zn-POS-600 were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of either the control, Zn-POS-300, or Zn-POS-900. Zn-POS-600 had the highest apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and metabolic energy among all groups. The control group had the lowest apparent digestibility of dry matter (P < 0.05), whereas the apparent digestibility of dry matter in Zn-POS-600 was higher (P < 0.05) than that of Zn-POS-300. The apparent digestibility of crude protein in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P < 0.05) compared to Zn-POS-300 or the control. The apparent digestibility of metabolic energy in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P < 0.05) than that of Zn-POS-300. Zn-POS-600 had the highest liver zinc concentrations (P < 0.05), while Zn-POS-900 had the highest pancreatic zinc concentrations (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that the supplementation of 600 mg/kg Zn-POS is optimal in improving the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake, utilization of dietary dry matter and crude protein, and increasing tissue zinc concentrations in liver and pancreas of broilers.

  2. Crystalline perfection, optical and piezoelectric properties of a novel semi-organic single crystal: Zinc guanidinium sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandhini, S.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc Guanidinium Sulfate (ZGuS), a semi-organic single crystal, was synthesized using slow evaporation solution growth technique. It is a non-centrosymmetric crystal with space group I4 ¯2d . The crystalline nature of the crystal and the strain were determined using powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was revealed using HR-XRD analysis. The UV-vis-NIR transmittance spectrum depicts 60% transparency with lower-cut off wavelength of 210 nm. The emission spectrum of the crystal was determined using photoluminescence study. Piezoelectricity was confirmed by determining the piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33). These findings shows that the title compound can be employed for photonic and transducer applications.

  3. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  4. A supplemented soft agar chemotaxis assay demonstrates the Helicobacter pylori chemotactic response to zinc and nickel

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Lisa; Andermann, Tessa M.

    2013-01-01

    Directed motility, or chemotaxis, is required for Helicobacter pylori to establish infection in the stomach, although the full repertoire of this bacterium’s chemotactic responses is not yet known. Here we report that H. pylori responds to zinc as an attractant and nickel as a repellent. To reach this conclusion, we employed both a temporal chemotaxis assay based on bacterial reversals and a supplemented soft agar spatial assay. We refined the temporal assay using a previously described chemorepellent, acid, and found that H. pylori requires rich media with serum to maintain optimal swimming motility. Surprisingly, we found that some strains respond to acid as an attractant, and that the TlpC chemoreceptor correlated with whether acid was sensed as an attractant or repellent. Using this same assay, we detected weak repellent responses to nickel and copper, and a varied response to zinc. We thus developed an alternative spatial chemotactic assay called the supplemented soft agar assay, which utilizes soft agar medium supplemented with the test compound. With Escherichia coli, the attractant serine slowed overall bacterial migration, while the repellent nickel increased the speed of overall migration. In H. pylori we detected slowed migration with doubled tryptone media, as well as zinc, consistent with an attractant response. In contrast, nickel increased migration, consistent with repulsion. PMID:23139399

  5. Total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation with and without in vitro zinc supplementation in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Ajina, T; Sallem, A; Haouas, Z; Mehdi, M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in infertile men with asthenozoospermia and asthenoteratozoospermia compared to fertile donors, and to examine the effect of zinc on sperm lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in infertile and fertile men. Semen samples provided by infertile men (n = 38) and fertile donors (controls; n = 12) were exposed to 6 mmol/L of zinc for 2 hr at 37°C. After semen analysis, lipid peroxidation was detected by MDA assay and seminal TAC was assessed by colorimetric method using TAS (total antioxidant status) Kit. TAC was significantly lower in infertile group compared to controls (p = .037). However, lipid peroxidation did not alter in infertile patients compared to controls (p > .05). After in vitro incubation of samples with zinc, a significant increase in TAC level was found only in infertile men (p < .001). Meanwhile, zinc had no effect on sperm lipid peroxidation in both fertile and infertile men (p > .05). Our data indicate that antioxidant treatment based on zinc in vitro supplementation may be helpful to enhance the rate of seminal antioxidant status in infertile men; however, it does not prevent sperm lipid peroxidation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. From guidelines to local realities: evaluation of oral rehydration therapy and zinc supplementation in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Hall-Clifford, Rachel; Amerson, Roxanne

    2017-04-20

    Diarrhea remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for children in low- and middle-income countries throughout the Americas. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed guidelines on incorporating zinc supplementation (ZS) with traditional oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in order to shorten the duration of diarrheal episodes and to reduce poor health outcomes. Guatemala adopted these guidelines in 2011, but they have not yet been fully implemented at the community level. The objectives of this study were: (1) to co-design an ORT/ZS training program for community members with local health promoters that is appropriate to the local context and (2) to understand how attitudes and behaviors of community members changed after receiving training from the study promoters. In an observational study, community health promoters in rural Guatemala were trained according to WHO guidelines, and they worked collaboratively with the study team to develop a training curriculum to implement in their community. Community-based surveys, interviews, and focus group discussions were used to assess acceptability, accessibility, and availability of oral rehydration therapy and zinc supplementation. Use of ORT increased from 63% to 95% among community members following training by local health promoters. Satisfaction with the service offered by health promoters increased from 63% to 90% amongst community members trained by the study promoters. However, knowledge and use of zinc supplementation remained low, which was attributable to unavailability of zinc in the study community. Use of trained community health promoters is an effective way to translate WHO guidelines to local contexts and overcome sociocultural barriers to care. However, the health system's structure must support availability of essential medicines in order to effectively implement those guidelines.

  7. Efficacy of zinc sulfate supplement on febrile seizure recurrence prevention in children with normal serum zinc level: A randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Razieh; Sabbaghzadegan, Saeideh; Karbasi, Sedighah Akhavan; Binesh, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Serum zinc level might be related to pathogenesis of febrile seizure (FS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of oral zinc supplementation on FS recurrence prevention in non-zinc-deficient children. In a randomized clinical study, one hundred 18 to 60 mo old children with normal zinc level with first simple FS were referred to Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran from May 2012 to June 2013, were randomly assigned to two groups to receive 2 mg/kg/d zinc sulfate for six consecutive months or placebo as control group and were followed up for 1 y for FS recurrence. 41 girls and 59 boys with mean age of 2.47 ± 1.01 y were evaluated. Race, mean weight, height and body fat were similar in both groups. FS recurrence occurred in 19 children (38%) in the control group [95% confidence interval (CI): 19.45%-53.95%] and in 11 children (22%) in the zinc sulfate (95% CI: 57.47%-89.13%) groups, respectively; and the zinc group had lower FS recurrence (P = 0.03). The mean serum zinc level before intervention was lower in children with FS recurrence (72.43 ± 14.58 μg/dL versus 96.33 ± 12.69 μg/dL, P = 0.04). Gastrointestinal side effects (vomiting in five children, heartburn in two children and abdominal pain in one child) were seen in 16% of the zinc group and vomiting occurred in two children (4%) in control group and frequency of adverse events was similar in the two groups (P = 0.1). Zinc supplementation should be considered as effective and safe in prevention of FS recurrence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Jahn-Teller ion in zinc sodium sulphate hexahydrate: a case of low hyperfine coupling constant for Cu(II) ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, K. C.; Shiyamala, C.; Mithira, S.; Natarajan, B.; Venkatesan, R.; Rao, P. S.

    2005-06-01

    Single crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of Cu(II) doped zinc sodium sulphate hexahydrate are carried out from room temperature (RT) to 123 K. The RT spectra show unresolved hyperfine lines and hence angular variation studies are also carried out at 123 K to obtain spin Hamiltonian parameters. The spin Hamiltonian parameters calculated from the 123 K spectra are: g(11)=2.039, g(22)=2.232, g(33)=2.394, A(11)=5.64 mT, A(22)=4.20 mT, and A(33)=7.94 mT. The g-matrix values at RT and 123 K have matched fairly well with each other. The low hyperfine value (A(33)), obtained at 123 K, has been explained by considering considerable admixture of d(x 2-y 2) ground state with d(z 2) excited state and the delocalization of the unpaired spin density onto the ligands. The admixture coefficients of ground state wave function are: a=0.346, b=0.935, c=0.055, d=0.040, e=-0.040, where a and b correspond to admixture coefficients for d(z 2) and d(x 2-y 2), respectively. Angular variation of Cu(II) resonances in the three orthogonal axes shows that the impurity has entered a substitutional site in the host lattice in place of Zn(II). Bonding parameters, kappa=0.295, P=245.4x10(-4), alpha(2)=0.709, alpha=0.8421 and alpha'=0.6034, have also been calculated to fully characterize the EPR.

  9. Zinc Methionine Supplementation Impacts Gene and Protein Expression in Calf-fed Holstein Steers with Miniaml Impact on Feedlot Performance

    Calf-fed Holstein steers were supplemented with a zinc (Zn) methionine supplement (ZnMet; ZINPRO®; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN) for 115±5 days prior to harvest along with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Zilmax®; Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ) for the last 20 days with a 3 day withdrawal to ...

  10. Zinc supplementation during pregnancy protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced fetal growth restriction and demise through its anti-inflammatory effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhao, Mei; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Hua; Huang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, De-Xiang

    2012-07-01

    LPS is associated with adverse developmental outcomes, including preterm delivery, fetal death, teratogenicity, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Previous reports showed that zinc protected against LPS-induced teratogenicity. In the current study, we investigated the effects of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on LPS-induced preterm delivery, fetal death and IUGR. All pregnant mice except controls were i.p. injected with LPS (75 μg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 15 to GD17. Some pregnant mice were administered zinc sulfate through drinking water (75 mg elemental Zn per liter) throughout the pregnancy. As expected, an i.p. injection with LPS daily from GD15 to GD17 resulted in 36.4% (4/11) of dams delivered before GD18. In dams that completed the pregnancy, 63.2% of fetuses were dead. Moreover, LPS significantly reduced fetal weight and crown-rump length. Of interest, zinc supplementation during pregnancy protected mice from LPS-induced preterm delivery and fetal death. In addition, zinc supplementation significantly alleviated LPS-induced IUGR and skeletal development retardation. Further experiments showed that zinc supplementation significantly attenuated LPS-induced expression of placental inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2. Zinc supplementation also significantly attenuated LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling in mononuclear sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells of the labyrinth zone. It inhibited LPS-induced placental AKT phosphorylation as well. In conclusion, zinc supplementation during pregnancy protects against LPS-induced fetal growth restriction and demise through its anti-inflammatory effect.

  11. Effect of zinc supplementation on insulin resistance, energy and macronutrients intakes in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Roshanravan, Neda; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Hedayati, Mehdi; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Mesri Alamdari, Naimeh; Anari, Farideh; Tarighat-Esfanjani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Hyperglycemia and gestational diabetes mellitus are complications of pregnancy. Both mothers and newborns are typically at increased risk for complications. This study sought to determine effect of zinc supplementation on serum glucose levels, insulin resistance, energy and macronutrients intakes in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance. In this clinical trial 44 pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance, from December 2012 -April 2013 were randomly divided into zinc (n=22) and placebo (n=22) groups and recived 30mg/day zinc gluconate and (n=22), and placebo for eight consecutive weeks respectively. Dietary food intake was estimated from 3-days diet records. Serum levels of zinc, fasting blood sugar, and insulin were measured by conventional methods. Also homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated. Serumlevels of fasting blood sugar, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance slightly decreased in zinc group, but these changes were not statistically significant. Serum zinc levels (P =0.012), energy (P=0.037), protein (P=0.019) and fat (P=0.017) intakes increased statistically significant in the zinc group after intervention but not in the placebo group. Oral supplementation with zinc could be effective in increasing serum zinc levels and energy intake with no effects on fasting blood sugar, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and insulin levels.

  12. Maternal dietary zinc supplementation enhances the epigenetic-activated antioxidant ability of chick embryos from maternal normal and high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongwen; Liao, Xiudong; Lu, Lin; Li, Wenxiang; Zhang, Liyang; Ji, Cheng; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xugang

    2017-03-21

    The role of maternal dietary zinc supplementation in protecting the embryos from maternal hyperthermia-induced negative effects via epigenetic mechanisms was examined using an avian model (Gallus gallus). Broiler breeder hens were exposed to two maternal temperatures (21°C and 32°C) × three maternal dietary zinc treatments (zinc-unsupplemented control diet, the control diet + 110 mg zinc/kg inorganic or organic zinc) for 8 weeks. Maternal hyperthermia increased the embryonic mortality and induced oxidative damage evidenced by the elevated mRNA expressions of heat shock protein genes. Maternal dietary zinc deficiency damaged the embryonic development associated with the global DNA hypomethylation and histone 3 lysine 9 hyperacetylation in the embryonic liver. Supplementation of zinc in maternal diets effectively eliminated the embryonic mortality induced by maternal hyperthermia and enhanced antioxidant ability with the increased mRNA and protein expressions of metallothionein IV in the embryonic liver. The increased metallothionein IV mRNA expression was due to the reduced DNA methylation and increased histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation of the metallothionein IV promoter regardless of zinc source. These data demonstrate that maternal dietary zinc addition as an epigenetic modifier could protect the offspring embryonic development against maternal heat stress via enhancing the epigenetic-activated antioxidant ability.

  13. Zinc Supplementation Alters Plasma Aluminum and Selenium Status of Patients Undergoing Dialysis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chih-Hung; Chen, Pei-Chung; Hsu, Guoo-Shyng W.; Wang, Chia-Liang

    2013-01-01

    End stage renal disease patients undergoing long-term dialysis are at risk for abnormal concentrations of certain essential and non-essential trace metals and high oxidative stress. We evaluated the effects of zinc (Zn) supplementation on plasma aluminum (Al) and selenium (Se) concentrations and oxidative stress in chronic dialysis patients. Zn-deficient patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis were divided into two groups according to plasma Al concentrations (HA group, Al > 50 μg/L; and MA group, Al > 30 to ≤ 50 μg/L). All patients received daily oral Zn supplements for two months. Age- and gender-matched healthy individuals did not receive Zn supplement. Clinical variables were assessed before, at one month, and after the supplementation period. Compared with healthy subjects, patients had significantly lower baseline plasma Se concentrations and higher oxidative stress status. After two-month Zn treatment, these patients had higher plasma Zn and Se concentrations, reduced plasma Al concentrations and oxidative stress. Furthermore, increased plasma Zn concentrations were related to the concentrations of Al, Se, oxidative product malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase activities. In conclusion, Zn supplementation ameliorates abnormally high plasma Al concentrations and oxidative stress and improves Se status in long-term dialysis patients. PMID:23609777

  14. Preventive effects of supplemental dietary zinc on heat-induced damage in the epididymis of boars.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaojian; Li, Yansen; Zhou, Xin; Cao, Yun; Li, Chunmei

    2017-02-01

    Hyperthermia in boars reduces growth performance and sperm production. Zinc is an essential trace element in animal nutrition. Here we investigate the effects of dietary zinc on epididymal structure and function in Bama miniature pigs treated with heat exposure and investigate approaches to improve the reproductive performance in summer. Male Bama miniature pigs (n=18; aged 6 months; bodyweight=10.79±0.06kg) were randomly allocated to 3 groups: control group (Control), heat treatment group (HT), and the diet-supplemented and heat treatment group (H+Zn). The Control and HT groups were fed with basal diet and the H+Zn group were fed with basal diet plus 1500mg/kg zinc daily. After being fed with these 2 different diets for 30 days, pigs in the HT and H+Zn groups were exposed to 5h of 40°C heat treatment for 8 days. Rectal temperature and jugular venous blood were collected 3h after onset of heat exposure on days 1, 4 and 8. Pigs were sacrificed after the termination of heat exposure. Heat treatment increased serum testosterone concentration on day 1 and 4 (P<0.01). In addition, the HT group displayed an increase in the clear cell count and a decrease in epithelium thickness in the caput epithelium (P<0.01, P<0.05), and dietary zinc protected the boars from these impairments (P<0.01, P=0.29). Evaluation of oxidative states showed that heat exposure increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in the epididymis (P<0.01, P<0.05), while dietary zinc reduced this elevation (P<0.01, P<0.01). Heat exposure enhanced the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in the nuclei of principal and basal cells (P<0.01, P<0.01) while dietary zinc attenuated the GR immunoreactivity intensity (P<0.01, P<0.01). These results demonstrate that dietary zinc protects the epididymis from high temperature-induced impairment, alleviates oxidative stress, restores the integrity of the caput epithelium and decreases the stress response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  15. Supplementation of Diabetic Rats with Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium: Effects on Function and Histological Structure of Testes.

    PubMed

    Kolahian, Saeed; Sadri, Hassan; Larijani, Amir; Hamidian, Gholamreza; Davasaz, Afshin

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to study whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence function and histological structure of testes in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Seventy seven adult male rats were categorized into 11 groups of 7 animals each: (1) nondiabetic (negative control); (2) non-treated (positive control); (3) treated with insulin; (4) treated with glibenclamide; (5) treated with leucine; (6) treated with zinc; (7) treated with chromium; (8) treated with leucine + zinc; (9) treated with leucine + chromium; (10) treated with zinc + chromium; (11) treated with leucine + zinc + chromium. In the non-treated group, hyperglycemia severely damaged testes morphology as well as the spermatogenic process. Diabetes induction decreased testicular length, height, width, volume, total number of epididymal sperm, and number of live sperm. Seminiferous tubules of diabetic rats showed a decrease in diameter of tubules and height of epithelium. Diabetes induction decreased the number of cells (spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, and Sertoli) in cross sections of seminiferous tubules. Administration of nutritional supplements to the diabetic rats improved testes morphology and reversed, although not completely, impairment of spermatogenesis. Treatment with nutritional supplements increased testicular length, height, width, and volume. All treatments increased the number of live sperm and the total number of epididymal sperm. Furthermore, nutritional supplements increased diameter of tubules, height of epithelium, and the number of cells in seminiferous tubules. These alleviating effects were more pronounced in animals treated with the leucine-zinc-chromium combination. The present results demonstrate beneficial effects of zinc, leucine, and chromium supplements to improve testes morphology and to restore spermatogenesis in type 2 diabetic rats.

  16. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Rivero, Miguel; Rojas, Ernesto; Verduguez-Orellana, Aleida; Pardo, Henry; Torrico, Mary Cruz; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Akesson, Björn; Sejas, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit.

  17. Impact of zinc supplementation on the improvement of ethanol tolerance and yield of self-flocculating yeast in continuous ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X Q; Xue, C; Ge, X M; Yuan, W J; Wang, J Y; Bai, F W

    2009-01-01

    The effects of zinc supplementation were investigated in the continuous ethanol fermentation using self-flocculating yeast. Zinc sulfate was added at the concentrations of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g l(-1), respectively. Reduced average floc sizes were observed in all the zinc-supplemented cultures. Both the ethanol tolerance and thermal tolerance were significantly improved by zinc supplements, which correlated well with the increased ergosterol and trehalose contents in the yeast flocs. The highest ethanol concentration by 0.05 g l(-1) zinc sulfate supplementation attained 114.5 g l(-1), in contrast to 104.1 g l(-1) in the control culture. Glycerol production was decreased by zinc supplementations, with the lowest level 3.21 g l(-1), about 58% of the control. Zinc content in yeast cells was about 1.4 microMol g(-1) dry cell weight, about sixfold higher than that of control in all the zinc-supplemented cultures, and close correlation of zinc content in yeast cells with the cell viability against ethanol and heat shock treatment was observed. These studies suggest that exogenous zinc addition led to a reprogramming of cellular metabolic network, resulting in enhanced ethanol tolerance and ethanol production.

  18. Randomized trial of the effect of zinc supplementation on the mental health of school-age children in Guatemala123

    PubMed Central

    DiGirolamo, Ann M; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Wang, Meng; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Martorell, Reynaldo; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Sellen, Daniel; Black, Maureen M; Stein, Aryeh D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Rates of mental illness in children are increasing throughout the world. Observational studies of depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder suggest that zinc is an alternative treatment. Objective: We examined the effect of zinc supplementation on the mental health of school-age children in Guatemala. Design: From January to October 2006, we conducted a 6-mo randomized, double-blind, controlled trial comparing zinc supplementation (10 mg ZnO/d for 5 d/wk) with a placebo (10 mg glucose) in 674 Guatemalan children in grades 1–4. Outcome measures included internalizing (ie, depression and anxiety) and externalizing (ie, hyperactivity and conduct disorder) problem behaviors, positive behaviors (ie, socialization and leadership), and serum zinc concentrations. Results: Zinc and placebo groups did not differ significantly in any behavioral measures at baseline or at follow-up. At baseline, 21.4% of children had serum zinc concentrations <65 μg/dL. At follow-up, both groups improved significantly, and zinc concentrations were higher in the zinc group. Increases in serum zinc concentrations were inversely associated with decreases in depressive symptoms (estimate: −0.01 points per μg Zn/dL; P = 0.01), anxiety (estimate: −0.012 points per μg Zn/dL; P = 0.02), internalizing symptoms (estimate: −0.021 points per μg Zn/dL; P = 0.02), and social skills (estimate: −0.019 points per μg Zn/dL; P = 0.01) in adjusted models that were controlled for child age, sex, socioeconomic status, household, and treatment group. Conclusions: Six months of zinc supplementation did not induce differences in mental health outcomes between zinc and placebo groups. However, increases in serum zinc concentrations were associated with decreases in internalizing symptoms (ie, depression and anxiety) in a community-based sample of children at risk of zinc deficiency. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00283660. PMID:20881069

  19. Serial changes in selected serum constituents in low birth weight infants on peripheral parenteral nutrition with different zinc and copper supplements.

    PubMed

    Lockitch, G; Pendray, M R; Godolphin, W J; Quigley, G

    1985-07-01

    One hundred and five infants of birth weight 2000 g or less who received peripherally administered parenteral nutrition for periods of three or more weeks, were randomly assigned to groups receiving different amounts of zinc and copper supplement. The blood concentrations of zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase were followed weekly. Mean serum zinc, retinol-binding protein and prealbumin declined significantly over time while alkaline phosphatase rose. Only the group receiving the highest zinc supplement maintained a mean serum zinc concentration within the normal range at seven weeks. No difference in the protein or enzyme concentrations was found between the different zinc supplement groups. No difference was seen in serum copper or ceruloplasmin between copper dose groups although one intravenous supplement was double that of the other.

  20. Early-in-life dietary zinc deficiency and supplementation and mammary tumor development in adulthood female rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Flávia R M; Grassi, Tony F; Zapaterini, Joyce R; Bidinotto, Lucas T; Barbisan, Luis F

    2017-06-01

    Zinc deficiency during pregnancy and postnatal life can adversely increase risk of developing human diseases at adulthood. The present study was designed to evaluate whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation during the pregnancy, lactation and juvenile stages interferes in the development of mammary tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Pregnant female SD rats were allocated into three groups: zinc-adequate diet (ZnA - 35-mg/kg chow), zinc-deficient diet (ZnD - 3-mg/kg chow) or zinc-supplemented diet (ZnS - 180-mg/kg chow) during gestational day 10 (GD 10) until the litters' weaning. Female offspring received the same diets as their dams until postnatal day (PND) 51. At PND 51, the animals received a single dose of DMBA (50 mg/kg, ig) and zinc-adequate diets. At PND 180, female were euthanized, and tumor samples were processed for histological evaluation and gene expression microarray analysis. The ZnD induced a significant reduction in female offspring body weight evolution and in mammary gland development. At late in life, the ZnD or ZnS did not alter the latency, incidence, multiplicity, volume or histological types of mammary tumors in relation to the ZnA group. However, the total tumor number in ZnS group was higher than in ZnA group, accompanied by distinct expression of 4 genes up- and 15 genes down-regulated. The present findings indicate that early-in-life dietary zinc supplementation, differently to zinc deficiency, has a potential to modify the susceptibility to the development of mammary tumors induced by DMBA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A new formula for a mild body cleanser: sodium laureth sulphate supplemented with sodium laureth carboxylate and lauryl glucoside.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Y; Shimizu, M; Morokuma, Y; Miyaki, M; Kiba, A; Matsuo, K; Isoda, K; Mizutani, H

    2014-08-01

    Sodium laureth sulphate (SLES) is an anionic detergent, which has been used globally for personal care products because of its mildness and good foaming ability. However, SLES is somewhat invasive and stimulatory to the skin, and many consumers with sensitive skin desire milder detergents for daily use skin cleansers. We enhanced the mildness of SLES by formulating it with sodium laureth carboxylate (AEC) and lauryl glucoside (LG). In skin soak tests, 5% detergent solutions were applied to the forearms of 10 Japanese healthy volunteers for 30 min followed by washing with tap water once a day for 4 days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, cutaneous capacitance measurements and visual analyses were performed. In a controlled usage study, 16 Japanese healthy volunteers used the test body cleanser for 4 weeks. Assessment of efficacy and mildness was conducted prior to the start of the study and at the end of week 4 by cutaneous conductance, dermoscopic evaluation of the stratum corneum and visual assessment by a dermatologist. In soak tests, cutaneous capacitance was significantly decreased on the soap-treated region and on the SLES-treated region. No significant decrease was identified on the SLES/AEC/LG-treated region with less induction of erythema or dryness. In the controlled usage study, no significant changes in cutaneous conductance or texture or damage of corneocytes on the forearm and lower thigh were found. However, visual assessment revealed a significant decrease in scaling and erythema on the lower thigh after 4 weeks of usage with an improvement of the discomfort of the consumer. The favourability rating of this formulated detergent in several questionnaire items was very good. The newly formulated skin cleanser with the combination of anionic surfactants SLES and AEC and the non-ionic surfactant LG provides a mild surfactant with a satisfactory cleansing activity for body washing. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Soci

  2. Zinc, copper, and nitrogen balances during bed rest and fluoride supplementation in healthy adult males

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, J. M.; Schneider, V. S.; LeBlanc, A. D.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of bed rest and fluoride supplementation on zinc, copper, and nitrogen balances and Zn and Cu serum levels were measured in 15 healthy males. Subjects aged 19-54 y remained on a metabolic research ward for 10 wk. During weeks 1-5, subjects were ambulatory. During wks 6-10 they remained in continuous bed rest. During weeks 3-10 nine subjects received 10 or 20 mg F/d as sodium fluoride. Daily urine and weekly fecal composites were made and biweekly fasting blood samples were taken. Dietary intakes were 1.40 +/- 0.17 mg Cu/d (22.0 +/- 2.7 mumol Cu/d), 10.82 +/- 0.49 mg Zn/d (165.6 +/- 7.6 mumol Zn/d), and 14.27 +/- 0.23 g N/d (1019 +/- 16 mmol N/d). Bed rest increased urinary Zn and N excretions and fecal Zn excretions and decreased Zn balance (p less than 0.05) whereas Cu balance was unchanged. During bed rest, F supplementation increased Zn and N balances compared with untreated control subjects (p less than 0.05). These results are compatible with bone and muscle atrophy during bed rest and increased bone formation with F supplementation.

  3. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  4. Zinc

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  5. Zinc supplementation in rats impairs hippocampal-dependent memory consolidation and dampens post-traumatic recollection of stressful event.

    PubMed

    Contestabile, Antonio; Peña-Altamira, Emiliano; Virgili, Marco; Monti, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Zinc is a trace element important for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Zinc deficiency, both during pregnancy and after birth, impairs cognitive performance and, in addition to memory deficits, also results in alterations of attention, activity, neuropsychological behavior and motor development. The effects of zinc supplementation on cognition, particularly in the adult, are less clear. We demonstrate here in adult rats, that 4 week-long zinc supplementation given by drinking water, and approximately doubling normal daily intake, strongly impairs consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory, tested through contextual fear conditioning and inhibitory avoidance. Furthermore, the same treatment started after memory consolidation of training for the same behavioral tests, substantially dampens the recall of the stressful event occurred 4 weeks before. A molecular correlate of the amnesic effect of zinc supplementation is represented by a dysregulated function of GSK-3ß in the hippocampus, a kinase that participates in memory processes. The possible relevance of these data for humans, in particular regarding post-traumatic stress disorders, is discussed in view of future investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Zinc and vitamin A supplementation fails to reduce sputum conversion time in severely malnourished pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A previous study showed that combination of zinc and vitamin A reduced sputum conversion time in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. Objective We studied the efficacy of which single micronutrient contributed more to the sputum conversion time. Methods In a double-blind randomized community trial, newly sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients were assigned randomly to receive zinc, vitamin A, zinc + vitamin A or placebo on top of TB treatment. Patients were asked to deliver their sputum on weekly basis to measure positivity of the bacteria. Nutritional status, chest x-ray, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP), retinol and zinc level were examined prior to, after 2 and 6 months of treatment. Results Initially, 300 patients were enrolled, and 255 finished the treatment. Most patients were severely malnourished (mean BMI 16.5 ± 2.2 Kg/m2). Patients in the zinc + vitamin A group showed earlier sputum conversion time (mean 1.9 weeks) compared with that in the other groups; however the difference was not significant. Also, no benefit could be demonstrated of any of the used supplementations on clinical, nutritional, chest x-ray, or laboratory findings. Conclusions This study among severely malnourished TB patients, did not confirm that single or combined supplementation of zinc and vitamin A significantly reduced sputum conversion time or had other significant benefit. PMID:20920186

  7. Zinc and vitamin A supplementation fails to reduce sputum conversion time in severely malnourished pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Pakasi, Trevino A; Karyadi, Elvina; Suratih, Ni Made Desy; Salean, Michael; Darmawidjaja, Nining; Bor, Hans; van der Velden, Koos; Dolmans, Wil M V; van der Meer, Jos W M

    2010-09-28

    A previous study showed that combination of zinc and vitamin A reduced sputum conversion time in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. We studied the efficacy of which single micronutrient contributed more to the sputum conversion time. In a double-blind randomized community trial, newly sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients were assigned randomly to receive zinc, vitamin A, zinc + vitamin A or placebo on top of TB treatment. Patients were asked to deliver their sputum on weekly basis to measure positivity of the bacteria. Nutritional status, chest x-ray, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP), retinol and zinc level were examined prior to, after 2 and 6 months of treatment. Initially, 300 patients were enrolled, and 255 finished the treatment. Most patients were severely malnourished (mean BMI 16.5 ± 2.2 Kg/m2). Patients in the zinc + vitamin A group showed earlier sputum conversion time (mean 1.9 weeks) compared with that in the other groups; however the difference was not significant. Also, no benefit could be demonstrated of any of the used supplementations on clinical, nutritional, chest x-ray, or laboratory findings. This study among severely malnourished TB patients, did not confirm that single or combined supplementation of zinc and vitamin A significantly reduced sputum conversion time or had other significant benefit.

  8. Effect of Preventive Supplementation with Zinc and Other Micronutrients on Non-Malarial Morbidity in Tanzanian Pre-School Children: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Veenemans, Jacobien; Schouten, Laura R. A.; Ottenhof, Maarten J.; Mank, Theo G.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Mbugi, Erasto V.; Demir, Ayşe Y.; Kraaijenhagen, Rob J.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Verhoef, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background The efficacy of preventive zinc supplementation against diarrhea and respiratory illness may depend on simultaneous supplementation with other micronutrients. We aimed to assess the effect of supplementation with zinc and multiple micronutrients on diarrhea and other causes of non-malarial morbidity. Methods and Findings Rural Tanzanian children (n = 612) aged 6–60 months and with height-for-age z-score < –1.5 SD were randomized to daily supplementation with zinc (10 mg) alone, multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc, or placebo. Children were followed for an average of 45 weeks. During follow-up, we recorded morbidity episodes. We found no evidence that concurrent supplementation with multi-nutrients influenced the magnitude of the effect of zinc on rates of diarrhea, respiratory illness, fever without localizing signs, or other illness (guardian-reported illness with symptoms involving skin, ears, eyes and abscesses, but excluding trauma or burns). Zinc supplementation reduced the hazard rate of diarrhea by 24% (4%–40%). By contrast, multi-nutrients seemed to increase this rate (HR; 95% CI: 1.19; 0.94–1.50), particularly in children with asymptomatic Giardia infection at baseline (2.03; 1.24–3.32). Zinc also protected against episodes of fever without localizing signs (0.75; 0.57–0.96), but we found no evidence that it reduced the overall number of clinic visits. Conclusions We found no evidence that the efficacy of zinc supplements in reducing diarrhea rates is enhanced by concurrent supplementation with other micronutrients. By reducing rates of fever without localizing signs, supplementation with zinc may reduce inappropriate drug use with anti-malarial medications and antibiotics. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00623857 PMID:22870238

  9. Beneficial effects of zinc supplementation on head circumference of Nepalese infants and toddlers: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Surkan, P J; Shankar, M; Katz, J; Siegel, E H; Leclerq, S C; Khatry, S K; Stoltzfus, R J; Tielsch, J M

    2012-07-01

    To assess the effects of micronutrient supplementation on head circumference of rural Nepali infants and children. We used a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of micronutrient supplementation on head circumference in 569 rural Nepali infants and children aged 4-17 months. Children were randomized to: (1) zinc, (2) iron-folic acid, (3) zinc plus iron-folic acid or (4) a placebo group. Data on head circumference were collected during five visits at ∼3 month intervals over the course of a year. We calculated change in head circumference in treatment groups receiving zinc and iron comparing the first and fifth visits as well as used generalized estimating equations (GEE) to take advantage of data from all points in time. Models were adjusted for covariates unbalanced in the randomization and for baseline head circumference. Estimating differences in head circumference between baseline and visit 5, children in the zinc treatment group showed smaller decreases in head circumference z-score compared with placebo (adjusted β=0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.23). Using GEE, zinc treatment was associated with 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05 to 0.17) decrease in the rate of decline in head circumference z-score across visits as compared with placebo. Iron-folic acid supplementation was not associated with head circumference z-scores when comparing visits 1 with 5 or including data across all visits in adjusted models. Our results suggest that zinc supplementation confers a beneficial effect on the rate of head growth in Nepali infants.

  10. Inorganic zinc supplementation modulates heat shock and immune response in heat stressed peripheral blood mononuclear cells of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Aasif Ahmad; Aggarwal, Anjali; B, Indu; Aarif, Ovais

    2017-06-01

    Thermal stress in India is one of the major constraints affecting dairy cattle productivity. Every attempt should be made to ameliorate the heat and calving related stress in high producing dairy cows for higher economic returns. In the current study, inorganic zinc was tried to alleviate the adverse effects of thermal stress in periparturient cows. Twelve cows, six each of Sahiwal and Karan Fries (KF) in their second parity with confirmed pregnancy were chosen for the experiment. The blood samples were collected periparturiently on three occasions viz. -21, 0 and +21 days relative to calving. The in vitro study was conducted after isolating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from whole blood. The cultured PBMC were subjected to three different levels of exposures viz. 37°C as control, 42°C to induce thermal stress and 42°C + zinc to ameliorate the adverse effects of high temperature. Heat shock lead to a significant (P<0.05) rise in the level of heat shock proteins (HSP). HSP was more on the day of calving as well. KF showed more HSP concentration than Sahiwal breed indicating the heat bearing capacity of later. Zinc treatment to thermally stressed PBMC caused a fall in the HSP concentration in both the breeds during periparturient period. Moreover, heat stress increased significantly (P<0.05) the Interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentration which declined upon zinc supplementation to PBMC. IL-6 levels decreased periparturiently. Heat and calving related stress caused a fall in the IL-12 levels which increased significantly (P<0.05) with zinc supplementation. These findings suggest that zinc supplementation attenuates the HSP response and augments immunity in PBMC of periparturient dairy cows. The study could help to alleviate the heat stress and potentiate immunity by providing mineral supplements in periparturient dairy cattle habituating tropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of zinc deficiency and supplementation on leptin and leptin receptor expression in pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hidenori; Nakai, Taketo; Konishi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Keiichi; Sakazaki, Fumitoshi; Min, Kyong-Son

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that primarily regulates energy balance in response to nutrition. Human placental cells produce leptin, whereas murine placental cells produce soluble leptin receptors (Ob-R). However, the roles of these proteins during pregnancy have not been elucidated completely. As an essential metal, zinc (Zn) is central to insulin biosynthesis and energy metabolism. In the present study, the effects of Zn deficiency and supplementation on maternal plasma leptin and soluble Ob-R regulation in pregnant mice placentas were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Nutritional Zn deficiency significantly reduced plasma insulin concentrations and fetal and placental weights in pregnant mice. Plasma leptin concentrations in pregnant mice also increased 20- to 40-fold compared with those in non-pregnant mice. Although dietary Zn deficiency and supplementation did not affect plasma leptin concentrations in non-pregnant mice, Zn-deficient pregnant mice had significantly reduced plasma leptin concentrations and adipose leptin mRNA expression. In contrast, Zn-supplemented pregnant mice had increased plasma leptin concentrations without increased adipose leptin mRNA expression. Placental soluble Ob-R mRNA expression also decreased in Zn-deficient mice and tended to increase in Zn-supplemented mice. These results indicate that Zn influences plasma leptin concentrations by modulating mRNA expression of soluble Ob-R in the placenta, and leptin in visceral fat during pregnancy. These data suggest that both adipose and placenta-derived leptin system are involved in the regulation of energy metabolism during fetal growth.

  12. Zinc deficiency exacerbates while zinc supplement attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in high-fat diet-induced obese mice through modulating p38 MAPK-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shudong; Luo, Manyu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Gu, Junlian; Chen, Jing; Payne, Kristen McClung; Tan, Yi; Wang, Yuehui; Yin, Xia; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Gilbert C; Wintergerst, Kupper; Liu, Quan; Zheng, Yang; Cai, Lu

    2016-09-06

    Childhood obesity often leads to cardiovascular diseases, such as obesity-related cardiac hypertrophy (ORCH), in adulthood, due to chronic cardiac inflammation. Zinc is structurally and functionally essential for many transcription factors; however, its role in ORCH and underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear and were explored here in mice with obesity induced with high-fat diet (HFD). Four week old mice were fed on either HFD (60%kcal fat) or normal diet (ND, 10% kcal fat) for 3 or 6 months, respectively. Either diet contained one of three different zinc quantities: deficiency (ZD, 10mg zinc per 4057kcal), normal (ZN, 30mg zinc per 4057kcal) or supplement (ZS, 90mg zinc per 4057kcal). HFD induced a time-dependent obesity and ORCH, which was accompanied by increased cardiac inflammation and p38 MAPK activation. These effects were worsened by ZD in HFD/ZD mice and attenuated by ZS in HFD/ZS group, respectively. Also, administration of a p38 MAPK specific inhibitor in HFD mice for 3 months did not affect HFD-induced obesity, but completely abolished HFD-induced, and zinc deficiency-worsened, ORCH and cardiac inflammation. In vitro exposure of adult cardiomyocytes to palmitate induced cell hypertrophy accompanied by increased p38 MAPK activation, which was heightened by zinc depletion with its chelator TPEN. Inhibition of p38 MAPK with its specific siRNA also prevented the effects of palmitate on cardiomyocytes. These findings demonstrate that ZS alleviates but ZD heightens cardiac hypertrophy in HFD-induced obese mice through suppressing p38 MAPK-dependent cardiac inflammatory and hypertrophic pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  14. Micronutrient supplementation adherence and influence on the prevalences of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies in preemies with a corrected age of six months

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Brunnella Alcantara Chagas; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Henriques, Bruno David; Carlos, Carla Fernanda Lisboa Valente; Sabino, Jusceli Souza Nogueira; do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze adherence to the recommended iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines for preemies, the factors associated with this adherence, and the influence of adherence on the occurrence of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 58 preemies born in 2014 until they reached six months corrected age. The preemies were followed at a referral secondary health service and represented 63.7% of the preterm infants born that year. Outcomes of interest included high or low adherence to iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines; prevalence of anemia; and prevalences of iron, zinc, and vitamin A deficiencies. The prevalence ratios were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (65.5%) preemies presented high adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines. At six months of corrected age, no preemie had vitamin A deficiency. The prevalences of anemia, iron deficiency and zinc deficiency were higher in the low-adherence group but also concerning in the high-adherence group. Preemies with low adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines were 2.5 times more likely to develop anemia and 3.1 times more likely to develop zinc deficiency. Low maternal education level increased the likelihood of nonadherence to all three supplements by 2.2 times. CONCLUSIONS: Low maternal education level was independently associated with low adherence to iron, zinc and vitamin A supplementation guidelines in preemies, which impacted the prevalences of anemia and iron and zinc deficiencies at six months of corrected age. PMID:27626474

  15. Effects of selenium and zinc supplementation on nutritional status in patients with cancer of digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Federico, A; Iodice, P; Federico, P; Del Rio, A; Mellone, M C; Catalano, G; Federico, P

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral administration of selenium and zinc tablets in patients with cancer of the digestive tract during chemotherapy. A case-control, randomized study. Medical Oncology, II University of Naples, Naples, Italy. A total of 60 patients (median age 55 y, range 46-61 y) with diagnosis of gut cancer were randomized in 1999. Patients were treated for 60 days with chemotherapy. Trace elements were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The nutritional status of the patients was assessed by biochemical and bio-impedance analysis (BIA) parameters in basal condition and after 60 days of treatment. Oral administration of selenium and zinc in oral tablet form for 50 days was Se 200 microg/day (50 microg/tablet) and Zn 21 mg/day (7 mg/tablet). Both in the basal condition and at 60 days all patients were malnourished. Selenium and zinc concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.01) whereas copper concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in cancer patients than in control subjects. However, 21/30 (70%) of those treated with Se and Zn did not showed a further worsening of nutritional status and experienced a significant decrease of asthenia with an increase of appetite. On the other hand, 24/30 (80%) untreated patients had a significant decline of all parameters studied after 60 days (prealbumin, cholesterol, transferrin, P < 0.05 vs 0 time; total proteins, albumin/globulin ratio, P < 0.01 vs 0 time; fat-free mass, fat mass, Na+/K+ ratio, body mass index P < 0.05 vs 0 time; fat free mass/fat mass, total body water, extra cellular/intra cellular water, basal metabolic rate: P < 0.01 vs 0 time). Data indicate that Se and Zn supplementation may improve the clinical course of general conditions in patients with gut cancer. These effects of Se and Zn require confirmation in an independent trial of appropriate design before new public health recommendations regarding Se and Zn supplementation can be made.

  16. Effects of zinc supplementation on fatigue and quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sofia Miranda de Figueiredo; Braga, Camila Bitu Moreno; Peria, Fernanda Maris; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Rocha, José Joaquim Ribeiro da; Cunha, Selma Freire Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of oral zinc supplementation on fatigue intensity and quality of life of patients during chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 24 patients on chemotherapy for colorectal adenocarcinoma in a tertiary care public hospital. The study patients received zinc capsules 35mg (Zinc Group, n=10) or placebo (Placebo Group, n=14) orally, twice daily (70mg/day), for 16 weeks, from the immediate postoperative period to the fourth chemotherapy cycle. Approximately 45 days after surgical resection of the tumor, all patients received a chemotherapeutic regimen. Before each of the four cycles of chemotherapy, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale was completed. We used a linear mixed model for longitudinal data for statistical analysis. The scores of quality of life and fatigue questionnaires were similar between the groups during the chemotherapy cycles. The Placebo Group presented worsening of quality of life and increased fatigue between the first and fourth cycles of chemotherapy, but there were no changes in the scores of quality of life or fatigue in the Zinc Group. Zinc supplementation prevented fatigue and maintained quality of life of patients with colorectal cancer on chemotherapy. Investigar os efeitos da suplementação oral de zinco sobre a intensidade da fadiga e a qualidade de vida de pacientes durante a quimioterapia para neoplasia colorretal. Estudo prospectivo, randomizado, controlado e duplo-cego conduzido em um hospital universitário público terciário, com 24 pacientes em regime quimioterápico para adenocarcinoma colorretal. Os pacientes receberam cápsulas de zinco 35mg (Grupo Zinco, n=10) ou placebo (Grupo Placebo, n=14) por via oral, duas vezes ao dia (70mg/dia), durante 16 semanas, desde o período pós-operatório imediato até o quarto ciclo de quimioterapia. Todos os pacientes receberam quimioterapia por

  17. Effects of dietary zinc supplementation on hen performance, ammonia volatilization, and nitrogen retention in manure.

    PubMed

    Kim, W K; Patterson, P H

    2005-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dietary ZnSO4 supplementation on ammonia volatilization and nitrogen retention in hen manure. One hundred twenty, 45-wk-old commercial Leghorn laying hens were sequentially fed diets with 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm Zn as ZnSO4 (Zn-1000, Zn-2000, and Zn-3000), then followed by two control dietary periods with 114 ppm Zn (Control-1 and Control-2) for a total of five consecutive eight-day experiment periods, respectively. When hens were fed the 1000 and 2000 ppm Zn treatment diets, room ammonia levels were significantly reduced compared to the control diets. Dietary Zn treatments reduced the decomposition of uric acid, resulting in an increase in manure total-N retention compared to the control fed birds. The 1000 ppm Zn supplement had no adverse effects on hen body weight, feed consumption, egg production, egg weight, albumen height, or shell thickness. However, hens fed the diet containing 3000 ppm Zn had significantly depressed body weight, feed consumption, egg production, egg weight, and shell thickness. Zinc levels of egg contents increased linearly as dietary Zn levels increased. These levels in eggs would not be a problem for human consumption because these are much less than the daily Zn recommended dietary allowance. Although land application of such manure will not cause environmental problems or crop toxicity, proper monitoring of soil and crop Zn levels and effective nutrient management planning would be well advised.

  18. Zinc Supplementation Does Not Alter Indicators of Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in Black and White Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lobene, Andrea J; Kindler, Joseph M; Jenkins, Nathan T; Pollock, Norman K; Laing, Emma M; Grider, Arthur; Lewis, Richard D

    2017-07-01

    Background: Zinc is a micronutrient involved in the production of, and peripheral sensitivity to, pancreatic β cell-derived insulin. To our knowledge, the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes, and potential risk of diabetes, in otherwise healthy children in the United States has not been investigated. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes in black and white girls in the early stages of adolescence. A secondary objective was to determine relations between baseline zinc concentrations and insulin outcomes. Methods: Healthy black and white girls aged 9-11 y were randomly assigned to daily supplementation of zinc (9 mg elemental Zn/d; n = 75; blacks: n = 35) or placebo ( n = 72; blacks: n = 32) for 4 wk. Fasting serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide were assessed at baseline and at 4 wk. C-peptide and glucose values were used to calculate the computer model-derived homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). Changes in outcome measures were compared by using repeated-measures, mixed-model ANOVA. Results: Baseline plasma zinc was not correlated with C-peptide ( r = -0.07), insulin ( r = -0.06), or HOMA2-IR ( r = -0.09) (all P > 0.05) after controlling for race and age. Treatment × time interactions for C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were not significant (both P > 0.05). Although the treatment × race × time interactions for C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were not significant (both P = 0.08), black girls who received the placebo experienced slight increases in C-peptide (15.7%) and HOMA2-IR (17.7%) ( P = 0.06). Conclusions: Four weeks of zinc supplementation had no effect on insulin outcomes in healthy black and white early-adolescent girls, although C-peptide and HOMA2-IR tended to increase in black girls who received placebo. Additional trials that are appropriately powered should further explore the effect of zinc on markers of diabetes risk, and whether race affects this

  19. Effect of zinc supplementation on lipid peroxidation and lactate levels in rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin and subjected to acute swimming exercise.

    PubMed

    Bicer, M; Gunay, M; Baltaci, A K; Uney, K; Mogulkoc, R; Akil, M

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the effect of zinc supplementation on lipid peroxidation and lactate levels in rats having diabetes induced by streptozotocin and subjected to acute swimming exercise. A total of 80 adult male rats of Sprague-Dawley type were equally allocated to 8 groups: Group 1, general control. Group 2, zinc-supplemented group. Group 3, zinc-supplemented, diabetic group. Group 4, swimming control group. Group 5, zinc-supplemented swimming group. Group 6, zinc-supplemented diabetic swimming group. Group 7, diabetic swimming group. Group 8, diabetic group. At the end of the 4-week study, blood samples were collected to determine MDA, GSH, GPx, SOD, lactate and zinc levels. The highest MDA values were found in group 7 and 8 (p<0.001). GSH values in groups 5 and 6 were higher (p<0.001). The highest GPx values were established in groups 2, 5 and 6 (p<0.001). SOD values were the highest in groups 5 and 6 (p<0.001) and lowest in groups 2, 3 and 8 (p<0.001). The highest plasma lactate levels were found in group 7 (p<0.001). The highest zinc levels were obtained in groups 1, 2 and 5 (p<0.001), and the lowest zinc levels were found in groups 7 and 8 (p<0.001). Results of the study reveal that zinc supplementation prevents the increase of free radical formation, suppression of antioxidant activity and muscle exhaustion, all of which result from diabetes and acute exercise. Zinc supplementation may contribute to health performance in diabetes and acute exercise (Tab. 2, Fig. 1 Ref. 47). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  20. Impact of supplementation of semen extender with antioxidants on the quality of chilled or cryopreserved Arabian stallion spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ghallab, AbdelRaouf M; Shahat, Abdallah M; Fadl, Aya M; Ayoub, Mohamed M; Moawad, Adel R

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of semen extender with various non-enzymatic antioxidants on the quality of cooled or cryopreserved Arabian stallion spermatozoa. Semen collected from four pure Arabian stallions was centrifuged at 600g for 15 min. Spermatozoa were then diluted in INRA-82 extender supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA; 0, 10, 15 and 20 mg/mL) or trehalose (0, 75, 100 and 150 mM) or zinc sulphate (0, 100, 150 and 200 μM). The diluted semen was then either cooled at 5 °C or cryopreserved in 0.5-ml plastic straws. After cooling or thawing, sperm motility, viability, sperm abnormalities, viability index, and plasma membrane integrity were evaluated. The results showed that supplementation of semen extender with 150 mM trehalose or with 200 μM zinc sulphate significantly (P < 0.05) improved motility, viability, sperm membrane integrity and acrosome status in Arabian stallion spermatozoa after cooling or after freezing and thawing compared with controls (non-supplemented media) or with those supplemented with other concentrations of trehalose or zinc sulphate. Supplementation of semen extender with BSA did not improve sperm motility or cryosurvival of Arabian stallion spermatozoa after cooling or after freezing and thawing. In conclusion, supplementation of semen extender with non-enzymatic antioxidants (trehalose or zinc sulphate) improved the quality of chilled and frozen/thawed Arabian stallion spermatozoa. The most beneficial effects occur when semen diluent was supplemented with 150 mM trehalose or 200 μM zinc sulphate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Regression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Zinc and Selenium Co-supplementation after Disease Progression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shidfar, Farzad; Faghihi, Amirhosein; Amiri, Hamid Lorvand; Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda

    2018-01-01

    Studies have shown that zinc and selenium deficiency is common in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on NAFLD are not clear enough. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on NAFLD prognosis. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats (197±4 g) were randomly assigned to 4 dietary groups: normal-fat diet (NFD; receiving 9% of calories as fat), high-fat diet (HFD; receiving 82% of calories as fat), supplementation before disease progression (S+HFD), and supplementation after disease progression (HFD+S). The diets were implemented over a 20-week period in all the groups. Biochemical and histologic parameters were compared between the 4 groups, and between-group comparisons were also carried out. There were significant differences in the average food dietary intake (P<0.001), weight (P<0.001), fasting blood sugar (P=0.005), triglyceride (P<0.001), total cholesterol (P<0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.002), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.001), alanine aminotransferase (P<0.001), and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) between the 4 dietary groups. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly lower in the HFD+S Group than in the S+HFD Group (P<0.001 and P=0.003, respectively). Fat accumulation was significantly reduced in the HFD+S Group (P<0.001). Zinc and selenium co-supplementation after disease progression improved biochemical and histologic parameters in an experimental model of NAFLD.

  2. Effects of Dietary Copper and Zinc Supplementation on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Retention, Antioxidant Status, and Fur Quality in Growing-Furring Blue Foxes (Alopex lagopus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Guo, Jungang; Gao, Xiuhua; Yang, Fuhe; Xing, Xiumei

    2015-12-01

    A 4×2 factorial experiment with four supplemental levels of copper (0, 20, 40, or 60 mg copper per kg dry matter) from copper sulfate and two supplemental levels of zinc (40 or 200 mg zinc per kg dry matter) from zinc sulfate was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary copper and zinc supplementation on growth performance, tissue mineral retention, antioxidant status, and fur quality in growing-furring blue foxes. One hundred and twenty healthy 15-week-old male blue foxes were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments with 15 replicates per treatment for a 70-day trial from mid-September to pelting in December. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were increased with copper supplementation in the first 35 days as well as the overall period (P<0.05). In addition, copper supplementation tended to increase feed intake during the first 35 days (P<0.10). Diets supplemented with 200 mg/kg zinc did not affect body gain (P>0.10) and feed intake (P>0.10) but improved feed conversion (P<0.05) compared with those supplemented 40 mg/kg zinc throughout the experiment. No copper×zinc interaction was observed for growth performance except that a tendency (P=0.09) was found for feed intake in the first 35 days. Supplementation of copper or zinc improved crude fat digestibility (P<0.01) but had no effects on the digestibility of other nutrients. Fecal copper was increased with both copper (P<0.01) and zinc addition (P<0.05). However, fecal zinc was affected only by dietary zinc addition (P<0.01). Mineral contents in serum and kidney were not affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). However, the level of copper in the liver was increased with copper supplementation (P<0.05) and tended to decrease with zinc supplementation (P=0.08). Dietary zinc addition tended to increase the activity of alkaline phosphatase (P=0.07). The activities of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and catalase tended to increase by copper (P=0.08) and zinc addition (P=0.05). Moreover

  3. Zinc supplementation alleviates the progression of diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting the overexpression of oxidative-stress-mediated molecular markers in streptozotocin-induced experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Barman, Susmita; Pradeep, Seetur R; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2018-04-01

    Zinc deficiency during diabetes projects a role for zinc nutrition in the management of diabetic nephropathy. The current study explored whether zinc supplementation protects against diabetic nephropathy through modulation of kidney oxidative stress and stress-induced expression related to the inflammatory process in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Groups of hyperglycemic rats were exposed to dietary interventions for 6 weeks with zinc supplementation (5 times and 10 times the normal level). Supplemental-zinc-fed diabetic groups showed a significant reversal of increased kidney weight and creatinine clearance. There was a significant reduction in hyperlipidemic condition along with improved PUFA:SFA ratio in the renal tissue. Expression of the lipid oxidative marker and expression of inflammatory markers, cytokines, fibrosis factors and apoptotic regulatory proteins observed in diabetic kidney were beneficially modulated by zinc supplementation, the ameliorative effect being concomitant with elevated antiapoptosis. There was a significant reduction in advanced glycation, expression of the receptor of the glycated products and oxidative stress markers. Zinc supplementation countered the higher activity and expression of polyol pathway enzymes in the kidney. Overexpression of the glucose transporters, as an adaptation to the increased need for glucose transport in diabetic condition, was minimized by zinc treatment. The pathological abnormalities in the renal architecture of diabetic animals were corrected by zinc intervention. Thus, dietary zinc supplementation has a significant beneficial effect in the control of diabetic nephropathy. This was exerted through a protective influence on oxidative-stress-induced cytokines, inflammatory proliferation and consequent renal injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kolahian, Saeed; Sadri, Hassan; Shahbazfar, Amir Ali; Amani, Morvarid; Mazadeh, Anis; Mirani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of serious micro- and macrovascular diseases that affect nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory system. Non-enzymatic protein glycation due to hyperglycaemic stress has fundamental implications due to the large capillary network and amount of connective tissue in the lung. The current study was designed to determine whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence the function and histological structure of the respiratory tract in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Seventy-seven rats were divided into eleven groups, consisting of 7 animals each. One group served as negative control and insulin and glibenclamide were used as positive control drugs. Thus, eight groups received the nutritional supplements alone or in combination with each other. Nutritional supplements and glibenclamide were added to the drinking water and neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin was subcutaneously injected during the 4 weeks of treatment period. The induction of type 2 diabetes in the rats caused an infiltration of mononuclear cells and edema in the submucosa of the trachea and lung, severe fibrosis around the vessels and airways, and perivascular and peribronchial infiltration of inflammatory cells and fibrin. In the diabetic group, the total inflammation score and Reid index significantly increased. Diabetes induction significantly reduced the total antioxidant status and elevated the lipid peroxidation products in the serum, lung lavage and lung tissue of the diabetic animals. Treatment with nutritional supplements significantly decreased the histopathological changes and inflammatory indices in the diabetic animals. Supplementation of diabetic rats with leucine, zinc, and chromium, alone and in combination, significantly increased the total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation level in the diabetic animals. The nutritional supplements improved the enzymatic antioxidant activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase

  5. The Effects of Iron and/or Zinc Supplementation on Maternal Reports of Sleep in Infants from Nepal and Zanzibar

    PubMed Central

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Siegel, Emily H.; Olney, Deanna K.; Katz, Joanne; Tielsch, James M.; Kariger, Patricia K.; Khalfan, Sabra S.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is some evidence that sleep patterns may be affected by iron deficiency anemia but the role of iron in sleep has not been tested in a randomized iron supplementation trial. Objective We investigated the effect of iron supplementation on maternal reports of sleep in infants in 2 randomized, placebo-controlled trials from Pemba Island, Zanzibar, and Nepal. Design In both studies, which had parallel designs and were carried out in years 2002 to 2003, infants received iron–folic acid with or without zinc daily for 12 months, and assessments of development were made every 3 months for the duration of the study. Eight hundred seventy-seven Pemban (12.5 ± 4.0 months old) and 567 Nepali (10.8 ± 4.0 months) infants participated. Maternal reports of sleep patterns (napping frequency and duration, nighttime sleep duration, frequency of night waking) were collected. Results Mean Hb concentration was 9.2 ± 1.1 for Pemban and 10.1 ± 1.2 g/dL for Nepali infants. Approximately, one-third of the children were stunted. Supplemental iron was consistently associated with longer night and total sleep duration. The effects of zinc supplementation also included longer sleep duration. Conclusions Micronutrient supplementation in infants at high risk for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia was related to increased night sleep duration and less night waking. PMID:19322104

  6. Dietary supplementation with zinc oxide decreases expression of the stem cell factor in the small intestine of weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Ou, Deyuan; Li, Defa; Cao, Yunhe; Li, Xilong; Yin, Jingdong; Qiao, Shiyan; Wu, Guoyao

    2007-12-01

    Dietary supplementation with a high level of zinc oxide (ZnO) has been shown to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in weanling pigs, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Intestinal-mucosal mast cells, whose maturation and proliferation is under the control of the stem cell factor (SCF), play an important role in the etiology of diarrhea by releasing histamine. The present study was conducted to test the novel hypothesis that supplementing ZnO to the diet for weanling piglets may inhibit SCF expression in the small intestine, thereby reducing the number of mast cells, histamine release, and diarrhea. In Experiment 1, 32 piglets (28 days of age) were weaned and fed diets containing 100 or 3000 mg zinc/kg (as ZnO) for 10 days (16 piglets per group). In Experiment 2, two groups of 28-day-old piglets (8 piglets per group) were fed the 100- or 3000-mg zinc/kg diet as in Experiment 1, except that they were pair-fed the same amounts of feed. Supplementation with a high level of ZnO reduced the incidence of diarrhea in weanling piglets. Dietary Zn supplementation reduced expression of the SCF gene at both mRNA and protein levels, the number of mast cells in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine and histamine release from mucosal mast cells. Collectively, our results indicate that dietary supplementation with ZnO inhibits SCF expression in the small intestine, leading to reductions in the number of mast cells and histamine release. These findings may have important implications for the prevention of weaning-associated diarrhea in piglets.

  7. Calcium sulphate in ammonium sulphate solution

    Sullivan, E.C.

    1905-01-01

    Calcium sulphate, at 25?? C., is two-thirds as soluble in dilute (o.i mol per liter) and twice as soluble in concentrated (3 mois per liter) ammonium sulphate solution as in water. The specific electric conductivity of concentrated ammonium sulphate solutions is lessened by saturating with calcium sulphate. Assuming that dissociation of ammonium sulphate takes place into 2NH4?? and SO4" and of calcium sulphate into Ca and SO4" only, and that the conductivity is a measure of such dissociation, the solubility of calcium sulphate in dilute ammonium sulphate solutions is greater than required by the mass-law. The conductivity of the dilute mixtures may be accurately calculated by means of Arrhenius' principle of isohydric solutions. In the data obtained in these calculations, the concentration of non-dissociated calcium sulphate decreases with increasing ammonium sulphate. The work as a whole is additional evidence of the fact that we are not yet in possession of all the factors necessary for reconciling the mass-law to the behavior of electrolytes. The measurements above described were made in the chemical laboratory of the University of Michigan.

  8. The effects of coadministration of dietary copper and zinc supplements on atherosclerosis, antioxidant enzymes and indices of lipid peroxidation in the cholesterol-fed rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Alissa, Eman M; Bahijri, Suhad M; Lamb, David J; Ferns, Gordon A A

    2004-01-01

    It has previously been shown that dietary copper can modulate the extent of atherosclerosis in the thoracic aorta of cholesterol-fed rabbits. The metabolism of copper and zinc are closely related, and it has been hypothesized that the balance of dietary copper to zinc may be important in determining coronary risk. Hence, we have investigated the interaction between dietary copper and zinc in atherogenesis in the New Zealand White rabbit. Juvenile male rabbits were randomly allocated to eight groups. Four groups were fed a normal chow diet with zinc (0.5%, w/w), copper (0.2%, w/w), copper plus zinc or neither in their drinking water for 12 weeks. Four other groups were fed a diet containing 0.25–1% (w/w) cholesterol plus zinc, copper, both or neither. Serum cholesterol of individual animals was maintained at approximately 20 mmol/l. Integrated plasma cholesterol levels were similar for all groups receiving cholesterol and significantly higher than those in the chow-fed groups (P < 0.001). Aortic copper concentrations were higher in the animals receiving cholesterol diets with copper compared to rabbits receiving normal chow and copper (P < 0.001). Aortic zinc content was significantly higher in cholesterol-fed rabbits supplemented with zinc alone or with copper than in those fed cholesterol alone (P < 0.001). Plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations were significantly higher in groups receiving cholesterol, irrespective of their trace element supplementation (P < 0.001). However, trace element supplementation increased the level significantly (P < 0.05). Trace element supplements did not appear to affect erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in the cholesterol-fed animals; however, zinc supplementation was associated with a significant increase in the enzyme in chow-fed animals (P < 0.05). The activity of the enzyme per mg of protein in aortic tissue was higher in animals receiving copper in the presence of cholesterol (P < 0.05) but not significantly so in its absence

  9. Impact of zinc supplementation on the improved fructose/xylose utilization and butanol production during acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass and dedicated energy crops such as Jerusalem artichoke are promising alternatives for biobutanol production by solventogenic clostridia. However, fermentable sugars such as fructose or xylose released from the hydrolysis of these feedstocks were subjected to the incomplete utilization by the strains, leading to relatively low butanol production and productivity. When 0.001 g/L ZnSO4·7H2O was supplemented into the medium containing fructose as sole carbon source, 12.8 g/L of butanol was achieved with butanol productivity of 0.089 g/L/h compared to only 4.5 g/L of butanol produced with butanol productivity of 0.028 g/L/h in the control without zinc supplementation. Micronutrient zinc also led to the improved butanol production up to 8.3 g/L derived from 45.2 g/L xylose as sole carbon source with increasing butanol productivity by 31.7%. Moreover, the decreased acids production was observed under the zinc supplementation condition, resulting in the increased butanol yields of 0.202 g/g-fructose and 0.184 g/g-xylose, respectively. Similar improvements were also observed with increasing butanol production by 130.2 % and 8.5 %, butanol productivity by 203.4% and 18.4%, respectively, in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations from sugar mixtures of fructose/glucose (4:1) and xylose/glucose (1:2) simulating the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and corn stover. The results obtained from transcriptional analysis revealed that zinc may have regulatory mechanisms for the sugar transport and metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum L7. Therefore, micronutrient zinc supplementation could be an effective way for economic development of butanol production derived from these low-cost agricultural feedstocks. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells by zinc sulphate under electromagnetic field via the PKA, ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh

    2017-01-01

    Zinc ion as an essential trace element and electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has been reported to be involved in the regulation of bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in the presence of EMF as a strategy in osteoporosis therapy. Alkaline phophatase (ALP) activity measurement, calcium assay and expression of several osteoblastic marker genes were examined to assess the effect of ZnSO4 on the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs under EMF. The expression of cAMP and PKA was evaluated by ELISA. The expression of β-catenin, Wnt1, Wnt3a, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and reduced dickkopf1 (DKK1) genes were used to detect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. It was found that ZnSO4, in the presence of EMF, resulted in an increase in the expression of osteogenic genes, ALP activity and calcium levels. EMF, in the presence of ZnSO4, increased the cAMP level and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Treatment of ADSCs with (MAPK)/ERK kinase 1/2 inhibitor, or PKA inhibitor, significantly inhibited the promotion of osteogenic markers, indicating that the induction of osteogenesis was dependent on the ERK and PKA signaling pathways. Real-time PCR analysis showed that ZnSO4, in the presence of EMF, increased the mRNA expressions of β-catenin, Wnt1, Wnt3a, LRP5 and DKK1. In this study, it was shown that 0.432 μg/ml ZnSO4, in the presence of 50 Hz, 20 mT EMF, induced the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs via PKA, ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. PMID:28339498

  11. The effect of vitamin A and zinc supplementation on treatment outcomes in pulmonary tuberculosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Visser, Marianne E; Grewal, Harleen Ms; Swart, Elizabeth C; Dhansay, Muhammad A; Walzl, Gerhard; Swanevelder, Sonja; Lombard, Carl; Maartens, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Low serum concentrations of vitamin A and zinc are common in tuberculosis and may have an adverse effect on host cell-mediated responses. The role of adjunctive micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes is uncertain. The objective was to assess the efficacy of vitamin A and zinc supplementation on sputum smear and culture conversion and time to culture detection in adults with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Participants attending a primary care tuberculosis clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, were randomly assigned to receive micronutrients (single dose of 200,000 IU retinyl palmitate plus 15 mg Zn/d for 8 wk) or matching placebo. Sputum was collected weekly for 8 wk for auramine staining and culture on liquid media (BACTEC MGIT 960; Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD). Performance status, chest radiographs, and anthropometric measures were assessed at baseline and again at 8 wk. The participants (n = 154) were randomly assigned to the micronutrient (n = 77) or placebo (n = 77) group. Twenty participants were HIV infected (13%), and 12 participants had an unknown HIV status (8%). No differences in time to smear or culture conversion were observed between the treatment groups by Kaplan-Meier analysis (P = 0.15 and P = 0.38, respectively; log-rank test). Log-logistic regression analysis found no significant group interaction effect in time to culture detection over the 8-wk period (P = 0.32). No significant differences in weight gain (2.3 ± 3.5 compared with 2.2 ± 2.4 kg, P = 0.68) or radiologic resolution were observed between the treatment groups. Supplementation with vitamin A and zinc did not affect treatment outcomes in participants with pulmonary tuberculosis at 8 wk. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN80852505.

  12. Changes in fatty acid metabolism induced by varied micro-supplementation with zinc in snails Helix pomatia (Gastropoda Pulmonata).

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk-Pecka, Danuta; Pecka, Stanisław; Kowalczuk-Vasilev, Edyta

    2017-04-01

    We analyzed the changes in the profile of fatty acids (FA) in the foot tissues and hepatopancreas (HP) of snails Helix pomatia exposed to five microdoses of zinc (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1mg/l) administered in the form of a pure salt solution and in the form of EDTA and lysine chelates. Selection from a pool of 56 fatty acids analyzed in snail tissues yielded a set of 12 biomarker acids undergoing significant changes in contact with toxic substances. The selection criteria included the greatest percentage among the FA profile and their significant role in physiological processes. The proposed palette of acids of the biomarker FAs comprised C16:0; C18:0; C23:0; C18:1 n-9; C20:1 n-9; C18:2 n-6; C18:3 n-3; C20:2; C20:4 n-6; C20:5 n-3; C22:4 n-6; and C22:5 n-3, and saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), determined separately in the foot tissues and hepatopancreas. The significant (p=0.01) influence of the dose as well as the source of the zinc on its' concentration in the tissues and on changes in the fatty acid profiles. Among the three zinc forms administered to the snails, the highest bioaccumulation of zinc in both tissues was noted in the group receiving the Zn-EDTA chelate. The content of PUFAs increased as the supplementation with zinc increased up to 0.75mg/l, but at 1mg/l, the share of these FAs began to decrease. This trend was observed in both analyzed tissue types - foot and hepatopancreas. The dose of 1mg Zn/l might be considered as a threshold dose above which the saturation of FAs increases. The results proved that determination of FA profile in snails can be used in ecotoxicological research as a reliable test of the effect of trace doses of stressors. The micro-supplementation of the mollusks diet with zinc is an example of a non-routine approach to issues connected with both diet and toxicology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sulphate in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Elliott, Aoife; Bowling, Francis G.

    2015-01-01

    Sulphate is an obligate nutrient for healthy growth and development. Sulphate conjugation (sulphonation) of proteoglycans maintains the structure and function of tissues. Sulphonation also regulates the bioactivity of steroids, thyroid hormone, bile acids, catecholamines and cholecystokinin, and detoxifies certain xenobiotics and pharmacological drugs. In adults and children, sulphate is obtained from the diet and from the intracellular metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids. Dietary sulphate intake can vary greatly and is dependent on the type of food consumed and source of drinking water. Once ingested, sulphate is absorbed into circulation where its level is maintained at approximately 300 μmol/L, making sulphate the fourth most abundant anion in plasma. In pregnant women, circulating sulphate concentrations increase by twofold with levels peaking in late gestation. This increased sulphataemia, which is mediated by up-regulation of sulphate reabsorption in the maternal kidneys, provides a reservoir of sulphate to meet the gestational needs of the developing foetus. The foetus has negligible capacity to generate sulphate and thereby, is completely reliant on sulphate supply from the maternal circulation. Maternal hyposulphataemia leads to foetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational foetal death in mice. In humans, reduced sulphonation capacity has been linked to skeletal dysplasias, ranging from the mildest form, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, to achondrogenesis Type IB, which results in severe skeletal underdevelopment and death in utero or shortly after birth. Despite being essential for numerous cellular and metabolic functions, the nutrient sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. This article will review the physiological roles and regulation of sulphate during pregnancy, with a particular focus on animal models of disturbed sulphate homeostasis and links to human pathophysiology. PMID:25746011

  14. Field evidence of cadmium phytoavailability decreased effectively by rape straw and/or red mud with zinc sulphate in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Yang, Junxing; Wei, Dongpu; Chen, Shibao; Li, Jumei; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg-1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils.

  15. Effect of zinc supplementation started during diarrhoea on morbidity and mortality in Bangladeshi children: community randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Baqui, Abdullah H; Black, Robert E; Arifeen, Shams El; Yunus, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Joysnamoy; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Vaughan, J Patrick

    2002-01-01

    in existing efforts to control diarrhoeal disease. What is already known on this topicZinc deficiency is highly prevalent in children in developing countriesZinc supplements given during diarrhoea reduce the duration and severity of treated episodesIf given for 14 days during and after diarrhoea, zinc reduces the incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia in the subsequent two to three monthsWhat this study addsZinc used as a treatment for diarrhoea reduces mortality in childrenZinc reduces admissions to hospital for diarrhoeaThe impact of zinc on mortality and morbidity can be achieved in a realistic large scale public health programme PMID:12424162

  16. Performance traits and immune response of broiler chicks treated with zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation during cyclic heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Naila; Naz, Shabana; Khan, Ajab; Khan, Sarzamin; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2014-12-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of zinc (Zn) and ascorbic acid (AA) in heat-stressed broilers. A total of 160-day-old broiler chicks of approximately the same weight and appearance were divided into four treatment groups (control, T1, T2, and T3). Control group was fed a standard diet without any supplementation. T1 was supplemented with Zn at the rate of 60 mg/kg of feed, T2 was supplemented with 300 mg/kg of feed AA, and T3 was supplemented with combination of Zn and AA. From week 3 to 5, heat stress environment was provided at the rate of 12 h at 25 °C, 3 h at 25 to 34 °C, 6 h at 34 °C, and 3 h at 34 to 25 °C daily. The results revealed that feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and weight of thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius improved significantly ( P < 0.05) in T3 compared to the other treatments. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and infectious bronchitis (IB) increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in T2 and T3 groups. However, total leucocytes count, lymphocytes, and monocytes increased ( P < 0.05) in all treated groups compared to control. The results indicated that the supplementation of Zn or AA alone or in combination improved the performance and immune status of broilers reared under heat stress.

  17. Dietary zinc supplementation throughout pregnancy protects against fetal dysmorphology and improves postnatal survival after prenatal ethanol exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Summers, Brooke L; Rofe, Allan M; Coyle, Peter

    2009-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that ethanol teratogenicity is associated with metallothionein-induced fetal zinc (Zn) deficiency, and that maternal subcutaneous Zn treatment given with ethanol in early pregnancy prevents fetal abnormalities and spatial memory impairments in mice. Here we investigated whether dietary Zn supplementation throughout pregnancy can also prevent ethanol-related dysmorphology. Pregnant mice were injected with saline or 25% ethanol (0.015 ml/g intraperitoneally at 0 and 4 hours) on gestational day (GD) 8 and fed either a control (35 mg Zn/kg) or a Zn-supplemented diet (200 mg Zn/kg) from GD 0 to 18. Fetuses from the saline, saline + Zn, ethanol and ethanol + Zn groups were assessed for external birth abnormalities on GD 18. In a separate cohort of mice, postnatal growth and survival of offspring from these treatment groups were examined from birth until postnatal day 60. Fetuses from dams treated with ethanol alone in early pregnancy had a significantly greater incidence of physical abnormalities (26%) compared to those from the saline (10%), saline + Zn (9%), or ethanol + Zn (12%) groups. The incidence of abnormalities in ethanol + Zn-supplemented fetuses was not different from saline-treated fetuses. While ethanol exposure did not affect the number of fetal resorptions or pre- or postnatal weight, there were more stillbirths with ethanol alone, and cumulative postnatal mortality was significantly higher in offspring exposed to ethanol alone (35% deaths) compared to all other treatment groups (13.5 to 20.5% deaths). Mice supplemented with Zn throughout pregnancy had higher plasma Zn concentrations than those in un-supplemented groups. These findings demonstrate that dietary Zn supplementation throughout pregnancy ameliorates dysmorphology and postnatal mortality caused by ethanol exposure in early pregnancy.

  18. Field Evidence of Cadmium Phytoavailability Decreased Effectively by Rape Straw and/or Red Mud with Zinc Sulphate in a Cd-Contaminated Calcareous Soil

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Yang, Junxing; Wei, Dongpu; Chen, Shibao; Li, Jumei; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg−1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils. PMID:25303439

  19. Zinc supplementation for the prevention of acute lower respiratory infection in children in developing countries: meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Roth, Daniel E; Richard, Stephanie A; Black, Robert E

    2010-06-01

    Routine zinc supplementation is a potential intervention for the prevention of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in developing countries. However, discrepant findings from recent randomized trials remain unexplained. Randomized trials of zinc supplementation in young children in developing countries were identified by a systematic literature review. Trials included in the meta-analysis met specific criteria, including participants <5 years of age, daily/weekly zinc and control supplementation for greater than 3 months, active household surveillance for respiratory morbidity and use of a case definition that included at least one sign of lower respiratory tract illness. ALRI case definitions were classified on the basis of specificity/severity. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were pooled by random-effects models. Meta-regression and sub-group analysis were performed to assess potential sources of between-study heterogeneity. Ten trials were eligible for inclusion (n = 49 450 children randomized). Zinc reduced the incidence of ALRI defined by specific clinical criteria [IRR 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.82], but had no effect on lower-specificity ALRI case definitions based on caregiver report (IRR 1.01, 95% CI 0.91-1.12) or World Health Organization 'non-severe pneumonia' (0.96, 95% CI 0.86-1.08). By meta-regression, the effect of zinc was associated with ALRI case definition, but not with mean baseline age, geographic location, nutritional status or zinc dose. Routine zinc supplementation reduced the incidence of childhood ALRI defined by relatively specific clinical criteria, but the effect was null if lower specificity case definitions were applied. The choice of ALRI case definition may substantially influence inferences from community trials regarding the efficacy of preventive interventions.

  20. High-dose zinc oral supplementation after stem cell transplantation causes an increase of TRECs and CD4+ naïve lymphocytes and prevents TTV reactivation.

    PubMed

    Iovino, Lorenzo; Mazziotta, Francesco; Carulli, Giovanni; Guerrini, Francesca; Morganti, Riccardo; Mazzotti, Valentina; Maggi, Fabrizio; Macera, Lisa; Orciuolo, Enrico; Buda, Gabriele; Benedetti, Edoardo; Caracciolo, Francesco; Galimberti, Sara; Pistello, Mauro; Petrini, Mario

    2018-05-02

    Zinc plays an important role in thymic function and immune homeostasis. We performed a prospective clinical trial using a high-dose zinc oral supplementation to improve the immune reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). We enrolled 18 patients undergoing autologous HSCT for multiple myeloma. Nine patients were randomized to receive only a standard antimicrobial prophylaxis; whereas, nine patients received in addition 150 mg/day of zinc from day +5 to day +100 after transplant. CD4+ naïve lymphocytes and TRECs showed a significant increase from day +30 until day +100 only in the zinc-treated group. Moreover, the load of Torquetenovirus, a harmless virus that replicates in course of immunedepression, increased at day +100 only in the control group. No severe adverse events were reported during the zinc consumption. First data from the ZENITH trial suggest that high-dose zinc supplementation is safe and may enhance the thymic reconstitution after HSCT. Registered: http://Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03159845); and EUDRACT: 2014-28 004499-47. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on Endocrine Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Jamilian, Mehri; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Talaee, Rezvan; Monavari, Mahshid; Asemi, Zatollah

    2016-04-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of zinc supplementation on endocrine outcomes, biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-eight women (18-40 years) with PCOS diagnosed according to Rotterdam criteria were randomly assigned to receive either 220 mg zinc sulfate (containing 50 mg zinc) (group 1; n = 24) and/or placebo (group 2; n = 24) for 8 weeks. Hormonal profiles, biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidative stress were measured at study baseline and after 8-week intervention. After 8 weeks of intervention, alopecia (41.7 vs. 12.5%, P = 0.02) decreased compared with the placebo. Additionally, patients who received zinc supplements had significantly decreased hirsutism (modified Ferriman-Gallwey scores) (-1.71 ± 0.99 vs. -0.29 ± 0.95, P < 0.001) and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (-0.09 ± 1.31 vs. +2.34 ± 5.53 μmol/L, P = 0.04) compared with the placebo. A trend toward a significant effect of zinc intake on reducing high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels (P = 0.06) was also observed. We did observe no significant changes of zinc supplementation on hormonal profiles, inflammatory cytokines, and other biomarkers of oxidative stress. In conclusion, using 50 mg/day elemental zinc for 8 weeks among PCOS women had beneficial effects on alopecia, hirsutism, and plasma MDA levels; however, it did not affect hormonal profiles, inflammatory cytokines, and other biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  2. Organic zinc and copper supplementation on antioxidant protective mechanism and their correlation with sperm functional characteristics in goats.

    PubMed

    Narasimhaiah, M; Arunachalam, A; Sellappan, S; Mayasula, V K; Guvvala, P R; Ghosh, S K; Chandra, V; Ghosh, J; Kumar, H

    2018-06-01

    Trace minerals feeding had significant effects on sperm production and fertility with better absorption and proper utilization within the body for optimum reproductive function. Several studies have shown that more influenced trace elements in the diets of animals are copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Bucks showing deficiency of this mineral might affect the quality of semen production which in turn would affect the fertility. This experiment was thus designed to test the effects of organic Cu and Zn supplementation on antioxidants enzyme activities and sperm functional attributes in fresh semen of bucks. Forty bucks (n = 40, Aged 5 months) were assigned to ten groups of four animals in each group, supplemented (for a period of 8 months) with different levels of organic Zn: 20 mg (T2), 40 mg (T3) and 60 mg (T4), organic Cu: 12.5 mg (T5), 25 mg (T6), 37.5 mg (T7) and combined organic Zn and Cu: 20 + 12.5 mg (T8), 40 + 25 mg (T9), 60 + 37.5 mg (T10), respectively, per kg dry matter and no additional mineral diet (control; T1). One hundred and sixty semen samples were collected through electro-ejaculator and analysed for sperm quantity, quality, acrosome intactness and plasma membrane integrity and correlated with the catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase enzyme activities in seminal plasma. The results indicated organic Cu and zinc supplemented bucks produced more sperm cells, had higher sperm concentrations, maintained higher (p < .01) sperm livability, plasma membrane and acrosome integrities, more motility and velocity. The increased antioxidant enzyme activities, reduced oxidative stress and lowered lipid peroxidation were positively correlated (p < .05) with the sperm functional attributes. In conclusion, organic Cu and Zn supplement to male goats showed protective roles against oxidative damage and maintained better fresh semen characteristics. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. The Effect of Folate and Folate Plus Zinc Supplementation on Endocrine Parameters and Sperm Characteristics in Sub-Fertile Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Irani, Morvarid; Amirian, Malihe; Sadeghi, Ramin; Lez, Justine Le; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab

    2017-08-29

    To evaluate the effect of folate and folate plus zinc supplementation on endocrine parameters and sperm characteristics in sub fertile men. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Electronic databases of Medline, Scopus , Google scholar and Persian databases (SID, Iran medex, Magiran, Medlib, Iran doc) were searched from 1966 to December 2016 using a set of relevant keywords including "folate or folic acid AND (infertility, infertile, sterility)".All available randomized controlled trials (RCTs), conducted on a sample of sub fertile men with semen analyses, who took oral folic acid or folate plus zinc, were included. Data collected included endocrine parameters and sperm characteristics. Statistical analyses were done by Comprehensive Meta-analysis Version 2. In total, seven studies were included. Six studies had sufficient data for meta-analysis. "Sperm concentration was statistically higher in men supplemented with folate than with placebo (P < .001)". However, folate supplementation alone did not seem to be more effective than the placebo on the morphology (P = .056) and motility of the sperms (P = .652). Folate plus zinc supplementation did not show any statistically different effect on serum testosterone (P = .86), inhibin B (P = .84), FSH (P = .054), and sperm motility (P = .169) as compared to the placebo. Yet, folate plus zinc showed statistically higher effect on the sperm concentration (P < .001), morphology (P < .001), and serum folate level (P < .001) as compared to placebo. Folate plus zinc supplementation has a positive effect on sperm characteristics in sub fertile men. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to the important heterogeneity of the studies included in this meta-analysis. Further trials are still needed to confirm the current findings.

  4. Effect of zinc supplementation on the status of thyroid hormones and Na, K, And Ca levels in blood following ethanol feeding.

    PubMed

    Pathak, R; Dhawan, D; Pathak, A

    2011-05-01

    The influence of zinc (Zn) on the serum levels of triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and sodium (Na), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca) was evaluated following ethanol toxicity to the rats. To achieve this, male Wistar rats (150-195 g) were given 3 ml of 30% ethanol orally, and zinc was given in the form of zinc sulfate (227 mg/l) in their drinking water daily for 8 weeks. Ethanol feeding resulted in a slight decrease in T(3) and T(4) levels and a significant increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, which may be due to the direct stimulatory effect of ethanol on thyroid. Interestingly, when zinc was given to these rats, all the above levels were brought quite close to their normal levels, thus indicating the positive role of zinc in thyroid hormone metabolism. Serum Zn and Ca levels were found to be reduced, but Na levels were raised upon ethanol feeding. Restoration of normal levels of these metals upon zinc supplementation to ethanol fed rats confirms that zinc has potential in alleviating some of the altered thyroid functions following ethanol administration.

  5. Attenuation of oxidative stress and cardioprotective effects of zinc supplementation in experimental diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Barman, Susmita; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2017-02-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, which further exacerbates damage of cardiac, hepatic and other tissues. We have recently reported that Zn supplementation beneficially modulates hyperglycaemia and hypoinsulinaemia, with attendant reduction of associated metabolic abnormalities in diabetic rats. The present study assessed the potential of Zn supplementation in modulating oxidative stress and cardioprotective effects in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats with streptozotocin, and groups of diabetic rats were treated with 5- and 10-fold dietary Zn interventions (0·19 and 0·38 g Zn/kg diet) for 6 weeks. The markers of oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activities and concentrations of antioxidant molecules, lipid profile, and expressions of fibrosis and pro-apoptotic factors in the cardiac tissue were particularly assessed. Supplemental Zn showed significant attenuation of diabetes-induced oxidative stress in terms of altered antioxidant enzyme activities and increased the concentrations of antioxidant molecules. Hypercholesterolaemia and hyperlipidaemia were also significantly countered by Zn supplementation. Along with attenuated oxidative stress, Zn supplementation also showed significant cardioprotective effects by altering the mRNA expressions of fibrosis and pro-apoptotic factors (by >50 %). The expression of lipid oxidative marker 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) protein in cardiac tissue of diabetic animals was rectified (68 %) by Zn supplementation. Elevated cardiac and hepatic markers in circulation and pathological abnormalities in cardiac and hepatic tissue architecture of diabetic animals were ameliorated by dietary Zn intervention. The present study indicates that Zn supplementation can attenuate diabetes-induced oxidative stress in circulation as well as in cardiac and hepatic tissues.

  6. The sulphation of chondroitin sulphate in embryonic chicken cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, H. C.

    1969-01-01

    1. Whole tissue preparations and subcellular fractions from embryonic chicken cartilage were used to measure the rate of incorporation of inorganic sulphate into chondroitin sulphate in vitro. 2. In cartilage from 14-day-old embryos, [35S]sulphate is incorporated to an equal extent into chondroitin 4-sulphate and chondroitin 6-sulphate at a rate of 1·5nmoles of sulphate/hr./mg. dry wt. of cartilage. 3. Microsomal and soluble enzyme preparations from embryonic cartilage catalyse the transfer of sulphate from adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-sulphatophosphate into both chondroitin 4-sulphate and chondroitin 6-sulphate. 4. The effects of pH, ionic strength, adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-sulphatophosphate concentration and acceptor chondroitin sulphate concentration on the soluble sulphotransferase activity were examined. These factors all influence the activity of the sulphotransferase, and pH and incubation time also influence the percentage of chondroitin 4-sulphate formed. PMID:5807213

  7. The effect of zinc and phytoestrogen supplementation on the changes in mineral content of the femur of rats with chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Skrajnowska, Dorota; Korczak, Barbara Bobrowska-; Tokarz, Andrzej; Kazimierczuk, Agata; Klepacz, Marta; Makowska, Justyna; Gadzinski, Blazej

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess skeletal effects of zinc or zinc with phytoestrogen (resveratrol or genistein) supplementation in an animal model of rats with DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis. The changes in bone parameters such as the length and mass were examined, as well as the changes in concentrations of selected minerals: calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and phosphorus. Moreover, the investigations focused on finding the differences between the levels of iron and zinc in other tissues: the liver, spleen and serum of the examined rats. Fifty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats, 40 days old, were divided into four groups, regardless of the diets: standard (77mg Zn kg/food), zinc (4.6mg/mL via gavage), zinc (4.6mg/mL) plus resveratrol (0.2mg/kgbw), and zinc (4.6mg/mL) plus genistein (0.2mg/kgbw) for a period from 40 days until 20 weeks of age. The study rats were also treated with 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to induce mammary carcinogenesis. The applied diet and the advanced mammary cancer did not affect macrometric parameters of the rats' bones, but they strongly affected their mineral content. It was found that mammary cancer, irrespectively of the applied diet, significantly modified the iron level in the femur, liver, spleen and serum of the examined rats. In addition, zinc supplementation significantly lowered the levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in the femur of rats with mammary cancer as compared with respective levels in the control group. So, it was found that additional supplementation with zinc, which is generally considered to be an antioxidant, with the co-existing mammary carcinoma, increased the unfavorable changes as concerns the stability of bone tissue. The appropriate combination of zinc and phytoestrogens (resveratrol or genistein) could help prevent or slow bone loss associated with a range of skeletal disorders in breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Design of a randomized controlled trial of zinc supplementation to improve markers of mortality and HIV disease progression in HIV-positive drinkers in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gnatienko, Natalia; Freiberg, Matthew S; Blokhina, Elena; Yaroslavtseva, Tatiana; Bridden, Carly; Cheng, Debbie M; Chaisson, Christine E; Lioznov, Dmitry; Bendiks, Sally; Koerbel, Glory; Coleman, Sharon M; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2018-06-01

    Background Russia continues to have an uncontrolled HIV epidemic and its per capita alcohol consumption is among the highest in the world. Alcohol use among HIV-positive individuals is common and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Alcohol use and HIV each lead to microbial translocation, which in turn results in inflammation. Zinc supplementation holds potential for lowering levels of biomarkers of inflammation, possibly as a consequence of its impact on intestinal permeability. This paper describes the protocol of a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial of zinc supplementation in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods Participants (n = 254) were recruited between October 2013 and June 2015 from HIV and addiction clinical care sites, and non-clinical sites in St. Petersburg, Russia. Participants were randomly assigned, to receive either zinc (15 mg for men; 12 mg for women) or placebo, daily for 18 months. The following outcomes were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months: (1) mortality risk (primary outcome at 18 months); (2) HIV disease progression; (3) cardiovascular risk; and (4) microbial translocation and inflammation. Adherence was assessed using direct (riboflavin) and indirect (pill count, self-report) measures. Conclusion Given the limited effectiveness of current interventions to reduce alcohol use, zinc supplementation merits testing as a simple, low-cost intervention to mitigate the consequences of alcohol use in HIV-positive persons despite ongoing drinking.

  9. Supplementing zinc oxide nanoparticles to cryopreservation medium minimizes the freeze-thaw-induced damage to spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Ann V; Kumari, Sandhya; Nair, Ramya; Urs, Deepak Raj; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar; Manikkath, Jyothsna; Mutalik, Srinivas; Sachdev, Divya; Pasricha, Renu

    2017-12-16

    The sperm DNA integrity post cryopreservation of human semen samples is one of the serious concerns in human infertility treatment. In the present study, the beneficial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles in preserving the functional ability of spermatozoa was explored. Ejaculates of normozoospermic men cryopreserved along with Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) exhibited non-significantly higher percentage of total and progressive motility in frozen-thawed samples compared to control. The sperm chromatin damage and malondialdehyde (MDA) level was significantly lower in ZnONPs group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 respectively) and the spermatozoa's ability to undergo acrosome reaction was also unaltered. Fluorescence microscopy and High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that the ZnONPs do not penetrate the membrane of spermatozoa but stay around the spermatozoa. In conclusion, the presence of ZnONPs during cryopreservation appears to be beneficial to the spermatozoa as they withstand freeze-thaw process competently better than control, without any adverse effect shown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Iron and Vitamin C Co-Supplementation Increased Serum Vitamin C Without Adverse Effect on Zinc Level in Iron Deficient Female Youth

    PubMed Central

    Khoshfetrat, Mohammad Reza; Mortazavi, Sima; Neyestani, Tirang; Mahmoodi, Mohammad Reza; Zerafati-Shoae, Nahid; Mohammadi-Nasrabadi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Iron supplementation can decrease the absorption of zinc and influence other antioxidants levels such as vitamin C. This study aimed to investigate the effect of iron supplements alone and in combination with vitamin C on zinc and vitamin C status in iron deficient female students. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trail, 60 iron deficient students were selected from 289 volunteers residing in dormitory. After matching, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: Group I (50 mg elemental iron supplements) and Group II (50 mg elemental iron + 500 mg ascorbic acid). Serum ferritin, iron, serum zinc, and plasma vitamin C concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, spectrophotometer, atomic absorption spectrometer, and colorimeter, respectively after 6 and 12 weeks supplementation. Student's t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data using SPSS software. Results: Serum zinc levels had no significant differences between 2 groups at the baseline; however, its concentration decreased from 80.9 ± 4.2-68.9 ± 2.7 μg/dl to 81.2 ± 4.5-66.1 ± 2.9 μg/dl (P < 0.001) in Groups I and II, respectively after 6 weeks of supplementation. Continuous supplementation increased serum zinc concentration to baseline levels (79.0 ± 2.9 μg/dl; P < 0.01) in Group I and 70.5 ± 3.1 μg/dl in Group II following 12 weeks of supplementation. Plasma vitamin C increased from 3 ± 0/1-3.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl to 2.7 ± 0. 1-4.2 ± 0.2 mg/dl (P < 0.01) in Groups I and II, respectively. At the end of study, plasma vitamin C significantly increased from 3.3 ± 0.3-4.7 ± 0.3 (P < 0.01) to 4.2 ± 0.2-7.1 ± 0.2 (P < 0.001) in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Iron supplementation with and without vitamin C led to reduction in serum Zn in iron-deficient female students after 6 weeks. However, the decreasing trend stops after repletion of iron stores and Zn levels returned to the approximately

  11. Effect of preventive zinc supplementation on linear growth in children under 5 years of age in developing countries: a meta-analysis of studies for input to the lives saved tool

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Zinc plays an important role in cellular growth, cellular differentiation and metabolism. The results of previous meta-analyses evaluating effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth are inconsistent. We have updated and evaluated the available evidence according to Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria and tried to explain the difference in results of the previous reviews. Methods A literature search was done on PubMed, Cochrane Library, IZiNCG database and WHO regional data bases using different terms for zinc and linear growth (height). Data were abstracted in a standardized form. Data were analyzed in two ways i.e. weighted mean difference (effect size) and pooled mean difference for absolute increment in length in centimeters. Random effect models were used for these pooled estimates. We have given our recommendations for effectiveness of zinc supplementation in the form of absolute increment in length (cm) in zinc supplemented group compared to control for input to Live Saves Tool (LiST). Results There were thirty six studies assessing the effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth in children < 5 years from developing countries. In eleven of these studies, zinc was given in combination with other micronutrients (iron, vitamin A, etc). The final effect size after pooling all the data sets (zinc ± iron etc) showed a significant positive effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth [Effect size: 0.13 (95% CI 0.04, 0.21), random model] in the developing countries. A subgroup analysis by excluding those data sets where zinc was supplemented in combination with iron showed a more pronounced effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth [Weighed mean difference 0.19 (95 % CI 0.08, 0.30), random model]. A subgroup analysis from studies that reported actual increase in length (cm) showed that a dose of 10 mg zinc/day for duration of 24 weeks led to a net a gain of 0.37 (±0.25) cm in zinc

  12. Zinc and Selenium Co-supplementation Reduces Some Lipid Peroxidation and Angiogenesis Markers in a Rat Model of NAFLD-Fed High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Faghihi, Amirhosein; Motaghinejad, Majid; Shiasi, Maryam; Imanparast, Fatemeh; Amiri, Hamid Lorvand; Shidfar, Farzad

    2018-02-01

    Studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients are more prone to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Zinc and selenium deficiency are common in NAFLD. But the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on CVD markers are not clear in NAFLD patients. This study aimed to compare the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on some of the CVD markers in an experimental model of NAFLD. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats (197 ± 4 g) were randomly assigned into four dietary groups: control group (C; received 9% of calorie as fat), model group (M; received 82% of calorie as fat), and supplementation before (BS) or after (AS) disease progression. Animals were fed diets for 20 weeks in all groups. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, HOMA-IR, ALT, AST, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were measured as CVD indices. Serum ALT, AST, FPG, insulin, MDA, VEGF and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in the M than C group. Co-supplementation reduced serum ALT and AST levels in the BS and AS groups compared with the M group. FPG, insulin, HOMA-IR, VEGF, MDA, LDL/HDL-c and TC/HDL-c ratio were significantly reduced in the AS compared with the M group. TG/HDL-c ratio was significantly reduced in the BS and AS compared with the M group. Serum MDA, VEGF, Insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly lowered in the AS than BS group (p < 0.05). Zinc and selenium co-supplementation after NAFLD progression reduced CVD risk indices in an experimental model.

  13. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children

    PubMed Central

    Lazzerini, Marzia; Wanzira, Humphrey

    2016-01-01

    from dehydration. Giving fluids by mouth (using an oral rehydration solution (ORS)) has been shown to save children's lives, but it has no effect on the length of time the children suffer with diarrhoea. Zinc supplementation could help reduce the duration and the severity of diarrhoea, and therefore have an additional benefit over ORS in reducing children mortality. What is oral zinc and how may it shorten the duration and severity of diarrhoea Zinc is usually given as zinc sulphate, zinc acetate, or zinc gluconate, which are all water-soluble compounds. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) recommend 10 mg to 20 mg of zinc per day for children with diarrhoea. There are several mechanism of action of zinc on acute diarrhoea, some of which are specific to the gastrointestinal system: zinc restores mucosal barrier integrity and enterocyte brush-border enzyme activity, it promotes the production of antibodies and circulating lymphocytes against intestinal pathogens, and has a direct effect on ion channels, acting as a potassium channel blocker of adenosine 3-5-cyclic monophosphate-mediated chlorine secretion. Cochrane researchers examined the evidence available up to 30 September 2016. What the evidence in the review suggests Thirty-three trials that included 10,841 children met the inclusion criteria of this review. Among children with acute diarrhoea, we don't know if treating children with zinc has an effect on death or number of children hospitalized (very low certainty evidence). In children older than six months, zinc supplementation may shorten the average duration of diarrhoea by around half a day (low certainty evidence), and probably reduces the number of children whose diarrhoea persists until day seven (moderate certainty evidence). In children with signs of malnutrition the effect appears greater, reducing the duration of diarrhoea by around a day (high certainty evidence). Conversely, in children younger than six

  14. Ultraviolet-Visible and Fluorescence Spectroscopy Techniques Are Important Diagnostic Tools during the Progression of Atherosclerosis: Diet Zinc Supplementation Retarded or Delayed Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K.; Moussa, Sherif A. Abdelmottaleb; AL-Mohy, Yanallah Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study, we examined whether UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques detect the progression of atherosclerosis in serum of rabbits fed on high-cholesterol diet (HCD) and HCD supplemented with zinc (HCD + Zn) compared with the control. Methods. The control rabbits group was fed on 100 g/day of normal diet. The HCD group was fed on Purina Certified Rabbit Chow supplemented with 1.0% cholesterol plus 1.0% olive oil (100 g/day) for the same period. The HCD + Zn group was fed on normal Purina Certified Rabbit Chow plus 1.0% cholesterol and 1.0% olive oil supplemented with 470 ppm Zn for the same feeding period. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy and biochemistry in Rabbit's blood serum and blood hematology were measured in Rabbit's blood. Results. We found that the fluorescent peak of HCD shifted toward UV-visible wavelength compared with the control using fluorescent excitation of serum at 192 nm. In addition, they showed that supplementation of zinc (350 ppm) restored the fluorescent peak closely to the control. By using UV-visible spectroscopy approach, we found that the peak absorbance of HCD (about 280 nm) was higher than that of control and that zinc supplementation seemed to decrease the absorbance. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques can be applied as noninvasive techniques on a sample blood serum for diagnosing or detecting the progression of atherosclerosis. The Zn supplementation to rabbits fed on HCD delays or retards the progression of atherosclerosis. Inducing anemia in rabbits fed on HCD delays the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:24350281

  15. Effect of in ovo supplementation of nano forms of zinc, copper, and selenium on post-hatch performance of broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Joshua, P Patric; Valli, C; Balakrishnan, V

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles can bypass conventional physiological ways of nutrient distribution and transport across tissue and cell membranes, as well as protect compounds against destruction prior to reaching their targets. In ovo administration of nanoparticles, may be seen as a new method of nano-nutrition, providing embryos with an additional quantity of nutrients. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of in ovo supplementation of nano forms of zinc, copper and selenium on the hatchability and post hatch performance of broiler chicken. Nano form of zinc at 20, 40, 60 and 80 µg/egg, nano form of copper at 4, 8, 12 and 16 µg/egg and nano form of selenium at 0.075, 0.15, 0.225 and 0.3 µg/egg were in ovo supplemented (18(th) day incubation, amniotic route) in fertile broiler eggs. Control group in ovo fed with normal saline alone was also maintained. Each treatment had thirty replicates. Parameters such as hatchability, hatch weight and post hatch performance were studied. In ovo feeding of nano minerals were not harmful to the developing embryo and did not influence the hatchability. Significantly (p<0.05) best feed efficiency for nano forms of zinc (2.16), copper (2.46) and selenium (2.51) were observed, when 40, 4 and 0.225 µg/egg respectively were in ovo supplemented. Except in nano form of copper at 12 µg per egg which had significantly (p<0.05) highest breast muscle percentage there was no distinct trend to indicate that dressing percentage or breast muscle yield was influenced in other treatments. Nano forms of zinc, copper and selenium can be prepared at laboratory conditions. In ovo feeding of nano forms of zinc, copper and selenium at 18(th) day of incubation through amniotic route does not harm the developing embryo, does not affect hatchability.

  16. Effect of in ovo supplementation of nano forms of zinc, copper, and selenium on post-hatch performance of broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Joshua, P. Patric; Valli, C.; Balakrishnan, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Nanoparticles can bypass conventional physiological ways of nutrient distribution and transport across tissue and cell membranes, as well as protect compounds against destruction prior to reaching their targets. In ovo administration of nanoparticles, may be seen as a new method of nano-nutrition, providing embryos with an additional quantity of nutrients. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of in ovo supplementation of nano forms of zinc, copper and selenium on the hatchability and post hatch performance of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: Nano form of zinc at 20, 40, 60 and 80 µg/egg, nano form of copper at 4, 8, 12 and 16 µg/egg and nano form of selenium at 0.075, 0.15, 0.225 and 0.3 µg/egg were in ovo supplemented (18th day incubation, amniotic route) in fertile broiler eggs. Control group in ovo fed with normal saline alone was also maintained. Each treatment had thirty replicates. Parameters such as hatchability, hatch weight and post hatch performance were studied. Results: In ovo feeding of nano minerals were not harmful to the developing embryo and did not influence the hatchability. Significantly (p<0.05) best feed efficiency for nano forms of zinc (2.16), copper (2.46) and selenium (2.51) were observed, when 40, 4 and 0.225 µg/egg respectively were in ovo supplemented. Except in nano form of copper at 12 µg per egg which had significantly (p<0.05) highest breast muscle percentage there was no distinct trend to indicate that dressing percentage or breast muscle yield was influenced in other treatments. Conclusion: Nano forms of zinc, copper and selenium can be prepared at laboratory conditions. In ovo feeding of nano forms of zinc, copper and selenium at 18th day of incubation through amniotic route does not harm the developing embryo, does not affect hatchability. PMID:27057113

  17. Zinc Bioavailability from Phytate-Rich Foods and Zinc Supplements. Modeling the Effects of Food Components with Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Donor Ligands.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2017-10-04

    Aqueous solubility of zinc phytate (K sp = (2.6 ± 0.2) × 10 -47 mol 7 /L 7 ), essential for zinc bioavailability from plant foods, was found to decrease with increasing temperature corresponding to ΔH dis of -301 ± 22 kJ/mol and ΔS dis of -1901 ± 72 J/(mol K). Binding of zinc to phytate was found to be exothermic for the stronger binding site and endothermic for the weaker binding site. The solubility of the slightly soluble zinc citrate and insoluble zinc phytate was found to be considerably enhanced by the food components with oxygen donor, nitrogen donor, and sulfur donor ligands. The driving force for the enhanced solubility is mainly due to the complex formation between zinc and the investigated food components rather than ligand exchange and ternary complex formation as revealed by quantum mechanical calculations and isothermal titration calorimetry. Histidine and citrate are promising ligands for improving zinc absorption from phytate-rich foods.

  18. Supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, magnesium and zinc in children seeking medical advice for attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems - an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for humans. They are structural and functional components of cell membranes and pre-stages of the hormonally and immunologically active eicosanoids. Recent discoveries have shown that the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) also play an important role in the central nervous system. They are essential for normal brain functioning including attention and other neuropsychological skills. Materials and methods In our large observational study we monitored 810 children from 5 to 12 years of age referred for medical help and recommended for consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in combination with zinc and magnesium by a physician over a period of at least 3 months. The food supplement ESPRICO® (further on referred to as the food supplement) is developed on the basis of current nutritional science and containing a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc. Study objective was to evaluate the nutritional effects of the PUFA-zinc-magnesium combination on symptoms of attention deficit, impulsivity, and hyperactivity as well as on emotional problems and sleep related parameters. Assessment was performed by internationally standardised evaluation scales, i.e. SNAP-IV and SDQ. Tolerance (adverse events) and acceptance (compliance) of the dietary therapy were documented. Results After 12 weeks of consumption of a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc most subjects showed a considerable reduction in symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity/impulsivity assessed by SNAP-IV. Further, the assessment by SDQ revealed fewer emotional problems at the end of the study period compared to baseline and also sleeping disorders. Mainly problems to fall asleep, decreased during the 12 week nutritional therapy. Regarding safety, no serious adverse events occurred. A total of 16 adverse

  19. Supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, magnesium and zinc in children seeking medical advice for attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems - an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Huss, Michael; Völp, Andreas; Stauss-Grabo, Manuela

    2010-09-24

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for humans. They are structural and functional components of cell membranes and pre-stages of the hormonally and immunologically active eicosanoids. Recent discoveries have shown that the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) also play an important role in the central nervous system. They are essential for normal brain functioning including attention and other neuropsychological skills. In our large observational study we monitored 810 children from 5 to 12 years of age referred for medical help and recommended for consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in combination with zinc and magnesium by a physician over a period of at least 3 months. The food supplement ESPRICO® (further on referred to as the food supplement) is developed on the basis of current nutritional science and containing a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc. Study objective was to evaluate the nutritional effects of the PUFA-zinc-magnesium combination on symptoms of attention deficit, impulsivity, and hyperactivity as well as on emotional problems and sleep related parameters. Assessment was performed by internationally standardised evaluation scales, i.e. SNAP-IV and SDQ. Tolerance (adverse events) and acceptance (compliance) of the dietary therapy were documented. After 12 weeks of consumption of a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc most subjects showed a considerable reduction in symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity/impulsivity assessed by SNAP-IV. Further, the assessment by SDQ revealed fewer emotional problems at the end of the study period compared to baseline and also sleeping disorders. Mainly problems to fall asleep, decreased during the 12 week nutritional therapy. Regarding safety, no serious adverse events occurred. A total of 16 adverse events with a possible causal relationship to

  20. Influence of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement on lipid profile in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Satyam, Shakta Mani; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady; Pirasanthan, Rajadurai

    2014-12-01

    Zincovit tablet is combination of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement. To investigate the influence of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement tablets (Zincovit) on lipid profile in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets doses ranged from 40 to 160 mg/kg, p.o. was evaluated in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemic animals treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets (nutritional food supplement) at 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg exhibited drastic decrease in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C and rise of HDL-C in comparison to hypercholesterolemic control group animals. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet was comparable with the standard drug atorvastatin treated animals and the variations were statistically non-significant. There was no significant impact of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets on lipid profile among normal animals in comparison with normal control group. The present study demonstrated that the single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet is the potential functional nutritional food supplements that could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats.

  1. Thermometric titration of sulphate.

    PubMed

    Williams, M B; Janata, J

    1970-06-01

    Direct thermometric titration of sulphate with a solution of barium perchlorate is proposed. The stoichiometry of the titration is shown to be critically dependent on the concentration of ethanol in the titration medium. The titration is rapid and suffers from only a few interferences.

  2. Effect of Zinc Supplements on Preventing Upper Respiratory Infections in Air Force Academy Cadets in Basic Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    and Nutrition Board (2001). Dietary Reference Intakes: A Report of the Panel on Micronutrients , Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients...Respiratory Infections in Air Force Academy Cadets in Basic Training Summary Background: As a dietary essential, zinc plays a number of important roles...Introduction Zinc is considered one of the essential micronutrients used by the human body. Although zinc fulfills a number of metabolic and

  3. Update on zinc biology.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has become a prominent nutrient of clinical and public health interest in the new millennium. Functions and actions for zinc emerge as increasingly ubiquitous in mammalian anatomy, physiology and metabolism. There is undoubtedly an underpinning in fundamental biology for all of the aspects of zinc in human health (clinical and epidemiological) in pediatric and public health practice. Unfortunately, basic science research may not have achieved a full understanding as yet. As a complement to the applied themes in the companion articles, a selection of recent advances in the domains homeostatic regulation and transport of zinc is presented; they are integrated, in turn, with findings on genetic expression, intracellular signaling, immunity and host defense, and bone growth. The elements include ionic zinc, zinc transporters, metallothioneins, zinc metalloenzymes and zinc finger proteins. In emerging basic research, we find some plausible mechanistic explanations for delayed linear growth with zinc deficiency and increased infectious disease resistance with zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Zinc supplementation of vitrification medium improves in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes derived from vitrified-warmed mouse ovaries.

    PubMed

    Geravandi, Shirin; Azadbakht, Mehri; Pourmoradi, Mahsa; Nowrouzi, Fatemeh

    2017-02-01

    Oocyte cryopreservation is an approach for fertility preservation for normal women and cancer patients facing chemo and radiotherapy. The present study evaluated the effect of adding zinc chloride to the vitrification medium used for whole mouse ovaries and then assessing the in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes when they were subsequently extracted from these vitrified ovarian tissues. Four vitrification solutions with 0, 100,150 and 200 μg/dl zinc (V0, V1, V2 and V3 respectively) were compared. The viability of oocytes isolated from ovaries vitrified-warmed in the highest concentration of zinc (V3) was significantly higher after 24 than in the control V0 group (72.99 vs 85.97). Progression to the MII stage, fertilization and cleavage by 48 h was also higher in the V3 than V0 control group (35.55 vs 44.73), (47.67 vs 63.74), (28.72 vs 43.03) (P < 0.05) respectively. These results indicate that supplementation of vitrification medium for intact ovaries with zinc can improve the oocyte viability and in vitro maturation-fertilization rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  6. Effects of supplementing zinc or chromium to finishing steers fed ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Edenburn, B M; Kneeskern, S G; Bohrer, B M; Rounds, W; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C; Felix, T L

    2016-02-01

    Objectives were to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) with zinc (Zn) and chromium (Cr) on feedlot growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Steers ( = 179; initial BW = 533 ± 94 kg) were blocked by BW and allotted to 30 pens, and pens were randomly assigned 1 of 5 treatments: (1) control (CONT), (2) RAC only (RO), (3) RAC + Zn (RZ), (4) RAC + Cr (RC), or (5) RAC + Zn + Cr (RZC). Trace minerals were fed from d 0 to 63 to target 1 g of Zn/steer·d (KemTRACE Zn; Kemin Industries, Inc., Des Moines, IA) and 3 mg Cr/steer·d (KemTRACE Chromium; Kemin Industries, Inc.) for Zn and Cr treatments, respectively. Dry-rolled corn, 0.605 kg/steer, was removed from the diet and 400 mg RAC, per 0.605 kg of ground corn carrier, was top dressed per steer immediately following feed delivery to pens fed RAC. There were no effects ( ≥ 0.45) of trace mineral supplementation on DMI, ADG, or G:F before RAC feeding. There were also no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.46) over all 63 d of the trial on DMI, ADG, or G:F. Despite the lack of differences in live performance, steers fed RO and RC averaged 0.10 kg/d greater ( = 0.10) carcass ADG than steers fed RZC and CONT, while steers fed RZ were intermediate and not different. Steers fed RO had the greatest ( = 0.09) carcass G:F, while steers fed CONT had the least carcass G:F, 0.0875 and 0.0774, respectively. Steers fed RO and RC averaged 5.5 kg heavier ( = 0.09) HCW than steers fed RZC and CONT, while steers fed RZ were intermediate and not different. There were no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.32) on LM area, 12th rib fat, marbling score, KPH, carcass yield, or USDA yield grade and distribution. However, carcasses from steers fed RC had the greatest ( = 0.10) percentage grading USDA Select. There were no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.20) on shear force, intramuscular fat, pH, a*, and b*. Steaks from steers fed RO and RC had 11.4% greater ( = 0.08) cook loss than steaks from steers fed CONT and RZC

  7. Zinc supplementation induces CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ antigen-specific regulatory T cells and suppresses IFN-γ production by upregulation of Foxp3 and KLF-10 and downregulation of IRF-1.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Martina; Rink, Lothar

    2017-08-01

    The essential trace element zinc plays a fundamental role in immune function and regulation since its deficiency is associated with autoimmunity, allergies, and transplant rejection. Thus, we investigated the influence of zinc supplementation on the Th1-driven alloreaction in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), on generation of antigen-specific T cells, and analyzed underlying molecular mechanisms. Cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production were monitored by [ 3 H]-thymidine proliferation assay and ELISA, respectively. Analysis of surface and intracellular T cell marker was performed by flow cytometry. Western blotting and mRNA analysis were used for Foxp3, KLF-10, and IRF-1 expression. Zinc supplementation on antigen-specific T cells in physiological doses (50 µM) provokes a significant amelioration of cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production after reactivation compared to untreated controls. Zinc administration on MLC results in an increased induction and stabilization of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + and CD4 + CD25 + CTLA-4 + T cells (p < 0.05). The effect is based on zinc-induced upregulation of Foxp3 and KLF-10 and downregulation of IRF-1. However, in resting lymphocytes zinc increases IRF-1. In summary, zinc is capable of ameliorating the allogeneic immune reaction by enhancement of antigen-specific iTreg cells due to modulation of essential molecular targets: Foxp3, KLF-10, and IRF-1. Thus, zinc can be seen as an auspicious tool for inducing tolerance in adverse immune reactions.

  8. The Hypolipidemic and Pleiotropic Effects of Rosuvastatin Are Not Enhanced by Its Association with Zinc and Selenium Supplementation in Coronary Artery Disease Patients: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Sena-Evangelista, Karine Cavalcanti Maurício; Pedrosa, Lucia Fatima Campos; Paiva, Maria Sanali Moura Oliveira; Dias, Paula Cristina Silveira; Ferreira, Diana Quitéria Cabral; Cozzolino, Sílvia Maria Franciscato; Faulin, Tanize Espírito Santo; Abdalla, Dulcinéia Saes Parra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Statins treatment may modify the levels of zinc and selenium, minerals that can improve vascular function and reduce oxidative damage and inflammation in atherosclerotic patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of rosuvastatin, alone or associated with zinc and selenium supplementation, on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and mineral status in coronary artery disease patients. Material and Methods A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed in which patients (n = 76) were treated with 10 mg rosuvastatin over 4 months associated or not with zinc (30 mg/d) and selenium (150 μg/d) supplementation. The following parameters were analyzed before and after the intervention: anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), electronegative low density lipoprotein (LDL(-)) concentrations, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), zinc and selenium concentrations in blood plasma and erythocytes. Significance was determined using an α of 5% (two-tailed). Results We found that rosuvastatin therapy was efficient in reducing total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and hs-CRP independently of mineral supplementation. Neither treatment was associated with significant changes in LDL(-). Similarly, the antioxidant enzymes GPx and SOD activity were unchanged by treatments. Neither treatment was associated with significant differences in concentrations of zinc or selenium in blood plasma and erythocytes of studied groups. Conclusion Rosuvastatin treatment did not affect zinc and selenium levels in coronary artery disease patients. The zinc and selenium supplementation at doses used in this study did not change lipid profile or SOD and GPx activity in patients receiving rosuvastatin. Further studies should be focused on testing alternative doses and supplements in different populations to contribute for a consensus on the ideal choice of antioxidants

  9. Enhanced immunogenicity of an oral inactivated cholera vaccine in infants in Bangladesh obtained by zinc supplementation and by temporary withholding breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Al Tarique, Abdullah; Sultana, Gazi N N; Qadri, Firdausi

    2009-02-25

    The killed oral cholera vaccine Dukoral is recommended for adults and only children over 2 years of age, although cholera is seen frequently in younger children and there is an urgent need for a vaccine for them. Since decreased immunogenicity of oral vaccines in children in developing countries is a critical problem, we tested interventions to enhance responses to Dukoral. We evaluated the effect on the immune responses by temporarily withholding breast-feeding or by giving zinc supplementation. Two doses of Dukoral consisting of killed cholera vibrios and cholera B subunit were given to 6-18 months old Bangladeshi children (n=340) and safety and immunogenicity studied. Our results showed that two doses of the vaccine were safe and induced antibacterial (vibriocidal) antibody responses in 57% and antitoxin responses in 85% of the children. Immune responses were comparable after intake of one and two doses. Temporary withholding breast-feeding for 3 h before immunization or supplementation with 20 mg of zinc per day for 42 days resulted in increased magnitude of vibriocidal antibodies (77% and 79% responders, respectively). Administration of vaccines without buffer or in water did not result in reduction of vibriocidal responses. This study demonstrates that the vaccine is safe and immunogenic in children under 2 years of age and that simple interventions can enhance immune responses in young children.

  10. Reported zinc, but not copper, intakes influence whole-body bone density, mineral content and T score responses to zinc and copper supplementation in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Forrest H; Lukaski, Henry C; Johnson, LuAnn K; Roughead, Z K Fariba

    2011-12-01

    A supplementation trial starting with 224 postmenopausal women provided with adequate vitamin D and Ca was conducted to determine whether increased Cu and Zn intakes would reduce the risk for bone loss. Healthy women aged 51-80 years were recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Women with similar femoral neck T scores and BMI were randomly assigned to two groups of 112 each that were supplemented daily for 2 years with 600 mg Ca plus maize starch placebo or 600 mg Ca plus 2 mg Cu and 12 mg Zn. Whole-body bone mineral contents, densities and T scores were determined biannually by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 5 d food diaries were obtained annually. Repeated-measures ANCOVA showed that bone mineral contents, densities and T scores decreased from baseline values to year 2. A priori contrasts between baseline and year 2 indicated that the greatest decreases occurred with Cu and Zn supplementation. Based on 5 d food diaries, the negative effect was caused by Zn and mainly occurred with Zn intakes ≥ 8·0 mg/d. With Zn intakes < 8·0 mg/d, Zn supplementation apparently prevented a significant decrease in whole-body bone densities and T scores. Food diaries also indicated that Mg intakes < 237 mg/d, Cu intakes < 0·9 mg/d and Zn intakes < 8·0 mg/d are associated with poorer bone health. The findings indicate that Zn supplementation may be beneficial to bone health in postmenopausal women with usual Zn intakes < 8·0 mg/d but not in women consuming adequate amounts of Zn.

  11. Supplementation of diets for lactating sows with zinc amino acid complex and gastric nutriment-intubation of suckling pigs with zinc methionine on mineral status, intestinal morphology and bacterial translocation in lipopolysaccharide-challenged weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Caine, W R; McFall, M; Miller, B; Ward, T L; Kirkwood, R N; Mosenthin, R

    2010-04-01

    Sixty-four pigs from 16 sows were used to evaluate addition of zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA) to lactating sows and gastric nutriment-intubation of zinc methionine (ZnMet) to suckling pigs on mineral status, intestinal morphology and bacterial translocation after weaning. Sows were fed a barley-based diet supplying 120 ppm zinc (Zn; control) or the control diet supplemented with 240 ppm Zn from ZnAA. At birth, day-10 and day-21 (weaning) of age, pigs from each litter were nutriment-intubated with 5 ml of an electrolyte solution without or with 40 mg Zn from ZnMet. At weaning, 24 h prior to the collection of small and large intestinal lymph nodes and sections of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the pigs received an intramuscular injection of saline without or with 150 microg/kg body weight of Escherichia coli O26:B6 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). With the exception of a tendency (p = 0.09) for lower serum concentration of copper in pigs at weaning from ZnAA-supplemented sows, there were no differences (p > 0.1) than for pigs from control-fed sows for mineral status or intestinal morphology. Nutriment-intubation of ZnMet increased serum (p = 0.001) and liver (p = 0.003) Zn concentrations, number of goblet cells per 250 microm length of jejunal villous epithelium (p = 0.001) and tended (p = 0.06) to enhance jejunum mucosa thickness. Interactive effects (p < 0.05) for higher jejunal villi height and villi:crypt ratio and increased ileal goblet cell counts were apparent for pigs from ZnAA-supplemented sows that also received nutriment-intubation of ZnMet. Challenge with LPS increased (p = 0.05) ileal villous width. Nutriment-intubation of ZnMet decreased (p = 0.05) anaerobic bacteria colony forming unit counts in the large intestinal mesenteric lymph nodes. In conclusion, nutriment-intubation of ZnMet increased serum and liver tissue concentrations of Zn and resulted in limited improvement to intestinal morphology of weaned pigs.

  12. Effect of in vitro zinc supplementation on HSPs expression and Interleukin 10 production in heat treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of transition Sahiwal and Karan Fries cows.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Aasif Ahmad; Aggarwal, Anjali; Aarif, Ovais

    2016-02-01

    treatment reduced the IL-10 concentration. From the study, it could be concluded that the zinc supplementation in heat stressed PBMC can ameliorate thermal stress and modulate immune response which can act as a model for reducing heat stress during the periparturient period in tropical livestock. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Scientific skepticism and new discoveries: an analysis of a report of zinc/phytase supplementation and the efficacy of botulinum toxins in treating cosmetic facial rhytides, hemifacial spasm and benign essential blepharospasm.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L

    2014-10-01

    A recent paper in the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology by Koshy and colleagues (2012, 11( 4 ):507-512) report on "Effect of Dietary Zinc and Phytase Supplementation on Botulinum Toxin Treatments" and conclude by claiming the discovery of "a potentially meaningful role for zinc and/or phytase supplementation in increasing the degree and duration of botulinum toxin effect in the treatment of cosmetic facial rhytids, benign essential blepharospasm, and hemifacial spasm". The purpose of this paper is to examine these published claims for possible methodological and design errors and potential sources of bias. The authors evaluated the published results in comparison to the published literature on zinc deficiency, the role of phytase, prior reports of an effect of zinc on activity of botulinum toxin, issues of study design and execution and if the reported results of the study supported the study's conclusions. Multiple issues are present in the reported study, which appear to invalidate its conclusions. These areas include lack of direct evidence for the presence of clinical or subclinical zinc deficiency in the study population or for the level of phytate in the study population sufficient to interfere with zinc absorption in these subjects. Additionally, there is ambiguity as to the actual dose of zinc used as well as in the study design itself. Also there is a failure of the study through the "unmasking" of the crossover design. There is potential financial conflict of interest in the study execution that may have biased the reported results. Finally there is inadequate data presented to evaluate the claims made of a "new discovery" as to the three disease entities reported on and the various botulinum toxins used in each of the three treatment arms of the study. Based on this evaluation, it appears that a high level of clinical and scientific skepticism is warranted concerning any claim of a beneficial effect of zinc and phytase supplementation on the efficacy or

  14. The effects of increasing supplementation of zinc-amino acid complex on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and inflammatory response of beef cattle fed ractopamine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Genther-Schroeder, O N; Branine, M E; Hansen, S L

    2016-08-01

    response. Overall, Zn60 improved growth performance during the pre-RAC period. Zinc supplemented as ZnAA appears to improve growth in combination with RAC supplementation, suggesting that Zn may enhance or support the biological function of RAC. Additionally, these results indicate that feeding RAC impacts trace mineral status, and potentially causes a non-specific inflammatory response, but further research is required to define this response.

  15. Effects of rutin supplementation on antioxidant status and iron, copper, and zinc contents in mouse liver and brain.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhonghong; Xu, Huibi; Huang, Kaixun

    2002-09-01

    The effect of rutin on total antioxidant status as well as on trace elements such as iron, copper, and zinc in mouse liver and brain were studied. Mice were administrated with 0.75 g/kg or 2.25 g/kg P. O. of rutin for 30 d consecutively. Following the treatment, the activity of total antioxidant status, catalase, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, Mn-superoxide dismutase, zinc, copper, and iron were measured in mouse liver and brain. The results showed that rutin significantly increased the antioxidant status and Mn-superoxide dismutase activities in mouse liver, but it had no effect on these variables in the brain. Treatment with a higher concentration of rutin significantly decreased catalase activity and iron, zinc, and copper contents in mouse liver; it also resulted in a slower weight gain for the first 20 d. These results indicate that rutin taken in proper amount can effectively improve antioxidant status, whereas at an increased dosage, it may cause trace element (such as iron, zinc, and copper) deficiencies and a decrease in the activities of related metal-containing enzymes.

  16. The effects of a lipid-based nutrient supplement and antiretroviral therapy in a randomized controlled trial on iron, copper, and zinc in milk from HIV+ Malawian mothers and associations with maternal and infant biomarkers

    We evaluated effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) on iron, copper and zinc in milk of exclusively breastfeeding HIV-infected Malawian mothers, and their correlations with maternal and infant biomarkers. Breast milk at 2, 6, and 24 weeks (wk) postpartum a...

  17. Effect of Supplementing Organic Forms of Zinc, Selenium and Chromium on Performance, Anti-Oxidant and Immune Responses in Broiler Chicken Reared in Tropical Summer.

    PubMed

    Rao, S V Rama; Prakash, B; Raju, M V L N; Panda, A K; Kumari, R K; Reddy, E Pradeep Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of supplementing organic forms of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and chromium (Cr) on performance, anti-oxidant activities and immune responses in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age, which were reared in cyclic heat-stressed condition under tropical summer in open-sided poultry house. A total of 200 (experiment I) and 450-day-old (experiment II) broiler male chicks (Cobb 400) were randomly distributed in stainless steel battery brooders (610 mm × 762 mm × 475 mm) at the rate of five birds per pen. A maize-soybean meal-based control diet (CD) containing recommended (Vencobb 400, Broiler Management Guide) concentrations of inorganic trace minerals and other nutrients was prepared. The CD was supplemented individually with organic form of selenium (Se, 0.30 mg/kg), chromium (Cr, 2 mg/kg) and zinc (Zn, 40 mg/kg) in experiment I. In experiment II, two concentrations of each Zn (20 and 40 mg/kg), Se (0.15 and 0.30 mg/kg) and Cr (1 and 2 mg/kg) were supplemented to the basal diet in 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. A group without supplementing inorganic trace minerals was maintained as control group in both experiments. Each diet was allotted randomly to ten replicates in both experiments and fed ad libitum from 1 to 21 days of age. At 19th day of age, blood samples were collected for estimation of anti-oxidant and immune responses. Supplementation of Se, Cr and Zn increased (P < 0.05) body mass gain (BMG) and feed intake compared to those fed the CD in experiment I. The feed efficiency (FE) in Cr-fed group was higher (P < 0.05) compared to the CD-fed group. Se or Cr supplementation reduced lipid peroxidation (LP) compared to broilers fed the CD. In experiment II, BMG was not affected (P > 0.05) by the interaction between levels of Zn, Se and Cr in broiler diet. The FE improved (P < 0.05) with supplementation of the trace minerals tested at both concentrations except in group

  18. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciT

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remainedmore » constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.« less

  19. Influence of different histidine sources and zinc supplementation of broiler diets on dipeptide content and antioxidant status of blood and meat.

    PubMed

    Kopeć, W; Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate how a diet containing spray-dried blood cells (SDBC) (4%) with or without zinc (Zn) would affect the concentration of two histidine heterodipeptides and the antioxidant status of broiler blood and breast muscles. 2. The study was carried out on 920 male Flex chickens randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: I - control, II - diet I with SDBC, III - diet I with SDBC and supplemented with Zn and IV - diet I supplemented with L-histidine. Birds were raised on floor littered with wood shavings, given free access to water and fed ad libitum. Performance indices were measured on d 1, 21 and 42. 3. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was analysed in plasma, erythrocytes and muscle tissue. The total antioxidant capacity of plasma and breast muscles was measured by 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, as well as by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Carnosine/anserine content of meat and plasma were determined using HPLC. Diets and breast muscles were analysed for amino acid profile and selected microelement content. 4. Histidine supplementation of the diet increased glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma and superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes. Moreover, the addition of SDBC or pure histidine in the diet increased histidine dipeptide content and activated enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems in chicken blood and muscles. However, it led to lower growth performance indices. 5. The enrichment of broiler diets with Zn increased the antioxidant potential and the activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma, which was independent of the histidine dipeptide concentration. Zn supplementation combined with SDBC in a broiler diet led to the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, but it did not affect the radical

  20. In Vitro Bioavailability of Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Zinc, and Copper from Gluten-Free Breads Supplemented with Natural Additives.

    PubMed

    Regula, J; Cerba, A; Suliburska, J; Tinkov, A A

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the content of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper and determine the bioavailability of these ingredients in gluten-free breads fortified with milk and selected seeds. Due to the increasing prevalence of celiac disease and mineral deficiencies, it has become necessary to produce food with higher nutritional values which maintains the appropriate product characteristics. This study was designed for gluten-free breads fortified with milk and seeds such as flax, poppy, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds or nuts, and flour with amaranth. Subsequently, digestion was performed in vitro and the potential bioavailability of the minerals was measured. In the case of calcium, magnesium, iron, and copper, higher bioavailability was observed in rice bread, and, in the case of copper and zinc, in buckwheat bread. This demonstrated a clear increase in bioavailability of all the minerals when the bread were enriched. However, satisfactory results are obtained only for the individual micronutrients.

  1. Zinc and Vitamin Supplementation in an Under-5 Indigenous Population of Guatemala: Influence of Lay Health Promoters in Decreasing Incidence of Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Vicki M; Turner, Barbara S; Snyder, Denise; Stewart, Robert D; Bowen, Toni; Cifuentes, Ariadna A; Cliff, Cheryl

    2015-09-01

    Malnutrition is an urgent problem in the developing world, especially for children under 5 years of age. The article describes the utilization of a standard of practice designed to prevent illness in a malnourished, under-5 indigenous population and reinforced by weekly basic health messages taught by lay community health promoters. The two villages were chosen for observation after administration of the standard of care among the Maya-Kíché, the most numerous Mayan group in Guatemala. The standard of practice, 20 mg of daily oral zinc, was administered for 10 days in the home and followed by daily vitamin supplementation that continued throughout the 3 months of the project. All patients received four monthly clinic visits, with one of the village groups receiving weekly health promoter visits. Data evaluated after the quality improvement project showed significant differences in adherence to the zinc regimen (χ(2) = 3.677, p ≤ .05) as well as lower rates of diarrheal illnesses (χ(2) = 5.850, p ≤ .05), with both of these improved in the health promoter group. This study suggests that the training and implementation of para-health professionals from the lay community in response to specific health care needs could be considered a best practice in developing countries. Public health professionals are key to health promoter training and direction, and their importance in the global setting cannot be understated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. History of zinc in agriculture

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, over 20 years would past before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure a parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it wa...

  3. Development of stress tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains by metabolic engineering: New aspects from cell flocculation and zinc supplementation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Zhang, Mingming; Xue, Chuang; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2017-02-01

    Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely studied for the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. However, economic production is currently challenged by the repression of cell growth and compromised fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae strains in the presence of various environmental stresses, including toxic level of final products, inhibitory compounds released from the pretreatment of cellulosic feedstocks, high temperature, and so on. Therefore, it is important to improve stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae to these stressful conditions to achieve efficient and economic production. In this review, the latest advances on development of stress tolerant S. cerevisiae strains are summarized, with the emphasis on the impact of cell flocculation and zinc addition. It was found that cell flocculation affected ethanol tolerance and acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae, and addition of zinc to a suitable level improved stress tolerance of yeast cells to ethanol, high temperature and acetic acid. Further studies on the underlying mechanisms by which cell flocculation and zinc status affect stress tolerance will not only enrich our knowledge on stress response and tolerance mechanisms of S. cerevisiae, but also provide novel metabolic engineering strategies to develop robust yeast strains for biofuels production. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of essential fatty acid, B vitamins, vitamin C, magnesium and zinc supplementation on stress levels in women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Delia; Lisy, Karolina; Lockwood, Craig; Colbeck, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Women juggling multiple roles in our complex society are increasingly experiencing psychological stress. Dietary supplementation to manage stress is widespread despite limited supporting evidence. A systematic review of the available literature was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of specific dietary supplements in managing female stress and anxiety. To identify the impact of essential fatty acids (EFAs), B vitamins, vitamin C, magnesium and/or zinc, consumed as dietary supplements to the daily diet, on female stress and anxiety levels. Women aged 18 years and over, who had participated in a study where stress and/or anxiety were assessed. Dietary supplementation with EFAs, B vitamins, vitamin C, magnesium and/or zinc. Supplements, either alone or combined, were compared with either no intervention or placebo. Randomized controlled and pseudo-randomized trials were included. Stress and anxiety were assessed using self-report or physiological outcome measures. Published and unpublished studies were sought via MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, MedNar, National Institute of Mental Health and the International Association for Women's Mental Health. Methodological quality was evaluated using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted using the standardized data extraction instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Due to heterogeneity of the included studies, narrative synthesis was performed. Fourteen studies were included in this review. Essential fatty acids were effective in reducing perceived stress and salivary cortisol levels during pregnancy and anxiety in premenstrual women, and anxiety during menopause in the absence of depression, but were ineffective when depression was disregarded. Disregarding the hormonal phase, EFAs were ineffective in reducing stress or anxiety in four groups of women. Combined magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation reduced premenstrual

  5. Phytase supplementation increases bone mineral density, lean body mass and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-zinc diet.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, Angus G; Marchitelli, Louis J; Whicker, Jered S; Song, Yang; Ho, Emily; Young, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Phytic acid forms insoluble complexes with nutritionally essential minerals, including zinc (Zn). Animal studies show that addition of microbial phytase (P) to low-Zn diets improves Zn status and bone strength. The present study determined the effects of phytase supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD), body composition and voluntary running activity of male rats fed a high phytic acid, low-Zn diet. In a factorial design, rats were assigned to ZnLO (5 mg/kg diet), ZnLO+P (ZnLO diet with 1500 U phytase/kg) or ZnAD (30 mg/kg diet) groups and were divided into voluntary exercise (EX) or sedentary (SED) groups, for 9 weeks. SED rats were significantly heavier from the second week, and no catch-up growth occurred in EX rats. Feed intakes were not different between groups throughout the study. ZnLO animals had decreased food efficiency ratios compared to both phytase-supplemented (ZnLO+P) and Zn-adequate (ZnAD) animals (P<.01 compared to ZnLO). The ZnLO+P and ZnAD rats ran 56-75 km more total distance than ZnLO rats (P<.05), with the ZnLO+P rats running more kilometers per week than the ZnLO rats by Week 6. In vivo DEXA analyses indicate that rats fed phytase-supplemented diets had higher lean body mass (LBM) than those fed ZnLO diets; and that rats fed the Zn-adequate diets had the highest LBM. Body fat (%) was significantly lower in EX rats and was both Zn- and phytase insensitive. Rats fed phytase-supplemented diets had higher bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA) and BMD than rats fed ZnLO diets; and in rats fed ZnAD diets these indices were the highest. The dietary effects on BMC, BA and BMD were independent of activity level. We conclude that consuming supplemental dietary phytase or dietary Zn additively enhances Zn status to increase BMD, LBM and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-Zn diet. While the findings confirm that bone health is vulnerable to disruption by moderate Zn deficiency in rats, this new data suggests that if dietary Zn is

  6. Impact of maternal heat stress in conjunction with dietary zinc supplementation on hatchability, embryonic development, and growth performance in offspring broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y W; Li, W X; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Ji, C; Lin, X; Liu, H C; Odle, J; Luo, X G

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal dietary supplementations with different zinc (Zn) sources could reduce the deleterious effect of maternal heat stress on hatchability performance and progeny growth performance. A completely randomized design (n = 6) with 2 maternal environmental temperatures [normal 21 ± 1°C (NT) vs. high 32 ± 1°C (HT)] × 3 maternal dietary supplemental Zn levels [Zn-unsupplemented control diet (CON), the control diet + 110 mg of Zn/kg of diet as either inorganic ZnSO4 (iZn) or organic Zn with a moderate chelation strength (oZn)] was used. HT decreased (P < 0.05) fertility, hatchability, chick hatch weight, and embryonic survival. HT also decreased (P ≤ 0.05) progeny BW, ADG, and ADFI at one to 21, 22 to 28, and 29 to 42 d of age as well as breast muscle ratio and plasma aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase activities at 42 d of age. Maternal dietary Zn supplementation with either iZn or oZn increased (P < 0.004) Zn contents in yolk and liver, non-weak chick ratio, as well as progeny BW, ADFI, and survivability at one to 21 d of age. Notably, the addition of oZn increased (P < 0.05) hatchability and progeny thigh meat quality by reducing b* value. The progeny ADG at one to 21 d and 22 to 28 d of age and BW at 28 d of age from maternal NT were not affected (P > 0.46) by maternal dietary Zn supplementation, but the above 3 indices from HT-iZn (P < 0.05) and HT-oZn (P < 0.003) were higher than those from HT-CON. Our results indicate that maternal heat stress impairs hatching performance, embryonic development, and progeny growth performance, inducing metabolic changes, while supplementation of Zn in maternal diets regardless of Zn sources improved hatch chick quality and survivability of offspring and alleviated the negative effect of maternal heat stress on growth performance of offspring during the starter period. In addition, maternal dietary supplementation with the organic Zn improved

  7. The Effect of Tear Supplementation with 0.15% Preservative-Free Zinc-Hyaluronate on Ocular Surface Sensations in Patients with Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Perényi, Kristóf; Dienes, Lóránt; Kornafeld, Anna; Kovács, Balázs; Kiss, Huba J; Szepessy, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Zoltán Z; Barsi, Árpád; Acosta, M Carmen; Gallar, Juana; Kovács, Illés

    To evaluate the effect of tear supplementation with preservative free 0.15% zinc-hyaluronate on ocular surface sensations and corneal sensitivity in dry eye patients. Ocular surface sensations were assessed using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire and by recording ocular sensations during forced blinking in parallel with noninvasive tear film breakup time measurement in 20 eyes of 20 dry eye patients. Corneal sensitivity thresholds to selective stimulation of corneal mechano-, thermal- and chemical receptors were measured using the Belmonte gas esthesiometer. All baseline measurements were repeated after 1 month of treatment with 0.15% zinc-hyaluronate. After 1 month, a significant decrease in mean OSDI score (from 35.66 ± 12.36 to 15.03 ± 11.22; P < 0.001) and a significant improvement in tear film breakup time (from 3.83 ± 0.80 to 8.67 ± 4.50 s; P < 0.001) was observed compared to baseline. Sensory responses during the interblink period also significantly decreased after 1 month (P < 0.004). Corneal sensitivity thresholds to mechanical stimulation (90.61 ± 20.35 vs. 103.92 ± 17.97 mL/min; P < 0.025) and chemical stimulation (33.21 ± 0.51 vs. 33.58% ± 0.44% CO 2 ; P < 0.025) significantly increased after 1 month, however sensitivity thresholds to thermal stimulation remained unchanged compared to baseline (P > 0.05). Prolonged use of 0.15% zinc-hyaluronate results in an improvement of tear film stability and a decrease of dry eye complaints. The decrease in corneal mechano-and polymodal receptor excitability suggests that zinc-hyaluronate helps to recover normal corneal sensitivity, and thus might have a beneficial additional effect on reducing ocular surface complaints in dry eye patients.

  8. Sulphate absorption across biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2016-01-01

    1. Sulphonation is unusual amongst the common Phase II (condensation; synthetic) reactions experienced by xenobiotics, in that the availability of the conjugating agent, sulphate, may become a rate-limiting factor. This sulphate is derived within the body via the oxygenation of sulphur moieties liberated from numerous ingested compounds including the sulphur-containing amino acids. Preformed inorganic sulphate also makes a considerable contribution to this pool. 2. There has been a divergence of opinion as to whether or not inorganic sulphate may be readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and this controversy still continues in some quarters. Even more so, is the vexing question of potential absorption of inorganic sulphate via the lungs and through the skin. 3. This review examines the relevant diverse literature and concludes that sulphate ions may move across biological membranes by means of specific transporters and, although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the major portal of entry, some absorption across the lungs and the skin may take place under appropriate circumstances.

  9. Effect of β-1, 3 glucan binding protein based zinc oxide nanoparticles supplemented diet on immune response and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Anjugam, Mahalingam; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Iswarya, Arokiadhas; Gobi, Narayanan; Divya, Mani; Thangaraj, Merlin P; Elumalai, Preetham

    2018-05-01

    Recently, several immunostimulants such as β-glucan, microbial and plant products have been used as dietary supplements to combat disease outbreaks in aquaculture. The present study investigates the potential of Portunus pelagicus β-1, 3 glucan binding protein based zinc oxide nanoparticles (Ppβ-GBP-ZnO NPs) supplemented diet on growth, immune response and disease resistance in Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. The immune-related protein β-GBP was purified from the haemolymph of P. pelagicus using Sephadex G-100 affinity column chromatography. Ppβ-GBP-ZnO NPs was physico- chemically characterized and experimental feed was formulated. Fish were separately fed with commercial diet (control-group I) and Ppβ-GBP (group II, III, IV), Ppβ-GBP-ZnO NPs (group V, VI, VII), chem-ZnO NPs (VIII, IX, X) mixed diet at the concentration of 0.001%, 0.002% and 0.004% respectively. Triplicate groups of O. mossambicus were fed with experimental diets twice a day for 30 days. Fish receiving Ppβ-GBP-ZnO NPs supplemented diet showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in growth performance. Cellular immune responses (myeloperoxidase activity, lysozyme activity and reactive oxygen species activity) and humoral immune responses (complement activity, antiprotease activity and alkaline phosphatase activity) were evaluated at an interval of 15 days during the feeding trial. Results demonstrate that both cellular and humoral immune responses were substantially increased (P < 0.05) in fish fed with 0.004% of Ppβ-GBP-ZnO NPs supplemented diet than others. Antibiofilm potential of Ppβ-GBP-ZnO NPs against Aeromonas hydrophila was visualized through confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which reveals reduction in the preformed biofilm thickness to 10 μm  at the concentration of 50 μg/ml. Furthermore, after 30 days of feeding trial, fish were challenged with aquatic fish pathogen A. hydrophila (1 × 10 7  cells ml -1 ) through intraperitoneal injection

  10. Effect of dietary fat sources and zinc and selenium supplements on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Barroeta, A C; Codony, R

    2005-07-01

    A factorial design was used to study the effect of changes in broiler feed on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat. One week before slaughter, 1.25% dietary fish oil was removed from the feed and replaced by other fat sources (animal fat or linseed oil) or we continued with fish oil, and diets were supplemented with Zn (0, 300, or 600 mg/kg), and Se (0 or 1.2 mg/kg as sodium selenite or 0.2 mg/kg as Se-enriched yeast). The changes in dietary fat led to distinct fatty acid compositions of mixed raw dark and white chicken meat with skin. The fish oil diet produced meat with the highest eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) content, whereas the linseed oil diet led to meat with the highest content in total n-3 polyunsaturated acids (PUFA), especially linolenic acid. However, meat from animals on the animal fat diet was still rich in very long-chain n-3 PUFA. Se content was affected by Se and Zn supplements. Se content increased with Zn supplementation. However, only Se from the organic source led to a significant increase in this mineral in meat compared with the control. Consumer acceptability scores and TBA values of cooked dark chicken meat after 74 d or after 18 mo of frozen storage were not affected by any of the dietary factors studied.

  11. Effect of medium variations (zinc supplementation during oocyte maturation, perifertilization pH, and embryo culture protein source) on equine embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Ho; Gibbons, John R; Canesin, Heloísa S; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2016-10-15

    Prospective studies were conducted to help define procedural factors affecting in vitro embryo production via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of equine oocytes. In experiment 1, use of 10% fetal bovine serum as a protein source in embryo culture medium resulted in a higher blastocyst rate than did use of a combination of 3% fetal bovine serum, 3% equine preovulatory follicular fluid, and 4% human serum substitute (37% vs. 15%, respectively, P < 0.05). In experiment 2, the effect of zinc supplementation (0, 0.5, 1, or 1.5 μg/mL) during IVM was examined. There were no significant differences in rates of cleavage or blastocyst development (20%-31%). However, the proportion of blastocysts that developed on Day 7 for the added-zinc treatments was significantly higher than that for the control treatment (45% vs. 8%). In experiment 3, we tested whether use of high-pH medium (pH 8.0-8.4) during ICSI procedures would improve blastocyst rate when sperm with low cleavage rates after ICSI was used. When high-pH conditions were used for sperm preparation and also for the first 2 hours of incubation of injected oocytes after ICSI, the cleavage rate was unaffected but no blastocysts developed (0% vs. 24% for control). When high-pH conditions were used for sperm preparation only, the blastocyst rate was 37%. This was repeated using sperm from a second stallion; there was no significant difference in cleavage or blastocyst rates between sperm preparation in high pH vs. control medium. These findings add to our knowledge of factors affecting in vitro production of equine embryos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of feeding different concentration and forms of zinc on the performance and tissue mineral status of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ao, T; Pierce, J L; Pescatore, A J; Cantor, A H; Dawson, K A; Ford, M J; Paul, M

    2011-08-01

    1. Two studies were conducted to investigate the effect of feeding different concentration and forms of zinc (Zn) on the performance and tibia Zn status of broiler chicks. 2. In Experiment 1, chicks fed on the control or the diet supplemented with 12?mg of Zn as sulphate had lower feed intake, weight gain and tibia Zn content than other treatment groups. Chicks given 12 and 24 mg of organic Zn in starter and grower phases, respectively, had the same performance and tibia Zn content as those fed 40 mg of Zn as sulphate and the same performance but higher tibia Zn content than those given 12 mg of Zn as organic over the 42 d. 3. In Experiment 2, chicks given 24 mg organic Zn had greater weight gain than chicks fed on the other treatment diets in the starter period. Chicks fed on the control diet had lower tibia Zn content than chicks fed other treatment diets. Chicks given 80 mg Zn as sulphate had higher tibia Zn content than chicks fed the other treatment diets except those given 40 mg of Zn as sulphate. 4. The results from these trials indicate that feeding lower concentration of Zn as organic form may better promote the growth performance of broiler chicks.

  13. [Heparan sulphates, amyloidosis and neurodegeneration].

    PubMed

    Vera, C; Alvarez-Orozco, J A; Maiza, A; Chantepie, S; Chehin, R N; Ouidja, M O; Papy-Garcia, D

    2017-11-16

    A number of neurodegenerative disorders have been linked directly to the accumulation of amyloid fibres. These fibres are made up of proteins or peptides with altered structures and which join together in vivo in association with heparan sulphate-type polysaccharides. To examine the most recent concepts in the biology of heparan sulphates and their role in the aggregation of the peptide Abeta, of tau protein, of alpha-synuclein and of prions. The study also seeks to analyse their implications in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease and prion diseases. In vitro, heparan sulphates have played an important role in the process of oligomerisation and fibrillation of amyloidogenic proteins or peptides, in the stabilisation of these bodies and their resistance to proteolysis, thereby participating in the formation of a wide range of amyloid fibres. Heparan sulphates have also been related to the internalisation of pro-amyloid fibres during the process of intercellular propagation (spreading), which is considered to be crucial in the development of proteinopathies, the best example of which is Alzheimer's disease. This study suggests that the fine structures of heparan sulphates, their localisation in cells and tissues, together with their local concentration, may regulate the amyloidosis processes. The advances made in the understanding of this area of glyconeurobiology will make it possible to improve the understanding of the cell and molecular mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative process.

  14. Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Pattanittum, Porjai; Kunyanone, Naowarat; Brown, Julie; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee S; Barnes, Joanne; Seyfoddin, Vahid; Marjoribanks, Jane

    2016-03-22

    conducted in Iran and the rest were performed in other middle-income countries. Only one study addressed secondary dysmenorrhoea. Interventions included 12 different herbal medicines (German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla, M recutita, Chamomilla recutita), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, C. verum), Damask rose (Rosa damascena), dill (Anethum graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), guava (Psidium guajava), rhubarb (Rheum emodi), uzara (Xysmalobium undulatum), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), and zataria (Zataria multiflora)) and five non-herbal supplements (fish oil, melatonin, vitamins B1 and E, and zinc sulphate) in a variety of formulations and doses. Comparators included other supplements, placebo, no treatment, and NSAIDs.We judged all the evidence to be of low or very low quality. The main limitations were imprecision due to very small sample sizes, failure to report study methods, and inconsistency. For most comparisons there was only one included study, and very few studies reported adverse effects. Effectiveness of supplements for primary dysmenorrhoea We have presented pain scores (all on a visual analogue scale (VAS) 0 to 10 point scale) or rates of pain relief, or both, at the first post-treatment follow-up. Supplements versus placebo or no treatmentThere was no evidence of effectiveness for vitamin E (MD 0.00 points, 95% CI -0.34 to 0.34; two RCTs, 135 women).There was no consistent evidence of effectiveness for dill (MD -1.15 points, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.08, one RCT, 46 women), guava (MD 0.59, 95% CI -0.13 to 1.31; one RCT, 151 women); one RCT, 73 women), or fennel (MD -0.34 points, 95% CI -0.74 to 0.06; one RCT, 43 women).There was very limited evidence of effectiveness for fenugreek (MD -1.71 points, 95% CI -2.35 to -1.07; one RCT, 101 women), fish oil (MD 1.11 points, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77; one RCT, 120 women), fish oil plus vitamin B1 (MD -1.21 points, 95% CI -1.79 to -0.63; one RCT, 120

  15. Effect of an injectable trace mineral supplement containing selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese on immunity, health, and growth of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A G V; Lima, F S; Bicalho, M L S; Kussler, A; Lima, S F; Felippe, M J; Bicalho, R C

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 subcutaneous injections of a multimineral preparation, each containing 60 mg of zinc, 10mg of manganese, 5mg of selenium, and 15 mg of copper at 3 and 30 d after birth on immunity, health, and growth of dairy calves during the preweaning period. The study was conducted in upstate New York in 2 commercial dairy farms. A total of 790 Holstein heifer calves were randomly allocated at birth into 1 of 2 treatments: trace mineral supplement (TMS) treated or control. Blood samples were collected at 3, 14, and 35 d after birth to evaluate glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, haptoglobin, and neutrophil and monocyte function. Incidence of diseases and average daily gain was evaluated in the first 50 d of life. At 14 d of life, TMS-treated calves had increased neutrophil activity compared with control calves. Moreover, TMS-treated calves had greater GPx activity on d 14 after birth than control calves. The TMS treatment reduced the incidence of diarrhea (TMS=41.7% vs. control=49.7%) and combined incidence of pneumonia or otitis or both (TMS=41.7% vs. control=49.1%). Additionally, GPx was greater for calves diagnosed with otitis at d 35 after birth. However, calves diagnosed with pneumonia had decreased GPx activity at d 35 after birth. Serum SOD and haptoglobin concentrations were not affected by treatment or disease. Moreover, no effects were observed on average daily gain and survivability between TMS-treated and control calves during the preweaning period. Supplementation with trace minerals at 3 and 30 d of life increased neutrophil function and GPx activity and reduced the incidence of health disorders. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced plant growth promoting role of phycomolecules coated zinc oxide nanoparticles with P supplementation in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, P; Priyanka, N; Manikandan, K; Ganeshbabu, I; Indiraarulselvi, P; Geetha, N; Muralikrishna, K; Bhattacharya, R C; Tiwari, M; Sharma, N; Sahi, S V

    2017-01-01

    This report focuses on application of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) carrying phycomolecule ligands as a novel plant growth promoter aimed at increasing the crop productivity. The present investigation examined the effect of ZnONPs on plant growth characteristics, and associated biochemical changes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) following growth in a range of concentrations (25-200 mg L -l ZnONPs) in combination with 100 mM P in a hydroponic system. Treated plants registered an increase in growth and total biomass by 130.6% and 131%, respectively, over control. Results demonstrated a significant increase in the level of chlorophyll a (141.6%), b (134.7%), carotenoids (138.6%), and total soluble protein contents (179.4%); at the same time, a significant reduction (68%) in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in leaves with respect to control. Interestingly, a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD, 264.2%), and peroxidase (POX, 182.8%) enzyme activities followed by a decrease in the catalase (CAT) activity, in response to above treatments. These results suggest that bioengineered ZnONPs interact with meristematic cells triggering biochemical pathways conducive to an accumulation of biomass. Further investigations will map out the mode of action involved in growth promotion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of an injectable trace mineral supplement containing selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese on the health and production of lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Bicalho, M L S; Pereira, R V; Caixeta, L S; Knauer, W A; Oikonomou, G; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a subcutaneous injection of a multimineral preparation containing 300 mg of zinc, 50mg of manganese, 25mg of selenium, and 75 mg of copper at 230 and 260 days of gestation and 35 days postpartum, on the health, milk production and reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows. A randomized field trial was conducted on three large commercial dairy farms located near Ithaca, New York, USA, with 1416 cows enrolled. All cows were housed and offered a total mixed ration consisting of approximately 55% forage and 45% concentrate on a dry matter basis of the diet, which supplied 2-6 times the NRC requirements for the supplemented elements. Dry cows and pregnant heifers were blocked by parity and randomly allocated to one of two treatments: Trace mineral supplemented (TMS) or control. For multiparous cows, subcutaneous TMS significantly decreased linear somatic cell count scores (normalized data) as compared to control cows. The incidence of subclinical mastitis for TMS and control cows was 10.4% and 8.0%, respectively (P=0.005). The main effect of treatment on clinical mastitis was not significant but the interaction of treatment and parity was significant. For primiparous cows, the incidence of clinical mastitis was 11.8% and 15.6% for control and TMS cows, respectively (P=0.33); for multiparous cows, the incidence of clinical mastitis for control and TMS cows was 25.4% and 19.7%, respectively (P=0.03). Additionally, control cows had increased odds of stillbirth and endometritis (odds ratios 1.69 and 1.30, respectively). The incidence of endometritis was 34.2% and 28.6% for control and TMS cows, respectively (P=0.039) but treatment had no effect on reproductive performance, milk production or other health traits. Further research is required to confirm these findings and to establish whether the response seen in this study was related to the supplementation of a particular mineral. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  18. Phenolic sodium sulphates of Frankenia laevis L.

    PubMed

    Hussein, S A M

    2004-04-01

    Four new phenolic anionic conjugates have been isolated from the whole plant aqueous alcohol extract of Frankenia laevis L. Their structures were established, mainly on the basis of ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic evidence, as gallic acid-3-methyl ether-5-sodium sulphate, acetophenone-4-methyl ether-2-sodium sulphate, ellagic acid-3,3'-dimethyl ether-4,4'-di-sodium sulphate and ellagic acid-3-methyl ether-4-sodium sulphate.

  19. Impact of ammonia and sulphate concentration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Siles, J A; Brekelmans, J; Martín, M A; Chica, A F; Martín, A

    2010-12-01

    The effect of increasing concentrations of ammonia and sulphate on thermophilic anaerobic digestion (52 degrees C) was studied at laboratory-scale. The substrate consisted of a synthetic solution supplemented with ammonia and sodium sulphate. In terms of biogas production, the results showed that the C/N and C/SO(4)(2-) thresholds were 4.40 and 1.60, respectively, corresponding to 620 mg FA (free ammonia)/L and 1400 mg SO(4)(2-)/L. No reduction in biogas production was observed until reaching the above concentration of sulphate in the sulphate toxicity test. However, when the concentration of ammonia was increased to 620 mg FA/L in the ammonia toxicity test, a gradual decrease of 21% was observed for the biogas. In order to characterise each set of experiments kinetically, a biogas production first-order kinetic model was used to fit the experimental data. The proposed model accurately predicted the behaviour of the microorganisms affecting the thermophilic anaerobic digestion, allowing its evolution to be predicted. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum thymulin in human zinc deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A S; Meftah, S; Abdallah, J; Kaplan, J; Brewer, G J; Bach, J F; Dardenne, M

    1988-01-01

    The activity of thymulin (a thymic hormone) is dependent on the presence of zinc in the molecule. We assayed serum thymulin activity in three models of mildly zinc-deficient (ZD) human subjects before and after zinc supplementation: (a) two human volunteers in whom a specific and mild zinc deficiency was induced by dietary means; (b) six mildly ZD adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) subjects; and (c) six mildly ZD adult non-SCA subjects. Their plasma zinc levels were normal and they showed no overt clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency. The diagnosis of mild zinc deficiency was based on the assay of zinc in lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets. Serum thymulin activity was decreased as a result of mild zinc deficiency and was corrected by in vivo and in vitro zinc supplementation, suggesting that this parameter was a sensitive indicator of zinc deficiency in humans. An increase in T101-, sIg-cells, decrease in T4+/T8+ ratio, and decreased IL 2 activity were observed in the experimental human model during the zinc depletion phase, all of which were corrected after repletion with zinc. Similar changes in lymphocyte subpopulation, correctable with zinc supplementation, were also observed in mildly ZD SCA subjects. Inasmuch as thymulin is known to induce intra- and extrathymic T cell differentiation, our studies provide a possible mechanism for the role of zinc on T cell functions. Images PMID:3262625

  1. Effect of Dietary Zinc Oxide on Morphological Characteristics, Mucin Composition and Gene Expression in the Colon of Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Pieper, Robert; Rieger, Juliane; Vahjen, Wilfried; Davin, Roger; Plendl, Johanna; Meyer, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The trace element zinc is often used in the diet of weaned piglets, as high doses have resulted in positive effects on intestinal health. However, the majority of previous studies evaluated zinc supplementations for a short period only and focused on the small intestine. The hypothesis of the present study was that low, medium and high levels of dietary zinc (57, 164 and 2,425 mg Zn/kg from zinc oxide) would affect colonic morphology and innate host defense mechanisms across 4 weeks post-weaning. Histological examinations were conducted regarding the colonic morphology and neutral, acidic, sialylated and sulphated mucins. The mRNA expression levels of mucin (MUC) 1, 2, 13, 20, toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, interleukin (IL)-1β, 8, 10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were also measured. The colonic crypt area increased in an age-depending manner, and the greatest area was found with medium concentration of dietary zinc. With the high concentration of dietary zinc, the number of goblet cells containing mixed neutral-acidic mucins and total mucins increased. Sialomucin containing goblet cells increased age-dependently. The expression of MUC2 increased with age and reached the highest level at 47 days of age. The expression levels of TLR2 and 4 decreased with age. The mRNA expression of TLR4 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 were down-regulated with high dietary zinc treatment, while piglets fed with medium dietary zinc had the highest expression. It is concluded that dietary zinc level had a clear impact on colonic morphology, mucin profiles and immunological traits in piglets after weaning. Those changes might support local defense mechanisms and affect colonic physiology and contribute to the reported reduction of post-weaning diarrhea. PMID:24609095

  2. Small-Quantity Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements, Regardless of Their Zinc Content, Increase Growth and Reduce the Prevalence of Stunting and Wasting in Young Burkinabe Children: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Sonja Y.; Abbeddou, Souheila; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Somé, Jérôme W.; Vosti, Stephen A.; Ouédraogo, Zinéwendé P.; Guissou, Rosemonde M.; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) are promising home fortification products, but the optimal zinc level needed to improve growth and reduce morbidity is uncertain. We aimed to assess the impact of providing SQ-LNS with varied amounts of zinc, along with illness treatment, on zinc-related outcomes compared with standard care. In a placebo-controlled, cluster-randomized trial, 34 communities were stratified to intervention (IC) or non-intervention cohorts (NIC). 2435 eligible IC children were randomly assigned to one of four groups:1) SQ-LNS without zinc, placebo tablet; 2) SQ-LNS containing 5mg zinc, placebo tablet; 3) SQ-LNS containing 10mg zinc, placebo tablet; or 4) SQ-LNS without zinc and 5mg zinc tablet from 9–18 months of age. During weekly morbidity surveillance, oral rehydration salts were provided for reported diarrhea and antimalarial therapy for confirmed malaria. Children in NIC (n = 785) did not receive SQ-LNS, tablets, illness surveillance or treatment. At 9 and 18 months, length, weight and hemoglobin were measured in all children. Reported adherence was 97±6% for SQ-LNS and tablets. Mean baseline hemoglobin was 89±15g/L. At 18 months, change in hemoglobin was greater in IC than NIC (+8 vs -1g/L, p<0.0001), but 79.1% of IC were still anemic (vs. 91.1% in NIC). Final plasma zinc concentration did not differ by group. During the 9-month observation period, the incidence of diarrhea was 1.10±1.03 and of malaria 0.54±0.50 episodes per 100 child-days, and did not differ by group. Length at 18 months was significantly greater in IC compared to NIC (77.7±3.0 vs. 76.9±3.4cm; p<0.001) and stunting prevalence was significantly lower in IC (29.3%) than NIC (39.3%; p<0.0001), but did not differ by intervention group within IC. Wasting prevalence was also significantly lower in IC (8.7%) than in NIC (13.5%; p = 0.0003). Providing SQ-LNS daily with or without zinc, along with malaria and diarrhea treatment, significantly increased

  3. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  4. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  5. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  6. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  7. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  8. Effects of Zinc Glycinate on Productive and Reproductive Performance, Zinc Concentration and Antioxidant Status in Broiler Breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yong-Xia; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Qian; Li, Kai-Xuan; Guo, Tian-Yu; Zhan, Xiu-An

    2017-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc glycinate (Zn-Gly) supplementation as an alternative for zinc sulphate (ZnSO 4 ) on productive and reproductive performance, zinc (Zn) concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders. Six hundred 39-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 groups consisting of 4 replicates with 25 birds each. Breeders were fed a basal diet (control group, 24 mg Zn/kg diet), basal diet supplemented with 80 mg Zn/kg diet from ZnSO 4 or basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg Zn/kg diet from Zn-Gly. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks after a 4-week pre-test with the basal diet, respectively. Results showed that Zn supplementation, regardless of sources, improved (P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio (kilogram of feed/kilogram of egg) and decreased broken egg rate, and elevated (P < 0.05) the qualified chick rate. Compared with the ZnSO 4 group, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly increased (P < 0.05) average egg weight, fertility, hatchability and qualified chick rate, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) broken egg rate. The Zn concentrations in liver and muscle were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group than that in ZnSO 4 group. Compared with ZnSO 4 group, 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly elevated (P < 0.05) the mRNA abundances of metallothionein (MT) and copper-zinc superoxide (Cu-Zn SOD), as well as the Cu-Zn SOD activity and MT concentration in liver. Moreover, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group had higher (P < 0.05) serum T-SOD and Cu-Zn SOD activities than that in the ZnSO 4 group. This study indicated that supplementation of Zn in basal diet improved productive and reproductive performance, Zn concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders, and the 80 mg Zn/kg from Zn-Gly was the optimum choice for broiler breeders compared with other levels of Zn from Zn-Gly and 80 mg/kg Zn from ZnSO 4 .

  9. Zinc Improves Cognitive and Neuronal Dysfunction During Aluminium-Induced Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

    2017-01-01

    Metals are considered as important components of a physiologically active cell, and imbalance in their levels can lead to various diseased conditions. Aluminium (Al) is an environmental neurotoxicant, which is etiologically related to several neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's, whereas zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element that regulates a large number of metabolic processes in the brain. The objective of the present study was to understand whether Zn provides any physiological protection during Al-induced neurodegeneration. Male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 140-160 g received either aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ) orally (100 mg/kg b.wt./day), zinc sulphate (ZnSO 4 ) in drinking water (227 mg/L) or combined treatment of aluminium and zinc for 8 weeks. Al treatment resulted in a significant decline in the cognitive behaviour of rats, whereas zinc supplementation caused an improvement in various neurobehavior parameters. Further, Al exposure decreased (p ≤ 0.001) the levels of neurotransmitters, acetylcholinesterase activity, but increased (p ≤ 0.001) the levels of L-citrulline as well as activities of nitric oxide and monoamine oxidase in the brain. However, zinc administration to Al-treated animals increased the levels of neurotransmitters and regulated the altered activities of brain markers. Western blot of tau, amyloid precursor protein (APP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin, α-synuclein and Hsp 70 were also found to be elevated after Al exposure, which however were reversed following Zn treatment. Al treatment also revealed alterations in neurohistoarchitecture in the form of loss of pyramidal and Purkinje cells, which were improved upon zinc co-administration. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that zinc improves cognitive functions by regulating α-synuclein and APP-mediated molecular pathways during aluminium-induced neurodegeneration.

  10. Sulphate production by Paracoccus pantotrophus ATCC 35512 from different sulphur substrates: sodium thiosulphate, sulphite and sulphide.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Daniel Derrossi; Andrino, Felipe Gabriel; Possedente de Lira, Simone; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Corção, Gertrudes; Brandelli, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    One of the problems in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) is the increase in emissions of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), which can cause damage to the health of human populations and ecosystems. To control emissions of this gas, sulphur-oxidizing bacteria can be used to convert H2S to sulphate. In this work, sulphate detection was performed by spectrophotometry, ion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry, using Paracoccus pantotrophus ATCC 35512 as a reference strain growing in an inorganic broth supplemented with sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3·5H2O), sodium sulphide (Na2S) or sodium sulphite (Na2SO3), separately. The strain was metabolically competent in sulphate production. However, it was only possible to observe significant differences in sulphate production compared to abiotic control when the inorganic medium was supplemented with sodium thiosulphate. The three methods for sulphate detection showed similar patterns, although the chromatographic method was the most sensitive for this study. This strain can be used as a reference for sulphate production in studies with sulphur-oxidizing bacteria originating from environmental samples of WWTPs.

  11. Protective effect of zinc supplementation against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance in the bone tissue of rats

    SciT

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M., E-mail: Malgorzata.Brzoska@umb.edu.pl; Rogalska, Joanna

    It was investigated whether protective influence of zinc (Zn) against cadmium (Cd)-induced disorders in bone metabolism may be related to its antioxidative properties and impact on the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κΒ (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system. Numerous indices of oxidative/antioxidative status, and Cd and Zn were determined in the distal femur of the rats administered Zn (30 and 60 mg/l) or/and Cd (5 and 50 mg/l) for 6 months. Soluble RANKL (sRANKL) and OPG were measured in the bone and serum. Zn supplementation importantly protected from Cd-induced oxidative stress preventing protein, DNA, and lipid oxidation in the bone.more » Moreover, Zn protected from the Cd-induced increase in sRANKL concentration and the sRANKL/OPG ratio, and decrease in OPG concentration in the bone and serum. Numerous correlations were noted between indices of the oxidative/antioxidative bone status, concentrations of sRANKL and OPG in the bone and serum, as well as the bone concentrations of Zn and Cd, and previously reported by us in these animals (Brzóska et al., 2007) indices of bone turnover and bone mineral density. The results allow us to conclude that the ability of Zn to prevent from oxidative stress and the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance may be implicated in the mechanisms of its protective impact against Cd-induced bone damage. This paper is the first report from an in vivo study providing evidence that beneficial Zn impact on the skeleton under exposure to Cd is related to the improvement of the bone tissue oxidative/antioxidative status and mediating the RANK/RANKL/OPG system. - Highlights: • Cd induces oxidative stress in the bone tissue. • Cd disturbs bone metabolism via disorder of the RANK/RANKL/OPG system balance. • Zn supplementation protects from Cd-induced oxidative stress in the bone tissue. • Zn protects from the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance caused by Cd in the bone tissue. • Enhanced Zn intake protects

  12. Zinc-carnosine and vitamin E supplementation does not ameliorate gastrointestinal side effects associated with ciclosporin therapy of canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura S; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S; Roycroft, Linda M

    2011-02-01

    Chelated zinc-carnosine and vitamin E [GastriCalm(®) (GCM); Teva Animal Health] is marketed as an anti-emetic supplement for dogs to assist the repair of damaged stomach and intestinal mucosa. The purpose of this prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to determine whether GCM reduced the frequency of vomiting, diarrhoea and appetite changes during initiation of ciclosporin (Atopica(®); Novartis Animal Health) therapy for the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis. Sixty privately owned dogs diagnosed with atopic dermatitis were randomly assigned to GCM (n=30) or placebo (n=30) groups. All dogs received ∼ 5 mg/kg ciclosporin (range, 3.5-5.8 mg/kg) once daily. Dogs <13.6 kg received half a tablet of GCM or placebo; dogs ≥ 13.6 kg received one tablet once daily. GastriCalm(®) or placebo was administered 30 min prior to eating, and the ciclosporin was administered 2 h after feeding. Owners recorded episodes of vomiting, diarrhoea and appetite changes. Dogs were examined on days 0 and 14. Forty-one of 60 dogs (68.3%) had at least one episode of vomiting, diarrhoea or appetite change, leaving nine placebo dogs (30%) and ten GCM dogs (33.3%) free of adverse events (AE). Twenty-seven of 60 dogs (45%) vomited, and 15 of 60 (25%) had diarrhoea. There was no significant difference in episodes of individual AEs, but the placebo group had a significantly lower total AE score (summation of episodes of appetite change, vomiting and diarrhoea; P=0.022). Small dogs (<6.82 kg) had significantly fewer total AEs in both treatment groups and tolerated ciclosporin better than larger dogs (P<0.05). © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  14. Quantitative studies of sulphate conjugation by isolated rat liver cells using [35S]sulphate.

    PubMed

    Dawson, J; Knowles, R G; Pogson, C I

    1991-06-21

    We have developed a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the study of sulphate conjugation in isolated liver cells based on the incorporation of 35S from [35S]sulphate. Excess [35S]sulphate is removed by a barium precipitation procedure, leaving [35S]sulphate conjugates in solution. We have used this method to examine the kinetics of sulphation of N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (acetaminophen), 4-nitrophenol and 1-naphthol in isolated rat liver cells. The efficiency of recovery of the sulphate conjugates was greater than 86%. The method is applicable to the quantitative study of sulphate conjugation of any substrate which forms a sulphate conjugate that is soluble in the presence of barium, without the need for standards or radiolabelled sulphate acceptors.

  15. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc...

  17. A mild hand cleanser, alkyl ether sulphate supplemented with alkyl ether carboxylic acid and alkyl glucoside, improves eczema on the hand and prevents the growth of Staphylococcus aureus on the skin surface.

    PubMed

    Fukui, S; Morikawa, T; Hirahara, M; Terada, Y; Shimizu, M; Takeuchi, K; Takagi, Y

    2016-12-01

    Washing the hands using cleansers with antiseptic materials is the most popular method for hand hygiene and helps maintain health by preventing food poisoning and bacterial infections. However, repeated hand washing tends to induce eczema of the hand, such as dryness, cracking and erythema. Moreover, eczema on the hand leads to increased levels in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) on the skin surface in contrast to expectations. Thus, mild hand cleansers which induce less eczema even with repeated washings are desired. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a hand cleanser formulated with alkyl ether sulphate (AES), alkyl ether carboxylic acid (AEC) and alkyl glucoside (AG) that contains isopropyl methylphenol (IPMP) on skin symptoms and S. aureus levels. Eczema of the hand and the presence of S. aureus on the skin surface were analysed prior to and following 4 weeks of usage of the hand cleanser. A soap-based hand cleanser with IPMP was used as a reference cleanser. Eczema and cutaneous conditions were evaluated by visual grading, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum moisture-retention ability (MRA) and skin surface pH. The repeated use of the soap-based hand cleanser significantly worsened the hand dryness, scaling and cracks on the tips of the fingers and significantly increased the TEWL and decreased the MRA. In contrast, usage of the test cleanser only induced a significant increase in skin dryness but did not induce skin scaling or cracking and did not increase TEWL or decrease the MRA. Corresponding to these changes in skin symptoms, the presence of S. aureus increased the following use of the reference cleanser but not the test cleanser. There was no significant difference in skin surface pH between the two cleansers. Moreover, the increase in S. aureus was significantly correlated to the worsening of skin dryness and scaling. These results suggest that not only antimicrobial activity but also the mildness, which minimizes cutaneous effects

  18. History of Zinc in Agriculture12

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Forrest H.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

  19. Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Inga; Maywald, Martina; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14), zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10), and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function. PMID:29186856

  20. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Adilson; Pegas Pereira, Elisangela Samartin; Assumpção, Elvira Cancio; Calixto dos Santos, Felipe Borba; Ota, Fernanda Sayuri; de Oliveira Pereira, Margareth; Fidelis, Maria Carolina; Fávaro, Raquel; Barros Langen, Stephanie Selma; Favaro de Arruda, Lúcia Helena; Abildgaard, Eva Nydal

    2015-01-01

    Background Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet) marine protein (105 mg), vitamin C (27 mg), grape seed extract (13.75 mg), zinc (2 mg), and tomato extract (14.38 mg) in the improvement of skin aging in men. Methods This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images. Results Forty-one subjects (87%) completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05). The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05), dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001), and reduction of skin pH (P<0.05). No statistical improvement in relation to sebum was found. The photographic assessment showed an improvement in the overall appearance. The results of the objective measurements were found to be correlated with the subjects’ satisfaction by an increase of collagen and elastic fibers. Conclusion The use of an oral supplement based on a unique biomarine complex, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract produced improvements in the signs of skin aging in men. PMID:26170708

  1. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating effects, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes have consistently shown a limited benefit. We hypothesize, therefore, that zinc homeostatic adjustments during pregnancy and lactation improve zinc utilization sufficiently to provide the increased zinc needs in these stages and, therefore, mitigate immediate detrimental effects due to a low zinc intake. The specific questions addressed are the following: How is zinc utilization altered during pregnancy and lactation? Are those homeostatic adjustments influenced by maternal zinc status, dietary zinc, or zinc supplementation? These questions are addressed by critically reviewing results from published human studies on zinc homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation carried out in different populations worldwide. PMID:22852063

  2. The effect of zinc supplementation of lactating rats on short-term and long-term memory of their male offspring.

    PubMed

    Karami, Mohammad; Ehsanivostacolaee, Simin; Moazedi, Ali Ahmad; Nosrati, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats' offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term) of their offspring (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in reference (long-term) memory of all groups. Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment.

  3. Modulation of ruminal and intestinal fermentation by medicinal plants and zinc from different sources.

    PubMed

    Váradyová, Zora; Mravčáková, Dominika; Holodová, Monika; Grešáková, Ľubomira; Pisarčíková, Jana; Barszcz, Marcin; Taciak, Marcin; Tuśnio, Anna; Kišidayová, Svetlana; Čobanová, Klaudia

    2018-06-14

    Two experiments were conducted on sheep to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with zinc and a medicinal plant mixture on haematological parameters and microbial activity in the rumen and large intestine. In Experiment 1, 24 male lambs were randomly divided into four groups: One group was fed an unsupplemented basal diet (control), and three groups were fed a diet supplemented with 70 mg Zn/kg diet in the form of Zn sulphate (ZnSO 4 ), a Zn-chelate of glycine hydrate (Zn-Gly) or a Zn-proteinate (Zn-Pro), for five months. The ruminal content was collected separately from each lamb, and batch cultures of ruminal fluid were incubated in vitro with mixture of medicinal plants (Mix) with different roughage:concentrate ratios (800:200 and 400:600, w/w). Bioactive compounds in Mix were quantified by UPLC/MS/MS. In Experiment 2, four sheep were fed a diet consisting of meadow hay and barley grain (400:600, w/w), with Zn-Gly (70 mg Zn/kg diet), Mix (10% replacement of meadow hay) or Zn-Gly and Mix (Zn-Gly-Mix) as supplements in a Latin square design. Mix decreased total gas (p < 0.001) and methane (p < 0.01) production in vitro. In Experiment 1, caecal isobutyrate and isovalerate concentrations varied among the dietary treatments (p < 0.01). The isovalerate concentration of the zinc-supplemented groups in the distal colon was higher (p < 0.001) compared with the control. In Experiment 2, the molar proportion of isobutyrate was the highest in the faeces of the sheep fed the diet with Zn-Gly-Mix (p < 0.01). The plasma zinc concentration was higher in the groups fed a diet supplemented with zinc (p < 0.001). The haematological profile and antioxidant status did not differ between the dietary groups (p > 0.05). The diets containing medicinal plants and organic zinc thus helped to modulate the characteristics of fermentation in ruminants. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Sulphates Removal from Acid Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luptáková, Alena; Mačingová, Eva; Kotuličová, Ingrida; Rudzanová, Dominika

    2016-10-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) are a worldwide problem leading to ecological destruction in river basins and the contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. In order to minimize negative impacts of AMD appropriate treatment techniques has to be chosen. Treatment processes are focused on neutralizing, stabilizing and removing pollutants. From this reason efficient and environmental friendly methods are needed to be developed in order to reduce heavy metals as well as sulphates. Various methods are used for remediation of acid mine drainage, but any of them have been applied under commercial-scale conditions. Their application depends on geochemical, technical, natural, financial, and other factors. The aim of the present work was to interpret the study of biological methods for sulphates removal from AMD out-flowing from the shaft Pech of the deposit Smolmk in Slovak Republic. In the experimental works AMD were used after removal of heavy metals by precipitation and sorption using the synthetic sorbent Slovakite. The base of the studied method for the sulphates elimination was the anaerobic bacterial sulphate reduction using sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera Desulfovibrio. SRB represent a group of bacteria that uses sulphates as a terminal electron acceptor for their metabolism. These bacteria realize the conversion of sulphate to hydrogen sulphide under anaerobic conditions. For the purposes of experiments a few variants of the selective medium DSM-63 culture media were used in term of the sulphates and sodium lactate contents in the selective medium as well as sulphates in the studied AMD.

  5. The effects of a lipid‐based nutrient supplement and antiretroviral therapy in a randomized controlled trial on iron, copper, and zinc in milk from HIV‐infected Malawian mothers and associations with maternal and infant biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Shahab‐Ferdows, Setareh; Gertz, Erik; Flax, Valerie L.; Adair, Linda S.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S.; Kamwendo, Debbie; van der Horst, Charles M.; Allen, Lindsay H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and lipid‐based nutrient supplements (LNSs) on iron, copper, and zinc in milk of exclusively breastfeeding HIV‐infected Malawian mothers and their correlations with maternal and infant biomarkers. Human milk and blood at 2, 6, and 24 weeks post‐partum and blood during pregnancy (≤30 weeks gestation) were collected from 535 mothers/infant‐pairs in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study. The participants received ARV, LNS, ARV and LNS, or no intervention from 0 to 28 weeks post‐partum. ARVs negatively affected copper and zinc milk concentrations, but only at 2 weeks, whereas LNS had no effect. Among all treatment groups, approximately 80–90% of copper and zinc and <50% of iron concentrations met the current adequate intake for infants at 2 weeks and only 1–19% at 24 weeks. Pregnancy haemoglobin was negatively correlated with milk iron at 2 and 6 weeks (r = −.18, p < .02 for both). The associations of the milk minerals with each other were the strongest correlations observed (r = .11–.47, p < .05 for all); none were found with infant biomarkers. At 2 weeks, moderately anaemic women produced milk higher in iron when ferritin was higher or TfR lower. At 6 weeks, higher maternal α‐1‐acid glycoprotein and C‐reactive protein were associated with higher milk minerals in mildly anaemic women. Infant TfR was lower when milk mineral concentrations were higher at 6 weeks and when mothers were moderately anaemic during pregnancy. ARV affects copper and zinc milk concentrations in early lactation, and maternal haemoglobin during pregnancy and lactation could influence the association between milk minerals and maternal and infant iron status and biomarkers of inflammation. PMID:28851037

  6. The extraction of plasma 3-hydroxy-17-oxo steroid sulphates and the measurement of the constituent dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and androsterone sulphate

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Jean; Rippon, A. E.

    1965-01-01

    1. A simple method for the extraction of 17-oxo steroid sulphates of plasma is described; glucosiduronates and orthophosphates are extracted, but to a smaller extent. 2. Four methods of analyses of the extracts are given and are relatively simple. Three of these are specific for steroid sulphates and two measure the sulphate conjugates directly. 3. Values for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and androsterone sulphate concentrations of normal and pathological plasmas are given. PMID:14333546

  7. Zinc pharmacokinetic parameters in the determination of body zinc status in children.

    PubMed

    Vale, S H L; Leite, L D; Alves, C X; Dantas, M M G; Costa, J B S; Marchini, J S; França, M C; Brandão-Neto, J

    2014-02-01

    Serum or tissue zinc concentrations are often used to assess body zinc status. However, all of these methods are relatively inaccurate. Thus, we investigated three different kinetic methods for the determination of zinc clearance to establish which of these could detect small changes in the body zinc status of children. Forty apparently healthy children were studied. Renal handling of zinc was investigated during intravenous zinc administration (0.06537 mg Zn/kg of body weight), both before and after oral zinc supplementation (5 mg Zn/day for 3 months). Three kinetic methods were used to determine zinc clearance: CZn-Formula A and CZn-Formula B were both used to calculate systemic clearance; the first is a general formula and the second is used for the specific analysis of a single-compartment model; CZn-Formula C is widely used in medical practices to analyze kinetic routine. Basal serum zinc values, which were within the reference range for healthy children, increased significantly after oral zinc supplementation. The three formulas used gave different results for zinc clearance both before and after oral zinc supplementation. CZn-Formula B showed a positive correlation with basal serum zinc concentration after oral supplementation (R2=0.1172, P=0.0306). In addition, CZn-Formula B (P=0.0002) was more effective than CZn-Formula A (P=0.6028) and CZn-Formula C (P=0.0732) in detecting small variations in body zinc status. All three of the formulas used are suitable for studying zinc kinetics; however, CZn-Formula B is particularly effective at detecting small changes in body zinc status in healthy children.

  8. Vibrational spectroscopic study of sulphated silk proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, P.; Freddi, G.; Arosio, C.; Tsukada, M.; Arai, T.; Taddei, P.

    2007-05-01

    Degummed Bombyx mori ( B. m.) silk fibroin fabric and mutant naked pupa cocoons (Nd-s) consisting of almost pure silk sericin were treated with chlorosulphonic acid in pyridine and investigated by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopies. Untreated silk fibroin and sericin displayed typical spectral features due to characteristic amino acid composition and molecular conformation (prevailing β-sheet with a less ordered structure in sericin). Upon sulphation, the degree of molecular disorder increased in both proteins and new bands appeared. The IR bands at 1049 and 1014 cm -1 were attributed to vibrations of sulphate salts and that at 1385 cm -1 to the νasSO 2 mode of organic covalent sulphates. In the 1300-1180 cm -1 range various contributions of alkyl and aryl sulphate salts, sulphonamides, sulphoamines and organic covalent sulphates, fell. Fibroin covalently bound sulphate groups through the hydroxyl groups of tyrosine and serine, while sericin through the hydroxyl groups of serine, since the δOH vibrations at 1399 cm -1 in IR and at 1408 cm -1 in Raman disappeared almost completely. Finally, the increase of the I850/ I830 intensity ratio of Raman tyrosine doublet in fibroin suggested a change towards a more exposed state of tyrosine residues, in good agreement with the more disordered conformation taken upon sulphation.

  9. The use of Self-Reported Food Intakes to Formulate Hypotheses for Expected and Unexpected Findings in Copper, Zinc, and Magnesium Supplementation Studies

    Objective: Determine whether food diary data provide possible explanations for results from supplementation studies that show limited relationships to blood and/or bone indicators of status. Materials and Methods: One two-year study assessed the daily supplementation with 600 mg calcium or 600 mg ca...

  10. Zinc Supplementation, via GPR39, Upregulates PKCζ to Protect Intestinal Barrier Integrity in Caco-2 Cells Challenged by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu-Xin; Lei, Zhao; Wolf, Patricia G; Gao, Yan; Guo, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Bing-Kun

    2017-07-01

    Background: Zinc has been shown to improve intestinal barrier function against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ( S. typhimurium ) infection, but the mechanisms involved in this process remain undefined. Objective: We aimed to explore the roles of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)39 and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) in the regulation by zinc of intestinal barrier function. Methods: A Transwell Caco-2 monolayer was pretreated with 0, 50, or 100 μM Zn and then incubated with S. typhimurium for 0-6 h. Afterward, cells silenced by the small interfering RNA for GPR39 or PKCζ were pretreated with 100 μM Zn and incubated with S. typhimurium for 3 h. Finally, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), permeability, tight junction (TJ) proteins, and signaling molecules GPR39 and PKCζ were measured. Results: Compared with controls, S. typhimurium decreased TEER by 62.3-96.2% at 4-6 h ( P < 0.001), increased ( P < 0.001) permeability at 6 h, and downregulated ( P < 0.05) TJ protein zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and occludin by 104-123%, as well as Toll-like receptor 2 and PKCζ by 35.1% and 75.2%, respectively. Compared with S. typhimurium- challenged cells, 50 and 100 μM Zn improved TEER by 26.3-60.9% at 4-6 h ( P < 0.001) and decreased ( P < 0.001) permeability and bacterial invasion at 6 h. A total of 100 μM Zn increased ZO-1, occludin, GPR39, and PKCζ 0.72- to 1.34-fold ( P < 0.05); however, 50 μM Zn did not affect ZO-1 or occludin ( P > 0.1). Silencing GPR39 decreased ( P < 0.05) zinc-activated PKCζ and blocked ( P < 0.05) the promotion of zinc on epithelial integrity. Furthermore, silencing PKCζ counteracted the protective effect of zinc on epithelial integrity but did not inhibit GPR39 ( P = 0.138). Conclusion: We demonstrated that zinc upregulates PKCζ by activating GPR39 to enhance the abundance of ZO-1, thereby improving epithelial integrity in S. typhimurium- infected Caco-2 cells. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND)—Zinc Review12345

    PubMed Central

    King, Janet C; Brown, Kenneth H; Gibson, Rosalind S; Krebs, Nancy F; Lowe, Nicola M; Siekmann, Jonathan H; Raiten, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is required for multiple metabolic processes as a structural, regulatory, or catalytic ion. Cellular, tissue, and whole-body zinc homeostasis is tightly controlled to sustain metabolic functions over a wide range of zinc intakes, making it difficult to assess zinc insufficiency or excess. The BOND (Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development) Zinc Expert Panel recommends 3 measurements for estimating zinc status: dietary zinc intake, plasma zinc concentration (PZC), and height-for-age of growing infants and children. The amount of dietary zinc potentially available for absorption, which requires an estimate of dietary zinc and phytate, can be used to identify individuals and populations at risk of zinc deficiency. PZCs respond to severe dietary zinc restriction and to zinc supplementation; they also change with shifts in whole-body zinc balance and clinical signs of zinc deficiency. PZC cutoffs are available to identify individuals and populations at risk of zinc deficiency. However, there are limitations in using the PZC to assess zinc status. PZCs respond less to additional zinc provided in food than to a supplement administered between meals, there is considerable interindividual variability in PZCs with changes in dietary zinc, and PZCs are influenced by recent meal consumption, the time of day, inflammation, and certain drugs and hormones. Insufficient data are available on hair, urinary, nail, and blood cell zinc responses to changes in dietary zinc to recommend these biomarkers for assessing zinc status. Of the potential functional indicators of zinc, growth is the only one that is recommended. Because pharmacologic zinc doses are unlikely to enhance growth, a growth response to supplemental zinc is interpreted as indicating pre-existing zinc deficiency. Other functional indicators reviewed but not recommended for assessing zinc nutrition in clinical or field settings because of insufficient information are the activity or amounts of zinc-dependent enzymes

  12. Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ananda S

    2008-01-01

    pathway, decreases NF-kappaB activation, leading to decreased gene expression and generation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1beta, and IL-8. We have reported recently that in both young adults and elderly subjects, zinc supplementation decreased oxidative stress markers and generation of inflammatory cytokines.

  13. The impact of prenatal vitamin A and zinc supplementation on growth of children up to 2 years of age in rural Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Prawirohartono, Endy P; Nyström, Lennarth; Ivarsson, Anneli; Stenlund, Hans; Lind, Torbjörn

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether prenatal vitamin A and/or Zn supplementation affects postnatal growth. Follow-up of a randomized controlled trial monitoring growth in children from birth up to 24 months of age. Central Java, Indonesia. Children (n 343) of mothers participating in a double-blinded, randomized controlled study of vitamin A and/or Zn supplementation during pregnancy. We report the effects of prenatal supplementation on infant growth, measured as weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ), height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) and weight-for-height Z-scores (WHZ ), from 0 to 24 months, as well as differences in growth faltering among the supplementation groups. For HAZ, the absolute differences between the vitamin A-only and vitamin A + Zn groups at 3 and 9 months were 0·34 SD and 0·37 SD, respectively, and the absolute difference between the vitamin A-only and Zn-only groups at 18 months was 0·31 SD. Compared with placebo, none of the supplements affected growth. Defining growth faltering as a downward crossing of two or more major percentile lines, 50-75% of the children were found to be growth faltering within 9 months of age, whereas 17% and 8% scored <-2 SD for WAZ and HAZ, respectively. Prenatal supplementation did not reduce the prevalence of growth faltering. Prenatal vitamin A supplementation had a small but significant effect on postnatal growth of children's length until 18 months of age compared with supplementation with either vitamin A + Zn or Zn alone, but not compared with placebo. It had no effects on other anthropometric measures and did not reduce the prevalence of growth faltering. Future studies should duplicate these findings before recommendations can be made.

  14. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product....

  17. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product....

  20. Effects of vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc gluconate, and selenomethionine supplementation on muscle function and oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Passerieux, Emilie; Hayot, Maurice; Jaussent, Audrey; Carnac, Gilles; Gouzi, Fares; Pillard, Fabien; Picot, Marie-Christine; Böcker, Koen; Hugon, Gerald; Pincemail, Joel; Defraigne, Jean O; Verrips, Theo; Mercier, Jacques; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila

    2015-04-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy of specific skeletal muscles. As growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress may contribute to FSHD pathology, antioxidants that might modulate or delay oxidative insults could help in maintaining FSHD muscle function. Our primary objective was to test whether oral administration of vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc gluconate, and selenomethionine could improve the physical performance of patients with FSHD. Adult patients with FSHD (n=53) were enrolled at Montpellier University Hospital (France) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg vitamin C, 400mg vitamin E, 25mg zinc gluconate and 200 μg selenomethionine (n=26), or matching placebo (n=27) once a day for 17 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in the two-minute walking test (2-MWT), maximal voluntary contraction, and endurance limit time of the dominant and nondominant quadriceps (MVCQD, MVCQND, TlimQD, and TlimQND, respectively) after 17 weeks of treatment. Secondary outcomes were changes in the antioxidant status and oxidative stress markers. Although 2-MWT, MVCQ, and TlimQ were all significantly improved in the supplemented group at the end of the treatment compared to baseline, only MVCQ and TlimQ variations were significantly different between groups (MVCQD: P=0.011; MVCQND: P=0.004; TlimQD: P=0.028; TlimQND: P=0.011). Similarly, the vitamin C (P<0.001), vitamin E as α-tocopherol (P<0.001), vitamin C/vitamin E ratio (P=0.017), vitamin E γ/α ratio (P=0.022) and lipid peroxides (P<0.001) variations were significantly different between groups. In conclusion, vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc, and selenium supplementation has no significant effect on the 2-MWT, but improves MVCQ and TlimQ of both quadriceps by enhancing the antioxidant defenses and reducing oxidative stress. This trial was registered at

  1. Binding of endostatin to endothelial heparan sulphate shows a differential requirement for specific sulphates.

    PubMed

    Blackhall, Fiona H; Merry, Catherine L R; Lyon, Malcolm; Jayson, Gordon C; Folkman, Judah; Javaherian, Kashi; Gallagher, John T

    2003-10-01

    Endostatin is a naturally occurring proteolytic fragment of the C-terminal domain of collagen XVIII. It inhibits angiogenesis by a mechanism that appears to involve binding to HS (heparan sulphate). We have examined the molecular interaction between endostatin and HS from micro- and macrovessel endothelial cells. Two discrete panels of oligosaccharides were prepared from metabolically radiolabelled HS, using digestion with either heparinase I or III, and then examined for their endostatin affinity using a sensitive filter-binding assay. Two types of endostatin-binding regions were identified: one comprising sulphated domains of five or more disaccharides in length, enriched in 6-O-sulphate groups, and the other contained long heparinase I-resistant fragments. In the latter case, evidence from the present study suggests that the binding region encompasses a sulphated domain fragment and a transition zone of intermediate sulphation. The contribution to binding of specific O-sulphate groups was determined using selectively desulphated HS species, namely HS from Hs2st-/- mutant cells, and by comparing the compositions of endostatin-binding and non-binding oligosaccharides. The results indicate that 6-O-sulphates play a dominant role in site selectivity and 2-O-sulphates are not strictly essential.

  2. Binding of endostatin to endothelial heparan sulphate shows a differential requirement for specific sulphates.

    PubMed Central

    Blackhall, Fiona H; Merry, Catherine L R; Lyon, Malcolm; Jayson, Gordon C; Folkman, Judah; Javaherian, Kashi; Gallagher, John T

    2003-01-01

    Endostatin is a naturally occurring proteolytic fragment of the C-terminal domain of collagen XVIII. It inhibits angiogenesis by a mechanism that appears to involve binding to HS (heparan sulphate). We have examined the molecular interaction between endostatin and HS from micro- and macrovessel endothelial cells. Two discrete panels of oligosaccharides were prepared from metabolically radiolabelled HS, using digestion with either heparinase I or III, and then examined for their endostatin affinity using a sensitive filter-binding assay. Two types of endostatin-binding regions were identified: one comprising sulphated domains of five or more disaccharides in length, enriched in 6-O-sulphate groups, and the other contained long heparinase I-resistant fragments. In the latter case, evidence from the present study suggests that the binding region encompasses a sulphated domain fragment and a transition zone of intermediate sulphation. The contribution to binding of specific O-sulphate groups was determined using selectively desulphated HS species, namely HS from Hs2st-/- mutant cells, and by comparing the compositions of endostatin-binding and non-binding oligosaccharides. The results indicate that 6-O-sulphates play a dominant role in site selectivity and 2-O-sulphates are not strictly essential. PMID:12812520

  3. Zinc and Wound Healing: A Review of Zinc Physiology and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Samuel; Sood, Aditya; Garnick, Mark S

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of the role of zinc in normal human physiology is constantly expanding, yet there are major gaps in our knowledge with regard to the function of zinc in wound healing. This review aims to provide the clinician with sufficient understanding of zinc biology and an up-to-date perspective on the role of zinc in wound healing. Zinc is an essential ion that is crucial for maintenance of normal physiology, and zinc deficiency has many manifestations ranging from delayed wound healing to immune dysfunction and impairment of multiple sensory systems. While consensus has been reached regarding the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency on wound healing, there is considerable discord in the literature on the optimal methods and true benefits of zinc supplementation.

  4. FGF23 is correlated with iron status but not with inflammation and decreases after iron supplementation: a supplementation study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have described relationships between iron status and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) but the possible confounding effects of inflammation on iron status have not been considered. The aims of this study were a) to consider a relationship between FGF23 and inflammation b) to identify relationships between iron status and FGF23 whilst correcting for inflammation and c) to assess the relationship between changes in FGF23 and iron status after supplementation. Study design and methodology Blood samples from an iron supplementation study in children (n=79) were collected at baseline and after 3 months supplementation with iron sulphate. The children were from a rural Gambian population where rates of iron deficiency and infection/inflammation are high. This study identified cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between FGF23, inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP)) and iron status (ferritin, haemoglobin, and zinc protoporphyrin). CRP ≥ 5 mg/dL was used to indicate inflammation and FGF23 ≥ 125 RU/mL was considered elevated. Results FGF23 was not significantly correlated with CRP. At baseline, all markers of iron status were significantly correlated with FGF23. Ferritin was the strongest independent inverse predictor of FGF23 in subjects with and without elevated CRP (coefficient (SE)): All subjects=−0.57 (0.12), R2=22.3%, P≤0.0001; subjects with CRP < 5 mg/dL=−0.89 (0.14), R2=38.9%, P≤0.0001. FGF23 was elevated in 28% of children at baseline and 16% post supplementation (P=0.1). Improved iron status was associated with a decrease in FGF23 concentration in univariate (ferritin =−0.41 (0.11), R2=14.1%, P=0.0004; haemoglobin=−2.22 (0.64), R2=12.5%, P=0.0008; zinc protoporphyrin=1.12 (0.26), R2=18.6%, P≤0.0001) and multivariate analysis (R2=33.1%; ferritin=−0.36 (0.10), P=0.0007, haemoglobin = −1.83 (0.61), P=0.004, zinc protoporphyrin=0.62 (0.26), P=0.02). Conclusions Iron status rather than inflammation is a

  5. Zinc and Diarrheal Disease - Control Status and Future Perspectives

    Diarrhea is a public health problem world-wide. Although elimination of exposure to infectious pathogens is the primary means to combat this debilitating malady, use of oral zinc supplementation has been used to prevent and treat acute diarrhea in children. Evidence suggests that supplemental zinc...

  6. Influence of sulphate on the composition and antibacterial and antiviral properties of the exopolysaccharide from Porphyridium cruentum.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Maria Filomena de Jesus; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2014-04-17

    The influence of two culture media and three different concentrations of sulphate in the medium on the growth of two strains of Porphyridium cruentum and on the production, composition and viscoelastic characteristics, and antimicrobial properties of the sulphated exopolysaccharide (EPS) were studied. A Bohlin C50 rheometer was used to evaluate the viscosity and elasticity of the EPS solutions. HSV virus, types 1 and 2, Vaccinia virus and Vesicular stomatitis virus were used along with two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and one Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria, for testing the antimicrobial activity of EPS. The growth of microalgae was higher in NTIP medium and the production of EPS was enhanced by sulphate 21mM. The protein content of the EPS was enhanced by the addition of sulphate 52mM and 104mM; this concentration also induced an increase in sulphate content of the EPS. However, neither the contents of EPS in carbohydrates and uronic acids were affected by the culture medium supplementation in sulphate. In general, the EPS from the Spanish strain presented a higher antiviral activity than the EPS from the Israeli strain. All EPS extracts revealed a strong activity against V. stomatitis virus, higher than the activity of all chemical compounds tested. The EPS from the Israeli strain also presented antibacterial activity against S. enteritidis. Enrichment of the culture medium with sulphate improved protein and sulphate content of EPS. EPS extracts presented a relevant activity against V. stomatitis virus and S. enteritidis bacterium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolism of dietary sulphate: absorption and excretion in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Florin, T; Neale, G; Gibson, G R; Christl, S U; Cummings, J H

    1991-01-01

    Dietary sulphate may affect colonic pathophysiology because sulphate availability determines in part the activity of sulphate reducing bacteria in the bowel. The main product of sulphate reducing bacterial oxidative metabolism, hydrogen sulphide, is potentially toxic. Although it is generally believed that the sulphate ion is poorly absorbed, there are no available data on how much sulphate reaches the colon nor on the relative contributions from diet and endogenous sources. To resolve these questions, balance studies were performed on six healthy ileostomists and three normal subjects chosen because they did not have detectable sulphate reducing bacteria in their faeces. The subjects were fed diets which varied in sulphate content from 1.6-16.6 mmol/day. Sulphate was measured in diets, faeces (ileal effluent in ileostomists), and urine by anion exchange chromatography with conductivity detection. Overall there was net absorption of dietary sulphate, with the absorptive capacity of the gastrointestinal tract plateauing at 5 mmol/day in the ileostomists and exceeding 16 mmol/day in the normal subjects. Endogenous secretion of sulphate in the upper gastrointestinal tract was from 0.96-2.6 mmol/day. The dietary contribution to the colonic sulphate pool ranged up to 9 mmol/day, there being linear identity between diet and upper gastrointestinal losses for intakes above 7 mmol/day. Faecal losses of sulphate were trivial (less than 0.5 mmol/day) in the normal subjects at all doses. It is concluded that diet and intestinal absorption are the principal factors affecting the amounts of sulphate reaching the colon. Endogenous secretion of sulphate by colonic mucosa may also be important in determining amounts of sulphate in the colon. PMID:1855683

  8. Detecting sulphate aerosol geoengineering with different methods

    DOE PAGES

    Lo, Y. T. Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.; Lott, Fraser C.; ...

    2016-12-15

    Sulphate aerosol injection has been widely discussed as a possible way to engineer future climate. Monitoring it would require detecting its effects amidst internal variability and in the presence of other external forcings. Here, we investigate how the use of different detection methods and filtering techniques affects the detectability of sulphate aerosol geoengineering in annual-mean global-mean near-surface air temperature. This is done by assuming a future scenario that injects 5 Tg yr -1 of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere and cross-comparing simulations from 5 climate models. 64% of the studied comparisons would require 25 years or more for detection whenmore » no filter and the multi-variate method that has been extensively used for attributing climate change are used, while 66% of the same comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection using a trend-based filter. This then highlights the high sensitivity of sulphate aerosol geoengineering detectability to the choice of filter. With the same trend-based filter but a non-stationary method, 80% of the comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection. This does not imply sulphate aerosol geoengineering should be deployed, but suggests that both detection methods could be used for monitoring geoengineering in global, annual mean temperature should it be needed.« less

  9. Galvanizing action: conclusions and next steps for mainstreaming zinc interventions in public health programs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kenneth H; Baker, Shawn K

    2009-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the foregoing reviews of the impact of different intervention strategies designed to enhance zinc nutrition, including supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification or modification. Current evidence indicates a beneficial impact of such interventions on zinc status and zinc-related functional outcomes. Preventive zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory tract infection among young children, decreases mortality of children over 12 months of age, and increases growth velocity. Therapeutic zinc supplementation during episodes of diarrhea reduces the duration and severity of illness. Zinc fortification increases zinc intake and total absorbed zinc, and recent studies are beginning to confirm a positive impact of zinc fortification on indicators of population zinc status. To assist with the development of zinc intervention programs, more information is needed on the prevalence of zinc deficiency in different countries, and rigorous evaluations of the effectiveness of large-scale zinc intervention programs should be planned. Recommended steps for scaling up zinc intervention programs, with or without other micronutrients, are described. In summary, there is now clear evidence of the benefit of selected interventions to reduce the risk of zinc deficiency, and a global commitment is urgently needed to conduct systematic assessments of population zinc status and to develop interventions to control zinc deficiency in the context of existing public health and nutrition programs.

  10. Effects of Different Zinc Species on Cellar Zinc Distribution, Cell Cycle, Apoptosis and Viability in MDAMB231 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-hong; Zhao, Wen-jie; Zheng, Wei-juan; Mao, Li; Lian, Hong-zhen; Hu, Xin; Hua, Zi-chun

    2016-03-01

    Intracellular metal elements exist in mammalian cells with the concentration range from picomoles per litre to micromoles per litre and play a considerable role in various biological procedures. Element provided by different species can influence the availability and distribution of the element in a cell and could lead to different biological effects on the cell's growth and function. Zinc as an abundant and widely distributed essential trace element, is involved in numerous and relevant physiological functions. Zinc homeostasis in cells, which is regulated by metallothioneins, zinc transporter/SLC30A, Zrt-/Irt-like proteins/SLC39A and metal-response element-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), is crucial for normal cellular functioning. In this study, we investigated the influences of different zinc species, zinc sulphate, zinc gluconate and bacitracin zinc, which represented inorganic, organic and biological zinc species, respectively, on cell cycle, viability and apoptosis in MDAMB231 cells. It was found that the responses of cell cycle, apoptosis and death to different zinc species in MDAMB231 cells are different. Western blot analysis of the expression of several key proteins in regulating zinc-related transcription, cell cycle, apoptosis, including MTF-1, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, caspase-8 and caspase-9 in treated cells further confirmed the observed results on cell level.

  11. Zinc and its importance for human health: An integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Roohani, Nazanin; Hurrell, Richard; Kelishadi, Roya; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Since its first discovery in an Iranian male in 1961, zinc deficiency in humans is now known to be an important malnutrition problem world-wide. It is more prevalent in areas of high cereal and low animal food consumption. The diet may not necessarily be low in zinc, but its bio-availability plays a major role in its absorption. Phytic acid is the main known inhibitor of zinc. Compared to adults, infants, children, adolescents, pregnant, and lactating women have increased requirements for zinc and thus, are at increased risk of zinc depletion. Zinc deficiency during growth periods results in growth failure. Epidermal, gastrointestinal, central nervous, immune, skeletal, and reproductive systems are the organs most affected clinically by zinc deficiency. Clinical diagnosis of marginal Zn deficiency in humans remains problematic. So far, blood plasma/serum zinc concentration, dietary intake, and stunting prevalence are the best known indicators of zinc deficiency. Four main intervention strategies for combating zinc deficiency include dietary modification/diversification, supplementation, fortification, and bio-fortification. The choice of each method depends on the availability of resources, technical feasibility, target group, and social acceptance. In this paper, we provide a review on zinc biochemical and physiological functions, metabolism including, absorption, excretion, and homeostasis, zinc bio-availability (inhibitors and enhancers), human requirement, groups at high-risk, consequences and causes of zinc deficiency, evaluation of zinc status, and prevention strategies of zinc deficiency. PMID:23914218

  12. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; ...

    2015-01-21

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower ( H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualizemore » Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO₄ alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower.« less

  13. Excessive zinc ingestion: A reversible cause of sideroblastic anemia and bone marrow depression

    SciT

    Broun, E.R.; Greist, A.; Tricot, G.

    1990-09-19

    Two patients with sideroblastic anemia secondary to zinc-induced copper deficiency absorbed excess zinc secondary to oral ingestion. The source of excess zinc was a zinc supplement in one case; in the other, ingested coins. In each case, the sideroblastic anemia was corrected promptly after removal of the source of excess zinc. These two cases emphasize the importance of recognizing this clinical entity, since the myelodysplastic features are completely reversible.

  14. Long-term effects of operating temperature and sulphate addition on the methanogenic community structure of anaerobic hybrid reactors.

    PubMed

    Pender, Seán; Toomey, Margaret; Carton, Micheál; Eardly, Dónal; Patching, John W; Colleran, Emer; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2004-02-01

    The diversity, population dynamics, and activity profiles of methanogens in anaerobic granular sludges from two anaerobic hybrid reactors treating a molasses wastewater both mesophilically (37 degrees C) and thermophilically (55 degrees C) during a 1081 day trial were determined. The influent to one of the reactors was supplemented with sulphate, after an acclimation period of 112 days, to determine the effect of competition with sulphate-reducing bacteria on the methanogenic community structure. Sludge samples were removed from the reactors at intervals throughout the operational period and examined by amplified ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction analysis (ARDRA) and partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. In total, 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, 12 of which were sequenced. The methanogenic communities in both reactors changed during the operational period. The seed sludge and the reactor biomass sampled during mesophilic operation, both in the presence and absence of sulphate, was characterised by a predominance of Methanosaeta spp. Following temperature elevation, the dominant methanogenic sequences detected in the non-sulphate supplemented reactor were closely related to Methanocorpusculum parvum. By contrast, the dominant OTUs detected in the sulphate-supplemented reactor upon temperature increase were related to the hydrogen-utilising methanogen, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. The observed methanogenic community structure in the reactors correlated with the operational performance of the reactors during the trial and with physiological measurements of the reactor biomass. Both reactors achieved chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of over 90% during mesophilic operation, with or without sulphate supplementation. During thermophilic operation, the presence of sulphate resulted in decreased reactor performance (effluent acetate concentrations of >3000 mg/l and biogas methane content of <25%). It was demonstrated that

  15. Crosstalk between Zinc Status and Giardia Infection: A New Approach

    PubMed Central

    Astiazarán-García, Humberto; Iñigo-Figueroa, Gemma; Quihui-Cota, Luis; Anduro-Corona, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence and prevalence of diarrhea; however, its anti-diarrheal effect remains only partially understood. There is now growing evidence that zinc can have pathogen-specific protective effects. Giardiasis is a common yet neglected cause of acute-chronic diarrheal illness worldwide which causes disturbances in zinc metabolism of infected children, representing a risk factor for zinc deficiency. How zinc metabolism is compromised by Giardia is not well understood; zinc status could be altered by intestinal malabsorption, organ redistribution or host-pathogen competition. The potential metal-binding properties of Giardia suggest unusual ways that the parasite may interact with its host. Zinc supplementation was recently found to reduce the rate of diarrhea caused by Giardia in children and to upregulate humoral immune response in Giardia-infected mice; in vitro and in vivo, zinc-salts enhanced the activity of bacitracin in a zinc-dose-dependent way, and this was not due to zinc toxicity. These findings reflect biological effect of zinc that may impact significantly public health in endemic areas of infection. In this paper, we shall explore one direction of this complex interaction, discussing recent information regarding zinc status and its possible contribution to the outcome of the encounter between the host and Giardia. PMID:26046395

  16. Leptin, NPY, Melatonin and Zinc Levels in Experimental Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism: The Relation to Zinc.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasım; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-06-01

    Since zinc mediates the effects of many hormones or is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors, zinc deficiency leads to various functional impairments in the hormone balance. And also thyroid hormones have important activity on metabolism and feeding. NPY and leptin are affective on food intake and regulation of appetite. The present study is conducted to determine how zinc supplementation and deficiency affect thyroid hormones (free and total T3 and T4), melatonin, leptin, and NPY levels in thyroid dysfunction in rats. The experiment groups in the study were formed as follows: Control (C); Hypothyroidism (PTU); Hypothyroidism+Zinc (PTU+Zn); Hypothyroidism+Zinc deficient; Hyperthyroidism (H); Hyperthyroidism+Zinc (H+Zn); and Hyperthyroidism+Zinc deficient. Thyroid hormone parameters (FT 3 , FT 4 , TT 3 , and TT 4 ) were found to be reduced in hypothyroidism groups and elevated in the hyperthyroidism groups. Melatonin values increased in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism. Leptin and NPY levels both increased in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Zinc levels, on the other hand, decreased in hypothyroidism and increased in hyperthyroidism. Zinc supplementation, particularly when thyroid function is impaired, has been demonstrated to markedly prevent these changes.

  17. Zinc and Regulation of Inflammatory Cytokines: Implications for Cardiometabolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Meika; Samman, Samir

    2012-01-01

    In atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus, the concomitant presence of low-grade systemic inflammation and mild zinc deficiency highlights a role for zinc nutrition in the management of chronic disease. This review aims to evaluate the literature that reports on the interactions of zinc and cytokines. In humans, inflammatory cytokines have been shown both to up- and down-regulate the expression of specific cellular zinc transporters in response to an increased demand for zinc in inflammatory conditions. The acute phase response includes a rapid decline in the plasma zinc concentration as a result of the redistribution of zinc into cellular compartments. Zinc deficiency influences the generation of cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α, and in response to zinc supplementation plasma cytokines exhibit a dose-dependent response. The mechanism of action may reflect the ability of zinc to either induce or inhibit the activation of NF-κB. Confounders in understanding the zinc-cytokine relationship on the basis of in vitro experimentation include methodological issues such as the cell type and the means of activating cells in culture. Impaired zinc homeostasis and chronic inflammation feature prominently in a number of cardiometabolic diseases. Given the high prevalence of zinc deficiency and chronic disease globally, the interplay of zinc and inflammation warrants further examination. PMID:22852057

  18. Grape seed extract and Zinc containing nutritional food supplement delays onset and progression of Streptozocin-induced diabetic cataract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Satyam, Shakta Mani; Bairy, Laxminaryana Kurady; Pirasanthan, Rajadurai; Vaishnav, Rajdip Lalit

    2015-05-01

    Prevention of hyperglycemia and enhancement of antioxidant defense mechanisms remain major goals in the treatment of diabetic cataract. Earlier, we reported strong anti-hyperglycemic and in vitro antioxidant potential of the combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate effects of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets against streptozocin-induced diabetic cataract in Wistar rats. Adult Wistar rats were selected and diabetes was induced by streptozocin (35 mg/kg, i.p) and divided into four groups (group II-V). The normal control (group I) and streptozocin-induced diabetic cataract control rats received only vehicle. Groups III, IV and V animals received orally 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg of combined formulation of Zincovit tablets with grape seed extract respectively for a period of 150 days. The biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cataract such as oxidative stress, polyol pathway and alterations in adenosine triphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and blood glucose were investigated, to understand the possible mechanism of action of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets. Rats treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets delayed the progression of diabetic cataract as well as it showed significant alterations in oxidative stress markers along with blood glucose, aldose reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and adenosine triphosphate level in lens. Over all, the results suggest that single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets may be of great value in delaying diabetic cataract of human subjects as nutritional food supplement.

  19. Biochemical properties of a keratan sulphate/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan expressed in primate pluripotent stem cells*

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Susan; Bennett, William; Andrade, Jessica; Reubinoff, Benjamin E; Thomson, James; Pera, Martin F

    2002-01-01

    We previously identified a pericellular matrix keratan sulphate/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan present on the surface of human embryonal carcinoma stem cells, cells whose differentiation mimics early development. Antibodies reactive with various epitopes on this molecule define a cluster of differentiation markers for primate pluripotent stem cells. We describe the purification of a form of this molecule which is secreted or shed into the culture medium. Biochemical analysis of the secreted form of this molecule shows that the monomeric form, whilst containing keratan sulphate, resembles mucins in its structure and its modification with O-linked carbohydrate. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting data show that monkey and human pluripotent stem cells react with antibodies directed against epitopes on either carbohydrate side chains or the protein core of the molecule. PMID:12033730

  20. [Zinc and treatment of diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, O

    2006-06-01

    Recently WHO and UNICEF issued a joint statement revising guidelines for clinical management of diarrhoea. These updated recommendations take into account new research findings showing the beneficial effects of oral rehydration salts (ORS) containing lower concentrations of glucose and salts and of zinc supplementation. In combination with prevention and treatment of dehydration with appropriate fluids, breastfeeding, continued feeding and selective use of antibiotics, these two advances can drastically diminish the number of child deaths by reducing the duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes and lowering their incidence. The purpose of this report is to present the research findings that demonstrated the efficacy of zinc supplementation in the management of diarrhoea and led to revision of WHO/UNCEF guidelines.

  1. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  2. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  3. The binding of sodium dodecyl sulphate to various proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pitt-Rivers, Rosalind; Impiombato, F. S. Ambesi

    1968-01-01

    1. The binding of sodium dodecyl sulphate to proteins by equilibrium dialysis was investigated. 2. Most of the proteins studied bound 90–100% of their weight of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 3. The glycoproteins studied bound 70–100% of their weight of sodium dodecyl sulphate, calculated in terms of the polypeptide moiety of the molecule. 4. Proteins not containing S·S groups bound about 140% of their weight of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 5. Reduction of four proteins containing S·S groups caused a rise in sodium dodecyl sulphate binding to 140% of the weight of protein. 6. The apparent micellar molecular weights of the protein–sodium dodecyl sulphate complexes were measured by the dye-solubilization method; they were all found to have approximately the same micellar molecular weight (34000–41000) irrespective of the molecular weight of the protein to which they were attached. PMID:4177067

  4. Aluminum and sulphate removal by a highly Al-resistant dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria community.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mónica; Taborda, Rita; Silva, Gonçalo; Assunção, Ana; Matos, António Pedro; Costa, Maria Clara

    2012-09-01

    A highly Al-resistant dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria community was isolated from sludge of the wetland of Urgeiriça mine (community W). This community showed excellent sulphate removal at the presence of Al³⁺. After 27 days of incubation, 73, 86 and 81% of sulphate was removed in the presence of 0.48, 0.90 and 1.30 mM of Al³⁺, respectively. Moreover, Al³⁺ was simultaneously removed: 55, 85 and 78% of metal was removed in the presence of 0.48, 0.90 and 1.30 mM of Al³⁺, respectively. The dissociation of aluminium-lactate soluble complexes due to lactate consumption by dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria can be responsible for aluminum removal, which probably precipitates as insoluble aluminium hydroxide. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that this community was mainly composed by bacteria closely related to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. However, bacteria affiliated to Proteus and Ralstonia were also present in the community.

  5. Contribution of Zinc Solubilizing Bacteria in Growth Promotion and Zinc Content of Wheat.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Sana; Shahid, Izzah; Baig, Deeba N; Rizwan, Muhammad; Malik, Kauser A; Mehnaz, Samina

    2017-01-01

    Zinc is an imperative micronutrient required for optimum plant growth. Zinc solubilizing bacteria are potential alternatives for zinc supplementation and convert applied inorganic zinc to available forms. This study was conducted to screen zinc solubilizing rhizobacteria isolated from wheat and sugarcane, and to analyze their effect on wheat growth and development. Fourteen exo-polysaccharides producing bacterial isolates of wheat were identified and characterized biochemically as well as on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Along these, 10 identified sugarcane isolates were also screened for zinc solubilizing ability on five different insoluble zinc sources. Out of 24, five strains, i.e., EPS 1 ( Pseudomonas fragi) , EPS 6 ( Pantoea dispersa) , EPS 13 ( Pantoea agglomerans) , PBS 2 ( E. cloacae) and LHRW1 ( Rhizobium sp.) were selected (based on their zinc solubilizing and PGP activities) for pot scale plant experiments. ZnCO 3 was used as zinc source and wheat seedlings were inoculated with these five strains, individually, to assess their effect on plant growth and development. The effect on plants was analyzed based on growth parameters and quantifying zinc content of shoot, root and grains using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Plant experiment was performed in two sets. For first set of plant experiments (harvested after 1 month), maximum shoot and root dry weights and shoot lengths were noted for the plants inoculated with Rhizobium sp. (LHRW1) while E. cloacae (PBS 2) increased both shoot and root lengths. Highest zinc content was found in shoots of E. cloacae (PBS 2) and in roots of P. agglomerans (EPS 13) followed by zinc supplemented control. For second set of plant experiment, when plants were harvested after three months, Pantoea dispersa (EPS 6), P. agglomerans (EPS 13) and E. cloacae (PBS 2) significantly increased shoot dry weights. However, significant increase in root dry weights and maximum zinc content was recorded for Pseudomonas fragi (EPS

  6. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    SciT

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects ofmore » arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of

  7. Zinc for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi R

    2011-02-16

    The common cold is one of the most widespread illnesses and is a leading cause of visits to the doctor and absenteeism from school and work. Trials conducted since 1984 investigating the role of zinc for the common cold symptoms have had mixed results. Inadequate treatment masking and reduced bioavailability of zinc from some formulations have been cited as influencing results. To assess the effect of zinc on common cold symptoms. We searched CENTRAL (2010, Issue 2) which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to May week 3, 2010) and EMBASE (1974 to June 2010). Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using zinc for at least five consecutive days to treat, or for at least five months to prevent the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We included 13 therapeutic trials (966 participants) and two preventive trials (394 participants). Intake of zinc is associated with a significant reduction in the duration (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.56 to -0.38) (P = 0.001), and severity of common cold symptoms (SMD -0.39; 95% CI -0.77 to -0.02) (P = 0.04). There was a significant difference between the zinc and control group for the proportion of participants symptomatic after seven days of treatment (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.00) (P = 0.05). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of developing a cold (IRR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.88) (P = 0.006), school absence (P = 0.0003) and prescription of antibiotics (P < 0.00001) was lower in the zinc group. Overall adverse events (OR 1.59; 95% CI 0.97 to 2.58) (P = 0.06), bad taste (OR 2.64; 95% CI 1.91 to 3.64) (P < 0.00001) and nausea (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 to 3.23) (P = 0.002) were higher in the zinc group. Zinc administered within 24 hours of onset of symptoms reduces the duration and severity of the common cold in healthy people. When supplemented for at least five months, it reduces cold

  8. Zinc Modulates Nanosilver-Induced Toxicity in Primary Neuronal Cultures.

    PubMed

    Ziemińska, Elżbieta; Strużyńska, Lidia

    2016-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NAg) have recently become one of the most commonly used nanomaterials. Since the ability of nanosilver to enter the brain has been confirmed, there has been a need to investigate mechanisms of its neurotoxicity. We previously showed that primary neuronal cultures treated with nanosilver undergo destabilization of calcium homeostasis via a mechanism involving glutamatergic NMDA receptors. Considering the fact that zinc interacts with these receptors, the aim of the present study was to examine the role of zinc in mechanisms of neuronal cell death in primary cultures. In cells treated with nanosilver, we noted an imbalance between extracellular and intracellular zinc levels. Thus, the influence of zinc deficiency and supplementation on nanosilver-evoked cytotoxicity was investigated by treatment with TPEN (a chelator of zinc ions), or ZnCl(2), respectively. Elimination of zinc leads to complete death of nanosilver-treated CGCs. In contrast, supplementation with ZnCl(2) increases viability of CGCs in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of zinc provided protection against the extra/intracellular calcium imbalance in a manner similar to MK-801, an antagonist of NMDA receptors. Zinc chelation by TPEN decreases the mitochondrial potential and dramatically increases the rate of production of reactive oxygen species. Our results indicate that zinc supplementation positively influences nanosilver-evoked changes in CGCs. This is presumed to be due to an inhibitory effect on NMDA-sensitive calcium channels.

  9. Role of nutritional zinc in the prevention of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi

    2010-05-01

    Zinc is known as an essential nutritional factor in the growth of the human and animals. Bone growth retardation is a common finding in various conditions associated with dietary zinc deficiency. Bone zinc content has been shown to decrease in aging, skeletal unloading, and postmenopausal conditions, suggesting its role in bone disorder. Zinc has been demonstrated to have a stimulatory effect on osteoblastic bone formation and mineralization; the metal directly activates aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, a rate-limiting enzyme at translational process of protein synthesis, in the cells, and it stimulates cellular protein synthesis. Zinc has been shown to stimulate gene expression of the transcription factors runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) that is related to differentiation into osteoblastic cells. Moreover, zinc has been shown to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption due to inhibiting osteoclast-like cell formation from bone marrow cells and stimulating apoptotic cell death of mature osteoclasts. Zinc has a suppressive effect on the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. Zinc transporter has been shown to express in osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells. Zinc protein is involved in transcription. The intake of dietary zinc causes an increase in bone mass. beta-Alanyl-L: -histidinato zinc (AHZ) is a zinc compound, in which zinc is chelated to beta-alanyl-L: -histidine. The stimulatory effect of AHZ on bone formation is more intensive than that of zinc sulfate. Zinc acexamate has also been shown to have a potent-anabolic effect on bone. The oral administration of AHZ or zinc acexamate has the restorative effect on bone loss under various pathophysiologic conditions including aging, skeletal unloading, aluminum bone toxicity, calcium- and vitamin D-deficiency, adjuvant arthritis, estrogen deficiency, diabetes, and fracture healing. Zinc compounds may be designed as new supplementation factor in the prevention and

  10. Zinc deficiency in children with environmental enteropathy - development of new strategies: Report from an expert workshop

    Zinc deficiency is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The WHO/UNICEF strategy for zinc supplementation as adjunctive therapy for diarrhea is poorly implemented. A conference of experts in zinc nutrition and gastrointestinal disorders was convened to consider approaches that might co...

  11. The Effect of Sulphate Anions on the Ultrafine Titania Nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsyubynsky, Volodymyr O.; Myronyuk, Ivan F.; Chelyadyn, Volodymyr L.; Hrubiak, Andriy B.; Moklyak, Volodymyr V.; Fedorchenko, Sofia V.

    2017-05-01

    The phenomenological model of sulphate anions effect on the nanodispersed titania synthesis during hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride was studied. It was proposed that both chelating and bridging bidentate complexes formation between sulphate anions and octahedrally coordinated [Ti(OH)h(OH2)6-h](4-h)+ mononers is the determinative factor for anatase phase nucleation.

  12. Sulphate release from construction and demolition material in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Stefan; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    In Berlin and many other cities soils are heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities and deposited substrates. A widespread technical substrate in technosols is construction and demolition material from residential and industrial buildings. Existing rubble landfills without sealing facilities pose threats to ground water quality. In the central city of Berlin rising sulphate concentrations of groundwaters (up to 1200 mg/L) are measured since more than two decades. Previous studies point out that the high sulphate concentrations are mainly attributed to World War II rubble. The major part of debris was deposited in form of landfills and contains approximately 0.3 wt% gypsum. The scope of our research is to determine mechanisms of sulphate release from debris material, interactions between sulphate release, soil hydraulic properties and potential sinks of sulphur. To estimate equilibrium concentration and kinetics of sulphate release of various debris components batch and column experiments are conducted. The same method is applied to determine potential adsorptive character of common debris components. To analyse the impacts of soil hydraulic properties on sulphate leaching we carry out soil column experiments with defined upper and lower boundary conditions, varying water flow velocity and induced preferential flow. Simultaneously we monitor sulphate concentration of soil leachate in a 2 m³ lysimeter. First results of the batch experiments show that gypsum from broken stucco is the main source of sulphate in the observed technosols. Other components as mortar and slag show a quite low sulphate release. Similar results are found within the column experiments. For brigs medium and strongly time dependent sulphate release is determined. Concentrations up to 1500 mg/L are measured in the soil leachate from the lysimeter.

  13. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  18. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  19. Zinc for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi R

    2013-06-18

    cold (IRR 0.64, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.88) (P = 0.006) (I(2) statistic = 88%), school absence (P = 0.0003) and prescription of antibiotics (P < 0.00001) was lower in the zinc group. Overall adverse events (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.09) (P = 0.002), bad taste (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.71 to 3.11) (P < 0.00001) and nausea (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.23) (P = 0.002) were higher in the zinc group. The very high heterogeneity means that the averaged estimates must be viewed with caution. Zinc administered within 24 hours of onset of symptoms reduces the duration of common cold symptoms in healthy people but some caution is needed due to the heterogeneity of the data. As the zinc lozenges formulation has been widely studied and there is a significant reduction in the duration of cold at a dose of ≥ 75 mg/day, for those considering using zinc it would be best to use it at this dose throughout the cold. Regarding prophylactic zinc supplementation, currently no firm recommendation can be made because of insufficient data. When using zinc lozenges (not as syrup or tablets) the likely benefit has to be balanced against side effects, notably a bad taste and nausea.

  20. Abnormal Excretion of Corticosteroid Sulphates in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, P. C.; Lockwood, E.; Pennington, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    In a preliminary study, the 24-hour urinary excretion of corticosteroid sulphates and free cortisol have been measured in a group of patients with breast cancer and compared with the excretion of the same compounds in a group of normal women of similar age. Excretion of corticosteroid sulphates in the breast cancer group was found to be markedly raised. In a small number of patients with localized cancer of sites other than the breast the level of corticosteroid sulphate was not raised. If proved metastases were present a noticeable rise was observed. Imagesp330-a PMID:4685623

  1. Zinc Levels Modulate Lifespan through Multiple Longevity Pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jitendra; Barhydt, Tracy; Awasthi, Anjali; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Killilea, David W.; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace metal that has integral roles in numerous biological processes, including enzymatic function, protein structure, and cell signaling pathways. Both excess and deficiency of zinc can lead to detrimental effects on development and metabolism, resulting in abnormalities and disease. We altered the zinc balance within Caenorhabditis elegans to examine how changes in zinc burden affect longevity and healthspan in an invertebrate animal model. We found that increasing zinc levels in vivo with excess dietary zinc supplementation decreased the mean and maximum lifespan, whereas reducing zinc levels in vivo with a zinc-selective chelator increased the mean and maximum lifespan in C. elegans. We determined that the lifespan shortening effects of excess zinc required expression of DAF-16, HSF-1 and SKN-1 proteins, whereas the lifespan lengthening effects of the reduced zinc may be partially dependent upon this set of proteins. Furthermore, reducing zinc levels led to greater nuclear localization of DAF-16 and enhanced dauer formation compared to controls, suggesting that the lifespan effects of zinc are mediated in part by the insulin/IGF-1 pathway. Additionally, zinc status correlated with several markers of healthspan in worms, including proteostasis, locomotion and thermotolerance, with reduced zinc levels always associated with improvements in function. Taken together, these data support a role for zinc in regulating both development and lifespan in C. elegans, and that suggest that regulation of zinc homeostasis in the worm may be an example of antagonistic pleiotropy. PMID:27078872

  2. Recent advances in knowledge of zinc nutrition and human health.

    PubMed

    Hess, Sonja Y; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hotz, Christine; Rivera, Juan A; Brown, Kenneth H

    2009-03-01

    Zinc deficiency increases the risk and severity of a variety of infections, restricts physical growth, and affects specific outcomes of pregnancy. Global recognition of the importance of zinc nutrition in public health has expanded dramatically in recent years, and more experience has accumulated on the design and implementation of zinc intervention programs. Therefore, the Steering Committee of the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) completed a second IZiNCG technical document that reexamines the latest information on the intervention strategies that have been developed to enhance zinc nutrition and control zinc deficiency. In particular, the document reviews the current evidence regarding preventive zinc supplementation and the role of zinc as adjunctive therapy for selected infections, zinc fortification, and dietary diversification or modification strategies, including the promotion and protection of breastfeeding and biofortification. The purposes of this introductory paper are to summarize new guidelines on the assessment of population zinc status, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and IZiNCG, and to provide an overview on several new advances in zinc metabolism. The following papers will then review the intervention strategies individually.

  3. Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Caroline A; Brown, Julie; McKinlay, Christopher J D; Middleton, Philippa

    2014-08-15

    Magnesium sulphate has been used in some settings as a tocolytic agent to inhibit uterine activity in women in preterm labour with the aim of preventing preterm birth. To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate therapy given to women in threatened preterm labour with the aim of preventing preterm birth and its sequelae. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (last searched 31 January 2014). Randomised controlled trials of magnesium sulphate as the only tocolytic, administered by any route, compared with either placebo, no treatment or alternative tocolytic therapy (not magnesium sulphate) to women considered to be in preterm labour. At least two review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and undertook data extraction independently. The 37 included trials (total of 3571 women and over 3600 babies) were generally of moderate to high risk of bias. Antenatal magnesium sulphate was compared with either placebo, no treatment, or a range of alternative tocolytic agents.For the primary outcome of giving birth within 48 hours after trial entry, no significant differences were seen between women who received magnesium sulphate and women who did not (whether placebo/no alternative tocolytic drug, betamimetics, calcium channel blockers, cox inhibitors, prostaglandin inhibitors, or human chorionic gonadotropin) (19 trials, 1913 women). Similarly for the primary outcome of serious infant outcome, there were no significant differences between the infants exposed to magnesium sulphate and those not (whether placebo/no alternative tocolytic drug, betamimetics, calcium channel blockers, cox inhibitors, prostaglandin inhibitors, human chorionic gonadotropin or various tocolytic drugs) (18 trials; 2187 babies). No trials reported the outcome of extremely preterm birth. In the seven trials that reported serious maternal outcomes, no events were recorded.In the group treated with magnesium sulphate compared with women receiving

  4. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    PubMed

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  5. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  6. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  7. Effects of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Surmelioglu, O; Sencar, L; Ozdemir, S; Tarkan, O; Dagkiran, M; Surmelioglu, N; Tuncer, U; Polat, S

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve regeneration after facial nerve injury using electron and light microscopy. The study was performed on 30 male Wistar albino rats split into: a control group, a sham-treated group, a study control group, an anastomosis group, and an anastomosis plus agmatine sulphate treatment group. The mandibular branch of the facial nerve was dissected, and a piece was removed for histological and electron microscopic examination. Regeneration was better in the anastomosis group than in the study control group. However, the best regeneration findings were seen in the agmatine sulphate treatment group. There was a significant difference between the agmatine group and the others in terms of median axon numbers (p < 0.004) and diameters (p < 0.004). Agmatine sulphate treatment with anastomosis in traumatic facial paralysis may enhance nerve regeneration.

  8. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancement of indirect sulphation of limestone by steam addition.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael C; Manovic, Vasilije; Anthony, Edward J; Macchi, Arturo

    2010-11-15

    The effect of water (H₂O(g)) on in situ SO₂ capture using limestone injection under (FBC) conditions was studied using a thermobalance and tube furnace. The indirect sulphation reaction was found to be greatly enhanced in the presence of H₂O(g). Stoichiometric conversion of samples occurred when sulphated with a synthetic flue gas containing 15% H₂O(g) in under 10 h, which is equivalent to a 45% increase in conversion as compared to sulphation without H₂O(g). Using gas pycnometry and nitrogen adsorption methods, it was shown that limestone samples sulphated in the presence of H₂O(g) undergo increased particle densification without any significant changes to pore area or volume. The microstructural changes and observed increase in conversion were attributed to enhanced solid-state diffusion in CaO/CaSO₄ in the presence of H₂O(g). Given steam has been shown to have such a strong influence on sulphation, whereas it had been previously regarded as inert, may prompt a revisiting of the classically accepted sulphation models and phenomena. These findings also suggest that steam injection may be used to enhance sulfur capture performance in fluidized beds firing low-moisture fuels such as petroleum coke.

  10. Anthropogenic influence on the distribution of tropospheric sulphate aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, J.; Rodhe, H.; Crutzen, P. J.; Zimmermann, P.

    1992-10-01

    HUMAN activities have increased global emissions of sulphur gases by about a factor of three during the past century, leading to increased sulphate aerosol concentrations, mainly in the Northern Hemisphere. Sulphate aerosols can affect the climate directly, by increasing the backscattering of solar radiation in cloud-free air, and indirectly, by providing additional cloud condensation nuclei1-4. Here we use a global transport-chemistry model to estimate the changes in the distribution of tropospheric sulphate aerosol and deposition of non-seasalt sulphur that have occurred since pre-industrial times. The increase in sulphate aerosol concentration is small over the Southern Hemisphere oceans, but reaches a factor of 100 over northern Europe in winter. Our calculations indicate, however, that at most 6% of the anthropogenic sulphur emissions is available for the formation of new aerosol particles. This is because about one-half of the sulphur dioxide is deposited on the Earth's surface, and most of the remainder is oxidized in cloud droplets so that the sulphate becomes associated with pre-existing particles. Even so, the rate of formation of new sulphate particles may have doubled since pre-industrial times.

  11. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sulphate-containing wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Colleran, E; Pender, S

    2002-01-01

    The effect of sulphate at an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD):sulphate ratio of 4 on the operational performance of anaerobic hybrid reactors treating molasses wastewater was investigated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions in a long-term laboratory-scale study over a 1,081 day period. The presence of sulphate reduced the COD removal efficiency under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. At 55 degrees C, effluent acetate levels were consistently greater than 4000 mg l(-1) indicating that thermophilic acetate-utilising methane-producing bacteria (MPB) or sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) had not developed in the reactor under the conditions applied. At 37 degrees C, acetate was exclusively utilised by acetoclastic methanogens, whereas H2-utilising SRB predominated over H2-utilising MPB in the competition for hydrogen. By contrast, hydrogenotrophic MPB were shown to outcompete H2-utilising SRB during long-term thermophilic operation. 16SrDNA analysis of the seed sludge and reactor biomass on conclusion of the 37 degrees C and 55 degrees C trials illustrated that the dominant methanogen present on conclusion of the thermophilic trial in the absence of influent sulphate was related to Methanocorpusculum parvuum, and was capable of growth on both acetate and hydrogen. By contrast, an organism closely related to Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was the dominant methanogen present in the sulphate-fed reactor on completion of the thermophilic trial.

  12. Placental sulphate transport: a review of functional and molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Shennan, D B

    2012-08-01

    Sulphate is required by the feto-placental unit for a number of important conjugation and biosynthetic pathways. Functional studies performed several decades ago established that sulphate transport in human placental microvillus and basal membrane vesicles was mainly via a DIDS-sensitive anion-exchange mechanism. In contrast, no evidence was found for Na⁺-dependent transport. Studies performed using isolated human placental tissue confirmed anion-exchange as the main mechanism. More recently, molecular studies have established the presence of anion-exchange proteins which could play a role in transplacental sulphate movement. However, the presence of transcripts for NaS2 has been reported and has prompted the suggestion that Na⁺-sulphate cotransport may play an important role in maternal-fetal sulphate transport. This article reviews our present knowledge of placental sulphate transport, both functional and molecular, and attempts to form a model based on the available evidence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intralesional bleomycin and sodium tetradecyl sulphate for haemangiomas and lymphangiomas.

    PubMed

    Harjai, Man Mohan; Jha, Manvendu

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of intralesional bleomycin and sodium tetradecyl sulphate in treatment of haemangiomas and lymphangiomas. Between July 2007 and May 2009, 120 patients, sixty each of peripheral haemangiomas and lymphangiomas, were administered intralesional injection of bleomycin in a dose of 0.5-1 U/kg in children less than one year of age and 1 to 15 units in children more than one year of age and 1 to 3 ml of 2% sodium tetradecyl sulphate, depending on the size of the lesion at intervals of 14 days. Patients more than 20 years of age and those with diffuse or visceral lesions were excluded from the study. Complete resolution occurred in 16 patients (53%) of haemangiomas and 14 patients (47%) of lymphangiomas treated with bleomycin, while the results were 12 patients (40%) and 10 patients (33%), respectively, in sodium tetradecyl sulphate group. The satisfactory resolution (resolution more than 50%) occurred in eight patients (27%) of haemangiomas and lymphangiomas groups treated with bleomycin, while the results were six patients (20%) and eight patients (27%), respectively, in sodium tetradecyl sulphate group. Poor response rate was observed in six patients (20%) of haemangiomas and eight patients (27%) of lymphangiomas of bleomycin group and 12 patients (40%) of haemangiomas and lymphangiomas in sodium tetradecyl sulphate group. No pulmonary fibrosis or other serious side effects were found. Intralesional bleomycin and sodium tetradecyl sulphate are effective sclerosants in peripheral haemangiomas and lymphangiomas, but bleomycin was found to be more efficacious.

  14. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Dietary Supplements: Tips for Women Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... or 10877-382-4357. To Learn More about Dietary Supplements Information for Consumers on Using Dietary Supplements NIH ...

  15. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    SciT

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  16. Effect of pulsed electric fields upon accumulation of zinc in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Pankiewicz, Urszula; Jamroz, Jerzy

    2011-06-01

    Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were treated with pulsed electric fields to improve accumulation of zinc in the biomass. Under optimized conditions, that is, on 15 min exposure of the 20 h grown culture to PEFs of 1500 V and 10 microns pulse width, accumulation of zinc in the yeast biomass reached a maximum of 15.57 mg/g d.m. Under optimum zinc concentration (100 microgram/ml nutrient medium), its accumulation in the cells was higher by 63% in comparison with the control (without PEFs). That accumulation significantly correlated against zinc concentration in the medium. Neither multiple exposure of the cultures to PEFs nor intermittent supplementation of the cultures with zinc increased the zinc accumulation. The intermittent supplementation of the cultures with zinc and multiple exposures on PEFs could even reduce the accumulation efficiency, respectively, by 57% and 47%.

  17. Quantification of 19-nortestosterone sulphate and boldenone sulphate in urine from male horses using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grace, Philip B; Drake, Erica C; Teale, Philip; Houghton, Edward

    2008-10-01

    Following administration of the anabolic steroid 19-nortestosterone or its esters to the horse, a major urinary metabolite is 19-nortestosterone-17beta-sulphate. The detection of 19-nortestosterone in urine from untreated animals has led to it being considered a naturally occurring steroid in the male horse. Recently, we have demonstrated that the majority of the 19-nortestosterone found in extracts of 'normal' urine from male horses arises as an artefact through decarboxylation of the 19-carboxylic acid of testosterone. The aim of this investigation was to establish if direct analysis of 19-nortestosterone-17beta-sulphate by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) had potential for the detection of 19-nortestosterone misuse in the male horse. The high concentrations of sulphate conjugates of the female sex hormones naturally present in male equine urine were overcome by selective hydrolysis of the aryl sulphates using glucuronidase from Helix pomatia; this was shown to have little or no activity for alkyl sulphates such as 19-nortestosterone-17beta-sulphate. The 'free' phenolic steroids were removed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior to LC/MS/MS analysis. The method also allowed for the quantification of the sulphate conjugate of boldenone, a further anabolic steroid endogenous in the male equine with potential for abuse in sports. The method was applied to the quantification of these analytes in a population of samples. This paper reports the results of that study along with the development and validation of the LC/MS/MS method. The results indicate that while 19-nortestosterone-17beta-sulphate is present at low levels as an endogenous substance in urine from 'normal' male horses, its use as an effective threshold substance may be viable.

  18. Zinc treatment ameliorates diarrhea and intestinal inflammation in undernourished rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background WHO guidelines recommend zinc supplementation as a key adjunct therapy for childhood diarrhea in developing countries, however zinc’s anti-diarrheal effects remain only partially understood. Recently, it has been recognized that low-grade inflammation may influence stunting. In this study, we examined whether oral zinc supplementation could improve weight, intestinal inflammation, and diarrhea in undernourished weanling rats. Methods Rats were undernourished using a northeastern Brazil regional diet (RBD) for two weeks, followed by oral gavage with a saturated lactose solution (30 g/kg) in the last 7 days to induce osmotic diarrhea. Animals were checked for diarrhea daily after lactose intake. Blood was drawn in order to measure serum zinc levels by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were euthanized to harvest jejunal tissue for histology and cytokine profiles by ELISA. In a subset of animals, spleen samples were harvested under aseptic conditions to quantify bacterial translocation. Results Oral zinc supplementation increased serum zinc levels following lactose-induced osmotic diarrhea. In undernourished rats, zinc improved weight gain following osmotic diarrhea and significantly reduced diarrheal scores by the third day of lactose intake (p < 0.05), with improved jejunum histology (p < 0.0001). Zinc supplementation diminished bacterial translocation only in lactose-challenged undernourished rats (p = 0.03) compared with the untreated challenged controls and reduced intestinal IL-1β and TNF-α cytokines to control levels. Conclusion Altogether our findings provide novel mechanisms of zinc action in the setting of diarrhea and undernutrition and support the use of zinc to prevent the vicious cycle of malnutrition and diarrhea. PMID:25095704

  19. Classification of polytype structures of zinc sulfide

    SciT

    Laptev, V.I.

    1994-12-31

    It is suggested that the existing classification of polytype structures of zinc sulfide be supplemented with an additional criterion: the characteristic of regular point systems (Wyckoff positions) including their type, number, and multiplicity. The consideration of the Wyckoff positions allowed the establishment of construction principles of known polytype series of different symmetries and the systematization (for the first time) of the polytypes with the same number of differently packed layers. the classification suggested for polytype structures of zinc sulfide is compact and provides a basis for creating search systems. The classification table obtained can also be used for numerous siliconmore » carbide polytypes. 8 refs., 4 tabs.« less

  20. Total Zinc Intake May Modify the Glucose-Raising Effect of a Zinc Transporter (SLC30A8) Variant

    PubMed Central

    Kanoni, Stavroula; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Hivert, Marie-France; Ye, Zheng; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Shungin, Dmitry; Sonestedt, Emily; Ngwa, Julius S.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Anderson, Jennifer S.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hindy, George; Saylor, Georgia; Renstrom, Frida; Bennett, Amanda J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Florez, Jose C.; Fox, Caroline S.; Hofman, Albert; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Houston, Denise K.; Hu, Frank B.; Jacques, Paul F.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; McKeown, Nicola; Ordovas, Jose; Pankow, James S.; Sijbrands, Eric J.G.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Uitterlinden, André G.; Yannakoulia, Mary; Zillikens, M. Carola; Wareham, Nick J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Bandinelli, Stefania; Forouhi, Nita G.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J.; Hallmans, Goran; Dupuis, Josée; Langenberg, Claudia; Ferrucci, Luigi; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Ingelsson, Erik; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Siscovick, David S.; Meigs, James B.; Franks, Paul W.; Dedoussis, George V.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Many genetic variants have been associated with glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is important for β-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that zinc intake could influence the glucose-raising effect of specific variants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a 14-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction of 20 genetic variants known to be related to glycemic traits and zinc metabolism with dietary zinc intake (food sources) and a 5-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction with total zinc intake (food sources and supplements) on fasting glucose levels among individuals of European ancestry without diabetes. RESULTS We observed a significant association of total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels (β-coefficient ± SE per 1 mg/day of zinc intake: −0.0012 ± 0.0003 mmol/L, summary P value = 0.0003), while the association of dietary zinc intake was not significant. We identified a nominally significant interaction between total zinc intake and the SLC30A8 rs11558471 variant on fasting glucose levels (β-coefficient ± SE per A allele for 1 mg/day of greater total zinc intake: −0.0017 ± 0.0006 mmol/L, summary interaction P value = 0.005); this result suggests a stronger inverse association between total zinc intake and fasting glucose in individuals carrying the glucose-raising A allele compared with individuals who do not carry it. None of the other interaction tests were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that higher total zinc intake may attenuate the glucose-raising effect of the rs11558471 SLC30A8 (zinc transporter) variant. Our findings also support evidence for the association of higher total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels. PMID:21810599

  1. Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Iñigo-Figueroa, Gemma; Méndez-Estrada, Rosa O.; Quihui-Cota, Luis; Velásquez-Contreras, Carlos A.; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Canett-Romero, Rafael; Astiazarán-García, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA), low-zinc (ZnL), high-zinc (ZnH) and supplemented-zinc (ZnS) diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days). Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS) than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection. PMID:24002196

  2. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  3. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  4. Magnesium sulphate for treatment of tetanus in adults.

    PubMed

    Mathew, P J; Samra, T; Wig, J

    2010-01-01

    There are reports that suggest that magnesium sulphate alone may control muscle spasms thereby avoiding sedation and mechanical ventilation in tetanus, but this has not been confirmed. We examined the efficacy and safety of intravenous magnesium sulphate for control of rigidity and spasms in adults with tetanus. A prospective clinical study of intravenous magnesium sulphate was carried out over a period of two years in a tertiary care teaching hospital. In addition to human tetanus immunoglobulin and parenteral antibiotics, patients with tetanus received magnesium sulphate 70 mg/kg intravenously followed by infusion. The infusion was increased by 0.5 g/hour every six hours until cessation of spasms or abolishment of patellar tendon jerk. The primary outcome measure was efficacy determined by control of spasms. Secondary outcomes included frequency of autonomic instability, duration of ventilatory support, hospital stay and mortality. Thirty-three patients were enrolled. At presentation, the incidence of severity of tetanus was as follows: Grade I: 5 (15%), Grade II: 13 (39%), Grade III: 14 (42%) and Grade IV: 1 (3%). Rigidity and mild spasms were controlled with magnesium therapy alone in six patients; all were Grades I or II. Additional sedatives were required in severe forms of tetanus. The average duration of ventilatory support was 18.3 +/- 16.0 days and the overall mortality was 22.9%. Asymptomatic hypocalcaemia was a universal finding. Magnesium sulphate therapy alone may not be efficacious for the treatment of severe tetanus.

  5. Prevention of thaumasite formation in concrete exposed to sulphate attack

    SciT

    Bellmann, F.; Stark, J.

    2007-08-15

    Thermodynamic calculations were performed to investigate at which sulphate ion concentration hardened concrete can be damaged by the formation of thaumasite. It is indicated that thaumasite can be formed from C-S-H phases and portlandite at very low sulphate concentrations in an aggressive solution. Higher sulphate ion concentrations are required in the absence of portlandite. Still higher sulphate ion concentrations are needed if C-S-H phases with a low calcium/silicon ratio are consumed. Therefore, it is suggested that the formation of thaumasite at low and moderate sulphate concentrations in the attacking solution can be avoided by lowering the calcium/silicon ratio in themore » C-S-H phases. This can be achieved by the addition of pozzolanic and latently hydraulic admixtures. During the reaction of these materials, portlandite is consumed and the calcium/silicon ratio of the C-S-H phases is lowered. The aforementioned concept was confirmed by studies published in the literature and also by experimental investigations reported in this paper.« less

  6. Zinc Deficiency Impacts CO2 Assimilation and Disrupts Copper Homeostasis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*

    PubMed Central

    Malasarn, Davin; Kropat, Janette; Hsieh, Scott I.; Finazzi, Giovanni; Casero, David; Loo, Joseph A.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Wollman, Francis-André; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient because of its role in catalysis and in protein stabilization, but excess zinc is deleterious. We distinguished four nutritional zinc states in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: toxic, replete, deficient, and limited. Growth is inhibited in zinc-limited and zinc-toxic cells relative to zinc-replete cells, whereas zinc deficiency is visually asymptomatic but distinguished by the accumulation of transcripts encoding ZIP family transporters. To identify targets of zinc deficiency and mechanisms of zinc acclimation, we used RNA-seq to probe zinc nutrition-responsive changes in gene expression. We identified genes encoding zinc-handling components, including ZIP family transporters and candidate chaperones. Additionally, we noted an impact on two other regulatory pathways, the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) and the nutritional copper regulon. Targets of transcription factor Ccm1 and various CAH genes are up-regulated in zinc deficiency, probably due to reduced carbonic anhydrase activity, validated by quantitative proteomics and immunoblot analysis of Cah1, Cah3, and Cah4. Chlamydomonas is therefore not able to grow photoautotrophically in zinc-limiting conditions, but supplementation with 1% CO2 restores growth to wild-type rates, suggesting that the inability to maintain CCM is a major consequence of zinc limitation. The Crr1 regulon responds to copper limitation and is turned on in zinc deficiency, and Crr1 is required for growth in zinc-limiting conditions. Zinc-deficient cells are functionally copper-deficient, although they hyperaccumulate copper up to 50-fold over normal levels. We suggest that zinc-deficient cells sequester copper in a biounavailable form, perhaps to prevent mismetallation of critical zinc sites. PMID:23439652

  7. Use of zinc as a treatment for traumatic brain injury in the rat: effects on cognitive and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cope, Elise C; Morris, Deborah R; Scrimgeour, Angus G; Levenson, Cathy W

    2012-09-01

    While treatments for the behavioral deficits associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are currently limited, animal models suggest that zinc supplementation may increase resilience to TBI. This work tests the hypothesis that zinc supplementation after TBI can be used as treatment to improve behavioral outcomes such as anxiety, depression, and learning and memory. TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact to the medial frontal cortex. After TBI, rats were fed either a zinc adequate (ZA, 30 ppm) or zinc supplemented (ZS, 180 ppm) diet. Additional rats in each dietary group (ZA or ZS) were given a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of zinc (30 mg/kg) 1 hour following injury. Brain injury resulted in significant increases in anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors as well as impairments in learning and memory. None of the zinc treatments (dietary or ip zinc) improved TBI-induced anxiety. The 2-bottle saccharin preference test for anhedonia revealed that dietary ZS also did not improve depression-like behaviors. However, dietary ZS combined with an early ip zinc injection significantly reduced anhedonia (P < .001). Dietary supplementation after injury, but not zinc injection, significantly improved (P < .05) cognitive behavior as measured by the time spent finding the hidden platform in the Morris water maze test compared with injured rats fed a ZA diet. These data suggest that zinc supplementation may be an effective treatment option for improving behavioral deficits such as cognitive impairment and depression following TBI.

  8. Transient symptomatic zinc deficiency in a preterm exclusively breast-fed infant.

    PubMed

    Laureano, André; Brás, Susana; Carvalho, Rodrigo; Amaro, Cristina; Cardoso, Jorge

    2014-02-18

    A 5-month-old female infant, preterm, exclusively breast-fed, presented with a 2-month history of erythematous, erosive, and crusted patches and plaques in a peri-oral, scalp, genital, and peri-anal distribution. A clinical diagnosis of zinc deficiency was confirmed by a low serum zinc level in the infant and decreased maternal breast milk zinc. Complete resolution occurred within two weeks of oral zinc supplementation. Acquired zinc deficiency is a rare nutritional disorder of infants. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment will prevent associated morbidity and complications.

  9. Kinetic studies of the murine foetal thymus using vincristine sulphate.

    PubMed

    Riches, A C; Carr, H M; McQueen, L; Thomas, D B

    1981-01-01

    The turnover time of the foetal thymus has been evaluated in CD1 mice using the metaphase arrest drug vincristine sulphate and also by direct cell counting and found to be 18 h (range 12--26) and 11.9 h (range 10.9--13.1) respectively. Vincristine sulphate can be used for cell kinetic studies on foetal thymus provided an appropriate dose (5 mgm per kgm body weight given intravenously) and time scale (less than 1 hour after injection) are used for these measurements. These conditions are different from those used for adult tissues. Using 125I-iododeoxyuridine uptake measurements, it was found that vincristine sulphate suppressed DNA synthesis in the foetal thymus but not in the maternal thymus at this dose. Only the G2 cohort of cells in the thymus entered mitosis.

  10. The ecology and biotechnology of sulphate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Muyzer, Gerard; Stams, Alfons J M

    2008-06-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are anaerobic microorganisms that use sulphate as a terminal electron acceptor in, for example, the degradation of organic compounds. They are ubiquitous in anoxic habitats, where they have an important role in both the sulphur and carbon cycles. SRB can cause a serious problem for industries, such as the offshore oil industry, because of the production of sulphide, which is highly reactive, corrosive and toxic. However, these organisms can also be beneficial by removing sulphate and heavy metals from waste streams. Although SRB have been studied for more than a century, it is only with the recent emergence of new molecular biological and genomic techniques that we have begun to obtain detailed information on their way of life.

  11. Corrosion Performance of Inconel 625 in High Sulphate Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Azzura

    2016-05-01

    Inconel 625 (UNS N06625) is a type of nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media, being especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. However, in aggressive environment, Inconel 625 will suffer corrosion attack like other metals. This research compared the corrosion performance of Inconel 625 when exposed to higher sulphate content compared to real seawater. The results reveal that Inconel 625 is excellent in resist the corrosion attack in seawater. However, at increasing temperature, the corrosion resistance of this metal decrease. The performance is same in seawater with high sulphate content at increasing temperature. It can be concluded that sulphate promote perforation on Inconel 625 and become aggressive agents that accelerate the corrosion attack.

  12. Zinc stress induces copper depletion in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Karl A; Pederick, Victoria G; Elbourne, Liam D H; Paulsen, Ian T; Paton, James C; McDevitt, Christopher A; Eijkelkamp, Bart A

    2017-03-11

    The first row transition metal ions zinc and copper are essential to the survival of many organisms, although in excess these ions are associated with significant toxicity. Here, we examined the impact of zinc and copper stress on Acinetobacter baumannii, a common opportunistic pathogen. We show that extracellular zinc stress induces a copper-specific depletion phenotype in A. baumannii ATCC 17978. Supplementation with copper not only fails to rescue this phenotype, but further exacerbates the copper depletion. Extensive analysis of the A. baumannii ATCC 17978 genome identified 13 putative zinc/copper resistance efflux pumps. Transcriptional analyses show that four of these transporters are responsive to zinc stress, five to copper stress and seven to the combination of zinc and copper stress, thereby revealing a likely foundation for the zinc-induced copper starvation in A. baumannii. In addition, we show that zinc and copper play crucial roles in management of oxidative stress and the membrane composition of A. baumannii. Further, we reveal that zinc and copper play distinct roles in macrophage-mediated killing of this pathogen. Collectively, this study supports the targeting of metal ion homeostatic mechanisms as an effective antimicrobial strategy against multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens.

  13. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  14. Folic acid improve developmental toxicity induced by aluminum sulphates.

    PubMed

    Yassa, Heba A; George, Safaa M; Mohamed, Heba K

    2017-03-01

    Aluminum sulphate has a significant toxic effects for humans. Aluminum is one of the most abundant metal on the Earth crust. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of short term exposure to aluminum sulphate on the bone development of the fetuses in rats, and if folic acid has a protective role upon that effects or not. Forty female rats were used, ten per group, GI served as negative control (receive nothing except normal feeding and water), GII served as positive control (receive water by gastric gavage), GIII treated with aluminum sulphate orally by gastric gavage and GIV treated with aluminum sulphate with folic acid. Mating occurred and known by presence of vaginal plug in the female rats. Rats were killed on day 18 of gestation. The female rats weight were significantly reduced in the treated group if compared with the control group (p>0.001), all parameters of the fetuses, fetal weight, malformation and the crown rump length reduced significantly p value were <0.000, <0.001, and <0.000 respectively. In histopathological results the aluminum treated group showed severe limited area of preossfication in fetuses vertebrae. Folic acid gave a protective role for all the hazardous effects of aluminum sulphate and prove the diameters measured and also the histopathological effects. Aluminum sulphate can produce hazardous effects on bone of the fetuses, which may affect the life style of these fetuses later on. Folic acid might give a protective role and so should be given to females who tried to conceive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of evening primrose oil as food supplement on reproduction in the blue fox.

    PubMed

    Tauson, A H; Forsberg, M

    1991-01-01

    Addition of evening primrose oil (EPO) to a blue fox diet in the reproduction period was evaluated in an experiment with 2 groups, each of 12 male and 25 female blue foxes, regarding the effects on reproductive performance. The experiment was carried out as a field trial and the experimental period lasted from March 10 until the end of the mating season (males) or early July (females). During this period the control group was fed the standard diet of the farm and the experimental group was fed the same diet supplemented with 4.5 g EPO and 2.5 mg zinc sulphate per animal and day. An addition of 10 mg vitamin E per 500 mg EPO was made. The results were evaluated regarding male and female treatment effects. There was an increased rate of abortions in the EPO-group, but simultaneously a non-significant decrease in the frequency of barren females, resulting in a similar level of females without litters in both groups. A tendency for increased litter size in the EPO group was found, mainly as an effect of male treatment, which might indicate an effect on semen quality.

  16. Zinc Signals and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc. PMID:29064429

  17. Does zinc moderate essential fatty acid and amphetamine treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed

    Arnold, L E; Pinkham, S M; Votolato, N

    2000-01-01

    Zinc is an important co-factor for metabolism relevant to neurotransmitters, fatty acids, prostaglandins, and melatonin, and indirectly affects dopamine metabolism, believed intimately involved in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To explore the relationship of zinc nutrition to essential fatty acid supplement and stimulant effects in treatment of ADHD, we re-analyzed data from an 18-subject double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover treatment comparison of d-amphetamine and Efamol (evening primrose oil, rich in gamma-linolenic acid). Subjects were categorized as zinc-adequate (n = 5), borderline zinc (n = 5), and zinc-deficient (n = 8) by hair, red cell, and urine zinc levels; for each category, placebo-active difference means were calculated on teachers' ratings. Placebo-controlled d-amphetamine response appeared linear with zinc nutrition, but the relationship of Efamol response to zinc appeared U-shaped; Efamol benefit was evident only with borderline zinc. Placebo-controlled effect size (Cohen's d) for both treatments ranged up to 1.5 for borderline zinc and dropped to 0.3-0.7 with mild zinc deficiency. If upheld by prospective research, this post-hoc exploration suggests that zinc nutrition may be important for treatment of ADHD even by pharmacotherapy, and if Efamol benefits ADHD, it likely does so by improving or compensating for borderline zinc nutrition.

  18. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  19. Zinc and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Juan P.; Guo, Liang; Yoo, Changwon; Stewart, Tiffanie S

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process through which cells overcome stressful conditions. Inasmuch as faulty autophagy has been associated with aging, neuronal degeneration disorders, diabetes, and fatty liver, autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning the role of zinc in the regulation of autophagy, the role of autophagy in zinc metabolism, and the potential role of autophagy as a mediator of the protective effects of zinc. Data from in vitro studies consistently support the notion that zinc is critical for early and late autophagy. Studies have shown inhibition of early and late autophagy in cells cultured in medium treated with zinc chelators. Conversely, excess zinc added to the medium has shown to potentiate the stimulation of autophagy by tamoxifen, H2O2, ethanol and dopamine. The potential role of autophagy in zinc homeostasis has just begun to be investigated.Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy dysregulation causes significant changes in cellular zinc homeostasis. Autophagy may mediate the protective effect of zinc against lipid accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation by promoting degradation of lipid droplets, inflammasomes, p62/SQSTM1 and damaged mitochondria.Studies with humans and animal models are necessary to determine whether autophagy is influenced by zinc intake. PMID:25012760

  20. Preparation, characterization and bioactivities of Athelia rolfsii exopolysaccharide-zinc complex (AEPS-zinc).

    PubMed

    Dong, Jinman; Li, Hongmei; Min, Weihong

    2018-07-01

    A new Athelia rolfsii exopolysaccharides (AEPS) were purified by Sephacryl S-300 and S-200. The physicochemical characteristics of AEPS fractions were assayed by HPGPC and GC methods. The structures of AEPS and AEPS‑zinc complex were characterized by SEM, FTIR and NMR. Moreover, the bioactivities of complex were also evaluated by experiments in vitro and in vivo. AEPSI consisted of glucose, galacturonic acid, talose, galactose, mannose and xylose, the relative contents of them were 24.74, 19.60, 33.65, 8.77, 7.97 and 5.28%, respectively. AEPSII consisted of glucose, inositol, galacturonic acid, ribitol, gluconic acid, talose and xylose, whose relative contents were 36.06, 21.21, 12.78, 11.07, 6.58, 5.45 and 6.82%, respectively. The Mw and Mn of AEPSI were 6.1324×10 4 and 1.4218×10 4 Da, those of AEPSII were 517 and 248Da. SEM observations showed that microstructures of AEPS and AEPS‑zinc complex were obviously different both in size and shape. FTIR and NMR analysis indicated that AEPS might chelate with zinc ion through hydroxy and carboxy group. In vitro experiments showed that AEPS‑zinc complex had a good bioavailability, in vivo experiments showed that it had good effect on improving zinc deficiency and antioxidant activities, which suggested that it could be used as zinc supplementation with high antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of tropospheric sulphate aerosols on the terrestrial carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, Alexey V.

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric sulphate aerosols (TSAs) may oxidise the photosynthesising tissues if they are taken up by plants. A parameterisation of this impact of tropospheric sulphate aerosols (TSAs) on the terrestrial gross primary production is suggested. This parameterisation is implemented into the global Earth system model developed at the A.M. Obukhov Institute of the Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS CM). With this coupled model, the simulations are performed which are forced by common anthropogenic and natural climate forcings based on historical reconstructions followed by the RCP 8.5 scenario. The model response to sulphate aerosol loading is subdivided into the climatic (related to the influence of TSA on the radiative transport in the atmosphere) and ecological (related to the toxic influence of sulphate aerosol on terrestrial plants) impacts. We found that the former basically dominates over the latter on a global scale and modifies the responses of the global vegetation and soil carbon stocks to external forcings by 10%. At a regional scale, however, ecological impact may be as much important as the climatic one.

  2. Microstructural Effects of Sulphate Attack in Sustainable Grouts for Micropiles.

    PubMed

    Ortega Álvarez, José Marcos; Esteban Pérez, María Dolores; Rodríguez Escribano, Raúl Rubén; Pastor Navarro, José Luís; Sánchez Martín, Isidro

    2016-11-08

    Nowadays, the use of micropiles has undergone a great development. In general, they are made with cement grout, reinforced with steel tubing. In Spain, these grouts are prepared using OPC, although the standards do not forbid the use of other cements, like sustainable ones. Micropiles are in contact with soils and groundwater, in which the presence of sulphates is common. Their deleterious effects firstly affect to the microstructure. Then, the aim of this research is to study the effects of sulphate attack in the microstructure of micropiles grouts, prepared with OPC, fly ash and slag commercial cements, compared to their behaviour when they are exposed to an optimum hardening condition. The microstructure evolution has been studied with the non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, which has never been used for detecting the effects of sulphate attack when slag and fly ash cements are used. Its results have been contrasted with mercury intrusion porosimetry and "Wenner" resistivity ones. The 28-day compressive strength of grouts has been also determined. The results of microstructure characterization techniques are in agreement, although impedance spectroscopy is the most sensitive for following the changes in the porous network of grouts. The results showed that micropiles made using fly ash and slag cements could have a good performance in contact with aggressive sodium sulphate media, even better than OPC ones.

  3. Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions.

    PubMed

    Dołhań, Agnieszka; Jelińska, Anna; Bębenek, Marcelina

    2014-01-01

    Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions was studied. Chromatographic separation and quantitative determination were performed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-DAD detection. During the stability study, poly(vinylchloride) minibags were filled with a solution containing 5 mg of ceftiofur sodium or cefquinome sulphate and diluted to 0.2 mg/mL with suitable intravenous solution depending on the test conditions. The solutions for the study were protected from light and stored at room temperature (22°C), refrigerated (6°C), frozen (-20°C) for 30 days, and then thawed at room temperature. A comparison of results obtained at 22°C and 6°C for the same intravenous solutions showed that temperature as well as components of solutions and their concentration had an influence on the stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate. It was found that ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate dissolved in intravenous solutions used in this study may be stored at room temperature and at 6°C for up to 48 h.

  4. Characterisation of chlorophyll a solubilised in sodium lauryl sulphate micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Sapre, A. V.; Mittal, Jai P.

    1980-01-01

    Poisson statistics has been applied to the problem of solubilisation of chlorophyll a in sodium lauryl sulphate micelles. Dilution experiments have been carried out to support the finding that each unit of chlorophyll a contributing to the 740 nm band contains just one chlorophyll a molecule.

  5. Microstructural Effects of Sulphate Attack in Sustainable Grouts for Micropiles

    PubMed Central

    Ortega Álvarez, José Marcos; Esteban Pérez, María Dolores; Rodríguez Escribano, Raúl Rubén; Pastor Navarro, José Luís; Sánchez Martín, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the use of micropiles has undergone a great development. In general, they are made with cement grout, reinforced with steel tubing. In Spain, these grouts are prepared using OPC, although the standards do not forbid the use of other cements, like sustainable ones. Micropiles are in contact with soils and groundwater, in which the presence of sulphates is common. Their deleterious effects firstly affect to the microstructure. Then, the aim of this research is to study the effects of sulphate attack in the microstructure of micropiles grouts, prepared with OPC, fly ash and slag commercial cements, compared to their behaviour when they are exposed to an optimum hardening condition. The microstructure evolution has been studied with the non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, which has never been used for detecting the effects of sulphate attack when slag and fly ash cements are used. Its results have been contrasted with mercury intrusion porosimetry and “Wenner” resistivity ones. The 28-day compressive strength of grouts has been also determined. The results of microstructure characterization techniques are in agreement, although impedance spectroscopy is the most sensitive for following the changes in the porous network of grouts. The results showed that micropiles made using fly ash and slag cements could have a good performance in contact with aggressive sodium sulphate media, even better than OPC ones. PMID:28774026

  6. Monitoring structural transformation of hydroxy-sulphate green rust in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmoula, M.; Zegeye, A.; Jorand, F.; Carteret, C.

    2006-01-01

    The activities of bacterial consortia enable organisms to maximize their metabolic capabilities. This article assesses the synergetic relationship between iron reducing bacteria (IRB), Shewanella putrefaciens and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Thus, the aim of this study was first to form a biogenic hydroxy-sulpahte green rust GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) through the bioreduction of lepidocrocite by S. putrefaciens and secondly to investigate if sulfate anions intercalated in the biogenic GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) could serve as final electron acceptor for a sulfate reducing bacterium, D. alaskensis. The results indicate that the IRB lead to the formation of GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) and this mineral serve as an electron acceptor for SRB. GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) precipitation and its transformation was demonstrated by using X-ray diffraction (DRX), Mössbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). These observations point out the possible acceleration of steel corrosion in marine environment in presence of IRB/SRB consortia.

  7. Effects of replacing a dietary antibacterial agent (zinc bacitracin) with copper salts in Cherry Valley Pekin meat ducks.

    PubMed

    Wu, D W; Wang, L C; Wen, C; Hooge, D M; Liang, C; Zhou, Y M

    2013-01-01

    1. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of high dietary copper concentrations obtained from tribasic copper chloride (TBCC, 58% copper) and copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4, 25% copper) in replacing antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in duck diets. 2. A total of 960 one-day-old Cherry Valley meat-strain ducks were divided into 3 treatment groups, with 8 replicates per treatment, in a 6-week feeding trial. The ducks were fed a basal diet supplemented with AGP (40 mg zinc bacitracin/kg and 40 mg garlicin/kg of diet) or 150 mg of Cu/kg of diet, given as either CuSO4 or TBCC. 3. The body weight, average daily gain, average daily feed intake and mortality of ducks were not affected by the dietary treatments. However, the feed/gain ratio of ducks that were fed TBCC diets was significantly lower than those of ducks that were fed CuSO4 diets and were similar to those in the AGP group. 4. TBCC increased the Cu content in the liver tissue of ducks compared with the content in those that were fed the diet supplemented with AGP. TBCC also increased the Fe and Zn content in breast muscles compared with that in ducks that were fed the diet supplemented with CuSO4. 5. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were significantly higher in the serum of ducks that received the diet supplemented with TBCC than AGP or CuSO4. TBCC treatment decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in serum of ducks compared with groups supplemented with CuSO4. 6. No significant difference was observed in liver or muscle fat content among the different dietary treatment groups. The serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was lower in ducks fed AGP diets than those fed CuSO4 diets. 7. It was concluded that the replacement of AGP with 150 mg of Cu/kg of feed from TBCC improved the feed efficiency, trace mineral deposition and antioxidant status more than when the source of copper was CuSO4.

  8. Moderate zinc deficiency increases cell death after brain injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yeiser, E Carden; Vanlandingham, Jacob W; Levenson, Cathy W

    2002-10-01

    Zinc supplementation has been used clinically to reduce Zn losses and protein turnover in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury. Despite the known role of zinc in cell survival and integrity, the influence of zinc status on central nervous system wound healing in the weeks and months after brain injury has not been addressed. In this investigation, we examined cell death after unilateral cortical stab wounds in adult rats (n = 5 per group) that were provided diets containing adequate zinc (30 mg Zn/kg diet), supplemental zinc (180 mg/kg), or moderately deficient zinc (5 mg/kg). Four weeks following the brain injury there was a 1.82-2.65-fold increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells with DNA fragmentation at the site of injury in animals receiving a moderately zinc deficient diet compared to animals receiving a zinc-adequate or supplemented diet (p0.05). Examination of the nuclear morphology of these cells suggested the presence of both apoptosis and necrosis. Immunohistochemistry showed that the TUNEL-positive cells expressed both ED-1 and OX-42, identifying them as microglia/macrophages. Thus it appears that adequate zinc status may be necessary to minimize the amount of neuroimmune cell death after brain injury.

  9. Dietary zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the development of preneoplastic lesions in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Romualdo, Guilherme Ribeiro; Goto, Renata Leme; Henrique Fernandes, Ana Angélica; Cogliati, Bruno; Barbisan, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Although there is a concomitance of zinc deficiency and high incidence/mortality for hepatocellular carcinoma in certain human populations, there are no experimental studies investigating the modifying effects of zinc on hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, we evaluated whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation alter the development of hepatocellular preneoplastic lesions (PNL). Therefore, neonatal male Balb/C mice were submitted to a diethylnitrosamine/2-acetylaminefluorene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis model. Moreover, mice were fed adequate (35 mg/kg diet), deficient (3 mg/kg) or supplemented (180 mg/kg) zinc diets. Mice were euthanized at 12 (early time-point) or 24 weeks (late time-point) after introducing the diets. At the early time-point, zinc deficiency decreased Nrf2 protein expression and GSH levels while increased p65 and p53 protein expression and the number of PNL/area. At the late time-point, zinc deficiency also decreased GSH levels while increased liver genotoxicity, cell proliferation into PNL and PNL size. In contrast, zinc supplementation increased antioxidant defense at both time-points but not altered PNL development. Our findings are the first to suggest that zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the PNL development in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. The decrease of Nrf2/GSH pathway and increase of liver genotoxicity, as well as the increase of p65/cell proliferation, are potential mechanisms to this zinc deficiency-mediated effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Zinc is an Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Agent: Its Role in Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ananda S.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc supplementation trials in the elderly showed that the incidence of infections was decreased by approximately 66% in the zinc group. Zinc supplementation also decreased oxidative stress biomarkers and decreased inflammatory cytokines in the elderly. In our studies in the experimental model of zinc deficiency in humans, we showed that zinc deficiency per se increased the generation of IL-1β and its mRNA in human mononuclear cells following LPS stimulation. Zinc supplementation upregulated A20, a zinc transcription factor, which inhibited the activation of NF-κB, resulting in decreased generation of inflammatory cytokines. Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are important contributing factors for several chronic diseases attributed to aging, such as atherosclerosis and related cardiac disorders, cancer, neurodegeneration, immunologic disorders and the aging process itself. Zinc is very effective in decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this review, the mechanism of zinc actions on oxidative stress and generation of inflammatory cytokines and its impact on health in humans will be presented. PMID:25988117

  11. Local and systemic tolerability of magnesium sulphate for tocolysis.

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, M; Heilmann, L; Berg, C; Wallwiener, D; Grischke, E; Münstedt, K; Spindler, A; Lang, U

    2003-04-25

    An open-label, randomised, parallel-group, study was conducted in three study centres in women with premature labor and indication for a single agent intravenous tocolysis therapy with magnesium sulphate. The aim of this study was to examine the local and general tolerability and side-effects of magnesium sulphate for tocolysis. Furthermore, we tested the tolerability of a ready-for-use magnesium solution. No measurements of efficacy were performed during this study. Initially, patients received a loading dose of 4.0 g magnesium sulphate administered over 30 min. Thereafter, a continuous intravenous infusion of 1-2 g magnesium sulphate per hour up to 21 days was given. Venous score (Maddox), vital signs, adverse events as well as general tolerability (assessed by investigator and patients) and blood parameters were assessed. We showed good local and systemic tolerability of high dose magnesium sulphate for tocolysis. Only seven patients (15%) were withdrawn from the study prematurely due to minor adverse events. Potential serious complications of MgSO(4) such as respiratory arrest or clinically relevant respiratory depression were not observed. The most frequently reported local adverse events were injection site pain, itching, erythema, swelling, induration and palpable venous cord. The most common systemic adverse events considered to be possibly related to the study drugs involved the nervous system (dizziness) followed by the digestive system (nausea, constipation). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure changed only slightly during the treatment. Respiratory rate and body temperature remained stable also. Toxic magnesium levels (>2.5 mmol/l) were not observed. The assessment of the clinical investigators with regard to tolerability was very good or good in 72.5% of the patients. The introduction of the ready-to-use solution has the advantage of eliminating the need to mix the solution prior to administration. This means a lower risk of overdose and

  12. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  13. Zinc in Early Life: A Key Element in the Fetus and Preterm Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Terrin, Gianluca; Berni Canani, Roberto; Di Chiara, Maria; Pietravalle, Andrea; Aleandri, Vincenzo; Conte, Francesca; De Curtis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is a key element for growth and development. In this narrative review, we focus on the role of dietary zinc in early life (including embryo, fetus and preterm neonate), analyzing consequences of zinc deficiency and adequacy of current recommendations on dietary zinc. We performed a systematic search of articles on the role of zinc in early life. We selected and analyzed 81 studies. Results of this analysis showed that preservation of zinc balance is of critical importance for the avoidance of possible consequences of low zinc levels on pre- and post-natal life. Insufficient quantities of zinc during embryogenesis may influence the final phenotype of all organs. Maternal zinc restriction during pregnancy influences fetal growth, while adequate zinc supplementation during pregnancy may result in a reduction of the risk of preterm birth. Preterm neonates are at particular risk to develop zinc deficiency due to a combination of different factors: (i) low body stores due to reduced time for placental transfer of zinc; (ii) increased endogenous losses; and (iii) marginal intake. Early diagnosis of zinc deficiency, through the measurement of serum zinc concentrations, may be essential to avoid severe prenatal and postnatal consequences in these patients. Typical clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency are growth impairment and dermatitis. Increasing data suggest that moderate zinc deficiency may have significant subclinical effects, increasing the risk of several complications typical of preterm neonates (i.e., necrotizing enterocolitis, chronic lung disease, and retinopathy), and that current recommended intakes should be revised to meet zinc requirements of extremely preterm neonates. Future studies evaluating the adequacy of current recommendations are advocated. PMID:26690476

  14. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  15. [Synergistic application of zinc and vitamin C to support memory, attention and the reduction of the risk of the neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Gromova, O A; Torshin, I Yu; Pronin, A V; Kilchevsky, M A

    Zinc and vitamin C supplementation of the body is important for CNS functioning. Zinc ions are involved in the neurotransmission (signal transmission from acetylcholine, catecholamine, serotonin, prostaglandin receptors) and in ubiquitin-related protein degradation. Zinc deficits are associated with Alzheimer's disease and depression. Zinc supplementation (10-30 mg daily) improves neurologic recovery rate in patients with stroke and brain injury, has a positive impact on memory and reduces hyperactivity in children. Vitamin C, a zinc synergist, maintains antioxidant resources of the brain, synaptic activity and detoxification. Vitamin C in dose 130-500 mg daily should be used to prevent dementia and neurodegenerative pathology.

  16. Role of dietary sulphate in the regulation of methanogenesis in the human large intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Christl, S U; Gibson, G R; Cummings, J H

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen produced during colonic fermentation may be excreted, or removed by H2 consuming bacteria such as methanogenic and sulphate reducing bacteria. In vitro, sulphate reducing bacteria compete with methanogenic bacteria for hydrogen when sulphate is present. In this study the hypothesis that sulphate in the diet could alter CH4 production in vivo has been tested. Six methane excreting volunteers were fed a low sulphate diet (1.6 mmol/d) for 34 days with the addition of 15 mmol sodium sulphate from days 11-20. Breath methane was measured and viable counts and metabolic activities of methanogenic bacteria and sulphate reducing bacteria determined in faeces. Whole gut transit time and daily stool weight were also measured. When sulphate was added to the diet, breath methane excretion decreased in three of the subjects while faecal sulphate reduction rates rose from 7.5 (0.5) to 20.3 (4.3) nmol SO4 reduced/h/g faeces. Sulphate reducing bacteria, which were not detected during the control diet, were found and viable counts of methanogenic bacteria fell from 10(7)-10(9)/g faeces to 10(6)/g. Methanogenic counts and breath CH4 recovered after sulphate addition was stopped. No change was found in the other three subjects. Faecal weights and transit times were not different between study periods. It is concluded that methanogenesis is regulated by dietary sulphate if sulphate reducing bacteria are present. Dietary sulphate may allow growth of sulphate reducing bacteria which inhibit the growth of methanogenic bacteria. This may explain the absence of CH4 in the breath of many people in western populations. PMID:1427377

  17. Zinc and redox signaling: perturbations associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Foster, Meika; Samman, Samir

    2010-11-15

    Cellular signal transduction pathways are influenced by the zinc and redox status of the cell. Numerous chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM), have been associated with impaired zinc utilization and increased oxidative stress. In humans, mutations in the MT-1A and ZnT8 genes, both of which are involved in the maintenance of zinc homeostasis, have been linked with DM development. Changes in levels of intracellular free zinc may exacerbate oxidative stress in CVD and DM by impacting glutathione homeostasis, nitric oxide signaling, and nuclear factor-kappa B-dependent cellular processes. Zinc ions have been shown to influence insulin and leptin signaling via the phosphoinositide 3′-kinase/Akt pathway, potentially linking an imbalance of zinc at the cellular level to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. The oxidative modification of cysteine residues in zinc coordination sites in proteins has been implicated in cellular signaling and regulatory pathways. Despite the many interactions between zinc and cellular stress responses, studies investigating the potential therapeutic benefit of zinc supplementation in the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-related chronic disease in humans are few and inconsistent. Further well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the effects of zinc supplementation in populations at various stages of CVD and DM progression.

  18. Sulphation of proteochondroitin and 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xyloside-chondroitin formed by mouse mastocytoma cells cultured in sulphate-deficient medium.

    PubMed Central

    Silbert, J E; Sugumaran, G; Cogburn, J N

    1993-01-01

    Mouse mastocytoma cells were cultured in medium containing [3H]GlcN and concentrations of [35S]sulphate varying from 0.01 to 0.5 mM. Intracellular [35S]sulphate incorporation increased severalfold from the lowest concentrations, reaching a maximum at 0.1-0.2 mM, whereas incorporation of [3H]hexosamine remained constant at all sulphate concentrations. Proteo[3H]-chondroitin [35S]sulphate was isolated and incubated with chondroitin ABC lyase, yielding 35S-labelled and/or 3H-labelled delta Di-0S and delta Di-4S disaccharide products. The increasing percentage of delta Di-4S was consistent with the increasing sulphate incorporation at each higher [35S]sulphate concentration. Examination of proteochondroitin [35S]sulphate size by Sepharose CL-6B chromatography indicated a range consistent with various numbers of glycosaminoglycan chains on the protease-resistant serglycin core protein. Alkali-cleaved chondroitin [35S]sulphate products indicated similar size distributions at all sulphate concentrations with no indication of preferential sulphation being related to smaller or larger size. DEAE-cellulose chromatography of [3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate glycosaminoglycans indicated a random undersulphation as [35S]sulphate concentration was lowered. Addition of 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xyloside to the cultures resulted in a 2-2.5-fold stimulation of [3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate synthesis with formation of beta-xyloside-[3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate which was much smaller, as estimated by Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, than the decreased amount of [3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate derived from proteo[3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate. Much higher concentrations of sulphate were necessary to produce sulphation of the beta-xyloside-[3H]chondroitin comparable with that of proteo[3H]-chondroitin, as indicated by chondroitin ABC lyase products and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The specific radioactivities of the [3H]GalN in the proteo[3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate and beta-xyloside-[3

  19. Zinc triggers microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, “amoeboid” morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 μM zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 – 30 μM zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-κB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-κB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders. PMID:18509044

  20. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  1. [Zinc and chronic enteropathies].

    PubMed

    Giorgi, P L; Catassi, C; Guerrieri, A

    1984-01-01

    In recent years the nutritional importance of zinc has been well established; its deficiency and its symptoms have also been recognized in humans. Furthermore, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica has been isolated, a rare but severe disease, of which skin lesions, chronic diarrhoea and recurring infections are the main symptoms. The disease is related to the malfunctioning of intestinal absorption of zinc and can be treated by administering pharmacological doses of zinc orally. Good dietary sources of zinc are meat, fish and, to a less extent, human milk. The amount of zinc absorbed in the small intestine is influenced by other nutrients: some compounds inhibit this process (dietary fiber, phytate) while others (picolinic acid, citric acid), referred to as Zn-binding ligands (ZnBL) facilitate it. Citric acid is thought to be the ligand which accounts for the high level of bioavailability of zinc in human milk. zinc absorption occurs throughout the small intestine, not only in the prossimal tract (duodenum and jejunum) but also in the distal tract (ileum). Diarrhoea is one of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, thus many illnesses distinguished by chronic diarrhoea entail a bad absorption of zinc. In fact, in some cases of chronic enteropathies in infants, like coeliac disease and seldom cystic fibrosis, a deficiency of zinc has been isolated. Some of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, like retarded growth and hypogonadism, have been related to hypozinchemia which is present in this illness. Finally, it is possible that some of the dietary treatments frequently used for persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea (i.e. cow's milk exclusion, abuse and misuse of dietary fiber like carrot and carub powder, use of soy formula) can constitute a scarce supply of zinc and therefore could promote the persistency of diarrhoea itself.

  2. Differential sensitivities of cellular XPA and PARP-1 to arsenite inhibition and zinc rescue.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xixi; Cooper, Karen L; Huestis, Juliana; Hudson, Laurie G; Liu, Ke Jian

    2017-09-15

    Arsenite directly binds to the zinc finger domains of the DNA repair protein poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, and inhibits PARP-1 activity in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. PARP inhibition by arsenite enhances ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA damage in keratinocytes, and the increase in DNA damage is reduced by zinc supplementation. However, little is known about the effects of arsenite and zinc on the zinc finger nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). In this study, we investigated the difference in response to arsenite exposure between XPA and PARP-1, and the differential effectiveness of zinc supplementation in restoring protein DNA binding and DNA damage repair. Arsenite targeted both XPA and PARP-1 in human keratinocytes, resulting in zinc loss from each protein and a pronounced decrease in XPA and PARP-1 binding to chromatin as demonstrated by Chip-on-Western assays. Zinc effectively restored DNA binding of PARP-1 and XPA to chromatin when zinc concentrations were equal to those of arsenite. In contrast, zinc was more effective in rescuing arsenite-augmented direct UVR-induced DNA damage than oxidative DNA damage. Taken together, our findings indicate that arsenite interferes with PARP-1 and XPA binding to chromatin, and that zinc supplementation fully restores DNA binding activity to both proteins in the cellular context. Interestingly, rescue of arsenite-inhibited DNA damage repair by supplemental zinc was more sensitive for DNA damage repaired by the XPA-associated NER pathway than for the PARP-1-dependent BER pathway. This study expands our understanding of arsenite's role in DNA repair inhibition and co-carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Zinc decreases C-reactive protein, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokines in elderly subjects: a potential implication of zinc as an atheroprotective agent123

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Bin; Prasad, Ananda S; Beck, Frances WJ; Fitzgerald, James T; Snell, Diane; Bao, Ginny W; Singh, Tapinder; Cardozo, Lavoisier J

    2010-01-01

    Background: Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are common risk factors for atherosclerosis. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that can function as an antiinflammatory and antioxidative agent, and as such, it may have atheroprotective properties. Objective: We hypothesized that zinc down-regulates the production of atherosclerosis-related cytokines/molecules in humans. Design: To examine these effects, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo trial of zinc supplementation in elderly subjects. We recruited 40 healthy elderly subjects (aged 56–83 y) and randomly assigned them to 2 groups. One group was given an oral dose of 45 mg zinc/d as a gluconate for 6 mo. The other group was given a placebo. Cell culture models were conducted to study the mechanism of zinc as an atheroprotective agent. Results: After 6 mo of supplementation, the intake of zinc, compared with intake of placebo, increased the concentrations of plasma zinc and decreased the concentrations of plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-6, macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), secretory phospholipase A2, and malondialdehyde and hydroxyalkenals (MDA+HAE) in elderly subjects. Regression analysis showed that changes in concentrations of plasma zinc were inversely associated with changes in concentrations of plasma hsCRP, MCP-1, VCAM-1, and MDA+HAE after 6 mo of supplementation. In cell culture studies, we showed that zinc decreased the generation of tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, VCAM-1, and MDA+HAE and the activation of nuclear transcription factor κB and increased antiinflammatory proteins A20 and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-α in human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells and human aortic endothelial cells compared with zinc-deficient cells. Conclusion: These findings suggest that zinc may have a protective effect in atherosclerosis because of its antiinflammatory and antioxidant functions

  4. Adverse effects of parental zinc deficiency on metal homeostasis and embryonic development in a zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Laura M; Nkrumah-Elie, Yasmeen M; Truong, Lisa; Barton, Carrie L; Knecht, Andrea L; Gonnerman, Greg D; Wong, Carmen P; Tanguay, Robert L; Ho, Emily

    2017-05-01

    The high prevalence of zinc deficiency is a global public health concern, and suboptimal maternal zinc consumption has been associated with adverse effects ranging from impaired glucose tolerance to low birthweights. The mechanisms that contribute to altered development and poor health in zinc deficient offspring are not completely understood. To address this gap, we utilized the Danio rerio model and investigated the impact of dietary zinc deficiency on adults and their developing progeny. Zinc deficient adult fish were significantly smaller in size, and had decreases in learning and fitness. We hypothesized that parental zinc deficiency would have an impact on their offspring's mineral homeostasis and embryonic development. Results from mineral analysis showed that parental zinc deficiency caused their progeny to be zinc deficient. Furthermore, parental dietary zinc deficiency had adverse consequences for their offspring including a significant increase in mortality and decreased physical activity. Zinc deficient embryos had altered expression of genes that regulate metal homeostasis including several zinc transporters (ZnT8, ZnT9) and the metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF-1). Zinc deficiency was also associated with decreased expression of genes related to diabetes and pancreatic development in the embryo (Insa, Pax4, Pdx1). Decreased expression of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt4, Dnmt6) was also found in zinc deficient offspring, which suggests that zinc deficiency in parents may cause altered epigenetic profiles for their progeny. These data should inform future studies regarding zinc deficiency and pregnancy and suggest that supplementation of zinc deficient mothers prior to pregnancy may be beneficial. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A question mark on zinc deficiency in 185 million people in Pakistan--possible way out.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Nauman; Ahmed, Anwaar; Bhatti, Muhammad Shahbaz; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Ahmad, Asif; Rafaqat, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews research published in recent years concerning the effects of zinc deficiency, its consequences, and possible solutions. Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for over 300 zinc metalloenzymes and required for normal nucleic acid, protein, and membrane metabolism. Zinc deficiency is one of the ten biggest factors contributing to burden of disease in developing countries. Populations in South Asia, South East Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa are at greatest risk of zinc deficiency. Zinc intakes are inadequate for about a third of the population and stunting affects 40% of preschool children. In Pakistan, zinc deficiency is an emerging health problem as about 20.6% children are found in the levels of zinc, below 60 μg/dL. Signs and symptoms caused by zinc deficiency are poor appetite, weight loss, and poor growth in childhood, delayed healing of wounds, taste abnormalities, and mental lethargy. As body stores of zinc decline, these symptoms worsen and are accompanied by diarrhea, recurrent infection, and dermatitis. Daily zinc requirements for an adult are 12-16 mg/day. Iron, calcium and phytates inhibit the absorption of zinc therefore simultaneous administration should not be prescribed. Zinc deficiency and its effects are well known but the ways it can help in treatment of different diseases is yet to be discovered. Improving zinc intakes through dietary improvements is a complex task that requires considerable time and effort. The use of zinc supplements, dietary modification, and fortifying foods with zinc are the best techniques to combat its deficiency.

  6. Adverse effects of parental zinc deficiency on metal homeostasis and embryonic development in a zebrafish model

    PubMed Central

    Beaver, Laura M.; Nkrumah-Elie, Yasmeen M.; Truong, Lisa; Barton, Carrie L.; Knecht, Andrea L.; Gonnerman, Greg D.; Wong, Carmen P.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Ho, Emily

    2017-01-01

    The high prevalence of zinc deficiency is a global public health concern, and suboptimal maternal zinc consumption has been associated with adverse effects ranging from impaired glucose tolerance to low birthweights. The mechanisms that contribute to altered development and poor health in zinc deficient offspring are not completely understood. To address this gap, we utilized the Danio rerio model and investigated the impact of dietary zinc deficiency on adults and their developing progeny. Zinc deficient adult fish were significantly smaller in size, and had decreases in learning and fitness. We hypothesized that parental zinc deficiency would have an impact on their offspring’s mineral homeostasis and embryonic development. Results from mineral analysis showed that parental zinc deficiency caused their progeny to be zinc deficient. Furthermore, parental dietary zinc deficiency had adverse consequences for their offspring including a significant increase in mortality and decreased physical activity. Zinc deficient embryos had altered expression of genes that regulate metal homeostasis including several zinc transporters (ZnT8, ZnT9) and the metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF-1). Zinc deficiency was also associated with decreased expression of genes related to diabetes and pancreatic development in the embryo (Insa, Pax4, Pdx1). Decreased expression of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt4, Dnmt6) was also found in zinc deficient offspring, which suggests that zinc deficiency in parents may cause altered epigenetic profiles for their progeny. These data should inform future studies regarding zinc deficiency and pregnancy and suggest that supplementation of zinc deficient mothers prior to pregnancy may be beneficial. PMID:28268202

  7. Solubility of glucose isomerase in ammonium sulphate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayen, N.; Akins, J.; Campbell-Smith, S.; Blow, D. M.

    1988-07-01

    In order to quantify protein crystallization techniques, a method for measuring protein solubility in high salt concentration has been developed. It is based on a sensitive protein concentration assay, using binding to Coomassie blue dye. The protein concentration in a supernatant from which glucose isomerase is crystallising has been studied as a function of time. Equilibrium is established in 3-5 weeks, and the protein concentration remaining in solution is defined as the solubility of the protein. The solubility of glucose isomerase has been determined as a function of ammonium sulphate concentration; its variation with pH in 1.50M ammonium sulphate has also been studied. A remarkable dependence on pH over the range of 5.5 to 6.5 has been observed.

  8. Physicochemical and in vitro deposition properties of salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide and salbutamol sulphate/excipient spray dried mixtures for use in dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Deirdre O; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2006-09-28

    The physicochemical and aerodynamic properties of spray dried powders of the drug/drug mixture salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide were investigated. The in vitro deposition properties of spray dried salbutamol sulphate and the spray dried drug/excipient mixtures salbutamol sulphate/lactose and salbutamol sulphate/PEG were also determined. Spray drying ipratropium bromide monohydrate resulted in a crystalline material from both aqueous and ethanolic solution. The product spray dried from aqueous solution consisted mainly of ipratropium bromide anhydrous. There was evidence of the presence of another polymorphic form of ipratropium bromide. When spray dried from ethanolic solution the physicochemical characterisation suggested the presence of an ipratropium bromide solvate with some anhydrous ipratropium bromide. Co-spray drying salbutamol sulphate with ipratropium bromide resulted in amorphous composites, regardless of solvent used. Particles were spherical and of a size suitable for inhalation. Twin impinger studies showed an increase in the fine particle fraction (FPF) of spray dried salbutamol sulphate compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate:ipratropium bromide 10:1 and 5:1 systems also showed an increase in FPF compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Most co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate/excipient systems investigated demonstrated FPFs greater than that of micronised drug alone. The exceptions to this were systems containing PEG 4000 20% or PEG 20,000 40% both of which had FPFs not significantly different from micronised salbutamol sulphate. These two systems were crystalline unlike most of the other spray dried composites examined which were amorphous in nature.

  9. A diagnostic challenge: a case of acrodermatitis enteropathica without hypozincemia and with maternal milk of low zinc level.

    PubMed

    Tatlican, Semih; Yamangokturk, Burcu; Eren, Cemile; Gulbahar, Ozlem; Eskioglu, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is a rare and distinct form of zinc deficiency with a requirement of life-long zinc supplementation and inherited in a recessive manner. Transient nutritional zinc deficiency is also a well known condition mimicking acrodermatitis enteropathica like skin changes in preterm and term infants who are generally breastfed with a low level of zinc containing milk. Here, a 4-month-old male, term and fully breastfed acrodermatitis enteropathica case without hypozincemia and with maternal milk of low zinc level is presented. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Hepatotoxicity induced by paclitaxel interaction with turmeric in association with a microcystin from a contaminated dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Luísa; Rodrigues, José A; Azevedo, Joana; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Eiras, Eduardo; Campos, Maria Graça

    2018-05-29

    A 67-year-old Caucasian male with lung cancer was presented to the Emergency Department with asthenia, anorexia, jaundice and choluria. The patient's lung cancer was being treated medically by a combination of paclitaxel/carboplatin with bi-monthly frequency. The patient was also self-medicating with several natural products, including Chlorella (520 mg/day), Silybum marianum (total of 13.5 mg silymarin/day), zinc sulphate (5.5 mg), selenium (50 μg) and 15 g/day of Curcuma longa. In first chemotherapy cycle no toxicity was observed even he was taking other medications as budesonide and sitagliptin. The toxic events started only after the introduction of the dietary products. Chlorella had contamination with cyanobacteria (Oscillatoriales) and 1.08 μg of cyanotoxin Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) per gram of biomass was found. Patient was consuming ca 0.01 μg MC-LR/kg/day. This case report describes the first known case of paclitaxel toxicity probably related to pharmacokinetic interaction with Turmeric and a contaminated Chlorella supplement resulting in an acute toxic hepatitis and the impact on oncologic patient health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microcirculatory effects of zinc on fructose-fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, R C; Barros, C M M R; Boa, B C S; Bouskela, E

    2016-04-01

    Fructose is a major dietary component directly related to vascular dysfunction and diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Zinc is considered a non-pharmacological alternative for treating diabetes due to its antioxidant and hyperglycemia-lowering effects in diabetic animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary zinc supplementation on the microcirculatory parameters of fructose-fed hamsters. Male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were fed drinking water substituted by 10% fructose solution for 60 days, whereas control animals were fed drinking water alone. Their microcirculatory function was evaluated using cheek pouch preparation, as well as their blood glucose and serum insulin levels. Their microcirculatory responses to acetylcholine (ACh, an endothelium-dependent vasodilator) and to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an endothelium-independent vasodilator) as well as the increase in macromolecular permeability induced by 30 min of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) were noted. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was significantly increased in control animals with high zinc supplementation compared to the groups without zinc supplementation. Zinc was able to protect against plasma leakage induced by I/R in all control and fructose-fed groups, although the microvascular permeability was higher in animals fed drinking water substituted by 10% fructose solution compared to those fed filtered drinking water alone. Our results indicate that dietary zinc supplementation can improve microvascular dysfunction by increasing endothelial-dependent dilatation and reducing the increase in macromolecular permeability induced by I/R in fructose-fed animals. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil acidification from atmospheric ammonium sulphate in forest canopy throughfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breemen, N.; Burrough, P. A.; Velthorst, E. J.; van Dobben, H. F.; de Wit, Toke; Ridder, T. B.; Reijnders, H. F. R.

    1982-10-01

    Acid rain commonly has high concentrations of dissolved SO2-4, NH+4 and NO-3. Sulphuric and nitric acids are usually considered to be the acidic components, whereas ammonium has a tendency to increase the pH of rainwater1. Ammonium can be transformed to nitric acid in soil but this source of acidity is generally less important than wet and dry deposition of free acids2,3. Here we describe the occurrence of high concentrations of ammonium in canopy throughfall (rainwater falling through the tree canopy) and stemflow in woodland areas in the Netherlands, resulting in acid inputs to soils two to five times higher than those previously described for acid atmospheric deposition2-5. The ammonium is present as ammonium sulphate, which probably forms by interaction of ammonia (volatilized from manure) with sulphur dioxide (from fossil fuels), on the surfaces of vegetation. After leaching by rainwater the ammonium sulphate reaching the soil oxidizes rapidly to nitric and sulphuric acid, producing extremely low pH values (2.8-3.5) and high concentrations of dissolved aluminium in the non-calcareous soils studied. Deposition of ammonium sulphate on the surfaces of vegetation and its environmental consequences are probably most important in areas with intensive animal husbandry.

  13. Tracing nitrates and sulphates in river basins using isotope techniques.

    PubMed

    Rock, L; Mayer, B

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to outline how stable isotope techniques can contribute to the elucidation of the sources and the fate of riverine nitrate and sulphate in watershed studies. The example used is the Oldman River Basin (OMRB), located in southern Alberta (Canada). Increasing sulphate concentrations and decreasing delta(34)S values along the flowpath of the Oldman River indicate that oxidation of pyrite in tills is a major source of riverine sulphate in the agriculturally used portion of the OMRB. Chemical and isotopic data showed that manure-derived nitrogen contributes significantly to the increase in nitrate concentrations in the Oldman River and its tributaries draining agricultural land. It is suggested that hydrological conditions control agricultural return flows to the surface water bodies in southern Alberta and impart significant seasonal variations on concentrations and isotopic compositions of riverine nitrate. Combining isotopic, chemical, and hydrometric data permitted us to estimate the relative contribution of major sources to the total solute fluxes. Hence, we submit that isotopic measurements can make an important contribution to the identification of nutrient and pollutant sources and to river basin management.

  14. Magnesium sulphate attenuates arterial pressure increase during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Jee, D; Lee, D; Yun, S; Lee, C

    2009-10-01

    Magnesium is well known to inhibit catecholamine release and attenuate vasopressin-stimulated vasoconstriction. We investigated whether i.v. magnesium sulphate attenuates the haemodynamic stress responses to pneumoperitoneum by changing neurohumoral responses during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Thirty-two patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to two groups; a control group was given saline, and a magnesium group received magnesium sulphate 50 mg kg(-1) immediately before pneumoperitoneum. Arterial pressure, heart rate, serum magnesium, plasma renin activity (PRA), and catecholamine, cortisol, and vasopressin levels were measured. Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures were greater in the control group (P<0.05) than in the magnesium group at 10, 20, and 30 min post-pneumoperitoneum. Norepinephrine or epinephrine levels [pg ml(-1), mean (SD)] were higher in the control group than in the magnesium group at 5 [211 (37) vs 138 (18)] or 10 min [59 (19) vs 39 (9)] post-pneumoperitoneum, respectively (P<0.05). In the control group, vasopressin levels [pg ml(-1), mean (SD)] were higher compared with the magnesium group at 5 [64 (18) vs 35 (9), P<0.01] and 10 min [65 (18) vs 47 (11), P<0.05] post-pneumoperitoneum. There were no significant differences between the groups in PRA and cortisol levels. I.V. magnesium sulphate before pneumoperitoneum attenuates arterial pressure increases during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This attenuation is apparently related to reductions in the release of catecholamine, vasopressin, or both.

  15. Physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity of sulphated zirconia nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mftah, Ae; Alhassan, Fatah H; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Webster, Thomas J; Sh-eldin, Mohammed; Rasedee, Abdullah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Rashid, Shah Samiur

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle sulphated zirconia with Brønsted acidic sites were prepared here by an impregnation reaction followed by calcination at 600°C for 3 hours. The characterization was completed using X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunner-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the anticancer and antimicrobial effects were investigated for the first time. This study showed for the first time that the exposure of cancer cells to sulphated zirconia nanoparticles (3.9–1,000 μg/mL for 24 hours) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, as determined by (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Similar promising results were observed for reducing bacteria functions. In this manner, this study demonstrated that sulphated zirconia nanoparticles with Brønsted acidic sites should be further studied for a wide range of anticancer and antibacterial applications. PMID:25632233

  16. Molecular structure of dextran sulphate sodium in aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Every, Hayley A.; Jiskoot, Wim; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Buijs, Wim

    2018-03-01

    Here we propose a 3D-molecular structural model for dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in a neutral aqueous environment based on the results of a molecular modelling study. The DSS structure is dominated by the stereochemistry of the 1,6-linked α-glucose units and the presence of two sulphate groups on each α-glucose unit. The structure of DSS can be best described as a helix with various patterns of di-sulphate substitution on the glucose rings. The presence of a side chain does not alter the 3D-structure of the linear main chain much, but affects the overall spatial dimension of the polymer. The simulated polymers have a diameter similar to or in some cases even larger than model α-hemolysin nano-pores for macromolecule transport in many biological processes, indicating a size-limited translocation through such pores. All results of the molecular modelling study are in line with previously reported experimental data. This study establishes the three-dimensional structure of DSS and summarizes the spatial dimension of the polymer, serving as the basis for a better understanding on the molecular level of DSS-involved electrostatic interaction processes with biological components like proteins and cell pores.

  17. [Effects of zinc deficiency in pregnancy on the mother and the newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Favier, A; Favier, M

    1990-01-01

    There seems to be a zinc deficiency during pregnancy in view of the low serum zinc levels, but especially low zinc levels in hair and leucocytes. The need for zinc supplements is still ill-defined but represents at least 5 mg per day which are not covered by the diet and taken from the maternal reserves. Therefore the risk of deficiency is real and its manifestations are numerous. There is a risk of spontaneous abortion, gravidic toxemia, treatment-resistant anemia, abnormally prolonged gestation and difficult delivery for the mother. As for the fetus, with zinc deficiency there is a risk of hypotrophism and malformations with potentialization of the teratogenic effect of alcohol and many medications. Besides, in animals, zinc deficiency during pregnancy results in late effects several months after birth: decrease immunity, learning or memory disorders. In view of all these consequences, administration of supplements is imperative and must be evaluated providing that it does not exceed 50 mg of zinc per day. Besides, it seems preferable to provide balanced multisupplements in minerals and vitamins, since supplement in iron alone results in zinc deficiency.

  18. A systematic review on zinc for the prevention and treatment of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Vishwanathan, Rohini; Chung, Mei; Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2013-06-12

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the evidence on zinc intake from foods and supplements in the primary prevention and treatment of AMD. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, and case-control studies that investigated zinc intake from foods and/or supplements, and AMD in men and women with a mean age of 50 years or older were included. Medline and Cochrane Central were searched from inception to February 2012 and November 2012, respectively. Data extraction and quality appraisal were done on all eligible studies. TEN STUDIES WERE INCLUDED: four RCTs, four prospective cohort, and two retrospective cohort studies. Age-related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) showed zinc treatment to significantly reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD. The risk of visual acuity loss was of similar magnitude, but not statistically significant. Two RCTs reported statistically significant increases in visual acuity in early AMD patients and one RCT showed no effect of zinc treatment on visual acuity in advanced AMD patients. Results from six cohort studies on associations between zinc intake and incidence of AMD were inconsistent. Current evidence on zinc intake for the prevention of AMD is inconclusive. Based on the strength of AREDS, we can conclude that zinc treatment may be effective in preventing progression to advanced AMD. Zinc supplementation alone may not be sufficient to produce clinically meaningful changes in visual acuity.

  19. Zinc status in South Asian populations--an update.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2013-06-01

    This article attempts to highlight the prevalence of zinc deficiency and its health and economic consequences in South Asian developing countries and to shed light on possible approaches to combating zinc deficiency. A computer-based search was performed on PubMed, Google, and ScienceDirect.com to retrieve relevant scientific literature published between 2000 and 2012. The search yielded 194 articles, of which 71 were culled. Studies were further screened on the basis of population groups, age and sex, pregnancy, and lactation. The most relevant articles were included in the review. Cutoffs for serum zinc concentration defined for zinc deficiency were 65 microg/dL for males and females aged < 10 years, 66 microg/dL for non-pregnant females, and 70 microg/dL for males aged > or = 10 years. Population segments from rural and urban areas of South Asian developing countries were included in the analysis. They comprised pregnant and lactating women, preschool and school children. The analysis reveals that zinc deficiency is high among children, pregnant and lactating women in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Diarrhoea has been established as a leading cause to intensify zinc deficiency in Bangladesh. Little has been done in Sri Lanka and Nepal to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency precisely. A substantial population segment of the South Asian developing countries is predisposed to zinc deficiency which is further provoked by increased requirements for zinc under certain physiological conditions. Supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification are the most viable strategies to enhancing zinc status among various population groups.

  20. Dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ron J; King, Doug S; Lea, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of these products is supported by a sound research base and some may even be harmful to the athlete. Special sports foods, including energy bars and sports drinks, have a real role to play, and some protein supplements and meal replacements may also be useful in some circumstances. Where there is a demonstrated deficiency of an essential nutrient, an increased intake from food or from supplementation may help, but many athletes ignore the need for caution in supplement use and take supplements in doses that are not necessary or may even be harmful. Some supplements do offer the prospect of improved performance; these include creatine, caffeine, bicarbonate and, perhaps, a very few others. There is no evidence that prohormones such as androstenedione are effective in enhancing muscle mass or strength, and these prohormones may result in negative health consequences, as well as positive drug tests. Contamination of supplements that may cause an athlete to fail a doping test is widespread.

  1. Zinc bioavailability in pork loin

    SciT

    Hortin, A.E.; Bechtel, P.J. Baker, D.H.

    1991-03-15

    Pork loins were uniformly trimmed and divided into three groups: raw, roasted and braised. Following cooking, the loins were freeze dried and then ground to a fine granular consistency. Zinc levels of 51, 60 and 63 mg/kg dry matter (DM) were contained in the raw, roasted and braised products, respectively. The chick bioavailability (BV) assay employed a Zn-deficient soy isolate basal diet that was supplemented with 0, 5 or 10 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO{sub 4}{center dot}H{sub 2}O to produce a standard straight-line response in tibia Zn as a function of supplemental Zn intake. Experimental Zn sources were also added tomore » the basal diet to provide 10 mg Zn/kg. Standard curve methodology indicated that Zn BV was unaffected by cooking. Roasted pork lion had a Zn BV of 184% relative to ZnSO{sub 4}{center dot}H{sub 2}O. Addition of 0.40% L-cysteine to the diet containing 10 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO{sub 4}{center dot}H{sub 2}O increased Zn BV to 175%. Results with histidine as a Zn-enhancing factor were variable. It is apparent that pork loin is an excellent source of bioavailable Zn, and SH-containing compounds such as cysteine and glutathione that are present in meat may contribute to enhanced gut absorption of meat-source Zn.« less

  2. Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

  3. The effectiveness of a dentifrice without sodium lauryl sulphate on dental plaque and gingivitis - a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sälzer, S; Rosema, Nam; Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N L; Slot, D E; Timmer, C; Dörfer, C E; Van der Weijden, G A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect on dental plaque and gingivitis of a dentifrice without sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) compared to two SLS-containing dentifrices. For this double-blind, parallel study, 90 volunteers having moderate gingival inflammation (≥40%) were randomly divided among three groups: one group using non-SLS dentifrice containing enzymes, colostrum and low concentrations of zinc and two control groups each using different SLS-containing dentifrices. Dental plaque scores (Turesky modification of Quigley & Hein) and gingivitis scores (Bleeding On Marginal Probing) were assessed at baseline, after 2 and 4 weeks. Eighty-nine participants provided evaluable data. A slight decrease in gingivitis scores was observed for all groups over 4 weeks, which was statistically significant for the non-SLS group. Mean values for dental plaque scores did not show major differences over 4 weeks. For both parameters, no significant differences between groups could be observed at any time point. Patient appreciation was in favour of the SLS groups especially regarding the foaming effect. No significant differences could be observed with respect to the effect on plaque and gingivitis between SLS-containing and SLS-free dentifrice containing enzymes, colostrum and low concentration zinc. Patients enjoyed the duration of taste and the 'foaming effect' of SLS-containing dentifrices better. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Combined strong anion-exchange HPLC and PAGE approach for the purification of heparan sulphate oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Vivès, R R; Goodger, S; Pye, D A

    2001-02-15

    Heparan sulphates are highly sulphated linear polysaccharides involved in many cellular functions. Their biological properties stem from their ability to interact with a wide range of proteins. An increasing number of studies, using heparan sulphate-derived oligosaccharides, suggest that specific structural features within the polysaccharide are responsible for ligand recognition and regulation. In the present study, we show that strong anion-exchange HPLC alone, a commonly used technique for purification of heparan sulphate-derived oligosaccharides, may not permit the isolation of highly pure heparan sulphate oligosaccharide species. This was determined by PAGE analysis of hexa-, octa- and decasaccharide samples deemed to be pure by strong anion-exchange HPLC. In addition, subtle differences in the positioning of sulphate groups within heparan sulphate hexasaccharides were impossible to detect by strong anion-exchange HPLC. PAGE analysis on the other hand afforded excellent resolution of these structural isomers. The precise positioning of specific sulphate groups has been implicated in determining the specificity of heparan sulphate interactions and biological activities; hence, the purification of oligosaccharide species that differ in this way becomes an important issue. In this study, we have used strong anion-exchange HPLC and PAGE techniques to allow production of the homogeneous heparan sulphate oligosaccharide species that will be required for the detailed study of structure/activity relationships.

  5. The action of diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate on rat blood vessels: a comparison with cromakalim.

    PubMed Central

    Newgreen, D. T.; Bray, K. M.; McHarg, A. D.; Weston, A. H.; Duty, S.; Brown, B. S.; Kay, P. B.; Edwards, G.; Longmore, J.; Southerton, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    1. The actions of diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate have been compared with those of cromakalim in rat aorta and portal vein. 2. Diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate hyperpolarized the rat portal vein in a similar manner to cromakalim. 3. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate increased 42K and 86Rb efflux from rat portal vein, although minoxidil sulphate had only a small effect on 86Rb efflux. 4. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate increased 42K efflux from rat aorta but only cromakalim and diazoxide increased 86Rb efflux from this tissue. 5. Glibenclamide inhibited the relaxant actions of cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate on rat aorta and the increase in 42K efflux produced by these agents in this tissue. 6. Diazoxide relaxed an 80 mM KCl-induced contraction of rat aorta, whilst cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate were without effect. 7. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate had no effect on cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP concentrations in rat aorta. 8. It is concluded that diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate like cromakalim exhibit K+ channel opening properties in vascular smooth muscle. Diazoxide exerts an additional inhibitory action not related to the production of cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP. The action of minoxidil sulphate may be primarily located at a K+ channel which is relatively impermeable to 86Rb. PMID:2167738

  6. Transcriptional response of Medicago truncatula sulphate transporters to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis with and without sulphur stress.

    PubMed

    Casieri, Leonardo; Gallardo, Karine; Wipf, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Sulphur is an essential macronutrient for plant growth, development and response to various abiotic and biotic stresses due to its key role in the biosynthesis of many S-containing compounds. Sulphate represents a very small portion of soil S pull and it is the only form that plant roots can uptake and mobilize through H(+)-dependent co-transport processes implying sulphate transporters. Unlike the other organically bound forms of S, sulphate is normally leached from soils due to its solubility in water, thus reducing its availability to plants. Although our knowledge of plant sulphate transporters has been growing significantly in the past decades, little is still known about the effect of the arbuscular mycorrhiza interaction on sulphur uptake. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur measurements in plant parts and expression analysis of genes encoding putative Medicago sulphate transporters (MtSULTRs) were performed to better understand the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal interaction on Medicago truncatula plants colonized by Glomus intraradices at different sulphate concentrations. Mycorrhization significantly promoted plant growth and sulphur content, suggesting increased sulphate absorption. In silico analyses allowed identifying eight putative MtSULTRs phylogenetically distributed over the four sulphate transporter groups. Some putative MtSULTRs were transcribed differentially in roots and leaves and affected by sulphate concentration, while others were more constitutively transcribed. Mycorrhizal-inducible and -repressed MtSULTRs transcripts were identified allowing to shed light on the role of mycorrhizal interaction in sulphate uptake.

  7. [MORPHOFUNCTIONAL ADJUSTMENT VASCULAR AND CELLULAR COMPONENTS OF THE CEREBELLAR CORTEX IN EXPOSURE TO BODY SULFATES OF COPPER, ZINC AND IRON].

    PubMed

    Grintsova, N; Vasko, L; Kiptenko, L; Gortinsky, A; Murenets, N

    2015-09-01

    In order to analyze the morphological and morphometric reconstructions of the vascular bed, and Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex of rats in long-term action (for 90 days) on the body of sulphates of copper, zinc and iron, an experiment was conducted on 48 adult white male rats weighing 200-250 g in age 5-7 months. We used anatomical, morphometric, statistical and common methods of microanatomical research. It was found that the combined effect on the body of sulphates of copper and zinc, and iron in the cerebellum has enough expressive toxicity, which affects the condition of the vascular bed, and Purkinje cells. The degree of morphological transformations is in direct proportion to the duration of the experiment. In the pathogenesis of violations leading role played by hypoxia, develop signs of swelling of the cerebellar cortex with signs hemorrhagic infiltration, the severity of which is maximum on the 60th day of the experiment.

  8. Corium molecular biomarkers reveal a beneficial effect on hoof transcriptomics in peripartal dairy cows supplemented with zinc, manganese, and copper from amino acid complexes and cobalt from cobalt glucoheptonate.

    PubMed

    Osorio, J S; Batistel, F; Garrett, E F; Elhanafy, M M; Tariq, M R; Socha, M T; Loor, J J

    2016-12-01

    Supplying trace minerals in more bioavailable forms such as amino acid complexes (AAC) could help ameliorate the incidence of hoof disorders in peripartal dairy cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing metal AAC during the peripartal period on expression of 28 genes in corium tissue related to claw composition, oxidative stress, inflammation, chemotaxis, and transcriptional regulation. Forty-four multiparous Holstein cows received a common diet from -30 to 30 d relative to parturition and were assigned to receive an oral bolus containing either inorganic trace minerals (INO) or AAC (i.e., organic) Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co to achieve supplemental levels of 75, 65, 11, and 1 ppm, respectively, in the total diet dry matter. Inorganic trace minerals were provided in sulfate form, and AAC were supplied via Availa Zn, Availa Mn, Availa Cu, and COPRO (Zinpro Corp., Eden Prairie, MN). Locomotion score was recorded before enrollment and weekly throughout the experiment. Incidence of hoof health problems at 30 d in milk was evaluated before a hoof biopsy in a subset of cows (INO=10; AAC=9). Locomotion score did not differ between treatments in the prepartum or postpartum period. The incidence of heel horn erosion was lower in AAC cows, but the incidence of sole ulcers did not differ. Downregulation of KRT5, CTH, CALML5, and CYBB, and upregulation of BTD in AAC cows indicated a decrease in the need for activation of cellular pathways to regenerate corium tissue and increase biotin availability in the sole claw. These molecular changes in the sole could have been triggered by the lower incidence of heel erosion in response to AAC. Among the genes associated with oxidative stress, the AAC cows had greater expression of NFE2L2, a transcription factor that regulates the antioxidant response, and the antioxidant enzyme SOD1. Among genes associated with inflammation, AAC cows had greater expression of TLR4, and lower expression of TLR2, IL1B, and TNF

  9. Nutrition intervention strategies to combat zinc deficiency in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R S; Ferguson, E L

    1998-06-01

    Widespread zinc deficiency is likely to exist in developing countries where staple diets are predominantly plant based and intakes of animal tissues are low. The severe negative consequences of zinc deficiency on human health in developing countries, however, have only recently been recognized. An integrated approach employing targeted supplementation, fortification and dietary strategies must be used to maximize the likelihood of eliminating zinc deficiency at a national level in developing countries. Supplementation is appropriate only for populations whose zinc status must be improved over a relatively short time period, and when requirements cannot be met from habitual dietary sources. As well, the health system must be capable of providing consistent supply, distribution, delivery and consumption of the zinc supplement to the targeted groups. Uncertainties still exist about the type, frequency, and level of supplemental zinc required for prevention and treatment of zinc deficiency. Salts that are readily absorbed and at levels that will not induce antagonistic nutrient interactions must be used. At a national level, fortification with multiple micronutrients could be a cost effective method for improving micronutrient status, including zinc, provided that a suitable food vehicle which is centrally processed is available. Alternatively, fortification could be targeted for certain high risk groups (e.g. complementary foods for infants). Efforts should be made to develop protected fortificants for zinc, so that potent inhibitors of zinc absorption (e.g. phytate) present either in the food vehicle and/or indigenous meals do not compromise zinc absorption. Fortification does not require any changes in the existing food beliefs and practices for the consumer and, unlike supplementation, does not impose a burden on the health sector. A quality assurance programme is required, however, to ensure the quality of the fortified food product from production to consumption

  10. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  11. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  12. Prevention of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in zinc-deficient rodents: Inefficacy of genetic or pharmacological disruption of COX-2

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Louise Y.Y.; Jiang, Yubao; Riley, Maurisa; Liu, Xianglan; Smalley, Karl J.; Guttridge, Denis C.; Farber, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc deficiency in humans is associated with an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer. In rodents, zinc deficiency predisposes to carcinogenesis by causing proliferation and alterations in gene expression. We examined whether in zinc-deficient rodents, targeted disruption of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway by the COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib or by genetic deletion prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Tongue cancer prevention studies were conducted in zinc-deficient rats previously exposed to a tongue carcinogen by celecoxib treatment with or without zinc replenishment, or by zinc replenishment alone. The ability of genetic COX-2 deletion to protect against chemically-induced for-estomach tumorigenesis was examined in mice on zinc-deficient versus zinc-sufficient diet. The expression of 3 predictive bio-markers COX-2, nuclear factor (NF)-κ B p65 and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In zinc-deficient rats, celecoxib without zinc replenishment reduced lingual tumor multiplicity but not progression to malignancy. Celecoxib with zinc replenishment or zinc replenishment alone significantly lowered lingual squamous cell carcinoma incidence, as well as tumor multiplicity. Celecoxib alone reduced overexpression of the 3 biomarkers in tumors slightly, compared with intervention with zinc replenishment. Instead of being protected, zinc-deficient COX-2 null mice developed significantly greater tumor multiplicity and forestomach carcinoma incidence than wild-type controls. Additionally, zinc-deficient COX-2−/− forestomachs displayed strong LTA4H immunostaining, indicating activation of an alter-native pathway under zinc deficiency when the COX-2 pathway is blocked. Thus, targeting only the COX-2 pathway in zinc-deficient animals did not prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Our data suggest zinc supplementation should be more thoroughly explored in human prevention clinical trials for UADT cancer. PMID:17985342

  13. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution.

    PubMed

    Stojković, Aleksandra; Tajber, Lidia; Paluch, Krzysztof J; Djurić, Zorica; Parojčić, Jelena; Corrigan, Owen I

    2014-03-01

    Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO4)2(Cl)2(ciprofloxacin)2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests.

  14. Anticoagulant, antiherpetic and antibacterial activities of sulphated polysaccharide from Indian medicinal plant Tridax procumbens L. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Naqash, Shabeena Yousuf; Nazeer, R A

    2011-10-01

    The sulphated polysaccharide from the widespread Tridax procumbens plant was studied for the anticoagulant, antiherpetic and antibacterial activity. The anticoagulant activity was determined by the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. The sulphated polysaccharide from T. procumbens represented potent anticoagulant reaching the efficacy to heparin and chondroitin sulphate. Moreover, the sulphated polysaccharide extracted from T. procumbens was found non-toxic on Vero cell lines up to the concentration of 200 μg/ml. Sulphated polysaccharide exhibited detectable antiviral effect towards HSV-1 with IC(50) value 100-150 μg/ml. Furthermore, sulphated polysaccharide from T. procumbens was highly inhibitory against the bacterial strains Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi isolated from oil sardine.

  15. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  16. Randomized controlled trial of zinc and vitamin A as co-adjuvants for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Lovett; Thacher, Tom D; Yassin, Mohammed A; Onuoha, Ndubusi A; Usman, Auwal; Emenyonu, Nnamdi E; Shenkin, Alan; Davies, Peter D O; Cuevas, Luis E

    2010-12-01

    To assess the efficacy of weekly zinc or zinc plus retinol as adjuncts for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.   Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 350 patients >15 years old with smear-positive tuberculosis in Nigeria (ISRCTN36636609). In addition to antituberculous treatment, patients were randomly allocated to weekly supplements of zinc (90 mg), zinc plus retinol (5000 IU) or placebos for 6 months. Primary outcomes were time to sputum smear conversion and resolution of radiographic abnormalities. After 8 weeks of treatment, 68% had achieved sputum smear conversion, and the median conversion time was 6.5 weeks. Hazard ratios (HR, 95%CI) for sputum conversion relative to the placebo group were not significant for zinc (1.07, 0.92-1.29) or zinc plus retinol (0.89, 0.76-1.07). Significant predictors of time to sputum conversion were lung abnormality score, sputum smear grade, age and serum C-reactive protein. HIV co-infection and gender were not independent predictors of time to sputum conversion. There were no significant differences between supplement groups in clinical, radiological or laboratory outcomes at 2 months or 6 months. There were 9, 9 and 2 deaths in patients receiving zinc, zinc plus retinol or placebos, respectively. Mortality in those who received zinc (HR 1.71, 0.88-3.58) or zinc plus retinol (HR 1.54, 0.78-3.26) did not differ significantly from those who received placebos. Most deaths occurred in patients co-infected with HIV.   Supplementation with zinc or zinc plus retinol did not lead to better outcomes than placebos, and caution is warranted regarding routine micronutrient supplementation, particularly in patients co-infected with HIV. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Sports Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements. Instead, try these tips for getting better game: Make downtime a priority. Studies show that teens ... Meditating or visualizing your success during the next game may improve your performance; sitting quietly and focusing ...

  18. Zinc deficiency in children with environmental enteropathy—development of new strategies: report from an expert workshop1234

    PubMed Central

    Young, Graeme P; Mortimer, Elissa K; Gopalsamy, Geetha L; Alpers, David H; Binder, Henry J; Manary, Mark J; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S; Brown, Ian L; Brewer, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Zinc deficiency is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The WHO/UNICEF strategy for zinc supplementation as adjunctive therapy for diarrhea is poorly implemented. A conference of experts in zinc nutrition and gastrointestinal disorders was convened to consider approaches that might complement the current recommendation and what research was needed to develop these approaches. Several key points were identified. The design of novel zinc interventions would be facilitated by a better understanding of how disturbed gut function, such as environmental (or tropical) enteropathy, affects zinc absorption, losses, and homeostasis. Because only 10% of zinc stores are able to be rapidly turned over, and appear to be rapidly depleted by acute intestinal illness, they are probably best maintained by complementary regular supplementation in a primary prevention strategy rather than secondary prevention triggered by acute diarrhea. The assessment of zinc status is challenging and complex without simple, validated measures to facilitate field testing of novel interventions. Zinc bioavailability may be a crucial factor in the success of primary prevention strategies, and a range of options, all still inadequately explored, might be valuable in improving zinc nutrition. Some therapeutic actions of zinc on diarrhea seem attributable to pharmacologic effects, whereas others are related to the reversal of deficiency (ie, nutritional). The distinction between these 2 mechanisms cannot be clarified given the insensitivity of serum zinc to identify subclinical deficiency states. Why zinc seems to be less effective than expected at all ages, and ineffective for secondary prevention of diarrhea in children <12 mo of age, remains unclear. It was concluded that a reframing of the current recommendation is warranted with consideration of how to better optimize and deliver zinc and whether to provide a complementary public health primary prevention zinc strategy. This requires

  19. Severe zinc responsive dermatosis in a litter of Pharaoh Hounds.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Gregory A; Crow, Dennis

    2010-07-01

    A litter of 3-month-old Pharaoh Hound puppies presented to the referring veterinarian with severe generalized erythematous-crusted papules with pruritus, accompanied by exfoliation and erythema of footpads, inappetence, lethargy, and retarded growth. Three of 5 puppies (2 male and 1 female) were affected. Representative areas were biopsied from 1 affected male puppy and were routinely processed. Histologically, there was marked epidermal hyperplasia with a disorganized appearance of the epidermis and massive parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, compatible with zinc-responsive dermatosis. Low serum zinc concentrations were documented, and the affected animals partially responded to intravenous zinc supplementation but did not respond to oral supplementation. One male puppy died as a result of unrelated causes and was necropsied. The remaining 4 puppies were followed over 2 years. Growth was stunted, and enamel hypoplasia of permanent dentition developed compared with unaffected littermates. Intravenous zinc supplementation at 3-4 week intervals was required to prevent further skin lesion development. One dog died at 3 years of age of renal failure.

  20. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    SciT

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and formore » that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to

  1. Bioelectrochemical sulphate reduction on batch reactors: Effect of inoculum-type and applied potential on sulphate consumption and pH.

    PubMed

    Gacitúa, Manuel A; Muñoz, Enyelbert; González, Bernardo

    2018-02-01

    Microbial electrolysis batch reactor systems were studied employing different conditions, paying attention on the effect that biocathode potential has on pH and system performance, with the overall aim to distinguish sulphate reduction from H 2 evolution. Inocula from pure strains (Desulfovibrio paquesii and Desulfobacter halotolerans) were compared to a natural source conditioned inoculum. The natural inoculum possess the potential for sulphate reduction on serum bottles experiments due to the activity of mutualistic bacteria (Sedimentibacter sp. and Bacteroides sp.) that assist sulphate-reducing bacterial cells (Desulfovibrio sp.) present in the consortium. Electrochemical batch reactors were monitored at two different potentials (graphite-bar cathodes poised at -900 and -400mV versus standard hydrogen electrode) in an attempt to isolate bioelectrochemical sulphate reduction from hydrogen evolution. At -900mV all inocula were able to reduce sulphate with the consortium demonstrating superior performance (SO 4 2- consumption: 25.71gm -2 day -1 ), despite the high alkalinisation of the media. At -400mV only the pure Desulfobacter halotolerans inoculated system was able to reduce sulphate (SO 4 2- consumption: 17.47gm -2 day -1 ) and, in this potential condition, pH elevation was less for all systems, confirming direct (or at least preferential) bioelectrochemical reduction of sulphate over H 2 production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stable isotopic evidence for anaerobic maintained sulphate discharge in a polythermal glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    To understand the sources and sinks of sulphate and associated biogeochemical processes in a High Arctic environment, late winter snowpacks, the summer melt-waters and rock samples were collected and analysed for major ions and stable isotope tracers (δ18O, δ34S). The SO42bar/Clbar ratio reveal that more than 87% of sulphate (frequently > 95%) of total sulphate carried by the subglacial runoff and proglacial streams was derived from non-snowpack sources. The proximity of non-snowpack sulphate δ34S (∼8-19‰) to the δ34S of the major rocks in the vicinity (∼-6 to +18‰) suggest that the non-snowpack sulphate was principally derived from rock weathering. Furthermore, Ca2++Mg2+/SO42ˉ molar shows that sulphate acquisition in the meltwaters was controlled by two major processes: 1) coupled-sulphide carbonate weathering (molar ratio ∼ 2) and, 2) re-dissolution of secondary salts (molar ratio ∼ 1). The δ34S-SO4 = +19.4‰ > δ34S-S of rock, accompanied by increased sulphate concentration also indicates an input from re-dissolution of secondary salts. Overall, δ18O composition of these non-snowpack sulphate (-11.9 to -2.2‰) mostly stayed below the threshold δ18O value (-6.7 to -3.3‰) for minimum O2 condition, suggesting that certain proportion of sulphate was regularly supplied from anaerobic sulphide oxidation.

  3. Dielectric dispersion in pure and doped lithium rubidium sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassem, M. E.; El-Muraikhi, M.; Al-Houty, L.; Mohamed, A. A.

    The frequency (102 - 105 Hz) dependence of the dielectric properties of lithium rubidium sulphate (LRS) are reported in the vicinity of the transition temperature Tc = 477 K. The a.c. conductivity σ(ω) shows a strong temperature dependence and weak frequency response. The dielectric constant in this region shows a strong frequency dispersion. A Cole-Cole diagram was used to determine the distribution parameter and the molecular relaxation time. The effect of doping with Dy+3, Sm+3 and V+3, was also studied. It was found that doping gives rise to localized states which produce a disorder in the structure of LiRbSO4.

  4. Pyroelectric effect in tryglicyne sulphate single crystals - Differential measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trybus, M.

    2018-06-01

    A simple mathematical model of the pyroelectric phenomenon was used to explain the electric response of the TGS (triglycine sulphate) samples in the linear heating process in ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Experimental verification of mathematical model was realized. TGS single crystals were grown and four electrode samples were fabricated. Differential measurements of the pyroelectric response of two different regions of the samples were performed and the results were compared with data obtained from the model. Experimental results are in good agreement with model calculations.

  5. Impedance spectroscopy of water soluble resin modified by zirconium sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Anandraj; Joshi, Girish M.

    2018-04-01

    We successfully modified water soluble resin polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by loading zirconium sulphate (ZrSO4). We demonstrated the measurement of electrical properties by using impedance analyser across frequency range (10 Hz-1 MHz) and the temperature range of (30°C to 150°C). The impedance spectroscopy demonstrates decrease in bulk resistance as a function of temperature loading of zirconia 2.5 wt. %. Increase in AC (10-5 S/cm and DC conductivity (10- 2 S/m) observed due to ionic contribution of zirconia. However, the electrical properties of PVA/ZrSO4 composite useful to develop battery electrolyte applications.

  6. Alterations in protein kinase C activity and processing during zinc-deficiency-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Chou, Susan S; Clegg, Michael S; Momma, Tony Y; Niles, Brad J; Duffy, Jodie Y; Daston, George P; Keen, Carl L

    2004-10-01

    Protein kinases C (PKCs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that are critical for signal transduction pathways involved in growth, differentiation and cell death. All PKC isoforms have four conserved domains, C1-C4. The C1 domain contains cysteine-rich finger-like motifs, which bind two zinc atoms. The zinc-finger motifs modulate diacylglycerol binding; thus, intracellular zinc concentrations could influence the activity and localization of PKC family members. 3T3 cells were cultured in zinc-deficient or zinc-supplemented medium for up to 32 h. Cells cultured in zinc-deficient medium had decreased zinc content, lowered cytosolic classical PKC activity, increased caspase-3 processing and activity, and reduced cell number. Zinc-deficient cytosols had decreased activity and expression levels of PKC-alpha, whereas PKC-alpha phosphorylation was not altered. Inhibition of PKC-alpha with Gö6976 had no effect on cell number in the zinc-deficient group. Proteolysis of the novel PKC family member, PKC-delta, to its 40-kDa catalytic fragment occurred in cells cultured in the zinc-deficient medium. Occurrence of the PKC-delta fragment in mitochondria was co-incident with caspase-3 activation. Addition of the PKC-delta inhibitor, rottlerin, or zinc to deficient medium reduced or eliminated proteolysis of PKC-delta, activated caspase-3 and restored cell number. Inhibition of caspase-3 processing by Z-DQMD-FMK (Z-Asp-Gln-Met-Asp-fluoromethylketone) did not restore cell number in the zinc-deficient group, but resulted in processing of full-length PKC-delta to a 56-kDa fragment. These results support the concept that intracellular zinc concentrations influence PKC activity and processing, and that zinc-deficiency-induced apoptosis occurs in part through PKC-dependent pathways.

  7. Dietary catechins and procyanidins modulate zinc homeostasis in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Isabel M; Bustos, Mario; Blay, Mayte; Pujadas, Gerard; Ardèvol, Anna; Salvadó, M Josepa; Bladé, Cinta; Arola, Lluís; Fernández-Larrea, Juan

    2011-02-01

    Catechins and their polymers procyanidins are health-promoting flavonoids found in edible vegetables and fruits. They act as antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species and by chelating the redox-active metals iron and copper. They also behave as signaling molecules, modulating multiple cell signalling pathways and gene expression, including that of antioxidant enzymes. This study aimed at determining whether catechins and procyanidins interact with the redox-inactive metal zinc and at assessing their effect on cellular zinc homeostasis. We found that a grape-seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) and the green tea flavonoid (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) bind zinc cations in solution with higher affinity than the zinc-specific chelator Zinquin, and dose-dependently prevent zinc-induced toxicity in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2, evaluated by the lactate dehydrogenase test. GSPE and EGCG hinder intracellular accumulation of total zinc, measured by atomic flame absorption spectrometry, concomitantly increasing the level of cytoplasmic labile zinc detectable by Zinquin fluorescence. Concurrently, GSPE and EGCG inhibit the expression, evaluated at the mRNA level by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, of zinc-binding metallothioneins and of plasma membrane zinc exporter ZnT1 (SLC30A1), while enhancing the expression of cellular zinc importers ZIP1 (SLC39A1) and ZIP4 (SLC39A4). GSPE and EGCG also produce all these effects when HepG2 cells are stimulated to import zinc by treatment with supplemental zinc or the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. We suggest that extracellular complexation of zinc cations and the elevation of cytoplasmic labile zinc may be relevant mechanisms underlying the modulation of diverse cell signaling and metabolic pathways by catechins and procyanidins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of magnesium sulphate and EDTA in the hypercholesterolaemic rabbit.

    PubMed

    Evans, D A; Tariq, M; Sujata, B; McCann, G; Sobki, S

    2001-12-01

    Numerous clinical reports suggest the beneficial effects of chelation therapy for the treatment of atherosclerosis. However, the results of these studies are inconclusive and controversial. The purpose of this present study was to examine the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of chelation liquid (CHL) in experimental atherosclerosis. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol-supplemented diet for 45 days. In the prophylactic phase of the study subcutaneous 300 mg EDTA + 500 mg magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) injections (five rabbits) and isotonic saline (five rabbits) were given to test and control groups, respectively, along with cholesterol rich diet. The CHL treatment ameliorated the rise of serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride concentrations, lowered serum calcium concentrations and reduced the aortic atheroma. In the therapeutic phase of the experiment the cholesterol diet was stopped and the remaining 10 animals were returned to normal diet. Five of these rabbits were given CHL injections and other five animals were given isotonic saline injections for 121 days. Although the level of cholesterol and triglyceride were not significantly different in the two groups, the serum calcium concentration and the percentage of the area of flate aortic specimen occupied by atheroma were significantly lower in the CHL treated rabbits as compared to controls. It is concluded that CHL injections have a definite prophylactic effect on atherogenesis in the cholesterol-fed rabbit, and may have some therapeutic value in the regression phase. Further confirmatory studies are suggested.

  9. X-ray absorption Studies of Zinc species in Centella asiatica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehipawala, Sunil; Cheung, Tak; Hogan, Clayton; Agoudavi, Yao; Dehipawala, Sumudu

    2013-03-01

    Zinc is a very important mineral present in a variety of vegetables. It is an essential element in cellular metabolism and several bodily functions. We used X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray Absorption near Edge structure(XANES) to study the amount of zinc present in several leafy vegetables as well as its chemical environment within the plant. Main absorption edge position of XANES is sensitive to the oxidation state of zinc and is useful when comparing the type of zinc present in different vegetables to the standard zinc present in supplements. Normalized main edge height is proportional to the amount of zinc present in the sample. Several leafy greens were used in this study, such as Spinacia oleracea, Basella alba, Brassica oleracea, Cardiospermum halicacabumand Centella asiatica. All of these plant leaves contained approximately the same amount of zinc in the leaf portion of the plant and a slightly lower amount in the stems, except Centella asiatica. Both leaves and stems of the plant Centella asiatica contained nearly two times the zinc compared to other plants. Further investigation of zinc's chemical environment within Centella asiatica could lead to a much more efficient dietary consumption of zinc. Use of the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886

  10. Prevalence of zinc deficiency among rural women during childbearing age in Peshawar, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Tasleem; Khan, Mir Hassan; Zahoorullah; Hussain, Hamid; Nazli, Rubina; Lutfullah, Ghosia

    2014-01-01

    Zinc deficiency is a commonly reported health problem throughout the world. This cross sectional survey was conducted in rural Peshawar with an aim to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency in women of child bearing age and find its association with age, marital, pregnancy status and parity. Data was collected from 353 women age 15-45 years. EPI INFO version 6.04 was used for data analysis. Overall 98 (27.8 %) women were zinc deficient (<80 μg/dL) while 31 (8.8%) had severe zinc deficiency (<50μg/dL.). Mean zinc level was found to increase gradually with the increase in the age up to 40 years and then starts decreasing significantly beyond this age. A significant decrease (p<0.03) in zinc concentration was found in married as compared to unmarried women. Out of 31 female with severe zinc deficiency, 23 (74.2%) were pregnant. Pregnant women in second (OR (CI) 3.36 (1.52-7.44) p<0.0008) and third ((OR (CI) 3.73 (1.91-7.30) p<0.00002) trimester were 3.4 & 3.7 times, respectively more zinc deficient as compared to control women. Mean zinc levels were significantly lower in women having no children versus women with 1-5 numbers of children. This study concludes that severe zinc deficiency especially prevalent in pregnant women needs urgent correction through food supplementation.

  11. Endogenous Zinc in Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

  12. 99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  13. Suppression of zinc dendrites in zinc electrode power cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of zinc dendrites during charging of zinc electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.

  14. Effect of copper sulphate treatment on natural phytoplanktonic communities.

    PubMed

    Le Jeune, Anne-Hélène; Charpin, Marie; Deluchat, Véronique; Briand, Jean-François; Lenain, Jean-François; Baudu, Michel; Amblard, Christian

    2006-12-01

    Copper sulphate treatment is widely used as a global and empirical method to remove or control phytoplankton blooms without precise description of the impact on phytoplanktonic populations. The effects of two copper sulphate treatments on natural phytoplanktonic communities sampled in the spring and summer seasons, were assessed by indoor mesocosm experiments. The initial copper-complexing capacity of each water sample was evaluated before each treatment. The copper concentrations applied were 80 microg l(-1) and 160 microg l(-1) of copper, below and above the water complexation capacity, respectively. The phytoplanktonic biomass recovered within a few days after treatment. The highest copper concentration, which generated a highly toxic environment, caused a global decrease in phytoplankton diversity, and led to the development and dominance of nanophytoplanktonic Chlorophyceae. In mesocosms treated with 80 microg l(-1) of copper, the effect on phytoplanktonic community size-class structure and composition was dependent on seasonal variation. This could be related to differences in community composition, and thus to species sensitivity to copper and to differences in copper bioavailability between spring and summer. Both treatments significantly affected cyanobacterial biomass and caused changes in the size-class structure and composition of phytoplanktonic communities which may imply modifications of the ecosystem structure and function.

  15. Polyferric sulphate: preparation, characterisation and application in coagulation experiments.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, A I; Moussas, P A; Vasilakou, F

    2008-07-15

    The process of coagulation is a core environmental protection technology, which is mainly used in the water or wastewater treatment facilities. Research is now focused on the development of inorganic pre-polymerised coagulants. A characteristic example is PFS (polyferric sulphate), a relatively new pre-polymerised inorganic coagulant with high cationic charge. In this paper, the role of major parameters, including temperature, types of chemical reagents, ratio r=[OH]/[Fe], rate of base addition in the preparation stages of PFS were investigated. Furthermore, the prepared PFS was characterised based on typical properties, such as the percentage of the polymerised iron present in the compound, z-potential, pH, etc. Moreover, dynamics of coagulation process were examined by means of the Photometric Dispersion Analyzer (PDA). Finally, the coagulation efficiency of PFS in treating kaolin suspension and biologically pre-treated wastewater was evaluated in comparison with the respective conventional coagulant agent. The results indicate that certain parameters, such as the r value, the rate of base addition and the duration and temperature of the polymerisation stage, significantly affected the properties of the PFS. Additionally, the prepared PFS polymerised coagulants exhibit a significantly better coagulation performance than the respective non-polymerised one, i.e. ferric sulphate.

  16. Textured fluorapatite bonded to calcium sulphate strengthen stomatopod raptorial appendages.

    PubMed

    Amini, Shahrouz; Masic, Admir; Bertinetti, Luca; Teguh, Jefri Sanusi; Herrin, Jason S; Zhu, Xi; Su, Haibin; Miserez, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Stomatopods are shallow-water crustaceans that employ powerful dactyl appendages to hunt their prey. Deployed at high velocities, these hammer-like clubs or spear-like devices are able to inflict substantial impact forces. Here we demonstrate that dactyl impact surfaces consist of a finely-tuned mineral gradient, with fluorapatite substituting amorphous apatite towards the outer surface. Raman spectroscopy measurements show that calcium sulphate, previously not reported in mechanically active biotools, is co-localized with fluorapatite. Ab initio computations suggest that fluorapatite/calcium sulphate interfaces provide binding stability and promote the disordered-to-ordered transition of fluorapatite. Nanomechanical measurements show that fluorapatite crystalline orientation correlates with an anisotropic stiffness response and indicate significant differences in the fracture tolerance between the two types of appendages. Our findings shed new light on the crystallochemical and microstructural strategies allowing these intriguing biotools to optimize impact forces, providing physicochemical information that could be translated towards the synthesis of impact-resistant functional materials and coatings.

  17. Textured fluorapatite bonded to calcium sulphate strengthen stomatopod raptorial appendages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Shahrouz; Masic, Admir; Bertinetti, Luca; Teguh, Jefri Sanusi; Herrin, Jason S.; Zhu, Xi; Su, Haibin; Miserez, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Stomatopods are shallow-water crustaceans that employ powerful dactyl appendages to hunt their prey. Deployed at high velocities, these hammer-like clubs or spear-like devices are able to inflict substantial impact forces. Here we demonstrate that dactyl impact surfaces consist of a finely-tuned mineral gradient, with fluorapatite substituting amorphous apatite towards the outer surface. Raman spectroscopy measurements show that calcium sulphate, previously not reported in mechanically active biotools, is co-localized with fluorapatite. Ab initio computations suggest that fluorapatite/calcium sulphate interfaces provide binding stability and promote the disordered-to-ordered transition of fluorapatite. Nanomechanical measurements show that fluorapatite crystalline orientation correlates with an anisotropic stiffness response and indicate significant differences in the fracture tolerance between the two types of appendages. Our findings shed new light on the crystallochemical and microstructural strategies allowing these intriguing biotools to optimize impact forces, providing physicochemical information that could be translated towards the synthesis of impact-resistant functional materials and coatings.

  18. Sulphate transport by H+ symport and by the dicarboxylate carrier in mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Saris, N E

    1980-01-01

    1. Swelling of mitochondria was induced in non-respiring mitochondria by 30 mM or more Na2SO4 or by respiration in the presence of K2SO4. Respiration-drive swelling resulted in loss of respiratory control. Sulphate, when present at 10 mM concentration, promoted the release of accumulated Ca2+. 2. Swelling was prevented by N-ethylmaleimide and formaldehyde, known inhibitors of the phosphate carrier. Sulphate-induced swelling was more sensitive to the inhibitors than was phosphate-induced swelling. At lower concentration of sulphate, 5 mM, an alkalinisation of the medium was observed in addition of sulphate, indicating H+-sulphate symport. There was competition between sulphate and phosphate for transport by this mechanism. It is suggested that sulphate may be transported, though at a comparatively slow rate, by the phosphate carrier. 3. Uptake of sulphate was stimulated when preceded by energy-dependent accumulation of Ba2+, especially when acetate was also present, indicating precipitation of BaSO4 in the matrix. Using this system the influx of sulphate was studied at lower concentrations, 10 mM or less. the contributions of the H+ symporter (sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide) and the dicarboxylate carrier (sensitive to butylmalonate) could then be studied. The dicarboxylate carrier had a lower Km and was mainly responsible for sulphate transport at lower concentration range. At 10 mM-sulphate the transport rates by the two systems appeared to be similar; at still higher concentrations the H+ symporter may become more important. PMID:7236245

  19. Correlation analysis between sulphate content and leaching of sulphates in recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes.

    PubMed

    Barbudo, Auxi; Galvín, Adela P; Agrela, Francisco; Ayuso, Jesús; Jiménez, Jose Ramón

    2012-06-01

    In some recycled aggregates applications, such as component of new concrete or roads, the total content of soluble sulphates should be measured and controlled. Restrictions are usually motivated by the resistance or stability of the new structure, and in most cases, structural concerns can be remedied by the use of techniques such as sulphur-resistant cements. However, environmental risk assessment from recycling and reuse construction products is often forgotten. The purpose of this study is to analyse the content of soluble sulphate on eleven recycled aggregates and six samples prepared in laboratory by the addition of different gypsum percentages. As points of reference, two natural aggregates were tested. An analysis of the content of the leachable amount of heavy metals regulated by European regulation was included. As a result, the correlation between solubility and leachability data allow suggest a limiting gypsum amount of 4.4% on recycled aggregates. This limit satisfies EU Landfill Directive criteria, which is currently used as reference by public Spanish Government for recycled aggregates in construction works. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  1. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Gangwal, Santosh K.; Jain, Suresh C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  2. Massive Volcanic SO2 Oxidation and Sulphate Aerosol Deposition in Cenozoic North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volcanic eruptions release a large amount of sulphur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere. SO2 is oxidized to sulphate and can subsequently form sulphate aerosol, which can affect the Earth's radiation balance, biologic productivity and high-altitude ozone co...

  3. Characterisation of zinc delivery from a nipple shield delivery system using a breastfeeding simulation apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Bruggraber, Sylvaine F. A.; Gerrard, Stephen E.; Kendall, Richard A.; Tuleu, Catherine; Slater, Nigel K. H.

    2017-01-01

    Zinc delivery from a nipple shield delivery system (NSDS), a novel platform for administering medicines to infants during breastfeeding, was characterised using a breastfeeding simulation apparatus. In this study, human milk at flow rates and pressures physiologically representative of breastfeeding passed through the NSDS loaded with zinc-containing rapidly disintegrating tablets, resulting in release of zinc into the milk. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was used to detect the zinc released, using a method that does not require prior digestion of the samples and that could be applied in other zinc analysis studies in breast milk. Four different types of zinc-containing tablets with equal zinc load but varying excipient compositions were tested in the NSDS in vitro. Zinc release measured over 20 minutes ranged from 32–51% of the loaded dose. Total zinc release for sets tablets of the same composition but differing hardness were not significantly different from one another with P = 0.3598 and P = 0.1270 for two tested pairs using unpaired t tests with Welch’s correction. By the same test total zinc release from two sets of tablets having similar hardness but differing composition were also not significantly significant with P = 0.2634. Future zinc tablet composition and formulation optimisation could lead to zinc supplements and therapeutics with faster drug release, which could be administered with the NSDS during breastfeeding. The use of the NSDS to deliver zinc could then lead to treatment and prevention of some of the leading causes of child mortality, including diarrheal disease and pneumonia. PMID:28158283

  4. Characterisation of zinc delivery from a nipple shield delivery system using a breastfeeding simulation apparatus.

    PubMed

    Scheuerle, Rebekah L; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F A; Gerrard, Stephen E; Kendall, Richard A; Tuleu, Catherine; Slater, Nigel K H

    2017-01-01

    Zinc delivery from a nipple shield delivery system (NSDS), a novel platform for administering medicines to infants during breastfeeding, was characterised using a breastfeeding simulation apparatus. In this study, human milk at flow rates and pressures physiologically representative of breastfeeding passed through the NSDS loaded with zinc-containing rapidly disintegrating tablets, resulting in release of zinc into the milk. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was used to detect the zinc released, using a method that does not require prior digestion of the samples and that could be applied in other zinc analysis studies in breast milk. Four different types of zinc-containing tablets with equal zinc load but varying excipient compositions were tested in the NSDS in vitro. Zinc release measured over 20 minutes ranged from 32-51% of the loaded dose. Total zinc release for sets tablets of the same composition but differing hardness were not significantly different from one another with P = 0.3598 and P = 0.1270 for two tested pairs using unpaired t tests with Welch's correction. By the same test total zinc release from two sets of tablets having similar hardness but differing composition were also not significantly significant with P = 0.2634. Future zinc tablet composition and formulation optimisation could lead to zinc supplements and therapeutics with faster drug release, which could be administered with the NSDS during breastfeeding. The use of the NSDS to deliver zinc could then lead to treatment and prevention of some of the leading causes of child mortality, including diarrheal disease and pneumonia.

  5. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D.

    1981-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

  6. Sultr4;1 mutant seeds of Arabidopsis have an enhanced sulphate content and modified proteome suggesting metabolic adaptations to altered sulphate compartmentalization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sulphur is an essential macronutrient needed for the synthesis of many cellular components. Sulphur containing amino acids and stress response-related compounds, such as glutathione, are derived from reduction of root-absorbed sulphate. Sulphate distribution in cell compartments necessitates specific transport systems. The low-affinity sulphate transporters SULTR4;1 and SULTR4;2 have been localized to the vacuolar membrane, where they may facilitate sulphate efflux from the vacuole. Results In the present study, we demonstrated that the Sultr4;1 gene is expressed in developing Arabidopsis seeds to a level over 10-fold higher than the Sultr4;2 gene. A characterization of dry mature seeds from a Sultr4;1 T-DNA mutant revealed a higher sulphate content, implying a function for this transporter in developing seeds. A fine dissection of the Sultr4;1 seed proteome identified 29 spots whose abundance varied compared to wild-type. Specific metabolic features characteristic of an adaptive response were revealed, such as an up-accumulation of various proteins involved in sugar metabolism and in detoxification processes. Conclusions This study revealed a role for SULTR4;1 in determining sulphate content of mature Arabidopsis seeds. Moreover, the adaptive response of sultr4;1 mutant seeds as revealed by proteomics suggests a function of SULTR4;1 in redox homeostasis, a mechanism that has to be tightly controlled during development of orthodox seeds. PMID:20426829

  7. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  8. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  9. An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols

    SciT

    Rasch, Philip J.; Tilmes, S.; Turco, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state of understanding about this topic as of early 2008 is reviewed, summarizing the past 30 years of work in the area, highlighting some very recent studies using climate models, and discussing methods used to deliver sulphur species to the stratosphere. The studies reviewed here suggest that sulphate aerosols can counteract the globally averaged temperature increase associated with increasing greenhouse gases, and reduce changes to some other components of the Earth system. There are likely to be remaining regional climate changes after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changesmore » in temperature or precipitation. The aerosols also serve as surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry resulting in increased ozone depletion. The delivery of sulphur species to the stratosphere in a way that will produce particles of the right size is shown to be a complex and potentially very difficult task. Two simple delivery scenarios are explored, but similar exercises will be needed for other suggested delivery mechanisms. While the introduction of the geoengineering source of sulphate aerosol will perturb the sulphur cycle of the stratosphere signicantly, it is a small perturbation to the total (stratosphere and troposphere) sulphur cycle. The geoengineering source would thus be a small contributor to the total global source of ‘acid rain’ that could be compensated for through improved pollution control of anthropogenic tropospheric sources. Some areas of research remain unexplored. Although ozone may be depleted, with a consequent increase to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) energy reaching the surface and a potential impact on health and biological populations, the aerosols will also scatter and attenuate this part of the energy spectrum, and this may compensate the UVB enhancement associated with ozone depletion. The aerosol will also change the ratio of diffuse to direct

  10. An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Philip J; Tilmes, Simone; Turco, Richard P; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Stenchikov, Georgiy L; Garcia, Rolando R

    2008-11-13

    We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state of understanding about this topic as of early 2008 is reviewed, summarizing the past 30 years of work in the area, highlighting some very recent studies using climate models, and discussing methods used to deliver sulphur species to the stratosphere. The studies reviewed here suggest that sulphate aerosols can counteract the globally averaged temperature increase associated with increasing greenhouse gases, and reduce changes to some other components of the Earth system. There are likely to be remaining regional climate changes after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changes in temperature or precipitation. The aerosols also serve as surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry resulting in increased ozone depletion. The delivery of sulphur species to the stratosphere in a way that will produce particles of the right size is shown to be a complex and potentially very difficult task. Two simple delivery scenarios are explored, but similar exercises will be needed for other suggested delivery mechanisms. While the introduction of the geoengineering source of sulphate aerosol will perturb the sulphur cycle of the stratosphere signicantly, it is a small perturbation to the total (stratosphere and troposphere) sulphur cycle. The geoengineering source would thus be a small contributor to the total global source of 'acid rain' that could be compensated for through improved pollution control of anthropogenic tropospheric sources. Some areas of research remain unexplored. Although ozone may be depleted, with a consequent increase to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) energy reaching the surface and a potential impact on health and biological populations, the aerosols will also scatter and attenuate this part of the energy spectrum, and this may compensate the UVB enhancement associated with ozone depletion. The aerosol will also change the ratio of diffuse to direct energy

  11. Antimicrobial activity of flavanoid sulphates and other fractions of Argyreia speciosa (Burm.f) Boj.

    PubMed

    Habbu, P V; Mahadevan, K M; Shastry, R A; Manjunatha, H

    2009-02-01

    Antimicrobial activity of flavanoid sulphates and different fractions of A. speciosa root was studied against bacteria, fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv sensitive strain by in vitro and in vivo assays. Flavanoid sulphates such as quercetin 3'7 di-O methyl 3- sulphate and kaempferol 7-O methyl 3-sulphate were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of 80% methanolic extract of the plant. The structures of the isolated flavanoids were confirmed by spectral studies. Ethyl acetate (EAAS) fraction and flavanoid sulphates inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis Rv sensitive strain at MIC values 50 and 25 microg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic fraction (EtAS) showed significant inhibition of gram positive organism with a MIC of 31.25 microg/ml. More inhibition was observed with a less MIC (2 microg/ml) for flavanoid sulphates against Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram negative organism and it is almost comparable with the standards. Interestingly, chloroform fraction alone exhibited significant antifungal activity with a MIC of 100 microg/ml. A synergistic effect between flavanoids sulphates and commercially available antitubercular drugs was observed with FIC index of 0.443 +/- 0.245, 0.487 +/- 0.247 for isoniazid and 0.468 +/- 0.333, 0.417 +/- 0.345 for rifampicin, whereas EAAS fraction showed partial synergistic effect. A synergistic effect was observed for EAAS fraction and flavanoids sulphates with FIC index < 0.5 with antibiotics. Hemolysis assay on RBCs suggested that EAAS and flavanoids sulphates exhibited least cellular toxicity to erythrocytes as compared to chloramphenicol. In vivo studies in mice infected with K. pneumoniae demonstrated that on day 10 post treatment of different fractions and isolated compounds of A. speciosa, about 60% of the animals treated with EAAS, 70% of animals treated with flavanoids sulphates and 40% of animals treated with EtAS were survived.

  12. Particulate sulphate and ozone in rural air: Preliminary results from three sites in central England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A.; Barber, F. R.

    Daily particulate sulphate concentrations in air have been measured at a 'background' rural site and at two other sites near rural power stations. The samples were collected by drawing air through filter papers and were analysed by X-ray fluorescence. At the background site the concentration of particulate sulphates was strongly dependent on the O 3 and total S in air. Above a certain 'critical' level of daily O 3, 28% of the daily S in air was particulate on average, but the amounts were not related to the actual O 3 levels. At lower O 3 levels, there appeared to be a constant background of about 2 μg of particulate sulphate per cubic meter of air, together with about 5% of the total S in air as particulate. When black smoke in air was low, the particulate sulphate was also low, despite the O 3 levels. Near the power stations, there was no significantly different rate of production or loss of particulate sulphate. On average, at all three sites over the year, about 12% of the daily total S was particulate, probably corresponding to an average conversion rate of SO 2 of less than 1% per hour. Estimates of hourly particulate sulphates are available from previous measurements at the background site, using a different analysis technique. Particulate sulphate was not found every hour, but typically during 20 h a day in early summer and 8 h a day in early winter. An influence of humidity as well as O 3 was apparent in the peak hourly particulate sulphate values, which reached 60% of the total S. No correlation could be found of particulate sulphate with solar radiation, wind direction, concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in air or ammonium or sulphate in rainwater, but further measurements are planned.

  13. Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique; Abalde, Julio

    2014-03-01

    Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, γ-Glu-Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1mM sulphate. The maximum EC50 value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ± 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1mM. An increase in the sulphate concentration, in deficient environments, could alleviate the toxic effect of this metal; however, a relative excess is also negative. The results obtained showed a substrate inhibition for this nutrient. An uncompetitive model for sulphate was chosen to establish the mathematical model that links both factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Corrosion of cordierite ceramics by sodium sulphate at 1000 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianco, Robert; Jacobson, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    The corrosion of a sintered cordierite (2MgO-2Al2O3-5SiO2) ceramic by sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) was investigated at 1000 C. Laboratory tests with thin films of Na2SO4/O2 and Na2SO4/1 percent SO2-O2 were performed. In the Na2SO4/O2 case, the cordierite reacted to form NaAlSiO4. After several hours of corrosion, the Na2SO4 appeared to induce surface cracks in the cordierite. In the Na2SO4/1 percent SO2-O2 case, other dissolution reactions occurred. The material was also tested in a burner rig with No. 2 Diesel fuel and 2 ppm sodium. The corrosion process was similar to that observed in the Na2SO4/O2 furnace tests, with more severe attack occurring.

  15. Modelling the growth of triglycine sulphate crystals in Spacelab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, Hak-Do; Wilcox, William R.; Lal, Ravindra; Trolinger, James D.

    1988-01-01

    Two triglycine sulphate crystals were grown from an aqueous solution in Spacelab 3 aboard a Space Shuttle. Using a diffusion coefficient of 0.00002 sq cm/s, a computerized simulation gave reasonable agreement between experimental and theoretical crystal sizes and interferometric lines in the solution near the growing crystal. This diffusion coefficient is larger than most measured values, possibly due to fluctuating accelerations on the order of .001 g (Earth's gravity). The average acceleration was estimated to be less than .000001 g. At this level, buoyancy driven convection is predicted to add approx. 20 percent to the steady state growth rate. Only very slight distortion of the interferometric lines was observed at the end of a 33 hr run. It is suggested that the time to reach steady state convective transport may be inversely proportional to g at low g, so that the full effect of convection was not realized in these experiments.

  16. Multifunctional chondroitin sulphate for cartilage tissue-biomaterial integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-An; Varghese, Shyni; Sharma, Blanka; Strehin, Iossif; Fermanian, Sara; Gorham, Justin; Fairbrother, D. Howard; Cascio, Brett; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.

    2007-05-01

    A biologically active, high-strength tissue adhesive is needed for numerous medical applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Integration of biomaterials or implants with surrounding native tissue is crucial for both immediate functionality and long-term performance of the tissue. Here, we use the biopolymer chondroitin sulphate (CS), one of the major components of cartilage extracellular matrix, to develop a novel bioadhesive that is readily applied and acts quickly. CS was chemically functionalized with methacrylate and aldehyde groups on the polysaccharide backbone to chemically bridge biomaterials and tissue proteins via a twofold covalent link. Three-dimensional hydrogels (with and without cells) bonded to articular cartilage defects. In in vitro and in vivo functional studies this approach led to mechanical stability of the hydrogel and tissue repair in cartilage defects.

  17. Impact of sulphate geoengineering on rice yield in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Pei; Zhu, Wenquan; Zheng, Zhoutao; Zhang, Donghai; Li, Nan

    2017-04-01

    Sulphate geoengineering is one of the mostly discussed mitigation methods against global warming for its feasibility and inexpensiveness. With SO2 consistently injected into the stratosphere to balance the radiative force caused by anthropogenic emission, sulphate engineering will significantly influence the climate over the planet and moreover, affect agriculture productivity. In our study, BNU-ESM model was used to simulate the impact of sulphate engineering on climate and ORYZA(v3) model was used to simulate the impact of climate change on rice yield/production in China. Firstly, the ORYZA(v3) model was evaluated and calibrated using daily climate data, management data and county-level yield record during 1981-2010 in 19 provinces in China. Then climate anomalies of sulphate geoengineering simulated by BNU-ESM model was used to perturb the observed climate data over 318 stations evenly distribute in China during 1981-2010. In our study, a 30-year climate record of anomalies were extracted from BNU-ESM model to match the observed climate data, which consisted of a 15-year geoengineering record and a 15-year post-geoengineering record. Lastly, the perturbed climate data was used in calibrated-ORYZA(v3) model to simulate the rice yield over the 318 stations, which were later averaged into corresponding provincial yield. The results showed that (1) geoengineering would balance solar radiation for approximate 140 W ṡ m-2 per year (about 0.9 K per year in temperature), which would meet the pre-concerted goal of geoengineering but it would take only about 3 years for temperature to recover after the termination of geoengineering. In spite of this, there would be a declining of vapour pressure for about 0.12 KPa per year during geoengineering period, and it would take about 15 years to recover during post-geoengineering period. The simulation showed that geoengineering would have a little declining impact on average precipitation and would not have much impact on wind

  18. Bioactivity and Applications of Sulphated Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina), and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS). It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS) or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review. PMID:23344113

  19. Adjunctive micronutrient supplementation for pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Armijos, Rodrigo X; Weigel, M Margaret; Chacon, Rocío; Flores, Luis; Campos, Armando

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effect of micronutrient supplementation on tuberculosis (TB) patient outcomes. The randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted in pulmonary TB patients undergoing directly observed treatment short course/ tratamiento acortado estrictamente supervisado (TAES/ DOTS) at IMSS in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, who were recruited during August 2005-July 2006. Consecutive patients received zinc and vitamin A supplements or matched placebo for four months. Dietary intake, blood zinc and vitamin A, immune response (IFN-gamma,TNF-alpha, and IL-10 mRNA), and sputum smear conversion were measured. The proportion of micronutrient compared to placebo group subjects with a negative sputum smear by month 3 was significantly increased (p= 0.03). This occurred subsequent to increased TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma and decreased IL-10 observed at month 2. Micronutrient supplementation appeared to accelerate the beneficial therapeutic effect of chemotherapy. The earlier elimination of bacilli from sputum was associated with improved zinc status and Th1 immune response. The therapeutic effect of vitamin A was less evident.

  20. Experimental study of the replacement of calcite by calcium sulphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Putnis, C. V.; Hövelmann, J.; Álvarez-Lloret, P.; Ibáñez-Velasco, A.; Putnis, A.

    2015-05-01

    Among the most relevant mineral replacement reactions are those involving sulphates and carbonates, which have important geological and technological implications. Here it is shown experimentally that during the interaction of calcite (CaCO3) cleavage surfaces with sulphate-bearing acidic solutions, calcite is ultimately replaced by gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O) and anhydrite (CaSO4), depending on the reaction temperature. Observations suggest that this occurs most likely via an interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation reaction, in which the substrate is replaced pseudomorphically by the product. At 120 and 200 °C gypsum and/or bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O) form as precursor phases for the thermodynamically stable anhydrite. Salinity promotes the formation of less hydrated precursor phases during the replacement of calcite by anhydrite. The reaction stops before equilibrium with respect to calcite is reached and during the course of the reaction most of the bulk solutions are undersaturated with respect to the precipitating phase(s). A mechanism consisting of the dissolution of small amounts of solid in a thin layer of fluid at the mineral-fluid interface and the subsequent precipitation of the product phase from this layer is in agreement with these observations. PHREEQC simulations performed in the framework of this mechanism highlight the relevance of transport and surface reaction kinetics on the volume change associated with the CaCO3-CaSO4 replacement. Under our experimental conditions, this reaction occurs with a positive volume change, which ultimately results in passivation of the unreacted substrate before calcite attains equilibrium with respect to the bulk solution.

  1. Zinc status in chronic pancreatitis and its relationship with exocrine and endocrine insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Girish, Banavara Narasimhamurthy; Rajesh, Gopalakrishna; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Balakrishnan, Vallath

    2009-11-05

    A major role of the pancreas in zinc homeostasis has been suggested. To assess erythrocyte zinc status in chronic pancreatitis and to correlate it with pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. One hundred and one patients with chronic pancreatitis (34 alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, 67 tropical chronic pancreatitis) were prospectively studied. Disease characteristics and imaging features were recorded. Erythrocyte zinc was estimated by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Exocrine insufficiency was assessed using polyclonal antibody ELISA for pancreatic stool elastase1. Endocrine insufficiency was assessed by serum glucose levels and insulin requirement. Erythrocyte zinc was significantly lower in chronic pancreatitis patients than in the controls (26.5+/-9.5 microg/g Hb vs. 38.0+/-6.6 microg/g Hb; P<0.001), and in tropical chronic pancreatitis than in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (25.0+/-10.4 microg/g Hb vs. 29.6+/-6.5 microg/g Hb, P=0.001). In chronic pancreatitis patients who had exocrine insufficiency, erythrocyte zinc positively correlated with stool elastase1 (r=0.587, P<0.001). Erythrocyte zinc levels were significantly lower in diabetic patients as compared to non-diabetics (P=0.036). This study demonstrates zinc deficiency in chronic pancreatitis patients, and that zinc deficiency correlates with exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Further studies may clarify the possible benefits of zinc supplementation in chronic pancreatitis.

  2. Trace element supplementation in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Marcello; Wiebe, Natasha; Thompson, Stephanie; Kinniburgh, David; Klarenbach, Scott W; Walsh, Michael; Bello, Aminu K; Faruque, Labib; Field, Catherine; Manns, Braden J; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2015-04-11

    People with kidney failure are often deficient in zinc and selenium, but little is known about the optimal way to correct such deficiency. We did a double-blind randomized trial evaluating the effects of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and vitamin E added to the standard oral renal vitamin supplement (B and C vitamins) among hemodialysis patients in Alberta, Canada. We evaluated the effect of two daily doses of the new supplement (medium dose: 50 mg Zn, 75 mcg Se, 250 IU vitamin E; low dose: 25 mg Zn, 50 mcg Se, 250 IU vitamin E) compared to the standard supplement on blood concentrations of Se and Zn at 90 days (primary outcome) and 180 days (secondary outcome) as well as safety outcomes. We enrolled 150 participants. The proportion of participants with low zinc status (blood level <815 ug/L) did not differ between the control group and the two intervention groups at 90 days (control 23.9% vs combined intervention groups 23.9%, P > 0.99) or 180 days (18.6% vs 28.2%, P = 0.24). The proportion with low selenium status (blood level <121 ug/L) was similar for controls and the combined intervention groups at 90 days (32.6 vs 19.6%, P = 0.09) and 180 days (34.9% vs 23.5%, P = 0.17). There were no significant differences in the risk of adverse events between the groups. Supplementation with low or medium doses of zinc and selenium did not correct low zinc or selenium status in hemodialysis patients. Future studies should consider higher doses of zinc (≥75 mg/d) and selenium (≥100 mcg/d) with the standard supplement. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01473914).

  3. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  4. Zinc and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 66 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  5. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  6. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  7. Nutritional supplements for people being treated for active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Abba, Katharine; Sudarsanam, Thambu D; Grobler, Liesl; Volmink, Jimmy

    2008-10-08

    Tuberculosis is a serious infection affecting mainly the lungs. It may contribute to nutritional deficiencies which in turn may delay recovery by depressing immune functions. Nutritional supplements might therefore promote recovery in people being treated for tuberculosis. To assess the provision of oral nutritional supplements to promote the recovery of people being treated with antituberculous drug therapy for active tuberculosis. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register (June 2008), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 2), MEDLINE (June 2008), EMBASE (June 2008), LILACS (June 2008), mRCT (June 2008), the Indian Journal of Tuberculosis (1983 to June 2008), and checked the reference lists of all included studies. Randomized controlled trials comparing any oral nutritional supplement given for at least four weeks with no nutritional intervention, placebo, or dietary advice only for people being treated for active tuberculosis. Two authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous variables and mean differences (MD) for continuous variables, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We pooled data from trials with similar interventions and outcomes. Twelve trials (3393 participants) were included. Five trials had adequate allocation concealment. Interventions included a high energy supplement, high cholesterol diet, vitamin D, vitamin A, zinc, arginine, multiple micronutrient supplements, combined multiple micronutrient supplements and zinc, combined vitamin A and zinc, and combined vitamin A and selenium. The following supplements were associated with increased body weight at follow up: high energy supplements (MD 1.73 kg, 95% CI 0.81 to 2.65; 34 participants, 1 trial); multiple micronutrients plus additional zinc (MD 2.37 kg, 95% CI 2.21 to 2.53; 192 participants, 1 trial); and vitamin A plus zinc (MD 3.10 kg, 95% CI 0.74 to 5.46; 80 participants, 1 trial

  8. Zinc treatment increases the titre of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in huanglongbing-affected citrus plants while affecting the bacterial microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M Q; Guo, Y; Powell, C A; Doud, M S; Yang, C Y; Zhou, H; Duan, Y P

    2016-06-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus often display zinc deficiency symptoms. In this study, supplemental zinc was applied to citrus to determine its effect on Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) titre, HLB symptoms, and leaf microbiome. HLB-affected citrus were treated with various amounts of zinc. The treatments promoted Las growth and affected microbiomes in citrus leaves. Phylochip(™) -based results indicated that 5475 of over 50 000 known Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in 52 phyla were detected in the midribs of HLB-affected citrus, of which Proteobacteria was the most abundant, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In comparison, the microbiomes of zinc-treated diseased plants had overall more OTUs with higher amounts of Proteobacteria, but decreased percentages of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In addition, more OTUs of siderophore-producing bacteria were present. Only zinc-sensitive Staphylococcaceae had higher OTU's in the diseased plants without zinc treatments. Although HLB-affected citrus appear zinc deficient, zinc amendments increased the pathogen levels and shifted the microbiome. HLB is currently the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Zinc is often applied to HLB-affected citrus due to zinc deficiency symptoms. This study provided new insights into the potential effects of zinc on HLB and the microbial ecology of citrus. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. A comparison of glycosaminoglycan distributions, keratan sulphate sulphation patterns and collagen fibril architecture from central to peripheral regions of the bovine cornea

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Leona T.Y.; Harris, Anthony M.; Tanioka, Hidetoshi; Yagi, Naoto; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Caterson, Bruce; Quantock, Andrew J.; Young, Robert D.; Meek, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in collagen fibril architecture and the sulphation status of keratan sulphate (KS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) epitopes from central to peripheral corneal regions. Freshly excised adult bovine corneal tissue was examined as a function of radial position from the centre of the cornea outwards. Corneal thickness, tissue hydration, hydroxyproline content, and the total amount of sulphated GAG were all measured. High and low-sulphated epitopes of keratan sulphate were studied by immunohistochemistry and quantified by ELISA. Chondroitin sulphate (CS) and dermatan sulphate (DS) distributions were observed by immunohistochemistry following specific enzyme digestions. Electron microscopy and X-ray fibre diffraction were used to ascertain collagen fibril architecture. The bovine cornea was 1021 ± 5.42 μm thick at its outer periphery, defined as 9–12 mm from the corneal centre, compared to 844 ± 8.10 μm at the centre. The outer periphery of the cornea was marginally, but not significantly, more hydrated than the centre (H = 4.3 vs. H = 3.7), and was more abundant in hydroxyproline (0.12 vs. 0.06 mg/mg dry weight of cornea). DMMB assays indicated no change in the total amount of sulphated GAG across the cornea. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of both high- and low-sulphated epitopes of KS, as well as DS, throughout the cornea, and CS only in the peripheral cornea before the limbus. Quantification by ELISA, disclosed that although both high- and low-sulphated KS remained constant throughout stromal depth at different radial positions, high-sulphated epitopes remained constant from the corneal centre to outer-periphery, whereas low-sulphated epitopes increased significantly. Both small angle X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis revealed that collagen fibril diameter remained relatively constant until the outer periphery was reached, after which fibrils became more widely spaced (from small angle x-ray diffraction analysis

  10. Effect of iron and zinc deficiency on short term memory in children.

    PubMed

    Umamaheswari, K; Bhaskaran, Mythily; Krishnamurthy, Gautham; Vasudevan, Hemamalini; Vasudevan, Kavita

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron and zinc deficiency on short term memory of children in the age group of 6-11 years and to assess the response to supplementation therapy. Interventional study. 100 children in the age group of 6-11 years (subdivided into 6-8 yr and 9-11 yr groups) from an urban corporation school. After collection of demographic data, the study children underwent hematological assessment which included serum iron, serum zinc, and hemoglobin estimation. Based on the results, they were divided into Iron deficient, Zinc deficient, and Combined deficiency groups. Verbal and nonverbal memory assessment was done in all the children. Iron (2mg/kg bodyweight in two divided doses) and zinc (5mg once-a-day) supplementation for a period of 3 months for children in the deficient group. All children with iron and zinc deficiency in both the age groups had memory deficits. Combined deficiency in 9-11 years group showed severe degree of affectation in verbal (P<0.01) and non-verbal memory (P<0.01), and improved after supplementation (P = 0.05 and P< 0.01, respectively). In 6-8 years group, only non-verbal form of memory (P =0.02) was affected, which improved after supplementation. Iron and zinc deficiency is associated with memory deficits in children. There is a marked improvement in memory after supplementation. Post supplementation IQ scores do not show significant improvement in deficient groups in 6-8 year olds.

  11. New tools for carbohydrate sulphation analysis: Heparan Sulphate 2- O -sulphotransferase (HS2ST) is a target for small molecule protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Dominic P; Li, Yong; Ramakrishnan, Krithika; Barsukov, Igor L; Yates, Edwin A; Eyers, Claire E; Papy-Garcia, Dulcé; Chantepie, Sandrine; Pagadala, Vijayakanth; Lu, Jian; Wells, Carrow; Drewry, David H; Zuercher, William J; Berry, Neil G; Fernig, David G; Eyers, Patrick A

    2018-06-22

    Sulphation of carbohydrate residues occurs on a variety of glycans destined for secretion, and this modification is essential for efficient matrix-based signal transduction. Heparan sulphate (HS) glycosaminoglycans control physiological functions ranging from blood coagulation to cell proliferation. HS biosynthesis involves membrane-bound Golgi sulphotransferases, including heparan sulphate 2- O -sulphotransferase (HS2ST), which transfers sulphate from the co-factor PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulphate) to the 2- O  position of a-L-iduronate in the maturing polysaccharide chain. The current lack of simple non-radioactive enzyme assays that can be used to quantify the levels of carbohydrate sulphation hampers kinetic analysis of this process and the discovery of HS2ST inhibitors.  In this paper, we describe a new procedure for thermal shift analysis of purified HS2ST. Using this approach, we quantify HS2ST-catalyzed oligosaccharide sulphation using a novel synthetic fluorescent substrate and screen the Published Kinase Inhibitor Set (PKIS), to evaluate compounds that inhibit catalysis. We report the susceptibility of HS2ST to a variety of cell permeable compounds in vitro , including polyanionic polar molecules, the protein kinase inhibitor rottlerin and oxindole-based RAF kinase inhibitors. In a related study, published back-to-back with this article, we demonstrate that Tyrosyl Protein Sulpho Tranferases (TPSTs) are also inhibited by a variety of protein kinase inhibitors. We propose that appropriately validated small molecule compounds could become new tools for rapid inhibition of glycan (and protein) sulphation in cells, and that protein kinase inhibitors might be repurposed or redesigned for the specific inhibition of HS2ST. ©2018 The Author(s).

  12. Zinc deficiency induces vascular pro-inflammatory parameters associated with NF-kappaB and PPAR signaling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huiyun; Oesterling, Elizabeth; Stromberg, Arnold; Toborek, Michal; MacDonald, Ruth; Hennig, Bernhard

    2008-10-01

    Marginal intake of dietary zinc can be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In the current study we hypothesized that vascular dysfunction and associated inflammatory events are activated during a zinc deficient state. We tested this hypothesis using both vascular endothelial cells and mice lacking the functional LDL-receptor gene. Zinc deficiency increased oxidative stress and NF-kappaB DNA binding activity, and induced COX-2 and E-selectin gene expression, as well as monocyte adhesion in cultured endothelial cells. The NF-kappaB inhibitor CAPE significantly reduced the zinc deficiency-induced COX-2 expression, suggesting regulation through NF-kappaB signaling. PPAR can inhibit NF-kappaB signaling, and our previous data have shown that PPAR transactivation activity requires adequate zinc. Zinc deficiency down-regulated PPARalpha expression in cultured endothelial cells. Furthermore, the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone was unable to inhibit the adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells during zinc deficiency, an event which could be reversed by zinc supplementation. Our in vivo data support the importance of PPAR dysregulation during zinc deficiency. For example, rosiglitazone induced inflammatory genes (e.g., MCP-1) only during zinc deficiency, and adequate zinc was required for rosiglitazone to down-regulate pro-inflammatory markers such as iNOS. In addition, rosiglitazone increased IkappaBalpha protein expression only in zinc adequate mice. Finally, plasma data from LDL-R-deficient mice suggest an overall pro-inflammatory environment during zinc deficiency and support the concept that zinc is required for proper anti-inflammatory or protective functions of PPAR. These studies suggest that zinc nutrition can markedly modulate mechanisms of the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  13. Carbon isotope equilibration during sulphate-limited anaerobic oxidation of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, Marcos Y.; Holler, Thomas; Goldhammer, Tobias; Wegener, Gunter; Pohlman, John W.; Brunner, Benjamin; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Elvert, Marcus

    2014-03-01

    Collectively, marine sediments comprise the largest reservoir of methane on Earth. The flux of methane from the sea bed to the overlying water column is mitigated by the sulphate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane by marine microbes within a discrete sedimentary horizon termed the sulphate-methane transition zone. According to conventional isotope systematics, the biological consumption of methane leaves a residue of methane enriched in 13C (refs , , ). However, in many instances the methane within sulphate-methane transition zones is depleted in 13C, consistent with the production of methane, and interpreted as evidence for the intertwined anaerobic oxidation and production of methane. Here, we report results from experiments in which we incubated cultures of microbial methane consumers with methane and low levels of sulphate, and monitored the stable isotope composition of the methane and dissolved inorganic carbon pools over time. Residual methane became progressively enriched in 13C at sulphate concentrations above 0.5 mM, and progressively depleted in 13C below this threshold. We attribute the shift to 13C depletion during the anaerobic oxidation of methane at low sulphate concentrations to the microbially mediated carbon isotope equilibration between methane and carbon dioxide. We suggest that this isotopic effect could help to explain the 13C-depletion of methane in subseafloor sulphate-methane transition zones.

  14. Administration of magnesium sulphate before rocuronium: effects on speed of onset and duration of neuromuscular block.

    PubMed

    Kussman, B; Shorten, G; Uppington, J; Comunale, M E

    1997-07-01

    The speeds of onset of pancuronium, atracurium and vecuronium are increased by prior administration of magnesium sulphate. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, clinical study was performed to examine the effects of prior i.v. administration of magnesium sulphate 60 mg kg-1 on the neuromuscular blocking effects of rocuronium 0.6 mg kg-1 during isoflurane anaesthesia. Neuromuscular function was measured electromyographically (Relaxograph) in 30 patients who received either magnesium sulphate 60 mg kg-1 or normal saline, 1-min before rocuronium 0.6 mg kg-1. Mean onset times were similar in the two groups (magnesium sulphate 71 (SD 20) s; normal saline 75 (23) s), but times to initial, 10% and 25% recovery from neuromuscular block were significantly longer in the magnesium sulphate group (42.1 (16.3), 49.0 (12.4) and 56.5 (13.2) min, respectively) than in the saline group (25.1 (9.1), 33.0 (11.1) and 35.6 (13.2) min, respectively) (P < 0.05 in all three cases). Administration of magnesium sulphate was not associated with adverse haemodynamic effects. Prior administration of magnesium sulphate, under the study conditions described, prolonged rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block but did not increase speed of onset.

  15. The degradation of intravenously injected chondroitin 4-sulphate in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Keith M.; Wusteman, Frederick S.; Curtis, C. Gerald

    1973-01-01

    The degradation of chondroitin 4-[35S]sulphate isolated from chick-embryo cartilage was studied in the rat by experiments on free-range animals, on wholly anaesthetized animals with ureter cannulae, by perfusion of isolated liver, by whole-body radioautography and by isolation of liver lysosomes. After injection into rats 68% of the radioactivity was recovered in the urine after 24h, approximately one-half of this being in the form of low-molecular-weight material, chiefly inorganic sulphate. Cannulation experiments demonstrated that the proportion of low-molecular-weight components excreted in the urine increased with time until, after 12h, virtually all was inorganic sulphate. Whole-body radioautography identified the liver as the major site of radioisotope accumulation after injection of labelled polysaccharide. Perfusion through isolated liver indicated that this organ has the ability to metabolize the polymer with the release of low-molecular-weight products, principally inorganic sulphate. Incubation of a lysosomal fraction prepared from rat liver after injection of chondroitin 4-[35S]sulphate gave rise to degradation products of low molecular weight, and experiments in vitro with rat liver lysosomes confirmed that these organelles are capable of the entire degradative process from chondroitin sulphate to free inorganic sulphate. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4762749

  16. Sulphation of acetaminophen by the human cytosolic sulfotransferases: a systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Akihiro; Liu, Ming-Yih; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Saeki, Yuichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2015-01-01

    Sulphation is known to be critically involved in the metabolism of acetaminophen in vivo. This study aimed to systematically identify the major human cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) enzyme(s) responsible for the sulphation of acetaminophen. A systematic analysis showed that three of the twelve human SULTs, SULT1A1, SULT1A3 and SULT1C4, displayed the strongest sulphating activity towards acetaminophen. The pH dependence of the sulphation of acetaminophen by each of these three SULTs was examined. Kinetic parameters of these three SULTs in catalysing acetaminophen sulphation were determined. Moreover, sulphation of acetaminophen was shown to occur in HepG2 human hepatoma cells and Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells under the metabolic setting. Of the four human organ samples tested, liver and intestine cytosols displayed considerably higher acetaminophen-sulphating activity than those of lung and kidney. Collectively, these results provided useful information concerning the biochemical basis underlying the metabolism of acetaminophen in vivo previously reported. PMID:26067475

  17. Acute changes in cellular zinc alters zinc uptake rates prior to zinc transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C

    2015-12-01

    A coordinated network of zinc transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular zinc levels. Canonical responses to zinc availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key zinc transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual zinc uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound zinc transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular zinc levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous zinc sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess zinc resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the zinc exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of zinc importers did not change during this time period. Zinc chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of zinc importers did not change. Overall, zinc transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular zinc uptake with exogenous zinc or TPEN treatments. This suggests zinc transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in zinc within Jurkat cells.

  18. The potential of lentil (Lens culinaris L.) as a whole food for increased selenium, iron, and zinc intake: Preliminary results from a three year study

    Micronutrient malnutrition, especially selenium (Se), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) deficiency, is a major global health problem. Previous attempts to prevent micronutrient malnutrition through food fortification, supplementation, and enrichment of staple crops has had limited success. Canadian grown len...

  19. Preparation and Physiological activities of sulphated derivative extracted from corn bran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Qing; Dai, Linghao; Ma, Jianjun; Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhu, Linghui

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the sulphated derivative (S-CBP) with the degree of substitution (0.46) was successfully prepared from the polysaccharide extracted from corn bran. Compared with native polysaccharide, the structures of the sulphated derivative were confirmed by FT-IR and SEC-LLS and the molecular weight were changed by chemical modification. Sulfation enhanced the antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent way, which seemed to be dependent on the character of the substituted group. The results suggest that the sulphated derivative, extracted from corn bran, are potential natural antioxidant and blood fat reduce agent.

  20. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  1. Zinc and Zinc Transporters: Novel Regulators of Ventricular Myocardial Development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen; Li, Deqiang

    2018-06-01

    Ventricular myocardial development is a well-orchestrated process involving different cardiac structures, multiple signal pathways, and myriad proteins. Dysregulation of this important developmental event can result in cardiomyopathies, such as left ventricle non-compaction, which affect the pediatric population and the adults. Human and mouse studies have shed light upon the etiology of some cardiomyopathy cases and highlighted the contribution of both genetic and environmental factors. However, the regulation of ventricular myocardial development remains incompletely understood. Zinc is an essential trace metal with structural, enzymatic, and signaling function. Perturbation of zinc homeostasis has resulted in developmental and physiological defects including cardiomyopathy. In this review, we summarize several mechanisms by which zinc and zinc transporters can impact the regulation of ventricular myocardial development. Based on our review, we propose that zinc deficiency and mutations of zinc transporters may underlie some cardiomyopathy cases especially those involving ventricular myocardial development defects.

  2. Efficacy of Magnesium Sulphate as an Adjunct to Ropivacaine in Local Infiltration for Postoperative Pain Following Lower Segment Caesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Kundra, Sandeep; Singh, Rupinder M; Singh, Gaganpreet; Singh, Tania; Jarewal, Vikrant; Katyal, Sunil

    2016-04-01

    Intravenous and peri-articular magnesium has been shown to reduce perioperative analgesic consumption. With this background, subcutaneous infiltration was hypothesized to potentiate the subcutaneous infiltration of local anaesthetic agent. To comparatively evaluate the efficacy of magnesium sulphate as an adjunct to ropivacaine in local infiltration for postoperative pain following lower segment cesarean section. Sixty parturients undergoing cesarean delivery were randomized to either group A or B in a double blinded manner. After uterine and muscle closure but before skin closure, Group A was administered local subcutaneous wound infiltration of Injection (Inj) ropivacaine 0.75% 150 milligram (mg) or 20 millilitres(ml) whereas, group B patients were given a local subcutaneous wound infiltration of Inj magnesium sulphate 750 mg (1.5 ml of Inj 50% Magnesium sulphate) added to Inj ropivacaine 0.75% (18.5 ml) making a total volume of 20 ml. In postoperative period, Heart rate (HR), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Visual Analogue Score (VAS), supplemental analgesic consumption and timing of each subsequent analgesic was noted for the initial 24 hours. There was no difference in the timings for the requirement of first Intravenous (IV) rescue analgesic among both the groups (p=0.279). However, the need for 2(nd) and 3(rd) doses of rescue analgesics was significantly later in group B and the difference was statistically significant with p-value of 0.034 and 0.031 respectively. The number of patients who were administered 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) doses of rescue analgesics was significantly greater in group A as compared to group B. None of the patients in group B needed more than 4 doses of rescue analgesia while in group A, 5 patients were administered a rescue analgesic for 5(th) time. The cumulative analgesic requirement in the initial 24 hours was also greater in group A as compared to group B and the difference was statistically significant (p =0.01). The incidence of

  3. Zinc treatment increases the titre of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in Huanglongbing-affected citrus plants while affecting the bacterial microbiomes

    Huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus often display zinc deficiency symptoms. In this study, supplemental zinc was applied to citrus to determine its effect on Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) titer, HLB symptoms, and leaf microbiome. HLB-affected citrus were treated with various amounts of zi...

  4. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Jura, M.

    1982-01-01

    IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

  5. Detecting the global and regional effects of sulphate aerosol geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Highwood, Ellie

    2017-04-01

    Climate warming is unequivocal. In addition to carbon dioxide emission mitigation, some geoengineering ideas have been proposed to reduce future surface temperature rise. One of these proposals involves injecting sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere to increase the planet's albedo. Monitoring the effectiveness of sulphate aerosol injection (SAI) would require us to be able to distinguish and detect its cooling effect from the climate system's internal variability and other externally forced temperature changes. This research uses optimal fingerprinting techniques together with simulations from the GeoMIP data base to estimate the number of years of observations that would be needed to detect SAI's cooling signal in near-surface air temperature, should 5 Tg of sulphur dioxide be injected into the stratosphere per year on top of RCP4.5 from 2020-2070. The first part of the research compares the application of two detection methods that have different null hypotheses to SAI detection in global mean near-surface temperature. The first method assumes climate noise to be dominated by unforced climate variability and attempts to detect the SAI cooling signal and greenhouse gas driven warming signal in the "observations" simultaneously against this noise. The second method considers greenhouse gas driven warming to be a non-stationary background climate and attempts to detect the net cooling effect of SAI against this background. Results from this part of the research show that the conventional multi-variate detection method that has been extensively used to attribute climate warming to anthropogenic sources could also be applied for geoengineering detection. The second part of the research investigates detection of geoengineering effects on the regional scale. The globe is divided into various sub-continental scale regions and the cooling effect of SAI is looked for in the temperature time series in each of these regions using total least squares multi

  6. The impact of zinc sulfate addition on the dynamic metabolic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to long term acetic acid stress treatment and identification of key metabolites involved in the antioxidant effect of zinc.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chun; Zhang, Mingming; Fang, Qing; Xiong, Liang; Zhao, Xinqing; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Bai, Fengwu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms of how zinc protects the cells against acetic acid toxicity and acts as an antioxidant are still not clear. Here we present results of the metabolic profiling of the eukaryotic model yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to long term high concentration acetic acid stress treatment in the presence and absence of zinc supplementation. Zinc addition decreased the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of chronic acetic acid stress. The dynamic changes in the accumulation of intermediates in central carbon metabolism were observed, and higher contents of intracellular alanine, valine and serine were observed by zinc supplementation. The most significant change was observed in alanine content, which is 3.51-fold of that of the control culture in cells in the stationary phase. Subsequently, it was found that 0.5 g L(-1) alanine addition resulted in faster glucose consumption in the presence of 5 g L(-1) acetic acid, and apparently decreased ROS accumulation in zinc-supplemented cells. This indicates that alanine exerted its antioxidant effect at least partially through the detoxification of acetic acid. In addition, intracellular glutathione (GSH) accumulation was enhanced by zinc addition, which is related to the protection of yeast cells from the oxidative injury caused by acetic acid. Our studies revealed for the first time that zinc modulates cellular amino acid metabolism and redox balance, especially biosynthesis of alanine and glutathione to exert its antioxidant effect.

  7. Zinc Signal in Brain Diseases.

    PubMed

    Portbury, Stuart D; Adlard, Paul A

    2017-11-23

    The divalent cation zinc is an integral requirement for optimal cellular processes, whereby it contributes to the function of over 300 enzymes, regulates intracellular signal transduction, and contributes to efficient synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Given the critical role of zinc in a breadth of cellular processes, its cellular distribution and local tissue level concentrations remain tightly regulated via a series of proteins, primarily including zinc transporter and zinc import proteins. A loss of function of these regulatory pathways, or dietary alterations that result in a change in zinc homeostasis in the brain, can all lead to a myriad of pathological conditions with both acute and chronic effects on function. This review aims to highlight the role of zinc signaling in the central nervous system, where it may precipitate or potentiate diverse issues such as age-related cog